WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface mining operation

  1. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mining sites and mining operations vary widely with respect to topography, climate, surrounding land uses... and mining operations. 216.4 Section 216.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING, AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216...

  2. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mining operations vary widely with respect to topography, climate, surrounding land uses, proximity to... surface exploration and mining operations. 23.5 Section 23.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.5 Technical examination...

  3. 30 CFR 942.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required for postmining water treatment must remain bonded. However, the trust fund or annuity may serve as... coal mining and reclamation operations. 942.800 Section 942.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING...

  4. Surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  5. LANDSAT remote sensing: observations of an Appalachian mountaintop surface coal mining and reclamation operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The potential benefits of using LANDSAT remote sensing data by state agencies as an aide in monitoring surface coal mining operations are reviewed. A mountaintop surface mine in eastern Kentucky was surveyed over a 5 year period using satellite multispectral scanner data that were classified by computer analyses. The analyses were guided by aerial photography and by ground surveys of the surface mines procured in 1976. The application of the LANDSAT data indicates that: (1) computer classification of the various landcover categories provides information for monitoring the progress of surface mining and reclamation operations, (2) successive yearly changes in barren and revegetated areas can be qualitatively assessed for surface mines of 100 acres or more of disrupted area, (3) barren areas consisting of limestone and shale mixtures may be recognized, and revegetated areas in various stages of growth may be identified against the hilly forest background

  6. Mechanization of drill-and-blast operations in surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogan, B.

    1985-07-01

    Comments on recent developments in blasting techniques in modern surface mines and quarries. The tendency to use large boreholes (up to 320 mm diameter) and on site manufactured ANFO and slurry explosives is stressed. Soviet experience with ANFO and slurry explosives and with 9 types of explosive-mixing/charging vehicles is presented. One type of vehicle is used as a stable explosive mixing unit, the others (SUZN-1B, SUZN-2, SUZN-5A, SUZN-5AM, ZS-1B, MZS-1M, MAZ-509P) are used as mobile explosive mixing and loading units. Some also incorporate a borehole stemming device. Mixtures of ANFO and slurry (aquatol) explosives, explosive charging capacities (outputs 9-30 t/h) and other characteristics of mechanized explosive charging vehicles are described. Obligatory safety measures during usage are quoted. 4 refs.

  7. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Apostolou, Evangelia; Papavgeri, Georgia; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles

    2016-01-01

    The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions. This paper presents an integrated data management system which was developed over a number of years as well as the advantages through a specific application. The presented case study illustrates how the high production slopes of a mine that exceed depths of 100-120 m were successfully mined with an average displacement rate of 10- 20 mm/day, approaching an almost slow to moderate landslide velocity. Monitoring data of the past four years are included in the database and can be analyzed to produce valuable results. Time-series data correlations of movements, precipitation records, etc. are evaluated and presented in this case study. The results can be used to successfully manage mine operations and ensure the safety of the mine and the workforce.

  8. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not...

  9. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiakakis Chrysanthos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions.

  10. 30 CFR 942.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 942.780 Section 942.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  11. 30 CFR 912.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 912.780 Section 912.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  12. 30 CFR 921.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 921.780 Section 921.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  13. 30 CFR 939.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operations plan. 939.780 Section 939.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operations plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  14. 30 CFR 905.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 905.780 Section 905.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  15. 30 CFR 947.780 - Surface mining permit application-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 947.780 Section 947.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Application—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  16. 30 CFR 933.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 933.780 Section 933.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  17. 30 CFR 910.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 910.780 Section 910.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirement for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  18. 30 CFR 922.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 922.780 Section 922.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  19. 30 CFR 903.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 903.780 Section 903.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, applies to any person who submits an application to conduct...

  20. 30 CFR 937.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 937.780 Section 937.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirement for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  1. 30 CFR 941.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 941.780 Section 941.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  2. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  3. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  4. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ..., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202... recognizes the importance of this guidance to its Federal and state partners, to the regulated community, and... of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental...

