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Sample records for surface morphology structure

  1. Synthesis, structural and surface morphological characterizations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulfated zirconia (SZ) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized and deposited via chemical route called sol-gel technique. The structural, morphological, and optical properties the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscopy ...

  2. Surface morphology and electronic structure of Ni/Ag(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hite, D. A.; Kizilkaya, O.; Sprunger, P. T.; Howard, M. M.; Ventrice, C. A. Jr.; Geisler, H.; Zehner, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    The growth morphology and electronic structure of Ni on Ag(100) has been studied with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and synchrotron based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. At deposition temperatures at or below 300 K, STM reveals Ni cluster growth on the surface along with some subsurface growth. Upon annealing to 420 K, virtually all Ni segregates into the subsurface region forming embedded nanoclusters. The electronic structure of Ni d bands in the unannealed surface shows dispersion only perpendicular to the surface whereas the annealed surface has Ni d bands that exhibit a three-dimensional-like structure. This is a result of the increased Ni d-Ag sp hybridization bonding and increased coordination of the embedded Ni nanoclusters. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society

  3. Surface morphology, structural and electrical properties of RF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5

    electrical properties of RF sputtered ITO thin films deposited onto Si(100). .... scanning electron microscopy (SEM) surface images are shown along with the cross- ..... annealing effect”, J. of Alloys and Compounds 509, (2011) 6072-6076.

  4. Surface morphology, structural and electrical properties of RF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-19

    May 19, 2018 ... ITO thin films; sputtering; structure; electrical properties; AFM; Hall effect. 1. Introduction ... ness range (61–768 nm) and to see if this system present properties that .... using the Bragg equation, and the relation linking the inter-.

  5. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leber, M., E-mail: moritz.leber@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shandhi, M.M.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hogan, A. [Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Solzbacher, F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bhandari, R.; Negi, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Surface engineering of high aspect ratio silicon structures. - Highlights: • Multiple roughening techniques for high aspect ratio devices were investigated. • Modification of surface morphology of high aspect ratio silicon devices (1:15). • Decrease of 76% in impedance proves significant increase in surface area. - Abstract: In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several

  6. Surface Roughness and Morphology Customization of Additive Manufactured Open Porous Ti6Al4V Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Wevers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM is a production method that enables the building of porous structures with a controlled geometry. However, there is a limited control over the final surface of the product. Hence, complementary surface engineering strategies are needed. In this work, design of experiments (DoE was used to customize post AM surface treatment for 3D selective laser melted Ti6Al4V open porous structures for bone tissue engineering. A two-level three-factor full factorial design was employed to assess the individual and interactive effects of the surface treatment duration and the concentration of the chemical etching solution on the final surface roughness and beam thickness of the treated porous structures. It was observed that the concentration of the surface treatment solution was the most important factor influencing roughness reduction. The designed beam thickness decreased the effectiveness of the surface treatment. In this case study, the optimized processing conditions for AM production and the post-AM surface treatment were defined based on the DoE output and were validated experimentally. This allowed the production of customized 3D porous structures with controlled surface roughness and overall morphological properties, which can assist in more controlled evaluation of the effect of surface roughness on various functional properties.

  7. Surface Roughness and Morphology Customization of Additive Manufactured Open Porous Ti6Al4V Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Grzegorz; Kerckhofs, Greet; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Speirs, Mathew; Schrooten, Jan; Wevers, Martine

    2013-10-22

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a production method that enables the building of porous structures with a controlled geometry. However, there is a limited control over the final surface of the product. Hence, complementary surface engineering strategies are needed. In this work, design of experiments (DoE) was used to customize post AM surface treatment for 3D selective laser melted Ti6Al4V open porous structures for bone tissue engineering. A two-level three-factor full factorial design was employed to assess the individual and interactive effects of the surface treatment duration and the concentration of the chemical etching solution on the final surface roughness and beam thickness of the treated porous structures. It was observed that the concentration of the surface treatment solution was the most important factor influencing roughness reduction. The designed beam thickness decreased the effectiveness of the surface treatment. In this case study, the optimized processing conditions for AM production and the post-AM surface treatment were defined based on the DoE output and were validated experimentally. This allowed the production of customized 3D porous structures with controlled surface roughness and overall morphological properties, which can assist in more controlled evaluation of the effect of surface roughness on various functional properties.

  8. Structural Color Model Based on Surface Morphology of MORPHO Butterfly Wing Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongjia; Cai, Congcong; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hui; Huttula, Marko; Cao, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Color production through structural coloration is created by micrometer and sub-micrometer surface textures which interfere with visible light. The shiny blue of morpho menelaus is a typical example of structural coloring. Modified from morphology of the morpho scale, a structure of regular windows with two side offsets was constructed on glass substrates. Optical properties of the bioinspired structure were studied through numerical simulations of light scattering. Results show that the structure can generate monochromatic light scattering. Wavelength of scattered light is tunable via changing the spacing between window shelves. Compared to original butterfly model, the modified one possesses larger illumination scopes in azimuthal distributions despite being less in polar directions. Present bionic structure is periodically repeated and is easy to fabricate. It is hoped that the computational materials design work can inspire future experimental realizations of such a structure in photonics applications.

  9. Morphology of IR and UV Laser-induced Structural Changes on Silicon Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Jarquin, J.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Fernandez-Guasti, M.; Hernandez-Pozos, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Using scanning electronic microscopy, we analyze the structural changes induced in silicon (100) wafers by focused IR (1064 nm) and UV (355 nm) nanosecond laser pulses. The experiments were performed in the laser ablation regime. When a silicon surface is irradiated by laser pulses in an O2 atmosphere conical microstructures are obtained. The changes in silicon surface morphology depend both on the incident radiation wavelength and the environmental atmosphere. We have patterned Si surfaces with a single focused laser spot and, in doing the experiments with IR or UV this reveals significant differences in the initial surface cracking and pattern formation, however the final result consist of an array of microcones when the experiment is carried out in oxygen. We employ a random scanning technique to irradiate silicon surfaces over large areas. In this form we have obtained large patterned areas

  10. Annealing assisted structural and surface morphological changes in Langmuir–Blodgett films of nickel octabutoxy phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilpa Harish, T.; Viswanath, P., E-mail: viswanath@cnsms.res.in

    2016-01-01

    We report our studies on thin films of metallo-phthalocyanine (MPc), Nickel(II)1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (NiPc(OBu){sub 8}) transferred in a well defined thermodynamic state over a self assembled monolayer (octadecyl trichlorosilane)/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) method. The films are characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. DSC studies on powdered samples in the bulk indicate enantiotropic solid–solid phase transition. GIXD studies on the as-deposited LB film show a Bragg peak indicating crystallinity of the thin film. Annealing (373 K) results in reduction of lattice spacing (1.21 Å) signifying changes in molecular packing within the unit cell. At this stage, an additional Bragg peak is observed which grows at the expense of the former one and they coexist between 373 K and 423 K. A discontinuity in lattice spacing from 20.73 to 15.12 Å with annealing indicates clearly a structural change of the underlying crystalline lattice. Correspondingly, the surface morphology images obtained using AFM show, with annealing, a transformation from spherical granular morphology to elongated, flat crystallites suggesting asymmetric growth process. Statistical parameters of the grain extracted from the AFM images show that the size, fractal dimension and circularity are affected by annealing. Based on these studies, we infer the structural and surface morphological changes of the meta-stable phase (Form I) to the stable phase (Form II) in annealed LB films of phthalocyanine. - Highlights: • Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of phthalocyanine subjected to thermal annealing. • Structural transformation and coexistence of polymorphs in LB films • Surface morphology changes from nanoscale grains to elongated crystallites. • Reduction of fractal dimension and circularity index reveals asymmetric growth.

  11. Surface morphology and electronic structure of halogen etched InAs (1 1 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eassa, N., E-mail: nashwa.eassa@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Murape, D.M. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Betz, R. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (South Africa); Neethling, J.H.; Venter, A.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The reaction of halogen-based etchants with n-InAs (1 1 1)A and the resulting surface morphology and surface electronic structure are investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using the intensity ratio of the unscreened longitudinal optical (LO) phonon to the transverse optical (TO) phonon in the Raman spectrum, a significant reduction in band bending is deduced after exposure of the InAs surface to HCl:H{sub 2}O, Br-methanol and I-ethanol for moderate times and concentrations. These procedures also lead to smooth and defect-free InAs surfaces. The improvements in surface properties are reversed, however, if the concentrations of the etchants are increased or the etch time is too long. In the worst cases, pit formation and inverted pyramids with {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} side facets are observed. The influence of the etchant concentration and etch time on the morphological and electronic properties of the etched surfaces is reported.

  12. Surface morphology and electronic structure of halogen etched InAs (1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eassa, N.; Murape, D.M.; Betz, R.; Neethling, J.H.; Venter, A.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of halogen-based etchants with n-InAs (1 1 1)A and the resulting surface morphology and surface electronic structure are investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using the intensity ratio of the unscreened longitudinal optical (LO) phonon to the transverse optical (TO) phonon in the Raman spectrum, a significant reduction in band bending is deduced after exposure of the InAs surface to HCl:H 2 O, Br–methanol and I–ethanol for moderate times and concentrations. These procedures also lead to smooth and defect-free InAs surfaces. The improvements in surface properties are reversed, however, if the concentrations of the etchants are increased or the etch time is too long. In the worst cases, pit formation and inverted pyramids with {1 1 1} side facets are observed. The influence of the etchant concentration and etch time on the morphological and electronic properties of the etched surfaces is reported.

  13. Structure and morphology of surface of silicon crystals to be applied for channeling at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vomiero, Alberto; Restello, Silvio; Scian, Carlo; Marchi, Enrico Boscolo; Mea, Gianantonio Della; Guidi, Vincenzo; Milan, Emiliano; Baricordi, Stefano; Martinelli, Giuliano; Carnera, Alberto; Sambo, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Bent crystals can be successfully applied for extraction/collimation of relativistic particles. A crucial feature to obtain high extraction efficiencies is the treatment of the surfaces being encountered by the beam, since mechanical operations induce considerable lattice imperfections. In order to remove the superficial damaged layer a planar etching can be applied on the surface exposed to the beam. This work presents a systematic study of the morphology and the crystalline perfection of the surface of the samples that have been used in accelerators with high efficiency. Crystals with different surface treatments have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were applied on the characterisation of surface morphology. Low energy backscattering channeling of 2-MeV α particles or protons was used as a probe for the crystalline structure. The presence of a superficial damaged layer in the samples just after mechanical treatment was unveiled, while, in contrast, chemical etching leaves a surface with high crystalline perfection that can be related to the record efficiency

  14. Dependence of surface morphology on molecular structure and its influence on the properties of OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, G.Y. [Department of Electric Information and Control Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, J.H.; Park, J.H. [Center for Organic Materials and Information Devices (COMID), Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Information Display, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, S.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K. [Center for Organic Materials and Information Devices (COMID), Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Information Display, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shindm@wow.hongik.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    Most organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have a multilayer structure composed of organic layers such as a hole injection layer (HIL), a hole transport layer (HTL), an emission layer (EML), an electron transport layer (ETL) and an electron injection layer (EIL) sandwiched between two electrodes. The organic layers are thin solid films with a thickness from a few nano meters to a few tenths nano meter, respectively. Surface morphology of an organic thin solid film in OLEDs depends on the molecular structure of the organic material and has an affect on device performance. To analyze the effect of surface morphology of an organic thin solid film on fluorescence and electroluminescence (EL) properties, thin solid films of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(julolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCM2) and new red fluorophores, (2E,2'E)-3,3'-[4,4''-bis(dimethylamino)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-2',5'-diyl] bis[2= -(2-thienyl)acrylonitrile] (ABCV-Th) and (2Z,2'Z)-3,3'-[4,4''-bis(dimethylamino)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-2',5'-diyl] bis(2-phenylacrylonitrile) (ABCV-P) were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The samples for EL and AFM measurement were fabricated by the high-vacuum thermal deposition (8x10{sup -7} Torr) of organic materials onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate, in which the layer structures of samples for AFM measurement and those for EL measurement were ITO/NPB (40 nm)/red emitters (80 nm) and ITO/NPB (40 nm)/red emitters (80 nm)/BCP (30 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm), respectively. The analysis based on AFM measurements well supported that the photoluminescence properties and the device performance were very much dependent upon surface morphology of an organic thin layer.

  15. Ascorbic Acid and BSA Protein in Solution and Films: Interaction and Surface Morphological Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael R. G. Maciel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the study of the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA and bovine serum albumin (BSA in aqueous solution as well as in films (BSA/AA films prepared by the layer-by-layer technique. Regarding to solution studies, a hyperchromism (in the range of ultraviolet was found as a function of AA concentration, which suggested the formation of aggregates from AA and BSA. Binding constant, , determined for aggregates from BSA and AA was found to be about 102 M−1, which indicated low affinity of AA with BSA. For the BSA/AA films, it was also noted that the AA adsorption process and surface morphological structures depended on AA concentration. By changing the contact time between the AA and BSA, a hypochromism was revealed, which was associated to decrease of accessibility of solvent to tryptophan due to formation of aggregates. Furthermore, different morphological structures of aggregates were observed, which were attributed to the diffusion-limited aggregation. Since most of studies of interactions of drugs and proteins are performed in solution, the analysis of these processes by using films can be very valuable because this kind of system is able to employ several techniques of investigation in solid state.

  16. Structure, composition and morphology of bioactive titanate layer on porous titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinshan; Wang, Xiaohua; Hu, Rui; Kou, Hongchao

    2014-07-01

    A bioactive coating was produced on pore surfaces of porous titanium samples by an amendatory alkali-heat treatment method. Porous titanium was prepared by powder metallurgy and its porosity and average size were 45% and 135 μm, respectively. Coating morphology, coating structure and phase constituents were examined by SEM, XPS and XRD. It was found that a micro-network structure with sizes of cells, and redundant Ca ion was detected in the titanate layer. The concentration distribution of Ti, O, Ca and Na in the coating showed a compositional gradient from the intermediate layer toward the outer surface. These compositional gradients indicate that the coating bonded to Ti substrate without a distinct interface. After immersion into the SBF solution for 3 days, a bone-like carbonate-hydroxylapatite showing a good biocompatibility was detected on the coating surface. And the redundant Ca advanced the bioactivity of the coating. Thus, the present modification is expected to allow the use of the bioactive porous titanium as artificial bones even under load-bearing conditions.

  17. Surface morphological structures and electrochemical activity properties of iridium–niobium binary alloy electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Toru, E-mail: matsumoto.t@jemai.or.jp [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Sata, Naoaki [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kiyoshi [Advanced Ceramic Group, Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko [High Temperature Materials Unit Functional Structure Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • An Ir–23Nb alloy has the best oxidation capability among other Nb concentrations. • The reason is the Ir–23Nb has a large surface area which results from Ir + Ir{sub 3}Nb. • An Ir–23Nb glucose sensor detects glucose much better than an Ir glucose sensor. -- Abstract: The electrochemical activities of Ir–Nb binary alloys were investigated as functions of the alloy compositions, crystal structures, and surface morphologies for a hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid redox reaction. High activities for the redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide were observed when pure Ir and an alloy with a composition of 77 at% Ir–23 at% Nb (Ir–23Nb) were used. Tests on eight electrodes—Ir, Ir–13Nb, Ir–17Nb, Ir–23Nb, Ir–30Nb, Ir–43Nb, Ir–62Nb, and Nb—showed that at a constant potential difference of 0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the Ir–23Nb electrode had the best hydrogen peroxide oxidation capability: 9.2 μA/mm{sup 2} for 2 mM hydrogen peroxide. Apart from Nb, Ir–23Nb gave the best performance in terms of preferential hydrogen peroxide oxidation against ascorbic acid. Subsequently, the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrodes were used for the fabrication of amperometric glucose sensors. We first coated the two electrodes with a γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane membrane and then with a glucose oxidase membrane. Tests on the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrode glucose sensors showed that the latter had better glucose detection capability than the former: 0.226 μA/(mm{sup 2} mM) for the Ir–23Nb sensor with 1.67 mM glucose. We investigated the relationship between the electrode responses to both hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid and the electrode surface structures.

  18. VOPcPhO:P3HT composite micro-structures with nano-porous surface morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmer, Mohamad Izzat [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Zubair, E-mail: zubairtarar@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials (CAM), Qatar University, P. O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Sulaiman, Khaulah, E-mail: khaulah@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Touati, Farid [Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Qatar University, P. O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Bawazeer, Tahani M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia); Alsoufi, Mohammad S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • VOPcPhO:P3HT micro-structures with nano-porous surface morphology have been formed. • Multidimensional structures have been formed by electro-spraying technique. • The electro-sprayed films are very promising for the humidity sensors. - Abstract: In this paper, composite micro-structures of Vanadyl 2,9,16,23-tetraphenoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine) (VOPcPhO) and Poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) complex with nano-porous surface morphology have been developed by electro-spraying technique. The structural and morphological characteristics of the VOPcPhO:P3HT composite films have been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The multidimensional VOPcPhO:P3HT micro-structures formed by electro-spraying with nano-porous surface morphology are very promising for the humidity sensors due to the pore sizes in the range of micro to nano-meters scale. The performance of the VOPcPhO:P3HT electro-sprayed sensor is superior in term of sensitivity, hysteresis and response/recovery times as compared to the spin-coated one. The electro-sprayed humidity sensor exhibits ∼3 times and 0.19 times lower hysteresis in capacitive and resistive mode, respectively, as compared to the spin-coated humidity sensor.

  19. Surface morphology and structure of Ge layer on Si(111) after solid phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryoma; Tosaka, Aki; Shigeta, Yukichi

    2018-05-01

    The surface morphology change of a Ge layer on a Si(111) surface formed by solid phase epitaxy has been investigated with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The Ge film was deposited at room temperature and annealed at 400 °C or 600 °C. The STM images of the sample surface after annealing at 400 °C show a flat wetting layer (WL) with small three-dimensional islands on the WL. After annealing at 600 °C, the STM images show a surface roughening with large islands. From the relation between the average height of the roughness and the deposited layer thickness, it is confirmed that the diffusion of Ge atoms becomes very active at 600 °C. The Si crystal at the interface is reconstructed and the intermixing occurs over 600 °C. However, the intermixing is fairly restricted in the solid phase epitaxy growth at 400 °C. The surface morphology changes with the crystallization at 400 °C are discussed by the shape of the islands formed on the WL surface. It is shown that the diffusion of the Ge atoms in the amorphous phase is active even at 400 °C.

  20. Correlation between morphology, electron band structure, and resistivity of Pb atomic chains on the Si(5 5 3)-Au surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jałochowski, M; Kwapiński, T; Łukasik, P; Nita, P; Kopciuszyński, M

    2016-01-01

    Structural and electron transport properties of multiple Pb atomic chains fabricated on the Si(5 5 3)-Au surface are investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, reflection high electron energy diffraction, angular resolved photoemission electron spectroscopy and in situ electrical resistance. The study shows that Pb atomic chains growth modulates the electron band structure of pristine Si(5 5 3)-Au surface and hence changes its sheet resistivity. Strong correlation between chains morphology, electron band structure and electron transport properties is found. To explain experimental findings a theoretical tight-binding model of multiple atomic chains interacting on effective substrate is proposed. (paper)

  1. Structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles deposited onto single-crystalline surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kleibert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic nanostructures and nanoparticles often show novel magnetic phenomena not known from the respective bulk materials. In the past, several methods to prepare such structures have been developed – ranging from wet chemistry-based to physical-based methods such as self-organization or cluster growth. The preparation method has a significant influence on the resulting properties of the generated nanostructures. Taking chemical approaches, this influence may arise from the chemical environment, reaction kinetics and the preparation route. Taking physical approaches, the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the growth mode or – when depositing preformed clusters/nanoparticles on a surface – the landing kinetics and subsequent relaxation processes have a strong impact and thus need to be considered when attempting to control magnetic and structural properties of supported clusters or nanoparticles.Results: In this contribution we focus on mass-filtered Fe nanoparticles in a size range from 4 nm to 10 nm that are generated in a cluster source and subsequently deposited onto two single crystalline substrates: fcc Ni(111/W(110 and bcc W(110. We use a combined approach of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD, reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM to shed light on the complex and size-dependent relation between magnetic properties, crystallographic structure, orientation and morphology. In particular XMCD reveals that Fe particles on Ni(111/W(110 have a significantly lower (higher magnetic spin (orbital moment compared to bulk iron. The reduced spin moments are attributed to the random particle orientation being confirmed by RHEED together with a competition of magnetic exchange energy at the interface and magnetic anisotropy energy in the particles. The RHEED data also show that the Fe particles on W(110 – despite of the large lattice mismatch between iron and tungsten – are

  2. Diversity of dermal denticle structure in sharks: Skin surface roughness and three-dimensional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankhelyi, Madeleine V; Wainwright, Dylan K; Lauder, George V

    2018-05-29

    Shark skin is covered with numerous placoid scales or dermal denticles. While previous research has used scanning electron microscopy and histology to demonstrate that denticles vary both around the body of a shark and among species, no previous study has quantified three-dimensional (3D) denticle structure and surface roughness to provide a quantitative analysis of skin surface texture. We quantified differences in denticle shape and size on the skin of three individual smooth dogfish sharks (Mustelus canis) using micro-CT scanning, gel-based surface profilometry, and histology. On each smooth dogfish, we imaged between 8 and 20 distinct areas on the body and fins, and obtained further comparative skin surface data from leopard, Atlantic sharpnose, shortfin mako, spiny dogfish, gulper, angel, and white sharks. We generated 3D images of individual denticles and measured denticle volume, surface area, and crown angle from the micro-CT scans. Surface profilometry was used to quantify metrology variables such as roughness, skew, kurtosis, and the height and spacing of surface features. These measurements confirmed that denticles on different body areas of smooth dogfish varied widely in size, shape, and spacing. Denticles near the snout are smooth, paver-like, and large relative to denticles on the body. Body denticles on smooth dogfish generally have between one and three distinct ridges, a diamond-like surface shape, and a dorsoventral gradient in spacing and roughness. Ridges were spaced on average 56 µm apart, and had a mean height of 6.5 µm, comparable to denticles from shortfin mako sharks, and with narrower spacing and lower heights than other species measured. We observed considerable variation in denticle structure among regions on the pectoral, dorsal, and caudal fins, including a leading-to-trailing edge gradient in roughness for each region. Surface roughness in smooth dogfish varied around the body from 3 to 42 microns. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Modification on surface oxide layer structure and surface morphology of niobium by gas cluster ion beam treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, A.T.; Swenson, D.R.; Insepov, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that significant reductions in field emission on Nb surfaces could be achieved by means of a new surface treatment technique called gas cluster ion beam (GCIB). Further study as shown in this paper revealed that GCIB treatments could modify surface irregularities and remove surface asperities leading to a smoother surface finish as demonstrated through measurements using a 3D profilometer, an atomic force microscope, and a scanning electron microscope. These experimental observations were supported by computer simulation via atomistic molecular dynamics and a phenomenological surface dynamics. Measurements employing a secondary ion mass spectrometry found that GCIB could also alter Nb surface oxide layer structure. Possible implications of the experimental results on the performance of Nb superconducting radio frequency cavities treated by GCIB will be discussed. First experimental results on Nb single cell superconducting radio frequency cavities treated by GCIB will be reported.

  4. Study of structure and surface morphology of two-layer contact Ti/Al metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill D. Vanyukhin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization widely used in the technology of GaN base devices have a very important imperfection i.e. rough surface. There are different opinions about the causes of this imperfection: balling-up of molten aluminum or the appearance of intermetallic melt phases in the Au–Al system. To check the effect of the former cause, we have studied the formation of rough surface after annealing of Ti/Al metallization which is used as a basis of many metallization systems for GaN. The substrates were made from silicon wafers covered with Si3N4 films (0.15 μm. On these substrates we deposited the Ti(12 nm/Al(135 nm metallization system. After the deposition the substrates were annealed in nitrogen for 30 s at 850 °С. The as-annealed specimens were tested for metallization sheet resistivity, appearance and surface morphology. We have shown that during annealing of the Ti/Al metallization system, mutual diffusion of the metals and their active interaction with the formation of intermetallic phases occur. This makes the metallization system more resistant to subsequent annealing, oxidation and chemical etching. After annealing the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system becomes gently matted. However, large hemispherical convex areas (as in the Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization system do not form. Thus, the hypothesis on the balling-up of molten aluminum on the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system has not been confirmed.

  5. Surface structural, morphological, and catalytic studies of homogeneously dispersed anisotropic Ag nanostructures within mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sareen, Shweta [Thapar University, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry (India); Mutreja, Vishal [Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Department of Chemistry (India); Pal, Bonamali; Singh, Satnam, E-mail: ssingh@thapar.edu [Thapar University, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highly dispersed anisotropic Ag nanostructures were synthesized within the channels of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)-modified mesoporous SBA-15 for catalyzing the reduction of p-dinitrobenzene, p-nitrophenol, and p-nitroacetophenone, respectively. A green templating process without involving any reducing agent, by varying the amount (1–10 wt.%) of Ag loading followed by calcination at 350 °C under H{sub 2} led to change in the morphology of Ag nanoparticles from nanospheres (~7–8 nm) to nanorods (aspect ratio ~12–30 nm) without any deformation in mesoporous sieves. In comparison to white bare SBA-15, gray-colored samples were formed with Ag impregnation exhibiting absorption bands at 484 and 840 nm indicating the formation of anisotropic Ag nanostructures within mesoporous matrix. TEM and FE-SEM micrographs confirmed the presence of evenly dispersed Ag nanostructures within as well as on the surface of mesoporous matrix. AFM studies indicated a small decrease in the average roughness of SBA-15 from 20.59 to 19.21 nm for 4 wt.% Ag/m-SBA-15, illustrating the encapsulation of majority of Ag nanoparticles in the siliceous matrix and presence of small amount of Ag nanoparticles on the mesoporous support. Moreover, due to plugging of mesopores with Ag, a significant decrease in surface area from 680 m{sup 2}/g of SBA-15 to 385 m{sup 2}/g was observed. The Ag-impregnated SBA-15 catalyst displayed superior catalytic activity than did bare SBA-15 with 4 wt.% Ag-loaded catalyst exhibiting optimum activity for selective reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol (100 %), p-nitroacetophenone to p-aminoacetophenone (100 %), and p-dinitrobenzene to p-nitroaniline (87 %), with a small amount of p-phenylenediamine formation.

  6. Structure and surface morphology studies of cerium oxide system using XRD and SEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Jais Alimin; Farid Nasir Ani; Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar

    2000-01-01

    Conventional Precious Group Materials (PGM) catalyst systems have been using CeO 2 as an Oxygen Storage Capacity component in the catalyst washcoat. Due to the limitations of the PGM catalyst, researches are now focusing on improving or replacing this conventional system. In a previous work, the potential of a copper-ceria (Cu-Ce) oxide as a catalyst system has been identified. In this paper, the morphology and characterisation of Cu-Ce oxides analysed using XRD and SEM will be described. The Cu-Ce samples were prepared at a fixed ratio under temperatures of 400 o C and 800 o C. XRD diffractograms showed CeO 2 is in a cubic phase at 400 o C and 800 o C. At 800 o C, the CuO particle is visible, presumably has incorporated with the lattice structure of ceria, indicating an absent of solid state condition between copper and ceria. Analysis by SEM revealed significant increase in particle sizes with increasing calcination temperatures. (Author)

  7. Structural and surface morphological studies of long chain fatty acid thin films deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nayan Mani, E-mail: nayanmanidas3@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Roy, Dhrubojyoti [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Gupta, Mukul [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Gupta, P.S. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2012-12-15

    In the present work we aim to study the structural and surface morphological characteristics of divalent cation (cadmium ion, Cd{sup 2+}) induced thin mono- to multilayer films of fatty acids such as arachidic acid and stearic acid prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. These ultra thin films of various numbers of layers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). In this specific Y-type deposition, it was found that as the individual layer thickness increases, the corresponding layer by layer interfacial electron density of the thin films decreases. Since the fatty acid chain tries to maintain its minimum value of cross-sectional area, tilting occurs with respect to its nearest neighbor. The tilt angle calculated for 9 layers of cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) and cadmium stearate (CdSt{sub 2}) are 18 Degree-Sign and 19.5 Degree-Sign , respectively. An asymmetric air gap of thickness {approx}3 A was also seen between the tail parts of 2 molecular chains. The RMS roughness and average height factors calculated through AFM studies show non-uniform surface morphology of both CdA{sub 2} and CdSt{sub 2}, although the calculated topographic variations were found to have more irregularity in case of CdSt{sub 2} than in case of CdA{sub 2}.

  8. Structure, surface morphology and electrical properties of evaporated Ni thin films: Effect of substrates, thickness and Cu underlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmous, M.; Layadi, A.; Guittoum, A.; Souami, N.; Mebarki, M.; Menni, N.

    2014-01-01

    Series of Ni thin films have been deposited by thermal evaporation onto glass, Si(111), Cu, mica and Al 2 O 3 substrates with and without a Cu underlayer. The Ni thicknesses, t, are in the 4 to 163 nm range. The Cu underlayer has also been evaporated with a Cu thickness equal to 27, 52 and 90 nm. The effects of substrate, the Ni thickness and the Cu underlayer on the structural and electrical properties of Ni are investigated. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy was used to probe the Ni/Substrate and Ni–Cu underlayer interfaces and to measure both Ni and Cu thicknesses. The texture, the strain and the grain size values were derived from X-ray diffraction experiments. The surface morphology is studied by means of a Scanning Electron Microscope. The electrical resistivity is measured by the four point probe. The Ni films grow with the <111> texture on all substrates. The Ni grain sizes D increase with increasing thickness for the glass, Si and mica substrates and decrease for the Cu one. The strain ε is positive for low thickness, decreases in magnitude and becomes negative as t increases. With the Cu underlayer, the growth mode goes through two phases: first, the stress (grain size) increases (decreases) up to a critical thickness t Cr , then stress is relieved and grain size increases. All these results will be discussed and correlated. - Highlights: • The structural and electrical properties of evaporated Ni thin films are studied. • The effect of thickness, substrates and Cu underlayer is investigated. • Texture, grain size, strain and surface morphology are discussed. • Growth modes are described as a function of Ni thickness

  9. A possible climate signal in the surface morphology and internal structure of Galena Creek Rock Glacier, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Eric; Holt, John; Levy, Joseph; Stuurman, Cassie; Nerozzi, Stefano; Cardenas, Benjamin; Pharr, James; Aylward, Dan; Schmidt, Logan; Hoey, William; Prem, Parvathy; Rambo, Jackie; Lim, YeJin; Maharaj, Kian

    2016-04-01

    Galena Creek Rock Glacier (GCRG) has been shown in previous studies to be a debris-covered glacier (e.g. Ackert, Jr., 1998), and is thus a target of interest as a record of climate and an element of the mountain hydrological system. The goal of this study was to investigate possible relationships between surface morphology and internal structure and composition of GCRG. This was achieved using ground-penetrating radar (GPR), time-domain electromagnetic sounding (TEM), and photogrammetry to produce digital terrain models (DTMs). We acquired 6 longitudinal GPR surveys at 50 and 100 MHz, 2 common midpoint GPR surveys, and 28 TEM soundings on GCRG from the head to the toe, and ground-based photogrammetry data were collected to produce a DTM of its cirque at 10 cm resolution. TEM soundings locally constrained the bulk thickness of GCRG to 26-75 meters. Common midpoint and hyperbola analyses of GPR surveys produced dielectric constants in the near subsurface of 4 in the upper glacier to 5-9 in the middle and lower glacier. These are consistent with clean ice and a mélange of rock with air and/or ice, respectively. GPR revealed a pervasive shallow reflector at 1-2.5m depth that we interpret to be the interface between the surface debris layer and glacier ice. There is increased structure and clutter in the GPR data beneath this interface as one moves down glacier. Observations were additionally made of a 40m wide, 4-5m deep circular thermokarst pond located on upper GCRG in the cirque. The walls of the pond revealed a cross-section of the top several meters of GCRG's interior: a dry surface layer of rocky debris 1-1.5m thick overlying pure glacier ice. An englacial debris band was also observed, roughly 50 cm thick and presenting at an apparent up-glacier dip of ~30 degrees, intersecting the surface near a subtle ridge resolved in the photogrammetry DTM. A GPR transect conducted near the pond over 6 similar ridges imaged 6 corresponding up-glacier dipping reflectors that

  10. Morphology and electronic structure of the oxide shell on the surface of iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongmin; Baer, Donald R; Amonette, James E; Engelhard, Mark H; Antony, Jiji; Qiang, You

    2009-07-01

    An iron (Fe) nanoparticle exposed to air at room temperature will be instantly covered by an oxide shell that is typically approximately 3 nm thick. The nature of this native oxide shell, in combination with the underlying Fe(0) core, determines the physical and chemical behavior of the core-shell nanoparticle. One of the challenges of characterizing core-shell nanoparticles is determining the structure of the oxide shell, that is, whether it is FeO, Fe(3)O(4), gamma-Fe(2)O(3), alpha-Fe(2)O(3), or something else. The results of prior characterization efforts, which have mostly used X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy, electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopic imaging, have been framed in terms of one of the known Fe-oxide structures, although it is not necessarily true that the thin layer of Fe oxide is a known Fe oxide. In this Article, we probe the structure of the oxide shell on Fe nanoparticles using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) at the oxygen (O) K-edge with a spatial resolution of several nanometers (i.e., less than that of an individual particle). We studied two types of representative particles: small particles that are fully oxidized (no Fe(0) core) and larger core-shell particles that possess an Fe core. We found that O K-edge spectra collected for the oxide shell in nanoparticles show distinct differences from those of known Fe oxides. Typically, the prepeak of the spectra collected on both the core-shell and the fully oxidized particles is weaker than that collected on standard Fe(3)O(4). Given the fact that the origin of this prepeak corresponds to the transition of the O 1s electron to the unoccupied state of O 2p hybridized with Fe 3d, a weak pre-edge peak indicates a combination of the following four factors: a higher degree of occupancy of the Fe 3d orbital; a longer Fe-O bond length; a decreased covalency of the Fe-O bond; and a measure of cation vacancies. These results suggest that the coordination configuration in

  11. Structure, surface area and morphology of aluminas from thermal decomposition of Al(OH(CH3COO2 crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIYOHARA PEDRO K.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline aluminium hydroxiacetate was prepared by reaction between aluminium powder (ALCOA 123 and aqueous solution of acetic acid at 96ºC ±1ºC. The white powder of Al(OH(CH3COO2 is constituted by agglomerates of crystalline plates, having size about 10mum. The crystals were fired from 200ºC to 1550ºC, in oxidizing atmosphere and the products characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and surface area measurements by BET-nitrogen method. Transition aluminas are formed from heating at the following temperatures: gamma (300ºC; delta (750ºC; alpha (1050ºC. The aluminas maintain the original morphology of the Al(OHAc2 crystal agglomerates, up to 1050ºC, when sintering and coalescence of the alpha-alumina crystals start and proceed up to 1550ºC. High surface area aluminas are formed in the temperature range of 700ºC to 1100ºC; the maximum value of 198m²/g is obtained at 900ºC, with delta-alumina structure. The formation sequence of transition aluminas is similar to the sequence from well ordered boehmite, but with differences in the transition temperatures and in the development of high surface areas. It is suggested that the causes for these diversities between the two sequences from Al(OH Ac2 and boehmite are due to the different particle sizes, shapes and textures of the gamma-Al2O3 which acts as precursor for the sequence gamma- to alpha-Al2O3.

  12. Surface morphology of erbium silicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.S.; Pai, C.S.; Wu, C.S.; Kuech, T.F.; Liu, B.X.

    1982-01-01

    The surface of rare-earth silicides (Er, Tb, etc.), formed by the reaction of thin-film metal layers with a silicon substrate, is typically dominated by deep penetrating, regularly shaped pits. These pits may have a detrimental effect on the electronic performance of low Schottky barrier height diodes utilizing such silicides on n-type Si. This study suggests that contamination at the metal-Si or silicide-Si interface is the primary cause of surface pitting. Surface pits may be reduced in density or eliminated entirely through either the use of Si substrate surfaces prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions prior to metal deposition and silicide formation or by means of ion irradiation techniques. Silicide layers formed by these techniques possess an almost planar morphology

  13. Structure, Surface Morphology, and Optical and Electronic Properties of Annealed SnS Thin Films Obtained by CBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghima, Meriem; Akkari, Anis; Guasch, Cathy; Turki-Kamoun, Najoua

    2014-09-01

    SnS thin films were initially coated onto Pyrex substrates by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method and annealed at various temperatures ranging from 200°C to 600°C for 30 min in nitrogen gas. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that a structural transition from face-centered cubic to orthorhombic occurs when the annealing temperature is over 500°C. The surface morphology of all thin layers was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The elemental composition of Sn and S, as measured by energy dispersive spectroscopy, is near the stoichiometric ratio. Optical properties studied by means of transmission and reflection measurements show an increase in the absorption coefficient with increasing annealing temperatures. The band gap energy is close to 1.5 eV, which corresponds to the optimum for photovoltaic applications. Last, the thermally stimulated current measurements show that the electrically active traps located in the band gap disappear after annealing at 500°C. These results suggest that, once again, annealing as a post-deposition treatment may be useful for improving the physical properties of the SnS layers included in photovoltaic applications. Moreover, the thermo-stimulated current method may be of practical relevance to explore the electronic properties of more conventional industrial methods, such as sputtering and chemical vapor deposition.

  14. Morphology and phase structures of CW laser-induced oxide layers on iron surface with evolving reflectivity and colors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Taotao, E-mail: wutaotao@nint.ac.cn; Wang, Lijun; Wei, Chenghua; Zhou, Menglian; He, Minbo; Wu, Lixiong

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Firstly, iron samples with different color features were obtained by continuous wave laser irradiation depending on progressive durations. The real-time reflectivity and temperature of samples were measured. The color and the reflectivity evolution were related. They were both caused by the forming oxide films. • Secondly, laser-induced oxidation process of iron was studied by microscope, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum. The first formed magnetite made the surface reflectivity decline rapidly and caused the “positive feedback” effect because of molecular absorption. The later formed hematite oscillated the reflectivity by interference effect. • Lastly, the laser-induced oxide films were thin, orientated and badly crystallized. The Wagner oxidation theory was incapable of describing the non-isothermal and early stage oxidation process. So we emphasized that a precise oxidation model depending on the experiment and the optical constants of the laser-induced oxides must be studied. - Abstract: Laser-induced oxidation will change the laser reflectivity and color features of metal surface. Both changes can be theoretically calculated based on the oxidation kinetics and the optical constants of oxides. For the purpose of calculation, the laser-induced oxidation process of pure polycrystalline iron was studied. Samples with various color features were obtained by continuous wave Nd:YAG fiber laser (1.06 μm) irradiation depending on progressive durations in the intensity of 1.90 W/cm{sup 2}. The real-time reflectivity and temperature were measured with integral sphere and thermocouples. The irradiated surface morphology and phase structures were characterized by microscope, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum. It was found that the first formed magnetite made the surface reflectivity decline rapidly and caused the “positive feedback” effect because of molecular absorption. The later formed hematite oscillated the reflectivity by

  15. The effect of spatial micro-CT image resolution and surface complexity on the morphological 3D analysis of open porous structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyka, Grzegorz, E-mail: gregory.pyka@mtm.kuleuven.be [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 – PB2450, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kerckhofs, Greet [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 – PB2450, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Biomechanics Research Unit, Université de Liege, Chemin des Chevreuils 1 - BAT 52/3, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Schrooten, Jan; Wevers, Martine [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 – PB2450, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-01-15

    In material science microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) is one of the most popular non-destructive techniques to visualise and quantify the internal structure of materials in 3D. Despite constant system improvements, state-of-the-art micro-CT images can still hold several artefacts typical for X-ray CT imaging that hinder further image-based processing, structural and quantitative analysis. For example spatial resolution is crucial for an appropriate characterisation as the voxel size essentially influences the partial volume effect. However, defining the adequate image resolution is not a trivial aspect and understanding the correlation between scan parameters like voxel size and the structural properties is crucial for comprehensive material characterisation using micro-CT. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the spatial image resolution on the micro-CT based morphological analysis of three-dimensional (3D) open porous structures with a high surface complexity. In particular the correlation between the local surface properties and the accuracy of the micro-CT-based macro-morphology of 3D open porous Ti6Al4V structures produced by selective laser melting (SLM) was targeted and revealed for rough surfaces a strong dependence of the resulting structure characteristics on the scan resolution. Reducing the surface complexity by chemical etching decreased the sensitivity of the overall morphological analysis to the spatial image resolution and increased the detection limit. This study showed that scan settings and image processing parameters need to be customized to the material properties, morphological parameters under investigation and the desired final characteristics (in relation to the intended functional use). Customization of the scan resolution can increase the reliability of the micro-CT based analysis and at the same time reduce its operating costs. - Highlights: • We examine influence of the image resolution

  16. Growth morphologies of crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong-Fu; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1991-03-01

    We have expanded our earlier Monte Carlo model [Phys. Rev. A 38, 2447 (1988); J. Crystal Growth 100, 313 (1990)] to three dimensions and included reevaporation after accommodation and growth on dislocation-induced steps. We found again that, for a given set of growth parameters, the critical size, beyond which a crystal cannot retain its macroscopically faceted shape, scales linearly with the mean free path in the vapor. However, the three-dimensional (3D) the systems show increased shape stability compared to corresponding 2D cases. Extrapolation of the model results to mean-free-path conditions used in morphological stability experiments leads to order-of-magnitude agreement of the predicted critical size with experimental findings. The stability region for macroscopically smooth (faceted) surfaces in the parameter space of temperature and supersaturation depends on both the surface and bulk diffusion. While surface diffusion is seen to smooth the growth morphology on the scale of the surface diffusion length, bulk diffusion is always destabilizing. The atomic surface roughness increases with increase in growth temperature and supersaturation. That is, the tendency of surface kinetics anisotropies to stabilize the growth shape is reduced through thermal and kinetic roughening. It is also found that the solid-on-solid assumption, which can be advantageously used at low temperatures and supersaturations, is insufficient to describe the growth dynamics of atomically rough interfaces where bulk diffusion governs the process. For surfaces with an emerging screw dislocation, we find that the spiral growth mechanism dominates at low temperatures and supersaturations. The polygonization of a growth spiral decreases with increasing temperature or supersaturation. When the mean free path in the nutrient is comparable to the lattice constant, the combined effect of bulk and surface diffusion reduces the terrace width of a growth spiral in its center region. At elevated

  17. Influence of annealing condition and multicycle AlGaAs/GaAs structures on the Al0.26Ga0.74As surface morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Wenzhe; Wang, Yi; Guo, Xiang; Luo, Zijiang; Zhao, Zhen; Zhou, Haiyue; Ding, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • STM study on the change of AlGaAs surface morphology with varying annealing conditions. • Interesting phenomenon that the subsequent sample has more surface roughness than the previous samples do. A physical model was proposed to explain why the multi-runs growth can increase surface roughness. • The annealing conditions of AlGaAs/GaAs surface were proposed. - Abstract: The influence of annealing temperature, As 4 beam equivalent pressure and multi-runs growth on AlGaAs/GaAs structures was investigated. The real space ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy images showed that AlGaAs/GaAs surface morphology greatly depends on annealing conditions and initial state of surface. The reasons of the surface phenomenon are proposed, and a physical model was proposed to explain why the multi-runs growth structures can increase AlGaAs surface roughness. The reasonable preparation conditions for AlGaAs/GaAs structures were proposed

  18. Morphology and grain structure evolution during epitaxial growth of Ag films on native-oxide-covered Si surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Kim, Hong Koo; Perello, David; Yun, Minhee; Kulovits, Andreas; Wiezorek, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    Epitaxial nanocrystalline Ag films were grown on initially native-oxide-covered Si(001) substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Mechanisms of grain growth and morphology evolution were investigated. An epitaxially oriented Ag layer (∼5 nm thick) formed on the oxide-desorbed Si surface during the initial growth phase. After a period of growth instability, characterized as kinetic roughening, grain growth stagnation, and increase of step-edge density, a layer of nanocrystalline Ag grains with a uniform size distribution appeared on the quasi-two-dimensional layer. This hierarchical process of film formation is attributed to the dynamic interplay between incoming energetic Ag particles and native oxide. The cyclic interaction (desorption and migration) of the oxide with the growing Ag film is found to play a crucial role in the characteristic evolution of grain growth and morphology change involving an interval of grain growth stagnation

  19. Surface morphology of some articulated corallines from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, V.; Iyer, S.D.

    Surface structures of seven species belonging to four genera of subfamily Corallinoidae (Fly: Corallinaceae) were microscopically investigated Two distinct surface morphologies were revealed namely a 'Corallina type' (c-type) with round to irregular...

  20. Morphological Observations of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Adhesion to a Nanoperiodic-Structured Titanium Surface Patterned Using Femtosecond Laser Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Kei; Aoki, Shun; Shimomura, Kazunori; Sugita, Norihiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Norimasa; Fujie, Hiromichi

    2012-12-01

    It is known that the adhesive and anisotropic properties of cell-derived biomaterials are affected by micro- or nanoscale structures processed on culture surfaces. In the present study, the femtosecond laser processing technique was used to scan a laser beam at an intensity of approximately the ablation threshold level on a titanium surface for nanoscale processing. Microscopy observation revealed that the processed titanium exhibited a periodic-patterned groove structure at the surface; the width and depth of the groove were 292 ±50 and 99 ±31 nm, respectively, and the periodic pitch of the groove was 501 ±100 nm. Human synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the surface at a cell density of 3.0×103 cells/cm2 after 4 cell passages. For comparison, the cells were also cultured on a nonprocessed titanium surface under the condition identical to that of the processed surface. Results revealed that the duration for cell attachment to the surface was markedly reduced on the processed titanium as compared with the nonprocessed titanium. Moreover, on the processed titanium, cell extension area significantly increased while cell orientation was aligned along the direction of the periodic grooves. These results suggest that the femtosecond laser processing improves the adhesive and anisotropic properties of cells by producing the nanoperiodic structure on titanium culture surfaces.

  1. Nanostructured surfaces investigated by quantitative morphological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perani, Martina; Carapezzi, Stefania; Mutta, Geeta Rani; Cavalcoli, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of different surfaces has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. Two different tools have been employed to this scope: the analysis of the height–height correlation function and the determination of the mean grain size, which have been combined to obtain a complete characterization of the surfaces. Different materials have been analyzed: SiO_xN_y, InGaN/GaN quantum wells and Si nanowires, grown with different techniques. Notwithstanding the presence of grain-like structures on all the samples analyzed, they present very diverse surface design, underlying that this procedure can be of general use. Our results show that the quantitative analysis of nanostructured surfaces allows us to obtain interesting information, such as grain clustering, from the comparison of the lateral correlation length and the grain size. (paper)

  2. Surface morphologies of He-implanted tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannister, M.E., E-mail: bannisterme@ornl.gov [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6371 (United States); Meyer, F.W.; Hijazi, H. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6371 (United States); Unocic, K.A.; Garrison, L.M.; Parish, C.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Surface morphologies of tungsten surfaces, both polycrystalline and single-crystal [1 1 0], were investigated using SEM and FIB/SEM techniques after implantations at elevated surfaces temperatures (1200–1300 K) using well-characterized, mono-energetic He ion beams with a wide range of ion energies (218 eV–250 keV). Nanofuzz was observed on polycrystalline tungsten (PCW) following implantation of 100-keV He ions at a flux threshold of 0.9 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, but not following 200-keV implantations with similar fluxes. No nanofuzz formation was observed on single-crystal [1 1 0] tungsten (SCW), despite fluxes exceeding those demonstrated previously to produce nanofuzz on polycrystalline tungsten. Pre-damaging the single-crystal tungsten with implanted C impurity interstitials did not significantly affect the surface morphologies resulting from the high-flux He ion implantations. The main factor leading to the different observed surface structures for the pristine and C-implanted single-crystal W samples appeared to be the peak He ion flux characterizing the different exposures. It was speculated that nanofuzz formation was not observed for any SCW target exposures because of increased incubation fluences required for such targets.

  3. Surface morphology of Al0.3Ga0.7N/Al2O3-high electron mobility transistor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cörekçi, S; Usanmaz, D; Tekeli, Z; Cakmak, M; Ozçelik, S; Ozbay, E

    2008-02-01

    We present surface properties of buffer films (AIN and GaN) and Al0.3Gao.zN/Al2O3-High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) structures with/without AIN interlayer grown on High Temperature (HT)-AIN buffer/Al2O3 substrate and Al2O3 substrate. We have found that the GaN surface morphology is step-flow in character and the density of dislocations was about 10(8)-10(9) cm(-2). The AFM measurements also exhibited that the presence of atomic steps with large lateral step dimension and the surface of samples was smooth. The lateral step sizes are in the range of 100-250 nm. The typical rms values of HEMT structures were found as 0.27, 0.30, and 0.70 nm. HT-AIN buffer layer can have a significant impact on the surface morphology of Al0.3Ga0.7N/Al2O3-HEMT structures.

  4. Effects of self-assembled monolayer structural order, surface homogeneity and surface energy on pentacene morphology and thin film transistor device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Daniel Orrin; Weidner, Tobias; Baio, Joe; Polishak, Brent; Acton, Orb; Cernetic, Nathan; Ma, Hong; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2013-01-04

    A systematic study of six phosphonic acid (PA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with tailored molecular structures is performed to evaluate their effectiveness as dielectric modifying layers in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and determine the relationship between SAM structural order, surface homogeneity, and surface energy in dictating device performance. SAM structures and surface properties are examined by near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Top-contact pentacene OFET devices are fabricated on SAM modified Si with a thermally grown oxide layer as a dielectric. For less ordered methyl- and phenyl-terminated alkyl ~(CH 2 ) 12 PA SAMs of varying surface energies, pentacene OFETs show high charge carrier mobilities up to 4.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . It is hypothesized that for these SAMs, mitigation of molecular scale roughness and subsequent control of surface homogeneity allow for large pentacene grain growth leading to high performance pentacene OFET devices. PA SAMs that contain bulky terminal groups or are highly crystalline in nature do not allow for a homogenous surface at a molecular level and result in charge carrier mobilities of 1.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 or less. For all molecules used in this study, no causal relationship between SAM surface energy and charge carrier mobility in pentacene FET devices is observed.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies of bombardment induced surface morphology changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Williams, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In this review results of experimental and theoretical studies of solid surface morphology changes due to ion bombardment are discussed. An attempt is undertaken to classify the observed specific features of a structure, generated by ion bombardment [ru

  6. The influence of the bulk reduction state on the surface structure and morphology of rutile TiO{sub 2}(110) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Hebenstreit, W.; Diebold, U.; Tyryshkin, A.M.; Bowman, M.K.; Dunham, G.G.; Henderson, M.A.

    2000-05-25

    The authors have investigated the relationship between different types and amounts of bulk defects and the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2}(110) single crystals prepared by annealing in ultrahigh vacuum and in oxygen. Rutile TiO{sub 2}(110) specimens were cut from the same crystal and were heated in a furnace to different temperatures which resulted in different states of reduction (colors of the crystals). After characterization of the bulk defects with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), the specimens were studied with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy He{sup +} ion scattering (LEIS), and work function measurements. EPR reveals that darker rutile crystals exhibit higher concentrations of extended Ti{sup 3+} related bulk defects such as crystallographic shear planes (CSP), with a decrease in substitutional and interstitial defects as compared to lighter crystals. Surface structures with (1 x 2) features are preferably formed upon UHV annealing on these darker crystals. LEIS measurements show that all of the crystals' (110) surfaces are reoxidized upon annealing in {sup 18}O{sub 2} (573 K, 1 x 10{sup {minus}6} mbar, 10 min) and that the {sup 18}O surface content is proportional to the bulk reduction state. UV-visible adsorption spectra and resistivity measurements also scale with the reduction states of crystals. Only the (1 x 1) structure is observed on the surface of slightly reduced crystals. Annealing in oxygen induces additional metastable structures, i.e., TiO{sub 2} clusters on blue crystals and rosette networks on dark blue crystals.

  7. Control surface morphology, structural and optical properties of Cu2O nanocrystals by using the hydrothermal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowd, A. Viswanath; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    The Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a reddish-brown colored p-type semiconductor compound. The Cu2O nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by using copper (II) chloride as a precursor, Sodium hydroxide as mineralizing agent with the ascorbic through hydrothermal method. The process was accomplished with 0.05 and 0.1 mol/L concentration of CuCl2.2H2O at 75°C temperature in the presence of de-ionized (DI) water. X-ray diffraction patterns of the synthesized samples powder confirmed presence of Cu2O and Cu nanoparticles due to complete and incomplete oxidation of Cu particles, respectively. The prepared nanoparticles with an average size of below 40 nm were estimated using Debye - Scherrer method and the analysis shown that an increase in CuCl2.2H2O concentration from 0.05 to 0.1M leads to the downsizing of the Cu2O particles. Field - emission scanning electron microscopy data showed that the morphology has changed from nano - cubes to octahedron by increasing the precursor mole concentration. Optical measurements show the bandgap shift towards higher energy with changing morphology to nano-cubes and octahedron. The luminescence peaks at 450 and 464 nm shows the presence of Cu2O phase and remaining peaks were due to Cu phase and interstials defects.

  8. Investigation on structural, surface morphological and dielectric properties of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagadevan, Suresh [Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai (India); Podder, Jiban, E-mail: sureshsagadevan@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Zinc doped Tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method. The average crystallite size of pure and Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was calculated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The FT-IR spectrum indicated the strong presence of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The morphology and the particle size were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle size of the Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was also analyzed, using the Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) experiment. The optical properties were studied by the UV-Visible absorption spectrum. The dielectric properties of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were studied at different frequencies and temperatures. The ac conductivity of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was also studied. (author)

  9. Helium effects on tungsten surface morphology and deuterium retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ueda, Y.; H. Y. Peng,; H. T. Lee,; N. Ohno,; S. Kajita,; Yoshida, N.; Doerner, R.; De Temmerman, G.; V. Alimov,; G. Wright,

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental results on tungsten surface morphology, especially nano-structure (fuzz), induced by helium plasma exposure at temperatures between 1000 K and 2000 K are reviewed. This structure was firstly reported in 2006. In this review, most of experimental results reported

  10. Critical Intermediate Structure That Directs the Crystalline Texture and Surface Morphology of Organo-Lead Trihalide Perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Hao-Chung; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Li, Shao-Sian; Lan, Yi-Kang; Lin, Chung-Yao; Chang, Je-Wei; Kuo, Yen-Chien; Chen, Chia-Hao; Weng, Shih-Chang; Su, Chun-Jen; Su, An-Chung; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jeng, U-Ser

    2017-10-25

    We have identified an often observed yet unresolved intermediate structure in a popular processing with dimethylformamide solutions of lead chloride and methylammonium iodide for perovskite solar cells. With subsecond time-resolved grazing-incidence X-ray scattering and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, supplemental with ab initio calculation, the resolved intermediate structure (CH 3 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 2 Cl 2 ·CH 3 NH 3 I features two-dimensional (2D) perovskite bilayers of zigzagged lead-halide octahedra and sandwiched CH 3 NH 3 I layers. Such intermediate structure reveals a hidden correlation between the intermediate phase and the composition of the processing solution. Most importantly, the 2D perovskite lattice of the intermediate phase is largely crystallographically aligned with the [110] planes of the three-dimensional perovskite cubic phase; consequently, with sublimation of Cl ions from the organo-lead octahedral terminal corners in prolonged annealing, the zigzagged octahedral layers of the intermediate phase can merge with the intercalated methylammonium iodide layers for templated growth of perovskite crystals. Regulated by annealing temperature and the activation energies of the intermediate and perovskite, deduced from analysis of temperature-dependent structural kinetics, the intermediate phase is found to selectively mature first and then melt along the layering direction for epitaxial conversion into perovskite crystals. The unveiled epitaxial conversion under growth kinetics controls might be general for solution-processed and intermediate-templated perovskite formation.

  11. Influence of doping fluorine on the structural, surface morphological and optical properties of CdO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydogu, S.; Cabuk, G. [Dumlupinar University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Kutahya (Turkey); Coban, M.B. [Balikesir University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Balikesir (Turkey)

    2017-06-15

    CdO and CdO:F films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates at temperature of 250 ± 5 C. The structural and optical properties of pure and fluorine doped CdO films were characterized by XRD measurements and UV-VIS spectra, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have the polycrystalline structure with preferred orientation along (111) plane. Scherrer Method and Williamson Hall Method were used for calculating of the crystalline grains and strains of films. It is observed that the films at 8% F doped has better crystallinity level, and F doping decreases the defects in CdO films and improves crystallite quality. By UV-VIS spectra, it is revealed that the film with 8% F doped has a high transmittance about 65% in the visible region together with a direct band gap of 2.70 eV. Thicknesses, refractive indices and extinction coefficient values are determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry technique using Cauchy-Urbach model. (orig.)

  12. Effect of SHI irradiation on structural, surface morphological and optical studies of CVT grown ZnSSe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannappan, P.; Asokan, K.; Krishna, J.B.M.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CVT grown ZnSSe single crystals were irradiated with 120 MeV Au ion. •The GIXRD results show the FWHM increases with increasing ion fluency. •The AFM study show the surface roughness increases with ion fluency. •The optical band gap energy vary with increasing ion fluency. •The PL emission decreases with increasing ion fluency. -- Abstract: The ZnSSe single crystals grown by chemical vapour transport (CVT) method have been irradiated by 120 MeV Au 9+ ions at room temperature with fluences of 1 × 10 12 and 5 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 . The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) results show that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for the as grown ZnSSe crystal is 0.215°; and for the irradiated samples, the FWHM values are 0.413° and 0.625°, with the increase of ion fluences. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies reveal the formation of the pits and islands due to irradiation. The optical absorption cut off wavelength is found to be 441 nm for as grown ZnSSe crystal. The cut off values are increased to 447 nm and 457 nm for the irradiated samples with increasing ion fluency. The photoluminescence studies show the emission for the as grown ZnSSe is 590 nm whereas for the irradiated samples in the emission range it is 580–590 nm and 575–595 nm due to SHI irradiation. FT-Raman spectra analysis has been made for the ZnSSe single crystals and irradiated samples. The results are discussed in detail

  13. Effect of SHI irradiation on structural, surface morphological and optical studies of CVT grown ZnSSe single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannappan, P. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Krishna, J.B.M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, III-/LB-8, Bidhan nagar, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Dhanasekaran, R., E-mail: rdcgc@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •CVT grown ZnSSe single crystals were irradiated with 120 MeV Au ion. •The GIXRD results show the FWHM increases with increasing ion fluency. •The AFM study show the surface roughness increases with ion fluency. •The optical band gap energy vary with increasing ion fluency. •The PL emission decreases with increasing ion fluency. -- Abstract: The ZnSSe single crystals grown by chemical vapour transport (CVT) method have been irradiated by 120 MeV Au{sup 9+} ions at room temperature with fluences of 1 × 10{sup 12} and 5 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) results show that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for the as grown ZnSSe crystal is 0.215°; and for the irradiated samples, the FWHM values are 0.413° and 0.625°, with the increase of ion fluences. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies reveal the formation of the pits and islands due to irradiation. The optical absorption cut off wavelength is found to be 441 nm for as grown ZnSSe crystal. The cut off values are increased to 447 nm and 457 nm for the irradiated samples with increasing ion fluency. The photoluminescence studies show the emission for the as grown ZnSSe is 590 nm whereas for the irradiated samples in the emission range it is 580–590 nm and 575–595 nm due to SHI irradiation. FT-Raman spectra analysis has been made for the ZnSSe single crystals and irradiated samples. The results are discussed in detail.

  14. Reactive solid surface morphology variation via ionic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-08-14

    In gas-solid reactions, one of the most important factors that determine the overall reaction rate is the solid morphology, which can be characterized by a combination of smooth, convex and concave structures. Generally, the solid surface structure varies in the course of reactions, which is classically noted as being attributed to one or more of the following three mechanisms: mechanical interaction, molar volume change, and sintering. Here we show that if a gas-solid reaction involves the outward ionic diffusion of a solid-phase reactant then this outward ionic diffusion could eventually smooth the surface with an initial concave and/or convex structure. Specifically, the concave surface is filled via a larger outward diffusing surface pointing to the concave valley, whereas the height of the convex surface decreases via a lower outward diffusion flux in the vertical direction. A quantitative 2-D continuum diffusion model is established to analyze these two morphological variation processes, which shows consistent results with the experiments. This surface morphology variation by solid-phase ionic diffusion serves to provide a fourth mechanism that supplements the traditionally acknowledged solid morphology variation or, in general, porosity variation mechanisms in gas-solid reactions.

  15. Self-organizing nanodot structures on InP surfaces evolving under low-energy ion irradiation: analysis of morphology and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radny, Tobias; Gnaser, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Surfaces of InP were bombarded by 1.9 keV Ar(+) ions under normal incidence. The total accumulated ion fluence Φ the samples were exposed to was varied from 1 × 10(17) cm(-2) to 3 × 10(18) cm(-2), and ion fluxes f of (0.4 - 2) × 10(14) cm(-2) s(-1) were used. The surface morphology resulting from these ion irradiations was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Generally, nanodot structures are formed on the surface; their dimensions (diameter, height and separation), however, were found to depend critically on the specific bombardment conditions. As a function of ion fluence, the mean radius r, height h, and spacing l of the dots can be fitted by power-law dependences: r ∝ Φ(0.40), h ∝ Φ(0.48), and l ∝ Φ(0.19). In terms of ion flux, there appears to exist a distinct threshold: below f ~ (1.3 ± 0.2) × 10(14) cm(-2) s(-1), no ordering of the dots exists and their size is comparatively small; above that value of f, the height and radius of the dots becomes substantially larger (h ~ 40 nm and r ~ 50 nm). This finding possibly indicates that surface diffusion processes could be important. In order to determine possible local compositional changes in these nanostructures induced by ion impact, selected samples were prepared for atom probe tomography (APT). The results indicate that APT can provide analytical information on the composition of individual InP nanodots. By means of 3D APT data, the surface region of such nanodots evolving under ion bombardment could be examined with atomic spatial resolution. At the InP surface, the values of the In/P concentration ratio are distinctly higher over a distance of approximately 1 nm and amount to 1.3 to 1.7.

  16. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  17. Dendritic surface morphology of palladium hydride produced by electrolytic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, Peng; Bursill, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional and high-resolution electron microscopic studies of electrolytically-deposited palladium hydride reveal a fascinating variety of surface profile morphologies. The observations provide direct information concerning the surface structure of palladium electrodes and the mechanism of electrolytic deposition of palladium black. Both classical electrochemical mechanisms and recent 'modified diffusion-limited-aggregation' computer simulations are discussed in comparison with the experimental results. 13 refs., 9 figs

  18. Surface structure of AU3Cu(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckstein, G.A.; Maupai, S.; Dakkouri, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The surface morphology, composition, and structure of Au3Cu(001) as determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and surface x-ray diffraction are presented. Atomic resolution STM images reveal distinctive geometric features. The analysis of the surface x-ray diffraction data provides clear evidence...... for the surface structure. [S0163-1829(99)04535-X]....

  19. Irradiation of zinc single crystal with 500 keV singly-charged carbon ions: surface morphology, structure, hardness, and chemical modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas Khaliq, M.; Butt, M. Z.; Saleem, Murtaza

    2017-07-01

    Cylindrical specimens of (1 0 4) oriented zinc single crystal (diameter  =  6 mm and length  =  5 mm) were irradiated with 500 keV C+1 ions with the help of a Pelletron accelerator. Six specimens were irradiated in an ultra-high vacuum (~10‒8 Torr) with different ion doses, namely 3.94  ×  1014, 3.24  ×  1015, 5.33  ×  1015, 7.52  ×  1015, 1.06  ×  1016, and 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-2. A field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was utilized for the morphological study of the irradiated specimens. Formation of nano- and sub-micron size rods, clusters, flower- and fork-like structures, etc, was observed. Surface roughness of the irradiated specimens showed an increasing trend with the ions dose. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) helped to determine chemical modifications in the specimens. It was found that carbon content varied in the range 22.86-31.20 wt.% and that oxygen content was almost constant, with an average value of 10.16 wt.%. The balance content was zinc. Structural parameters, i.e. crystallite size and lattice strain, were determined by Williamson-Hall analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the irradiated specimens. Both crystallite size and lattice strain showed a decreasing trend with the increasing ions dose. A good linear relationship between crystallite size and lattice strain was observed. Surface hardness depicted a decreasing trend with the ions dose and followed an inverse Hall-Petch relation. FTIR spectra of the specimens revealed that absorption bands gradually diminish as the dose of singly-charged carbon ions is increased from 3.94  ×  1014 ions cm-1 to 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-1. This indicates progressive deterioration of chemical bonds with the increase in ion dose.

  20. Influence of annealing condition and multicycle AlGaAs/GaAs structures on the Al{sub 0.26}Ga{sub 0.74}As surface morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wenzhe; Wang, Yi; Guo, Xiang [College of Big Data and Information Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Luo, Zijiang [School of Education Administration, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang 550025 (China); Zhao, Zhen; Zhou, Haiyue [College of Big Data and Information Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Ding, Zhao, E-mail: zding@gzu.edu.cn [College of Big Data and Information Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • STM study on the change of AlGaAs surface morphology with varying annealing conditions. • Interesting phenomenon that the subsequent sample has more surface roughness than the previous samples do. A physical model was proposed to explain why the multi-runs growth can increase surface roughness. • The annealing conditions of AlGaAs/GaAs surface were proposed. - Abstract: The influence of annealing temperature, As{sub 4} beam equivalent pressure and multi-runs growth on AlGaAs/GaAs structures was investigated. The real space ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy images showed that AlGaAs/GaAs surface morphology greatly depends on annealing conditions and initial state of surface. The reasons of the surface phenomenon are proposed, and a physical model was proposed to explain why the multi-runs growth structures can increase AlGaAs surface roughness. The reasonable preparation conditions for AlGaAs/GaAs structures were proposed.

  1. Multiscale analysis of surface morphologies by curvelet and contourlet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Linfu; Zhang, Xiangchao; Zhang, Hao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min

    2015-01-01

    The surface topographies of precision components are critical to their functionalities. However, it is challenging to characterize the topographies of complex surfaces, especially for structured surfaces. The wavelet families are promising for the multiscale geometry analysis of nonstochastic surfaces. The second-generation curvelet transform provides a sparse representation and good multiscale decomposition for curve singularities. However, the contourlet expansion, composed of bases oriented along various directions in multiple scales with smaller redundancy rates, has a remarkable capability of representing borderlines. In this paper they are both adopted for the characterization of surface topographies. Different components can be extracted according to their scales and morphological characteristics; as a result, the corresponding manufacturing processes and functionalities can be analyzed specifically. Numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the capabilities of these methods in sparse representation and effective extraction of geometry features of different nonstochastic surfaces. (paper)

  2. Helium effects on tungsten surface morphology and deuterium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Y.; Peng, H.Y.; Lee, H.T.; Ohno, N.; Kajita, S.; Yoshida, N.; Doerner, R.; De Temmerman, G.; Alimov, V.; Wright, G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental results on tungsten surface morphology, especially nano-structure (fuzz), induced by helium plasma exposure at temperatures between 1000 K and 2000 K are reviewed. This structure was firstly reported in 2006. In this review, most of experimental results reported so far including characteristics and formation conditions of the nano-structure in both linear plasma devices and magnetic confinement devices, erosion and arcing by steady-state plasma exposure and ELM-like pulsed heat or pulsed plasma exposure by a laser and a plasma gun are summarized. In addition, He effects on D retention under simultaneous D/He irradiation on tungsten are presented

  3. Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery

  4. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...

  5. Effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K. J., E-mail: gd130056@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Wahab, M. A. A., E-mail: cd110006@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Mahmod, S., E-mail: cd110201@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Idris, M. I., E-mail: izwana@uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Alkali and heat treatments were first introduced by Kim et al. to prepare a bioactive surface on titanium. This method has been proven very effective and widely used in other studies to promote titanium osteointegration. This study aims to investigate further the effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of high purity titanium. High purity titanium foils were immersed in NaOH aqueous solutions of 0.5 M, 5 M and 15 M at 60°C and 80 °C for 1, 3 and 7 days. The surface morphology was examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The obtained phases were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the spectra range of 4000-600 cm{sup −1} at 4 cm{sup −1} resolution and 50 scans. At the same soaking temperature and soaking time, a thicker porous network was observed with increasing concentration of NaOH. At the same soaking temperature, a much porous structure was observed with increasing soaking time. At constant alkali concentration, more homogenously distributed porous surface structure was observed with increasing soaking temperature.

  6. Porous silicon nanoparticles for target drag delivery: structure and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spivak, Yu M; Belorus, A O; Somov, P A; Bespalova, K A; Moshnikov, V A; Tulenin, S S

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles of porous silicon were obtained by electrochemical anodic etching. Morphology and structure of the particles was investigated by means dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of technological conditions of preparation on geometrical parameters of the porous silicon particles (particle size distribution, pore shape and size, the specific surface area of the porous silicon) is discussed. (paper)

  7. Structure, morphology and cell affinity of poly(L-lactide) films surface-functionalized with chitosan nanofibers via a solid–liquid phase separation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jianhao, E-mail: jhzhao@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Han, Wanqing; Tang, Minjian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liang, Zhihong [Analytical and Testing Center, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, Changren [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Poly(L-lactide) films with a nano-structured surface by immobilizing chitosan nanofibers (CSNFs) for improving the cell affinity were fabricated via a solid-liquid phase separation technique. The successful grafting of CSNFs on the surface of poly(L-lactide) films was confirmed by the binding energy of N1s at 398.0 eV in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the amide I and II bands of chitosan at 1650 and 1568 cm{sup −1} in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compared with the poly(L-lactide) film, the hydrophilicity was improved with a lower water contact angle of 83.3 ± 1.9° and 75.3 ± 2.5° for the CSNFs-grafted and CSNFs-grafted/anchored poly(L-lactide) films respectively. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses showed that the grafted CSNFs with 50–500 nm in diameter were randomly arranged on the film surface and entangled with the anchored CSNFs on the outermost layer. The 3T3 fibroblasts culture indicated cells tended to attach and stretch along the CSNFs on the film surface. The cell viability measurement revealed that among all the samples, the film with both grafted and anchored CSNFs exhibited the highest cell proliferation rate that was twice as much of the poly(L-lactide) film at 7 d. Herein, engineering a nano-structured surface by solid–liquid phase separation will be a promising tool for surface modification of biomaterials. Highlights: ► A surface nano-structured poly(L-lactide) film with chitosan nanofibers was prepared. ► Grafted and anchored chitosan nanofibers were obtained by different treatment ways. ► Hydrophilicity was improved by immobilizing chitosan nanofibers on the film surface. ► Cell viability was enhanced on modified poly(L-lactide) film with chitosan nanofibers. ► Cells tended to attach and stretch along chitosan nanofibers on the film surface.

  8. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E.; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10 -4 Pa to 10 2 Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  9. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.escribano.salazar@gmail.co [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2010-04-02

    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  10. Investigation of structural, surface morphological, optical properties and first-principles study on electronic and magnetic properties of (Ce, Fe)-co doped ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arul Mary, J.; Judith Vijaya, J.; Bououdina, M.; John Kennedy, L.; Daie, J.H.; Song, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of ((Zn 1−2x Ce x Fe x ) O (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05)) nanoparticles via microwave combustion by using urea as a fuel. To understand how the dopant influenced the structural, magnetic and optical properties of nanoparticles, it was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The stability and magnetic properties of Ce and Fe co-doped ZnO were probed by first principle calculations. From the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the samples are identified with the wurtzite crystal structure. The change in lattice parameters, micro-strain, and a small shift in XRD peaks confirms the substitution of co dopants into the ZnO lattice. Morphological investigation of the products revealed the existence of irregular shapes, such as spherical, spherodial and hexagonal. DRS measurements showed a decrease in the energy gap with increasing dopants contents, probably due to an increase in the lattice parameters. PL spectra consist of visible emission, due to the electronic defects, which are related to deep level emissions, such as oxide antisite (O Zn ), interstitial zinc (Zn i ), interstitial oxygen (O i ) and zinc vacancy (V Zn ). Magnetic measurements showed a ferromagnetic behavior for all the doped samples at room temperature. The first principle calculation results showed that the Ce governs the stability, while the Fe adjusts the magnetic characteristics in the Ce and Fe co-doped ZnO

  11. Investigation of structural, surface morphological, optical properties and first-principles study on electronic and magnetic properties of (Ce, Fe)-co doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arul Mary, J. [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); Judith Vijaya, J., E-mail: jjvijayaloyola@yahoo.co.in [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); Bououdina, M. [Departments of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); John Kennedy, L. [Materials Division, School of Advanced Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) University, Chennai Campus, Chennai 600 127 (India); Daie, J.H.; Song, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 2 West Wenhua Road, Weiahi 264209 (China)

    2015-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of ((Zn{sub 1−2x}Ce{sub x}Fe{sub x}) O (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05)) nanoparticles via microwave combustion by using urea as a fuel. To understand how the dopant influenced the structural, magnetic and optical properties of nanoparticles, it was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The stability and magnetic properties of Ce and Fe co-doped ZnO were probed by first principle calculations. From the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the samples are identified with the wurtzite crystal structure. The change in lattice parameters, micro-strain, and a small shift in XRD peaks confirms the substitution of co dopants into the ZnO lattice. Morphological investigation of the products revealed the existence of irregular shapes, such as spherical, spherodial and hexagonal. DRS measurements showed a decrease in the energy gap with increasing dopants contents, probably due to an increase in the lattice parameters. PL spectra consist of visible emission, due to the electronic defects, which are related to deep level emissions, such as oxide antisite (O{sub Zn}), interstitial zinc (Zn{sub i}), interstitial oxygen (O{sub i}) and zinc vacancy (V{sub Zn}). Magnetic measurements showed a ferromagnetic behavior for all the doped samples at room temperature. The first principle calculation results showed that the Ce governs the stability, while the Fe adjusts the magnetic characteristics in the Ce and Fe co-doped ZnO.

  12. Surface morphology of laser superheated Pb(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.H.; Lin, B.; Elsayed-Ali, H.E.

    1999-11-01

    The change in the surface vacancy density after heating of Pb(100) with {approximately}100 ps laser pulses is investigated using reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The surface vacancy density remains unchanged when the surface is superheated without melting. However, when the laser fluence is high enough to cause surface melting, the surface vacancy density increases. This increase in vacancy density is attributed to fast diffusion of atoms in the liquid film formed on Pb(100) during laser melting.

  13. Soft electronic structure modulation of surface (thin-film) and bulk (ceramics) morphologies of TiO{sub 2}-host by Pb-implantation: XPS-and-DFT characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatsepin, D.A. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Boukhvalov, D.W., E-mail: danil@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics Department, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, N.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A.F. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Shur, V.Ya.; Esin, A.A. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 51 Lenin Ave, 620000 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kim, S.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kurmaev, E.Z. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Experiment and theory demonstrate significant difference between patterns of Pb-ion implantation in TiO{sub 2}. • In bulk TiO{sub 2} Pb-impurities leads formation of PbO phase. • On the surface of TiO{sub 2}:Pb occur formation of PbxOy configurations. • In both bulk and surface TiO{sub 2}:Pb occur decreasing of the bandgap by shift of valence band about 1 eV up. - Abstract: The results of combined experimental and theoretical study of substitutional and clustering effects in the structure of Pb-doped TiO{sub 2}-hosts (bulk ceramics and thin-film morphologies) are presented. Pb-doping of the bulk and thin-film titanium dioxide was made with the help of pulsed ion-implantation without posterior tempering (Electronic Structure Modulation Mode). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) qualification of core-levels and valence bands and Density-Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were employed in order to study the yielded electronic structure of Pb-ion modulated TiO{sub 2} host-matrices. The combined XPS-and-DFT analysis has agreed definitely with the scenario of the implantation stimulated appearance of PbO-like structures in the bulk morphology of TiO{sub 2}:Pb, whereas in thin-film morphology the PbO{sub 2}-like structure becomes dominating, essentially contributing weak O/Pb bonding (Pb{sub x}O{sub y} defect clusters). The crucial role of the oxygen hollow-type vacancies for the process of Pb-impurity “insertion” into the structure of bulk TiO{sub 2} was pointed out employing DFT-based theoretical background. Both experiment and theory established clearly the final electronic structure re-arrangement of the bulk and thin-film morphologies of TiO{sub 2} because of the Pb-modulated deformation and shift of the initial Valence Base-Band Width about 1 eV up.

  14. Spatial and temporal changes in the morphology of preosteoblastic cells seeded on microstructured tantalum surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Lorentzen, M.; Andersen, L. K.

    2009-01-01

    It has been widely reported that surface morphology on the micrometer scale affects cell function as well as cell shape. In this study, we have systematically compared the influence of 13 topographically micropatterned tantalum surfaces on the temporal development of morphology, including spreading......, and length of preosteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1). Cells were examined after 0.5, 1, 4, and 24 h on different Ta microstructures with vertical dimensions (heights) of 0.25 and 1.6 mu m. Cell morphologies depended upon the underlying Surface topography, and the length and spreading of cells varied as a function...... to depend on the distance between the pillars with one specific pillar Structure exhibiting a decreased spreading combined with a radical change in morphology of the cells. Interestingly, this morphology on the particular pillar structure was associated with a markedly different distribution of the actio...

  15. Fracture Surface Morphology Under Ductile Tearing of Metal Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacar, Muhammet F.; Tekoglu, Cihan; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2017-01-01

    The present work takes as offset the hypothesis that microstructural parameters, related to particle size and distribution, govern the transition between crack surface morphologies observed in experiments. The key question is; why does tearing of a given metal plate leave a specific morphology...

  16. Mechanism of action of pefloxacin on surface morphology, DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work-group

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... Morphological alterations on the cell surface of the K. aerogenes was shown by scanning electron microscopy ... against Gram-negative bacteria involved in UTI, the ..... chromosome: possibility of two levels of action. Proc.

  17. Structural, Surface Morphology and Optical Properties of ZnS Films by Chemical Bath Deposition at Various Zn/S Molar Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Peng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ZnS thin films were prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition at various Zn/S molar ratios from 1/50 to 1/150. The effects of Zn/S molar ratio in precursor on the characteristics of ZnS films were demonstrated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical transmittance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. It was found that more voids were formed in the ZnS film prepared using the precursor with Zn/S molar ratio of 1/50, and the other ZnS films showed the denser structure as the molar ratio was decreased from 1/75 to 1/150. From the analyses of chemical bonding states, the ZnS phase was indeed formed in these films. Moreover, the ZnO and Zn(OH2 also appeared due to the water absorption on film surface during deposition. This would be helpful to the junction in cell device. With changing the Zn/S molar ratio from 1/75 to 1/150, the ZnS films demonstrate high transmittance of 75–88% in the visible region, indicating the films are potentially useful in photovoltaic applications.

  18. Surface morphology of laser superheated Pb(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. H.; Lin, Bo; Zeng, X. L.; Elsayed-Ali, H. E.

    1998-05-01

    The step density on the vicinal Pb(111) surface after laser superheating and melting is investigated using reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The (00) beam profiles parallel and perpendicular to the incident beam are analyzed. For laser heating with ˜100 ps laser pulses, surface superheating does not significantly change the density of the steps and step edge roughness. A sudden increase in the average terrace width is observed after laser surface melting. The average terrace width and the string length at the step edge become as large as those at room temperature. The average terrace width at 573 K changes from 38±15 to 64±19 Å after laser surface melting, while the average string length at the step edge changes from 50±12 to 250±38 Å.

  19. The effect of Ce doping on the structure, surface morphology and magnetic properties of Dy doped-yttrium iron garnet films prepared by a sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsad, A.Z.; Ibrahim, N.B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my

    2016-07-15

    Cerium substitute Y{sub 2.8−x}Dy{sub 0.2}Ce{sub x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x=0, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35) films have been prepared on quartz substrates by a simple sol–gel method and followed by a spin-coating technique. The crystalline structures, surface and magnetic properties of the films has been investigated by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD analysis revealed that the films have garnet structure. The lattice parameter increased as Ce content was increased up to 0.25 due to the Ce{sup 3+} ions completely substituted for Y{sup 3+} ions. For films x≥0.3, the lattice parameter decreased. The FESEM results showed that the average grains were small, ranging from 11 to 14 nm and the thickness of films increased with the increment of Ce contents. VSM results for both in and out-plane magnetic measurement showed the film with x=0 has the highest saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) values. With the increment of Ce contents, the M{sub s} of films decreased due to the substitution of Ce{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} ions in the c-site. For films x≥0.3 the reduction of M{sub s} values was due to the presence of CeO{sub 2} in the film. The films with x=0–0.25 exhibited increases in H{sub c} values. The improvement of coercivity value, small grain size and high crystalline structure of film with x=0.25 has a potential to be used in magneto optical (MO) memory storage applications. - Highlights: • Ce-doped Y{sub 2.8−x}Dy{sub 0.2}Ce{sub x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were prepared by the sol–gel method. • The solubility limit of Ce{sup 3+} ions in the film was x=0.25. • The average grain size ranging from 11 to 14 nm with the increment of Ce doping. • Increasing Ce contents degrades the saturation of magnetization of films. • Increasing Ce contents improve the coercivity of films.

  20. Lunar floor-fractured craters: Modes of dike and sill emplacement and implications of gas production and intrusion cooling on surface morphology and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar floor-fractured craters (FFCs) represent the surface manifestation of a class of shallow crustal intrusions in which magma-filled cracks (dikes) rising to the surface from great depth encounter contrasts in host rock lithology (breccia lens, rigid solidified melt sheet) and intrude laterally to form a sill, laccolith or bysmalith, thereby uplifting and deforming the crater floor. Recent developments in the knowledge of lunar crustal thickness and density structure have enabled important revisions to models of the generation, ascent and eruption of magma, and new knowledge about the presence and behavior of magmatic volatiles has provided additional perspectives on shallow intrusion processes in FFCs. We use these new data to assess the processes that occur during dike and sill emplacement with particular emphasis on tracking the fate and migration of volatiles and their relation to candidate venting processes. FFCs result when dikes are capable of intruding close to the surface, but fail to erupt because of the substructure of their host impact craters, and instead intrude laterally after encountering a boundary where an increase in ductility (base of breccia lens) or rigidity (base of solidified melt sheet) occurs. Magma in dikes approaching the lunar surface experiences increasingly lower overburden pressures: this enhances CO gas formation and brings the magma into the realm of the low pressure release of H2O and sulfur compounds, both factors adding volatiles to those already collected in the rising low-pressure part of the dike tip. High magma rise velocity is driven by the positive buoyancy of the magma in the part of the dike remaining in the mantle. The dike tip overshoots the interface and the consequent excess pressure at the interface drives the horizontal flow of magma to form the intrusion and raise the crater floor. If sill intrusion were controlled by the physical properties at the base of the melt sheet, dikes would be required to approach to

  1. Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

    1999-11-13

    This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

  2. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    -life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition...... of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types...

  3. Morphology and Structures of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mira; Ann, HongBae

    2015-08-01

    We performed an analysis of the structure of nearby dwarf galaxies based on a 2-dimensional decomposition of galaxy images using GALFIT. The present sample consists of ~1,100 dwarf galaxies with redshift less than z = 0.01, which is is derived from the morphology catalog of the Visually classified galaxies in the local universe (Ann, Seo, and Ha 2015). In this catalog, dwarf galaxies are divided into 5 subtypes: dS0, dE, dSph, dEbc, dEblue with distinction of the presence of nucleation in dE, dSph, and dS0. We found that dSph and dEblue galaxies are fainter than other subtypes of dwarf galaxies. In most cases, single component, represented by the Sersic profile with n=1~1.5, well describes the luminosity distribution of dwarf galaxies in the present sample. However, a significant fraction of dS0, dEbc, and dEbue galaxies show sub-structures such as spiral arms and rings. We will discuss the morphology dependent evolutionary history of the local dwarf galaxies.

  4. Surface morphology of chitin highly related with the isolated body part of butterfly (Argynnis pandora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bitim, Betül; Mujtaba, Muhammad; Koyuncu, Turgay

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to understand the differences in the physicochemical properties of chitin samples isolated from the wings and the other body parts except the wings (OBP) of a butterfly species (Argynnis pandora). The same isolation method was used for obtaining chitin specimens from both types of body parts. The chitin content of the wings (22%) was recorded as being much higher than the OBP (8%). The extracted chitin samples were characterized via FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM, and elemental analysis techniques. Results of these characterizations revealed that the chitins from both structures (wings and OBP) were very similar, except for their surface morphologies. SEM results demonstrated one type of surface morphology for the wings and four different surface morphologies for the OBP. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the surface morphology of the chitin is highly related with the body part. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of impurities on the surface morphology of the TIBr crystal semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Robinson A. dos; Silva, Julio B. Rodrigues da; Martins, Joao F.T.; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Costa, Fabio E. da; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2013-01-01

    The impurity effect in the surface morphology quality of TlBr crystals was evaluated, aiming a future application of these crystals as room temperature radiation semiconductor detectors. The crystals were purified and grown by the Repeated Bridgman technique. Systematic measurements were carried out for determining the stoichiometry, structure orientation, surface morphology and impurity of the crystal. A significant difference in the crystals impurity concentration was observed for almost all impurities, compared to those found in the raw material. The crystals wafer grown twice showed a surface roughness and grains which may be due to the presence of impurities on the surface, while those obtained with crystals grown three times presented a more uniform surface: even though, a smaller roughness was still observed. It was demonstrated that the impurities affect strongly the surface morphology quality of crystals. (author)

  6. Surface structure and morphology of Cu-free and Cu-covered Au(100) and Au(111) electrodes in alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaup, Christian [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, Fysikvey, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Friebel, Daniel [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Wandelt, Klaus [University of Bonn, Institute for Physical und Theoretical Chemistry, Wegelerstr. 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For both Cu-free Au-electrodes three different phases were observed as a function of the applied electrode potential. While at low potentials the onset of surface reconstruction points towards an apparently adsorbate free surface and, thus, a weak interaction with species from the electrolyte, a Au-hydroxide and a Au-oxide phase are formed subsequently during potential increase. A similar phase behavior was also found for Cu-covered Au-electrodes, while at low potentials an apparently adsorbate free Cu layer is observed, a Cu-hydroxide coadsorbate phase and a Cu-oxide phase are formed under increased potential conditions. In addition the apparently adsorbate free Cu-film tends to form a Cu-Au alloy phase while keeping the electrode for a sufficient long time at low potential conditions.

  7. Simultaneous formation of multiscale hierarchical surface morphologies through sequential wrinkling and folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Qingyang; Xiao, Jianliang

    2018-02-01

    Highly organized hierarchical surface morphologies possess various intriguing properties that could find important potential applications. In this paper, we demonstrate a facile approach to simultaneously form multiscale hierarchical surface morphologies through sequential wrinkling. This method combines surface wrinkling induced by thermal expansion and mechanical strain on a three-layer structure composed of an aluminum film, a hard Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film, and a soft PDMS substrate. Deposition of the aluminum film on hard PDMS induces biaxial wrinkling due to thermal expansion mismatch, and recovering the prestrain in the soft PDMS substrate leads to wrinkling of the hard PDMS film. In total, three orders of wrinkling patterns form in this process, with wavelength and amplitude spanning 3 orders of magnitude in length scale. By increasing the prestrain in the soft PDMS substrate, a hierarchical wrinkling-folding structure was also obtained. This approach can be easily extended to other thin films for fabrication of multiscale hierarchical surface morphologies with potential applications in different areas.

  8. Cell behavior on microparticles with different surface morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Fu Xiaobing

    2010-01-01

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the cell aggregation to the site of the defect for tissue regeneration. To develop favorable microparticles for cell delivery application, we fabricated and evaluated three types of microparticles that differ in surface properties. The microparticles with varied surface morphology (smooth, pitted and multicavity) were created from chemically crosslinked gelatin particles that underwent various drying treatments. Three types of microparticles were characterized and assessed in terms of the cell behavior of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts seeded on them. The cells could attach, spread and proliferate on all types of microparticles but spread and populated more slowly on the microparticles with smooth surfaces than on those with pitted or multicavity surfaces. Microparticles with a multicavity surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment and growth rate. Furthermore, cells tested on microparticles with a multicavity surface exhibited better morphology and induced the earlier formation of extracellular-based cell-microparticle aggregation than those on microparticles with other surface morphology (smooth and pitted). Thus, microparticles with a multicavity surface show promise for attachment and proliferation of cells in tissue engineering.

  9. Surface topography and morphology characterization of PIII irradiated silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Satinder K.; Barthwal, Sumit

    2008-01-01

    The effect of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment on silicon surfaces was investigated by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. The surface damage was given by the implantation of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and argon ions using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source at low pressure. AFM studies show that surface topography of the PIII treated silicon wafers depend on the physical and chemical nature of the implanted species. Micro-Raman spectra indicate that the significant reduction of intensity of Raman peak after PIII treatment. Plasma immersion ion implantation is a non-line-of-sight ion implantation method, which allows 3D treatment of materials. Therefore, PIII based surface modification and plasma immersion ion deposition (PIID) coatings are applied in a wide range of situations.

  10. Crystal structure and thin film morphology of BBL ladder polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, H H [Department of Macromolecular Science, Han Nam University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Fratini, A V [Department of Chemistry, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Chabinyc, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Price, G E [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Agrawal, A K [Systran Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States); Wang, C S [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Burkette, J [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Dudis, D S [Materials Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Arnold, F E [Materials Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Crystal structure and morphology of poly[7-oxo-7H-benz(d,e)imidazo(4`,5`:5,6)-benzimidazo(2,1-a)isoquinoline-3,4:10,11-tetrayl-10-carbonyl] (BBL) ladder-like polymer were studied. The polymer forms a two-dimensional lattice of nematic liquid crystalline structure. An orthorhombic unit cell with cell parameters of a=7.87 b=3.37 c=11.97A was determined from the fiber diffraction pattern. In thin films, the rigid chains spontaneously form a layered structure across the film thickness, but in a very unusual manner, i.e. the very large molecular plane is standing perpendicularly to the film surface plane. The results are identical to our recent results of poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBT) film [7]. The polymer, however, lost its anisotropic order upon extrusion into a film and resulted in a fiber-like structure. (orig.)

  11. The structure and morphology of semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadavanich, Andreas V. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-11-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals were studied using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Organically capped nanocrystals were found to have faceted shapes consistent with Wulff polyhedra after the effects of capping ligands on surface energies were taken into account. The basic shape thus derived for wurtzite (WZ) structure CdSe nanocrystals capped by tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) was a truncated hexagonal prism, elongated alone the <001> axis with (100) and (002) facets. This structure has C{sub 3v} point group symmetry. The main defect in this structure is a stacking fault (a single layer of zinc blende type stacking), which does not significantly affect the shape (does not alter the point group).

  12. STRUCTURE OF MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BODYBUILDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mutavdžić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Today body-building as a spport is well known and accepted world-wide. When scientifi researches on this fi eld are in question, it is evident that they are very rare partly and probably due to its real interpretation as well as due to its insuffi cient affi rmation and popularization here. Reason for this is also the wrong interpretation of the sport’s essence among sports-people – the body-builders themselves and among the experts and scientists from this fi eld. Intrest in the research of morphological sphere of body-builders was inspired by the fact that exercising body-building is a very specifi c physical activity that, due to its nature, demands body-builders to have specifi c morphological characteristics that characterize and differ them from other sports-people. The goal of this research was determining the structure of the morhologicall sphere of a body-builder. It was performed on the sample of 30 selected sportsmen, bodybuilders, of chronological age between 17 and 19 ( 6 months, members of the Sports' Club Strength ''Leskovac'', the Weight Lifters' Club '' Dubočica'' and the Body-building Club '' Dubočica'' from Leskovac. All the examiees have been submitted to training processes during a period longer than a year. For the purpose of determining the structure of the morphological sphere the Factor Analysis has been applied. Based on the data from the matrix of the Factor Structure the isolated factors can be interpreted in the following manner: The fi rst isolated factor in the sphere of applied anthropometric variables can be defi ned as a dimension of the body-volume and the transversal dimensionality of the skeleton sine it’s best defi ned by the following variables: the chest-circumference (AOGKS, the upper-arm circumference (AONAD, the thigh circumference (AOBUT, the body-weight (AMAST and the shoulder-width (ASIRA. The second isolated factor in the sphere of applied anthropometric variables can be defi ned as the

  13. The theory of development of surface morphology by sputter erosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    When a surface is bombarded by an energetic ion flux a rich variety of surface structures are observed to develop at the atomic, microscopic and macroscopic scales. Such structures include elevated, with respect to the surrounding surface, features such as mesas or plateaux, ridges, cones and pyramids and depressed features such as etch pits and cavities. These elementary features may be isolated or in profusion and frequently repetitive patterns of coordinated pyramidal structures, etch pits, surface ledges or facets and ripple or wave-like structures occur. The majority of the features arise rather directly from the erosion action of the sputtering process, particularly from differential erosion processes at different surface localities. The authors outline a general approach to sputter erosion induced surface morphology development based on the concept of the surface as an advancing wave. (Auth.)

  14. Surface morphology of amygdala is associated with trait anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Li

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested a role of amygdala in trait anxiety level, in which amygdala was typically treated as a whole. To date, it remains unknown whether the morphology of specific subregions of amygdala are associated with trait anxiety. Here, we employed a shape analysis approach to locate the association between its morphology and trait anxiety on the surface of amygdala. 24 healthy young participants were included. The boundary of amygdala for each subject was first manually outlined using high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR image, followed by 3D surface reconstruction and parameterization using spherical harmonic description. Two point-wise metrics, direct displacement between the individual surface and atlas surface and its normal projection, were used to quantify the surface morphology of amygdala. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlations between the two surface metrics and trait anxiety levels, which were located around the lateral and central nucleus of right amygdala. Our results provided localized information for the association between amygdala and trait anxiety, and suggested a central role of the lateral and central nucleus of right amygdala on trait anxiety.

  15. Morphology, structure, aggregates of the particulates as generated by the ablation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaly, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of the particulates. Aggregates and surface structures which generated by plasma ablation is investigated. Also the morphology terms for the particles, agglomerates, laser depths on solid surfaces which generated by nanosecond laser ablation are demonstrated.The morphology terms in the present work are described according to the visual appearance of micrographs which taken by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The terms describe what the SEM image looks like but not necessarily what it actually might be or what the material type is . A suggested scientific method to describe the shape, morphology and structure of particulates which apply a surface plot of digital imaging processing (DIP) technique is introduced. The aim of the present work is to develop and extend the data -base of the particle morphology glossary of SEM for the central laboratory of elemental and isotopic analysis at Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority.

  16. Tribological behaviors of UHMWPE composites with different counter surface morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhen; Yin, Zhongwei; Li, Hulin; Gao, Gengyuan

    2017-12-01

    The influence of counter surface morphologies on hybrid glass fiber (GF) and carbon fiber (CF) filled ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were studied under various contact pressure and sliding speed against GCr15 steel in dry condition. The goals were to investigate the tribological behavior of GF/CF/UHMWPE composite as a kind of water lubricated journal bearing material. The friction and wear behavior of composites were examined using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The morphologies of the worn surface were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser 3D micro-imaging and profile measurement. Generally, the wear rate and friction coefficient of composites increase as the increment of counter surface roughness. The friction coefficient increases firstly and then decrease with an increase in sliding speed and contact pressure for counterface with Ra=0.2 and 3.5 μm, while the friction coefficient decreased for counterface with Ra=0.6 μm.

  17. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  18. Effects of hydrogen peroxide bleaching strip gels on dental restorative materials in vitro: surface microhardness and surface morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschner, Heinz; Götz, Hermann; White, Donald J; Kozak, Kathleen M; Zoladz, James R

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of peroxide tooth bleaching, including Crest Whitestrips hydrogen peroxide gel treatments, on the surface hardness and morphology of common dental restorative treatments. American Dental Association (ADA) recommended dental restorative materials, including amalgam, dental gold, porcelain, glass ionomer, and composites, were prepared according to manufacturers' instructions. A cycling treatment methodology was employed which alternated ex vivo human salivary exposures with bleaching treatments under conditions of controlled temperature and durations of treatment. Bleaching treatments included commercial Crest Whitestrips bleaching gels, which utilize hydrogen peroxide as the in situ bleaching source, and several commercial carbamide peroxide bleaching gels. Control treatments included placebo gels and an untreated group. Crest Whitestrips bleaching included treatment exposures simulating recommended clinical exposures (14 hours), along with excess bleaching simulating exposure to five times suggested Crest Whitestrips use. At the conclusion of treatments, surface microhardness measures and surface morphological assessments with standard and variable pressure (VP-) SEMs were conducted to assess the effects of bleaching exposure on the surface morphology and structural integrity of the restoratives. Surface microhardness and SEM measures revealed no significant deleterious effects on the restoration surfaces from Whitestrips gels. These results confirm that tooth bleaching from the selected commercial hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide bleaching systems does not produce changes in surface morphology or microhardness of common dental restorative materials. These results support the clinical safety of the selected commercial bleaching systems to the oral environment, matching results obtained from long-term use of these ingredients applied in dental offices and available in commercial formulations.

  19. An expert system to characterize the surface morphological properties according to their functionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigerelle, M; Mathia, T; Iost, A; Correvits, T; Anselme, K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new methodology to characterize the morphological properties of a surface in relation with its functionality (tribological properties, surface coating adhesion, brightness, wettability...). We create a software based on experimental design and surface profile recording. Using an appropriate database structure, the roughness parameters are automatically computed at different scales. The surface files are saved in a hard disk directory and roughness parameters are computed at different scales. Finally, a statistical analysis system proposes the roughness parameter (or the pair of roughness parameters) that better describe(s) the functionality of the surface and the spatial scales at which the parameter(s) is (are) the more relevant.

  20. An expert system to characterize the surface morphological properties according to their functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigerelle, M [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 6253, UTC/CNRS, UTC Centre de Recherches de Royallieu BP 20529, 60205 Compiegne France stol BS1 6BE (United Kingdom); Mathia, T [Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systemes, UMR 5513, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Av Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Iost, A [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, UMR CNRS 8107, Arts et Metiers ParisTech - Lille, 8, boulevard Louis XIV 59046 Lille (France); Correvits, T [Laboratoire de Metrologie. Arts et Metiers ParisTech, ENSAM, 8 boulevard Louis XIV, 59046 LILLE Cedex (France); Anselme, K, E-mail: maxence.bigerelle@utc.fr [Institut De Sciences Des Materiaux De Mulhouse, CNRS LRC 7228, 15, rue Jean Starcky, Universite De Haute-Alsace, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France)

    2011-08-19

    In this paper we propose a new methodology to characterize the morphological properties of a surface in relation with its functionality (tribological properties, surface coating adhesion, brightness, wettability...). We create a software based on experimental design and surface profile recording. Using an appropriate database structure, the roughness parameters are automatically computed at different scales. The surface files are saved in a hard disk directory and roughness parameters are computed at different scales. Finally, a statistical analysis system proposes the roughness parameter (or the pair of roughness parameters) that better describe(s) the functionality of the surface and the spatial scales at which the parameter(s) is (are) the more relevant.

  1. Structural and morphological properties of electroceramics for chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche)" data-affiliation=" (Universita' di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche)" >Enrico Traversa

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic materials possess a unique structure consisting of grains, grain boundaries, surfaces and pores, which makes them suitable for chemical sensors. The control of the chemical composition and microstructure of electrochemicals is fundamental for controlling their properties. Ceramics with a given composition and microstructure can be produced by controlling the different steps of their processing. The chemical processing of ceramics offer many advantages in terms of control and reproducibility, with respect to the conventional ceramics processing. Results are reported about the chemical processing of perovskite-type oxides for gas sensors and about the novel humidity-sensitive electrical properties of sol-gel processed alkali-doped titania films. The structural and morphological characterization of these materials permits the understanding of the sensitive electrical properties of the ceramics (71 refs.)

  2. Structural, optical and morphological studies of undoped and Zn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural, optical and morphological studies of undoped and Zn-doped CdSe QDs via aqueous route synthesis. N THIRUGNANAM D GOVINDARAJAN ... Undoped and Zn-doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were successfully synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. The structural, optical and morphological ...

  3. Investigation of the surface morphology of biocompatible chitosan-based hydrogels and xerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Yulia Yu.; Malinkina, Olga N.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.

    2018-04-01

    Our biocompatible hydrogel systems obtained by the sol-gel technqiue and based on chitosan and silicon polyolates are promising for medical and biological applications. The surface microrelief of these sol-gel materials (hydrogels and xerogels) based on chitosan and silicon tetraglycerolate was explored by AFM and SEM. A significant influence of the component ratio in the mixed system on the morphology and surface profile of the hydrogels and xerogels prepared therefrom was established. An increased content of the structure-forming component (chitosan) in the system was shown to increase the roughness scale of the hydrogel surface and to promote the porosity of the xerogel structure.

  4. Morphological and Phonological Structure in Zulu Reduplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Toni

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides an account of Zulu reduplication within the derivational framework of Distributed Morphology (DM). New Zulu data challenge the idea of reified domains like the D(erivational)-Stem and Macrostem as relevant constituents for reduplication (Downing 1997, Hyman, Inkelas, and Sibanda 2009). Instead, a crucial distinction is…

  5. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang, E-mail: shixianglu@bit.edu.cn; Xu, Wenguo, E-mail: wenguoxu60@bit.edu.cn; Cheng, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and

  6. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang; Xu, Wenguo; Cheng, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH_3COO)_2 concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH_3COO)_2 concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and reversibly switched

  7. Copper ion implantation of polycarbonate matrices: Morphological and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta, V., E-mail: vincenzo.resta@le.infn.it; Quarta, G.; Maruccio, L.; Calcagnile, L.

    2014-07-15

    The implantation of 1 MeV {sup 63}Cu{sup +} ions in polycarbonate (PC) matrices has been carried out in order to evaluate the morphological and structural modifications induced in the polymer as a function of the ion fluence in the range 5 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2} to 1 × 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup −2}. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis reveals a significant roughness increase of the polymer surface only for fluences higher than 5 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2} with the presence of hillock structures which surface density increases with increasing the ion fluence. X-ray Diffraction measurements of PC implanted with fluences in the range between 5 × 10{sup 15} at cm{sup −2} and 5 × 10{sup 16} at cm{sup −2} reveal an increase of the disorder inside the PC matrix, as a consequence of the damaging process induced by the ion irradiation. Evidences about the presence of exotic phase structures ascribed to both cubic Cu{sub 2}O and cubic Cu have been found.

  8. Structural and morphological characterization of fullerite crystals prepared from the vapor phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, M.; Fejdi, P.; Vybornov, M.; Kuzmany, H.

    1993-01-01

    Crystal structure, habits and surface structures of fullerite crystals prepared from vapor phase were characterized by X-ray analysis, interfacial angle measurements and optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study of selected C 60 crystals confirmed the fcc structure at room temperature. The crystal habit is determined by two types of morphological faces, namely {100} and {111}. SEM was used for the observation of thermal etched surfaces. (orig.)

  9. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Asma, E-mail: asmahayat@gcu.edu.pk; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Laser irradiation effects on Si surface have been explored. • An Excimer Laser was used as a source. • SEM analysis was performed to explore surface morphology. • Raman spectroscopy analysis was carried out to find crystallographical alterations. - Abstract: Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} and 4 J/cm{sup 2} resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm{sup 2} under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm{sup 2}, laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly

  10. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser irradiation effects on Si surface have been explored. • An Excimer Laser was used as a source. • SEM analysis was performed to explore surface morphology. • Raman spectroscopy analysis was carried out to find crystallographical alterations. - Abstract: Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm 2 and 4 J/cm 2 resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm 2 under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm 2 , laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly dependent upon the

  11. Structural and morphological characterization of cellulose pulp

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ocwelwang, A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the structure of cellulose is of utmost importance in order to enhance its accessibility and reactivity to chemical processing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasound pretreatment on the structure...

  12. Craterlike structures on the laser cut surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulyatyev, V. B.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of the laser cut surface morphology remain topical. It is related with the fact that the surface roughness is the main index of the cut quality. The present paper deals with the experimental study of the relatively unstudied type of defects on the laser cut surface, dimples, or craters. According to the measurement results, amount of craters per unit of the laser cut surface area rises as the sheet thickness rises. The crater diameter rises together with the sheet thickness and distance from the upper sheet edge. The obtained data permit concluding that the defects like craters are observed predominantly in the case of thick sheets. The results agree with the hypothesis of crater formation as impact structures resulting from the melt drops getting on the cut channel walls upon separation from the cut front by the gas flow.

  13. The morphology of coconut fiber surface under chemical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Wardana, I Nyoman Gede; Pratikto,; Irawan, Yudy Surya

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chemical treatment on the coconut fiber surface morphology. This study is divided into three stages, preparation of materials, treatment and testing of coconut fiber. The first treatment is coconut fiber soaked in a solution of NaOH for 3 hours with concentration, respectively 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. The second treatment is coconut fiber soaked in KMnO4 solution with a concentration of 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1% for 3 hours. The third ...

  14. Finding mesoscale ocean structures with mathematical morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, S.M.; Lybanon, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors introduce a technique to aid in interpreting infrared satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean Gulf Stream region. Present interpretive methods are largely manual, require significant effort, and are highly dependent on the interpreter's skill. The quasiautomated technique is based on mathematical morphology, specifically the image transformations of opening and closing, which are defined in terms of erosion and dilation. The implementation performs successive openings and closings at increasing thresholds until a stable division into objects and background is found. This method finds the North Wall of the Gulf Stream in approximately the same place as human analysts and another automated procedure, and does less smoothing of small irregularities than the other two methods. The North Wall is continuous and sharp except where obscured by clouds. Performance in locating warm-core eddies is also comparable to the other methods. However, the present procedure does not find cold-core rings well. The authors are presently investigating ways to reduce the effects of clouds and delete the unwanted water areas found by the method. They expect to be able to improve the cold-core eddy performance

  15. Dry Etching of Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films: Effects on Morphology and Surface Stoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Brett

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the evolution of copper phthalocyanine thin films as they are etched with argon plasma. Significant morphological changes occur as a result of the ion bombardment; a planar surface quickly becomes an array of nanopillars which are less than 20 nm in diameter. The changes in morphology are independent of plasma power, which controls the etch rate only. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that surface concentrations of copper and oxygen increase with etch time, while carbon and nitrogen are depleted. Despite these changes in surface stoichiometry, we observe no effect on the work function. The absorbance and X-ray diffraction spectra show no changes other than the peaks diminishing with etch time. These findings have important implications for organic photovoltaic devices which seek nanopillar thin films of metal phthalocyanine materials as an optimal structure.

  16. Modelling and simulation of surface morphology driven by ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yewande, E.O.

    2006-05-02

    Non-equilibrium surfaces, at nanometer length scales, externally driven via bombardment with energetic particles are known to exhibit well ordered patterns with a variety of applications in nano-technology. These patterns emerge at time scales on the order of minutes. Continuum theory has been quite successful in giving a general picture of the processes that interplay to give the observed patterns, as well as how such competition might determine the properties of the nanostructures. However, continuum theoretical descriptions are ideal only in the asymptotic limit. The only other theoretical alternative, which happens to be more suitable for the characteristic length-and time-scales of pattern formation, is Monte Carlo simulation. In this thesis, surface morphology is studied using discrete solid-on-solid Monte Carlo models of sputtering and surface diffusion. The simulations are performed in the context of the continuum theories and experiments. In agreement with the experiments, the ripples coarsen with time and the ripple velocity exhibits a power-law behaviour with the ripple wavelength, in addition, the exponent was found to depend on the simulation temperature, which suggests future experimental studies of flux dependence. Moreover, a detailed exploration of possible topographies, for different sputtering conditions, corresponding to different materials, was performed. And different surface topographies e.g. holes, ripples, and dots, were found at oblique incidence, without sample rotation. With sample rotation no new topography was found, its only role being to destroy any inherent anisotropy in the system. (orig.)

  17. The role of surface morphology in nanocatalyst engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamenkovic, V. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States). Material Science Div.

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated extended polycrystalline platinum (Pt) alloys and PtNi(hkl) and Pt(hkl) single crystalline surfaces for various catalytic reactions. The surfaces were treated in an ultra-high vacuum by sputtering and annealing cycles. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy ion spectroscopy (LEIS), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) techniques were used to characterize the alloys before they were transferred into an electrochemical environment. The study showed that electronic effect was caused by changes in the metallic d-band centre position. Structural effects were caused by surface roughening. The sputtered surfaces formed a Pt-skeleton on the outermost layers as a result of the dissolution of transition metal atoms. A modification of Pt electronic properties altered the adsorption and catalytic properties of the corresponding bimetallic alloy. The most active systems for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were observed in the Pt-skin near-surface formation. 3 refs.

  18. Study of the effect of nano surface morphology on the stain-resistant property of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, S P; Hung, J K; Liu, Y T

    2014-01-01

    In this study, six types of commercially available ceramic tiles, including nano-structured ceramic tiles and regular ceramic tiles, were selected to investigate the effect of surface morphology on their stain-resistant property. The stain-resistant efficiencies of various ceramic tiles with nano-size surface were measured in order to determine the appropriate method for testing ceramic tiles with nano-structure surface

  19. Couple of biomimetic surfaces with different morphologies for remanufacturing nonuniform wear rail surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Haifeng; Feng, Li; Zhang, Peng

    2018-02-01

    In this work, biomimetic laser treatment was performed on repairing and remanufacturing the nonuniform worn rail surface. The wearing depth distribution of three work regions of a failure rail surface was discussed, and different thickness hardening layers with different microstructure, microhardness and wear resistances were detected from the worm surfaces. Varying wear resistances of the surfaces with different biomimetic morphologies were obtained by biomimetic laser treatments, and the corresponding effect on the lubrication sliding wear of treated and untreated surfaces were studied for comparative study. In addition, the relationship between wear resistance and the spacing of units was also provided, which can lay the important theoretical foundation for avoiding the wear resistance of the serious worn surface is less than that of the slight worn surface in the future practical applications.

  20. Understanding of the correlation between work function and surface morphology of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Mingshan; Wang, Wenfeng; Wang, Fajun; Ou, Junfei; Li, Changquan; Li, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The inherent correlation between the work function and surface morphology was focused on. •The change of the work function of metals and alloys as a function of surface roughness was investigated by scanning Kelvin probe. •The lightning rod effect was used to describe the electron transport at a rough surface. -- Abstract: The relationships between material behaviors and its structures are extremely complicated, and the understanding of these relationships is of much significance for revealing the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of various materials. In this study, the change of the work function (WF) of metals and alloys as a function of surface roughness was investigated by scanning Kelvin probe, with the aim of understanding the inherent correlation between the WF and surface morphology using a simple and intuitive way. It was demonstrated that at the rough surface of Cu and Ag, the sharp micro/nanostructures induced a lower WF, just as the lightning rod effect providing a direct and fast path for electron transport. While for Al and Mg alloys, the rough surface resulted in an increase of the WF owing to the effect of surface oxide layers, just as the anti-lightning rod effect providing a protected layer to confine the electron transport

  1. Morphology of bottom surfaces of glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, C.; Chiappini, M.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Tabacco, I. E. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Sez. Geofisica; Passerini, A. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2001-02-01

    During three Antarctic summer campaigns (1995/97/99) Radio Echo Sounding (RES) system data from some glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic regions between Victoria Land and George 5. Land were collected. The morphology and structure of the bottom surfaces deduced from the electromagnetic interpretation of echo signal were observed. The bottom surfaces at the ice/water interface show either irregular or flat contours or both. Some ice tongues are nearly perfectly flat, others show clear signs of irregularities while three of them have good regular spaced rippled bottom surfaces. The latter structures are well-evident in the longitudinal traverse of the tongues, whereas the transversal paths do not show the same features. This particular shape of the bottom surfaces related to the ablation process and detachment mechanism could be interesting especially to determine some physical characteristics and the possible fracture points of the ice tongues.

  2. Morphology of bottom surfaces of glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zuccheretti

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available During three Antarctic summer campaigns (1995/97/99 Radio Echo Sounding (RES system data from some glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic regions between Victoria Land and George V Land were collected. The morphology and structure of the bottom surfaces deduced from the electromagnetic interpretation of echo signal were observed. The bottom surfaces at the ice/water interface show either irregular or flat contours or both. Some ice tongues are nearly perfectly flat, others show clear signs of irregularities while three of them have good regular spaced rippled bottom surfaces. The latter structures are well-evident in the longitudinal traverse of the tongues, whereas the transversal paths do not show the same features. This particular shape of the bottom surfaces related to the ablation process and detachment mechanism could be interesting especially to determine some physical characteristics and the possible fracture points of the ice tongues.

  3. Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, M.M.; Issa, Y.M.; Hassib, H.B.; Mohammed, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 μmol L−1 for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01–10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes. PMID:26257944

  4. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... the morphology and fine structure of the ion transporting epithelium ... The general structure of the salt gland of nauplii cultured at 180 g/L disappeared. ...... Wu G, Zhang H, Sun J, Liu F, Ge X, Chen WH, Yu, J, Wang W (2011).

  5. Environmental impact on morphological and anatomical structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological and anatomical structure of Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from two specific locations in one town, depending on environmental conditions, were carried out: anthropogenic Ada Huja (polluted zone) and non anthropogenic Topcider park (unpolluted). Study included the diferences in the structure of leaves, ...

  6. Surface morphology of polyethylene glycol films produced by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE): Dependence on substrate temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, K.; Czuba, P.; Toftmann, B.

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of the surface morphology on the substrate temperature during film deposition was investigated for polyethylene glycol (PEG) films by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The surface structure was studied with a combined technique of optical imaging and AFM measurements...