  5. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floor exists if it finds that— (i) Unconsolidated streamlaid deposits holding streams are... on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial valley floors in the arid and semiarid areas west of....19 Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

  6. Virtual prototype simulation of hydraulic shovel kinematics for spatial characterization in surface mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Frimpong; Y. Li [University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering

    2005-12-15

    Hydraulic shovels are large-capacity equipment for excavating and loading dump trucks in constrained surface mining environments. Kinematics simulation of such equipment allows mine planning engineers to plan, design and control their spatial environments to achieve operating safety and efficiency. In this study, a hydraulic shovel was modelled as a mechanical manipulator with five degrees of freedom comprising the crawler, upper, boom, stick, bucket and bucket door components. The model was captured in a schematic diagram consisting of a six-bar linkage using the symbolic notation of Denavit and Hartenberg (Ho and Sriwattanathmma 1989). Homogeneous transformation matrices were used to capture the spatial configuration between adjacent links. The forward kinematics method was used to formulate the kinematics equations by attaching Cartesian coordinates to the schematic shovel diagram. Based on the kinematics model, a 3D virtual prototype of the hydraulic shovel was built in the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) environment to simulate the motions of the hydraulic shovel with selected time steps. The simulator was validated using real-world data with animation and numerical analysis of the digging, swinging and dumping motions of the shovel machinery. The superimposed display of the deployment of the hydraulic shovel in three phases allows a detailed motion examination of the system. The numerical results of linear and angular displacements of the bucket tip and bucket door can be used to analyse the kinematics motion of the hydraulic shovel for its optimization. This simulator provides a solid foundation for further dynamics modelling and dynamic hydraulic shovel performance studies.

  7. Time-space coordination of mining operations for protection of the surface. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranz, B

    1975-01-01

    In Polish mines, more than 41 percent of coal resources beneath built-up areas can be extracted. In 1973 an analysis of the mining and geological conditions was conducted in one of the mines, principally from the point of view of suitably coordinated mining advance with caving. Various possible systems of extraction were analyzed for three time periods up to 1985. A detailed inventory was prepared of surface structures in the whole concession area, particular attention being paid to industrial and social or communal areas. Preliminary and final predictions were made of deformation indices for various time periods, including predicted subsidences, and dynamic and static horizontal strains. The optimum variant was chosen, and capital expenditure and economic effects were taken into account. Solutions worked out for various sectors of the overall problem were presented to the mine management in the form of programmes for advancing the mining face in individual panels and seams so as to obtain maximum possible production with roof caving, under protected buildings.

  8. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL...

  9. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS FOR SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF MINING § 785.11... following standards apply to applications for and issuance of permits: (1) In lieu of the requirements of 30... 3, 1977, is amended with respect to environmental protection performance standards, the Secretary...

  10. Applications of Geomatics in Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachowski, Jan; Górniak-Zimroz, Justyna; Milczarek, Wojciech; Pactwa, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    In terms of method of extracting mineral from deposit, mining can be classified into: surface, underground, and borehole mining. Surface mining is a form of mining, in which the soil and the rock covering the mineral deposits are removed. Types of surface mining include mainly strip and open-cast methods, as well as quarrying. Tasks associated with surface mining of minerals include: resource estimation and deposit documentation, mine planning and deposit access, mine plant development, extraction of minerals from deposits, mineral and waste processing, reclamation and reclamation of former mining grounds. At each stage of mining, geodata describing changes occurring in space during the entire life cycle of surface mining project should be taken into consideration, i.e. collected, analysed, processed, examined, distributed. These data result from direct (e.g. geodetic) and indirect (i.e. remote or relative) measurements and observations including airborne and satellite methods, geotechnical, geological and hydrogeological data, and data from other types of sensors, e.g. located on mining equipment and infrastructure, mine plans and maps. Management of such vast sources and sets of geodata, as well as information resulting from processing, integrated analysis and examining such data can be facilitated with geomatic solutions. Geomatics is a discipline of gathering, processing, interpreting, storing and delivering spatially referenced information. Thus, geomatics integrates methods and technologies used for collecting, management, processing, visualizing and distributing spatial data. In other words, its meaning covers practically every method and tool from spatial data acquisition to distribution. In this work examples of application of geomatic solutions in surface mining on representative case studies in various stages of mine operation have been presented. These applications include: prospecting and documenting mineral deposits, assessment of land accessibility