  7. Electrochemical and morphological analyses on the titanium surface modified by shot blasting and anodic oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szesz, Eduardo M., E-mail: eszesz@neoortho.com.br [Neoortho Research Institute, Rua Ângelo Domingos Durigan, 607-Cascatinha, CEP 82025-100 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Pereira, Bruno L., E-mail: brnl7@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Kuromoto, Neide K., E-mail: kuromoto@fisica.ufpr.br [Physics Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Marino, Claudia E.B., E-mail: claudiamarino@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gelson B. de, E-mail: gelsonbs@uepg.br [Physics Department, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84051-510 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Soares, Paulo, E-mail: pa.soares@pucpr.br [Mechanical Engineering Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many surface modification processes have been developed in order to induce the osseointegration on titanium surface and thus to improve the implants' biocompatibility. In this work, Ti surface has been modified by shot blasting followed by anodic oxidation process in order to associate the good surface characteristics of both processes to obtain a rough and porous surface able to promote the titanium surface bioactivity. Commercially pure titanium (grade 2) plates were used on the surface treatments that were as follows: Shot blasting (SB) performed using alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles, and anodic oxidation (AO) using NaOH electrolyte. The morphology, structural changes and the open-circuit potentials (OCP) of the surfaces were analyzed. It can be observed that an increase on the roughness of the blasted surface and a rough and porous surface happens after the AO process. The anodic film produced is thin and followed the blasted surface topography. It can be observed that there are small pores with regular shape covering the entire surface. X-ray diffraction results showed the presence of the anatase and rutile phases on the blasted and anodized surface after heat treatment at 600 °C/1 h. Concerning electrochemical measurements, when the different samples were submitted to open-circuit conditions in a physiological electrolyte, the protective effect increases with the oxidation process due to the oxide layer. When the surface was blasted, the OCP was more negative when compared with the Ti surface without surface treatments. - Highlights: ► A combination of shot blasting and anodic oxidation surface treatments is proposed. ► Both processes produced an increase in roughness compared to the polished surface. ► The combination of processes produced a rough and porous surface. ► Open circuit results show that the protective effect increases with oxidation process. ► The combination of processes presents the better results in this

  8. Interaction of energetic particles with polymer surfaces: surface morphology development and sputtered polymer-fragment ion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The core of this thesis is based on a series of papers that have been published or will soon be published in which the various processes taking place in the energetic particle-polymer surface interaction scene is investigated. Results presented show different developments on polymer surfaces when compared to the vast experimental data on energetic particle-metal surface interactions. The surface morphology development depends on the physical characteristics of the polymer. Sputtering yields of fluoropolymers were several orders higher than the sputtering yields of aliphatic and aromatic polymers. Depending on the chemical nature of the polymer, the surface morphology development was dependent upon the extent of radiation-damage accumulation. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry at low and high resolution was applied to the characterization of sputtered polymer fragment ions. Fragment ions and their intensities were used to identify polymer samples, observe radiation damage accumulation and probe polymer-polymer interface of a polymer-polymer sandwich structure. A model was proposed which attempts to explain the nature of processes involved in the energetic particle-polymer surface interaction region

  9. Nanoscale analysis of the morphology and surface stability of calcium carbonate polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekkal, W.; Zaoui, A.

    2013-04-01

    Under earth surface conditions, in ocean and natural water, calcium carbonate is ubiquitous, forming anhydrous and hydrous minerals. These hydrous phases are of considerable interest for their role as precursors to stable carbonate minerals. Atomistic simulation techniques have been employed here to perform a comprehensive and quantitative study of the structural and energetic stability of dry and hydrous surfaces of calcium carbonate polymorphs using two recently developed forcefields. Results show that the dry forms are prone to ductility; while hydrous phases are found to be brittle. The (001) surface of monohydrocalcite appears to be the most stable (0.99 J/m2) whereas for the ikaite phase, the (001) surface is the most stable. The corresponding value is 0.2 J/m2, i.e. even lower than the surface energy of the Beautiful computed morphology pictures are obtained with Xiao's model and are very similar to the observed SEM images.

  10. Surface diffusion driven morphological instability in free-standing nickel nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alrashid, Ebtihaj; Ye, Dexian [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 842000, Richmond, Virginia 23284-2000 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Metallic nanostructures are thermodynamically unstable due to the excess of energy of large numbers of surface atoms. Morphological instability, such as Rayleigh breakup, sintering, and coalescence, can be observed at a temperature much lower than the bulk melting point of the metal. We study the morphological and crystalline evolution of well-aligned free-standing nickel nanorod arrays at elevated temperatures up to 600 °C. The as-deposited nickel nanorods are faceted with sharp nanotips, which are deformed at annealing temperatures higher than 400 °C due to strong surface diffusion. A mud-crack like pattern is formed in the samples annealed above 400 °C, leading to the generation of interconnected porous structure. Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction reveals the recrystallization of nickel nanocrystals when annealed from 300 to 600 °C.

  11. The structure of stepped surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) as far as multiple scattering effects are concerned, is discussed. The ion fractions of lithium, sodium and potassium scattered from a copper (100) surface have been measured as a function of several experimental parameters. The ratio of the intensities of the single and double scattering peaks observed in ion scattering spectroscopy has been determined and ion scattering spectroscopy applied in the multiple scattering mode is used to determine the structure of a stepped Cu(410) surface. The average relaxation of the (100) terraces of this surface appears to be very small. The adsorption of oxygen on this surface has been studied with LEIS and it is indicated that oxygen absorbs dissociatively. (C.F.)

  12. A facile strategy to design zeolite L crystals with tunable morphology and surface architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupulescu, Alexandra I; Kumar, Manjesh; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2013-05-01

    Tailoring the anisotropic growth rates of materials to achieve desired structural outcomes is a pervasive challenge in synthetic crystallization. Here we discuss a method to selectively control the growth of zeolite crystals, which are used extensively in a wide range of industrial applications. This facile method cooperatively tunes crystal properties, such as morphology and surface architecture, through the use of inexpensive, commercially available chemicals with specificity for binding to crystallographic surfaces and mediating anisotropic growth. We examined over 30 molecules as potential zeolite growth modifiers (ZGMs) of zeolite L (LTL type) crystallization. ZGM efficacy was quantified through a combination of macroscopic (bulk) and microscopic (surface) investigations that identified modifiers capable of dramatically altering the cylindrical morphology of LTL crystals. We demonstrate an ability to tailor properties critical to zeolite performance, such as external porous surface area, crystal shape, and pore length, which can enhance sorbate accessibility to LTL pores, tune the supramolecular organization of guest-host composites, and minimize the diffusion path length, respectively. We report that a synergistic combination of ZGMs and the judicious adjustment of synthesis parameters produce LTL crystals with unique surface features, and a range of length-to-diameter aspect ratios spanning 3 orders of magnitude. A systematic examination of different ZGM structures and molecular compositions (i.e., hydrophobicity and binding moieties) reveal interesting physicochemical properties governing their efficacy and specificity. Results of this study suggest this versatile strategy may prove applicable for a host of framework types to produce unrivaled materials that have eluded more conventional techniques.

  13. Cu hydrotalcite-like compounds: Morphological, structural and microstructural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, D. Rosales [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Av. IPN s/n, Edif. 8, UPALM, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Zeifert, B.H. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Av. IPN s/n, Edif. 8, UPALM, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)]. E-mail: bzeifert@yahoo.com; Garduno, M. Hesiquio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESFM, Av. IPN s/n, Edif. 9, UPALM, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)]. E-mail: miguelhg@esfm.ipn.mx; Blasquez, J. Salmones [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Av. IPN s/n, Edif. 8, UPALM, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jose_salmones@yahoo.com.mx; Serrano, A. Romero [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Av. IPN s/n, Edif. 8, UPALM, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2007-05-31

    Copper containing mixed oxides are widely employed as catalysts for the synthesis of methanol, higher alcohol, hydrocarbons from syngas at low temperature and pressure, and for NiO {sub x} reduction. In this work, a series of Mg-Al-Cu, as hydrotalcite-like compounds (Cu-HTlcs) precursors of mixed oxides were synthesized by direct coprecipitation. The effect of pH, Cu content and mechanical milling on the structure and texture of these materials was investigated. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and BET surface area measurements. The results showed that the materials were nanocrystalline powders. The Cu-HTlcs has a hexagonal unit cell. The a and c parameters increased as a function of the Cu content in both milled and non-milled samples. Crystallite size also increased with Cu content in both cases and smaller for non-milled samples. In contrast, microstrain values were greater for milled samples. BET area decreased with Cu content and showed that materials synthesized were mesoporous type. Mechanical milling did not destroy the morphology of the samples.

  14. Cu hydrotalcite-like compounds: Morphological, structural and microstructural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, D. Rosales; Zeifert, B.H.; Garduno, M. Hesiquio; Blasquez, J. Salmones; Serrano, A. Romero

    2007-01-01

    Copper containing mixed oxides are widely employed as catalysts for the synthesis of methanol, higher alcohol, hydrocarbons from syngas at low temperature and pressure, and for NiO x reduction. In this work, a series of Mg-Al-Cu, as hydrotalcite-like compounds (Cu-HTlcs) precursors of mixed oxides were synthesized by direct coprecipitation. The effect of pH, Cu content and mechanical milling on the structure and texture of these materials was investigated. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and BET surface area measurements. The results showed that the materials were nanocrystalline powders. The Cu-HTlcs has a hexagonal unit cell. The a and c parameters increased as a function of the Cu content in both milled and non-milled samples. Crystallite size also increased with Cu content in both cases and smaller for non-milled samples. In contrast, microstrain values were greater for milled samples. BET area decreased with Cu content and showed that materials synthesized were mesoporous type. Mechanical milling did not destroy the morphology of the samples

  15. Effect of various tooth whitening modalities on microhardness, surface roughness and surface morphology of the enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of four whitening modalities on surface enamel as assessed with microhardness tester, profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter (OTC), dentist dispensed for home use (HW) and in-office (OW) whitening. Do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for microhardness testing at baseline and post-whitening. Following microhardness testing specimens were prepared for SEM observations. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for surface roughness testing at baseline and post-whitening (n = 20 per group). Rank-based Analysis of Covariance was performed to compare microhardness and surface roughness changes. Tests of hypotheses were two-sided with α = 0.05. There was a significant difference in Knoop hardness changes (ΔKHN) among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p whitening modalities-DIY, OTC, HW and OW induced minimal surface morphology changes when observed with SEM. It can be concluded that none of the four whitening modalities adversely affected enamel surface morphology. However, caution should be advised when using a DIY regimen as it may affect enamel microhardness and an OTC product as it has the potential to increase surface roughness.

  16. Multipulse nanosecond laser irradiation of silicon for the investigation of surface morphology and photoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Maryam; Chen, Jun; Ullah, Zaka; Jelani, Mohsan; Tabassum, Aasma; Cheng, Ju; Sun, Yuxiang; Lu, Jian

    2017-12-01

    We irradiate the single crystal boron-doped silicon (Si) with different number of laser pulses at constant fluence (7.5 J cm-2) in ambient air using Nd:YAG laser and examine its surface morphology and photoelectric properties in details. The results obtained from optical micrographs reveal the increase in heat affected zone (HAZ) and melted area of laser irradiated Si with increasing number of laser pulses. The SEM micrographs evidence the formation of various surface morphologies like laser induced periodic surface structures, crater, microcracks, clusters, cavities, pores, trapped bubbles, nucleation sites, micro-bumps, redeposited material and micro- and nano-particles on the surface of irradiated Si. The surface profilometry analysis informs that the depth of crater is increased with increase in number of incident laser pulses. The spectroscopic ellipsometry reveals that the multipulse irradiation of Si changes its optical properties (refractive index and extinction coefficient). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curves of laser irradiated Si show that although the multipulse laser irradiation produces considerable number of surface defects and damages, the electrical properties of Si are well sustained after the multipulse irradiation. The current findings suggest that the multipulse irradiation can be an effective way to tune the optical properties of Si for the fabrication of wide range of optoelectronic devices.

  17. Structure of the moon's surface

    CERN Document Server

    Fielder, Gilbert

    1961-01-01

    Structure of the Moon's Surface aims to assemble and marshal relevant matter, and to produce a largely unprejudiced text which brings lunar studies up to date and stresses the importance of certain features of the Moon which have frequently been disregarded in the past, largely because of lack of knowledge about them. The book contains 14 chapters organized into two parts. Part I reviews and summarizes important physical problems. These include the liberations of the moon; height determinations of points of the moon's surface; the figure of the moon; and the moon's temperature and atmosphere.

  18. Influence of substrate on structural, morphological and optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    differences in crystallite sizes, microstrain and texture coefficient with respect to the employed substrates. The morphology of ... perties of ZnO thin films, the real effect on the structural ... related to the piezoelectric property, which is an impor- tant issue on ..... ceramics (New York: Springer Berlin Heidelberg) 2nd edn. Bai S N ...

  19. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of La1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 7. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of La1−NaMnO3 ( ≤ ) nanoparticles produced by the solution combustion method. C O Ehi-Eromosele B I Ita K O Ajanaku A Edobor-Osoh O Aladesuyi S A Adalikwu F E Ehi- ...

  20. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of La1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 7. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of La1−NaMnO3 ( ≤ ) nanoparticles produced by the solution combustion method. C O Ehi-Eromosele B I Ita K O Ajanaku A Edobor-Osoh O Aladesuyi S A Adalikwu F E Ehi-Eromosele. Volume 38 ...

  1. Organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic structures: design, morphology and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavko, G V; Ishchenko, A A

    2014-01-01

    Main approaches to the design of organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic structures are generalized and systematized. Novel photovoltaic materials based on fullerenes, organic dyes and related compounds, graphene, conjugated polymers and dendrimers are considered. The emphasis is placed on correlations between the chemical structure and properties of materials. The effect of morphology of the photoactive layer on the photovoltaic properties of devices is analyzed. Main methods of optimization of the photovoltaic properties are outlined. The bibliography includes 338 references

  2. Superhydrophobic Polyimide via Ultraviolet Photooxidation: The Evolution of Surface Morphology and Hydrophobicity under Different Ultraviolet Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photooxidation has recently been developed to fabricate superhydrophobic polyimide (PI films in combination with fluoroalkylsilane modification. However, it remains unclear whether the surface morphology and hydrophobicity are sensitive to technical parameters such as UV intensity and radiation environment. Herein, we focus on the effects of UV intensity on PI surface structure and wettability to gain comprehensive understanding and more effective control of this technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM results showed that UV intensity governed the evolutionary pattern of surface morphology: lower UV intensity (5 mW/cm2 facilitated in-plane expansion of dendritic protrusions while stronger UV (10 and 15 mW/cm2 encouraged localized growth of protrusions in a piling-up manner. Surface roughness and hydrophobicity maximized at the intensity of 10 mW/cm2, as a consequence of the slowed horizontal expansion and preferred vertical growth of the protrusions when UV intensity increased. Based on these results, the mechanism that surface micro/nanostructures developed in distinct ways when exposed to different UV intensities was proposed. Though superhydrophobicity (water contact angle larger than 150° can be achieved at UV intensity not less than 10 mW/cm2, higher intensity decreased the effectiveness. Therefore, the UV photooxidation under 10 mW/cm2 for 72 h is recommended to fabricate superhydrophobic PI films.

  3. Assessment of bracket surface morphology and dimensional change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai Devu Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the surface morphology and dimensional stability of the bracket slot at the onset of treatment and after 12 months of intraoral exposure. The study also compared the amount of calcium at the bracket base which indicates enamel loss among the three orthodontic brackets following debonding after 12 months of intraoral exposure. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 60 (0.022” MBT canine brackets. They were divided into three groups: self-ligating, ceramic bracket with metal slot, and stainless steel (SS brackets. The slot dimensions, micromorphologic characteristics of as-received and retrieved brackets were measured with a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM, respectively. The amount of calcium at the bracket base which indicates enamel damage was quantified using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX. Results: The results showed statistically significant alterations (P < 0.05 in the right vertical dimension, internal tie wing width (cervical, right and left depth of the slot (Kruskal–Wallis test. Multiple comparison using Mann–Whitney test showed that ceramic brackets underwent (P < 0.05 minimal alterations in the right vertical dimension, internal tie wing width (cervical, right and left depth of the slot (0.01 mm, −0.003 mm, 0.006 mm, −0.002 mm, respectively when compared with the changes seen in SS and self-ligating brackets. SEM analysis revealed an increase in the surface roughness of ceramic with metal slot brackets and self-ligating bracket showed the least irregularity. The presence of calcium was noted on all evaluated brackets under EDX, but ceramic with metal slot brackets showed a significantly greater amount of enamel loss (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Ceramic brackets were found to be dimensionally stable when compared to SS and self-ligating. Self-ligating bracket showed minimal surface irregularity. Ceramic with metal slot brackets showed a

  4. Effects of surface stability on the morphological transformation of metals and metal oxides as investigated by first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Juan; Gracia, Lourdes; Gouveia, Amanda Fernandes; Ferrer, Mateus Meneghetti; Longo, Elson

    2015-10-09

    Morphology is a key property of materials. Owing to their precise structure and morphology, crystals and nanocrystals provide excellent model systems for joint experimental and theoretical investigations into surface-related properties. Faceted polyhedral crystals and nanocrystals expose well-defined crystallographic planes depending on the synthesis method, which allow for thoughtful investigations into structure-reactivity relationships under practical conditions. This feature article introduces recent work, based on the combined use of experimental findings and first-principles calculations, to provide deeper knowledge of the electronic, structural, and energetic properties controlling the morphology and the transformation mechanisms of different metals and metal oxides: Ag, anatase TiO2, BaZrO3, and α-Ag2WO4. According to the Wulff theorem, the equilibrium shapes of these systems are obtained from the values of their respective surface energies. These investigations are useful to gain further understanding of how to achieve morphological control of complex three-dimensional crystals by tuning the ratio of the surface energy values of the different facets. This strategy allows the prediction of possible morphologies for a crystal and/or nanocrystal by controlling the relative values of surface energies.

  5. Influence of surface morphology and microstructure on performance of CVD tungsten coating under fusion transient thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Youyun, E-mail: lianyy@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jianbao; Feng, Fan [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Lv, Yanwei; Song, Jiupeng [China National R& D Center for Tungsten Technology, Xiamen Tungsten Co. Ltd, 361026 Xiamen (China); Chen, Jiming [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Thick CVD-W coatingswere deposited at a rapid growth rate. • The polished CVD-W coatings have highly textured structure and exhibited a very strong preferred orientation. • The polished CVD tungsten coatings show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings. • The crack formation of the polished CVD-W was almost suppressed at an elevated temperature. - Abstract: Thick tungsten coatings have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a rapid growth rate. A series of tungsten coatings with different thickness and surface morphology were prepared. The surface morphology, microstructure and preferred orientation of the CVD tungsten coatings were investigated. Thermal shock analyses were performed by using an electron beam facility to study the influence of the surface morphology and the microstructure on the thermal shock resistance of the CVD tungsten coatings. Repetitive (100 pulses) ELMs-like thermal shock loads were applied at various temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C with pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1 GW/m{sup 2}. The results of the tests demonstrated that the specific surface morphology and columnar crystal structure of the CVD tungsten have significant influence on the surface cracking threshold and crack propagation of the materials. The CVD tungsten coatings with a polished surface show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings with a rough surface.

  6. Surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN grown on non- and semipolar GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Tim; Hoffmann, Veit; Netzel, Carsten; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus [FBH, Berlin (Germany); Ploch, Simon; Rass, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Berlin (Germany); Schade, Lukas; Schwarz, Ulrich [IAF, Freiburg (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [FBH, Berlin (Germany); Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Recently a number of groups have reported laser diodes in the green spectral range on semi- and nonpolar GaN. Nevertheless the growth process on semipolar surfaces is not well understood. In this study 3.5 {mu} m thick MOVPE grown GaN layers on bulk m-plane, (11 anti 22), (10 anti 12), and (10 anti 11) GaN substrates were investigated. XRD rocking curves exhibit a FWHM of less than 150{sup ''}, indicating excellent crystalline quality. But the surface morphology exhibits hillocks with a height of 1 {mu}m and lateral extension of 150 {mu}m in many cases. Depending on the substrate orientation and the growth temperature different hillock shapes were observed. Morphology and luminescence data point to threading dislocations as formation sources. In QWs the hillock structure is reproduced in the emission intensity and wavelength distribution on (10 anti 11) but not on the m-plane surfaces. The hillocks could be eliminated for the semipolar planes (not for the m-plane) by increasing the reactor pressure and lowering the growth temperature. Hillock free separate confinement laser structures emitting at 405 nm feature a very homogeneous luminescence in micro-PL and show amplified spontaneous emission under high power stripe excitation. Furthermore the In incorporation was found to be highest in QWs on (10 anti 11).

  7. Surface morphology and physical properties of partially melt textured Mn doped Bi-2223

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The samples of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3-xMnxO10+δ (x = 0.0 to 0.30 were prepared by the standard solid-state reaction method. The phase identification characteristics of synthesized (HTSC materials were explored through powder X-ray diffractometer reveals that all the samples crystallize in orthorhombic structure with lattice parameters a = 5.4053 Å, b = 5.4110 Å and c = 37.0642 Å up to Mn concentration of x = 0.30. The critical temperature (Tc measured by standard four probe method has been found to depress from 108 K to 70 K as Mn content (x increases from 0.00 to 0.30. The effects of sintering temperature on the surface morphology of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3-xMnxO10+δ have also been investigated. The surface morphology investigated through scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy (SEM & AFM results that voids are decreasing but grains size increases as the Mn concentration increases besides, nanosphere like structures on the surface of the Mn doped Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3-xMnxO10+δ (Bi-2223 samples.

  8. On the Morphology of the SDS Film on the Surface of Borosilicate Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zih-Yao Shen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant films on solid surfaces have attracted much attention because of their scientific interest and applications, such as surface treatment agent, or for micro- or nano-scale templates for microfluidic devices. In this study, anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solutions with various charged inorganic salts was spread on a glass substrate and dried to form an SDS thin film. Atomic force microscopy (AFM was employed to observe the micro-structure of the SDS thin film. The effects of inorganic salts on the morphology of the SDS film were observed and discussed. The results of experiments demonstrated that pure SDS film formed patterns of long, parallel, highly-ordered stripes. The existence of the inorganic salt disturbed the structure of the SDS film due to the interaction between the cationic ion and the anionic head groups of SDS. The divalent ion has greater electrostatic interaction with anionic head groups than that of the monovalent ion, and causes a gross change in the morphology of the SDS film. The height of the SDS bilayer measured was consistent with the theoretical value, and the addition of the large-sized monovalent ion would lead to lowering the height of the adsorbed structures.

  9. Structural, morphological and optical properties of thermal annealed TiO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zribi, M.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2008-01-01

    Structural, morphological and optical properties of TiO thin films grown by single source thermal evaporation method were studied. The films were annealed from 300 to 520 deg. C in air after evaporation. Qualitative film analysis was performed with X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and optical transmittance and reflectance spectra. A correlation was established between the optical properties, surface roughness and growth morphology of the evaporated TiO thin films. The X-ray diffraction spectra indicated the presence of the TiO 2 phase for the annealing temperature above 400 deg. C

  10. Effect of surface topography and morphology on space charge packets in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanxiang; Wang Yunshan; Sun Qinghua; Wang Ninghua

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is a major kind of internal insulating material. With great progresses of space charge measurement technologies in the last three decades, lots of researches are focused on space charge in PE. The heat pressing and annealing condition of polyethylene affect its morphology obviously. During the heat pressing, the surface of PE forms different surface topographies because of different substrate materials. Surface topography has great relation to the epitaxial crystallization layer and influences the space charge characteristic of PE dramatically. This paper studied the formation process of different surface topographies and their micrographic characters in low density polyethylene (LDPE). pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to measure the space charge distribution of samples with different surface topographies and morphologies in LDPE. The effect of surface topography and morphology to space charge packet were studied. The surface topography has great influence on space charge packet polarity and morphology has influence on both movement speed rate and polarity of space charge packet.

  11. Alterations in archaeological bones thermally treated: structure and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijoan, C.M.; Mansilla, J.; Leboreiro, I.; Lara, V.H.; Bosch, P.

    2004-01-01

    Archaeological bones found close to Mexico city (Tlatelcomila) have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Small Angle X-ray Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. These techniques, which are not conventionally used in archaeological research, provided useful information. The boiled bones were clearly distinguished from grilled bones. The degree of deterioration of the bone structure was quantified through parameters such as gyration radius or fractal dimension. The morphology followed the structural modifications and changes resulting from thermic exposure. (Author) 23 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. A comparative study on surface morphology from the HgI2 semiconductors prepared by different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Joao F.T.; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Santos, Robinson A. dos; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M.

    2013-01-01

    The impurity effect in the surface morphology quality of HgI 2 crystals was evaluated, aiming a future application of these crystals as room temperature radiation semiconductor detector. The crystals were purified and grown by two techniques: (1) physical vapor transport (PVT) and (2) saturated solution from dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) complexes. Systematic measurements were carried out for determining the stoichiometry, structure orientation, surface morphology and impurity of the crystal. The best quality of surface morphology was found for the crystals purified and grown by the PVT technique. Significant decrease in the impurity concentration was found, purifying the crystal by means of two successive growths by the PVT technique, while a Si contamination in the HgI 2 crystal was observed, during its growth by the DMSO method. Thus, for DMSO technique was not possible to identify the peaks of the other trace elements present as impurities in the PVT crystal, due to the high intensity of the Si peak in the DMSO crystal. It was demonstrated the impurities affect significantly the surface morphology quality from the HgI 2 crystal. Key Words: Semiconductor crystal, Radiation detector, Mercury Iodide crystal, surface morphology. (author)

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of potentiometric sensor response: the effect of biomolecules, surface morphology and surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B M; Skylaris, C-K; Green, N G; Shibuta, Y; Sakata, T

    2018-05-10

    The silica-water interface is critical to many modern technologies in chemical engineering and biosensing. One technology used commonly in biosensors, the potentiometric sensor, operates by measuring the changes in electric potential due to changes in the interfacial electric field. Predictive modelling of this response caused by surface binding of biomolecules remains highly challenging. In this work, through the most extensive molecular dynamics simulation of the silica-water interfacial potential and electric field to date, we report a novel prediction and explanation of the effects of nano-morphology on sensor response. Amorphous silica demonstrated a larger potentiometric response than an equivalent crystalline silica model due to increased sodium adsorption, in agreement with experiments showing improved sensor response with nano-texturing. We provide proof-of-concept that molecular dynamics can be used as a complementary tool for potentiometric biosensor response prediction. Effects that are conventionally neglected, such as surface morphology, water polarisation, biomolecule dynamics and finite-size effects, are explicitly modelled.

  14. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SPEEDY RECOVERY OF DAMAGED DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHS USING MULTI STRUCTURE MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jemi Florinabel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A speedy recovery of damaged digitized photographs based on orientation driven multi structure morphology is proposed. The recovery order plays an important factor for human visualization and hence it is guided by the orientation of edges at the surrounding known regions of the missing domain. The image is edge detected by thresholding the image gradient along the eight possible orientations. These eight edge images are represented as eight edge planes. The edge-plane-sliced information is used twice manifold for reconstructing the regions within the missing part, as well as for guiding the integration that follows. The damaged regions are morphologically eroded using the structuring elements of corresponding orientations dictated by the edge-planes. The resultant filled image is obtained using local isotopic driven integration. The novelty of our approach is to explicitly specify the direction of filling herby ensuring ease in convergence in different orientations and then streamlining the process to guarantee complete and natural look. By implementing region-filling through morphological erosion, several pixels instead of one can be restored at every inpainting step, making the method faster than many traditional texture synthesis inpainting algorithms and successfully recovers images with better Peak Signal to Noise ratios even for massive damages.

  16. Reconstruction of surface morphology from coherent scattering of white x-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, Tushar; Pietsch, Ullrich [Solid State Physics Group, University of Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Static speckle experiments were performed using coherent white X-ray radiation from a bending magnet at BESSYII. Semiconductor and polymer surfaces were investigated under incidence condition smaller than the critical angle of total external reflection. The scattering pattern of the sample results from the illumination function modified by the surface roughness. The periodic oscillations are caused by the illumination function whereas other irregular features are associated with sample surface. The speckle map of reflection from a laterally periodic structure like GaAs grating is studied. Under coherent illumination the grating peaks split into speckles because of fluctuations on the sample surface. The surface morphology can be reconstructed using phase retrieval algorithms. In case of 1D problem, these algorithms rarely yield a unique and converging solution. The algorithm is modified to contain additional propagator term and the phase of illumination function in the real space constraint. The modified algorithm converges faster than conventional algorithms. A detailed surface profiles from the real measurements of the sample are reconstructed using this algorithm.

  17. Surface morphology of refractive-index waveguide gratings fabricated in polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Song, Yan-fang; Ma, Lei; Gao, Fang-fang

    2016-09-01

    The characteristic modifications are reported on the surface of polymeric waveguide film in the process of volume- grating fabrication. The light from a mode-locked 76 MHz femtosecond laser with pulse duration of 200 fs and wavelength of 800 nm is focused normal to the surface of the sample. The surface morphology modifications are ascribed to a fact that surface swelling occurs during the process. Periodic micro-structure is inscribed with increasing incident power. The laser-induced swelling threshold on the grating, which is higher than that of two-photon initiated photo-polymerization (TPIP) (8 mW), is verified to be about 20 mW. It is feasible to enhance the surface smoothness of integrated optics devices for further encapsulation. The variation of modulation depth is studied for different values of incident power and scan spacing. Ablation accompanied with surface swelling appears when the power is higher. By optimizing the laser carving parameters, highly efficient grating devices can be fabricated.

  18. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Joginder, E-mail: joginderchauhan82@gmail.com; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (MP), India-474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential −1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ε) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In{sup 3+} and Sb{sup 3+} ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  19. Effect of carbon nanofiber surface morphology on convective heat transfer from cylindrical surface: Synthesis, characterization and heat transfer measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.; Mojet, Barbara; Lefferts, Leonardus; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, heat transfer surface modification is made by layers of carbon nanofiber (CNF) on a 50 μm nickel wire using Thermal chemical vapor deposition process (TCVD). Three different CNF layer morphologies are made, at 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C, to investigate the influence of morphology on

  20. Surface morphology effects on the light-controlled wettability of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khranovskyy, V., E-mail: volkh@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoping University (Sweden); Ekblad, T.; Yakimova, R.; Hultman, L. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoping University (Sweden)

    2012-08-01

    ZnO nanostructures of diverse morphology with shapes of corrals and cabbages as well as open and filled hexagons and sheaves prepared by APMOCVD technique, are investigated with water contact angle (CA) analysis. The as-grown ZnO nanostructures exhibit pure hydrophobic behavior, which is enhanced with the increase of the nanostructure's surface area. The most hydrophobic structures (CA = 124 Degree-Sign ) were found to be the complex nanosheaf, containing both the macro-and nanoscale features. It is concluded that the nanoscale roughness contributes significantly to the hydrophobicity increase. The character of wettability was possible to switch from hydrophobic-to-superhydrophilic state upon ultra violet irradiation. Both the rate and amplitude of the contact angle depend on the characteristic size of nanostructure. The observed effect is explained due to the semiconductor properties of zinc oxide enhanced by increased surface chemistry effect in nanostructures.

  1. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne L Seney

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure.We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate.The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  2. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Marianne L; Kelly, Diane A; Goldman, Bruce D; Sumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G

    2009-10-15

    African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  3. Surface Morphology Diagram for Cylinder-Forming Block Copolymer Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Berry, Brian C.; Yager, Kevin G.; Kim, Sangcheol; Jones, Ronald L.; Satija, Sushil; Pickel, Deanna L.; Douglas, Jack F.; Karim, Alamgir

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effect of annealing temperature (T), film thickness (hf) on the surface morphology of flow coated films of a cylinder forming block copolymer, poly (styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). Surface morphology transitions from a perpendicular to a parallel cylinder orientation with respect to the substrate with increasing hf are observed in these model 'frustrated-interaction' films where the substrate interaction is preferential for one of the blocks (PMMA) and nearly neutral for the other interface (polymer-air). In these films a transition occurs from cylinders oriented parallel to the substrate to a mixed or 'hybrid' state where the two orientations coexist followed by a transition to cylinders oriented perpendicularly to the polymer-air interface for larger hf. The characteristic values of hf defining these surface morphological transitions depend on T and we construct a surface morphology diagram as a function of hf and T. The surface morphology diagram is found to depend on the method of film formation (flow coated versus spun cast films) so non-equilibrium effects evidently have a large effect on the surface pattern morphology. In particular, the residual solvent within the film (quantified by neutron reflectivity measurements) in the context of physics of glass-formation can have a large effect on the surface morphology diagram

  4. Multi-scale characterization of surface blistering morphology of helium irradiated W thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.J.; Zhu, H.L.; Wan, Q.; Peng, M.J.; Ran, G.; Tang, J.; Yang, Y.Y.; Liao, J.L.; Liu, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-scale blistering morphology of He irradiated W film was studied. • This complex morphology was first characterized by wavelet transform approach. - Abstract: Surface blistering morphologies of W thin films irradiated by 30 keV He ion beam were studied quantitatively. It was found that the blistering morphology strongly depends on He fluence. For lower He fluence, the accumulation and growth of He bubbles induce the intrinsic surface blisters with mono-modal size distribution feature. When the He fluence is higher, the film surface morphology exhibits a multi-scale property, including two kinds of surface blisters with different characteristic sizes. In addition to the intrinsic He blisters, film/substrate interface delamination also induces large-sized surface blisters. A strategy based on wavelet transform approach was proposed to distinguish and extract the multi-scale surface blistering morphologies. Then the density, the lateral size and the height of these different blisters were estimated quantitatively, and the effect of He fluence on these geometrical parameters was investigated. Our method could provide a potential tool to describe the irradiation induced surface damage morphology with a multi-scale property

  5. Study of surfaces and morphologies of proteic sol–gel derived barium aluminate nanopowders: An experimental and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, M.V. dos S.; Arrouvel, C.; Parker, S.C.; Rey, J.F.Q.; Valerio, M.E.G.

    2012-01-01

    BaAl 2 O 4 nanoparticles samples were prepared by sol–gel proteic route. The preparation of the precursor mixture and the formation of the ceramic product were monitored using TG/DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The results show that sol–gel proteic route is a reliable method for the synthesis of pure BaAl 2 O 4 powders and that irregular hexagonal facetted nanoparticles are observed. Atomistic modeling was used to calculate the structures and energies of 24 (hkl) surfaces and to evaluate morphologies of BaAl 2 O 4 at the thermodynamic and pseudo-kinetic equilibrium. The calculations show that the two most stable surfaces are the (001) and (011) with a surface energy of 1.33 J m −2 and 1.36 J m −2 respectively and that the predicted morphologies are in accord with experiment. -- Highlights: ► Experimental and atomistic simulation techniques to study surfaces and morphologies of pure hexagonal BaAl 2 O 4 phase. ► The irregular hexagonal facetted nanoparticles are observed. ► The kinetic morphology is elongated with a hexagonal termination. ► The most stable surfaces are the (001) and (011) with a surface energy of 1.33 J m −2 .

  6. Influence of morphology and surface characteristics on the photocatalytic activity of rutile titania nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Manaswita; Guin, Debanjan; Basak, Pratyay; Manorama, Sunkara V.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the synthesis of phase-pure rutile titania with different morphologies via hydrothermal method at significantly low temperatures (40-150 deg. C) without any additives and their application as efficient photocatalyst for environmental remediation. Phase and morphology has been determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ultra violet diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) shows the optical band-gap in the range of ∼2.8-3.1 eV and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area is found to be between 70 and 140 m 2 /g depending on the synthesis conditions. Raman spectroscopic analyses of the samples provide valuable insights into the structural and stoichiometric details. Photodegradation of the pollutant azo-dye, methyl orange (MO) in presence and absence of oxygen was performed to study the photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized materials. Complete photodegradation of the dye is confirmed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) study. Dependence of dye photodegradation rate on morphology, specific surface area, surface nonstoichiometry and acidity were investigated in detail. Catalyst performance was compared from the rate constants obtained for each reaction using non-linear least square fitting (NLSF) to the experimental data in a concentration ratio (C 0 /C t ) versus time (t) plot which shows extraordinarily high activity for all samples compared to commercial reference. Among them the catalyst synthesized at 40 deg. C for 16 h showed best activity. Kinetic study of the reaction matches well with simulated fit to experimental data and confirms to be pseudo-first order reaction

  7. Effects of Surface Morphology ZnAl2O4 of Ceramic Materials on Osteoblastic Cells Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Franco, J.L.; Fernandez-Pedrero, J.A.; Ivarez-Perez, M.A.; Garcia-Hipolito, M.; Surarez-Rosales, M.; Fregoso, O.; Juarez-Islas, J.A.; Ivarez-Perez, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic scaffolds are widely studied in the tissue engineering field due to their potential in medical applications as bone substitutes or as bone-filling materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surface morphology of nano structure thin films of ZnAl 2 O 4 prepared by spray pyrolysis and bulk pellets of polycrystalline ZnAl 2 O 4 prepared by chemical coprecipitation reaction on the in vitro cell adhesion, viability, and cell-material interactions of osteoblastic cells. Our result showed that cell attachment was significantly enhanced from 60 to 80% on the ZnAl 2 O 4 nano structured material surface when compared with bulk ceramic surfaces. Moreover, our results showed that the balance of morphological properties of the thin film nano structure ceramic improves cell-material interaction with enhanced spreading and filopodia with multiple cellular extensions on the surface of the ceramic and enhancing cell viability/proliferation in comparison with bulk ceramic surfaces used as control. Altogether, these results suggest that zinc aluminate nano structured materials have a great potential to be used in dental implant and bone substitute applications.Ceramic scaffolds are widely studied in the tissue engineering field due to their potential in medical applications as bone substitutes or as bone-filling materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surface morphology of nano structure thin films of ZnAl 2 O 4 prepared by spray pyrolysis and bulk pellets of polycrystalline ZnAl 2 O 4 prepared by chemical coprecipitation reaction on the in vitro cell adhesion, viability, and cell-material interactions of osteoblastic cells. Our result showed that cell attachment was significantly enhanced from 60 to 80% on the ZnAl 2 O 4 nano structured material surface when compared with bulk ceramic surfaces. Moreover, our results showed that the balance of morphological properties of the thin film nano structure ceramic improves

  8. Nanoclay-Directed Structure and Morphology in PVDF Electrospun Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunghwan Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of organically modified Lucentite nanoclay dramatically modifies the structure and morphology of the PVDF electrospun fibers. In a molecular level, the nanoclay preferentially stabilizes the all-trans conformation of the polymer chain, promoting an α to β transformation of the crystalline phase. The piezoelectric properties of the β-phase carry great promise for energy harvest applications. At a larger scale, the nanoclay facilitates the formation of highly uniform, bead-free fibers. Such an effect can be attributed to the enhanced conductivity and viscoelasticity of the PVDF-clay suspension. The homogenous distribution of the directionally aligned nanoclays imparts advanced mechanical properties to the nanofibers.

  9. Microstructure and surface morphology of YSZ thin films deposited by e-beam technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laukaitis, G.; Dudonis, J.; Milcius, D.

    2008-01-01

    In present study yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films were deposited on optical quartz (amorphous SiO 2 ), porous Ni-YSZ and crystalline Alloy 600 (Fe-Ni-Cr) substrates using e-beam deposition technique and controlling technological parameters: substrate temperature and electron gun power which influence thin-film deposition mechanism. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to investigate how thin-film structure and surface morphology depend on these parameters. It was found that the crystallite size, roughness and growth mechanism of YSZ thin films are influenced by electron gun power. To clarify the experimental results, YSZ thin-film formation as well evolution of surface roughness at its initial growing stages were analyzed. The evolution of surface roughness could be explained by the processes of surface mobility of adatoms and coalescence of islands. The analysis of these experimental results explain that surface roughness dependence on substrate temperature and electron gun power non-monotonous which could result from diffusivity of adatoms and the amount of atomic clusters in the gas stream of evaporated material

  10. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, Vik S; Kharlamov, V M

    2002-01-01

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p g =q=0 and K 2 =9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem

  11. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, Vik S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kharlamov, V M [Institut de Recherche Matematique Avanee Universite Louis Pasteur et CNRS 7 rue Rene Descartes (France)

    2002-02-28

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p{sub g}=q=0 and K{sup 2}=9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem.

  12. Structural morphology of acoustically levitated and heated nanosilica droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ranganathan; Tijerino, Erick; Saha, Abhishek; Basu, Saptarshi

    2010-01-01

    We study the vaporization and precipitation dynamics of a nanosilica encapsulated water droplet by levitating it acoustically and heating it with a CO 2 laser. For all concentrations, we observe three phases: solvent evaporation, surface agglomeration, and precipitation leading to bowl or ring shaped structures. At higher concentrations, ring reorientation and rotation are seen consistently. The surface temperature from an infrared camera is seen to be dependent on the final geometrical shape of the droplet and its rotation induced by the acoustic field of the levitator. With nonuniform particle distribution, these structures can experience rupture which modifies the droplet rotational speed.

  13. Effects of annealing time on the structure, morphology, and stress of gold–chromium bilayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong; Wang Hu; Huang Hao-Peng; Jin Yun-Xia; Kong Fang-Yu; Cui Yun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a 200-nm-thick gold film with a 10-nm-thick chromium layer used as an adhesive layer is fabricated on fused silica by the electron beam evaporation method. The effects of annealing time at 300 °C on the structure, morphology and stress of the film are studied. We find that chromium could diffuse to the surface of the film by formatting a solid solution with gold during annealing. Meanwhile, chromium is oxidized on the surface and diffused downward along the grain grooves in the gold film. The various operant mechanisms that change the residual stresses of gold films for different annealing times are discussed. (paper)

  14. Effect of oxygen on the surface morphology of CuGaS{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smaili, F., E-mail: fethi.smaili@voila.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs -ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere 1002-Tunis (Tunisia); Kanzari, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs -ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere 1002-Tunis (Tunisia)

    2009-08-01

    Since the effect of oxygen is very significant during the heat treatment of the thin films, we study the effect of this during the annealing of CuGaS{sub 2} thin films by two different types. In this study, CuGaS{sub 2} thin films were deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation of CuGaS{sub 2} powder on heated glass substrates at 200 deg. C submitted to a thermal gradient. The films are annealed in air and under nitrogen atmosphere at 400 deg. C for 2 h. In order to improve our understanding of the influence of oxygen during two annealing types on device performance, we have investigated our CuGaS{sub 2} material by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and spectrophotometry. A correlation was established between the surface roughness, growth morphology and optical properties, of the annealed CuGaS{sub 2} thin films. It was found that annealing of CuGaS{sub 2} film in nitrogen atmosphere leads to a decrease of the mean grain size and to an evolution of a (112) preferred film orientation. Annealing in air results in the growth of oxide phases such as CuO and modifies the films structure and their surface morphology.

  15. Studies on the Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Cobalt Phthalocyanine Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Cobalt Phthalocyanine (CoPc are fabricated at a base pressure of 10-5 m.bar using Hind-Hivac thermal evaporation plant. The films are deposited on to glass substrates at various temperatures 318, 363, 408 and 458K. The optical absorption spectra of these thin films are measured. The present studies reveal that the optical band gap energies of CoPc thin films are almost same on substrate temperature variation. The structure and surface morphology of the films deposited on glass substrates of temperatures 303, 363 and 458K are studied using X-ray diffractograms and Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM, which show that there is a change in the crystallinity and surface morphology due to change in the substrate temperatures. Full width at half maximum (FWHM intensity of the diffraction peaks is also found reduced with increasing substrate temperatures. Scanning electron micrographs show that these crystals are needle like, which are interconnected at high substrate temperatures. The optical band gap energy is almost same on substrate temperature variation. Trap energy levels are also observed for these films.

  16. Prediction of the effects of size and morphology on the structure of water around hematite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnoli, D.; Gilbert, B.; Waychunas, G.A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2009-05-15

    Compared with macroscopic surfaces, the structure of water around nanoparticles is difficult to probe directly. We used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of particle size and morphology on the time-averaged structure and the dynamics of water molecules around two sizes of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles. Interrogation of the simulations via atomic density maps, radial distribution functions and bound water residence times provide insight into the relationships between particle size and morphology and the behavior of interfacial water. Both 1.6 and 2.7 nm particles are predicted to cause the formation of ordered water regions close to the nanoparticle surface, but the extent of localization and ordering, the connectivity between regions of bound water, and the rates of molecular exchange between inner and outer regions are all affected by particle size and morphology. These findings are anticipated to be relevant to understanding the rates of interfacial processes involving water exchange and the transport of aqueous ions to surface sites.

  17. High-temperature morphology of stepped gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilalbegovic, G.; Tosatti, E.; Ercolessi, F.

    1992-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations with a classical many-body potential are used to study the high-temperature stability of stepped non-melting metal surfaces. We have studied in particular the Au(111) vicinal surfaces in the (M+1, M-1, M) family and the Au(100) vicinals in the (M, 1, 1) family. Some vicinal orientations close to the non-melting Au(111) surface become unstable close to the bulk melting temperature and facet into a mixture of crystalline (111) regions and localized surface-melted regions. On the contrary, we do not find high-temperature faceting for vicinals close to Au(100), also a non-melting surface. These (100) vicinal surfaces gradually disorder with disappearance of individual steps well below the bulk melting temperature. We have also studied the high-temperature stability of ledges formed by pairs of monoatomic steps of opposite sign on the Au(111) surface. It is found that these ledges attract each other, so that several of them merge into one larger ledge, whose edge steps then act as a nucleation site for surface melting. (author). 43 refs, 8 figs

  18. Surface roughness and morphologic changes of zirconia: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-6 W/20 Hz presented significantly effect in surface roughness changes of zirconia than other surface treatments. Key words:Erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser, scanning electron .... ZrO2, (f) After sintering ZrO2 in letter “e”, (g) 2 W laser irridiation pre-sintered ZrO2, (h) After ..... Acta Odontol Scand.

  19. Effects of polymer surface energy on morphology and properties of silver nanowire fabricated via nanoimprint and E-beam evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Hwang, Soon Hyoung; Jeon, Sohee; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Jihye; Choi, Dae-Geun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Park, Sang-Hu; Jeong, Jun-Ho

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that use of different nanoimprint resins as a polymer pattern has a significant effect on the morphology of silver (Ag) nanowires deposited via an E-beam evaporator. RM-311 and Ormo-stamp resins are chosen as a polymer pattern to form a line with dimensions of width (100 nm) × space (100 nm) × height (120 nm) by using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Their contact angles are then measured to evaluate their surface energies. In order to compare the properties of the Ag nanowires deposited on the various polymer patterns with different surface energies, hydrophobic surface treatment of the polymer pattern surface is implemented using self-assembled monolayers. In addition, gold and aluminum nanowires are fabricated for comparison with the Ag nanowires, with the differences in the nanowire morphologies being determined by the different atomic properties. The monocrystalline and polycrystalline structures of the various Ag nanowire formations are observed using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the melting temperatures and optical properties of four kinds of Ag nanowire morphologies deposited on various polymer patterns are evaluated using a hot plate and an ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometer, respectively. The results indicate that the morphology of the Ag nanowire determines the melting temperature and the transmission. We believe that these findings will greatly aid the development of NIL, along with physical evaporation and chemical deposition techniques, and will be widely employed in optics, biology, and surface wettability applications.

  20. High-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) with a fibrous morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Cha, Dong Kyu; Zhang, Xixiang; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Fibrous nanosilica: A new family of high-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) have been prepared (see picture). KCC-1 features excellent physical properties, including high surface area, unprecedented fibrous surface morphology, high thermal (up to 950 °C) and hydrothermal stabilities, and high mechanical stability. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. High-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) with a fibrous morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2010-08-02

    Fibrous nanosilica: A new family of high-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) have been prepared (see picture). KCC-1 features excellent physical properties, including high surface area, unprecedented fibrous surface morphology, high thermal (up to 950 °C) and hydrothermal stabilities, and high mechanical stability. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Structural morphology of zinc oxide structures with antibacterial application of calamine lotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann, Ling Chuo; Mahmud, Shahrom; Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Sirelkhatim, Amna [Nano-optoelectronic Research (NOR) Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamad, Dasmawati [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150 Kelantan (Malaysia); Hasan, Habsah; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul [School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150 Kelantan (Malaysia); Seeni, Azman [Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam 13200 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we report the structural morphology of a zinc oxide (ZnO) sample and antibacterial application of the ZnO structures in calamine lotion. Antibacterial activities of the calamine lotion towards Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The structural morphology of ZnO sample was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The morphologies of the ZnO structure consisted of many rod and spherical structures. The particle sizes of the sample ranged from 40 nm to 150 nm. A calamine lotion was prepared through mixing the ZnO structures with other constituents in suitable proportion. The energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of large amount of ZnO structures whiles the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed a good crystalline property of ZnO in the calamine lotion mixture. The morphological structures of ZnO were found to remain unchanged in the calamine lotion mixture through FESEM imaging. In the antibacterial test, prepared calamine lotion exhibited a remarkable bacterial inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa after 24 h of treatment. The bactericidal capability of calamine lotion was largely due to the presence of ZnO structures which induce high toxicity and killing effect on the bacteria.

  3. Structural morphology of zinc oxide structures with antibacterial application of calamine lotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ann, Ling Chuo; Mahmud, Shahrom; Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Hasan, Habsah; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul; Seeni, Azman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the structural morphology of a zinc oxide (ZnO) sample and antibacterial application of the ZnO structures in calamine lotion. Antibacterial activities of the calamine lotion towards Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The structural morphology of ZnO sample was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The morphologies of the ZnO structure consisted of many rod and spherical structures. The particle sizes of the sample ranged from 40 nm to 150 nm. A calamine lotion was prepared through mixing the ZnO structures with other constituents in suitable proportion. The energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of large amount of ZnO structures whiles the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed a good crystalline property of ZnO in the calamine lotion mixture. The morphological structures of ZnO were found to remain unchanged in the calamine lotion mixture through FESEM imaging. In the antibacterial test, prepared calamine lotion exhibited a remarkable bacterial inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa after 24 h of treatment. The bactericidal capability of calamine lotion was largely due to the presence of ZnO structures which induce high toxicity and killing effect on the bacteria

  4. Time-kill profiles and cell-surface morphological effects of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MK1201 mycelial extract on the viability and cell surface morphology of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methods: Time-kill assays were conducted by incubating test ...

  5. Reversible and irreversible changes of surface morphology by order-disorder transition in CuAu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachl, Jindrich; Sima, Vladimir; Pfeiler, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The change of symmetry from the disordered fcc structure to tetragonal or orthorhombic structure is accompanied in CuAu alloy by anisotropy of lattice parameters and also by local generation of c-variants of structural antiphase domains. Macroscopic results of these processes can be observed as a dynamic change of the surface morphology. Some surface changes are reversible, on the other hand the internal stresses connected with the order-disorder transformation are also responsible for irreversible surface deformation effects. The domain structure formation can be influenced by external load and a shape memory effect can be observed at special conditions in CuAu. A combination of in-situ microscopic video cinematography and post-mortem 3-D atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for the surface study. The AFM images have enabled a detailed analysis of the surface morphology and the cinematography has given an in-situ information dealing with conditions and kinetics of observed surface changes. Measurements on CuAu single- and poly-crystalline samples have been made for a wide variety of experimental conditions (heating/cooling rates, external load, thermal history of the sample)

  6. Reversible and irreversible changes of surface morphology by order-disorder transition in CuAu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachl, Jindrich; Sima, Vladimir; Pfeiler, Wolfgang

    2004-09-22

    The change of symmetry from the disordered fcc structure to tetragonal or orthorhombic structure is accompanied in CuAu alloy by anisotropy of lattice parameters and also by local generation of c-variants of structural antiphase domains. Macroscopic results of these processes can be observed as a dynamic change of the surface morphology. Some surface changes are reversible, on the other hand the internal stresses connected with the order-disorder transformation are also responsible for irreversible surface deformation effects. The domain structure formation can be influenced by external load and a shape memory effect can be observed at special conditions in CuAu. A combination of in-situ microscopic video cinematography and post-mortem 3-D atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for the surface study. The AFM images have enabled a detailed analysis of the surface morphology and the cinematography has given an in-situ information dealing with conditions and kinetics of observed surface changes. Measurements on CuAu single- and poly-crystalline samples have been made for a wide variety of experimental conditions (heating/cooling rates, external load, thermal history of the sample)

  7. A morphologically preserved multi-resolution TIN surface modeling and visualization method for virtual globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xianwei; Xiong, Hanjiang; Gong, Jianya; Yue, Linwei

    2017-07-01

    Virtual globes play an important role in representing three-dimensional models of the Earth. To extend the functioning of a virtual globe beyond that of a "geobrowser", the accuracy of the geospatial data in the processing and representation should be of special concern for the scientific analysis and evaluation. In this study, we propose a method for the processing of large-scale terrain data for virtual globe visualization and analysis. The proposed method aims to construct a morphologically preserved multi-resolution triangulated irregular network (TIN) pyramid for virtual globes to accurately represent the landscape surface and simultaneously satisfy the demands of applications at different scales. By introducing cartographic principles, the TIN model in each layer is controlled with a data quality standard to formulize its level of detail generation. A point-additive algorithm is used to iteratively construct the multi-resolution TIN pyramid. The extracted landscape features are also incorporated to constrain the TIN structure, thus preserving the basic morphological shapes of the terrain surface at different levels. During the iterative construction process, the TIN in each layer is seamlessly partitioned based on a virtual node structure, and tiled with a global quadtree structure. Finally, an adaptive tessellation approach is adopted to eliminate terrain cracks in the real-time out-of-core spherical terrain rendering. The experiments undertaken in this study confirmed that the proposed method performs well in multi-resolution terrain representation, and produces high-quality underlying data that satisfy the demands of scientific analysis and evaluation.

  8. Self-Healing Thermal Annealing: Surface Morphological Restructuring Control of GaN Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Michele; Li, Haoning; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z.; Kusch, Gunnar; Schmidt, Michael; Collins, Timothy; Glynn, Colm; Martin, Robert W.; O’Dwyer, Colm; Morris, Michael D.; Holmes, Justin D.; Parbrook, Peter J.

    2016-12-07

    With advances in nanolithography and dry etching, top-down methods of nanostructuring have become a widely used tool for improving the efficiency of optoelectronics. These nano dimensions can offer various benefits to the device performance in terms of light extraction and efficiency, but often at the expense of emission color quality. Broadening of the target emission peak and unwanted yellow luminescence are characteristic defect-related effects due to the ion beam etching damage, particularly for III–N based materials. In this article we focus on GaN based nanorods, showing that through thermal annealing the surface roughness and deformities of the crystal structure can be “self-healed”. Correlative electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show the change from spherical nanorods to faceted hexagonal structures, revealing the temperature-dependent surface morphology faceting evolution. The faceted nanorods were shown to be strain- and defect-free by cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging, micro-Raman, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ TEM thermal annealing experiments allowed for real time observation of dislocation movements and surface restructuring observed in ex-situ annealing TEM sampling. This thermal annealing investigation gives new insight into the redistribution path of GaN material and dislocation movement post growth, allowing for improved understanding and in turn advances in optoelectronic device processing of compound semiconductors.

  9. Structural, morphological and optical studies of F doped SnO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Tarun; Thakur, Vikas; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Zaman, M. Burhanuz; Rajaram, Poolla

    2018-05-01

    Highly conducting and transparent FTO (flourine doped tin Oxide) thin films were grown on the glass substrates using a low cost spray pyrolysis technique. The films were characterized for their structural, morphological and optical studies using XRD, SEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD studies show that the FTO films crystallize in Tetragonal cassiterite structure. Morphological analysis using SEM show that the films are uniformly covered with spherical grains albeit high in surface roughness. The average optical transmission greater than 80% in the visible region along with the appearance of interference fringes in the transmission curves confirms the high quality of the films. Electrical studies show that the films exhibit sheet resistance below 10 Ω ϒ-1.

  10. Affecting the morphology of silver deposition on carbon nanotube surface: From nanoparticles to dendritic (tree-like) nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forati-Nezhad, Mohsen [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mir Mohamad Sadeghi, Gity, E-mail: gsadeghi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yaghmaie, Frank [Northern California Nanotechnology Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Alimohammadi, Farbod [Young Researchers and Elite Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reduction was used to synthesize silver crystals on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the presence of acetone, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and isopropyl alcohol as solvent. DMF and sodium dodecyl sulfate were used as a reducing and a stabilizing agent, respectively. The structure and nature of hybrid MWCNT/silver were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The presence of silver crystals on the nanotubes was confirmed by XRD. The results show the formation of silver crystals on the MWCNT surface and indicate that the morphology of silver crystals can be control by changing the solvent. The type of solvent is an effective parameter that affects the particle size and morphological transition from nanoparticles to silver trees. - Highlights: • The silver crystals are grown on the CNT surface by chemical reduction method. • The morphology of silver crystals is controlled by changing the solvent. • Silver nanoparticles and dendritic nanostructures on CNT surface are achieved. • Any change in structure and surface defects by synthesis condition is investigated.

  11. Impact of plasma treatment under atmospheric pressure on surface chemistry and surface morphology of extruded and injection-molded wood-polymer composites (WPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünnekens, Benedikt; Avramidis, Georg; Ohms, Gisela; Krause, Andreas; Viöl, Wolfgang; Militz, Holger

    2018-05-01

    The influence of plasma treatment performed at atmospheric pressure and ambient air as process gas by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on the morphological and chemical surface characteristics of wood-polymer composites (WPC) was investigated by applying several surface-sensitive analytical methods. The surface free energy showed a distinct increase after plasma treatment for all tested materials. The analyzing methods for surface topography-laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-revealed a roughening induced by the treatment which is likely due to a degradation of the polymeric surface. This was accompanied by the formation of low-molecular-weight oxidized materials (LMWOMs), appearing as small globular structures. With increasing discharge time, the nodules increase in size and the material degradation proceeds. The surface degradation seems to be more serious for injection-molded samples, whereas the formation of nodules became more apparent and were evenly distributed on extruded surfaces. These phenomena could also be confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, differences between extruded and injection-molded surfaces could be observed. Besides the morphological changes, the chemical composition of the substrates' surfaces was affected by the plasma discharge. Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated the formation of new oxygen containing polar groups on the modified surfaces.

  12. MR imaging of brain surface structures: Surface anatomy scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, K.; Koga, S.; Asahina, M.; Kanno, T.; Asahina, K.

    1987-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of brain surface anatomy, including cortical sulci and veins, relative to cerebral and cerebellar lesions is an important subject for surgeons. Until now, no imaging modality existed that allowed direct visualization of brain surface anatomy. A new MR imaging technique (surface anatomy scanning) was developed to visualize brain surface structures. The technique uses a spin-echo pulse sequence with long repetition and echo times, thick sections and a surface coil. Cortical sulci, fissures, veins, and intracranial lesions were clearly identified with this technique. Initial clinical results indicate that surface anatomy scanning is useful for lesion localization and for detailed evaluation of cortical and subcortical lesions

  13. Surface magnetic structures in amorphous ferromagnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, N.A., E-mail: usov@obninsk.ru [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 108840 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Serebryakova, O.N.; Gudoshnikov, S.A. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 108840 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tarasov, V.P. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    The spatial period of magnetization perturbations that occur near the surface of magnetic nanotube or nanowire under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy is determined by means of numerical simulation as a function of the sample geometry and material parameters. The surface magnetization distribution obtained is then used to estimate the period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter by means of appropriate variational procedure. The period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter. - Highlights: • Magnetic structure may arise near the magnetic nanotube surface under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy. • The period of the surface magnetization pattern is calculated as a function of the sample geometry. • Similar magnetic structure may exist in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter. • The period of the surface magnetic structure in amorphous wire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter.

  14. Surface electronic and structural properties of nanostructured titanium oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusi, M.; Maccallini, E.; Caruso, T.; Casari, C. S.; Bassi, A. Li; Bottani, C. E.; Rudolf, P.; Prince, K. C.; Agostino, R. G.

    Titanium oxide nanostructured thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were here characterized with a multi-technique approach to investigate the relation between surface electronic, structural and morphological properties. Depending on the growth parameters, these films present

  15. Influence of gamma irradiation on the surface morphology, XRD and thermophysical properties of silicide hexoboride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzayev, Matlab N.; Mehdiyeva, Ravan N.; Garibov, Ramin G.; Ismayilova, Narmin A.; Jabarov, Sakin H.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, compounds of B6Si were irradiated using a 60Co gamma source that have an energy line of 1.25 MeV at the absorbed dose rates from 14.6 kGy to 194.4 kGy. Surface morphology images of the sample obtained by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) show that the crystal structure at a high absorbed doses (D ≥ 145.8kGy) starts to be destroyed. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that with increasing radiation absorption dose, the spectrum intensity of the sample was decreased 1.96 times compared with the initial value. Thermal properties were studied by Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method in the temperature range of 30-1000∘C.

  16. Structural-morphological peculiarities of zirconium oxyhydrate with applicated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunova, N.K.; Sukharev, Yu.I.; Egorov, Yu.V.

    1976-01-01

    Some results of applicated zirconium ozyhydrate investigation by thermography and electronography are considered as well as the results of microscopic and picnometric investigations. Bichromate and polyvanadate ions were used as applicants. It is demonstrated that two kinds of granules are formed: globular and plane-scaly, depending on the method of applicated synthesis of hydrated zirconium dioxide samples (HZD) and the nature of applicants. It was established by electronographycal methods that samples with plane-scaly morphology have an ordered structure. Influence of the HZD granules morphology on the absorption-exchange properties was established. Globular samples are the most sensitive to applicated additions and have better absorption characteristics. The character of the density variation as a function of applicant concentration in solid phase is the same: in the region of applicant concentration 0.15-0.30 g ion/mol ZrO 2 the density is the highest, then samples density is decreasing and increasing once again at applicant concentration 0.5-0.6 g ion/mol ZrO 2

  17. Surface properties and aggregate morphology of partially fluorinated carboxylate-type anionic gemini surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Bong, Miri; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Honda, Chikako; Endo, Kazutoyo

    2009-11-01

    Three anionic homologues of a novel partially fluorinated carboxylate-type anionic gemini surfactant, N,N'-di(3-perfluoroalkyl-2-hydroxypropyl)-N,N'-diacetic acid ethylenediamine (2C(n)(F) edda, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the fluorocarbon chain (4, 6, and 8)) were synthesized. In these present gemini surfactants, the relatively small carboxylic acid moieties form hydrophilic head groups. The surface properties or structures of the aggregates of these surfactants are strongly influenced by the nonflexible fluorocarbons and small head groups; this is because these surfactants have a closely packed molecular structure. The equilibrium surface tension properties of these surfactants were measured at 298.2K for various fluorocarbon chain lengths. The plot of the logarithm of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) against the fluorocarbon chain lengths for 2C(n)(F) edda (n=4, 6, and 8) showed a minimum for n=6. Furthermore, the lowest surface tension of 2C(6)(F) edda at the cmc was 16.4mNm(-1). Such unique behavior has not been observed even in the other fluorinated surfactants. Changes in the shapes and sizes of these surfactant aggregate with concentration were investigated by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs showed that in an aqueous alkali solution, 2C(n)(F) edda mainly formed aggregates with stringlike (n=4), cagelike (n=6), and distorted bilayer structures (n=8). The morphological changes in the aggregates were affected by the molecular structure composed of nonflexible fluorocarbon chains and flexible hydrocarbon chains.

  18. Influence of growth parameters on the surface morphology and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    surface features of the grown film like terracing, inclusions, meniscus lines, etc are ... Recently, studies carried out on the growth of InSb ..... is a critical factor in any epitaxial growth process and can ... However, this approach can lead to.

  19. Adhesive and morphological characteristics of surface chemically modified polytetrafluoroethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopp, B.; Kresz, N.; Kokavecz, J.; Smausz, T.; Schieferdecker, H.; Doering, A.; Marti, O.; Bor, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, we report an experimental determination of adhesive and topographic characteristics of chemically modified surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films. The surface chemistry was modified by ArF excimer laser irradiation in presence of triethylene-tetramine photoreagent. The applied laser fluence was varied in the range of 0.4-9 mJ/cm 2 , and the number of laser pulses incident on the same area was 1500. To detect the changes in the adhesive features of the treated Teflon samples, we measured receding contact angle for distilled water and adhesion strength, respectively. It was found that the receding contact angle decreased from 96 deg. to 30-37 deg. and the adhesion strength of two-component epoxy glue to the treated sample surface increased from 0.03 to 9 MPa in the applied laser fluence range. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the adhesion of human cells to the modified Teflon samples is far better than to the untreated ones. The contact mode and pulsed force mode atomic force microscopic investigations of the treated samples demonstrated that the measured effective contact area of the irradiated films does not differ significantly from that of the original films, but the derived adhesion force is stronger on the modified samples than on the untreated ones. Hence, the increased adhesion of the treated Teflon films is caused by the higher surface energy

  20. Surface morphology of PS-PDMS diblock copolymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.H.; Tougaard, S.; Larsen, N.B.

    2001-01-01

    Spin coated thin films (∼400 Å) of poly(styrene)–poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS–PDMS) diblock copolymers have been investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Surface segregation of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) blocks was studied for five diblock copolymers which ra...

  1. The morphology and surface brightness of extragalactic jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicknell, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The problems associated with laminar flow models are reviewed, and an analogy between laboratory jets and astrophysical jets is given. The relationship between surface brightness and the jet full width half maximum is not in general as predicted by simple magnetohydrodynamic models. An alternative turbulent model is presented

  2. Ductile fracture surface morphology of amorphous metallic alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miskuf, J; Csach, K; Ocelik, [No Value; Bengus, VZ; Tabachnikova, ED; Duhaj, P; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1999-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of ductile failure of two types bulk amorphous metallic alloys were studied using quantitative and qualitative fractographic analysis. The observed fractographic behaviour of ductile failure in comparison with the ductile failure of amorphous alloy ribbons shows signs of the same

  3. Origin of phase shift in atomic force microscopic investigation of the surface morphology of NR/NBR blend film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanawan, S. [Institute of Science and Technology for Research and Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170 (Thailand)], E-mail: ststw@mahidol.ac.th; Radabutra, S.; Thamasirianunt, P.; Amornsakchai, T.; Suchiva, K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170 (Thailand)

    2009-01-15

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology and surface properties of NR/NBR blend. Blends at 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 weight ratios were prepared in benzene and formed film by casting. AFM phase images of these blends in tapping mode displayed islands in the sea morphology or matrix-dispersed structures. For blend 1/3, NR formed dispersed phase while in blends 1/1 and 3/1 phase inversion was observed. NR showed higher phase shift angle in AFM phase imaging for all blends. This circumstance was governed by adhesion energy hysteresis between the device tip and the rubber surface rather than surface stiffness of the materials, as proved by force distance measurements in the AFM contact mode.

  4. Origin of phase shift in atomic force microscopic investigation of the surface morphology of NR/NBR blend film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanawan, S; Radabutra, S; Thamasirianunt, P; Amornsakchai, T; Suchiva, K

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology and surface properties of NR/NBR blend. Blends at 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 weight ratios were prepared in benzene and formed film by casting. AFM phase images of these blends in tapping mode displayed islands in the sea morphology or matrix-dispersed structures. For blend 1/3, NR formed dispersed phase while in blends 1/1 and 3/1 phase inversion was observed. NR showed higher phase shift angle in AFM phase imaging for all blends. This circumstance was governed by adhesion energy hysteresis between the device tip and the rubber surface rather than surface stiffness of the materials, as proved by force distance measurements in the AFM contact mode.

  5. The effect of amorphous silicon surface hydrogenation on morphology, wettability and its implication on the adsorption of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filali, Larbi, E-mail: larbifilali5@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Matériaux pour l' Electronique, Université d' Oran 1, Ahmed Ben Bella, BP 1524, El M' naouar 31100 Oran (Algeria); Brahmi, Yamina; Sib, Jamal Dine [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Matériaux pour l' Electronique, Université d' Oran 1, Ahmed Ben Bella, BP 1524, El M' naouar 31100 Oran (Algeria); Bouhekka, Ahmed [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Matériaux pour l' Electronique, Université d' Oran 1, Ahmed Ben Bella, BP 1524, El M' naouar 31100 Oran (Algeria); Département de Physique, Université Hassiba Ben Bouali, 02000 Chlef (Algeria); Benlakehal, Djamel; Bouizem, Yahya; Kebab, Aissa; Chahed, Larbi [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Matériaux pour l' Electronique, Université d' Oran 1, Ahmed Ben Bella, BP 1524, El M' naouar 31100 Oran (Algeria)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Hydrogenation of the surfaces had the effect of reducing the roughness by way of shadow etching. • Roughness was the driving factor affecting the wettability of the hydrogenated surfaces. • Bovine Serum Albumin proteins favored the surfaces with highest hydrogen content. • Surface modification induced secondary structure change of adsorbed proteins. - Abstract: We study the effect of amorphous silicon (a-Si) surface hydrogenation on Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) adsorption. A set of (a-Si) films was prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS) and after deposition; they were treated in molecular hydrogen ambient at different pressures (1–3 Pa). Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) were used to study the hydrogenation effect and BSA adsorption. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate morphological changes caused by hydrogenation. The wettability of the films was measured using contact angle measurement, and in the case of the hydrogenated surfaces, it was found to be driven by surface roughness. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and SE measurements show that proteins had the strongest affinity toward the surfaces with the highest hydrogen content and their secondary structure was affected by a significant decrease of the α-helix component (-27%) compared with the proteins adsorbed on the un-treated surface, which had a predominantly α-helix (45%) structure. The adsorbed protein layer was found to be densely packed with a large thickness (30.9 nm) on the hydrogen-rich surfaces. The most important result is that the surface hydrogen content was the dominant factor, compared to wettability and morphology, for protein adsorption.

  6. Bubble structure evaluation method of sponge cake by using image morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nonaka, Masahiko; Katsuta, Yukiyo; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, many evaluation methods for food industry by using image processing are proposed. These methods are becoming new evaluation method besides the sensory test and the solid-state measurement that have been used for the quality evaluation recently. The goal of our research is structure evaluation of sponge cake by using the image processing. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method of the bobble structure in the sponge cake. Analysis of the bubble structure is one of the important properties to understand characteristics of the cake from the image. In order to take the cake image, first we cut cakes and measured that's surface by using the CIS scanner, because the depth of field of this type scanner is very shallow. Therefore the bubble region of the surface has low gray scale value, and it has a feature that is blur. We extracted bubble regions from the surface images based on these features. The input image is binarized, and the feature of bubble is extracted by the morphology analysis. In order to evaluate the result of feature extraction, we compared correlation with "Size of the bubble" of the sensory test result. From a result, the bubble extraction by using morphology analysis gives good correlation. It is shown that our method is as well as the subjectivity evaluation.

  7. Quantitative evaluation method of the bubble structure of sponge cake by using morphology image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Hironobu; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Katsuta, Yukio; Nonaka, Masahiko

    2005-12-01

    Now a day, many evaluation methods for the food industry by using image processing are proposed. These methods are becoming new evaluation method besides the sensory test and the solid-state measurement that are using for the quality evaluation. An advantage of the image processing is to be able to evaluate objectively. The goal of our research is structure evaluation of sponge cake by using image processing. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method of the bobble structure in the sponge cake. Analysis of the bubble structure is one of the important properties to understand characteristics of the cake from the image. In order to take the cake image, first we cut cakes and measured that's surface by using the CIS scanner. Because the depth of field of this type scanner is very shallow, the bubble region of the surface has low gray scale values, and it has a feature that is blur. We extracted bubble regions from the surface images based on these features. First, input image is binarized, and the feature of bubble is extracted by the morphology analysis. In order to evaluate the result of feature extraction, we compared correlation with "Size of the bubble" of the sensory test result. From a result, the bubble extraction by using morphology analysis gives good correlation. It is shown that our method is as well as the subjectivity evaluation.

  8. Electron confinement in thin metal films. Structure, morphology and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dil, J.H.

    2006-05-15

    This thesis investigates the interplay between reduced dimensionality, electronic structure, and interface effects in ultrathin metal layers (Pb, In, Al) on a variety of substrates (Si, Cu, graphite). These layers can be grown with such a perfection that electron confinement in the direction normal to the film leads to the occurrence of quantum well states in their valence bands. These quantum well states are studied in detail, and their behaviour with film thickness, on different substrates, and other parameters of growth are used here to characterise a variety of physical properties of such nanoscale systems. The sections of the thesis deal with a determination of quantum well state energies for a large data set on different systems, the interplay between film morphology and electronic structure, and the influence of substrate electronic structure on their band shape; finally, new ground is broken by demonstrating electron localization and correlation effects, and the possibility to measure the influence of electron-phonon coupling in bulk bands. (orig.)

  9. The influence of polysilane chemical structure on optical properties, rubbed film morphology and LC alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soroceanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysilane films were prepared by the drop casting method and their optical and morphological properties have been analyzed in order to investigate their suitability as alignment layers for nematic molecules. The samples do not absorb the radiations in the visible domain, particularly those containing methylhydrosilyl units, and present a transmittance of about 90% starting from 390 to 1100 nm. The optical band-gap is higher than 3.26 eV for all polysilanes indicating a low probability of optical absorption processes in the visible range. The morphology of the pristine samples shows isotropically distributed granular formations. The polymer surface was oriented by rubbing with two types of velvet: one with short fibers and the other with long fibers. The latter generates higher surface anisotropy, as shown by the reduction of the surface texture direction index values. The presence of methylhydrosilyl units allows a denser packing of the polymer structure and thus finer surface periodicities, leading to better orientation of the nematic molecules on the polysilane surface.

  10. Gum ghatti based novel electrically conductive biomaterials: A study of conductivity and surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide-aniline interpenetrating network (IPN was synthesized by a two-step aqueous polymerization method, in which aniline monomer was absorbed into the network of gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide and followed by a polymerization reaction between aniline monomers. Initially, semi-IPN based on acrylamide and gum ghatti was prepared by free-radical copolymerization in aqueous media with optimized process parameters, using N,N'-methylenebis-acrylamide, as cross-linker and ammonium persulfate, as an initiator system. Optimum reaction conditions affording maximum percentage swelling were: solvent [mL] =12, Acrylamide (AAm [mol•L–1] = 1.971, Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS [mol•L–1] = 0.131•10–1, N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA [mol•L–1] = 0.162•10–1, reaction time [min] = 210, temperature [°C] = 100 and pH = 7.0. The resulting IPN was doped with different protonic acids. The effect of the doping has been investigated on the conductivity and surface morphology of the IPN hydrogel. The maximum conductivity was observed with 1.5N HClO4 concentration. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of the candidate polymers were studied using scanning electron micrscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR and two-probe method, respectively.

  11. Nanoscale protein arrays of rich morphologies via self-assembly on chemically treated diblock copolymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Sheng; Milchak, Marissa; Zhou Hebing; Lee, Thomas; Hanscom, Mark; Hahm, Jong-in

    2013-01-01

    Well-controlled assembly of proteins on supramolecular templates of block copolymers can be extremely useful for high-throughput biodetection. We report the adsorption and assembly characteristics of a model antibody protein to various polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) templates whose distinctive nanoscale structures are obtained through time-regulated exposure to chloroform vapor. The strong adsorption preference of the protein to the polystyrene segment in the diblock copolymer templates leads to an easily predictable, controllable, rich set of nanoscale protein morphologies through self-assembly. We also demonstrate that the chemical identities of various subareas within individual nanostructures can be readily elucidated by investigating the corresponding protein adsorption behavior on each chemically distinct area of the template. In our approach, a rich set of intricate nanoscale morphologies of protein arrays that cannot be easily attained through other means can be generated straightforwardly via self-assembly of proteins on chemically treated diblock copolymer surfaces, without the use of clean-room-based fabrication tools. Our approach provides much-needed flexibility and versatility for the use of block copolymer-based protein arrays in biodetection. The ease of fabrication in producing well-defined and self-assembled templates can contribute to a high degree of versatility and simplicity in acquiring an intricate nanoscale geometry and spatial distribution of proteins in arrays. These advantages can be extremely beneficial both for fundamental research and biomedical detection, especially in the areas of solid-state-based, high-throughput protein sensing. (paper)

  12. Ge Nanoislands Grown by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: Comprehensive Investigation of Surface Morphology and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Samavati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive investigation of the effect of growth parameters on structural and optical properties of Si-based single layer Ge nanoislands grown via Stranski-Krastanov mechanism employing radio frequency magnetron sputtering due to its high deposition rate, easy procedure, economical cost, and safety is carried out. The estimated width and height of Ge nanoislands produced by this technique are in the range of ∼8 to ∼30 and ∼2 to 8 nm, respectively. Varieties parameters are manipulated to optimize the surface morphology and structural and optical behavior of Ge nanoislands. The resulted nanoislands are analyzed using various analytical techniques including atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The optimum parameters for growing high quality samples having high number density and homogenous and small size distribution are found to be 400°C for substrate temperature, 300 sec for deposition time, 10 sccm for Ar flow, and 100 W for radio frequency power. The excellent features of the results suggest that our systematic investigation on the organized growth factors and their effects on surface parameters and photoluminescence emission energy may constitute a basis for the tunable growth of Ge nanoislands (100 nanoislands suitable in nanophotonics.

  13. Surface morphology changes of tungsten exposed to high heat loading with mixed hydrogen/helium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Maier, H.; Balden, M.; Böswirth, B.; Elgeti, S.; Schmid, K.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the surface morphology modification of W samples observed after simultaneous heat and particle loading using a mixed H/He particle beam with a He concentration of 1 at.%. The applied heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 is representative for the normal operation of the divertor of DEMO or a power plant. The long pulse high heat flux experiments on actively water-cooled W samples were performed in the GLADIS facility at surface temperatures between 600 °C and 2000 °C. This allows together with the applied total fluences between 1 × 10 24 m −2 and 1 × 10 26 m −2 the temperature- and fluence dependent study of the growing nano-structures. We analyse in detail the surface modifications up to a depth of several μm by scanning electron microscopy combined with focussed ion beam preparation. The hydrogen and helium release of the samples is analysed by long term thermal desorption spectroscopy and compared with the prediction of a diffusion trapping model

  14. Surfaces wettability and morphology modulation in a fluorene derivative self-assembly system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xinhua, E-mail: caoxhchem@163.com; Gao, Aiping; Zhao, Na; Yuan, Fangyuan; Liu, Chenxi; Li, Ruru

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The different structures could be obtained in this self-assembly system. • A water-drop could freely roll on the xerogel film with the sliding angle of 15.0. • The superhydrophobic surface can be obtained via supramolecular self-assembly. - Abstract: A new organogelator based on fluorene derivative (gelator 1) was designed and synthesized. Organogels could be obtained via the self-assembly of the derivative in acetone, toluene, ethyl acetate, hexane, DMSO and petroleum ether. The self-assembly process was thoroughly characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis, FT-IR and the contact angle. Surfaces with different morphologies and wetting properties were formed via the self-assembly of gelator 1 in the six different solvents. Interestingly, a superhydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 150° was obtained from organogel 1 in DMSO and exhibited the lotus-effect. The sliding angle necessary for a water droplet to move on the glass was only 15°. Hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces were attributed as the main driving forces for gel formation.

  15. Fracture Surface Morphology and Impact Strength of Cellulose/PLA Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Honghong; Qiang, Tao

    2017-06-07

    Polylactide (PLA)-based composite materials reinforced with ball-milled celluloses were manufactured by extrusion blending followed by injection molding. Their surface morphology from impact fracture were imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and investigated by calculating their fractal dimensions. Then, linear regression was used to explore the relationship between fractal dimension and impact strength of the resultant cellulose/PLA composite materials. The results show that filling the ball-milled celluloses into PLA can improve the impact toughness of PLA by a minimum of 38%. It was demonstrated that the fracture pattern of the cellulose/PLA composite materials is different from that of pristine PLA. For the resultant composite materials, the fractal dimension of the impact fractured surfaces increased with increasing filling content and decreasing particle size of the ball-milled cellulose particles. There were highly positive correlations between fractal dimension of the fractured surfaces and impact strength of the cellulose/PLA composites. However, the linearity between fractal dimension and impact strength were different for the different methods, due to their different R-squared values. The approach presented in this work will help to understand the structure-property relationships of composite materials from a new perspective.

  16. The importance of surface morphology in controlling the selectivity of polycrystalline copper for CO(2) electroreduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Wei; Peterson, Andrew A; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This communication examines the effect of the surface morphology of polycrystalline copper on electroreduction of CO(2). We find that a copper nanoparticle covered electrode shows better selectivity towards hydrocarbons compared with the two other studied surfaces, an electropolished copper elect...

  17. AFM study of the morphologic change of HDPE surface photografted with glycidyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiliang; Han, Jianmei

    2009-05-01

    The UV-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the morphologic change of the grafted surface are reported. The grafting was carried out in GMA acetone solutions with different monomer concentrations. Grafting was much faster in a solution with a higher monomer concentration. FTIR analyses proved that GMA had been successfully grafted onto HDPE. The morphologies of grafted HDPE surfaces changed with UV irradiation time. The monomer concentration had a significant effect on the morphologies of the grafted HDPE surfaces. The HDPE surface grafted in a solution with a higher monomer concentration was much rougher than that grafted in a solution with a lower monomer concentration. The growth models of the grafted granules or clusters are also proposed.

  18. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  19. Photoelectric effect in surface-barrier structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononenko, V.K.; Tupenevich, P.A.

    1985-08-01

    Deviations from the Fowler law were observed when investigating photoelectric emission in p-type ZnTe surface-barrier structures. The revealed peculiarities of the structure photosensitivity spectrum are explained by the electron transitions involving surface states at the metal-semiconductor interface. (author)

  20. Impact damage reduction by structured surface geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Fedorov, Vladimir; McGugan, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    performance was observed for polyurethane-coated fibre composites with structured geometries at the back surfaces. Repeated impacts by rubber balls on the coated side caused damage and delamination of the coating. The laminates with structured back surfaces showed longer durability than those with a flat back...

  1. Moulding of Sub-micrometer Surface Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pranov, Henrik; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2006-01-01

    The experiments strongly suggest that the possibility to injection mould sub-micrometer surface structures in polymers mainly relates to the forces originating from the adhesive energy between polymer and shim.......The experiments strongly suggest that the possibility to injection mould sub-micrometer surface structures in polymers mainly relates to the forces originating from the adhesive energy between polymer and shim....

  2. Poly aniline synthesized in pilot scale: structural and morphological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeu, Maria Alice Carvalho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: aie.mzz@hotmail.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Gama, Adriana Medeiros [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Faria, Lohana Komorek [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Among various conducting polymers, poly aniline (PAni) has received wide-spread attention because of its outstanding properties including simple and reversible doping–dedoping chemistry, stable electrical conduction mechanisms, high environmental stability and ease of synthesis [1]. Increasing applications require PAni at industrial scale and optimization of manufacturing processes are essential for this purpose. Since pilot scale influences hydrodynamics of the polymerizations system [2], pilot scale is an important instrument for evaluating amendments in the process. In this work, polyaniline was synthesized on pilot scale, with variation of reaction time for every synthesis, keeping the other parameters unchanged. The PAni salt first obtained was dedoped and the PAni-B (PAni in a base form, nonconductive) obtained was redoped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA), when PAni-DBSA (PAni in a salt form, conductive) is obtained. The effects of synthesis conditions on the structural and morphological characteristics of PAni-B and PAni-DBSA are investigate by Raman Spectroscopy, XRD (X-ray diffractometer) and SEM (Scanning electron microscopy). Electrical conductivity was determined to redoped samples. Results were analyzed and we compare PAni forms to identifying the doping structure to PAni-DBSA by Raman spectroscopy. It was found too that reaction time can give some influence at conductivity. The XRD result showed differences in crystalline peaks of PAni-B and PAni-DBSA and this difference could be attributed mainly to the redoping process. Whereas the formation of crystals on a pilot scale may change because of effects caused by water flow, speed of polymerization could affect the formation of crystals too. The SEM pictures to PAni-B showed tiny coral reefs with globules structure and PAni-DBSA showed multilayer structure. References: 1 - Fratoddia I. et al. Sensors and Actuators B 220: 534–548 (2015); 2 - Roichman Y et al. Synthetic Metals 98

  3. Origin of the Easter Submarine Alignment: morphology and structural lineaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter submarine alignment corresponds to a sequence of seamounts and oceanic islands which runs from the Ahu-Umu volcanic fields in the west to its intersection with the Nazca Ridge in the east, with a total length of about 2.900 km and a strike of N85°E. Recent bathymetric compilations that include combined satellite derived and shipboard data (Global Topography and multibeam bathymetric data (from NGDC-NOAA are interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively by using a morphological analysis, which was comprised of the determination of bathymetric patterns, trends in lineations and structures; height measurements, computation of basal areas and volumes of seamounts, in order to establish clues on the origin of this seamount chain and to establish relationships with the regional tectonics. In the study region 514 seamounts were counted, of which 334 had a basal area less than the reference seamount (Moai. In general, the largest seamounts (>1000 m in height tend to align and to have a larger volume, with an elongation of their bases along the seamount chain. On the other hand, smaller seamounts tend to be distributed more randomly with more circular bases. As a consequence of the morphological analysis, the best possible mechanism that explains the origin of the seamount chain is the existence of a localized hotspot to the west of the Salas y Gómez Island. The corresponding plume would contribute additional magmatic material towards the East Pacific Rise through canalizations, whose secondary branches would feed intermediate volcanoes. It is possible that within the Easter Island region there would be another minor contribution through fractures in the crust, due to the crustal weakening that was produced by the Easter Fracture Zone.

  4. Nanostructured Polypyrrole Powder: A Structural and Morphological Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Sanches

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole (PPY powder was chemically synthesized using ferric chloride (FeCl3 and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Le Bail Method, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. XRD pattern showed a broad scattering of a semicrystalline structure composed of main broad peaks centered at 2θ = 11.4°, 22.1°, and 43.3°. Crystallinity percentage was estimated by the ratio between the sums of the peak areas to the area of amorphous broad halo due to the amorphous phase and showed that PPY has around 20 (1%. FTIR analysis allowed assigning characteristic absorption bands in the structure of PPY. SEM showed micrometric particles of varying sizes with morphologies similar to cauliflower. Crystal data (monoclinic, space group P 21/c, a=7.1499 (2 Å, b=13.9470 (2 Å, c=17.3316 (2 Å, α=90 Å, β=61.5640 (2 Å and γ=90 Å were obtained using the FullProf package program under the conditions of the method proposed by Le Bail. Molecular relaxation was performed using the density functional theory (DFT and suggests that tetramer polymer chains are arranged along the “c” direction. Average crystallite size was found in the range of 20 (1 Å. A value of 9.33 × 10−9 S/cm was found for PPY conductivity.

  5. Low-temperature oxidation effects on the morphological and structural properties of hexagonal Zn nano disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, R.; Villa S, G.; Rosales D, J. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Jocotitlan, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco Km 44.8, Jocotitlan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vigueras S, E.; Hernandez L, S. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados, Paseo Colon esquina Paseo Tollocan, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Acuna, P. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Programa de Doctorado en Ciencia de Materiales, Paseo Colon esquina Paseo Tollocan, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Argueta V, A.; Colin B, N., E-mail: lorr810813@gmail.com [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Jocotitlan, Programa de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco Km 44.8, Jocotitlan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-11-01

    Ambient-atmosphere oxidation in the temperature range of 90-450 degrees Celsius was performed over Zn films composed by well-faceted hexagonal nano disks, which were deposited by thermal evaporation. Morphological and structural properties of oxidized Zn nano disks were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements. It was found that Zn nano disks keep its original shape only when they are annealed at 90 or 150 degrees Celsius. Smooth oxidation occurred only on the rectangular faces of Zn nano disks heated at 150 degrees Celsius. Thermal oxidation at 250 degrees Celsius favored growth of Zn O nano needles over the surface of the Zn nano disks. Hexagonal-shape of Zn nano disks was transformed completely into a complex morphology composed by different shaped particles, with further increase in oxidation temperature to 450 degrees Celsius. (Author)

  6. Low-temperature oxidation effects on the morphological and structural properties of hexagonal Zn nano disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Villa S, G.; Rosales D, J.; Vigueras S, E.; Hernandez L, S.; Acuna, P.; Argueta V, A.; Colin B, N.

    2017-01-01

    Ambient-atmosphere oxidation in the temperature range of 90-450 degrees Celsius was performed over Zn films composed by well-faceted hexagonal nano disks, which were deposited by thermal evaporation. Morphological and structural properties of oxidized Zn nano disks were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements. It was found that Zn nano disks keep its original shape only when they are annealed at 90 or 150 degrees Celsius. Smooth oxidation occurred only on the rectangular faces of Zn nano disks heated at 150 degrees Celsius. Thermal oxidation at 250 degrees Celsius favored growth of Zn O nano needles over the surface of the Zn nano disks. Hexagonal-shape of Zn nano disks was transformed completely into a complex morphology composed by different shaped particles, with further increase in oxidation temperature to 450 degrees Celsius. (Author)

  7. LASER SURFACE CLADDING FOR STRUCTURAL REPAIR

    OpenAIRE

    SANTANU PAUL

    2018-01-01

    Laser cladding is a powder deposition technique, which is used to deposit layers of clad material on a substrate to improve its surface properties. It has widespread application in the repair of dies and molds used in the automobile industry. These molds and dies are subjected to cyclic thermo-mechanical loading and therefore undergo localized damage and wear. The final clad quality and integrity is influenced by various physical phenomena, namely, melt pool morphology, microst...

  8. Atomic and electronic structures of novel silicon surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.H. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    The modification of silicon surfaces is presently of great interest to the semiconductor device community. Three distinct areas are the subject of inquiry: first, modification of the silicon electronic structure; second, passivation of the silicon surface; and third, functionalization of the silicon surface. It is believed that surface modification of these types will lead to useful electronic devices by pairing these modified surfaces with traditional silicon device technology. Therefore, silicon wafers with modified electronic structure (light-emitting porous silicon), passivated surfaces (H-Si(111), Cl-Si(111), Alkyl-Si(111)), and functionalized surfaces (Alkyl-Si(111)) have been studied in order to determine the fundamental properties of surface geometry and electronic structure using synchrotron radiation-based techniques.

  9. Carbon nanotube embedded PVDF membranes: Effect of solvent composition on the structural morphology for membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapunda, Edgar C.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid population increase, growth in industrial and agricultural sectors and global climate change have added significant pressure on conventional freshwater resources. Tapping freshwater from non-conventional water sources such as desalination and wastewater recycling is considered as sustainable alternative to the fundamental challenges of water scarcity. However, affordable and sustainable technologies need to be applied for the communities to benefit from the treatment of non-conventional water source. Membrane distillation is a potential desalination technology which can be used sustainably for this purpose. In this work multi-walled carbon nanotube embedded polyvinylidene fluoride membranes for application in membrane distillation desalination were prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation method. The casting solution was prepared using mixed solvents (N, N-dimethylacetamide and triethyl phosphate) at varying ratios to study the effect of solvent composition on membrane morphological structures. Membrane morphological features were studied using a number of techniques including scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, SAXSpace tensile strength analysis, membrane thickness, porosity and contact angle measurements. It was revealed that membrane hydrophobicity, thickness, tensile strength and surface roughness were increasing as the composition of N, N-dimethylacetamide in the solvent was increasing with maximum values obtained between 40 and 60% N, N-dimethylacetamide. Internal morphological structures were changing from cellular structures to short finger-like and sponge-like pores and finally to large macro void type of pores when the amount of N, N-dimethylacetamide in the solvent was changed from low to high respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotube embedded polyvinylidene fluoride membranes of desired morphological structures and physical properties can be synthesized by regulating the composition of solvents used to prepare the

  10. Structural, morphological and Raman studies on hybridized PVDF/BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, N.; Jayakumar, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2017-05-01

    Hybridized nanocomposites of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and nano - barium titanate (BaTiO3) were prepared using the solution casting method for different concentrations of nano-BaTiO3 and were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The flower like structure for morphology was observed in SEM. Raman analysis showed that the modified BaTiO3 particles, due to higher specific surfaces, induce, predominantly, the crystallization of the electrically active β-phase of PVDF, while the initial micron size particles induce the formation of the most common but non-polar α-crystal form.

  11. Scale-adaptive surface modeling of vascular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effective geometric modeling of vascular structures is crucial for diagnosis, therapy planning and medical education. These applications require good balance with respect to surface smoothness, surface accuracy, triangle quality and surface size. Methods Our method first extracts the vascular boundary voxels from the segmentation result, and utilizes these voxels to build a three-dimensional (3D point cloud whose normal vectors are estimated via covariance analysis. Then a 3D implicit indicator function is computed from the oriented 3D point cloud by solving a Poisson equation. Finally the vessel surface is generated by a proposed adaptive polygonization algorithm for explicit 3D visualization. Results Experiments carried out on several typical vascular structures demonstrate that the presented method yields both a smooth morphologically correct and a topologically preserved two-manifold surface, which is scale-adaptive to the local curvature of the surface. Furthermore, the presented method produces fewer and better-shaped triangles with satisfactory surface quality and accuracy. Conclusions Compared to other state-of-the-art approaches, our method reaches good balance in terms of smoothness, accuracy, triangle quality and surface size. The vessel surfaces produced by our method are suitable for applications such as computational fluid dynamics simulations and real-time virtual interventional surgery.

  12. Modeling the Excess Cell Surface Stored in a Complex Morphology of Bleb-Like Protrusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Kapustina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cells transition from spread to rounded morphologies in diverse physiological contexts including mitosis and mesenchymal-to-amoeboid transitions. When these drastic shape changes occur rapidly, cell volume and surface area are approximately conserved. Consequently, the rounded cells are suddenly presented with a several-fold excess of cell surface whose area far exceeds that of a smooth sphere enclosing the cell volume. This excess is stored in a population of bleb-like protrusions (BLiPs, whose size distribution is shown by electron micrographs to be skewed. We introduce three complementary models of rounded cell morphologies with a prescribed excess surface area. A 2D Hamiltonian model provides a mechanistic description of how discrete attachment points between the cell surface and cortex together with surface bending energy can generate a morphology that satisfies a prescribed excess area and BLiP number density. A 3D random seed-and-growth model simulates efficient packing of BLiPs over a primary rounded shape, demonstrating a pathway for skewed BLiP size distributions that recapitulate 3D morphologies. Finally, a phase field model (2D and 3D posits energy-based constitutive laws for the cell membrane, nematic F-actin cortex, interior cytosol, and external aqueous medium. The cell surface is equipped with a spontaneous curvature function, a proxy for the cell surface-cortex couple, that is a priori unknown, which the model "learns" from the thin section transmission electron micrograph image (2D or the "seed and growth" model image (3D. Converged phase field simulations predict self-consistent amplitudes and spatial localization of pressure and stress throughout the cell for any posited stationary morphology target and cell compartment constitutive properties. The models form a general framework for future studies of cell morphological dynamics in a variety of biological contexts.

  13. Analysis of a Model for the Morphological Structure of Renal Arterial Tree: Fractal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Espinoza-Valdez

    2013-01-01

    experimental data measurements of the rat kidneys. The fractal dimension depends on the probability of sprouting angiogenesis in the development of the arterial vascular tree of the kidney, that is, of the distribution of blood vessels in the morphology generated by the analytical model. The fractal dimension might determine whether a suitable renal vascular structure is capable of performing physiological functions under appropriate conditions. The analysis can describe the complex structures of the development vasculature in kidney.

  14. Effect of mass density on surface morphology of electrodeposited manganese oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2018-05-01

    This work focus on high surface area morphology of manganese oxide films which are currently required for electrochemical capacitor electrode to enhance their performance. Electrodeposition of manganese oxide films was carried out using Chronoamperometry for different deposition time ranging from 30 to 120 sec. Cronoamperomertic I-T integrated data have been used to analyze active mass of all electrodeposited films. Morphological study of the deposited films with different mass was carried out through scanning electron microscopy. Film deposited for 30 sec time show highest porous morphology than others. Manganese oxide films with high porosity are suitable for electrochemical capacitor electrode.

  15. The influence of the surface atomic structure on surface diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaleb, Dominique

    1984-03-01

    This work represents the first quantitative study of the influence of the surface atomic structure on surface diffusion (in the range: 0.2 Tf up 0.5 Tf; Tf: melting temperature of the substrate). The analysis of our results on a microscopic scale shows low formation and migration energies for adatoms; we can describe the diffusion on surfaces with a very simple model. On (110) surfaces at low temperature the diffusion is controlled by the exchange mechanism; at higher temperature direct jumps of adatoms along the channels contribute also to the diffusion process. (author) [fr

  16. Biomimetic surface structuring using cylindrical vector femtosecond laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulas, Evangelos; Manousaki, Alexandra; Fotakis, Costas; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    We report on a new, single-step and scalable method to fabricate highly ordered, multi-directional and complex surface structures that mimic the unique morphological features of certain species found in nature. Biomimetic surface structuring was realized by exploiting the unique and versatile angular profile and the electric field symmetry of cylindrical vector (CV) femtosecond (fs) laser beams. It is shown that, highly controllable, periodic structures exhibiting sizes at nano-, micro- and dual- micro/nano scales can be directly written on Ni upon line and large area scanning with radial and azimuthal polarization beams. Depending on the irradiation conditions, new complex multi-directional nanostructures, inspired by the Shark’s skin morphology, as well as superhydrophobic dual-scale structures mimicking the Lotus’ leaf water repellent properties can be attained. It is concluded that the versatility and features variations of structures formed is by far superior to those obtained via laser processing with linearly polarized beams. More important, by exploiting the capabilities offered by fs CV fields, the present technique can be further extended to fabricate even more complex and unconventional structures. We believe that our approach provides a new concept in laser materials processing, which can be further exploited for expanding the breadth and novelty of applications.

  17. Morphology of Nano and Micro Fiber Structures in Ultrafine Particles Filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmer, Dusan; Vincent, Ivo; Fenyk, Jan; Petras, David; Zatloukal, Martin; Sambaer, Wannes; Zdimal, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Selected procedures permitting to prepare homogeneous nanofibre structures of the desired morphology by employing a suitable combination of variables during the electrospinning process are presented. A comparison (at the same pressure drop) was made of filtration capabilities of planar polyurethane nanostructures formed exclusively by nanofibres, space polycarbonate nanostructures having bead spacers, structures formed by a combination of polymethyl methacrylate micro- and nanofibres and polypropylene meltblown microstructures, through which ultrafine particles of ammonium sulphate 20-400 nm in size were filtered. The structures studied were described using a new digital image analysis technique based on black and white images obtained by scanning electron microscopy. More voluminous structures modified with distance microspheres and having a greater thickness and mass per square area of the material, i.e. structures possessing better mechanical properties, demanded so much in nanostructures, enable preparation of filters having approximately the same free volume fraction as flat nanofibre filters but an increased effective fibre surface area, changed pore size morphology and, consequently, a higher filter quality.

  18. Screen-printed carbon electrode modified on its surface with amorphous carbon nitride thin film: Electrochemical and morphological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamouss, F. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France); Tessier, P.-Y. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Djouadi, A. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Besland, M.-P. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Boujtita, M. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France)]. E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.fr

    2007-04-20

    The surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified by using amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN {sub x}) thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to characterise respectively the morphology and the chemical structure of the a-CN {sub x} modified electrodes. The incorporation of nitrogen in the amorphous carbon network was demonstrated by X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The a-CN {sub x} layers were deposited on both carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) and silicon (Si) substrates. A comparative study showed that the nature of substrate, i.e. SPCE and Si, has a significant effect on both the surface morphology of deposited a-CN {sub x} film and their electrochemical properties. The improvement of the electrochemical reactivity of SPCE after a-CN {sub x} film deposition was highlighted both by comparing the shapes of voltammograms and calculating the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant.

  19. Effects of aqueous ammonia treatment on fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Tang Pei; Hassan, Osman

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aqueous ammonia reflux and soaked treatment on the fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). The surface morphological changes of the fiber after aqueous ammonia treatment was linked to the sugars yield by enzymatic hydrolysis. The effectiveness of 6.25% aqueous ammonia treatment in improving enzymatic digestibility of EFBF was initially studied in reflux system and by soaking. The results showed that soaked treatment was more effective than reflux system. Further study on soaked treatment of EFBF was carried out by increasing the ammonia concentration to 12.50%. Soaking in aqueous ammonia was conducted at 30°C and 50°C for 24 hours. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis showed that sugar yield from EFBF soaked in 12.50% aqueous ammonia at 50°C was the highest. Approximately 242.91±15.50 mg/g EFBF of xylose and 320.49±28.31 mg/g EFBF of glucose were produced by the action of enzyme Cellic Ctec 2. Results of scanning electron microscopic showed that aqueous ammonia treatment by soaking had caused a more severe structural distortion on the fiber’s surface and higher removal of silica bodies that embedded on the fiber than those in reflux system. The changes on the fiber’s surface morphology were believed is the contributing factor that improved the enzymatic digestibility of EFBF after aqueous ammonia treatment

  20. Effects of aqueous ammonia treatment on fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Tang Pei; Hassan, Osman [Department of Food Science, School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aqueous ammonia reflux and soaked treatment on the fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). The surface morphological changes of the fiber after aqueous ammonia treatment was linked to the sugars yield by enzymatic hydrolysis. The effectiveness of 6.25% aqueous ammonia treatment in improving enzymatic digestibility of EFBF was initially studied in reflux system and by soaking. The results showed that soaked treatment was more effective than reflux system. Further study on soaked treatment of EFBF was carried out by increasing the ammonia concentration to 12.50%. Soaking in aqueous ammonia was conducted at 30°C and 50°C for 24 hours. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis showed that sugar yield from EFBF soaked in 12.50% aqueous ammonia at 50°C was the highest. Approximately 242.91±15.50 mg/g EFBF of xylose and 320.49±28.31 mg/g EFBF of glucose were produced by the action of enzyme Cellic Ctec 2. Results of scanning electron microscopic showed that aqueous ammonia treatment by soaking had caused a more severe structural distortion on the fiber’s surface and higher removal of silica bodies that embedded on the fiber than those in reflux system. The changes on the fiber’s surface morphology were believed is the contributing factor that improved the enzymatic digestibility of EFBF after aqueous ammonia treatment.

  1. Effects of aqueous ammonia treatment on fiber's surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tang Pei; Hassan, Osman

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aqueous ammonia reflux and soaked treatment on the fiber's surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). The surface morphological changes of the fiber after aqueous ammonia treatment was linked to the sugars yield by enzymatic hydrolysis. The effectiveness of 6.25% aqueous ammonia treatment in improving enzymatic digestibility of EFBF was initially studied in reflux system and by soaking. The results showed that soaked treatment was more effective than reflux system. Further study on soaked treatment of EFBF was carried out by increasing the ammonia concentration to 12.50%. Soaking in aqueous ammonia was conducted at 30°C and 50°C for 24 hours. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis showed that sugar yield from EFBF soaked in 12.50% aqueous ammonia at 50°C was the highest. Approximately 242.91±15.50 mg/g EFBF of xylose and 320.49±28.31 mg/g EFBF of glucose were produced by the action of enzyme Cellic Ctec 2. Results of scanning electron microscopic showed that aqueous ammonia treatment by soaking had caused a more severe structural distortion on the fiber's surface and higher removal of silica bodies that embedded on the fiber than those in reflux system. The changes on the fiber's surface morphology were believed is the contributing factor that improved the enzymatic digestibility of EFBF after aqueous ammonia treatment.

  2. Morphology and microstructure of Ag islands of aggregated atoms on oil surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chu-Hang; Lü Neng; Zhang Xiao-Fei; Saida Ajeeb; Xia A-Gen; Ye Gao-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The morphology evolution of silver islands on silicone oil surfaces is measured and the microstructure of the islands is studied. The deposited Ag atoms diffuse and aggregate on the oil surface and then Ag islands with the width of the order of 102-nm form. After the samples are removed from the vacuum chamber, the immediate measurement shows that the apparent Ag coverage of the total area decays with the magnitude up to (23.0±3.8)% in few minutes. In the following two hours, the samples are kept in the ambient atmosphere and several unexpected results are detected: 1)as the topological structure of the islands evolves, the total area of each island decreases gradually and the maximum decrement measured is around 20%; 2) if an island breaks and becomes two small pieces, the total area decreases obviously; 3) however, if two small islands meet and stick together, a sudden increment of the total area is observed.These phenomena, mirroring the evolution process of the island microstructure, are resulted from both the diffusion of the atoms and the combination of the defects inside the islands.

  3. Investigation of the surface morphology of ion-bombarded biocompatible materials with a SEM and profilograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Z.W.

    1984-01-01

    The surface morphology (topography and roughness) is a very important factor which affects the response of biological tissue to an implant material. The effect of an incident ion beam on surface morphology of various biocompatible materials was studied. All materials were bombarded by Ar + ions at an applied voltage of 7 kV at various incident angles from 0 to 1.4 rad (0 to 80 deg) and at a beam current up to 0.1 mA. The surface topographies of ion-bombarded samples were examined with a Japan Electron Optics Laboratory, model JSM-35, scanning electron microscope. The roughness of the surface was calculated from the shape of a surface profile, which was recorded by a profilograph, the ME 10 (supplied by VEB Carl Zeiss, Jena). (author)

  4. Linking morphology to ecosystem structure using satellite for monitoring Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipponi, F.; Valentini, E.; Taramelli, A.; Giulio, S.; Persichillo, M.; D'Alpaos, A.

    2013-12-01

    typologies and cover percent, sediment typology and length of the different branches highlighting the mosaic of spatial pattern of vegetation, sediments and morphology. Then our results support the fact that the most frequent patch sizes, corresponding to the smallest vegetation patches as consistent with a power law relationship, are associated with the highest length values and specific sediments values; as the patch sizes become larger, and thus less frequent, the length next to patches decreases and reaches much lower values in relations to sediments classes. This indicates that at first, the formation of small vegetation patches increases flow resistance and facilitates the formation of new morphology; at the same time, when a threshold size is reached (due to patch growth or merging between adjacent patches), vegetation controls length of the different branches. In the framework of spatial self-organization, this method gives rise to a new approach to the study of landscape-forming processes, taking into account the prominent role of living organisms in shaping Earth's surface, in order to develop new instruments and tools that allow modular variation of spatial and temporal scales of observation (i.e. from local to regional; from seasonal to inter annual) that is mandatory for a valuable implementation of current management and conservation strategies (Integrated Coastal Zone Management).

  5. Grammatical categories in the brain: the role of morphological structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, O; Randall, B; Stamatakis, E A; Tyler, L K

    2007-08-01

    The current study addresses the controversial issue of how different grammatical categories are neurally processed. Several lesion-deficit studies suggest that distinct neural substrates underlie the representation of nouns and verbs, with verb deficits associated with damage to left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and noun deficits with damage to left temporal cortex. However, this view is not universally shared by neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We have suggested that these inconsistencies may reflect interactions between the morphological structure of nouns and verbs and the processing implications of this, rather than differences in their neural representations (Tyler et al. 2004). We tested this hypothesis using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, to scan subjects performing a valence judgment on unambiguous nouns and verbs, presented as stems ('snail, hear') and inflected forms ('snails, hears'). We predicted that activations for noun and verb stems would not differ, whereas inflected verbs would generate more activation in left frontotemporal areas than inflected nouns. Our findings supported this hypothesis, with greater activation of this network for inflected verbs compared with inflected nouns. These results support the claim that form class is not a first-order organizing principle underlying the representation of words but rather interacts with the processes that operate over lexical representations.

  6. Nanoscale roughness and morphology affect the IsoElectric Point of titania surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Borghi

    Full Text Available We report on the systematic investigation of the role of surface nanoscale roughness and morphology on the charging behaviour of nanostructured titania (TiO2 surfaces in aqueous solutions. IsoElectric Points (IEPs of surfaces have been characterized by direct measurement of the electrostatic double layer interactions between titania surfaces and the micrometer-sized spherical silica probe of an atomic force microscope in NaCl aqueous electrolyte. The use of a colloidal probe provides well-defined interaction geometry and allows effectively probing the overall effect of nanoscale morphology. By using supersonic cluster beam deposition to fabricate nanostructured titania films, we achieved a quantitative control over the surface morphological parameters. We performed a systematical exploration of the electrical double layer properties in different interaction regimes characterized by different ratios of characteristic nanometric lengths of the system: the surface rms roughness Rq, the correlation length ξ and the Debye length λD. We observed a remarkable reduction by several pH units of IEP on rough nanostructured surfaces, with respect to flat crystalline rutile TiO2. In order to explain the observed behavior of IEP, we consider the roughness-induced self-overlap of the electrical double layers as a potential source of deviation from the trend expected for flat surfaces.

  7. Atomic force microscopic study of the effects of ethanol on yeast cell surface morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Adya, Ashok K; Walker, Graeme M

    2006-02-01

    The detrimental effects of ethanol toxicity on the cell surface morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354) were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). In combination with culture viability and mean cell volume measurements AFM studies allowed us to relate the cell surface morphological changes, observed on nanometer lateral resolution, with the cellular stress physiology. Exposing yeasts to increasing stressful concentrations of ethanol led to decreased cell viabilities and mean cell volumes. Together with the roughness and bearing volume analyses of the AFM images, the results provided novel insight into the relative ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae and Sc. pombe.

  8. Influences of chemical aging on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Majbritt Deichgræber; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2008-01-01

    The impact of aging in high humidity and water on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers has been studied using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The results show that interaction between...... the fibers and the surrounding media (high humidity or water at 70 C) leads to chemical changes strongly affecting the surface morphology. The crystallization peak temperature of the basaltic glass fibers are increased without changing the onset temperature, this may be caused by a chemical depletion...

  9. Diamond surface: atomic and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental studies of the diamond surface (with primary emphasis on the (111) surface) are presented. Aspects of the diamond surface which are addressed include (1) the electronic structure, (2) the atomic structure, and (3) the effect of termination of the lattice by foreign atoms. Limited studies of graphite are discussed for comparison with the diamond results. Experimental results from valence band and core level photoemission spectroscopy (PES), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and carbon 1s near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy (both the total electron yield (TEY) and Auger electron yield (AEY) techniques) are used to study and characterize both the clean and hydrogenated surface. In addition, the interaction of hydrogen with the diamond surface is examined using results from vibrational high resolution low energy electron loss spectroscopy (in collaboration with Waclawski, Pierce, Swanson, and Celotta at the National Bureau of Standards) and photon stimulated ion desorption (PSID) yield at photon energies near the carbon k-edge (hv greater than or equal to 280 eV). Both EELS and PSID verify that the mechanically polished 1 x 1 surface is hydrogen terminated and also that the reconstructed surface is hydrogen free. The (111) 2 x 2/2 x 1 reconstructed surface is obtained from the hydrogenated (111) 1 x 1:H surface by annealing to approx. = 1000 0 C. We observe occupied intrinsic surface states and a surface chemical shift (0.95 +- 0.1 eV) to lower binding energy of the carbon 1s level on the hydrogen-free reconstructed surface. Atomic hydrogen is found to be reactive with the reconstructed surface, while molecular hydrogen is relatively inert. Exposure of the reconstructed surface to atomic hydrogen results in chemisorption of hydrogen and removal of the intrinsic surface state emission in and near the band gap region

  10. Structural, morphological and electroluminescence studies of Zno:Co nanophosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2016-09-01

    The nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with various concentrations of cobalt (Co) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effect of doping concentration on structural and morphological properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell volume, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density are also studied. Here, we also compared the interplaner spacing and relative peak intensities from their standard values with different angles. Crystallite sizes have been calculated by Debye-Scherrer's formula whose values are decreasing with increase in cobalt content up to 3 %. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods was (101). The XRD analysis also ensures that ZnO has a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The electroluminescence (EL) cells were prepared by placing pure and cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles between ITO-coated conducting glass plate and aluminium foil. Alternating voltage of various frequencies was applied, and EL brightness at different voltages was measured and corresponding current was also recorded. The voltage dependence of electroluminescence (EL) brightness of the ZnO:Co shows exponential increase. The linear voltage-current characteristic indicates ohmic nature. The EL brightness at a particular voltage is found to increase by increasing Co doping, but for higher percentage of Co the EL brightness is reduced. It is also seen that Co does not influence the threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  11. Porous structure and morphology of granular chars from flash and conventional pyrolysis of grape seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Cordero, Diana; Heras, Francisco; Alonso-Morales, Noelia; Gilarranz, Miguel A.; Rodriguez, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the influence of the operating conditions used in the pyrolysis of grape seeds on the morphology and textural properties of the chars resulting. Flash and conventional (283 K min −1 heating rate) pyrolysis have been used within a wide range of temperature (300–1000 °C). The effect of a pretreatment for oil extraction has also been studied. The porous structure of the chars was characterized by adsorption of N 2 at 77 K, Ar at 77 K and 87 K, and CO 2 at 273 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. All the materials prepared revealed an essentially microporous structure, with a poor or even negligible contribution of mesopores. Increasing pyrolysis temperature led to higher specific surface areas and lower pore size. The highest specific surface area values occurred within 700–800 °C, reaching up to 500 m 2 g −1 with pore sizes in the 0.4–1.1 nm range. No significant morphological changes were observed upon carbonization so that the resulting chars were granular materials of similar size than the starting grape seeds. The hollow core structure of the chars, with most of the material allocated at the periphery of the granules can help to overcome the mass transfer limitations of most common (solid or massive) granular activated carbons. The chars showed a good mechanical strength during attrition tests. These chars can be potential candidates for the preparation of granular carbons molecular sieve or activated carbons raw materials. -- Highlights: •We use a raw material that has a very low price and a high availability. •Not very much attention has been paid to this waste for carbonaceous materials preparation. •The chars obtained have high specific surface area that is an interesting starting point for later activation processes. •The chars show a micro-macro porous bimodal distribution. •Pyrolysis does not affect to morphology or initial seed, leading a carbonized

  12. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajaib; Schipmann, Susanne; Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan; Sengupta, Amartya; Klemradt, Uwe; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-08-01

    The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2-7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  13. Unoccupied surface electronic structure of Gd(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Dowben, P.A.; Ortega, J.E.; Himpsel, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The unoccupied surface electronic structure of Gd(0001) was investigated with high-resolution inverse-photoemission spectroscopy. An empty surface state near E F is observed at bar Γ. Two other surface-sensitive features are also revealed at 1.2 and 3.1 eV above the Fermi level. Hydrogen adsorption on Gd surfaces was used to distinguish the surface-sensitive features from the bulk features. The unoccupied bulk-band critical points are determined to be Γ 3 + at 1.9 eV and A 1 at 0.8 eV

  14. Surface Chloride Levels in Colorado Structural Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This project focused on the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The primary goal of this project is to analyze the surface chloride concentration level of the concrete bridge decks throughout Colorado. The study in...