  11. Discussion of Minos Mine operating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, B.

    1991-10-01

    The MINOS (mine operating system), which is used in the majority of British collieries, provides central control at the surface for the machinery and environmental equipment distributed throughout the mine. Installed equipment, including face machinery, conveyors, pumps, fans and sensors are connected to local outstations which all communicate with the control system via a single run of signal cable. The article discusses the system particularly its use in the Automated Control System of Underground Mining Locomotives (ACSUML). The discussion includes the use of MINOS to improve wagon identification, the operating principle of ACSUML and the possibilities of a driverless locomotive. 2 figs.

  12. Protection and restoration of soil in mining operations which disrupt the surface of the earth, with the open pit method of working minerals (problems, obtained data and recommendations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelak, M.

    1981-01-01

    A critical analysis is made of the current state and the ways to solve the problem of protection and restoration of the sections of the earth's surface and sources of drinking water which can be disrupted with the open pit method of working minerals. The need is advanced for creating a system of coordination and planning of the activity of all the organizations associated with working minerals, restoration operations and inspection of them. The order of preparation for recultivation during mining operations (in particular, storage of the fertile ground) and conducting them after the end of mining are described.

  13. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  14. Surface Mines, Other - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  15. Considerations for modeling small-particulate impacts from surface coal-mining operations based on wind-tunnel simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, S.G.; Petersen, W.B. [Air Resources Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Thompson, R.S. [Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 provide for a reexamination of the current Environmental Protection Agency`s (USEPA) methods for modeling fugitive particulate (PM10) from open-pit, surface coal mines. The Industrial Source Complex Model (ISCST2) is specifically named as the method that needs further study. Title II, Part B, Section 234 of the Amendments states that {open_quotes}...the Administrator shall analyze the accuracy of such model and emission factors and make revisions as may be necessary to eliminate any significant over-predictions of air quality effect of fugitive particulate emissions from such sources.{close_quotes}

  16. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  17. Operational and geotechnical constraints to coal mining in Alaska's interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corser, P; Usibelli, M

    1989-01-01

    Surface mining of coal from the Poker Flats mining area to the north of Healy, Alaska began in 1978. Current operations involve a 25 m/sup 3/ walking dragline which strips two coal seams, using an extended bench on the second pass; a fleet of trucks and shovels are used for coal removal and some limited overburden stripping. Geotechnical constraints to mining within the steeply dipping coal deposits are discussed. The area had a number of landslides. During 1984, mining operations close to a landslide caused movement to resume. A mine plan was developed which allowed the coal to be safely removed without inducing additional movement. This involves a dipline mining scheme through the slide area. Future mine plans will acknowledge the hazards of mining through potentially unstable zones. Aerial photographs, field mapping and geological exploration were used. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  18. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U 3 O 8 per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U 3 O 8 per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author)

  19. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and

  20. Mining-induced surface damage and the study of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jixian

    1994-01-01

    Coal constitutes China's major energy resource. The majority of the coal is produced from underground mining operations. Surface subsidence may amount to 80% of the thickness of the seam mined, while the subsided volume is around 60% of the mined volume underground. An area of 20 hectares of land will be affected with each 1 million tons of coal mined, thereby causing severe surface damage. Following a description of the characteristics of surface damages due to underground mining disturbance, this paper elaborates on the damage prediction method, standards applied for evaluating the damages experienced by surface buildings, land reclamation methods in subsided area, measures for reinforcing and protecting buildings in mining-affected areas, and performance of antideformation buildings

  1. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweigard, R.J. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA). Dept. of Mining Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig.