  15. Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2013-01-01

    the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how

  16. Structural and morphological changes in P3HT thin film transistors applying an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Deepak Kumar; Grigorian, Souren; Pietsch, Ullrich [University of Siegen (Germany); Flesch, Heinz; Resel, Roland [University of Siegen (Germany); Graz University of Technology (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    We report on electric field dependent crystalline structure and morphological changes of drop casting and spin coated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin films. In order to probe the morphological changes induced by an applied electric field the samples were covered with thin source/drain electrodes separated by a small channel of 2 mm width. A series of x-ray reflectivity, X-ray grazing incidence out-of-plane and in-plane scans have been performed as function of the applied electric voltage. The (100) peak shows a decrease in intensity with increase of the applied electric field. This might be caused by Joule heating and the creation of current induced defects in the P3HT film. On other hand the (020) peak intensity shows much stronger changes with applied field. Considering the *-* stacking direction the measured effect can be directly related to a change in the electric transport. The observed changes in structure are reversible and the current-voltage cycle can be repeated several times. For X-ray reflectivity major changes have been found close to critical angle of total external reflection indicating the film becomes less dense and increases in surface roughness with increase of the voltage. This change in surface behaviour could be confirmed by in-situ AFM measurements.

  17. Morphological bubble evolution induced by air diffusion on submerged hydrophobic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pengyu; Xiang, Yaolei; Xue, Yahui; Lin, Hao; Duan, Huiling

    2017-03-01

    Bubbles trapped in the cavities always play important roles in the underwater applications of structured hydrophobic surfaces. Air exchange between bubbles and surrounding water has a significant influence on the morphological bubble evolution, which in turn frequently affects the functionalities of the surfaces, such as superhydrophobicity and drag reduction. In this paper, air diffusion induced bubble evolution on submerged hydrophobic micropores under reduced pressures is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The morphological behaviors of collective and single bubbles are observed using confocal microscopy. Four representative evolution phases of bubbles are captured in situ. After depressurization, bubbles will not only grow and coalesce but also shrink and split although the applied pressure remains negative. A diffusion-based model is used to analyze the evolution behavior and the results are consistent with the experimental data. A criterion for bubble growth and shrinkage is also derived along with a phase diagram, revealing that the competition of effective gas partial pressures across the two sides of the diffusion layer dominates the bubble evolution process. Strategies for controlling the bubble evolution behavior are also proposed based on the phase diagram. The current work provides a further understanding of the general behavior of bubble evolution induced by air diffusion and can be employed to better designs of functional microstructured hydrophobic surfaces.

  18. Structural and morphological transformations of TiO2 nanotube arrays induced by excimer laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Ming-Yi; Thang, Nguyen Van; Wang Chih; Leu Jihperng

    2012-01-01

    The structural and morphological transformations of TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) treated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) were investigated as a function of the laser fluence using parallel and tilted modes. Results showed that the crystallinity of the ELA-treated TNAs reached only about 50% relative to that of TNAs treated by furnace anneal at 400 °C for 1 h. The phase transformation starts from the top surface of the TNAs with surface damage resulting from short penetration depth and limited one-dimensional heat transport from the surface to the bottom under extremely short pulse duration (25 ns) of the excimer laser. When a tilted mode was used, the crystallinity of TNAs treated by ELA at 85° was increased to 90% relative to that by the furnace anneal. This can be attributed to the increased area of the laser energy interaction zone and better heat conduction to both ends of the TNAs. - Highlights: ► We examined the morphology and microstructure of TNAs treated by ELA. ► Crystallinity of parallel ELA-treated TNAs reached ∼50% of furnace anneal. ► Tilted ELA at 85o enhanced the degree of crystallization in TNAs to 90%.

  19. Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smitrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    followed by numerical and experimental verification. The approach comprises verifying all design and fabrication steps required to produce a desired appearance. We expect that the procedure in the future will yield structurally colored surfaces with appealing prescribed visual appearances.......We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design...

  20. Morphology and pore structure of rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, L.A.; Hoang, M.; Hardin, S.; Turney, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy of rare earth oxides, prepared by two different routes, has been related to adsorption, characteristics for nitrogen at 77 K. The most common morphology was that of thin sheets, then small equiaxed particles, and, more rarely, rod-like particles. The presence of small equiaxed particles was found to be a prerequisite for adsorption hysteresis. Evaluation of linear 't' plots indicated freedom from micropores in all samples, but positive deviations in the presence of sheet morphology at high relative pressures left open the possibility of wedge-like pores in these samples. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Optimization of surface morphology and scattering properties of TCO/AIT textured glass front electrode for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addonizio, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.addonizio@enea.it; Fusco, L.; Antonaia, A.; Cominale, F.; Usatii, I.

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aluminium induced texture (AIT) method has been used for obtaining highly textured glass substrates. • The effect of wet etch step on morphological and optical properties has been analyzed. • The morphology features have been optimized in order to obtain the best scattering properties. • Different ZnO surface textures, depending on the underlying glass substrate structures, are obtained. • The effect of different glass texture on optical confinement has been tested in a-Si:H devices. - Abstract: Aluminium induced texture (AIT) method has been used for obtaining highly textured glass substrate suitable for silicon based thin film solar cell technology. Wet etch step parameters of AIT process have been varied and effect of different etchants and different etching times on morphological and optical properties has been analyzed. The resulting morphology features (shape, size distribution, inclination angle) have been optimized in order to obtain the best scattering properties. ZnO:Ga (GZO) films have been deposited by sputtering technique on AIT-processed glass. Two different ZnO surface morphologies have been obtained, strongly depending on the underlying glass substrate morphology induced by different etching times. Very rough and porous texture (σ{sub rms} ∼ 150 nm) was obtained on glass etched 2 min showing cauliflower-like structure, whereas a softer texture (σ{sub rms} ∼ 78 nm) was obtained on glass etched 7 min giving wider and smoother U-shaped craters. The effect of different glass textures on optical confinement has been tested in amorphous silicon based p-i-n devices. Devices fabricated on GZO/high textured glass showed a quantum efficiency enhancement due to both an effective light trapping phenomenon and an effective anti-reflective optical behaviour. Short etching time produce smaller cavities (<1 μm) with deep U-shape characterized by high roughness, high inclination angle and low autocorrelation

  2. Structural and morphological characterization of TiO2 powders prepared using Pechini and combustion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Almeida, E.P.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da; Lira, H.L.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 is a semiconductor oxide and polymorphic and can exist in three crystallographic forms: anatase, rutile and broquita, and forms anatase and rutile are the major interests in scientific research. Thus, this study aims to synthesize TiO 2 by Pechini methods and combustion reaction and to evaluate the influence of synthesis methods in structural and morphological characteristics of the samples. The nanopowders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, and particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy. The results of X-ray diffraction showed that the samples obtained by the Pechini method showed the single phase anatase with crystallite size of 20 nm and surface area of 49.44 m 2 /g, whereas the samples synthesized by combustion reaction using glycine as fuel showed the rutile phase as major phase and traces of anatase phase, with crystallite size of 65 nm and surface area 4.34 m 2 /g. (author)

  3. Impact of structure and morphology of nanostructured ceria coating on AISI 304 oxidation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aadhavan, R.; Suresh Babu, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ceria coating reduced the oxidation kinetics of AISI304 by 3–4 orders. • Lower deposition rate (0.1 Å/s) resulted in dense and uniform coating. • Substrate temperature of 100 °C provided coating with smaller crystallite size. • Surface morphology of the coating has strong influence in oxidation protection. - Abstract: Nanostructured ceria-based coatings are shown to be protective against high-temperature oxidation of AISI 304 due to the dynamics of oxidation state and associated defects. However, the processing parameters of deposition have a strong influence in determining the structural and morphological aspects of ceria. The present work focuses on the effect of variation in substrate temperature (50–300 °C) and deposition rate (0.1–50 Å/s) of ceria in electron beam physical vapour evaporation method and correlates the changes in structure and morphology to high-temperature oxidation protection. Unlike deposition rate, substrate temperature exhibited a profound influence on crystallite size (7–18 nm) and oxygen vacancy concentration. Upon isothermal oxidation at 1243 K for 24 h, bare AISI 304 exhibited a linear mass gain with a rate constant of 3.0 ± 0.03 × 10"−"3 kg"2 m"−"4 s"−"1 while ceria coating lowered the kinetics by 3–4 orders. Though the thickness of the coating was kept constant at 2 μm, higher deposition rate offered one order lower protection due to the porous nature of the coating. Variation in the substrate temperature modulated the porosity as well as oxygen vacancy concentration and displayed the best protection for coatings deposited at moderate substrate temperature. The present work demonstrates the significance of selecting appropriate processing parameters to obtain the required morphology for efficient high-temperature oxidation protection.

  4. Impact of structure and morphology of nanostructured ceria coating on AISI 304 oxidation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadhavan, R.; Suresh Babu, K., E-mail: sureshbabu.nst@pondiuni.edu.in

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Ceria coating reduced the oxidation kinetics of AISI304 by 3–4 orders. • Lower deposition rate (0.1 Å/s) resulted in dense and uniform coating. • Substrate temperature of 100 °C provided coating with smaller crystallite size. • Surface morphology of the coating has strong influence in oxidation protection. - Abstract: Nanostructured ceria-based coatings are shown to be protective against high-temperature oxidation of AISI 304 due to the dynamics of oxidation state and associated defects. However, the processing parameters of deposition have a strong influence in determining the structural and morphological aspects of ceria. The present work focuses on the effect of variation in substrate temperature (50–300 °C) and deposition rate (0.1–50 Å/s) of ceria in electron beam physical vapour evaporation method and correlates the changes in structure and morphology to high-temperature oxidation protection. Unlike deposition rate, substrate temperature exhibited a profound influence on crystallite size (7–18 nm) and oxygen vacancy concentration. Upon isothermal oxidation at 1243 K for 24 h, bare AISI 304 exhibited a linear mass gain with a rate constant of 3.0 ± 0.03 × 10{sup −3} kg{sup 2} m{sup −4} s{sup −1} while ceria coating lowered the kinetics by 3–4 orders. Though the thickness of the coating was kept constant at 2 μm, higher deposition rate offered one order lower protection due to the porous nature of the coating. Variation in the substrate temperature modulated the porosity as well as oxygen vacancy concentration and displayed the best protection for coatings deposited at moderate substrate temperature. The present work demonstrates the significance of selecting appropriate processing parameters to obtain the required morphology for efficient high-temperature oxidation protection.

  5. The structure of reconstructed chalcopyrite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinius, Sascha; Islam, Mazharul M.; Bredow, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) surfaces are of major interest for copper exploitation in aqueous solution, called leaching. Since leaching is a surface process knowledge of the surface structure, bonding pattern and oxidation states is important for improving the efficiency. At present such information is not available from experimental studies. Therefore a detailed computational study of chalcopyrite surfaces is performed. The structures of low-index stoichiometric chalcopyrite surfaces {hkl} h, k, l ∈ {0, 1, 2} have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) and global optimization strategies. We have applied ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) in combination with simulated annealing (SA) in order to explore possible reconstructions via a minima hopping (MH) algorithm. In almost all cases reconstruction involving substantial rearrangement has occurred accompanied by reduction of the surface energy. The analysis of the change in the coordination sphere and migration during reconstruction reveals that S-S dimers are formed on the surface. Further it was observed that metal atoms near the surface move toward the bulk forming metal alloys passivated by sulfur. The obtained surface energies of reconstructed surfaces are in the range of 0.53-0.95 J/m2.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1708-1 - Surface structures; fireproof construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface structures; fireproof construction. 75... Surface structures; fireproof construction. Structures of fireproof construction is interpreted to mean structures with fireproof exterior surfaces. ...

  7. Nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films: Structural, morphological, electrical transport and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhare, R.D.; Khuspe, G.D.; Navale, S.T.; Mulik, R.N.; Chougule, M.A.; Pawar, R.C.; Lee, C.S.; Sen, Shashwati; Patil, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel chemical route of synthesis of SnO 2 films. ► Physical properties SnO 2 are influenced by process temperature. ► The room temperature electrical conductivity of SnO 2 is of 10 −7 –10 −5 (Ω cm) −1 . ► SnO 2 exhibit high absorption coefficient (10 4 cm −1 ). -- Abstract: Sol–gel spin coating method has been successfully employed for preparation of nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films. The effect of processing temperature on the structure, morphology, electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power and band gap was studied using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction pattern, atomic force microscopy, two probe technique and UV–visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that SnO 2 films are crystallized in the tetragonal phase and present a random orientation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis revealed that surface morphology of the tin oxide film consists nanocrystalline grains with uniform coverage of the substrate surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of SnO 2 film showed nanocrystals having diameter ranging from 5 to 10 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirms tetragonal phase evolution of SnO 2 . Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed surface morphology of SnO 2 film is smooth. The dc electrical conductivity showed the semiconducting nature with room temperature electrical conductivity increased from 10 −7 to 10 −5 (Ω cm) −1 as processing temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C. Thermo power measurement confirms n-type conduction. The band gap energy of SnO 2 film decreased from 3.88 to 3.60 eV as processing temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C

  8. Sub-µm structured lotus surfaces manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgull, Matthias; Heckele, Mathias; Mappes, Timo

    2009-01-01

    . Unlike to stochastic methods, patterning with a LIGA-mold insert it is possible to structure surfaces very uniformly or even with controlled variations (e.g., with gradients). In this paper we present the process chain to realize polymer sub-lm structures with minimum lateral feature size of 400 nm...

  9. Sub-µ structured Lotus Surfaces Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgull, Matthias; Heckele, Mathias; Mappes, Timo

    2008-01-01

    . Unlike to stochastic methods, patternin¬g with a LIGA-mold insert it is possible to structure surfaces very uniformly or even with controlled variations (e.g. with gradients). In this paper we present the process chain to realize polymer sub-micro structures with minimum lateral feature size of 400 nm...

  10. Quantitative morphological and compositional evaluation of laboratory prepared aluminoborosilicate glass surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yuxuan, E-mail: yg4@alfred.edu; Wren, Anthony W.; Mellott, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aluminoborosilicate glass surfaces were prepared through both melting and polishing/etching and the surface composition and morphology were quantified as a function of processing method. • Glass surface morphology was quantified using PSD analysis, followed by both fractal and ABC model fitting, resulting in a comprehensive description of the spatial distribution of roughness. • All melt surfaces showed a depletion in Na, Ca, and B with respect to the bulk composition. Polished/etched surfaces showed a depletion in Na, B, and Al with respect to the bulk composition. • It was found that increasing heat treatment temperature of melt surfaces lead to a decrease in equivalent roughness and an increased spatial homogeneity of roughness while etching of polished ISG glass surfaces decreases the roughness and spatial distribution homogeneity of roughness. - Abstract: Surface finishing techniques including polishing, etching and heat treatment can modify the topography and the surface chemical composition of glasses. It is widely acknowledged that atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to quantify the morphology of surfaces, providing various parameters including average, peak-to-valley, and apparent root-mean-square roughness. Furthermore advanced power spectral density (PSD) analysis of AFM-derived surface profiles offers quantification of the spatial homogeneity of roughness values along different wavelengths, resulting in parameters including equivalent RMS, Hurst exponent, and fractal dimension. Outermost surface (∼8 nm) chemical composition can be quantitatively measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In this paper, we first developed a series of surface finishing methods for an aluminoborosilicate glass system by polishing, etching or heat treatment. The chemical composition and environment of prepared glass surfaces were quantified by XPS and topographical analysis was carried out by fractal and k

  11. MR imaging of brain surface structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, Kazuhiro; Anno, Hirofumi; Takesita, Gen; Koga, Sukehiko; Kanno, Tetuo; Sakakibara, Tatuo; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Saito, Sigeki.

    1989-01-01

    An imaging technique that permits direct and non-invasive visualization of brain surface structures was proposed. This technique (Surface anatomy scanning, SAS) consists of long TE-long TR spin echo sequence, thick slice and surface coil. Initial clinical trials in 31 patients with various cerebral pathology showed excellent visualization of sulci, gyri and major cortical veins on the lateral surface of the brain together with cortical and subcortical lesions. Our preliminary results indicate that the SAS is an effective method for the diagnosis and localization of cortical and subcortical pathology, and the possible application of SAS to the surgical and the radiation therapy planning is sugessted. (author)

  12. Morphology, structure and ontogeny of trichomes of the grape genus (Vitis, Vitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yao eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. In our observation, the glandular trichomes of V. romanetii can secret mucilage and send out volatile substance so that many insects are often glued to glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  13. Size- and morphology-dependent optical properties of ZnS:Al one-dimensional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xianghua, E-mail: xhzeng@yzu.edu.cn; Yan, Shunjun; Cui, Jieya; Liu, Hongfei; Dong, Jing; Xia, Weiwei; Zhou, Min; Chen, Haitao [Yangzhou University, School of Physics Science and Technology & Institute of Optoelectronic Technology (China)

    2015-04-15

    Typical morphology substrates can improve the efficiency of surface-enhanced Raman scattering; the need for SERS substrates of controlled morphology requires an extensive study. In this paper, one-dimensional ZnS:Al nanostructures with the width of approximately 300 nm and the length of tens um, and micro-scale structures with the width of several um and the length of tens um were synthesized via thermal evaporation on Au-coated silicon substrates and were used to study their size effects on Raman scattering and photoluminescent spectra. The photoluminescence spectra reveal the strongest green emission at a 5 at% Al source, which originates from the Al-dopant emission. The Raman spectra reveal that the size and morphology of the ZnS:Al nanowires greatly influences the Raman scattering, whereas the Al-dopant concentration has a lesser effect on the Raman scattering. The observed Raman scattering intensity of the saw-like ZnS:Al nanowires with the width of tens nm was eight times larger than that of the bulk sample. The enhanced Raman scattering can be regarded as multiple scattering and weak exciton—phonon coupling. The branched one-dimensional nanostructure can be used as an ideal substrate to enhance Raman scattering.

  14. Effect of Yeast Cell Morphology, Cell Wall Physical Structure and Chemical Composition on Patulin Adsorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Luo

    Full Text Available The capability of yeast to adsorb patulin in fruit juice can aid in substantially reducing the patulin toxic effect on human health. This study aimed to investigate the capability of yeast cell morphology and cell wall internal structure and composition to adsorb patulin. To compare different yeast cell morphologies, cell wall internal structure and composition, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and ion chromatography were used. The results indicated that patulin adsorption capability of yeast was influenced by cell surface areas, volume, and cell wall thickness, as well as 1,3-β-glucan content. Among these factors, cell wall thickness and 1,3-β-glucan content serve significant functions. The investigation revealed that patulin adsorption capability was mainly affected by the three-dimensional network structure of the cell wall composed of 1,3-β-glucan. Finally, patulin adsorption in commercial kiwi fruit juice was investigated, and the results indicated that yeast cells could adsorb patulin from commercial kiwi fruit juice efficiently. This study can potentially simulate in vitro cell walls to enhance patulin adsorption capability and successfully apply to fruit juice industry.

  15. Effect of Yeast Cell Morphology, Cell Wall Physical Structure and Chemical Composition on Patulin Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Bin; Wang, Zhouli; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-01-01

    The capability of yeast to adsorb patulin in fruit juice can aid in substantially reducing the patulin toxic effect on human health. This study aimed to investigate the capability of yeast cell morphology and cell wall internal structure and composition to adsorb patulin. To compare different yeast cell morphologies, cell wall internal structure and composition, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and ion chromatography were used. The results indicated that patulin adsorption capability of yeast was influenced by cell surface areas, volume, and cell wall thickness, as well as 1,3-β-glucan content. Among these factors, cell wall thickness and 1,3-β-glucan content serve significant functions. The investigation revealed that patulin adsorption capability was mainly affected by the three-dimensional network structure of the cell wall composed of 1,3-β-glucan. Finally, patulin adsorption in commercial kiwi fruit juice was investigated, and the results indicated that yeast cells could adsorb patulin from commercial kiwi fruit juice efficiently. This study can potentially simulate in vitro cell walls to enhance patulin adsorption capability and successfully apply to fruit juice industry.

  16. Morphology and internal structure of a dormant landslide in a hilly area: The Collinabos landslide (Belgium )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Verstraeten, G.; Poesen, J.

    2007-09-01

    This study attempts to reconstruct the history of the Collinabos landslide, a landslide with a fresh morphology that is representative for more than 150 dormant, deep-seated (> 3 m) landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). A geomorphological map was created based on LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-derived maps and detailed field surveys. The map showed that the landslide consisted of three zones with significant differences in surface topography. The northern landslide zone 1 is characterised by at least five reverse slopes, whereas zones 2 and 3, the southern landslide zones, have only two reverse slopes and a convex foot. Electric resistivity profiles measured in zones 1 and 2 revealed that the differences in surface topography were not related to differences in internal structure as both parts of the landslide were initiated as a rotational earth slide with a surface of rupture at 15 m deep, where the displaced material broke apart in two blocks. However, two shear surfaces of reactivations within landslide debris were only distinguished in the accumulation area of zone 1. The observed differences in surface morphology can be caused by a temporary conversion of a forest into cropland in zone 2. It is suggested that reverse slopes of smaller reactivations within landslide debris were obliterated during the agricultural activities. AMS radiocarbon dating of organic material found in ponds located in reverse slopes generally resulted in relatively recent dates (i.e. 1400-1950 Cal AD) suggesting that several of the small local reactivations occurred in that period. One dating at 8700-8440 Cal BP of organic matter collected in a reverse slope in zone 1 suggests that an initiation under periglacial conditions cannot be excluded for the Collinabos landslide. By combining different technologies, this study provides valuable information for a better understanding of dormant landslides.

  17. TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF SURFACE FRACTAL DIMENSION AND MORPHOLOGY OF MESOPOROUS TITANIA USING DYNAMIC FLOW ADSORPTION AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Tursiloadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A technique to determine the surface fractal dimension of mesoporous TiO­2 using a dynamic flow adsorption instrument is described. Fractal dimension is an additional technique to characterize surface morphology. Surface fractal dimension, a quantitative measurement of surface ruggedness, can be determined by adsorbing a homologous series of adsorbates onto an adsorbent sample of mesoporous TiO­2. Titania wet gel prepared by hydrolysis of Ti-alkoxide was immersed in the flow of supercritical CO2 at 60 °C and the solvent was extracted.  Mesoporous TiO­2 consists of anatase nano-particles, about 5nm in diameter, have been obtained. After calcination at 600 °C, the average pore size of the extracted gel, about 20nm in diameter, and the pore volume, about 0.35cm3g-1, and the specific surface area, about 58 m2g-1. Using the N2 adsorption isotherm, the surface fractal dimension, DS, has been estimated according to the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH theory. The N2 adsorption isotherm for the as-extracted aerogel indicates the mesoporous structure. Two linear regions are found for the FHH plot of the as-extracted aerogel. The estimated surface fractal dimensions are about 2.49 and 2.68. Both of the DS  values indicate rather complex surface morphology. The TEM observation shows that there are amorphous and crystalline particles. Two values of DS may be attributed to these two kinds of particles. The two regions are in near length scales, and the smaller DS, DS =2.49, for the smaller region. This result indicates that there are two kinds of particles, probably amorphous and anatase particles as shown by the TEM observation.     Keywords: surface fractal dimensions, CO2 supercritically extraction, sol-gel, aerogel, titania

  18. Study of the Effect of Nanoparticles and Surface Morphology on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membrane Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Duranceau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the significance of reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF surface morphology on membrane performance, productivity experiments were conducted using flat-sheet membranes and three different nanoparticles, which included SiO2, TiO2 and CeO2. In this study, the productivity rate was markedly influenced by membrane surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis of membrane surfaces revealed that the higher productivity decline rates associated with polyamide RO membranes as compared to that of a cellulose acetate NF membrane was due to the inherent ridge-and-valley morphology of the active layer. The unique polyamide active layer morphology was directly related to the surface roughness, and was found to contribute to particle accumulation in the valleys causing a higher flux decline than in smoother membranes. Extended RO productivity experiments using laboratory grade water and diluted pretreated seawater were conducted to compare the effect that different nanoparticles had on membrane active layers. Membrane flux decline was not affected by particle type when the feed water was laboratory grade water. On the other hand, membrane productivity was affected by particle type when pretreated diluted seawater served as feed water. It was found that CeO2 addition resulted in the least observable flux decline, followed by SiO2 and TiO2. A productivity simulation was conducted by fitting the monitored flux data into a cake growth rate model, where the model was modified using a finite difference method to incorporate surface thickness variation into the analysis. The ratio of cake growth term (k1 and particle back diffusion term (k2 was compared in between different RO and NF membranes. Results indicated that k2 was less significant for surfaces that exhibited a higher roughness. It was concluded that the valley areas of thin-film membrane surfaces have the ability to capture particles, limiting particle back diffusion.

  19. Surface morphology changes of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucio Serra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The finishing and polishing phases are essential to improve smoothness and shining on the surface of acrylic resins used to make removable orthodontic appliances. A good surface finishing reduces roughness, which facilitates hygiene, prevents staining and provides greater comfort to the patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyze the changes on surface morphology of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases. METHODS: Thirty discs (10 mm in diameter and 5 mm in length were made with acrylic resin and randomly divided into ten groups. The control group did not receive any treatment while the other groups received gradual finishing and polishing. The last group received the entire finishing and polishing procedures. Surface morphology was qualitatively analyzed through scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively analyzed through a laser profilometer test. RESULTS: The acrylic resin surfaces without treatment showed bubbles which were not observed in the subsequent phases. Wearing out with multilaminated burs, finishing with wood sandpaper and finishing with water sandpaper resulted in surfaces with decreasing irregularities. The surfaces that were polished with pumice and with low abrasive liquids showed high superficial smoothness. CONCLUSION: Highly smooth acrylic resin surfaces can be obtained after mechanical finishing and polishing performed with multilaminated burs, wood sandpaper, water sandpaper, pumice and low abrasive liquids.

  20. An experimental study of the effect of surface morphology on squeal occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asano Mayu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Squealing is a major matter of concern for environmental issues and the raised expectations for superior performances in braking systems. Squealing, as well as other types of noise nuisances, contributes to noise pollution and leads to additional expenses for phonic isolation. Brake squeal noise, which is defined as noise at frequency higher than 1000 Hz, occurs if the system has very high amplitude of mechanical vibration with sound pressure level above 80 dB. It involves instable vibrations, which are quite well understood as a result of mode couplings between the rubbing parts. These mode couplings are allowed by modal frequency shifts induced by the changes of sliding contact conditions. Nonetheless, the origin of squeal occurrence remains misunderstood as many parameters have to be taken into account, making it virtually impossible to predict when a squeal noise will appear or disappear. The strong coupling between structure and material, the continual change of the materials surfaces (chemistry and morphology, the influence of external parameters (temperature, pressure, hygrometry all play a role in squealing. As a consequence, research on squealing is empirical by nature. Following this, one of the main goals in braking sciences is to determine the set of conditions on the parameters that provoke the start or the end of a squealing noise.

  1. Germanium nanoislands grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering: Annealing time dependent surface morphology and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samavati, Alireza; Othaman, Z.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Amjad, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Structural and optical properties of ∼ 20 nm Ge nanoislands grown on Si(100) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering under varying annealing conditions are reported. Rapid thermal annealing at a temperature of 600°C for 30 s, 90 s, and 120 s are performed to examine the influence of annealing time on the surface morphology and photoluminescence properties. X-ray diffraction spectra reveal prominent Ge and GeO 2 peaks highly sensitive to the annealing time. Atomic force microscope micrographs of the as-grown sample show pyramidal nanoislands with relatively high-density 10 11 cm −2) ). The nanoislands become dome-shaped upon annealing through a coarsening process mediated by Oswald ripening. The room temperature photoluminescence peaks for both as-grown 3.29 eV) and annealed 3.19 eV) samples consist of high intensity and broad emission, attributed to the effect of quantum confinement. The red shift (∼0.10 eV) of the emission peak is attributed to the change in the size of the Ge nanoislands caused by annealing. Our easy fabrication method may contribute to the development of Ge nanostructure-based optoelectronics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. IR and UV laser-induced morphological changes in silicon surface under oxygen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Jarquin, J.; Fernandez-Guasti, M.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Hernandez-Pozos, J.L. [Laboratorio de Optica Cuantica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, C.P. 09340, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-01

    We irradiated silicon (100) wafers with IR (1064 nm) and UV (355 nm) nanosecond laser pulses with energy densities within the ablation regime and used scanning electron microscopy to analyze the morphological changes induced on the Si surface. The changes in the wafer morphology depend both on the incident radiation wavelength and the environmental atmosphere. We have patterned Si surfaces with a single focused laser spot and, in doing the experiments with IR or UV this reveals significant differences in the initial surface cracking and pattern formation, however if the experiment is carried out in O{sub 2} the final result is an array of microcones. We also employed a random scanning technique to irradiate the silicon wafer over large areas, in this case the microstructure patterns consist of a ''semi-ordered'' array of micron-sized cones. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STARS, GAS AND DUST IN SINGS GALAXIES. I. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY AND MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present ultraviolet through far-infrared (FIR) surface brightness profiles for the 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). The imagery used to measure the profiles includes Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV data, optical images from Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, near-IR data from Two Micron All Sky Survey, and mid- and FIR images from Spitzer. Along with the radial profiles, we also provide multi-wavelength asymptotic magnitudes and several nonparametric indicators of galaxy morphology: the concentration index (C 42 ), the asymmetry (A), the Gini coefficient (G), and the normalized second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (M-bar 20 ). In this paper, the first of a series, we describe the technical aspects regarding the surface photometry, and present a basic analysis of the global and structural properties of the SINGS galaxies at different wavelengths. The homogeneity in the acquisition, reduction, and analysis of the results presented here makes these data ideal for multiple unanticipated studies on the radial distribution of the properties of stars, dust, and gas in galaxies. Our radial profiles show a wide range of morphologies and multiple components (bulges, exponential disks, inner and outer disk truncations, etc.) that vary not only from galaxy to galaxy but also with wavelength for a given object. In the optical and near-IR, the SINGS galaxies occupy the same regions in the C 42 -A-G-M-bar 20 parameter space as other normal galaxies in previous studies. However, they appear much less centrally concentrated, more asymmetric, and with larger values of G when viewed in the UV (due to star-forming clumps scattered across the disk) and in the mid-IR (due to the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 8.0 μm and very hot dust at 24 μm). In an accompanying paper by Munoz-Mateos et al., we focus on the radial distribution of dust

  4. Surface morphology of thin lysozyme films produced by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purice, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Pryds, Nini

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of the protein, lysozyme, have been deposited by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Frozen targets of 0.3-1.0 wt.% lysozyme dissolved in ultrapure water were irradiated by laser light at 355 mn with a fluence of 2 J/cm(2). The surface quality of the thin....... The concentration of lysozyme in the ice matrix apparently does not play any significant role for the morphology of the film. The morphology obtained with MAPLE has been compared with results for direct laser irradiation of a pressed lysozyme sample (i.e. pulsed laser deposition (PLD)). (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All...

  5. Correlating yeast cell stress physiology to changes in the cell surface morphology: atomic force microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M; Adya, Ashok K

    2006-07-06

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful biophysical tool in biotechnology and medicine to investigate the morphological, physical, and mechanical properties of yeasts and other biological systems. However, properties such as, yeasts' response to environmental stresses, metabolic activities of pathogenic yeasts, cell-cell/cell-substrate adhesion, and cell-flocculation have rarely been investigated so far by using biophysical tools. Our recent results obtained by AFM on one strain each of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe show a clear correlation between the physiology of environmentally stressed yeasts and the changes in their surface morphology. The future directions of the AFM related techniques in relation to yeasts are also discussed.

  6. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ajaib [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Schipmann, Susanne [II. Insatitute of Physics and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Sengupta, Amartya [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Klemradt, Uwe [II. Insatitute of Physics and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna, E-mail: sudeshna@iiti.ac.in [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Centre for Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ultra-thin ZnO films grown on confined polymeric (polystyrene, PS) template. • XRR and GISAXS explore the surface/interfaces structure and morphology of ZnO/PS. • Insights into the growth mechanism of magnetron sputtered ZnO thin film on PS template. • Nucleated disk-like cylindrical particles are the basis of the formation of ZnO layers. • Effect of ZnO film thickness on room temperature PL spectra in ZnO/PS systems. - Abstract: The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (<10 nm) were grown on confined polystyrene with ∼2R{sub g} film thickness, where R{sub g} ∼ 20 nm (R{sub g} is the unperturbed radius of gyration of polystyrene, defined by R{sub g} = 0.272 √M{sub 0}, and M{sub 0} is the molecular weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2–7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  7. Widespread cortical morphologic changes in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: evidence from structural MRI.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ronan, Lisa

    2012-04-01

    Atypical morphology of the surface of the cerebral cortex may be related to abnormal cortical folding (gyrification) and therefore may indicate underlying malformations of cortical development (MCDs). Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based analysis, we examined cortical morphology in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME).

  8. Solvent-induced synthesis of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with tunable surface morphology for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Yuan, Ren-Lu; Zhang, Ning; Ke, Chang-Ce; Ma, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Ru-Liang; Liu, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen doped hollow carbon spheres (NHCSs) with tunable surface morphology have been prepared through one-pot carbonization method by using melamine-formaldehyde spheres as template and resorcinol-based resin as carbon precursor in ethanol-water solution. Well-dispersed NHCSs with particle size of 800 nm were obtained and the surface of NHCSs turn from smooth to tough, wrinkled, and finally concave by increasing the ethanol concentration. The fabricated NHCSs possessed high nitrogen content (3.99-4.83%) and hierarchical micro-dual mesoporous structure with surface area range of 265-405 m2 g-1 and total pore volume of 0.18-0.29 cm3 g-1, which contributed to high specific capacitance, excellent rate capability and long cycle life.

  9. AFM study of the effects of laser surface remelting on the morphology of Al-Fe aerospace alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pariona, Moises Meza, E-mail: mmpariona@uepg.br [Graduate Program in Engineering and Materials Science, State University of Ponta Grossa (UEPG), Ponta Grossa 84010-919, PR (Brazil); Teleginski, Viviane; Santos, Kelly dos; Leandro Ribeiro dos Santos, Everton; Aparecida de Oliveira Camargo de Lima, Angela [Graduate Program in Engineering and Materials Science, State University of Ponta Grossa (UEPG), Ponta Grossa 84010-919, PR (Brazil); Riva, Rudimar [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos 12227-000, SP (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Laser beam welding has recently been incorporated into the fabrication process of aircraft and automobile structures. Surface roughness is an important parameter of product quality that strongly affects the performance of mechanical parts, as well as production costs. This parameter influences the mechanical properties such as fatigue behavior, corrosion resistance, creep life, etc., and other functional characteristics such as friction, wear, light reflection, heat transmission, lubrification, electrical conductivity, etc. The effects of laser surface remelting (LSR) on the morphology of Al-Fe aerospace alloys were examined before and after surface treatments, using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (LA-XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), microhardness measurements (Vickers hardness), and cyclic voltammetry. This analysis was performed on both laser-treated and untreated sanded surfaces, revealing significant differences. The LA-XRD analysis revealed the presence of alumina, simple metals and metastable intermetallic phases, which considerably improved the microhardness of laser-remelted surfaces. The morphology produced by laser surface remelting enhanced the microstructure of the Al-Fe alloys by reducing their roughness and increasing their hardness. The treated surfaces showed passivity and stability characteristics in the electrolytic medium employed in this study. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples laser-treated and untreated showed significant differences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The La-XRD revealed the presence of alumina in Al-1.5 wt.% Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser-treated reducing the roughness and increasing the hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser-treated surfaces showed characteristic passive in the electrolytic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser-treated is a promising technique for applications technological.

  10. The role of graphite morphology and matrix structure on low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Thermal cycling resistance; graphite morphology; grey cast iron; austempered ductile iron; compacted/vermicular graphite iron; matrix decompo- sition. 1. Introduction. When a material is subjected to a temperature gradient, it tends to expand differentially. During this process, thermal stresses are induced. The source of ...

  11. Structural, morphological, optical and antibacterial activity of rod ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... (2016) 87: 57 c Indian Academy of Sciences ... of rod-shaped zinc oxide and manganese-doped ... PACS Nos 78.20.Ci; 78.67.Bf; 32.30.Rj; 78; 87.85.J−. 1. Introduction ... over, various morphologies of ZnO such as nanowires.

  12. Projective and superconformal structures on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Much attention has recently been given to the study of super Riemann surfaces. Detailed accounts of these objects and their infinitesimal deformation theory are referenced where they are fitted into the framework of complex supermanifolds, superconformal structures and graded sheaves. One difficulty, which seems even more of a barrier than in the case of classical deformations of Riemann surface structure, is the lack of a good global description of super-moduli spaces. In this note, we outline an approach which places the theory in the classical setting of projective structures on variable Riemann surfaces. We explain how to construct a distribution (family of vector subspaces) inside the holomorphic cotangent space to the moduli space M g of Riemann surfaces with genus g and furnished with a level-4 homology structure, such that the corresponding rank-(2g-2) complex vector bundle models the soul deformations of a family of super-Riemann surfaces. The keystone in this construction is the existence of holomorphic sections for the space of non-singular odd theta characteristics on C g the universal curve over M g . (author)

  13. Evolution of nanodot morphology on polycarbonate (PC) surfaces by 40 keV Ar{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Meetika, E-mail: meetika89@gmail.com; Chawla, Mahak; Gupta, Divya; Shekhawat, Nidhi; Sharma, Annu; Aggarwal, Sanjeev [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra - 136119 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present paper we have discussed the effect of 40 keV Ar{sup +} ions irradiation on nanoscale surface morphology of Polycarbonate (PC) substrate. Specimens were sputtered at off normal incidences of 30°, 40° and 50° with the fluence of 1 × 10{sup 16} Ar{sup +}cm{sup −2}. The topographical behaviour of specimens was studied by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technique. AFM study demonstrates the evolution of nano dot morphology on PC specimens on irradiating with 1 × 10{sup 16} Ar{sup +}cm{sup −2}. Average size of dots varied from 37-95 nm in this specified range of incidence while density of dots varied from 0.17-3.0 × 107 dotscm{sup −2}. Such variations in morphological features have been supported by estimation of ion range and sputtering yield through SRIM simulations.

  14. Evolution of nanodot morphology on polycarbonate (PC) surfaces by 40 keV Ar"+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Meetika; Chawla, Mahak; Gupta, Divya; Shekhawat, Nidhi; Sharma, Annu; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we have discussed the effect of 40 keV Ar"+ ions irradiation on nanoscale surface morphology of Polycarbonate (PC) substrate. Specimens were sputtered at off normal incidences of 30°, 40° and 50° with the fluence of 1 × 10"1"6 Ar"+cm"−"2. The topographical behaviour of specimens was studied by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technique. AFM study demonstrates the evolution of nano dot morphology on PC specimens on irradiating with 1 × 10"1"6 Ar"+cm"−"2. Average size of dots varied from 37-95 nm in this specified range of incidence while density of dots varied from 0.17-3.0 × 107 dotscm"−"2. Such variations in morphological features have been supported by estimation of ion range and sputtering yield through SRIM simulations.

  15. Surface band structures on Nb(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, B.; Lo, W.; Chien, T.; Leung, T.C.; Lue, C.Y.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    We report the joint studies of experimental and theoretical surface band structures of Nb(001). Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine surface-state dispersions along three high-symmetry axes bar Γ bar M, bar Γ bar X, and bar M bar X in the surface Brillouin zone. Ten surface bands have been identified. The experimental data are compared to self-consistent pseudopotential calculations for the 11-layer Nb(001) slabs that are either bulk terminated or fully relaxed (with a 12% contraction for the first interlayer spacing). The band calculations for a 12% surface-contracted slab are in better agreement with the experimental results than those for a bulk-terminated slab, except for a surface resonance near the Fermi level, which is related to the spin-orbit interaction. The charge profiles for all surface states or resonances have been calculated. Surface contraction effects on the charge-density distribution and the energy position of surface states and resonances will also be discussed

  16. Structural, morphological and optical properties of Na and K dual doped CdS thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageswari, S.; Dhivya, L.; Palanivel, Balan; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of incorporation of Na, K and Na,K dual dopants into CdS thin film was investigated. ► Thin films were prepared by simple chemical bath deposition technique. ► The XRD analysis revealed cubic phase for all the investigated films. ► AFM analysis revealed uniform surface with crack free and densely packed morphology for CdS:Na,K film. ► The band gap value increases for CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films compared to CdS film. - Abstract: CdS, sodium doped CdS (CdS:Na), potassium doped CdS (CdS:K) and sodium and potassium dual doped CdS (CdS:Na,K) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the as-grown films were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis revealed cubic phase for ‘as-deposited’ CdS, CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K dual doped thin films. AFM analysis revealed uniform film surface with crack free and densely packed morphology for CdS:Na,K film. The absorption edge in the optical absorption spectra shifts towards the shorter wavelength for CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films compared to CdS film. The optical band gap of CdS, CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films was found to be 2.31, 2.35, 2.38 and 2.34 eV, respectively.

  17. Changes to the morphology, structure and properties as a consequence of polyethylene working in a polymer-metal kinematic pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maszybrocka, Joanna; Cybo, Jerzy; Cwajna, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A change is presented of the orientation of lamellar structure, degree of crystallinity, the degree of the spatial arrangement of the structure, micromechanical properties, and the surface morphology and thickness of a plastically deformed upper layer. These changes are the effect of work in a polymer-metal kinematic pair, which have occurred as a result of plastic deformation of polyethylene during its service. It has been shown that, as a result of selecting proper parameters of UHMW polyethylene via the initial draft and electron-beam irradiation, such a structure of the polymer can be obtained, which will enable the above-mentioned changes in morphology and structure to take place during service. This in turn, will allow a reduction of the susceptibility of the polymer to permanent deformation by 3-6 times, and its wear by more than 5 times, compared to the initial material.

  18. Drop impacts onto cold and heated rigid surfaces: Morphological comparisons, disintegration limits and secondary atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moita, A.S.; Moreira, A.L.N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses an experimental study aimed at characterizing the mechanisms of disintegration which occur when individual water and fuel droplets impact onto heated surfaces. The experiments consider the use of a simplified flow configuration and make use of high-speed visualization together with image processing techniques to characterize the morphology of the impact and to quantify the outcome of secondary atomization in terms of droplet size and number. The results evidence that surface topography, wettability and liquid properties combine in a complex way to alter the wetting behaviour of droplets at impact at different surface temperatures. The relative importance of the dynamic vapor pressure associated with the rate of vaporization and surface roughness increases with surface temperature and becomes dominant at the film boiling regime. The analysis is aimed at giving a phenomenological description of droplet disintegration within the various heat transfer regimes

  19. Tailorable Surface Morphology of 3D Scaffolds by Combining Additive Manufacturing with Thermally Induced Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Andrea; de Wijn, Joost R; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2017-08-01

    The functionalization of biomaterials substrates used for cell culture is gearing towards an increasing control over cell activity. Although a number of biomaterials have been successfully modified by different strategies to display tailored physical and chemical surface properties, it is still challenging to step from 2D substrates to 3D scaffolds with instructive surface properties for cell culture and tissue regeneration. In this study, additive manufacturing and thermally induced phase separation are combined to create 3D scaffolds with tunable surface morphology from polymer gels. Surface features vary depending on the gel concentration, the exchanging temperature, and the nonsolvent used. When preosteoblasts (MC-3T3 cells) are cultured on these scaffolds, a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity is measured for submicron surface topography, suggesting a potential role on early cell differentiation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Surface roughness and morphology of dental nanocomposites polished by four different procedures evaluated by a multifractal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ţălu, Ştefan, E-mail: stefan_ta@yahoo.com [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of AET, Discipline of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics, 103-105 B-dul Muncii St., Cluj-Napoca 400641, Cluj (Romania); Stach, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.stach@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, Institute of Informatics, Department of Biomedical Computer Systems, Będzińska 39, 41-205 Sosnowiec (Poland); Lainović, Tijana, E-mail: tijana.lainovic@gmail.com [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Vilotić, Marko, E-mail: markovil@uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department for Production Engineering, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Blažić, Larisa, E-mail: larisa.blazic@gmail.com [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Clinic of Dentistry of Vojvodina, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Alb, Sandu Florin, E-mail: albflorin@yahoo.com [“Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology, 8 Victor Babeş St., 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Kakaš, Damir, E-mail: kakasdam@uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department for Production Engineering, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Multifractals are good indicators of polished dental composites 3-D surface structure. • The nanofilled composite had superior 3-D surface properties than the nanohybrid one. • Composite polishing with diamond paste created improved 3-D multifractal structure. • Recommendation: polish the composite with diamond paste if using the one-step tool. • Multifractal analysis could become essential in designing new dental surfaces. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dental polishing methods on surface texture parameters of dental nanocomposites. The 3-D surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and multifractal analysis. Two representative dental resin-based nanocomposites were investigated: a nanofilled and a nanohybrid composite. The samples were polished by two dental polishing protocols using multi-step and one-step system. Both protocols were then followed by diamond paste polishing. The 3-D surface roughness of samples was studied by AFM on square areas of topography on the 80 × 80 μm{sup 2} scanning area. The multifractal spectrum theory based on computational algorithms was applied for AFM data and multifractal spectra were calculated. The generalized dimension D{sub q} and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of dental nanocomposites polished by four different dental polishing protocols at nanometer scale. The results showed that the larger the spectrum width Δα (Δα = α{sub max} − α{sub min}) of the multifractal spectra f(α), the more non-uniform was the surface morphology. Also, the 3-D surface topography was described by statistical parameters, according to ISO 25178-2:2012. The 3-D surface of samples had a multifractal nature. Nanofilled composite had lower values of height parameters than nanohybrid composites, due to its composition. Multi-step polishing protocol

  1. Surface roughness and morphology of dental nanocomposites polished by four different procedures evaluated by a multifractal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Stach, Sebastian; Lainović, Tijana; Vilotić, Marko; Blažić, Larisa; Alb, Sandu Florin; Kakaš, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Multifractals are good indicators of polished dental composites 3-D surface structure. • The nanofilled composite had superior 3-D surface properties than the nanohybrid one. • Composite polishing with diamond paste created improved 3-D multifractal structure. • Recommendation: polish the composite with diamond paste if using the one-step tool. • Multifractal analysis could become essential in designing new dental surfaces. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dental polishing methods on surface texture parameters of dental nanocomposites. The 3-D surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and multifractal analysis. Two representative dental resin-based nanocomposites were investigated: a nanofilled and a nanohybrid composite. The samples were polished by two dental polishing protocols using multi-step and one-step system. Both protocols were then followed by diamond paste polishing. The 3-D surface roughness of samples was studied by AFM on square areas of topography on the 80 × 80 μm 2 scanning area. The multifractal spectrum theory based on computational algorithms was applied for AFM data and multifractal spectra were calculated. The generalized dimension D q and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of dental nanocomposites polished by four different dental polishing protocols at nanometer scale. The results showed that the larger the spectrum width Δα (Δα = α max − α min ) of the multifractal spectra f(α), the more non-uniform was the surface morphology. Also, the 3-D surface topography was described by statistical parameters, according to ISO 25178-2:2012. The 3-D surface of samples had a multifractal nature. Nanofilled composite had lower values of height parameters than nanohybrid composites, due to its composition. Multi-step polishing protocol created a better

  2. Effect of Physical Property and Surface Morphology of Copper Foil at Electrodeposition Parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Gyu; Park, Il Song; Lee, Man Hyung; Seol, Kyeong Won [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The effect of additives, current density and plated temperature on the surface morphology and physical property, during copper electrodeposition on polyimide (PI) film was investigated. Two kinds of additives, Cl and leveler (additive B), were used in this study. Electrochemical experiments were performed in conjunction with SEM, XRD and four-point probe to characterize the morphology and mechanical characteristics of copper electrodeposited in the presence of the additives. The surface roughness, crystal growth orientation and resistivity was controlled by the concentration of additive B. High resistivity and lower peel strength were observed on the surface of the copper layer electroplated in the electrolyte without additive B. However, a uniform surface, lower resistivity and high flexibility were obtained with a combination of 20 ppm Cl and 100 ppm additive B. Large particles were observed on the surface of the copper layer electroplated using a current density of 25 mA/cm{sup 2}, but a uniform surface and lower resistivity were obtained using a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. One of the required important properties of FCCL is flexibility of the copper foil. High flexibility of FCCL was obtained at a low current density, rather than a high current density. Moreover, a reasonable current density is 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, considering the productivity and mechanical properties of copper foil.

  3. Surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN grown on non- and semipolar GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Tim; Ploch, Simon [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, Veit; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    GaN layers on bulk m-plane, (11 anti 22), (10 anti 12) and (10 anti 11) GaN substrates were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. XRD rocking curves have a FWHM of less than 150'', indicating excellent crystalline quality. However in many cases surface morphology exhibits hillocks with a height of 1-2 {mu}m and a lateral extension of 50-200 {mu}m whereas a smooth surface would be desirable for optoelectronic devices. The influence of growth parameters on the surface morphology was studied. The goal was, to constrain the material redistribution, that is necessary to form large hillocks. This was achieved by lowering the adatom diffusion length by a reduction of temperature and an increased reactor pressure. In the case of the (10 anti 11) and (10 anti 12) semipolar planes a reduction of the adatom diffusion length leads to a reduction of hillock density, hillock size and a smoother surface between hillocks. However, the m-plane surface does not react to a reduction of adatom mobility. Even at 890 C and 400 mbar rectangular pyramids cover the surface. In contrast to the other planes, the (11 anti 22) becomes instable, when the adatom diffusion length is reduced. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Impact of surface morphology on the properties of light emission in InGaN epilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristijonas Uždavinys, Tomas; Marcinkevičius, Saulius; Mensi, Mounir; Lahourcade, Lise; Carlin, Jean-François; Martin, Denis; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy was used to study the influence of the surface morphology on the properties of light emission and alloy composition in InGaN epitaxial layers grown on GaN substrates. A strong correlation between the maps of the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy and the gradient of the surface morphology was observed. This correlation demonstrates that the In incorporation strongly depends on the geometry of the monolayer step edges that form during growth in the step-flow mode. The spatial distribution of nonradiative recombination centers — evaluated from PL intensity maps — was found to strongly anticorrelate with the local content of In atoms in the InGaN alloy.

  5. Nanoscopic morphological changes in yeast cell surfaces caused by oxidative stress: an atomic force microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M; Adya, Ashok K

    2009-06-01

    Nanoscopic changes in the cell surface morphology of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354), due to their exposure to varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stress), were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration led to a decrease in cell viabilities and mean cell volumes, and an increase in the surface roughness of the yeasts. In addition, AFM studies revealed that oxidative stress caused cell compression in both S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe cells and an increase in the number of aged yeasts. These results confirmed the importance and usefulness of AFM in investigating the morphology of stressed microbial cells at the nanoscale. The results also provided novel information on the relative oxidative stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe.

  6. ‘Action’ on structured freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, David J.

    2018-06-01

    Surfaces are becoming more complex partly due to the more complicated function required of them and partly due to the introduction of different manufacturing processes. These have thrown into relief the need to consider new ways of measuring and characterizing such surfaces and more importantly to make such characterization more relevant by tying together the geometry and the function more closely. The surfaces which have freeform and structure have been chosen to be a carrier for this investigation because so far there has been little work carried out in this neglected but potentially important area. This necessitates the development of a strategy for their characterization. In this article, some ways have been found of identifying possible strategies for tackling this characterization problem but also linking this characterization to performance and manufacture, based in part on the principles of least action and on the way that nature has evolved to solve the marriage of flexible freeform geometry, structure and function. Recommendations are made for the most suitable surface parameter to use which satisfies the requirement for characterizing structured freeform surfaces as well as utilizing ‘Action’ to predict functionality.

  7. Surface and mineral structure of ferrihydrite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.

    2013-01-01

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) is an yet enigmatic nano Fe(III)-oxide material, omnipresent in nature that can bind ions in large quantities, regulating bioavailability and ion mobility. Although extensively studied, to date no proper view exists on the surface structure and composition, while it is of vital

  8. Structure and morphology of platinum nanoparticles with critical new issues of low- and high-index facets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Viet-Long; Ohtaki, Michitaka; Van Nong, Ngo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, Pt nanoparticles were successfully prepared by modified polyol method using silver nitrate as an effective structure-modifying agent. The characterization of Pt nanoparticles was investigated by using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution...... (HR) TEM, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The method of selected area electron diffraction (SEAD) was used to study the structure of Pt nanoparticles. The results showed that the as-prepared Pt nanoparticles exhibiting the complexity of surface structure and morphology could be used as efficient...... catalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs)....

  9. Manipulation of surface morphology of flower-like Ag/ZnO nanorods to enhance photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-thaipan, Kasira; Tedsree, Karaked

    2018-06-01

    The surface morphology of flower-like Ag/ZnO nanorod can be manipulated by adopting different synthetic routes and also loading different levels of Ag in order to alter their surface structures to achieve the maximum photocatalytic efficiency. In a single-step preparation method Ag/ZnO was prepared by heating directly a mixture of Zn2+ and Ag+ precursors in an aqueous NaOH-ethylene glycol solution, while in the two-step preparation method an intermediate of flower-shaped ZnO nanorod was obtained by a hydrothermal process before depositing Ag particles on the ZnO surfaces by chemical reduction. The structure, morphology and optical properties of the synthesized samples were characterized using TEM, SEM, XRD, DRS and PL techniques. The sample prepared by single-step method are characterized with agglomeration of Ag atoms as clusters on the surface of ZnO, whereas in the sample prepared by two-step method Ag atoms are found uniformly dispersed and deposited as discrete Ag nanoparticles on the surface of ZnO. A significant enhancement in the adsorption of visible light was evident for Ag/ZnO samples prepared by two-step method especially with low Ag content (0.5 mol%). The flower-like Ag/ZnO nanorod prepared with 0.5 mol% Ag by two-step process was found to be the most efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of phenol, which can decompose 90% of phenol within 120 min.

  10. Determination of morphology and electronic structure in solids with 20-1000 eV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denley, D.R.

    1979-08-01

    One of the most versatile probes for spectroscopy is the photon because it is readily tuned through a wide range of frequencies, it is chargeless, and because of the additional information available from its vector nature. With the advent of intense radiation light sources a nearly untouched region of the spectrum has become available for a wide range of new experiments. Two of the main techniques in use are those of absorption and photoemission. This thesis uses these techniques on a variety of different materials for the analysis of their morphology and electronic structure. The principles underlying the techniques of soft-x-ray absorption, bulk-, and surface-photoemission are discussed together with some of the experimental methods and instrumentation.

  11. Determination of morphology and electronic structure in solids with 20-1000 eV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denley, D.R.

    1979-08-01

    One of the most versatile probes for spectroscopy is the photon because it is readily tuned through a wide range of frequencies, it is chargeless, and because of the additional information available from its vector nature. With the advent of intense radiation light sources a nearly untouched region of the spectrum has become available for a wide range of new experiments. Two of the main techniques in use are those of absorption and photoemission. This thesis uses these techniques on a variety of different materials for the analysis of their morphology and electronic structure. The principles underlying the techniques of soft-x-ray absorption, bulk-, and surface-photoemission are discussed together with some of the experimental methods and instrumentation

  12. Role of nanoparticles in phase separation and final morphology of superhydrophobic polypropylene/zinc oxide nanocomposite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejazi, Iman [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajalizadeh, Bardia [Department of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, P.O. Box 36155-163, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyfi, Javad, E-mail: Jseyfi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, P.O. Box 36155-163, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Seyed-Hassan [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, Hossein Ali [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-28

    In this work, phase separation process was revisited to study the effect of nanoparticles in acceleration of phase separation and formation of hierarchical structures. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared using polypropylene (PP) and the corresponding nanocomposites containing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles through a typical solution casting method. The wettability and morphological behavior of the surfaces were investigated via water contact angle (WCA) measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. It was found that upon introduction of ZnO nanoparticles into the pure PP, the obtained surfaces have become superhydrophobic with WCAs above 150° and sliding angles below 10°. Calcination of ZnO nanoparticles was exploited to explicate the unexpected significant loss in superhydrophobicity of the sample loaded with high ZnO content. Crystallization behavior of the samples were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry and correlated to superhydrophobicity of the surfaces. X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies were also utilized to further characterize the samples. An attempt was also made to present a more clear mechanism for formation of hierarchical structures which are responsible for superhydrophobicity. Likewise, the so far proposed mechanisms for formation of micro/nano roughness on the superhydrophobic surfaces were reviewed as well.

  13. Multiresolution Computation of Conformal Structures of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng Gu

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient multiresolution method to compute global conformal structures of nonzero genus triangle meshes is introduced. The homology, cohomology groups of meshes are computed explicitly, then a basis of harmonic one forms and a basis of holomorphic one forms are constructed. A progressive mesh is generated to represent the original surface at different resolutions. The conformal structure is computed for the coarse level first, then used as the estimation for that of the finer level, by using conjugate gradient method it can be refined to the conformal structure of the finer level.

  14. Morphological survey of bar, lens, and ring components in galaxies: Secular evolution in galaxy structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, J.

    1979-01-01

    A morphological survey of barred galaxies is made to investigate the frequency of occurrence, nature, and size distributions of bars, lenses, inner and outer rings, and global spiral structure. The 121 brightest available barred galaxies are examined on Sky Survey copy plates, and on deeper and larger-scale plates, with the following main results.1. Lenses and inner rings are components of major importance in barred galaxies, occurring, respectively, in 54% of SBO--SBa, and 76% of SBab--SBc galaxies. Few early-type galaxies have rings; almost no late-type ones have lenses.2. There is an intimate connection between bars and lenses: in 17 of 20 galaxies with both components, the bar exactly fills the lens in one dimension.3. We suggest that lenses originate as bars, through an unknown process which makes some bars evolve away to a nearly axisymmetric state. Several properties of the proposed process are deduced. We emphasize the possible importance of internal processes of secular evolution in galaxy structure.4. Several galaxies, notably NGC 3945, seem to have strongly triaxial bulge components.5. Inner rings are round. Lenses tend to be slightly triaxial, flattened ellipsoids, with a preferred equatorial axis ratio of approx.0.9 +- 0.05. Most outer rings are prolate, the shortest dimension being the one filled by the bar.6. The sizes of bars, rings, and lenses are well correlated with the absolute magnitude of the galaxy, such that the mean surface brightness is constant for each morphological type. The form of the correlation M/sub B/+5 log D= constant is such that these diameters cannot be used as distance indicators. We show that the galaxy mass determines the bar size uniquely.7. Spiral structure in SB galaxies is distorted to resemble inner and outer rings, showing that the arms feel the potential of the bar. Also, of 61 survey galaxies with spiral structure, 55 have global patterns usually interpreted as density waves

  15. Effect of Cu Alloying on S Poisoning of Ni Surfaces and Nanoparticle Morphologies Using Ab-Initio Thermodynamics Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Su; Kim, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yeong-Cheol

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effect of Cu alloying on S poisoning of Ni surfaces and nanoparticle morphologies using ab-initio thermodynamics calculations. Based on the Cu segregation energy and the S adsorption energy, the surface energy and nanoparticle morphology of pure Ni, pure Cu, and NiCu alloys were evaluated as functions of the chemical potential of S and the surface orientations of (100), (110), and (111). The constructed nanoparticle morphology was varied as a function of chemical potential of S. We find that the Cu added to Ni for NiCu alloys is strongly segregated into the top surface, and increases the S tolerance of the NiCu nanoparticles.

  16. Surface morphology and grain analysis of successively industrially grown amorphous hydrogenated carbon films (a-C:H) on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Alberto; McJunkin, Thomas; Agnello, Simonpietro; Gelardi, Franco M.; Wehner, Stefan; Fischer, Christian B.

    2015-08-01

    Silicon (1 0 0) has been gradually covered by amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films via an industrial process. Two types of these diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, one more flexible (f-DLC) and one more robust (r-DLC), have been investigated. Both types have been grown by a radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique with acetylene plasma. Surface morphologies have been studied in detail by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate the DLC structure. Both types appeared to have very similar morphology and sp2 carbon arrangement. The average height and area for single grains have been analyzed for all depositions. A random distribution of grain heights was found for both types. The individual grain structures between the f- and r-type revealed differences: the shape for the f-DLC grains is steeper than for the r-DLC grains. By correlating the average grain heights to the average grain areas for all depositions a limited region is identified, suggesting a certain regularity during the DLC deposition mechanisms that confines both values. A growth of the sp2 carbon entities for high r-DLC depositions is revealed and connected to a structural rearrangement of carbon atom hybridizations and hydrogen content in the DLC structure.

  17. Morphology control of anatase TiO2 for well-defined surface chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jeantelot, Gabriel; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Sofack-Kreutzer, Julien; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Lopatin, Sergei; Harb, Moussab; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    A specific allotrope of titanium dioxide (anatase) was synthesized both with a standard thermodynamic morphology ({101}-anatase) and with a highly anisotropic morphology ({001}-anatase) dominated by the {001} facet (81%). The surface chemistry of both samples after dehydroxylation was studied by 1H NMR and FT-IR. The influence of surface fluorides on the surface chemistry was also studied by 1H NMR, FT-IR and DFT. Full attribution of the IR spectra of anatase with dominant {001} facets could be provided based on experimental data and further confirmed by DFT. Our results showed that chemisorbed H2O molecules are still present on anatase after dehydroxylation at 350 °C, and that the type of surface hydroxyls present on the {001} facet is dependent on the presence of fluorides. They also provided general insight into the nature of the surface species on both fluorinated and fluorine-free anatase. The use of vanadium oxychloride (VOCl3) allowed the determination of the accessibility of the various OH groups spectroscopically observed.

  18. Morphology control of anatase TiO2 for well-defined surface chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jeantelot, Gabriel

    2018-05-16

    A specific allotrope of titanium dioxide (anatase) was synthesized both with a standard thermodynamic morphology ({101}-anatase) and with a highly anisotropic morphology ({001}-anatase) dominated by the {001} facet (81%). The surface chemistry of both samples after dehydroxylation was studied by 1H NMR and FT-IR. The influence of surface fluorides on the surface chemistry was also studied by 1H NMR, FT-IR and DFT. Full attribution of the IR spectra of anatase with dominant {001} facets could be provided based on experimental data and further confirmed by DFT. Our results showed that chemisorbed H2O molecules are still present on anatase after dehydroxylation at 350 °C, and that the type of surface hydroxyls present on the {001} facet is dependent on the presence of fluorides. They also provided general insight into the nature of the surface species on both fluorinated and fluorine-free anatase. The use of vanadium oxychloride (VOCl3) allowed the determination of the accessibility of the various OH groups spectroscopically observed.

  19. Coevolution of bed surface patchiness and channel morphology: 2. Numerical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter A.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-01-01

    In gravel bed rivers, bed topography and the bed surface grain size distribution evolve simultaneously, but it is not clear how feedbacks between topography and grain sorting affect channel morphology. In this, the second of a pair of papers examining interactions between bed topography and bed surface sorting in gravel bed rivers, we use a two-dimensional morphodynamic model to perform numerical experiments designed to explore the coevolution of both free and forced bars and bed surface patches. Model runs were carried out on a computational grid simulating a 200 m long, 2.75 m wide, straight, rectangular channel, with an initially flat bed at a slope of 0.0137. Over five numerical experiments, we varied (a) whether an obstruction was present, (b) whether the sediment was a gravel mixture or a single size, and (c) whether the bed surface grain size feeds back on the hydraulic roughness field. Experiments with channel obstructions developed a train of alternate bars that became stationary and were connected to the obstruction. Freely migrating alternate bars formed in the experiments without channel obstructions. Simulations incorporating roughness feedbacks between the bed surface and flow field produced flatter, broader, and longer bars than simulations using constant roughness or uniform sediment. Our findings suggest that patches are not simply a by-product of bed topography, but they interact with the evolving bed and influence morphologic evolution.

  20. Surface-spin magnetism of antiferromagnetic NiO in nanoparticle and bulk morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagodic, M; Jaglicic, Z; Jelen, A; Dolinsek, J; Lee, Jin Bae; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Young-Min

    2009-01-01

    The surface-spin magnetism of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) material NiO in nanoparticle and bulk morphology was investigated by magnetic measurements (temperature-dependent zero-field-cooled (zfc) and field-cooled (fc) dc susceptibility, ac susceptibility and zfc and fc hysteresis loops). We addressed the question of whether the multisublattice ordering of the uncompensated surface spins and the exchange bias (EB) effect are only present in the nanoparticles, originating from their high surface-to-volume ratio or if these surface phenomena are generally present in the AFM materials regardless of their bulky or nanoparticle morphology, but the effect is just too small to be detected experimentally in the bulk due to a very small surface magnetization. Performing experiments on the NiO nanoparticles of different sizes and bulk NiO grains, we show that coercivity enhancement and hysteresis loop shift in the fc experiments, considered to be the key experimental manifestations of multisublattice ordering and the EB effect, are true nanoscale phenomena only present in the nanoparticles and absent in the bulk.

  1. Influence of the surface topography, morphology and structure on magnetic properties of ion beam sputtered iron layers, Fe/Cr/Fe- and Fe/MgO/Fe multilayers; Untersuchung der Morphologie und magnetische Eigenschaften von ionenstrahl-gesputterten Eisen-Einzelschichten, Fe/Cr/Fe- und Fe/MgO/Fe-Schichtsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steeb, Alexandra

    2007-04-05

    In this PhD Thesis, the influence of the surface topography, morphology and structure on magnetic properties of ion beam sputtered iron layers on GaAs is examined. To analyze the structure of the produced iron films, low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy is employed. The utilized methods to investigate the magnetic properties are Kerr- and SQUID-magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance. It is demonstrated that on untreated as well as on presputtered and heated GaAs substrates the sputtered iron films grow epitaxially. The least surface roughness of 1 A exhibit iron films grown on untreated GaAs, while iron films on heated GaAs have the highest roughness of 30 A. The largest crystal anisotropy constant is found for the presputtered GaAs/Fe-System. For this preparation method, two monolayers of iron are determined to be magnetically dead layers. At a film thickness of 100 A, 83% of the value for saturation magnetization of bulk iron are achieved. The small observed FMR-linewidths confirm the good bulk properties of the ion beam sputtered iron. Furthermore, an antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling in sputtered Fe/Cr/Fe-films was achieved. For a thickness of 12 to 17 A of the chrome interlayer, a coupling strength up to 0.2 mJ/m{sup 2} is found. To account for the small coupling strength, a strong intermixing at the interface is assumed. Finally, epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe/FeMn multilayers are deposited on GaAs. After the structuring, it is possible to detect tunneling processes in the tunneling contacts with current-voltage measurements. The tunnel magneto resistance values of 2% are small, which can be explained by the absence of sharp, well-defined interfaces between the Fe/FeMn and the Fe/MgO interfaces. These results demonstrate, that analog to MBE the ion beam sputtering method realizes good magnetic bulk properties. However, interface sensitive phenomena are weakened because of a strong intermixing at the interfaces. (orig.)

  2. Morphology and surface-plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles sandwiched between Si3N4 and BN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toudert, J.; Camelio, S.; Babonneau, D.; Denanot, M.-F.; Girardeau, T.; Espinos, J.P.; Yubero, F.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Nanocermet trilayered thin films consisting of silver nanoclusters sandwiched between two dielectric layers (the buffer and the cap) have been synthesized by ion-beam sputtering with an alternate deposition of the metal and the dielectric species. The influence of the amount of silver, the nature of the buffer and the cap (BN or Si 3 N 4 ), and a time delay before the cap deposition on clusters morphology and repartition have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It has been observed that the clusters display truncated ellipsoidal shapes in which the height to diameter ratio H/D decreases as the amount of deposited silver increases. For a given amount of silver, this ratio is lower in the case of a Si 3 N 4 cap, whatever the nature of the buffer. Two explanations are proposed to account for this 'cap effect' on clusters morphology: the first one is based on a calculation of the H/D minimizing the surface free energy of the clusters embedded between the buffer and the cap; the second one holds on the shape relaxation of the coalesced nonequilibrium clusters towards their equilibrium shape with the buffer, this process occurring until clusters are fully covered with the cap. Because of the higher deposition rate of Si 3 N 4 compared to BN, a Si 3 N 4 cap would allow a less efficient reshaping and consequently lead to flatter clusters. This explanation is supported by the temporal evolution of clusters morphology and repartition observed during the time delay before deposition of the cap. The evolution of the spectral position of the surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) of the trilayers as a function of their structure has also been investigated by optical transmittance measurements. The influence of cluster morphology, as well as the nature of the buffer and the cap on the SPR spectral position are discussed

  3. The surface morphology of retinal breaks and lattice retinal degeneration. A scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M R; Streeten, B W

    1986-02-01

    In 14 of 110 eye bank eyes, lesions characteristic of peripheral retinal surface pathology were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These included operculated and flap tears, trophic round holes, lattice degeneration with holes, and paravascular retinal "pitting" degeneration. By SEM, the edges of the retinal breaks were covered by smooth cellular membranes, merging peripherally with a meshwork of vitreous fibrils. The membrane cells had poorly defined borders, a pitted surface, and variable numbers of microvilli consistent with glia. Lattice surfaces and foci of paravascular retinal degeneration were covered by similar membrane, but showed characteristic differences. It appears that breaks in the internal limiting membrane always stimulate proliferation of preretinal glial membranes. Similar cellular morphology of the membranes associated with breaks is consistent with a common cell of origin. Limited proliferation of these membranes suggests that surface gliosis is normally inhibited when the cells contact either intact basement membrane or vitreous.

  4. Crystallinity, Surface Morphology, and Photoelectrochemical Effects in Conical InP and InN Nanowires Grown on Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2016-08-24

    The growth conditions of two types of indium-based III-V nanowires, InP and InN, are tailored such that instead of yielding conventional wire-type morphologies, single-crystal conical structures are formed with an enlarged diameter either near the base or near the tip. By using indium droplets as a growth catalyst, combined with an excess indium supply during growth, "ice cream cone" type structures are formed with a nanowire "cone" and an indium-based "ice cream" droplet on top for both InP and InN. Surface polycrystallinity and annihilation of the catalyst tip of the conical InP nanowires are observed when the indium supply is turned off during the growth process. This growth design technique is extended to create single-crystal InN nanowires with the same morphology. Conical InN nanowires with an enlarged base are obtained through the use of an excess combined Au-In growth catalyst. Electrochemical studies of the InP nanowires on silicon demonstrate a reduction photocurrent as a proof of photovolatic behavior and provide insight as to how the observed surface polycrystallinity and the resulting interface affect these device-level properties. Additionally, a photovoltage is induced in both types of conical InN nanowires on silicon, which is not replicated in epitaxial InN thin films.

  5. Surface morphology study of some Cu–Ni reference alloys using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheta, S.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, 12613, Giza (Egypt); Di Carlo, G.; Ingo, G.M. [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN-CNR), Area della Ricerca Roma 1 Montelibretti, 00016, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); Harith, M.A., E-mail: mharithm@niles.edu.eg [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, 12613, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-04-15

    In the present work a detailed study of the surface morphology of purposely-prepared Cu–Ni reference alloys has been performed. These alloys have been prepared via tailored casting methods in order to have samples with same chemical composition and different local chemical enrichments of both metals. A micro-LIBS system for surface spatial scanning was set up based on a second harmonic Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and using a focusing lens of focal length 7 cm to disclose the local chemical composition variation. Surface morphological scanning was performed for some of the binary Cu–Ni reference alloys to differentiate between chemically homogeneous and heterogeneous alloys. LIBS results were compared with the information of the Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEMEDS) investigation carried out to provide surface local large-area chemical analysis via EDS technique. It has been proved that LIBS is a simple, sensitive and direct technique in the determination of homogeneity or heterogeneity of the sample's surface. The LIBS results have been shown to be more sensitive and accurate in the heterogeneity determination than other used conventional analytical techniques. - Highlights: • Surface LIBS scanning was performed for Cu–Ni reference alloy samples. • LIBS system was based on a 2nd harmonic Nd:YAG laser and a focusing lens (f = 7 cm). • LIBS results were compared with SEM imaging and EDS chemical analysis. • Surface homogeneity and heterogeneity have been differentiated successfully. • LIBS is a sensitive analytical tool in surface metallurgical study.

  6. Nanoparticles of ZnO doped with Mn: structural and morphological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio, Maria Aparecida Ribeiro; Lira, Helio de Lucena; Gama, Lucianna, E-mail: m_aparecidaribeiro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Neiva, Laedna Souto [Universidade Federal do Cariri (UFCA), Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Materiais; Kiminami, Ruth H. G. A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (USCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-07-15

    In this study, the effects of dopant concentrations on the structural and morphological characteristics of Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} O powders (x= 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mole) synthesized by the Pechini method has been investigated. The powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) specific surface, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR). An XRD analysis of the powder showed the formation of ZnO phase with a typical single phase wurtzite structure. The EDX analysis revealed Mn incorporated in the ZnO structure. The particle size calculated by BET ranged from 24 to 63 nm, confirming the nanometric size of the powder particles. The SEM analysis revealed irregular shaped particle agglomerates and the presence of nanosheets. From FTIR it was confirmed the wurtzite structure in ZnO and ZnO nanoparticles doped with Mn. (author)

  7. Electrodeposition of ruthenium, rhodium and palladium from nitric acid and ionic liquid media: Recovery and surface morphology of the deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, M.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Sudha, R. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Srinivasan, T.G., E-mail: tgs@igcar.gov.com [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Platinum group metals are man-made noble metals. {yields} Electrochemical recovery of fission platinoids. {yields} Recovery from nitric acid medium. {yields} Recovery from ionic liquid medium. {yields} Platinoids with exotic surface morphologies. - Abstract: Electrodeposition is a promising technique for the recovery of platinum group metals with unique surface morphologies. The electrodeposition of palladium, ruthenium and rhodium from aqueous nitric acid, and non-aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid medium was studied at stainless steel electrode. The surface morphology and elemental composition of the resultant deposit were probed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. Deposits with diverse surface morphologies and metal compositions were obtained by varying the composition of the electrolytic medium and applied potential. The results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring the morphologies of PGMs by controlling the composition and potential needed for electrodeposition.

  8. Effect of annealing temperature on surface morphology and work function of ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hainan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Xue, Mingshan, E-mail: xuems04@mails.ucas.ac.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Ou, Junfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Solar Cell Materials and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wang, Fajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Li, Wen, E-mail: wenl@ualberta.ca [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •The 600°C and 450°C isothermal sections of the Zn-Fe-B system are determined. •The solubility of Zn in Fe{sub 2}B and FeB at 600°C is 1.8 at.% and 2.5 at.%, respectively. •The solubility of Zn in Fe{sub 2}B and FeB at 450°C is 1.7 at.% and 2.1 at.%, respectively. •All Fe-Zn compounds can be in equilibrium with Fe{sub 2}B at 450°C. •Both FeB and Fe{sub 2}B are in equilibrium with the liquid phase at 600°C. -- Abstract: A simple and effective method of fabricating nanomaterials and the understanding of their electronic structures are significant for designing novel nanodevices. In this study, ZnO nanorod arrays on ITO substrate were synthesized by electrochemical deposition, and the effect of annealing temperature on surface morphology and especially work function was investigated using various techniques. The results indicated that the formation of hexagonal ZnO nanorod arrays with (0 0 0 1) orientation was strongly associated with the annealing temperature. The work function of well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays is 4.84 eV, which shows an obvious dependence on the arrangement of ZnO nanorod arrays. These changes in work function of ZnO nanorod arrays (e.g., used as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells) are important to understand the electron transport of related nanodevices.

  9. Thermal Properties, Structure and Morphology of Graphene Reinforced Polyethylene Terephthalate/ Polypropylene Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inuwa, I.M.; Hassan, A.; Shamsudin, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work the thermal properties, structure and morphology of a blend of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP) reinforced with graphene nano platelets (GNP) were investigated. A blend of PET/ PP (70/ 30 weight percent) compatibilized with styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene grafted maleic anhydride triblock copolymer (10 phr) were fabricated by melt extrusion process in a twin screw extruder. The effective thermal conductivity of the nano composites increased as a function of the GNP concentration. More than 80 % increase in effective thermal conductivity was observed for the 7 phr reinforced sample compared to the neat blend. This observation was attributed to the development interconnected GNP sheets which formed heat conductive bridges that are suitable for maximum heat transfer. However, in the case of thermal stability which is a function of dispersibility of GNP in polymer matrix, the maximum increase was observed at 3 phr GNP loading which could be attributed to the uniform dispersion of GNPs in the matrix. It is explained that the GNP nano fillers migrated to the surface of matrix forming an effective oxygen barrier due to char formation. Morphological studies revealed uniform dispersion graphene in the polymer matrix at 3 phr GNP loading along with isolated instances of exfoliation of the graphene layers. (author)

  10. Structural and morphological study of Fe-doped Bi-based superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yadunath; Kumar, Rohitash

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we report the study of iron-doped Bi-based superconductor sample with stoichiometric composition of Bi2Sr2Can-1(Cu1-x Fex)3O2n+4 where n=3 and x = 0.7. This sample was prepared by grinding the precursor oxides in the Ball mill for 6 hours continuous at the rate of 400 rpm for a proper mixing and to obtain the required grain size. Then the solid-state reaction method was used to prepare the sample. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDX) were performed for determination of the crystal structure, surface morphology and trace the material elements of samples, respectively. The surface microscopy data were collected over a selected area of the surface of the material and a two-dimensional image generated that displays spatial variations in properties including chemical characterization and orientation of materials.

  11. Thermal aging and accelerated weathering of HMSPP: structural and morphological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliani, Washington L.; Komatsu, Luiz G.H.; Parra, Duclerc F.

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses of the influence of weathering factors - UV radiation, humidity, and temperature on the structure and morphology polypropylene with high melt strength (HMSPP), also called polypropylene modified by irradiation. The HMSPP was prepared from iPP (isotactic polypropylene) in presence of acetylene at 110 kPa pressure and irradiated with γ of "6"0Co at doses of 5, 12.5 and 20 kGy. It has been observed that HMSPP deteriorates the weathering resistance, the thermal behavior and the long-term stability of HMSPP, beyond substantial color changes. The samples aged were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The optical microscopy images on the surface show that thermal aging and artificial weathering proceed by different mechanisms. The effects of elevated temperature aging were evaluated in HMSPPs exposed surface according to the order: HMSPP 20 >12.5 > kGy >iPP, showing intense crack formation in surface exposed due to thermo oxidative degradation. (author)

  12. [Morphological, optical, and structural characteristics of glass sponge spicules and the photoreceptor hypothesis of their survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskiĭ, S S; Kul'chin, Iu N; Galkina, A N; Sergeev, A A

    2010-01-01

    The morphology, structure, and optical characteristics of spicules of some sea glass sponges have been studied. The results obtained are interpreted from the point of view of their possible role in the survival of the organism of sponges.

  13. Impact of coastal morphology, structure and seismicity on the tsunami surge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, K.M.

    coastal regions are concerned, detailed geophysical surveys on the coastal morphology, structure and coastal seismicity are very essential in order to understand the relationship between tsunami run-up heights, inundation extent and the shelf...

  14. Morphology Characterization of PP/Clay Nanocomposites Across the Length Scales of the Structural Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szazdi, Laszlo; Abranyi, Agnes; Pukansky Jr, Bela; Vancso, Gyula J.; Pukanszky, B.; Pukanszky, Bela

    2006-01-01

    The structure and rheological properties of a large number of layered silicate poly(propylene) nanocomposites were studied with widely varying compositions. Morphology characterization at different length scales was achieved by SEM, TEM, and XRD. Rheological measurements supplied additional

  15. Morphology, Structure and Nonstoichiometry of ZnCr2O4 Nanophased Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Milosevic

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that gas/humidity-sensing properties of spinels are markedly influenced by their stoichiometry and microstructure. In this work nucleation and spinel phase development in the Zn-Cr-O system were investigated from the viewpoint of structural and morphological phenomena occurred during nanophased particle synthesis through aerosol reaction. The aerosol was generated from nitrates precursor solution using ultrasonic atomizer operated at 1.7 MHz. The influence of different decomposition schedules on the particle chemical content and morphology was determined by adjusting the processing parameters (aerosol droplet density 3.9x106 droplets/cm3, droplet velocity 0.035m/s, max. temperature 900oC and residence times 3, 6 and 9s. A composite particle structure comprised of primary crystallites sized from 22 to 44nm is revealed by SEM and TEM analysis. XRD structural analysis (crystallite size, microstrains, unit cell and ionic occupancies is performed in accordance with procedure based on Koalariet-Xfit program. A certain degree of non-stochiometry is characteristic for all powders. Homogenous distribution of the constituting elements and Zn/Cr ratio of about 0.68 are proved by EDAX mapping analysis in 470nm sized as-prepared particles. After additional treatment at 1000oC octahedral crystals form with the (111 surface dominat. Evaluated spinel non-stochiometry (Zn/Cr=0.58 is a result of the ZnO dissolving (1.9%wt in the stoichiometric ZnCr2O4. Determination of the way by which the ZnO is incorporated into the spinel lattice is performed according to the procedure based on calculation of both formation and attachment energies.

  16. Effect of Different Cutting Techniques on the Surface Morphology and Composition of Niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.A.; Wu, A.; Bauer, P.; Antoine, C.

    2009-01-01

    The surface morphology and chemical purity of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are very important for proper accelerator operation. Typically on the order of 120 micrometers of niobium (Nb) is removed from cavities to remove damage done during the forming of Nb sheets and cavities. A study was done to find the effect of cutting or finishing Nb with a band saw, diamond saw, electrical discharge machining (EDM) wire, garnet water jet, sheer, and mill. Surface contamination of the samples was measured before and after buffered chemical polish (BCP) by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and by measuring relative resistivity ratios (RRRs). Surface morphology was examined with a digital microscope, a surface profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that all techniques altered the top 3-5 micrometers of the Nb. It was also found by SIMS that the water jet technique introduced the most hydrogen and oxygen to the Nb in the first 2.5 micrometers of the sample. The EDM wire cutting technique introduced the least amount of hydrogen to the Nb. After 5 micrometers were etched away by BCP on the various samples, no contaminants were found except on the water jet cut samples. Even after 20 micrometers of Nb removal silica could be seen on the surface with EDS. The water jet produced the roughest surface with 50-100 micrometer deep pits made from embedded garnet particles. It was found that the garnet water jet damages the surface to the point where even the typical 120 micrometers of BCP etching may not remove all the defects created

  17. Structural and morphological TEM characterization of GaAs based nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soda, Marcello

    2012-02-03

    The question of a structural and morphological characterization of GaAs based nanowires is the research interest of this thesis. For this purpose standard and analytical transmission electron microscopy techniques were employed. New investigation methodologies are introduced in order to obtain a reliable interpretation of the results. The principal motivation on developing a new investigation method is the necessity to relate the results of crystal structure and morphology characterizations to microscopic and NW-specific parameters and not to macroscopic and general growth parameters. This allows a reliable comparison of NW characteristics and enhances the comprehension of their growth mechanism.The analysis of the results on crystal structure investigations, assuming this new perspective, delivers the fundamental finding that the axial growth of Au-assisted GaAs NWs can change in a pseudo Ga-assisted growth due to a non steady-state regime of the Ga accumulation process in the liquid droplet. The attempt to associate the observed crystal structures to one of these two growth modes reveals that zinc blende segments are most probably generated when a pseudo Ga-assisted growth occurs. This experimental evidence is in accordance with investigations developed by Glas et al. and Spirkoska et al. and with the current understanding of the NW growth mechanism and unifies the interpretation of catalytic growth of GaAs NWs. A Mn doped GaAs shell deposited at low temperature on core GaAs NWs is characterized for the first time. The growth is found to be epitaxial and to confer the quality of the core crystal to the shell crystal. As a consequence a high stacking fault density of the core NW limits the temperature of the shell growth due to the formation of clusters. Cross sections of (Ga,Mn)As shells are investigated. Simple kinetic and thermodynamical considerations lead to the conclusion of morphological instability of the low temperature radial growth. Analytical

  18. Morphology and Differentiation of MG63 Osteoblast Cells on Saliva Contaminated Implant Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Shams

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Osteoblasts are the most important cells in the osseointegration process. Despite years of study on dental Implants, limited studies have discussed the effect of saliva on the adhesion process of osteoblasts to implant surfaces. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of saliva on morphology and differentiation of osteoblasts attached to implant surfaces.Materials and Methods: Twelve Axiom dental implants were divided into two groups. Implants of the case group were placed in containers, containing saliva, for 40 minutes. Then, all the implants were separately stored in a medium containing MG63 human osteoblasts for a week. Cell morphology and differentiation were assessed using a scanning electron microscope and their alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined. The t-test was used to compare the two groups.Results: Scanning electron microscopic observation of osteoblasts revealed round or square cells with fewer and shorter cellular processes in saliva contaminated samples, whereas elongated, fusiform and well-defined cell processes were seen in the control group. ALP level was significantly lower in case compared to control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Saliva contamination alters osteoblast morphology and differentiation and may subsequently interfere with successful osseointegration. Thus, saliva contamination of bone and implant must be prevented or minimized.

  19. Advances on surface structural determination by LEED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Edmar A; De Carvalho, Vagner E; De Castilho, Caio M C

    2011-01-01

    In the last 40 years, low energy electron diffraction (LEED) has proved to be the most reliable quantitative technique for surface structural determination. In this review, recent developments related to the theory that gives support to LEED structural determination are discussed under a critical analysis of the main theoretical approximation-the muffin-tin calculation. The search methodologies aimed at identifying the best matches between theoretical and experimental intensity versus voltage curves are also considered, with the most recent procedures being reviewed in detail. (topical review)

  20. Morphology and structure of polymers in ultrathin films and constrained geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullerud, Steven Olaf

    We have explored the organization of polycaprolactone (PCL) constrained in ultrathin films and nanometer-scale domains. Specifically, PCL functionalized with triethoxysilane functional groups was used to create tethered ultrathin films on silicon (100) substrates through silanization, and a sol-gel reaction was used to produce PCL/silsesquioxane composites with nanoscale phase-separated domains. In the first case, analysis by AFM and ellipsometry showed the existence of an amorphous sublayer up to 4 nm thick. Above this, physisorbed PCL formed heterogeneous surface features, up to 7 nm thick, with the morphology dependent on the polymer solution concentration during the deposition process. Low PCL solution concentration produced amorphous globular domains, while higher polymer concentrations allowed the growth of dendritic crystalline features. We report the results of in situ thermal analysis of grafted PCL by AFM, which show the melting of the surface structures at the film surface as well as growth of new dendritic structures upon recrystallization. High tapping forces applied by the AFM tip revealed the presence of crystalline lamellae buried below an amorphous layer in the dendritic structures, as well as in the PCL sublayer when the film was cooled below room temperature. PCL phase separation behavior and morphology in sol-gel organic/inorganic nanocomposites with methylsilsesquioxane (MSSQ) or phenylsilsesquioxane (PSSQ) was probed using TEM, FTIR, and fluorescence spectroscopy of dansyl and pyrene-labeled PCL. Star-like and linear PCL were used to study the effects of molecular weight, endgroup functionality, and polymer geometry on the phase separation behavior in these materials. PCL crystallinity, as detected through FTIR, served to detect the presence of macroscopic phase separation, as well as the critical PCL loading amount at which this occurs, for a given PCL/SSQ system. Fluorescence spectroscopy of dansyl-labeled PCL detected the presence of an

  1. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.

    2017-07-04

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  2. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.; Sicat, R.; Baum, D.; Wodo, O.; Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  3. The morphologies of fractured surfaces and fracture toughness in some As-Se-Sb-S-I glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukic, S.R.; Petrovic, D.M.; Skuban, F.; Sidanin, L.; Guth, I.O.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a general physical characterization of amorphous materials in the pseudobinary system (As 2 Se 3 ) 100-x (SbSI) x type, their indentation fracture toughness was determined. It is a system with the variable ratio of classical amorphous compound As 2 Se 3 and the molecule of antimony sulfoiodide, SbSI, which in the monocrystal form is characterized as ferroelectrics. Because of chalcogenides are generally very brittle and under load they crack very easily, these glasses have been studied with the aim of examining the possibility of obtaining some new structures on the basis of the materials with amorphous internal network, the structures that will have a higher quality in respect of mechanical properties. The morphologies of fractured surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscope

  4. The morphologies of fractured surfaces and fracture toughness in some As-Se-Sb-S-I glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukic, S.R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)]. E-mail: svetdrag@im.ns.ac.yu; Petrovic, D.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro); Skuban, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro); Sidanin, L. [Department for Production Engineering, Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro); Guth, I.O. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-09-15

    As part of a general physical characterization of amorphous materials in the pseudobinary system (As{sub 2}Se{sub 3}){sub 100-x}(SbSI) {sub x} type, their indentation fracture toughness was determined. It is a system with the variable ratio of classical amorphous compound As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and the molecule of antimony sulfoiodide, SbSI, which in the monocrystal form is characterized as ferroelectrics. Because of chalcogenides are generally very brittle and under load they crack very easily, these glasses have been studied with the aim of examining the possibility of obtaining some new structures on the basis of the materials with amorphous internal network, the structures that will have a higher quality in respect of mechanical properties. The morphologies of fractured surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscope.

  5. Analysis of carotid lumen surface morphology using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Beletsky, Vadim; Spence, J David; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Carotid plaque surface irregularity and ulcerations play an important role in the risk of ischemic stroke. Ulcerated or fissured plaque, characterized by irregular surface morphology, exposes thrombogenic materials to the bloodstream, possibly leading to life- or brain-threatening thrombosis and embolization. Therefore, the quantification of plaque surface irregularity is important to identify high-risk plaques that would likely lead to vascular events. Although a number of studies have characterized plaque surface irregularity using subjective classification schemes with two or more categories, only a few have quantified surface irregularity using an objective and continuous quantity, such as Gaussian or mean curvature. In this work, our goal was to use both Gaussian and mean curvatures for identifying ulcers from 3D carotid ultrasound (US) images of human subjects. Before performing experiments using patient data, we verified the numerical accuracy of the surface curvature computation method using discrete spheres and tori with different sampling intervals. We also showed that three ulcers of the vascular phantom with 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm diameters were associated with high Gaussian and mean curvatures, and thus, were easily detected. Finally, we demonstrated the application of the proposed method for detecting ulcers on luminal surfaces, which were segmented from the 3D US images acquired for two human subjects.

  6. Analysis of carotid lumen surface morphology using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Bernard; Beletsky, Vadim; Spence, J. David; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2009-03-01

    Carotid plaque surface irregularity and ulcerations play an important role in the risk of ischemic stroke. Ulcerated or fissured plaque, characterized by irregular surface morphology, exposes thrombogenic materials to the bloodstream, possibly leading to life- or brain-threatening thrombosis and embolization. Therefore, the quantification of plaque surface irregularity is important to identify high-risk plaques that would likely lead to vascular events. Although a number of studies have characterized plaque surface irregularity using subjective classification schemes with two or more categories, only a few have quantified surface irregularity using an objective and continuous quantity, such as Gaussian or mean curvature. In this work, our goal was to use both Gaussian and mean curvatures for identifying ulcers from 3D carotid ultrasound (US) images of human subjects. Before performing experiments using patient data, we verified the numerical accuracy of the surface curvature computation method using discrete spheres and tori with different sampling intervals. We also showed that three ulcers of the vascular phantom with 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm diameters were associated with high Gaussian and mean curvatures, and thus, were easily detected. Finally, we demonstrated the application of the proposed method for detecting ulcers on luminal surfaces, which were segmented from the 3D US images acquired for two human subjects.

  7. Surface Morphology and Hardness Analysis of TiCN Coated AA7075 Aluminium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, M. K.; Ganesha Prasad, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Successful titanium carbonitride (TiCN) coating on AA7075 plates using the PVD technique depends upon many variables, including temperature, pressure, incident angle and energy of the reactive ions. Coated specimens have shown an increase in their surface hardness of 2.566 GPa. In this work, an attempt to further augment the surface hardness and understand its effects on the surface morphology was performed through heat treatments at 500°C for different duration of times. Specimen's heat treated at 500°C for 1 h exhibited a maximum surface hardness of 6.433 GPa, corresponding to an increase of 92.07%. The XRD results showed the presence of Al2Ti and AlTi3N and indicate the bond created between them. Unit cell lattice parameters in the XRD data are calculated using Bragg's law. The SEM images exhibit increasing crack sizes as the heat treatment time is increased. From the studies, the heat treatment duration can be optimized to 1 h, which exhibited an augmented surface hardness, as further increases in durations caused a drop in the surface hardness. The heat treatment effectively modified the surface hardness. Equations providing the relationships that temperature and time have with the reaction parameters are presented.

  8. Structural, morphological and local electric properties of TiO2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergy, E; Pino, A Perez del; Sauthier, G; Figueras, A; Alsina, F; Pascual, J

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were synthesized on (1 0 0) Si substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. A frequency quadrupled Nd : YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 5 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source was used for the irradiations of metallic Ti targets. The experiments were performed in controlled oxygen atmosphere. Crystallinity, surface morphology and local electric properties of the obtained oxide thin films were investigated by x-ray diffractometry, micro-Raman spectroscopy and current sensing atomic force microscopy. An inter-relation was found between the surface morphology, the crystalline structure and the nano-scale electric properties which open the possibility of synthesizing by the PLD technique TiO 2 thin films with tunable functional properties for future applications such as photocatalysts, gas sensors or solar energy converters

  9. Effect of Sequence Blockiness on the Morphologies of Surface-grafted Elastin-like Polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Julie; Sintavanon, Kornkanok; Mays, Robin; MacEwan, Sarah; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Genzer, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The inter- and intra- molecular interactions among monomeric units of copolymers and polypeptides depend strongly on monomer sequence distribution and dictate the phase behavior of these species both in solution and on surfaces. To study the relationship between sequence and phase behavior, we have designed a series of elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) with controlled monomer sequences that mimic copolymers with various co-monomer sequence distributions and attached them covalently to silicon substrates from buffer solutions at temperatures below and above the bulk ELPs' lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs). The dependence of ELP grafting density on solution temperature was examined by ellipsometry and the resultant surface morphologies were examined in air and under water with atomic force microscopy. Depositions performed above the LCST resulted in higher grafting densities and greater surface roughness of ELPs relative to depositions carried out below the LCST. In addition, we are using gradient substrates to examine the effect of ELP grafting density on temperature responsiveness.

  10. Morphological Specifications of the Bird Schistosome Cercariae and Surface Carbohydrates as Receptors for Lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Moebedi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the morphological specifications of the bird schistosomes cercaria from Lymnaea gedrosiana and to detect the surface carbohydrates as receptors for host lectins in the host-parasite relationship systems such as avian schistosomiasis and human cercarial dermatitis. Methods: One hundred ninety two snails collected from Dezful areas in Khuzestan Province, in the south west of Iran, during 2005-2006 were examined for cercariae using shedding and crushing methods. In addition, surface carbohydrates on the cercariae were detected by lentil (Lens culinaris lectins. Results: From the total number of Lymnaea gedrosiana, which examined for bird schistosomes cercaria, 9(4% snails were found to be infected with furcocercus cercaria of the bird schistosomes (probably Gigantobilharzia sp.. Mannose monosaccharide CH2OH (CHOH4CHO as surface carbohydrate was also detected on the cercariae. Conclusion: Mannose carbohydrate on these cercariae may be used as receptor by lectins.

  11. Nano hydroxyapatite-blasted titanium surface affects pre-osteoblast morphology by modulating critical intracellular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Fábio; Ferreira, Marcel R; Fontes, Giselle N; da Costa Fernandes, Célio Jr; Andia, Denise C; Cruz, Nilson C; da Silva, Rodrigo A; Zambuzzi, Willian F

    2017-08-01

    Although, intracellular signaling pathways are proposed to predict the quality of cell-surface relationship, this study addressed pre-osteoblast behavior in response to nano hydroxyapatite (HA)-blasted titanium (Ti) surface by exploring critical intracellular pathways and pre-osteoblast morphological change. Physicochemical properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and wettability considering water contact angle of three differently texturized Ti surfaces: Machined (Mac), Dual acid-etching (DAE), and nano hydroxyapatite-blasted (nHA). The results revealed critical differences in surface topography, impacting the water contact angle and later the osteoblast performance. In order to evaluate the effect of those topographical characteristics on biological responses, we have seeded pre-osteoblast cells on the Ti discs for up to 4 h and subjected the cultures to biological analysis. First, we have observed pre-osteoblasts morphological changes resulting from the interaction with the Ti texturized surfaces whereas the cells cultured on nHA presented a more advanced spreading process when compared with the cells cultured on the other surfaces. These results argued us for analyzing the molecular machinery and thus, we have shown that nHA promoted a lower Bax/Bcl2 ratio, suggesting an interesting anti-apoptotic effect, maybe explained by the fact that HA is a natural element present in bone composition. Thereafter, we investigated the potential effect of those surfaces on promoting pre-osteoblast adhesion and survival signaling by performing crystal violet and immunoblotting approaches, respectively. Our results showed that nHA promoted a higher pre-osteoblast adhesion supported by up-modulating FAK and Src activations, both signaling transducers involved during eukaryotic cell adhesion. Also, we have shown Ras-Erk stimulation by the all evaluated surfaces. Finally, we showed that all Ti-texturing surfaces were able to promote osteoblast differentiation

  12. Three-dimensional Reciprocal Structures: Morphology, Concepts, Generative Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Pugnale, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    , causing every configuration to develop naturally out-of the plane. The structures presented here were developed and built by the students of the Master of Science in “Architectural Design” during a two week long workshop organized at Aalborg University in the fall semester 2011.......This paper present seven different three dimensional structures based on the principle of structural reciprocity with superimposition joint and standardized un-notched elements. Such typology could be regarded as being intrinsically three-dimensional because elements sit one of the top of the other...

  13. Sensor-based monitoring and inspection of surface morphology in ultraprecision manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Prahalad Krishna

    This research proposes approaches for monitoring and inspection of surface morphology with respect to two ultraprecision/nanomanufacturing processes, namely, ultraprecision machining (UPM) and chemical mechanical planarization (CMP). The methods illustrated in this dissertation are motivated from the compelling need for in situ process monitoring in nanomanufacturing and invoke concepts from diverse scientific backgrounds, such as artificial neural networks, Bayesian learning, and algebraic graph theory. From an engineering perspective, this work has the following contributions: 1. A combined neural network and Bayesian learning approach for early detection of UPM process anomalies by integrating data from multiple heterogeneous in situ sensors (force, vibration, and acoustic emission) is developed. The approach captures process drifts in UPM of aluminum 6061 discs within 15 milliseconds of their inception and is therefore valuable for minimizing yield losses. 2. CMP process dynamics are mathematically represented using a deterministic multi-scale hierarchical nonlinear differential equation model. This process-machine inter-action (PMI) model is evocative of the various physio-mechanical aspects in CMP and closely emulates experimentally acquired vibration signal patterns, including complex nonlinear dynamics manifest in the process. By combining the PMI model predictions with features gathered from wirelessly acquired CMP vibration signal patterns, CMP process anomalies, such as pad wear, and drifts in polishing were identified in their nascent stage with high fidelity (R2 ~ 75%). 3. An algebraic graph theoretic approach for quantifying nano-surface morphology from optical micrograph images is developed. The approach enables a parsimonious representation of the topological relationships between heterogeneous nano-surface fea-tures, which are enshrined in graph theoretic entities, namely, the similarity, degree, and Laplacian matrices. Topological invariant

  14. A Lagrangian cylindrical coordinate system for characterizing dynamic surface geometry of tubular anatomic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Torbjörn; Suh, Ga-Young; DiGiacomo, Phillip; Cheng, Christopher

    2018-03-03

    Vascular morphology characterization is useful for disease diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment planning, and prediction of treatment durability. To quantify the dynamic surface geometry of tubular-shaped anatomic structures, we propose a simple, rigorous Lagrangian cylindrical coordinate system to monitor well-defined surface points. Specifically, the proposed system enables quantification of surface curvature and cross-sectional eccentricity. Using idealized software phantom examples, we validate the method's ability to accurately quantify longitudinal and circumferential surface curvature, as well as eccentricity and orientation of eccentricity. We then apply the method to several medical imaging data sets of human vascular structures to exemplify the utility of this coordinate system for analyzing morphology and dynamic geometric changes in blood vessels throughout the body. Graphical abstract Pointwise longitudinal curvature of a thoracic aortic endograft surface for systole and diastole, with their absolute difference.

  15. Structure and morphology of pentacene thin films - from sub-monolayers to application relevant multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resel, R.; Werzer, O.; Nabok, D.; Puschnig, P.; Ambrosch-Draxl, C.; Smilgies, D.; Haase, A.; Stadlober, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The conjugated molecule pentacene is one of the most prominent material for application in organic thin film transistors. Charge carrier mobilities of about 1 cm 2 /Vs are realized in different device geometries which are used in integrated circuits. The device performance depends on the detailed structure and morphology of the pentacene thin films. This work presents an combined atomic force microscopy / x-ray scattering study on the formation of pentacene thin films starting from sub-monolayer coverage to the first closed monolayer to finally multilayer structures as they are used in device structures. Thin films of pentacene are prepared on oxidized silicon wafer with nominal thicknesses between 0.2 nm up to 180 nm. The films are investigated ex-situ by x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction. In the sub-monolayer regime the formation of separated islands with up-right standing molecules are observed. The islands show typically dendritic shape with a separation of 2 μm from each other. With increasing coverage the dendritic islands coalescent until the first monolayer closes. Fitting of the x-ray reflectivity reveals that an additional layer between the substrate and the up-right standing pentacene molecules is present. During the formation of the second monolayer crystalline islands are formed. The crystallites grow in lateral and vertical size with increasing film thickness. The crystal structure of pentacene within the films is a surface induced phase. The crystal structure of this metastable phase could be solved by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. At a nominal film thickness of about 40 nm the equilibrium bulk structure of pentacene appears; both phases remain existent up the thickest films investigated in this study. (author)

  16. Structure, morphology and optical properties of CuInS2 thin films prepared by modulated flux deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.; Gutierrez, M.T.; Briones, F.

    2005-01-01

    The structure, morphology and optical properties of copper indium sulfide thin films prepared by a novel modulated flux deposition procedure have been investigated for layers from 200 to 400 nm thickness. These polycrystalline CuInS 2 films grown onto glass substrates showed CuAu-like structure, similar to epitaxial CuInS 2 films grown onto monocrystalline substrates, and direct band gap values Eg=1.52-1.55 eV, optimum for single-junction photovoltaic applications. The increase in the layer thickness leads to growth of the average crystallite size and increases slightly the surface roughness and the absorption coefficient

  17. Structural, morphological and optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnSe/ZnSeO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Ali; Bashir, Shazia; Zehra, Khushboo; Salman Ahmed, Qazi

    2018-04-01

    The effect of varying laser pulses on structural, morphological and optical behavior of Pulsed Laser Deposited (PLD) ZnSe/ZnSeO3 thin films has been investigated. The films were grown by employing Excimer laser (100 mJ, 248 nm, 18 ns, 30 Hz) at various number of laser pulses i.e. 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 with elevated substrate temperature of 300 °C. One film was grown at Room Temperature (RT) by employing 3000 number of laser pulses. In order to investigate the structural analysis of deposited films, XRD analysis was performed. It was observed that the room temperature is not favorable for the growth of crystalline film. However, elevated substrate temperature to 300°C, two phases with preferred orientation of ZnSeO3 (2 1 2) and ZnSe (3 3 1) were identified. AFM and SEM analysis were performed to explore the surface morphology of grown films. Morphological analysis also confirmed the non-uniform film growth at room temperature. At elevated substrate temperature (300 °C), the growth of dendritic rods and cubical crystalline structures are observed for lower number of laser pulses i.e. 3000 and 4000 respectively. With increased number of pulses i.e. 5000 and 6000, the films surface morphology becomes smooth which is confirmed by measurement of surface RMS roughness. Number of grains, skewness, kurtosis and other parameters have been evaluated by statistical analysis. In order to investigate the thickness, and optical properties of deposited films, ellipsometery and UV–Vis spectroscopy techniques were employed. The estimated band gap energy is 2.67 eV for the film grown at RT, whereas band gap values varies from 2.80 eV to 3.01 eV for the films grown at 300 °C with increasing number of laser pulses.

  18. Nanoscale surface topographies for structural colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    The thesis describes and demonstrates the possibilities for utilization of structural colors in mass fabricated plastic products as replacement for or in combination with pigments and inks. The motivation is the possible advantages related to re-cycling and re-use of plastic by limiting the number......-polymer interface is suppressed. This improves the ability to see through a clear plastic in the presence of specular reflection. The tapered nanostructures are also utilized to enhance the chroma of pigmented polymers. Larger tapered structures fabricated in a similar manor are shown to work as color filters....... Through an experimental study is the color of the transmitted light linked directly to the random topography of the surface by use of diffraction theory. The color effects from periodic structures and how these might be employed to create bright colors are investigated. This is done both for opaque...

  19. Surface Morphology Transformation Under High-Temperature Annealing of Ge Layers Deposited on Si(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyaev, A A; Latyshev, A V

    2016-12-01

    We study the surface morphology and chemical composition of SiGe layers after their formation under high-temperature annealing at 800-1100 °C of 30-150 nm Ge layers deposited on Si(100) at 400-500 °C. It is found that the annealing leads to the appearance of the SiGe layers of two types, i.e., porous and continuous. The continuous layers have a smoothened surface morphology and a high concentration of threading dislocations. The porous and continuous layers can coexist. Their formation conditions and the ratio between their areas on the surface depend on the thickness of deposited Ge layers, as well as on the temperature and the annealing time. The data obtained suggest that the porous SiGe layers are formed due to melting of the strained Ge layers and their solidification in the conditions of SiGe dewetting on Si. The porous and dislocation-rich SiGe layers may have properties interesting for applications.

  20. The Effect of Laminin-1-Doped Nanoroughened Implant Surfaces: Gene Expression and Morphological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Osvaldo Schwartz-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to observe the morphological and molecular effect of laminin-1 doping to nanostructured implant surfaces in a rabbit model. Materials and Methods. Nanostructured implants were coated with laminin-1 (test; dilution, 100 μg/mL and inserted into the rabbit tibiae. Noncoated implants were used as controls. After 2 weeks of healing, the implants were removed and subjected to morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and gene expression analysis using the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results. SEM revealed bony tissue attachment for both control and test implants. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of osteoblast markers RUNX-2, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen I was higher (1.62-fold, 1.53-fold, 1.97-fold, and 1.04-fold, resp. for the implants modified by laminin-1 relative to the control. All osteoclast markers investigated in the study presented higher expression on the test implants than controls as follows: tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (1.67-fold, calcitonin receptor (1.35-fold, and ATPase (1.25-fold. The test implants demonstrated higher expression of inflammatory markers interleukin-10 (1.53-fold and tumour necrosis factor-α (1.61-fold relative to controls. Conclusion. The protein-doped surface showed higher gene expression of typical genes involved in the osseointegration cascade than the control surface.

  1. Thermostability and surface morphology of nano- and micro-filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM rubber blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MARINOVIC-CINCOVIC

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR, polychloroprene rubber (CR, chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber (CSM and their blends were cross-linked with sulphur, ethylene-thiourea, magnesium oxide or their combination. The effect of nano- and micro- particle sized of 35 pphr SiO2 on the thermostability and surface morphology of all the crosslinked systems was investigated. Identification of the structure of nano- and micro- particle sized SiO2 filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM crosslinked systems was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR extension. The thermal stability of the nano- and micro- particle sized SiO2 filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM crosslinked systems were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The glass transition temperature (Tg of the samples was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The morphology of the fracture surface of the crosslinked systems was carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results show when filled with nano-particle sized of SiO2 NBR/CSM and CR/CSM polymer matrix have a strong peak from SiO–C at 1079 cm-1. This suggests the an interaction between the SiO2, which should lead to an increased thermal stability, higher values of Tg, better dispersion the nano-SiO2 and more polish, without cracks than micro-filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM crosslinked systems.

  2. Influence of Zr doping on structure and morphology of TiO2 nanorods prepared using hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimin, Masliana; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin; Tee, Tan Sin; Beng, Lee Hock; Hui, Tan Chun; Chin, Yap Chi

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of Zr doping on TiO2 nanostructure. TiO2 nanorods thin films with different Zr-doping concentrations (6 × 10-3 M, 13 × 10-3 M and 25 × 10-3 M) were successfully prepared using a simple hydrothermal method. The structural and morphological properties of the samples were evaluated using XRD and FESEM respectively. The XRD results revealed that the TiO2 in all samples stabilized as rutile phase. The FESEM micrographs confirmed that TiO2 exist as square like nanorods with blunt tips. Although the crystallographic nature remains unchanged, the introduction of Zr has altered the surface density, structure and morphology of TiO2 which subsequently will have significant effect on its properties.

  3. Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, the popularity of freeform shapes in contemporary architecture poses new challenges to digital design. One of them is the process of rationalization, i.e. to make freeform skins or structures affordable to manufacture, which draws the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how to employ them nicely and repetitively in architectural design, in order to decrease the cost in manufacturing. Firstly, we study Darboux cyclides, which are algebraic surfaces of order ≤ 4. We provide a computational tool to identify all families of circles on a given cyclide based on the spherical model of M ̈obius geometry. Practical ways to design cyclide patches that pass through certain inputs are presented. In particular, certain triples of circle families on Darboux cyclides may be suitably arranged as 3-webs. We provide a complete classification of all possible 3-webs of circles on Darboux cyclides. We then investigate the circular arc snakes, which are smooth sequences of circu- lar arcs. We evolve the snakes such that their curvature, as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The evolution of snakes is utilized to approximate given surfaces by circular arcs or to generated freeform shapes, and it is realized by a 2-step pro- cess. More interestingly, certain 6-arc snake with boundary constraints can produce a smooth self motion, which can be employed to build flexible structures. Another challenging topic is approximating smooth freeform skins with simple panels. We contribute to this problem area by approximating a negatively-curved 5 surface with a smooth union of rational bilinear patches. We provide a proof for vertex consistency of hyperbolic nets using the CAGD approach of the rational B ́ezier form. Moreover, we use Darboux transformations for the

  4. Morphological, chemical and structural characterisation of deciduous enamel: SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR and XPS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio-Ortega, C M; Contreras-Bulnes, R; Scougall-Vilchis, R J; Morales-Luckie, R A; Olea-Mejía, O F; Rodríguez-Vilchis, L E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise the enamel surface of sound deciduous teeth in terms of morphology, chemical composition, structure and crystalline phases. The enamel of 30 human deciduous teeth was examined by: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Chemical differences between incisors and canines were statistically evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test (p ≤ 0.05). Three enamel patterns were observed by SEM: 'mostly smooth with some groves', 'abundant microporosities' and 'exposed prisms'. The average Ca/P molar ratios were 1.37 and 1.03 by EDS and XPS, respectively. The crystallite size determined by XRD was 210.82 ± 16.78 Å. The mean ratio between Ca bonded to phosphate and Ca bonded to hydroxyl was approximately 10:1. The enamel of sound deciduous teeth showed two main patterns: 'mostly smooth with some groves' and 'abundant microporosities'. 'Exposed prisms' was a secondary pattern. There were slight variations among the Ca/P molar ratios found by EDS and XPS, suggesting differences in the mineral content from the enamel surface to the interior. The crystalline phases found in enamel were hydroxyapatite and carbonate apatite, with major type B than type A carbonate incorporation.

  5. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general structure of the salt gland of nauplii cultured at 180 g/L disappeared. Semiquantitative APH-1 mRNA analysis indicated that the gene was expressed in all tested salinities. The expression did not change remarkably between 25 and 40 g/L salinities. As salinity increased, the gene was up regulated at 70 g/L and ...

  6. Neisserial surface lipoproteins: structure, function and biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Yogesh; Shin, Hyejin E; Bateman, Thomas J; Moraes, Trevor F

    2017-03-01

    The surface of many Gram-negative bacteria contains lipidated protein molecules referred to as surface lipoproteins or SLPs. SLPs play critical roles in host immune evasion, nutrient acquisition and regulation of the bacterial stress response. The focus of this review is on the SLPs present in Neisseria, a genus of bacteria that colonise the mucosal surfaces of animals. Neisseria contains two pathogens of medical interest, namely Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. Several SLPs have been identified in Neisseria and their study has elucidated key strategies used by these pathogens to survive inside the human body. Herein, we focus on the identification, structure and function of SLPs that have been identified in Neisseria. We also survey the translocation pathways used by these SLPs to reach the cell surface. Specifically, we elaborate on the strategies used by neisserial SLPs to translocate across the outer membrane with an emphasis on Slam, a novel outer membrane protein that has been implicated in SLP biogenesis. Taken together, the study of SLPs in Neisseria illustrates the widespread roles played by this family of proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Structure, morphology and thermal stability of electrochemically obtained Ni-Co deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafailovic, L.D. [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Artner, W. [Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology (CEST), Viktor-Kaplan-Strasse 2, A-2700 Wr. Neustadt (Austria); Nauer, G.E. [Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology (CEST), Viktor-Kaplan-Strasse 2, A-2700 Wr. Neustadt (Austria); Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Minic, D.M., E-mail: dminic@ffh.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2009-12-10

    Nanostructured nickel-cobalt alloy powder deposits were obtained electrochemically on Cu substrates in the current density range 40-400 mA cm{sup -2}. The influence of the current density and of the Ni{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+} ratio in the bath on the microstructure and phase composition of the Ni-Co deposits was studied by SEM and X-ray diffraction methods. Both the bath composition and the current density strongly influence the deposit growth mechanism as well as the deposit composition, microstructure, grain size and surface morphology. If the concentration ratio in the electrolyte is Ni{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+} = 4, the deposit has a cauliflower structure with mean grain size of 13 nm. In contrast, the particles deposited from the electrolyte with Ni{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+} = 0.25 show platelet structure with preferred orientations and mean grain size of 20 nm. When electrodeposition was performed at high overpotentials, far from equilibrium conditions, face-centered cubic (FCC) solid solutions of Ni and Co were generated while at low overpotentials, as well as at higher content of cobalt in the electrolyte, hexagonal-close packed (HCP) Co was formed. The structure of nanocrystalline deposits exhibits a strong tendency to structural changes under annealing. DSC of the alloy deposits shows a stepwise process of structural changes in the temperature range from 393 to 823 K. It was found that under annealing, HCP {yields} FCC phase transformation occurs in nanocrystalline deposit obtained from electrolyte with a concentration ratio Ni{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+} = 0.25.

  8. The ultrastructural surface morphology of oral cancer cells and keratinocytes after exposure to chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah; Sarsito, A. S.; Wimardhani, Y. S.

    2017-08-01

    Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC) has the same selective cytotoxic effects on oral cancer cells as cisplatin. The cell deaths caused by the anticancer characteristics of chitosan show that apoptosis is not the death pathway of the primary cells involved. The interactions between LMWC and the cells need to be explored. The objective of this study was to compare the ultrastructural morphology of oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC Ca)-922 and noncancer keratinocyte HaCaT cell lines after exposure to LMWC and cisplatin. The cells were treated with LMWC and cisplatin, and their ultrastructural morphology was analyzed using scanning electron micrographs. Features of early apoptosis, seen as the loss of microvilli, were detected in the LMWC-exposed Ca9-22 cells, and there was a material surrounding the cells. In contrast, the LMWC-exposed HaCaT cells showed no changes related to apoptosis. The results were the opposite when cisplatin was used. This study confirms that there are differences in the ultrastructural surface morphology of LMWC-exposed and cisplatin-exposed oral cancer cells and keratinocytes that could be correlated with their biological activity.

  9. The surface electronic structure of Y(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, C.

    1998-12-01

    Yttrium has been grown epitaxially on W(110). The growth was monitored by using photoemission spectroscopy with a synchrotron radiation source. The film thickness has been gauged by the attenuation of the W 4f 7/2 bulk component. The films have been grown reproducibly and show a prominent surface state which is indicative of good order and low contamination. Angle-Resolved Ultra-Violet Photoemission Spectroscopy has been used to examine the valence band of these ultra-thin films. The films show a very different structure to the valence band of a bulk crystal of yttrium. The differences have been investigated by a series of model calculations using the LMASA-46 tight-binding LMTO program. The calculations suggest that the ultra-thin film surface state may be hybridised with a tungsten orbital having (x 2 - y 2 ) character. (author)

  10. Structured thermal surface for radiative camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Bai, Xue; Yang, Tianzhi; Luo, Hailu; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2018-01-18

    Thermal camouflage has been successful in the conductive regime, where thermal metamaterials embedded in a conductive system can manipulate heat conduction inside the bulk. Most reported approaches are background-dependent and not applicable to radiative heat emitted from the surface of the system. A coating with engineered emissivity is one option for radiative camouflage, but only when the background has uniform temperature. Here, we propose a strategy for radiative camouflage of external objects on a given background using a structured thermal surface. The device is non-invasive and restores arbitrary background temperature distributions on its top. For many practical candidates of the background material with similar emissivity as the device, the object can thereby be radiatively concealed without a priori knowledge of the host conductivity and temperature. We expect this strategy to meet the demands of anti-detection and thermal radiation manipulation in complex unknown environments and to inspire developments in phononic and photonic thermotronics.

  11. Frequency Selective Surface for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlyana Azemi, Saidatul; Mustaffa, Farzana Hazira Wan; Faizal Jamlos, Mohd; Abdullah Al-Hadi, Azremi; Soh, Ping Jack

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies have attained attention to monitor civil structures. SHM sensor systems have been used in various civil structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels and so on. However the previous sensor for SHM is wired and encounter with problem to cover large areas. Therefore, wireless sensor was introduced for SHM to reduce network connecting problem. Wireless sensors for Structural Health monitoring are new technology and have many advantages to overcome the drawback of conventional and wired sensor. This project proposed passive wireless SHM sensor using frequency selective surface (FSS) as an alternative to conventional sensors. The electromagnetic wave characteristic of FSS will change by geometrical changes of FSS due to mechanical strain or structural failure. The changes feature is used as a sensing function without any connecting wires. Two type of design which are circular ring and square loop along with the transmission and reflection characteristics of SHM using FSS were discussed in this project. A simulation process has shown that incident angle characteristics can be use as a data for SHM application.

  12. Structure and morphology of mythimna pupa under diffraction enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wanxia; Yuan Qingxi; Zhu Peiping; Wang Junyue; Liu Yijin; Chen Bo; Shu Hang; Hu Tiandou; Wu Ziyu; Ge Siqin

    2007-01-01

    As a technique of X-ray phase contrast imaging, the diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) attracts much interest due to its high resolution and contrast. The top images of DEI were used to study the growth of a complete metamorphic mythimna in the period of pupa. Clear images about the pupa structure were obtained. The entire growth process of the pupa was observed, including the evolvement of part of organs and tissues from larva to imago. (authors)

  13. Quantitative analysis of surface characteristics and morphology in Death Valley, California using AIRSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierein-Young, K. S.; Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (JPL-AIRSAR) is used to collect full polarimetric measurements at P-, L-, and C-bands. These data are analyzed using the radar analysis and visualization environment (RAVEN). The AIRSAR data are calibrated using in-scene corner reflectors to allow for quantitative analysis of the radar backscatter. RAVEN is used to extract surface characteristics. Inversion models are used to calculate quantitative surface roughness values and fractal dimensions. These values are used to generate synthetic surface plots that represent the small-scale surface structure of areas in Death Valley. These procedures are applied to a playa, smooth salt-pan, and alluvial fan surfaces in Death Valley. Field measurements of surface roughness are used to verify the accuracy.

  14. A pilot study of the marginal adaptation and surface morphology of glass-cermet cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; King, N M; Lee, A M; Yiu, C K; Wei, S H

    1996-07-01

    This study investigated changes in the marginal adaptation and surface morphology of Ketac-Silver and Chelon-Silver glass-current cements over time. Dispersalloy amalgam was used as a control. Contralateral pairs of carious primary molars were restored with the test materials and amalgam. Clinical evaluations were scheduled at 12, 18, and 24 months after placement. Gold-plated replicas of the restorations were observed with scanning electron microscopy. Fractures and cracks in the surface of the Dispersalloy and Chelon-Silver increased the surface roughness; however, the damage was superficial and self-limiting in the Dispersalloy restorations, while in Chelon-Silver the fractures caused the material to break down in layers. A substantial quantity of pores, usually smaller than 50 microns in diameter, were observed throughout the surface of the Chelon-Silver restorations. The pores in the surface of Ketac-Silver were fewer and smaller. The incidence of cavomarginal breakdown increased with time. Chelon-Silver restorations had a higher rate of cavomarginal breakdown than did Ketac-Silver and Dispersalloy restorations up to 18 months. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the marginal adaptation of the three groups at 24 months.

  15. Helium concentration in tungsten nano-tendril surface morphology using Elastic Recoil Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woller, K.B.; Whyte, D.G.; Wright, G.M.; Doerner, R.P.; De Temmerman, G.

    2013-01-01

    Helium (He) concentrations in tungsten nano-tendrils (W fuzz) have been measured for the first time using Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD). Fuzzy and non-fuzzy W surfaces were analyzed in order to illuminate the role of He in the transition in surface morphologies. Samples grown in the PISCES-A and PILOT-PSI experiments allowed a survey of surface temperature ranging from T s = 470–2595 K and of He fluence on the order of Φ He ∼ 10 24 –10 27 ions/m 2 . He concentrations measured in the bulk of W fuzz layers are roughly uniform with bulk He concentration 1–4 at.% while samples with just He in the near surface peaked at 1–2 at.%. This confirms that the nano-tendrils are filled with high pressure He bubbles since the solubility of He in W is ∼10 −5 at.%. This indicates that the ∼1000 K temperature fuzz-growth threshold is determined by the response of the W, not the near-surface He concentration

  16. Effect of surface morphology and densification on the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fuyuan; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Litong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The cauliflower-like microstructure improved the infrared emissivity multiply. • The infrared emissivity decreased continually with the improving surface flatness. • The densification process boosted the infrared emissivity. - Abstract: The effects of surface morphology and densification on the infrared emissivity of 2D C/SiC composites were investigated in 6–16 μm from 1000 °C to 1600 °C. As the sample surface was polished, the reflection and scattering for the electromagnetic waves of thermal radiation were reduced, causing a sustained decrease in the infrared emissivity. The space-variant polarizations caused by the cauliflower-like microstructure were enervated in the smooth surface, which enhanced the reduction trendy in the infrared emissivity. In densification process, the increasing SiC content and the growing amount of the cauliflower-like microstructure on sample surface improved the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites, while the decreasing porosity decreased it. Due to the greater positive effects on the thermal radiation during the densification process, the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites increased successively with density

  17. Effect of surface morphology and densification on the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fuyuan, E-mail: wangfy1986@gmail.com; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Qing, E-mail: zhangqing@nwpu.edu.cn; Zhang, Litong

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The cauliflower-like microstructure improved the infrared emissivity multiply. • The infrared emissivity decreased continually with the improving surface flatness. • The densification process boosted the infrared emissivity. - Abstract: The effects of surface morphology and densification on the infrared emissivity of 2D C/SiC composites were investigated in 6–16 μm from 1000 °C to 1600 °C. As the sample surface was polished, the reflection and scattering for the electromagnetic waves of thermal radiation were reduced, causing a sustained decrease in the infrared emissivity. The space-variant polarizations caused by the cauliflower-like microstructure were enervated in the smooth surface, which enhanced the reduction trendy in the infrared emissivity. In densification process, the increasing SiC content and the growing amount of the cauliflower-like microstructure on sample surface improved the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites, while the decreasing porosity decreased it. Due to the greater positive effects on the thermal radiation during the densification process, the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites increased successively with density.

  18. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi-Sabet, Javad, E-mail: j_karimi@alum.sharif.edu [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshariat@ut.ac.ir [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Manipulation of the Cu surface morphology in a wide range by electropolishing treatment. • Comparison of the nucleation density of graphene at low pressure and atmospheric pressure CVD processes. • Controlling the evolution of the Cu surface morphology inside a novel confined space. • Growth of large-size graphene domains. - Abstract: In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  19. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi; Karimi-Sabet, Javad; Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Manipulation of the Cu surface morphology in a wide range by electropolishing treatment. • Comparison of the nucleation density of graphene at low pressure and atmospheric pressure CVD processes. • Controlling the evolution of the Cu surface morphology inside a novel confined space. • Growth of large-size graphene domains. - Abstract: In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  20. Morphology modification of gold nanoparticles from nanoshell to C-shape: Improved surface enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Ting-Yang; Zhu, Jian; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Morphology modification of nanostructures is of great interest, because it can be used to fabricate nanostructures which are hard to be done using other methods. Different from traditional lithographic technique which is slow and expensive, morphology modification is easy, cheap, and reproducible. In this paper, modification of the optical and morphological properties of a hollow gold nanoshell (HGNS) is achieved by using H 2 O 2 as an oxidizer. The reshaping of these nanostructures has been demonstrated as a consequence of an oxidation process in which HGNSs are dissolved by H 2 O 2 under the acidic conditions provided by HCl. We investigate the oxidation process by a transmission electron microscope and propose a reshaping model involving four different shapes (HGNS, HGNS with hole, gold nanoring, and C-shaped gold nanoparticle) which are corresponding to the oxidation products of HGNSs at different pH values. Besides, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of each oxidation product has been evaluated by using rhodamine 6G as the Raman active probe. It has been observed that the C-shaped gold nanoparticles which are corresponding to the oxidation products at the minimum pH value have the highest SERS activity and this result can also be interpreted by discrete-dipole approximation simulations. We demonstrate that the morphology modification of HGNSs becomes possible in a controlled manner using wet chemistry and can be used in preparation of gold nanoparticles such as HGNS with hole, gold nanoring, and C-shaped gold nanoparticle with large SERS activity. These nanostructures must have potential use in many plasmonic areas, including sensing, catalysis, and biomedicine.

  1. Morphology modification of gold nanoparticles from nanoshell to C-shape: Improved surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Ting-Yang; Zhu, Jian; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Jun-Wu, E-mail: nanoptzhao@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-06-28

    Morphology modification of nanostructures is of great interest, because it can be used to fabricate nanostructures which are hard to be done using other methods. Different from traditional lithographic technique which is slow and expensive, morphology modification is easy, cheap, and reproducible. In this paper, modification of the optical and morphological properties of a hollow gold nanoshell (HGNS) is achieved by using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxidizer. The reshaping of these nanostructures has been demonstrated as a consequence of an oxidation process in which HGNSs are dissolved by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under the acidic conditions provided by HCl. We investigate the oxidation process by a transmission electron microscope and propose a reshaping model involving four different shapes (HGNS, HGNS with hole, gold nanoring, and C-shaped gold nanoparticle) which are corresponding to the oxidation products of HGNSs at different pH values. Besides, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of each oxidation product has been evaluated by using rhodamine 6G as the Raman active probe. It has been observed that the C-shaped gold nanoparticles which are corresponding to the oxidation products at the minimum pH value have the highest SERS activity and this result can also be interpreted by discrete-dipole approximation simulations. We demonstrate that the morphology modification of HGNSs becomes possible in a controlled manner using wet chemistry and can be used in preparation of gold nanoparticles such as HGNS with hole, gold nanoring, and C-shaped gold nanoparticle with large SERS activity. These nanostructures must have potential use in many plasmonic areas, including sensing, catalysis, and biomedicine.

  2. Morphological, structural and optical properties of MEH-PPV: PC70BM nanocomposite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhamdi, Asya; Sweii, Fatma ben Slama; Saidi, Hamza; Saidi, Faouzi; Bouazizi, Abdelaziz

    2018-05-01

    In this report, the influence of annealing temperature and spin coating speed on the structural and morphological properties of a blend of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-oxy)-p-phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and [6-6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) layer has been investigated. The photoactive layer (MEH-PPV: PC70BM) was deposited on ZnO film deposited on top of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by spin-coating. The effect of spin coating speed via atomic force microscope (AFM) leads to conclude that high speed is favorable for a good homogeneity of the film surface and good aggregates dispersion. The optimized structure was studied by varying the annealing temperatures using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analysis indicates that annealing treatment promoted the ordered aggregation and crystallization of MEH-PPV: PC70BM films. Indeed, the blend ratio effect on the optical properties of MEH-PPV: PC70BM thin film was investigated. While, the effect of incorporation of PC70BM on the optical properties was studied using UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) measurement. We conclude that MEH-PPV: PC70BM (1:3) film leads to high charge transfer rate.

  3. Effect of milling time on the structure, particle size, and morphology of montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abareshi, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the current research, effect of milling on the structure, particle size and morphology of montmorillonite was investigated. For this purpose, the montmorillonite was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Then the montmorillonite was milled using high energy planetary ball mill at different milling times (1-60 hours). After that, the structure, particle size and morphology of all samples were investigated by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the ball milling causes the particle size reduction of clay and separation of the clay layers. Moreover, ball milling increases the overall structural disorder and transforms the crystalline structure into an amorphous phase. Also, the morphology of clay particle changes from layered to aggregates of almost rounded particles after 60 hours of milling.

  4. Controlled surface morphology and hydrophilicity of polycaprolactone toward human retinal pigment epithelium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahmoradi, Saleheh; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Hatamian Zarami, Ashraf Sadat; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Applying scaffolds as a bed to enhance cell proliferation and even differentiation is one of the treatment of retina diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which deteriorating photoreceptors and finally happening blindness. In this study, aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun and at different conditions and their characteristics were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the diameter of fabricated nanofibers. Two factors as solution concentration and voltage value were considered as independent variables and their effects on nanofibers' diameters were evaluated by central composite design and the optimum conditions were obtained as 0.12 g/mL and 20 kV, respectively. In order to decrease the hydrophobicity of PCL, the surface of the fabricated scaffolds was modified by alkaline hydrolysis method. Contact time of the scaffolds and alkaline solution and concentration of alkaline solution were optimized using Box Behnken design and (120 min and 5 M were the optimal, respectively). Contact angle measurement showed the high hydrophilicity of treated scaffolds (with contact angle 7.48°). Plasma surface treatment was applied to compare the effect of using two kinds of surface modification methods simultaneously on hydrolyzed scaffolds. The RPE cells grown on scaffolds were examined by immunocytochemistry (ICC), MTT and continuous inspection of cellular morphology. Interestingly, Human RPE cells revealed their characteristic morphology on hydrolyzed scaffold well. As a result, we introduced a culture substrate with low diameter (185.8 nm), high porosity (82%) and suitable hydrophilicity (with contact angle 7.48 degree) which can be promising for hRPE cell transplantation. - Highlights: • Dimethylformamide (DMF) has significant effect on reduction of fibers' diameter. • Having high hydrophilicity by alkaline hydrolysis • Suitable

  5. Controlled surface morphology and hydrophilicity of polycaprolactone toward human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Saleheh; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Hatamian Zarami, Ashraf Sadat; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona

    2017-04-01

    Applying scaffolds as a bed to enhance cell proliferation and even differentiation is one of the treatment of retina diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which deteriorating photoreceptors and finally happening blindness. In this study, aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun and at different conditions and their characteristics were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the diameter of fabricated nanofibers. Two factors as solution concentration and voltage value were considered as independent variables and their effects on nanofibers' diameters were evaluated by central composite design and the optimum conditions were obtained as 0.12g/mL and 20kV, respectively. In order to decrease the hydrophobicity of PCL, the surface of the fabricated scaffolds was modified by alkaline hydrolysis method. Contact time of the scaffolds and alkaline solution and concentration of alkaline solution were optimized using Box Behnken design and (120min and 5M were the optimal, respectively). Contact angle measurement showed the high hydrophilicity of treated scaffolds (with contact angle 7.48°). Plasma surface treatment was applied to compare the effect of using two kinds of surface modification methods simultaneously on hydrolyzed scaffolds. The RPE cells grown on scaffolds were examined by immunocytochemistry (ICC), MTT and continuous inspection of cellular morphology. Interestingly, Human RPE cells revealed their characteristic morphology on hydrolyzed scaffold well. As a result, we introduced a culture substrate with low diameter (185.8nm), high porosity (82%) and suitable hydrophilicity (with contact angle 7.48 degree) which can be promising for hRPE cell transplantation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Controlled surface morphology and hydrophilicity of polycaprolactone toward human retinal pigment epithelium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahmoradi, Saleheh; Yazdian, Fatemeh [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabandeh, Fatemeh, E-mail: taban_f@nigeb.ac.ir [Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soheili, Zahra-Soheila [Department of Molecular Medicine, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hatamian Zarami, Ashraf Sadat [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Applying scaffolds as a bed to enhance cell proliferation and even differentiation is one of the treatment of retina diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which deteriorating photoreceptors and finally happening blindness. In this study, aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun and at different conditions and their characteristics were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the diameter of fabricated nanofibers. Two factors as solution concentration and voltage value were considered as independent variables and their effects on nanofibers' diameters were evaluated by central composite design and the optimum conditions were obtained as 0.12 g/mL and 20 kV, respectively. In order to decrease the hydrophobicity of PCL, the surface of the fabricated scaffolds was modified by alkaline hydrolysis method. Contact time of the scaffolds and alkaline solution and concentration of alkaline solution were optimized using Box Behnken design and (120 min and 5 M were the optimal, respectively). Contact angle measurement showed the high hydrophilicity of treated scaffolds (with contact angle 7.48°). Plasma surface treatment was applied to compare the effect of using two kinds of surface modification methods simultaneously on hydrolyzed scaffolds. The RPE cells grown on scaffolds were examined by immunocytochemistry (ICC), MTT and continuous inspection of cellular morphology. Interestingly, Human RPE cells revealed their characteristic morphology on hydrolyzed scaffold well. As a result, we introduced a culture substrate with low diameter (185.8 nm), high porosity (82%) and suitable hydrophilicity (with contact angle 7.48 degree) which can be promising for hRPE cell transplantation. - Highlights: • Dimethylformamide (DMF) has significant effect on reduction of fibers' diameter. • Having high hydrophilicity by alkaline hydrolysis • Suitable

  7. Nanosecond Surface Microdischarges in Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinov, A. E.; Lyubimtseva, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    Multilayer structures in which nanosecond surface microdischarges are generated have been developed, fabricated, and investigated. In these structures, layers are made in the form of thin transparent films, and a plasma discharge channel is formed in thin spacings between the layers. Passage of the discharge channel from one layer into the neighboring layer is implemented via pre-fabricated microholes. Images of microdischarges were obtained which confirmed that their plasma channels are formed according to the route assigned by the holes. The route may follow a fairly complex scheme and have self-intersection points and portions in which the electrons are bound to move in opposition to the electric field. In studying the shape of channels in multilayer strictures, the authors have found a new physical effect which lies in the azimuthal self-orientation of the discharge channel as it passes from one microhole to another.

  8. Complementary structure for designer localized surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic localized surface plasmons (LSPs) supported on metallic structures corrugated by very long and curved grooves have been recently proposed and demonstrated on an extremely thin metallic spiral structure (MSS) in the microwave regime. However, the mode profile for the magnetic LSPs was demonstrated by measuring only the electric field, not the magnetic field. Here, based on Babinet's principle, we propose a Babinet-inverted, or complementary MSS whose electric/magnetic mode profiles match the magnetic/electric mode profiles of MSS. This complementarity of mode profiles allows mapping the magnetic field distribution of magnetic LSP mode profile on MSS by measuring the electric field distribution of the corresponding mode on complementary MSS. Experiment at microwave frequencies also demonstrate the use of complementary MSS in sensing refractive-index change in the environment.

  9. (Re)defining component structures in morphological constructions: a cognitive grammar perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, GB

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available )defining Component Structures in Morphological Constructions: A Cognitive Grammar Perspective Gerhard B van Huyssteen 1. Introduction The study of words, parts of words, and word-formation is one of the fields of enquiry that has kept language philosophers... and linguists busy for centuries. Despite this long tradition, the literature on word morphology sometimes remains rather imprecise, ambiguous and/or vague; for example, Tuggy (1992: 287) illustrates that ?(d)efinitions, when given, are frequently circular...

  10. Morphological Evolution of Pit-Patterned Si(001) Substrates Driven by Surface-Energy Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Marco; Backofen, Rainer; Voigt, Axel; Montalenti, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Lateral ordering of heteroepitaxial islands can be conveniently achieved by suitable pit-patterning of the substrate prior to deposition. Controlling shape, orientation, and size of the pits is not trivial as, being metastable, they can significantly evolve during deposition/annealing. In this paper, we exploit a continuum model to explore the typical metastable pit morphologies that can be expected on Si(001), depending on the initial depth/shape. Evolution is predicted using a surface-diffusion model, formulated in a phase-field framework, and tackling surface-energy anisotropy. Results are shown to nicely reproduce typical metastable shapes reported in the literature. Moreover, long time scale evolutions of pit profiles with different depths are found to follow a similar kinetic pathway. The model is also exploited to treat the case of heteroepitaxial growth involving two materials characterized by different facets in their equilibrium Wulff's shape. This can lead to significant changes in morphologies, such as a rotation of the pit during deposition as evidenced in Ge/Si experiments.

  11. Magnetic field effects on coating deposition rate and surface morphology coatings using magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Huang, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Chromium nitride coatings exhibit superior hardness, excellent wear and oxidation resistance, and are widely applied in the die and mold industries. The aim of this study was to investigate magnetic field effects on the deposition rate and surface morphology of chromium nitride coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. Four types of magnetic field configurations, including the magnetron sputtering system, SNSN, SNNN, and intermediate magnetron modification, are discussed in this paper. SKD11 cold work die steel and a silicon (100) chip were used as substrates in the chromium nitride depositions. The process parameters, such as target current, substrate bias, and the distance between the substrate and target, are at fixed conditions, except for the magnetic arrangement type. The experimental results showed that the deposition rates of the four types of magnetic field configurations were 1.06, 1.38, 1.67 and 1.26 µm h −1 , respectively. In these cases, the SNNN type performs more than 58% faster than the unbalanced magnetron configuration does for the deposition rate. The surface morphology of chromium nitride films was also examined by SEM and is discussed in this paper

  12. Electronic structure of epitaxial chalcopyrite surfaces and interfaces for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This thesis constitutes a comprehensive study of the surface physics of epitaxial CuInSe 2 films. It comprises analyses of the surface morphology and reconstruction, electronic band structure as well as hetero-junctions relevant to photovoltaic applications. Therefore, especially the aspect of stoichiometry variation from the CuInSe 2 to the copper-deficient defect phases was considered. Preparation and analysis was completely performed under ultra-high vacuum conditions in order to ensure the investigation of well-defined samples free of contaminants. For some of the analysis techniques, single-crystalline samples are indispensable: They allow for the determination of surface periodicity by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). In combination with concentration depth profiling by angle-resolved x-ray photoemission, to types of surface reconstructions could be distinguished for the near-stoichiometric CuInSe 2 (112) surface. In the copper-rich case, it is stabilized by Cu In anti-site defects and on the indium-rich side by 2 V Cu defects, as predicted by surface total energy calculations by Jaffe and Zunger. Both configurations correspond to a c(4 x 2) reconstruction of the zinc blende type (111) surface. For the defect compound CuIn 3 Se 5 , a sphalerite order of the surface was found, which points at a weakening or absence of the chalcopyrite order in the bulk of the material. The unusual stability of the (112) surface could also be proven by comparison with the reconstruction and surface order of (001) and (220) surfaces. The results from surface analysis were used to measure the valence band structure of the epitaxial samples by synchrotron-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The CuInSe 2 (001) surface gives access to the high symmetry directions Γ-T and Γ-N of momentum space. By contrasting the data obtained for the stoichiometric surface with the copper-poor defect compound, a reduction of the valence band dispersion and a broadening of

  13. Morphological change of self-organized protrusions of fluoropolymer surface by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akane; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) are typical fluoropolymers displaying several desirable technological properties such as electrical insulation and high chemical resistance. When their surfaces are irradiated with ion beams, dense micro-protrusions formed after the emergence and spread of micropores across the entire irradiated area, allowing culture cells to spread on the top of the protrusions. In this study, we investigate the morphological changes introduced in the fluoropolymer surfaces by ion beams as the energy of the beams is increased. When an FEP sample was irradiated with a nitrogen ion beam with an energy of less than 350 keV at 1.0 μA/cm 2 , protrusions were formed with a density between 2 × 10 7 /cm 2 and 2 × 10 8 /cm 2 . However, at energies higher than 350 keV, the protrusions became sparse, and the density dropped to 5 × 10 2 /cm 2 . Protrusions appeared sporadically during irradiation at high energies, and the top of the protrusions appeared as spots inside the sample, which were difficult to etch and became elongated as the erosion of the surface progressed. Erosion was caused by sputtering of FEP molecules and evaporation at notably elevated temperatures on the surface. Analysis based on attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of C=C bonds as well as –COOH, –C=O, and –OH bonds on all irradiated samples. Their concentration on the surface densely covered with micro-protrusions was higher than that on the surface with sparse protrusions after irradiation at energies exceeding 350 keV. Thus, we determined a suitable range for the ion energy for creating FEP surfaces densely covered with protrusions

  14. Surface morphological modification of crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymers by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primo, Gastón A.; Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia I. [IMBIV (CONICET), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio de Ciencias II, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba X5000HUA (Argentina); Pino, Gustavo A.; Ferrero, Juan C. [INFIQC (CONICET), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, and Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba X5000IUS (Argentina); Rossa, Maximiliano, E-mail: mrossa@fcq.unc.edu.ar [INFIQC (CONICET), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, and Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba X5000IUS (Argentina)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Laser-induced surface modification of crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymers by ns pulses. • Formation of ablation craters observed under most of the single-pulse experimental conditions. • UV laser foaming of dried hydrogel samples resulting from single- and multiple-pulse experiments. • Threshold values of the incident laser fluence reported for the observed surface modifications. • Lower threshold fluences for acrylate-based, compared to acrylamide-based hydrogels. - Abstract: This work reports an investigation of the surface modifications induced by irradiation with nanosecond laser pulses of ultraviolet and visible wavelengths on crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymeric materials, which have been functionalized with 1-vinylimidazole as a co-monomer. A comparison is made between hydrogels differing in the base co-monomer (N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide) and in hydration state (both swollen and dried states). Formation of craters is the dominant morphological change observed by ablation in the visible at 532 nm, whereas additional, less aggressive surface modifications, chiefly microfoams and roughness, are developed in the ultraviolet at 266 nm. At both irradiation wavelengths, threshold values of the incident laser fluence for the observation of the various surface modifications are determined under single-pulse laser irradiation conditions. It is shown that multiple-pulse irradiation at 266 nm with a limited number of laser shots can be used alternatively for generating a regular microfoam layer at the surface of dried hydrogels based on N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate. The observations are rationalized on the basis of currently accepted mechanisms for laser-induced polymer surface modification, with a significant contribution of the laser foaming mechanism. Prospective applications of the laser-foamed hydrogel matrices in biomolecule immobilization are suggested.

  15. Characterization structural and morphology ZSM-5 zeolite by hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, V.J.; Crispim, A.C.; Queiroz, M.B.; Laborde, H.M.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Menezes, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    Solid acids are catalytic materials commonly used in the chemical industry. Among these zeolites are the most important business processes including water treatment, gas separation, and cracking long hydrocarbon chains to produce high octane gasoline. Its synthesis, characterization and applications have been widely studied. The objective this study was to synthesize the ZSM-5 zeolite for future use in separation processes and catalysis. The zeolite ZSM-5 was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 170°C, using silica, deionized water and the director of structures (TPABr - tetrapropylammonium bromide). The materials were characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and semiquantitative chemical analysis by X ray fluorescence (XRF). According to the XRD was possible to observe the formation of ZSM-5 zeolite, with peaks intense and well defined. The SEM showed the formation of individual particles, clean, rounded shapes. (author)

  16. Morphological characterisation of vesicular structures in the canine ejaculate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Hauck, S; Bergmann, M

    2015-01-01

    different MV types were identified based on diameter, structure, contents and electron density of contents as well as presence, number and size of smaller MV inside the MV itself. In normospermic males, secondary vesicles (type i, H, K1/2) included smaller vesicles and had a weighted mean diameter of 409...... is missing by now. This is, however, needed to provide a basis for detailed biochemical and functional studies as it is generally assumed that different MV populations are responsible for distinct tasks. MV were prepared for light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis using samples from...... normospermic dogs (n=15), hypokinozoospermic dogs (n=2, h) and one castrated azoospermic dog (a). For TEM, a new preparation protocol was used resulting in a higher MV retrieval rate. Using fractionated semen samples, most MV were identified in the second (sperm-rich) fraction in LM. Using pooled ejaculates...

  17. Structure, morphology and melting hysteresis of ion-implanted nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, H.H.; Johnson, E.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of nanosized metal and semimetal inclusions produced by ion implantation in aluminium are reviewed. The inclusions are from 1 nm to 15 nm in size and contain from 80 to 100,000 atoms. Embedded crystallites, which are topotactically aligned with the surrounding matrix, may not be produced in this size range by any other method. The inclusions offer unique possibilities for study of the influence of interfaces on the crystal structure of the inclusions as well as on their melting and solidification behaviour. Studies are made with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron- and x-ray diffraction and in situ RBS- channeling measurements. Bi, Cd, In, Pb and Tl inclusions all show a substantial melting/solidification temperature hysteresis, which, in all cases except for Bi, is placed around the bulk melting temperature, while bismuth melts below that temperature. (au) 46 refs

  18. Thermocapillary droplet actuation on structured solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetsas, George; Chamakos, Nikolaos T.; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G.

    2017-11-01

    The present work investigates, through 2D and 3D finite element simulations, the thermocapillary-driven flow inside a droplet which resides on a non-uniformly heated patterned surface. We employ a recently proposed sharp-interface scheme capable of efficiently modelling the flow over complicate surfaces and consider a wide range of substrate wettabilities, i.e. from hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic surfaces. Our simulations indicate that due to the presence of the solid structures and the induced effect of contact angle hysteresis, inherently predicted by our model, a critical thermal gradient arises beyond which droplet migration is possible, in line with previous experimental observations. The migration velocity as well as the direction of motion depends on the combined action of the net mechanical force along the contact line and the thermocapillary induced flow at the liquid-air interface. We also show that through a proper control and design of the substrate wettability, the contact angle hysteresis and the induced flow field it is possible to manipulate the droplet dynamics, e.g. controlling its motion along a predefined track or entrapping by a wetting defect a droplet based on its size as well as providing appropriate conditions for enhanced mixing inside the droplet. Funding from the European Research Council under the Europeans Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement no. [240710] is acknowledged.

  19. Metallic amorphous electrodeposited molybdenum coating from aqueous electrolyte: Structural, electrical and morphological properties under current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemla, Fatima [LEPCM, Department of Physics, University of Batna (Algeria); Cherrad, Djellal, E-mail: cherradphisic@yahoo.fr [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and Their Characterizations, University of Setif (Algeria)

    2016-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Although difficulties related to electrodeposition of Mo films, we have successfully coated onto a cooper substrate. • A good formation of bcc Mo phase and lattice parameter was very accurate. • It seems that electrical properties of our samples are good and suitable as back contact for thin film solar cells. • It seems that grain size, microstrain and dislocation density are all managed and correlated to retain the resistivity to a considerable minimum value. - Abstract: Molybdenum coatings are extensively utilized as back contact for CIGS-based solar cells. However, their electrodeposition from aqueous electrolyte still sophisticates, since long time, owing to the high reactivity with oxygen. In this study, we present a successful 30 min electrodeposition experiment of somewhat thick (∼0.98–2.9 μm) and of moderate surface roughness RMS (∼47–58 nm), metallic bright Mo coating from aqueous electrolyte containing molybdate ions. XRD analysis and Hall Effect measurements have been used to confirm the presence of Mo. The crystal structure of deposits was slightly amorphous in nature to body centred cubic structure (bcc) Mo (110), (211) and (220) face. Lattice parameters exhibit some weak fluctuated tensile stress when compared to the reference lattice parameter. Additionally, our calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with some previous works from literature. Discussions on the grain growth prove that they are constrained by grain boundary energy not the thickness effect. Further discussions were made on the electrical resistivity and surface morphology. Resonance scattering of Fermi electrons are expected to contribute towards the variation in the film resistivity through the carrier mobility limitation. However, studied samples might be qualified as candidates for solar cell application.

  20. Effect of the electrochemical technique on nanocrystalline ZnO electrodeposition, its structural, morphological and photoelectrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chettah, Hamdane; Abdi, Djamila, E-mail: naimadjam@hotmail.com

    2013-06-30

    This article reports the influence of the electrochemical technique on the electrodeposition of nanoscopic zinc oxide from aqueous mixed bath of zinc nitrate and potassium chloride at 70 °C onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. ZnO thin films were elaborated via cyclic voltamperometry and chronoamperometry techniques. This study shows structural and morphological differences in films deposited according to both methods. Thin and adherent films obtained via cyclic voltamperometry have been obtained after 100 cycles, and those obtained using the chronoampermetric method grown at potential of − 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl during 1 h. The structural characterisation of such films was performed using X-ray diffraction, which showed the most important peaks of ZnO wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along the (002) axis for deposits obtained via cyclic voltamperometry presenting nanometric grain sizes (42 nm). Atomic force microscopy was used to study surface morphology and estimate the surface roughness factor for two deposits. Photoelectrochemical study indicates that both kinds of films had n-type electrical conductivity and presents high photoanodic-generated currents. - Highlights: • Zinc oxide films were electrodeposited on fluorine doped tin oxide substrates at 70 °C. • Two electrochemical techniques were used cyclic voltamperometry and chronoamperometry. • X-ray diffraction showed the most important peaks of ZnO wurtzite structure. • Preferential orientation along the (002) axis for cyclic voltamperometry films. • Deposits had n-type electrical conductivity and high photoanodic-generated currents.

  1. Design of tunable surface mode waveguide based on photonic crystal composite structure using organic liquid*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lan-Lan; Liu Wei; Li Ping; Yang Xi; Cao Xu

    2017-01-01

    With the method of replacing the surface layer of photonic crystal with tubes, a novel photonic crystal composite structure used as a tunable surface mode waveguide is designed. The tubes support tunable surface states. The tunable propagation capabilities of the structure are investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain. Simulation results show that the beam transmission distributions of the composite structure are sensitive to the frequency range of incident light and the surface morphology which can be modified by filling the tubes with different organic liquids. By adjusting the filler in tubes, the T-shaped, Y-shaped, and L-shaped propagations can be realized. The property can be applied to the tunable surface mode waveguide. Compared with a traditional single function photonic crystal waveguide, our designed structure not only has a small size, but also is a tunable device. (paper)

  2. Quantitative characterization of the influence of the nanoscale morphology of nanostructured surfaces on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Vikram Singh

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection of implants and prosthetic devices is one of the most common causes of implant failure. The nanostructured surface of biocompatible materials strongly influences the adhesion and proliferation of mammalian cells on solid substrates. The observation of this phenomenon has led to an increased effort to develop new strategies to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, primarily through nanoengineering the topology of the materials used in implantable devices. While several studies have demonstrated the influence of nanoscale surface morphology on prokaryotic cell attachment, none have provided a quantitative understanding of this phenomenon. Using supersonic cluster beam deposition, we produced nanostructured titania thin films with controlled and reproducible nanoscale morphology respectively. We characterized the surface morphology; composition and wettability by means of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. We studied how protein adsorption is influenced by the physico-chemical surface parameters. Lastly, we characterized Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus adhesion on nanostructured titania surfaces. Our results show that the increase in surface pore aspect ratio and volume, related to the increase of surface roughness, improves protein adsorption, which in turn downplays bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. As roughness increases up to about 20 nm, bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are enhanced; the further increase of roughness causes a significant decrease of bacterial adhesion and inhibits biofilm formation. We interpret the observed trend in bacterial adhesion as the combined effect of passivation and flattening effects induced by morphology-dependent protein adsorption. Our findings demonstrate that bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on nanostructured titanium oxide surfaces are significantly influenced by nanoscale morphological

  3. Learning surface molecular structures via machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziatdinov, Maxim; Maksov, Artem; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in high resolution scanning transmission electron and scanning probe microscopies have allowed researchers to perform measurements of materials structural parameters and functional properties in real space with a picometre precision. In many technologically relevant atomic and/or molecular systems, however, the information of interest is distributed spatially in a non-uniform manner and may have a complex multi-dimensional nature. One of the critical issues, therefore, lies in being able to accurately identify (`read out') all the individual building blocks in different atomic/molecular architectures, as well as more complex patterns that these blocks may form, on a scale of hundreds and thousands of individual atomic/molecular units. Here we employ machine vision to read and recognize complex molecular assemblies on surfaces. Specifically, we combine Markov random field model and convolutional neural networks to classify structural and rotational states of all individual building blocks in molecular assembly on the metallic surface visualized in high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We show how the obtained full decoding of the system allows us to directly construct a pair density function—a centerpiece in analysis of disorder-property relationship paradigm—as well as to analyze spatial correlations between multiple order parameters at the nanoscale, and elucidate reaction pathway involving molecular conformation changes. The method represents a significant shift in our way of analyzing atomic and/or molecular resolved microscopic images and can be applied to variety of other microscopic measurements of structural, electronic, and magnetic orders in different condensed matter systems.

  4. Interfacial self-organization of bolaamphiphiles bearing mesogenic groups: relationships between the molecular structures and their self-organized morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Liu, Guanqing; Xu, Rui; Yin, Shouchun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xi

    2008-04-15

    This article discusses the relationship between the molecular structure of bolaamphiphiles bearing mesogenic groups and their interfacial self-organized morphology. On the basis of the molecular structures of bolaamphiphiles, we designed and synthesized a series of molecules with different hydrophobic alkyl chain lengths, hydrophilic headgroups, mesogenic groups, and connectors between the alkyl chains and the mesogenic group. Through investigating their interfacial self-organization behavior, some experiential rules are summarized: (1) An appropriate alkyl chain length is necessary to form stable surface micelles; (2) different categories of headgroups have a great effect on the interfacial self-organized morphology; (3) different types of mesogenic groups have little effect on the structure of the interfacial assembly when it is changed from biphenyl to azobenzene or stilbene; (4) the orientation of the ester linker between the mesogenic group and alkyl chain can greatly influence the interfacial self-organization behavior. It is anticipated that this line of research may be helpful for the molecular engineering of bolaamphiphiles to form tailor-made morphologies.

  5. Manipulation of morphology and structure of the top of GaAs nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Pan, Dong; Yu, Xuezhe; So, Hyok; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-10-01

    Self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires (NWs) are grown on Si (111) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy. The effect of different closing sequences of the Ga and As cell shutters on the morphology and structural phase of GaAs NWs is investigated. For the sequences of closing the Ga and As cell shutters simultaneously or closing the As cell shutter 1 min after closing the Ga cell shutter, the NWs grow vertically to the substrate surface. In contrast, when the As cell shutter is closed first, maintaining the Ga flux is found to be critical for the following growth of GaAs NWs, which can change the growth direction from [111] to . The evolution of the morphology and structural phase transition at the tips of these GaAs NWs confirm that the triple-phase-line shift mode is at work even for the growth with different cell shutter closing sequences. Our work will provide new insights for better understanding of the growth mechanism and realizing of the morphology and structure control of the GaAs NWs. Project supported partly by the MOST of China (No. 2015CB921503), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61504133, 61334006, 61404127), and Youth Innovation Promotion Association, CAS (No. 2017156).

  6. Plateau-Rayleigh Crystal Growth of Nanowire Heterostructures: Strain-Modified Surface Chemistry and Morphological Control in One, Two, and Three Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Robert W; Mankin, Max N; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-04-13

    One-dimensional (1D) structures offer unique opportunities for materials synthesis since crystal phases and morphologies that are difficult or impossible to achieve in macroscopic crystals can be synthesized as 1D nanowires (NWs). Recently, we demonstrated one such phenomenon unique to growth on a 1D substrate, termed Plateau-Rayleigh (P-R) crystal growth, where periodic shells develop along a NW core to form diameter-modulated NW homostructures with tunable morphologies. Here we report a novel extension of the P-R crystal growth concept with the synthesis of heterostructures in which Ge (Si) is deposited on Si (Ge) 1D cores to generate complex NW morphologies in 1, 2, or 3D. Depositing Ge on 50 nm Si cores with a constant GeH4 pressure yields a single set of periodic shells, while sequential variation of GeH4 pressure can yield multimodulated 1D NWs with two distinct sets of shell periodicities. P-R crystal growth on 30 nm cores also produces 2D loop structures, where Ge (Si) shells lie primarily on the outside (inside) of a highly curved Si (Ge) core. Systematic investigation of shell morphology as a function of growth time indicates that Ge shells grow in length along positive curvature Si cores faster than along straight Si cores by an order of magnitude. Short Ge deposition times reveal that shells develop on opposite sides of 50 and 100 nm Si cores to form straight 1D morphologies but that shells develop on the same side of 20 nm cores to produce 2D loop and 3D spring structures. These results suggest that strain mediates the formation of 2 and 3D morphologies by altering the NW's surface chemistry and that surface diffusion of heteroatoms on flexible freestanding 1D substrates can facilitate this strain-mediated mechanism.

  7. Thickness and morphology of polyelectrolyte coatings on silica surfaces before and after protein exposure studied by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselberg, Rob, E-mail: r.haselberg@vu.nl [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); AIMMS Division of BioMolecular Analysis, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flesch, Frits M. [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); Boerke, Arjan [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Somsen, Govert W. [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); AIMMS Division of BioMolecular Analysis, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Atomic force microscopy is used to characterize polyelectrolyte coatings. •Coating procedure leads to nm-thick layers on a silica surface. •Polyelectrolyte coatings effectively prevent protein adsorption. •AFM provides the high resolution to investigate these thin films. •AFM results support earlier findings obtained with capillary electrophoresis. -- Abstract: Analyte–wall interaction is a significant problem in capillary electrophoresis (CE) as it may compromise separation efficiencies and migration time repeatability. In CE, self-assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer films of Polybrene (PB) and dextran sulfate (DS) or poly(vinylsulfonic acid) (PVS) have been used to coat the capillary inner wall and thereby prevent analyte adsorption. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to investigate the layer thickness and surface morphology of monolayer (PB), bilayer, (PB-DS and PB-PVS), and trilayer (PB-DS-PB and PB-PVS-PB) coatings on glass surfaces. AFM nanoshaving experiments providing height distributions demonstrated that the coating procedures led to average layer thicknesses between 1 nm (PB) and 5 nm (PB-DS-PB), suggesting the individual polyelectrolytes adhere flat on the silica surface. Investigation of the surface morphology of the different coatings by AFM revealed that the PB coating does not completely cover the silica surface, whereas full coverage was observed for the trilayer coatings. The DS-containing coatings appeared on average 1 nm thicker than the corresponding PVS-containing coatings, which could be attributed to the molecular structure of the anionic polymers applied. Upon exposure to the basic protein cytochrome c, AFM measurements showed an increase of the layer thickness for bare (3.1 nm) and PB-DS-coated (4.6 nm) silica, indicating substantial protein adsorption. In contrast, a very small or no increase of the layer thickness was observed for the PB and PB-DS-PB coatings

  8. Organic-inorganic semiconductor hybrid systems. Structure, morphology, and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Helou, Mira

    2012-08-22

    This dissertation addresses the preparation and characterization of hybrid semiconducting systems combining organic with inorganic materials. Characterization methods used included to determine the structure, morphology, and thermal stability comprised X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). One organic-inorganic semiconducting system was pentacene (C{sub 22}H{sub 14}) and zinc oxide. This interface was investigated in detail for pentacene on an oxygen-terminated zinc oxide surface, i.e. ZnO(000 anti 1). An extended study on the promising p-n junction was carried out for pentacene on ZnO with different orientations which exhibit different chemical and structural characteristics: ZnO(000 anti 1), ZnO(0001), and ZnO(10 anti 10). Moreover, the organic crystal structure of pentacene was selectively tuned by carefully choosing the substrate temperature. This defined interface with a physisorbed pentacene layer on ZnO was characterized by optical absorption which depends on the temperature of the measured system, the pentacene film thickness, and the molecular orientation and packing. The high quality of the pentacene films allowed in one case to characterize the Davydov splitting by linear polarized light focused on a single crystallite. Another subject in the field of organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprised conjugated dithiols used as self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for immobilizing semiconducting CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Au substrates. It was demonstrated that an appropriate selection and preparation of the conjugated SAMs is crucial for building up a light-addressable potentiometric sensor with a sufficient efficiency. An optimized electron transfer was achieved with SAMs of long range ordering, high stability, and adequate conductivity. This was examined for different linkers and was best for stilbenedithiol immobilized in solution at higher temperatures. Due

  9. Spatial structure of morphological and neutral genetic variation in Brook Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazyak, David C.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Keller, Stephen R.; Colaw, Mark C.; Holloway, Amanda E.; Morgan, Raymond P.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis exhibit exceptional levels of life history variation, remarkable genetic variability, and fine-scale population structure. In many cases, neighboring populations may be highly differentiated from one another to an extent that is comparable with species-level distinctions in other taxa. Although genetic samples have been collected from hundreds of populations and tens of thousands of individuals, little is known about whether differentiation at neutral markers reflects phenotypic differences among Brook Trout populations. We compared differentiation in morphology and neutral molecular markers among populations from four geographically proximate locations (all within 24 km) to examine how genetic diversity covaries with morphology. We found significant differences among and/or within streams for all three morphological axes examined and identified the source stream of many individuals based on morphology (52.3% classification efficiency). Although molecular and morphological differentiation among streams ranged considerably (mean pairwise FST: 0.023–0.264; pairwise PST: 0.000–0.339), the two measures were not significantly correlated. While in some cases morphological characters appear to have diverged to a greater extent than expected by neutral genetic drift, many traits were conserved to a greater extent than were neutral genetic markers. Thus, while Brook Trout exhibit fine-scale spatial patterns in both morphology and neutral genetic diversity, these types of biological variabilities are being structured by different ecological and evolutionary processes. The relative influences of genetic drift versus selection and phenotypic plasticity in shaping morphology appear to vary among populations occupying nearby streams.

  10. THERMAL TOMOGRAPHY OF ASTEROID SURFACE STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Alan W.; Drube, Line, E-mail: alan.harris@dlr.de [German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the surface thermal inertia of an asteroid can provide insight into its surface structure: porous material has a lower thermal inertia than rock. We develop a means to estimate thermal inertia values of asteroids and use it to show that thermal inertia appears to increase with spin period in the case of main-belt asteroids (MBAs). Similar behavior is found on the basis of thermophysical modeling for near-Earth objects (NEOs). We interpret our results in terms of rapidly increasing material density and thermal conductivity with depth, and provide evidence that thermal inertia increases by factors of 10 (MBAs) to 20 (NEOs) within a depth of just 10 cm. Our results are consistent with a very general picture of rapidly changing material properties in the topmost regolith layers of asteroids and have important implications for calculations of the Yarkovsky effect, including its perturbation of the orbits of potentially hazardous objects and those of asteroid family members after the break-up event. Evidence of a rapid increase of thermal inertia with depth is also an important result for studies of the ejecta-enhanced momentum transfer of impacting vehicles (“kinetic impactors”) in planetary defense.

  11. Protein-mediated surface structuring in biomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggio B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipids and proteins of biomembranes exhibit highly dissimilar conformations, geometrical shapes, amphipathicity, and thermodynamic properties which constrain their two-dimensional molecular packing, electrostatics, and interaction preferences. This causes inevitable development of large local tensions that frequently relax into phase or compositional immiscibility along lateral and transverse planes of the membrane. On the other hand, these effects constitute the very codes that mediate molecular and structural changes determining and controlling the possibilities for enzymatic activity, apposition and recombination in biomembranes. The presence of proteins constitutes a major perturbing factor for the membrane sculpturing both in terms of its surface topography and dynamics. We will focus on some results from our group within this context and summarize some recent evidence for the active involvement of extrinsic (myelin basic protein, integral (Folch-Lees proteolipid protein and amphitropic (c-Fos and c-Jun proteins, as well as a membrane-active amphitropic phosphohydrolytic enzyme (neutral sphingomyelinase, in the process of lateral segregation and dynamics of phase domains, sculpturing of the surface topography, and the bi-directional modulation of the membrane biochemical reactivity.

  12. Prediction Surface Morphology of Nanostructure Fabricated by Nano-Oxidation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Ching; Chang, Ho; Kuo, Chin-Guo; Li, Jeen-Fong; You, Yong-Chin

    2015-12-04

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for visualization of a nano-oxidation technique performed on diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film. Experiments of the nano-oxidation technique of the DLC thin film include those on nano-oxidation points and nano-oxidation lines. The feature sizes of the DLC thin film, including surface morphology, depth, and width, were explored after application of a nano-oxidation technique to the DLC thin film under different process parameters. A databank for process parameters and feature sizes of thin films was then established, and multiple regression analysis (MRA) and a back-propagation neural network (BPN) were used to carry out the algorithm. The algorithmic results are compared with the feature sizes acquired from experiments, thus obtaining a prediction model of the nano-oxidation technique of the DLC thin film. The comparative results show that the prediction accuracy of BPN is superior to that of MRA. When the BPN algorithm is used to predict nano-point machining, the mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE) of depth, left side, and right side are 8.02%, 9.68%, and 7.34%, respectively. When nano-line machining is being predicted, the MAPEs of depth, left side, and right side are 4.96%, 8.09%, and 6.77%, respectively. The obtained data can also be used to predict cross-sectional morphology in the DLC thin film treated with a nano-oxidation process.

  13. Morphology and structure of the tarsal glands of the stingless bee Melipona seminigra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarau, Stefan; Hrncir, Michael; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Barth, Friedrich G.

    2005-03-01

    Footprint secretions deposited at the nest entrance or on food sources are used for chemical communication by honey bees, bumble bees, and stingless bees. The question of the glandular origin of the substances involved, however, has not been unequivocally answered yet. We investigated the morphology and structure of tarsal glands within the fifth tarsomeres of the legs of workers of Melipona seminigra in order to clarify their possible role in the secretion of footprints. The tarsal gland is a sac-like fold forming a reservoir. Its glandular tissue is composed of a unicellular layer of specialized epidermal cells, which cover the thin cuticular intima forming the reservoir. We found that the tarsal glands lack any openings to the outside and therefore conclude that they are not involved in the secretion of footprint substances. The secretion produced accumulates within the gland's reservoir and reaches as far as into the arolium. Thus it is likely that it serves to fill and unfold the arolium during walking to increase adhesion on smooth surfaces, as is known for honey bees and weaver ants.

  14. Effects of acid treatment on the clay palygorskite: XRD, surface area, morphological and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Katiane Cruz Magalhaes; Santos, Maria do Socorro Ferreira dos; Santos, Maria Rita Morais Chaves; Oliveira, Marilia Evelyn Rodrigues; Osajima, Josy Antevelli; Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti da [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Carvalho, Maria Wilma Nunes Cordeiro, E-mail: edsonfilho@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The palygorskite is an aluminum-magnesium silicate that has a fibrous morphology. Their physicochemical characteristics are the result of high surface area, porosity and thermal resistance which make it an attractive adsorbent. Its adsorption capacity can be increased through chemical reactions and/or heat treatments. The objective of this work is to verify the effects of acid activation on the palygorskite, treated with HCl at 90 °C at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 mol L{sup -1} in 2 and 4 hours, with clay/acid solution ratio 1 g 10 mL{sup -1} and characterized by techniques: XRF, XRD and surface area. A significant increase in specific surface area was observed in the sample treated with HCl at the concentration 6 mol L{sup -1}. The changes were more pronounced at stricter concentrations of acidity, with decreasing intensity of reflection of the clay indicated in the XRD. These changes were confirmed in the XRF with the leaching of some oxides and with increasing concentration of SiO{sub 2}. (author)

  15. Aan der Waals terminated silicon(111) surfaces and interfaces. Preparation, morphology, and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the implementation of the concept of the quasi-van der Waals epitaxy as a new perspective for the integration of reactive and lattice-defect fitted materials into the silicon technology. The experimental characterization of this approach pursues in two subsequent sections. First the chemical and electronic passivation of a three-dimensional substrate (silicon) is studied by means of an ultrathin buffer layer from the material class of the layered-lattice chalcogenides (GaSe). The substrate surface (Si(111):GaSe) modified in this way possesses an inert van der Waals surface and serves in the following as base for the deposition of the against the non-passivated substrate really reactive and lattice-defect fitted materials (II-VI-compound semiconductors and metals) The characterization of the electronic and chemical properties of the surfaces and interfaces pursues with highly resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS). The results are supplemented by the characterization of the morphology by the diffraction of low-energy electrons (LEED) and the scanning tunnel microscopy (STM)

  16. Surface Morphology and Bending Deformation of 2024-T3 Thin Sheets with Laser Peen Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Junfeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser peen forming (LPF is a pure mechanical forming method through accumulated plastic strain, which has been successfully applied in wing components. Experimental investigation has been performed to understand the effect of process parameters such as constraint conditions, sheet thickness and laser energy on surface morphology and bending deformation of 2024-T3 thin sheets of dimensions of 76 mm ×19 mm (length × width. The research results indicated that bulges on the aluminum foil were generated at the bottom surface and not generated at the topmost surface. It was different for transition value of two-way bending deformations of thin sheets after LPF with different constraint conditions. Remain flat thicknesses of thin sheets after LPF were about 1 mm ~ 2 mm for 20 J, 25 J and 30 J. Arc heights and curvatures of 3 mm thickness sheets increased with laser energy and those of 2 mm thickness sheets only made little change. It was found that convex deformation, flat, concave deformation and laser deep drawing for thin sheets with different thicknesses after LPF.

  17. AFM observation of silk fibroin on mica substrates: morphologies reflecting the secondary structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Kazushi; Tsuboi, Yasuyuki; Itaya, Akira

    2003-09-01

    Bombyx mori silk fibroin was fixed on mica substrates by cast of aqueous fibroin solutions, and the microscopic morphologies of the samples were revealed by means of atomic force microscopy. By adjusting the method used to prepare the solution, we succeeded in forming quasi-2-dimensional thin films in which a network of fibroin molecules developed over the substrate. The film network consisted of fibroin in a random coil structure. The morphology of the network changed after thermal or methanol treatments, which are known to convert the secondary structure of fibroin from the random coil to the {beta}-sheet type. In both of these cases, the network morphology disappeared and characteristic island-like morphologies appeared. On the other hand, temporally evolving gelation occurred in a fibroin solution due to the formation of {beta}-sheet crystals. Such islands were also observable in a specimen prepared by the cast of the gel-containing solution. Based on these results, it was concluded that the islands consist of {beta}-sheet crystals. Of particular interest is the observation that all of the islands had a common thickness value of 1.3 nm. These morphologies are discussed in terms of the secondary structure of fibroin.

  18. Structural, morphological and optical properties of spray deposited Mn-doped CeO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan Kumar, CH.S.S.; Pandeeswari, R.; Jeyaprakash, B.G., E-mail: jp@ece.sastra.edu

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Spray deposited undoped and Mn-doped CeO{sub 2} thin films were polycrystalline. • Complete changeover of surface morphology upon 4 wt% Mn doping. • 4 wt% Mn-doped CeO{sub 2} thin film exhibited a hydrophobic nature. • Optical band-gap decreases beyond 2 wt% Mn doping. - Abstract: Cerium oxide and manganese (Mn) doped cerium oxide thin films on glass substrates were prepared by home built spray pyrolysis system. The effect of Mn doping on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CeO{sub 2} films were studied. It was found that both the undoped and doped CeO{sub 2} films were polycrystalline in nature but the preferential orientation and grain size changed upon doping. Atomic force micrograph showed a complete changeover of surface morphology from spherical to flake upon doping. A water contact angle result displayed the hydrophobic nature of the doped CeO{sub 2} film. Optical properties indicated an increase in band-gap and a decrease in transmittance upon doping owing to Moss–Burstein effect and inverse Moss–Burstein effects. Other optical properties such as refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant as a function of doping were analysed and reported.

  19. Structural, morphological and optical properties of spray deposited Mn-doped CeO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan Kumar, CH.S.S.; Pandeeswari, R.; Jeyaprakash, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Spray deposited undoped and Mn-doped CeO 2 thin films were polycrystalline. • Complete changeover of surface morphology upon 4 wt% Mn doping. • 4 wt% Mn-doped CeO 2 thin film exhibited a hydrophobic nature. • Optical band-gap decreases beyond 2 wt% Mn doping. - Abstract: Cerium oxide and manganese (Mn) doped cerium oxide thin films on glass substrates were prepared by home built spray pyrolysis system. The effect of Mn doping on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CeO 2 films were studied. It was found that both the undoped and doped CeO 2 films were polycrystalline in nature but the preferential orientation and grain size changed upon doping. Atomic force micrograph showed a complete changeover of surface morphology from spherical to flake upon doping. A water contact angle result displayed the hydrophobic nature of the doped CeO 2 film. Optical properties indicated an increase in band-gap and a decrease in transmittance upon doping owing to Moss–Burstein effect and inverse Moss–Burstein effects. Other optical properties such as refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant as a function of doping were analysed and reported

  20. Osteoblast growth behavior on porous-structure titanium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yuan; Ding Siyang; Peng Hui; Lu Shanming; Wang Guoping; Xia Lu; Wang Peizhi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Micro-arc oxidation technology formed a porous feature on titanium surface. ► This porous surface accelerated adhesion, proliferation and differentiation compared with smooth surface. ► Osteogenesis-related proteins and genes were up regulated by this porous surface. ► It is anticipated that micro-arc oxidation surface could enhance osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration. - Abstract: A bioavailable surface generated by nano-technology could accelerate implant osteointegration, reduce healing time and enable implants to bear early loading. In this study, a nano-porous surface of titanium wafers was modified using micro-arc oxidation technique; surface of smooth titanium was used as control group. Surface characteristic was evaluated by investigating morphology, roughness and hydrophilicity of titanium wafers. In vitro studies, osteoblastic adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity, as well as gene and protein expressions relative to mineralization were assayed. Our results showed that a crater-liked nano-porous surface with greater roughness and better hydrophilicity were fabricated by micro-arc oxidation. It was further indicated that nano-porous surface could enhance adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity of osteoblasts compared with smooth surfaces. In addition, gene and protein expression of collagen-I, osteocalcin and osteopontin were also obviously increased. In summary, micro-arc oxidized techniques could form an irregular nano-porous morphology on implant surface which is favorable to improve osteoblastic function and prospected to be a potent modification of dental implant.

  1. Electropolymerization of 3-aminophenol on carbon graphite surface: Electric and morphologic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Diego L.; Afonso, Andre S.; Vieira, Sabrina N.; Ferreira, Lucas F.; Goncalves, Rafael A.; Brito-Madurro, Ana G.; Madurro, Joao M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the formation of electropolymerized films derived from 3-aminophenol on graphite electrode by cyclic voltammetry, prepared in different pH conditions. With increase of pH values, a shift of the oxidation potential of 3-aminophenol to more cathodic potentials was observed. 3-Aminophenol electrooxidation, in acid and basic media, yielded polymeric films onto graphite surface. In ferrocyanide/ferricyanide solution, the polymer produced in acid medium showed higher electron transfer efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and FT-IR were used to investigate some properties of the graphite electrode modified with poly(3-aminophenol). Scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the films is strongly dependent on the pH of the electropolymerization medium. FT-IR spectra of polymer films produced for either acid or basic media suggest that the monomer is polymerized by NH 2 group

  2. Colour interceptions, thermal stability and surface morphology of polyester metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohdy, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Chelating copolymers via grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) and acrylamide (AAm/AAc) comonomer mixture onto polyester micro fiber fabrics (PETMF) using gamma-radiation technique were prepared. The prepared graft chains (PETMF-g-AAc) and (PETMF-g-PAAc/PAAm) acted as chelating sites for some selected transition metal ions. The prepared graft copolymers and their metal complexes were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), colour parameters and surface morphology measurements. The colour interception and strength measurements showed that the metal complexation is homogeneously distributed. The results showed that the thermal stability of PETMF was improved after graft copolymerization and metal complexes. Moreover, the degree of grafting enhanced the thermal stability values of the grafted and complexed copolymers up to 25% of magnitude, on the other hand the activation energy of the grafted-copolymer with acrylic acid increased up to 80%. The SEM observation gives further supports to the homogenous distribution of grafting and metal complexation

  3. Surface morphological study of the transformation strain of martensites and bainites in copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marukawa, K.; Kumagai, I.; Takezawa, K.

    2000-01-01

    Transformation strain associated with martensites and bainites has been determined by surface relief measurements with an atomic force microscope. To this end, morphological data of transformation products have been combined with data on their crystallographic orientations, which have been determined by the electron back-scatter diffraction technique. The results have shown that the transformation strain of bainites has a comparable value to that of martensites in the same alloy. The orientation relationship between the transformation products and the parent crystal has also been determined. The relationship for bainites as well as martensites was consistent with the prediction of the phenomenological theory for the transformation. It was concluded that the transformation mechanism of bainites involves lattice shearing in a manner similar to that of the martensitic transformation. (orig.)

  4. Electropolymerization of 3-aminophenol on carbon graphite surface: Electric and morphologic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Diego L.; Afonso, Andre S.; Vieira, Sabrina N.; Ferreira, Lucas F. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila 2121, 38400-902 Uberlandia (Brazil); Goncalves, Rafael A. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila 2121, 38400-902 Uberlandia (Brazil); Brito-Madurro, Ana G. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila 2121, 38400-902 Uberlandia (Brazil); Madurro, Joao M. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila 2121, 38400-902 Uberlandia (Brazil)], E-mail: jmadurro@ufu.br

    2008-02-15

    This paper reports the formation of electropolymerized films derived from 3-aminophenol on graphite electrode by cyclic voltammetry, prepared in different pH conditions. With increase of pH values, a shift of the oxidation potential of 3-aminophenol to more cathodic potentials was observed. 3-Aminophenol electrooxidation, in acid and basic media, yielded polymeric films onto graphite surface. In ferrocyanide/ferricyanide solution, the polymer produced in acid medium showed higher electron transfer efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and FT-IR were used to investigate some properties of the graphite electrode modified with poly(3-aminophenol). Scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the films is strongly dependent on the pH of the electropolymerization medium. FT-IR spectra of polymer films produced for either acid or basic media suggest that the monomer is polymerized by NH{sub 2} group.

  5. Surface morphology of the endolymphatic duct in the rat. A scanning electron microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P

    1995-01-01

    microscopy was attained by coating of the specimens with osmium tetroxide and thiocarbohydrazide followed by a continuous dehydration procedure. This technique permitted, for the first time, an investigation of the surface morphology of the epithelial cells in the endolymphatic duct. Three types of cells......Following intracardiac vascular perfusion fixation of 8 rats with glutaraldehyde in a buffered and oxygenated blood substitute, the vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic duct were opened by microsurgery of the resulting 16 temporal bones. Optimum preservation of the epithelium for scanning electron...... were identified with the scanning electron microscope. A polygonal and oblong epithelial cell was observed in the largest number throughout the duct, and in the juxtasaccular half of the duct, two additional types of epithelial cells were observed. The scanning electron microscopic observations...

  6. CTAB assisted hydrothermal preparation of YPO4:Tb3+ with controlled morphology, structure and enhanced photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Hua; Du, Ying; Zhao, Min; Sun, Kening; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple and convenient method toward fabrication of YPO 4 :Tb 3+ with controlled structures and morphologies was proposed. • The crucial role of CTAB during the fabrication process that acts as complexing reagent and inducing agent and the mechanism was discussed. • The addition of CTAB enhances the green emission in YPO 4 :Tb phosphors. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report a simple and convenient method toward fabrication of YPO 4 :Tb 3+ with controlled structures, morphologies and enhanced luminescent properties. By simply controlling the amount of the cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) during the hydrothermal process, tetragonal YPO 4 :Tb 3+ and hexagonal YPO 4 ·0.8H 2 O:Tb 3+ with nanoparticle and olive-like nanoparticle can be obtained, respectively. Meanwhile, we find that the structures and morphologies can affect their luminescent properties obviously and the intensity of the samples with hexagonal phase is evidently higher than that with tetragonal phase. The variation of crystal structures, morphologies of the samples are ascribed to the crucial role of CTAB during the fabrication process that acts as complexing reagent and inducing agent and the mechanism was also discussed. We believe the method reported here will open a novel approach to rare earth phosphates with multiple structures

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy bulk and surface electronic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Suga, Shigemasa

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is now becoming more and more required to investigate electronic structures of various solid materials in the bulk, on surfaces as well as at buried interfaces. The energy resolution was much improved in the last decade down to 1 meV in the low photon energy region. Now this technique is available from a few eV up to 10 keV by use of lasers, electron cyclotron resonance lamps in addition to synchrotron radiation and X-ray tubes. High resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now widely applied to band mapping of materials. It attracts a wide attention from both fundamental science and material engineering. Studies of the dynamics of excited states are feasible by time of flight spectroscopy with fully utilizing the pulse structures of synchrotron radiation as well as lasers including the free electron lasers (FEL). Spin resolved studies also made dramatic progress by using higher efficiency spin detectors and two dimensional spin detectors. Polarization depend...

  8. Colloidal strategies for controlling the morphology, composition, and crystal structure of inorganic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, James M.

    Emerging applications and fundamental studies require nanomaterials with increasingly sophisticated architectures that have precise composition, morphology, and crystal structure. Colloidal nanochemistry has emerged as one of the most effective methods for generating high quality, monodisperse nanoparticles with diverse structural features and highly complex geometries. These wet-chemical approaches offer an array of synthetic levers that can be used to tailor nanoparticles for targeted applications, and deliver solution-dispersible solids that are easily integrated onto device architectures. Additionally, colloidal nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for constructing periodic superlattices and multicomponent hybrid nanoparticles, which offer unique properties that can support next-generation technologies. As the applications for colloidal nanoparticles continue to expand, the architectural and compositional requirements for these materials are becoming increasingly rigid. Conventional colloidal methods are effective for generating diverse nanoparticle systems, but rely on complex nucleation and growth processes, which are often poorly understood and difficult to control in dynamic reaction environments. For these reasons, there are a number of high profile nanoparticle targets that remain out of reach. Accordingly, new approaches are needed that can circumvent these synthetic bottlenecks and narrow the growing disconnect between nano-design and synthetic capability. In this dissertation, I present several colloidal strategies for engineering synthetically challenging nanomaterials using multistep reaction sequences that, in many ways, parallel the total-synthesis framework that organic chemists use to access complex molecules. A variety of approaches are discussed, including nanoscale ion exchange transformations and seeded-growth protocol for constructing multicomponent hybrid nanoparticles. First, I demonstrate that solution-mediated anion and cation

  9. Effects of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of Schottky diodes of CBD deposited ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Akinkuade, Shadrach; Maabong, Kelebogile; Nel, Jackie M.; Diale, Mmantsae

    2018-04-01

    We report on effect of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures. ZnO nanostructures were deposited on the seeded conducting indium doped tin oxide substrate positioned in three different directions in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphological properties of the synthesized nanostructures and revealed that the positioning of the substrate in the growth solution affects the surface morphology of the nanostructures. The optical absorbance, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of the resulting nanostructures are discussed. The electrical characterization of the Schottky diode such as barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratios, reverse saturation current and series resistance were found to depend on the nanostructures morphology. In addition, current transport mechanism in the higher forward bias of the Schottky diode was studied and space charge limited current was found to be the dominant transport mechanism in all samples.

  10. Mimicking lizard-like surface structures upon ultrashort laser pulse irradiation of inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, U.; Kirner, S. V.; Emonts, C.; Comanns, P.; Skoulas, E.; Mimidis, A.; Mescheder, H.; Winands, K.; Krüger, J.; Stratakis, E.; Bonse, J.

    2017-10-01

    Inorganic materials, such as steel, were functionalized by ultrashort laser pulse irradiation (fs- to ps-range) to modify the surface's wetting behavior. The laser processing was performed by scanning the laser beam across the surface of initially polished flat sample material. A systematic experimental study of the laser processing parameters (peak fluence, scan velocity, line overlap) allowed the identification of different regimes associated with characteristic surface morphologies (laser-induced periodic surface structures, grooves, spikes, etc.). Analyses of the surface using optical as well as scanning electron microscopy revealed morphologies providing the optimum similarity to the natural skin of lizards. For mimicking skin structures of moisture-harvesting lizards towards an optimization of the surface wetting behavior, additionally a two-step laser processing strategy was established for realizing hierarchical microstructures. In this approach, micrometer-scaled capillaries (step 1) were superimposed by a laser-generated regular array of small dimples (step 2). Optical focus variation imaging measurements finally disclosed the three dimensional topography of the laser processed surfaces derived from lizard skin structures. The functionality of these surfaces was analyzed in view of wetting properties.

  11. Structural, morphological and magnetic characterization of electrodeposited Co–Fe–W alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noce, R. Della, E-mail: rodrnoce@iq.unesp.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Benedetti, A.V.; Magnani, M. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Passamani, E.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, 29075-910 Vitória, ES (Brazil); Kumar, H.; Cornejo, D.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, 05508-090 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ospina, C.A. [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Small W additions (up to 9 at.%) to the Co{sub 35}Fe{sub 65} binary system. • Electrodeposited Co–Fe–W alloys characterization by XRD, SEM, TEM, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. • Production of Co–Fe–W alloys with low values of coercivity and high saturation magnetization. • Potential materials for applications in magnetic devices such as read/write heads and hard disks. - Abstract: Structural, morphological and magnetic characterization of electrodeposited Co–Fe–W alloys, containing small amounts of W (up to 9 at.%), were performed using X-ray diffractometry, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. Electrodeposited (Co{sub 100−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 100−y}W{sub y} films (x = 63–72 at.% Fe, y = 4–9 at.% W) were successfully produced varying the applied cathodic current density (i{sub c}) between 0.5 and 10 mA cm{sup −2}. X-ray diffraction results revealed a bcc-like structure for all studied compositions with average crystallite size ranging from 16 to 35 nm, as also confirmed by TEM results. SEM images indicated that needle-type morphology is dominant for the deposits containing lower W content (up to 4.5 at.%.), while a cauliflower-type behavior is observed for higher W content deposits. Room temperature Mössbauer spectra indicate the presence of two magnetic species for all samples; one component associated with an ordered Co–Fe–W fraction (crystalline grain core) and a magnetic disordered Co–Fe–W contribution, which can be attributed to the grain boundaries/grain surfaces. Magnetization was observed to be in the film plane along the film direction, except the sample prepared at i{sub c} = 10 mA cm{sup −2} that is slightly canted from in- to out-of-plane geometry. Magnetic measurements show high saturation magnetization values accompanied by low coercivity ones for the electrodeposited Co–Fe–W alloys, making these

  12. Surface and interface electronic structure: Three year activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The 3-year activity report covers surface structure and phonon anomalies (surface reconstruction on W(001) and Mo(001), adsorbate lateral ordering, surface Fermi contours and phonon anomalies on Pt(111) and Pd(001)), adsorbate vibrational damping, charge transfer in momentum space: W(011)-K, surface states and resonances (relativistic effects ampersand computations, surface resonances)

  13. Facile method for preparing superoleophobic surfaces with hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Wonshik; Hwang, Woonbong

    2016-02-01

    To facilitate the fabrication of superoleophobic surfaces having hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures (HMNS), even for low surface tension liquids including octane (surface tension = 21.1 mN m-1), and to understand the influences of surface structures on the oleophobicity, we developed a convenient method to achieve superoleophobic surfaces on aluminum substrates using chemical acid etching, anodization and fluorination treatment. The liquid repellency of the structured surface was validated through observable experimental results the contact and sliding angle measurements. The etching condition required to ensure high surface roughness was established, and an optimal anodizing condition was determined, as a critical parameter in building the superoleophobicity. The microcubic structures formed by acid etching are essential for achieving the formation of the hierarchical structure, and therefore, the nanowire structures formed by anodization lead to an enhancement of the superoleophobicity for low surface tension liquids. Under optimized morphology by microcubic/nanowire structures with fluorination treatment, the contact angle over 150° and the sliding angle less than 10° are achieved even for octane.

  14. A dynamic monitoring approach for the surface morphology evolution measurement of plasma facing components by means of speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbei; Cui, Xiaoqian; Feng, Chunlei; Li, Yuanbo; Zhao, Mengge; Luo, Guangnan; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-11-01

    Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) in a magnetically confined fusion plasma device will be exposed to high heat load and particle fluxes, and it would cause PFCs' surface morphology to change due to material erosion and redeposition from plasma wall interactions. The state of PFCs' surface condition will seriously affect the performance of long-pulse or steady state plasma discharge in a tokamak; it will even constitute an enormous threat to the operation and the safety of fusion plasma devices. The PFCs' surface morphology evolution measurement could provide important information about PFCs' real-time status or damage situation and it would help to a better understanding of the plasma wall interaction process and mechanism. Meanwhile through monitoring the distribution of dust deposition in a tokamak and providing an upper limit on the amount of loose dust, the PFCs' surface morphology measurement could indirectly contribute to keep fusion operational limits and fusion device safety. Aiming at in situ dynamic monitoring PFCs' surface morphology evolution, a laboratory experimental platform DUT-SIEP (Dalian University of Technology-speckle interferometry experimental platform) based on the speckle interferometry technique has been constructed at Dalian University of Technology (DUT) in China. With directional specific designing and focusing on the real detection condition of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), the DUT-SIEP could realize a variable measurement range, widely increased from 0.1 μm to 300 μm, with high spatial resolution (<1 mm) and ultra-high time resolution (<2 s for EAST measuring conditions). Three main components of the DUT-SIEP are all integrated and synchronized by a time schedule control and data acquisition terminal and coupled with a three-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithm, the surface morphology information of target samples can be obtained and reconstructed in real-time. A local surface morphology of the real divertor

  15. Micropatterned Azopolymer Surfaces Modulate Cell Mechanics and Cytoskeleton Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Carmela; Ventre, Maurizio; Cavalli, Silvia; Radmacher, Manfred; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-09-30

    Physical and chemical characteristics of materials are important regulators of cell behavior. In particular, cell elasticity is a fundamental parameter that reflects the state of a cell. Surface topography finely modulates cell fate and function via adhesion mediated signaling and cytoskeleton generated forces. However, how topographies alter cell mechanics is still unclear. In this work we have analyzed the mechanical properties of peripheral and nuclear regions of NIH-3T3 cells on azopolymer substrates with different topographic patterns. Micrometer scale patterns in the form of parallel ridges or square lattices of surface elevations were encoded on light responsive azopolymer films by means of contactless optical methods. Cell mechanics was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells and consequently the cell cytoskeleton were oriented along the linear patterns affecting cytoskeletal structures, e.g., formation of actin stress fibers. Our data demonstrate that topographic substrate patterns are recognized by cells and mechanical information is transferred by the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, cytoskeleton generated forces deform the nucleus, changing its morphology that appears to be related to different mechanical properties in the nuclear region.

  16. Effects of pressure on morphology and structure of bio-char from pressurized entrained-flow pyrolysis of microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maliutina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present dataset describes the entrained-flow pyrolysis of Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and the results obtained during bio-char characterization. The dataset includes a brief explanation of the experimental procedure, experimental conditions and the influence of pyrolysis conditions on bio-chars morphology and carbon structure. The data show an increase in sphericity and surface smoothness of bio-chars at higher pressures and temperatures. Data confirmed that the swelling ratio of bio-chars increased with pressure up to 2.0 MPa. Consequently, changes in carbon structure of bio-chars were investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The data showed the increase in carbon order of chars at elevated pressures. Changes in the chemical structure of bio-char as a function of pyrolysis conditions were investigated using FTIR analysis. Keywords: Microalgae, Bio-char, Particle swelling, Pressurized pyrolysis

  17. The Morphology of Intermediate Structures Formed During Bainite Transformation in HSLA Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidurov, Mikhail N.; Kovalev, Sergey V.; Zubkov, Alexander S.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the structure of bainite formed under the influence of thermal deformation cycles of welding in low-carbon bainitic class steels. Morphology features associated with the formation of mesoferrite and granular bainite determines the high cold resistance of welded joints.

  18. Studying Impact of Different Precipitating Agents on Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of Bismuth Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayuk Astuti

    2017-10-01

    How to Cite: Astuti, Y., Arnelli, Pardoyo, Fauziyah, A., Nurhayati, S., Wulansari, A.D., Andianingrum, R., Widiyandari, H., Bhaduri, G.A. (2017. Studying Impact of Different Precipitating Agents on Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of Bismuth Oxide. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3: 478-484 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.1144.478-484

  19. 30 CFR 75.1708 - Surface structures, fireproofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface structures, fireproofing. 75.1708... structures, fireproofing. [Statutory Provisions] After March 30, 1970, all structures erected on the surface within 100 feet of any mine opening shall be of fireproof construction. Unless structures existing on or...

  20. Influence of synthesis route in structural, thermal and morphological characteristics of perovskite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, I.A.; Araujo, E.M. de; Santos, T.L.; Viana, K.M.S.; Borges, M.M.; Ruiz, J.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Oxides with perovskite structure are interesting objects of study because of their optical, magnetic, electrical properties and its possible application, for example, as automotive catalyst. Various methods have been proposed to synthesise materials with this structure in order to achieve better structural and morphological characteristics and therefore improved properties. In this study, the mixed oxide of the perovskite type La 0.8 Ca 0.2 MnO 3 was synthesized by three different routes: the polymeric precursors, also known as the Pechini, method of gelatin modified rout and combustion method. Ceramic materials were evaluated thermally morphologically and structurally through thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and diffraction X-ray (XRD). The catalytic tests has been released, the material synthesized by the Pechini method had the best performance in relation to conversion and stability, two important properties for catalysts. (author)

  1. An examination of surface epithelium structures of the embryo across the genus Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhuis, Tami M; Fris, Megan; Tuhela, Laura; Kwan, Lucia

    2017-12-01

    In viviparous, teleost fish, with postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning, embryonic structures that facilitate maternal-fetal nutrient transfer are predicted to be present. For the family Poeciliidae, only a handful of morphological studies have explored these embryonic specializations. Here, we present a comparative morphological study in the viviparous poeciliid genus, Poeciliopsis. Using microscopy techniques, we examine the embryonic surface epidermis of Poeciliopsis species that vary in their level of postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning and placentation across two phylogenetic clades and three independent evolutionary origins of placentation. We focus on surface features of the embryo that may facilitate maternal-fetal nutrient transfer. Specifically, we studied cell apical-surface morphology associated with the superficial epithelium that covers the body and sac (yolk and pericardial) of embryos at different developmental stages. Scanning electron microscopy revealed common surface epithelial cells across species, including pavement cells with apical-surface microridges or microvilli and presumed ionocytes and/or mucus-secreting cells. For three species, in the mid-stage embryos, the surface of the body and sac were covered in microvillus epithelium. The remaining species did not display microvillus epithelium at any of the stages examined. Instead, their epithelium of the body and sac were composed of cells with apical-surface microridges. For all species, in the late stage embryos, the surface of the body proper was composed of apical-surface microridges in a "fingerprint-like arrangement." Despite the differences in the surface epithelium of embryos across Poeciliopsis species and embryonic developmental stages, this variation was not associated with the level of postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning. We discuss these results in light of previous morphological studies of matrotrophic, teleost fish, phylogenetic

  2. Morphology, structure and optical properties of sol-gel ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, T.F.; Teodorescu, V.S.; Blanchin, M.G.; Stoica, T.A.; Gartner, M.; Losurdo, M.; Zaharescu, M

    2003-08-15

    The alkoxidic route and the spinning deposition were used to prepare monolayer sol-gel indium tin oxide (ITO) films. The morphology and crystalline structure were investigated by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ITO sol-gel mono-layer contains three regions of different porosities. The basic crystalline structure is that of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice. The optical properties have been studied by optical transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  3. Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chia-Hsing; Niu, Pei-Lun; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar–O 2 ) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (θ = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar–O 2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°. (paper)

  4. Influence of substrate temperature on structural, morphological and electrical properties of PbSe film deposited by radio frequency sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Wenran, E-mail: fengwenran@bipt.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China); Wang, Xiaoyang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Fei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China); Liu, Wan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhou, Hai; Wang, Shuo; Li, Haoran [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China)

    2015-03-02

    PbSe films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from PbSe slices target under different substrate temperatures (from room temperature to 300 °C). The effect of substrate temperature on structural properties of PbSe thin film was investigated. The surface morphology and the crystal structure of film were determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry, respectively. It was found that the grain shape changed with substrate temperature. When the substrate temperature was below 250 °C, most of the crystal grains were spherical in shape. For temperatures above 250 °C, the grains transformed to triangle or prismatic ones. Meanwhile, with increasing substrate temperature, the preferential orientation of the film changed from (200) to (220). To figure out the intrinsic mechanisms for this behavior, the texture coefficient, as well as the comparison between surface energy and elastic strain energy was performed. At lower temperature, the film growth was determined by surface energy, which was replaced by strain energy at higher temperature. Therefore, the diversity of crystal structure and morphology of the films at different substrate temperatures occurred. Moreover, the electrical properties of the p-type PbSe films are also quite dependent on substrate temperature. With substrate temperature increased, the electrical resistivity decreased from 1.88 to 0.14 Ω cm, while the carrier concentration increased from 1.74 × 10{sup 18} to 4.08 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} as the mobility was enhanced from 0.54 to 2.21 cm{sup 2}/Vs. - Highlights: • PbSe thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Substrate temperature determines crystal structure of PbSe films. • Transformation behaviors of PbSe films were explained by energy calculations.

  5. Morphological, Chemical Surface, and Diffusive Transport Characterizations of a Nanoporous Alumina Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Vázquez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of a nanoporous alumina membrane (NPAM by the two-step anodization method and its morphological and chemical surface characterization by analyzing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM micrographs and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS spectra is reported. Influence of electrical and diffusive effects on the NaCl transport across the membrane nanopores is determined from salt diffusion measurements performed with a wide range of NaCl concentrations, which allows the estimation of characteristic electrochemical membrane parameters such as the NaCl diffusion coefficient and the concentration of fixed charges in the membrane, by using an appropriated model and the membrane geometrical parameters (porosity and pore length. These results indicate a reduction of ~70% in the value of the NaCl diffusion coefficient through the membrane pores with respect to solution. The transport number of ions in the membrane pores (Na+ and Cl−, respectively were determined from concentration potential measurements, and the effect of concentration-polarization at the membrane surfaces was also considered by comparing concentration potential values obtained with stirred solutions (550 rpm and without stirring. From both kinds of results, a value higher than 0.05 M NaCl for the feed solution seems to be necessary to neglect the contribution of electrical interactions in the diffusive transport.

  6. Adsorption of Xyloglucan onto Cellulose Surfaces of Different Morphologies: An Entropy-Driven Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benselfelt, Tobias; Cranston, Emily D; Ondaral, Sedat; Johansson, Erik; Brumer, Harry; Rutland, Mark W; Wågberg, Lars

    2016-09-12

    The temperature-dependence of xyloglucan (XG) adsorption onto smooth cellulose model films regenerated from N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO) was investigated using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and it was found that the adsorbed amount increased with increasing temperature. This implies that the adsorption of XG to NMMO-regenerated cellulose is endothermic and supports the hypothesis that the adsorption of XG onto cellulose is an entropy-driven process. We suggest that XG adsorption is mainly driven by the release of water molecules from the highly hydrated cellulose surfaces and from the XG molecules, rather than through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces as previously suggested. To test this hypothesis, the adsorption of XG onto cellulose was studied using cellulose films with different morphologies prepared from cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), semicrystalline NMMO-regenerated cellulose, and amorphous cellulose regenerated from lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide. The total amount of high molecular weight xyloglucan (XGHMW) adsorbed was studied by quartz crystal microbalance and reflectometry measurements, and it was found that the adsorption was greatest on the amorphous cellulose followed by the CNC and NMMO-regenerated cellulose films. There was a significant correlation between the cellulose dry film thickness and the adsorbed XG amount, indicating that XG penetrated into the films. There was also a correlation between the swelling of the films and the adsorbed amounts and conformation of XG, which further strengthened the conclusion that the water content and the subsequent release of the water upon adsorption are important components of the adsorption process.

  7. Influence of surface morphology on methanol oxidation at a glassy carbon-supported Pt catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STEVANOVIC

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Platinum supported on glassy carbon (GC was used as a model system for studying the influence of the surface morphology of a Pt catalyst on methanol oxidation in alkaline and acidic solutions. Platinum was deposited by the potential step method on GC samples from H2SO4 + H2PtCl6 solution under the same conditions with loadings from 10 to 80 mg cm-2. AFM and STM images of the GC/Pt electrodes showed that the Pt was deposited in the form of 3D agglomerates composed of spherical particles. Longer deposition times resulted in increased growth of Pt forms and a decrease in the specific area of the Pt. The real surface area of Pt increased with loading but the changes were almost negligible at higher loadings. Nevertheless, both the specific and mass activity of platinum supported on glassy carbon for methanol oxidation in acidic and in alkaline solutions exhibit a volcanic dependence with respect to the platinum loading. The increase in the activity can be explained by the increasing the particle size with the loading and thus an increase in the contiguous Pt sites available for adsorption and decomposition of methanol. However, the decrease in the activity of the catalyst with further increase of loading and particle size after reaching the maximum is related to the decrease of active sites available for methanol adsorption and their accessibility as a result of more close proximity and pronounced coalescence of the Pt particles.

  8. Surface morphology of scale on FeCrAl (Pd, Pt, Y) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, T.; Takezawa, Y.; Shiino, A.; Shishido, T.

    2008-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-20Cr-4Al, floating zone refined (FZ) Fe-20Cr-4Al, Fe-20Cr-4Al-0.5Pd, Fe-20Cr-4Al-0.5Pt and Fe-20Cr-4Al-(0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys was studied in oxygen for 0.6-18 ks at 1273-1673 K by mass gain measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The mass gains of FeCrAl, FZ FeCrAl, FeCrAlPd and FeCrAlPt alloys showed almost the same values. Those of FeCrAl-(0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys decreased with increasing yttrium of up to 0.1% followed by an increase with the yttrium content after oxidation for 18 ks at 1473 K. Needle-like oxide particles were partially observed on FeCrAl alloy after oxidation for 7.2 ks at 1273 K. These oxide particles decreased in size with increasing oxidation time of more than 7.2 ks at 1473 K, and then disappeared after oxidation for 7.2 ks at 1573 K. It is suggested that a new oxide develops at the oxygen/scale interface. The scale surface of FeCrAl alloy showed a wavy morphology after oxidation for 7.2 ks at 1273 K which then changed to planar morphology after an oxidation time of more than 7.2 ks at 1573 K. On the other hand, the scale surfaces of other alloys were planar after all oxidation conditions in this study. The scale surfaces of FeCrAl, FZ FeCrAl, FeCrAlPd and FeCrAlPt alloys were rough, however, those of FeCrAl-(0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys were smooth. The oxide scales formed on FeCrAl-(0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys were found to be α-Al 2 O 3 with small amounts of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 , and those of the other alloys were only α-Al 2 O 3

  9. Evaluation of the morphological alteration of the root surface radiated with a diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    The diode laser has been studied for periodontal therapy, as much for removal of calculus as for microbial reduction of periodontal pockets, as well as the visible analgesic effects and biomodulation capacity. For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological alteration of the root surface after radiation with the diode laser, 808 nm through analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides this, to verify the temperature variations caused during the radiation, a thermometer put into the dentinal wall of the root canal was used. In all, 18 teeth were used, 15 of which for the SEM study, and the other 3 were used to temperature variation analysis. The 25 samples were scraped on the root surface and planed with manual instruments. The other 5 were not subjected to any type of treatment. This, 6 groups of 5 samples each were formed. Control Group C whose samples had not received any treatment; Control Group C 1 was only scraped and polished conventionally with Hu-Friedy Gracey curettes 5 and 6; the other samples groups L1, L2, L3, L4 were radiated by diode laser using parameters of power 1,0 W; 1,2 W; 1,4 W; and 1,6 W respectively, 2 times for 10 seconds with 20 seconds intervals between each radiation in continuous mode. The results with relation to the increase of temperature in the interior of the root canal demonstrated that there was an increase of more than 5 degree Celsius. The results of the scanning electron microscope analysis of Control Group C demonstrated great irregularity and ridges on the root surface, with the presence of a dentine layer. Control Group C1 presented a similar aspect to Group L 1's, smoother and more homogeneous surface. Groups L2, L3, and L4 presented scratches alternating with smoother areas showing that fiber contacted the surface of the sample. The results reconfirmed the necessity of further studies using diode laser, with a beam of light emitted in an interrupted mode to improve the control of the

  10. Solvent effects on the crystal growth structure and morphology of the pharmaceutical dirithromycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Liang, Zuozhong

    2017-12-01

    Solvent effects on the crystal structure and morphology of pharmaceutical dirithromycin molecules were systematically investigated using both experimental crystallization and theoretical simulation. Dirithromycin is one of the new generation of macrolide antibiotics with two polymorphic forms (Form I and Form II) and many solvate forms. Herein, six solvates of the dirithromycin, including acetonitrile, acetonitrile/water, acetone, 1-propanol, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and cyclohexane, were studied. Experimentally, we crystallized the dirithromycin molecules in different solvents by the solvent evaporating method and measured the crystal structures with the X-ray diffraction (XRD). We compared these crystal structures of dirithromycin solvates and analyzed the solvent property-determined structure evolution. The solvents have a strong interaction with the dirithromycin molecule due to the formation of inter-molecular interactions (such as the hydrogen bonding and close contacts (sum of vdW radii)). Theoretically, we calculated the ideal crystal habit based on the solvated structures with the attachment growth (AE) model. The predicted morphologies and aspect ratios of dirithromycin solvates agree well with the experimental results. This work could be helpful to better understand the structure and morphology evolution of solvates controlled by solvents and guide the crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Effect of heat treatment of wood on the morphology, surface roughness and penetration of simulated and human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekola, J; Lassila, L V J; Nganga, S; Ylä-Soininmäki, A; Fleming, G J P; Grenman, R; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2014-01-01

    Wood has been used as a model material for the development of novel fiber-reinforced composite bone substitute biomaterials. In previous studies heat treatment of wood was perceived to significantly increase the osteoconductivity of implanted wood material. The objective of this study was to examine some of the changing attributes of wood materials that may contribute to improved biological responses gained with heat treatment. Untreated and 140°C and 200°C heat-treated downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were used as the wood materials. Surface roughness and the effect of pre-measurement grinding were measured with contact and non-contact profilometry. Liquid interaction was assessed with a dipping test using two manufactured liquids (simulated blood) as well as human blood. SEM was used to visualize possible heat treatment-induced changes in the hierarchical structure of wood. The surface roughness was observed to significantly decrease with heat treatment. Grinding methods had more influence on the surface contour and roughness than heat treatment. The penetration of the human blood in the 200°C heat-treated exceeded that in the untreated and 140°C heat-treated materials. SEM showed no significant change due to heat treatment in the dry-state morphology of the wood. The results of the liquid penetration test support previous findings in literature concerning the effects of heat treatment on the biological response to implanted wood. Heat-treatment has only a marginal effect on the surface contour of wood. The highly specialized liquid conveyance system of wood may serve as a biomimetic model for the further development of tailored fiber-composite materials.

  12. Process parameter and surface morphology of pineapple leaf electrospun nanofibers (PALF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surip, S. N.; Aziz, F. M. A.; Bonnia, N. N.; Sekak, K. A.; Zakaria, M. N.

    2017-09-01

    In recent times, nanofibers have attracted the attention of researchers due to their pronounced micro and nano structural characteristics that enable the development of advanced materials that have sophisticated applications. The production of nanofibers by the electrospinning process is influenced both by the electrostatic forces and the viscoelastic behavior of the polymer. Process parameters, like solution feed rate, applied voltage, nozzle-collector distance, and spinning environment, and material properties, like solution concentration, viscosity, surface tension, conductivity, and solvent vapor pressure, influence the structure and properties of electrospun nanofibers. Significant work has been done to characterize the properties of PALF nanofibers as a function of process and material parameters.

  13. Surface composition of silver nanocubes and their influence on morphological stabilization and catalytic performance in ethylene epoxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Sangaru, Shiv; Zhu, Haibo; Rosenfeld, Devon C.; Samal, Akshaya Kumar; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanocubes with exposed (100) facets are reported to have improved selectivity with respect to their spherical counterparts for ethylene epoxidation. In the present study, we observe that the surface composition of the silver nanocubes have also a critical impact on activity. Detailed investigation of the surface composition of silver nanocubes has been carried out using HRTEM, SEM, EDS, EELS and EFTEM. Surfaces of silver nanocubes are “passivated” by chloride and its removal is essential to achieve any catalytic activity. However, the surface chloride is apparently essential for stabilizing the cubic morphology of the particles. Attempts were made to understand the competing effects of the surface species for retaining the morphology of the nanocubes and on their catalytic activity.

  14. Surface composition of silver nanocubes and their influence on morphological stabilization and catalytic performance in ethylene epoxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Sangaru, Shiv

    2015-12-04

    Silver nanocubes with exposed (100) facets are reported to have improved selectivity with respect to their spherical counterparts for ethylene epoxidation. In the present study, we observe that the surface composition of the silver nanocubes have also a critical impact on activity. Detailed investigation of the surface composition of silver nanocubes has been carried out using HRTEM, SEM, EDS, EELS and EFTEM. Surfaces of silver nanocubes are “passivated” by chloride and its removal is essential to achieve any catalytic activity. However, the surface chloride is apparently essential for stabilizing the cubic morphology of the particles. Attempts were made to understand the competing effects of the surface species for retaining the morphology of the nanocubes and on their catalytic activity.

  15. Morphology, deformation, and defect structures of TiCr2 in Ti-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.C.; Allen, S.M.; Livingston, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The morphologies and defect structures of TiCr 2 in several Ti-Cr alloys have been examined by optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to explore the room-temperature deformability of the Laves phase TiCr 2 . The morphology of the Laves phase was found to be dependent upon alloy composition and annealing temperature. Samples deformed by compression have also been studied using TEM. Comparisons of microstructures before and after deformation suggest an increase in twin, stacking fault, and dislocation density within the Laves phase, indicating some but not extensive room-temperature deformability

  16. Morphological Analysis (SEM) of the Surface of a Non-Noble Dental Alloy Subjected to Electrocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, E. R.; Grădinaru, I.; Baciu, M.; Vasluianu, R. I.; Cimpoesu, R.; Baciu, C.; Bejinariu, C.

    2017-06-01

    Corrosion consists in the degradation of a material under the chemical or electrochemical action of the environment where it is placed. The investigations carried out aimed to show the structural modifications produced in Co-Cr-Mo alloy, Robur 400 (Eisenbacher Dental - Waren ED GmbH, Germany) subjected to electrocorrosion in Fusayama-Mayer artificial saliva. The specimens prepared by mechanical polishing were analysed structurally by using a scanning electron microscope. During the tests run we could notice a general corrosion of the surfaces of the specimens made from Robur alloy. Through 2D and 3D microscopy and qualitative determinations of the luminous variation we could notice the effects of electrocorrosion tests on the surface of the metal material.

  17. Laser Tailoring the Surface Chemistry and Morphology for Wear, Scale and Corrosion Resistant Superhydrophobic Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Kirill A; Domantovsky, Alexander G; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M

    2018-06-04

    A strategy, combining laser chemical modification with laser texturing, followed by chemisorption of the fluorinated hydrophobic agent was used to fabricate the series of superhydrophobic coatings on an aluminum alloy with varied chemical compositions and parameters of texture. It was shown that high content of aluminum oxynitride and aluminum oxide formed in the surface layer upon laser treatment allows solving the problem of enhancement of superhydrophobic coating resistance to abrasive loads. Besides, the multimodal structure of highly porous surface layer leads to self-healing ability of fabricated coatings. Long-term behavior of designed coatings in "hard" hot water with an essential content of calcium carbonate demonstrated high antiscaling resistance with self-cleaning potential against solid deposits onto the superhydrophobic surfaces. Study of corrosion protection properties and the behavior of coatings at long-term contact with 0.5 M NaCl solution indicated extremely high chemical stability and remarkable anticorrosion properties.

  18. Application of nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation to titanium nasal implants with nanonetwork surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ying-Sui; Yang, Wei-En [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Lan [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhu, Hongqin [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Lan, Ming-Ying [Division of Rhinology, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Wei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Huang, Her-Hsiung, E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-15

    In nasal reconstruction, the response of cells to titanium (Ti) implants is mainly determined by surface features of the implant. In a pilot study, the authors applied electrochemical anodization to Ti surfaces in an alkaline solution to create a network of nanoscale surface structures. This nanonetwork was intended to enhance the responses of primary human nasal epithelial cell (HNEpC) to the Ti surface. In this study, the authors then treated the anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surface using nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (NPIII) in order to further improve the HNEpC response to the Ti surface. Subsequently, surface characterization was performed to elucidate morphology, roughness, wettability, and chemistry of specimens. Cytotoxicity, blood, and HNEpC responses were also evaluated. Our results demonstrate that NPIII treatment led to the formation of a noncytotoxic TiN-containing thin film (thickness <100 nm) on the electrochemically anodized Ti surface with a nanonetwork-structure. NPIII treatment was shown to improve blood clotting and the adhesion of platelets to the anodized Ti surface as well as the adhesion and proliferation of hNEpC. This research spreads our understanding of the fact that a TiN-containing thin film, produced using NPIII treatment, could be used to improve blood and HNEpC responses to anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surfaces in nasal implant applications.

  19. Data on the surface morphology of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V implants during processing by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar A.J. van Hengel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V implants were biofunctionalized using plasma electrolytic oxidation. At various time points during this process scanning electron microscopy imaging was performed to analyze the surface morphology (van Hengel et al., 2017 [1]. This data shows the changes in surface morphology during plasma electrolytic oxidation. Data presented in this article are related to the research article “Selective laser melting porous metallic implants with immobilized silver nanoparticles kill and prevent biofilm formation by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus” (van Hengel et al., 2017 [1].

  20. Elementary structural building blocks encountered in silicon surface reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Corsin; Monney, Claude; Didiot, Clement; Schwier, Eike Fabian; Garnier, Michael Gunnar; Aebi, Philipp; Gaal-Nagy, Katalin; Onida, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Driven by the reduction of dangling bonds and the minimization of surface stress, reconstruction of silicon surfaces leads to a striking diversity of outcomes. Despite this variety even very elaborate structures are generally comprised of a small number of structural building blocks. We here identify important elementary building blocks and discuss their integration into the structural models as well as their impact on the electronic structure of the surface. (topical review)

  1. Linking surface morphology, composition and activity on the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko’s nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, Sonia; Hoang, Van Hong; Hasselmann, Pedro H.; Barucci, Maria Antonieta; Feller, Clement; Prasanna Deshapriya, Jasinghege Don; Keller, Horst Uwe; OSIRIS Team

    2017-10-01

    The Rosetta mission orbited around the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for more than 2 years, getting an incredible amount of unique data of the comet nucleus and inner coma. This has enabled us to study its activity continuously from 4 AU inbound to 3.6 AU outbound, including the perihelion passage at 1.25 AU.This work focuses on the identification of the regions sources of faint jets and outbursts, and on the study of their spectrophotometric properties, from observations acquired with the OSIRIS/NAC camera during the July-October 2015 period, i.e. close to perihelion. More than 150 jets of different intensities were identified directly on the nucleus from NAC color sequences acquired in 7-11 filters covering the 250-1000 nm wavelength range, and their spectrophotometric properties studied for the first time. Some spectacular outbursts appear dominated by water ice particles, while fainter jets often show colors redder than the nucleus and appear dominated by dusty particles. Some jets are very faint and were identified on the nucleus thanks to the unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution of the ROSETTA/OSIRIS observations. Some of them have an extremely short lifetime, appearing on the cometary surface during the color sequence observations, reaching their peak in flux and then vanishing in less than a couple of minutes.We will present the results on the location, duration, and colors of active sources on the 67P nucleus from the relatively low resolution (i.e. 6-10 m/pixel) images acquired close to the perihelion passage. Some of this active regions were observed and investigated in higher resolution (up to few dm per pixel) during other phases of the mission. These observations allow us to study the morphological and spectral evolution of the regions found to be active and to further investigate the link between morphology, composition, and activity on cometary nuclei.

  2. Study of the surface chemistry and morphology of single walled carbon nanotube-magnetite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez-Linares, F.; Uwakweh, O.N.C.; Lopez, N.; Chavez, E.; Polanco, R.; Morant, C.; Sanz, J.M.; Elizalde, E.; Neira, C.; Nieto, S.; Roque-Malherbe, R.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the morphologies of the single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), magnetite nanoparticles (MNP), and the composite based on them was carried with combined X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). These techniques together with thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) confirmed the production of pure single phases, and that the composite material consisted of MNP attached to the outer surface of the SWCNT. The Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) research showed the presence of a large quantity of Lewis acid sites in the highly dispersed magnetite particles supported on the SWCNT outer surface. The DRIFTS carbon dioxide adsorption study of the composites revealed significant adsorption of carbon dioxide, fundamentally in the Lewis acid sites. Then, the Lewis acid sites were observed to be catalytically active. Further, the electron exchange between the Lewis acid sites and the basic or amphoteric adsorbed molecules could influence the magnetic properties of the magnetite. Consequently, together with this first ever use of MS in the study of Lewis acid sites, this investigation revealed the potential of the composites for catalytic and sensors applications. -- Graphical abstract: A large amount of Lewis acid sites were found in the highly dispersed magnetite which is supported on the SWCNT outer surface. Display Omitted Research highlights: → The obtained materials were completely characterized with XRD, Raman and SEM-TEM. → DRIFT, TGA and adsorption of the composites allowed understand the material formation. → This is the first report of a study of Lewis sites by Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  3. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  4. The effect of composition and thermodynamics on the surface morphology of durable superhydrophobic polymer coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum T

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tehila Nahum,1 Hanna Dodiuk,2 Samuel Kenig,2 Artee Panwar,1 Carol Barry,1 Joey Mead,1 1Department of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA; 2Department of Polymers and Plastics Engineering, Shenkar College of Engineering Design and Art, Ramat Gan, Israel Abstract: Durable superhydrophobic coatings were synthesized using a system of silica nanoparticles (NPs to provide nanoscale roughness, fluorosilane to give hydrophobic chemistry, and three different polymer binders: urethane acrylate, ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, and epoxy. Coatings composed of different binders incorporating NPs in various concentrations exhibited different superhydrophobic attributes when applied on polycarbonate (PC and glass substrates and as a function of coating composition. It was found that the substrate surface characteristics and wettability affected the superhydrophobic characteristics of the coatings. Interfacial tension and spreading coefficient parameters (thermodynamics of the coating components were used to predict the localization of the NPs for the different binders’ concentrations. The thermodynamic analysis of the NPs localization was in good agreement with the experimental observations. On the basis of the thermodynamic analysis and the experimental scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy results, it was concluded that localization of the NPs on the surface was critical to provide the necessary roughness and resulting superhydrophobicity. The durability evaluated by tape testing of the epoxy formulations was the best on both glass and PC. Several coating compositions retained their superhydrophobicity after the tape test. In summary, it was concluded that thermodynamic analysis is a powerful tool to predict the roughness of the coating due to the location of NPs on the surface, and hence can be used in the design of superhydrophobic coatings. Keywords

  5. Atomic probes of surface structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.; Jonsson, H.

    1992-01-01

    The following were studied: New semiclassical method for scattering calculations, He atom scattering from defective Pt surfaces, He atom scattering from Xe overlayers, thermal dissociation of H 2 on Cu(110), spin flip scattering of atoms from surfaces, and Car-Parrinello simulations of surface processes

  6. Influence of silicon on local structure and morphology of γ-FeOOH and α-FeOOH particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang-Koo; Shinoda, Kozo; Suzuki, Shigeru; Waseda, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) method was used for investigating the local structures of lepidocrocite and goethite with and without silicon. The structure and morphology of these particles were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The bonding structure was examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). When silicon species was added, the structure and morphology changed while the linkage of FeO 6 octahedral units was distorted. The FT-IR spectra revealed the formation of the Fe-O-Si bond in particles containing silicate ions, and the characteristic bond affects the local structure and morphology of the particles

  7. Morphology and Structural Characterization of Carbon Nanowalls Grown via VHF-PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmal Hasanudin, M.; Wahab, Y.; Ismail, A. K.; Zahid Jamal, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    A 150 MHz very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (150 MHz VHF-PECVD) system was utilized to fabricate two-dimensional carbon nanostructure from the mixture of methane and hydrogen. Morphology and structural properties of the grown nanostructure were investigated by FESEM imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Carbon nanowalls (CNW) with dense and wavy-like structure were successfully synthesized. The wavy-like morphology of CNW was found to be more distinct during growth at small electrode spacing and denser with increasing deposition time due to better flux of hydrocarbon radicals to the substrate and higher rate of reaction, respectively. Typical characteristics of CNW were observed from strong D band, narrow bandwidth of G band and single broad peak of 2D band of Raman spectra indicating the presence of disordered nanocrystalline graphite structure with high degree of graphitization.

  8. Template-free fabrication and morphology regulation of Ag@carbon composite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenyan, E-mail: zhangwenyan8531@gmail.com [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing (China); Hao, Lingyun; Lin, Qin [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing (China); Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Technology University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Xiaoyu [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A simple and low-cost method to prepare Ag@C composite material. • AgNO{sub 3} plays an important role in tuning size and functional groups of products. • HTC reaction time is also a key factor for regulating the Ag@C structure. - Abstract: Ag–carbon composite materials were prepared without any template by hydrothermal carbonization of solvable starch. The composite materials are composed of Ag cores and carbonaceous shell to form a core–shell (Ag@carbon) structure. During the hydrothermal carbonization process, the aromatization and carbonization of solvable starch endowed the Ag@carbon composite structure with abundant aromatic, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. The AgNO{sub 3} concentration and HTC reaction time are two important factors for regulating the size, morphology and functional groups of the composite material. With the increasing of AgNO{sub 3} concentration, morphologies of the composite material turned from spheres to wires.

  9. Effect of the local morphology in the field emission properties of conducting polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Assis, T A; Borondo, F; Benito, R M; Losada, J C; Andrade, R F S; Miranda, J G V; De Souza, Nara C; De Castilho, C M C; De B Mota, F

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present systematic theoretical evidence of a relationship between the point local roughness exponent (PLRE) (which quantifies the heterogeneity of an irregular surface) and the cold field emission properties (indicated by the local current density and the macroscopic current density) of real polyaniline (PANI) surfaces, considered nowadays as very good candidates in the design of field emission devices. The latter are obtained from atomic force microscopy data. The electric field and potential are calculated in a region bounded by the rough PANI surface and a distant plane, both boundaries held at distinct potential values. We numerically solve Laplace’s equation subject to appropriate Dirichlet’s condition. Our results show that local roughness reveals the presence of specific sharp emitting spots with a smooth geometry, which are the main ones responsible (but not the only) for the emission efficiency of such surfaces for larger deposition times. Moreover, we have found, with a proper choice of a scale interval encompassing the experimentally measurable average grain length, a highly structured dependence of local current density on PLRE, considering different ticks of PANI surfaces. (paper)

  10. Surface morphology modelling for the resistivity analysis of low temperature sputtered indium tin oxide thin films on polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xuesong; Tang Wu; Weng Xiaolong; Deng Longjiang

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous or weakly crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film samples have been prepared on polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene terephthalate substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering at a low substrate temperature. The surface morphological and electrical properties of the ITO layers were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a standard four-point probe measurement. The effect of surface morphology on the resistivity of ITO thin films was studied, which presented some different variations from crystalline films. Then, a simplified film system model, including the substrate, continuous ITO layer and ITO surface grain, was proposed to deal with these correlations. Based on this thin film model and the AFM images, a quadratic potential was introduced to simulate the characteristics of the ITO surface morphology, and the classical Kronig-Penney model, the semiconductor electrical theory and the modified Neugebauer-Webb model were used to expound the detailed experimental results. The modelling equation was highly in accord with the experimental variations of the resistivity on the characteristics of the surface morphology.

  11. A computation study on the interplay between surface morphology and electrochemical performance of patterned thin film electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Sourav; Frantziskonis, George N.; Aifantis, Katerina E.

    2017-08-01

    Recent experiments illustrate that the morphology of the electrode surface impacts the voltage - capacity curves and long term cycling performance of Li-ion batteries. The present study systematically explores the role of the electrode surface morphology and uncertainties in the reactions that occur during electrochemical cycling, by performing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). This allows encoding of the inherent stochasticity at discrete microscale reaction events over the deterministic mean field reaction dynamics that occur in Li-ion cells. The electrodes are taken to be dense thin films whose surfaces are patterned with conical, trapezoidal, dome-shaped, or pillar-shaped structures. It is shown that the inherent perturbations in the reactions together with the characteristics of the electrode surface configuration can significantly improve battery performance, mainly because patterned surfaces, as opposed to flat surfaces, result in a smaller voltage drop. The most efficient pattern was the trapezoidal, which is consistent with experimental evidence on Si patterned electrodes.

  12. Diversity and population structure of a dominant deciduous tree based on morphological and genetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin-di; Jia, Rui-Zhi; Meng, Chao; Ti, Chao-Wen; Wang, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic diversity and structure of tree species across their geographic ranges is essential for sustainable use and management of forest ecosystems. Acer grosseri Pax., an economically and ecologically important maple species, is mainly distributed in North China. In this study, the genetic diversity and population differentiation of 24 natural populations of this species were evaluated using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and morphological characters. The results show that highly significant differences occurred in 32 morphological traits. The coefficient of variation of 34 characters was 18.19 %. Principal component analysis indicated that 18 of 34 traits explained 60.20 % of the total variance. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient (VST) was 36.06 % for all morphological traits. The Shannon–Wiener index of 34 morphological characters was 6.09, while at the population level, it was 1.77. The percentage of polymorphic bands of all studied A. grosseri populations was 82.14 %. Nei's gene diversity (He) and Shannon's information index (I) were 0.35 and 0.50, respectively. Less genetic differentiation was detected among the natural populations (GST = 0.20, ΦST = 0.10). Twenty-four populations of A. grosseri formed two main clusters, which is consistent with morphological cluster analysis. Principal coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE analysis supported the UPGMA-cluster dendrogram. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances among populations. Both molecular and morphological data suggested that A. grosseri is rich in genetic diversity. The high level of genetic variation within populations could be affected by the biological characters, mating system and lifespan of A. grosseri, whereas the lower genetic diversity among populations could be caused by effective gene exchange, selective pressure from environmental heterogeneity and the species' geographical range. PMID:26311734

  13. An electron tomography algorithm for reconstructing 3D morphology using surface tangents of projected scattering interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, T. C.; Ringer, S. P.

    2010-03-01

    Upon discerning the mere shape of an imaged object, as portrayed by projected perimeters, the full three-dimensional scattering density may not be of particular interest. In this situation considerable simplifications to the reconstruction problem are possible, allowing calculations based upon geometric principles. Here we describe and provide an algorithm which reconstructs the three-dimensional morphology of specimens from tilt series of images for application to electron tomography. Our algorithm uses a differential approach to infer the intersection of projected tangent lines with surfaces which define boundaries between regions of different scattering densities within and around the perimeters of specimens. Details of the algorithm implementation are given and explained using reconstruction calculations from simulations, which are built into the code. An experimental application of the algorithm to a nano-sized Aluminium tip is also presented to demonstrate practical analysis for a real specimen. Program summaryProgram title: STOMO version 1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEFS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2988 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 191 605 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C/C++ Computer: PC Operating system: Windows XP RAM: Depends upon the size of experimental data as input, ranging from 200 Mb to 1.5 Gb Supplementary material: Sample output files, for the test run provided, are available. Classification: 7.4, 14 External routines: Dev-C++ ( http://www.bloodshed.net/devcpp.html) Nature of problem: Electron tomography of specimens for which conventional back projection may fail and/or data for which there is a limited angular

  14. In-Vitro Comparative Study of In-office and Home Bleaching Agents on Surface Micro-morphology of Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nazish

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of home-use bleaching agent containing 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) and in-office bleaching agent with 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) on surface micro-morphology of enamel. An experimental study. The discs were prepared at Material Engineering Department of NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, and surface morphology was analyzed at Centralized Science Laboratory of Karachi University, Pakistan. Duration of study was one year from January to December 2012. Forty five sound human thir