  2. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweigard, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig

  3. Investigation of human body vibration exposures on haul trucks operating at U.S. surface mines/quarries relative to haul truck activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayton, Alan G.; Porter, William L.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Weston, Eric B.; Rubenstein, Elaine N.

    2018-01-01

    Workers who operate mine haul trucks are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) on a routine basis. Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Pittsburgh Mining Research Division (PMRD) investigated WBV and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposures for mine/quarry haul truck drivers in relation to the haul truck activities of dumping, loading, and traveling with and without a load. The findings show that WBV measures in weighted root-mean-square accelerations (aw) and vibration dose value (VDV), when compared to the ISO/ANSI and European Directive 2002/44/EC standards, were mostly below the Exposure Action Value (EAV) identified by the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ). Nevertheless, instances were recorded where the Exposure Limit Value (ELV) was exceeded by more than 500 to 600 percent for VDVx and awx, respectively. Researchers determined that these excessive levels occurred during the traveling empty activity, when the haul truck descended down grade into the pit loading area, sliding at times, on a wet and slippery road surface caused by rain and overwatering. WBV levels (not normalized to an 8-h shift) for the four haul truck activities showed mean awz levels for five of the seven drivers exceeding the ISO/ANSI EAV by 9–53 percent for the traveling empty activity. Mean awx and awz levels were generally higher for traveling empty and traveling loaded and lower for loading/dumping activities. HAV for measures taken on the steering wheel and shifter were all below the HGCZ which indicates that HAV is not an issue for these drivers/operators when handling steering and shifting control devices. PMID:29725145

  4. Determination of Seismic Safety Zones during the Surface Mining Operation Development in the Case of the “Buvač” Open Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Malbasic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the blasting safety area is a very important step in the process of drilling and blasting works, and the preparation of solid rock materials for loading. Through monitoring and analysis of the negative seismic effects to the objects and infrastructures around and at the mine area, we were able to adapt the drilling and blasting parameters and organization of drilling and blasting operation according to the mining progress so that the affected infrastructures could be protected. This paper analyses the safety distances and model safety zones of drilling and blasting for the period 2013–2018 at the open pit at “Buvač”, Omarska. This mathematical calculation procedure can be used during the whole life of the mine. By monitoring of the blasting seismic influence in first years of the mine's work, as well as by using recorded vibration velocities, mathematical dependence of the important parameters can be defined. Additionally, the level and laws of distribution and intensity of the seismic activity can be defined. On one hand, those are known quantities of the explosive and the distances between blasting location and endangered objects. On the other hand, those are coefficients of the manner of blasting and the environment where blasting is done, K, as well as the coefficient of the weakening of seismic waves as they spread, n. With the usage of the allowed vibration velocities, based on certain safety criteria and mathematical formulas of laws of spreading and intensity of seismic influence for a concrete case, it is possible to calculate explosive quantities and distances, with numerically-defined values of parameter K and n. Minimum distances are calculated based on defined or projected explosive quantities. Additionally, we calculate the maximum allowed explosive quantities based on known distances which can be used based on projected drilling-blasting parameters. For the purpose of the planning of drilling and blasting

  5. Reclamation of slopes left after surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmitko, J [Banske Projekty, Teplice (Czech Republic)

    1993-03-01

    Discusses land reclamation of abandoned slopes from brown coal surface mining in the North Bohemian brown coal basin in the Czech Republic. Problems associated with reclamation of landslide areas in two former coal mines are evaluated: the Otokar mine in Kostany (mining from 1956 to 1966) and the CSM mine in Pozorka (mining from 1955 to 1967). Land reclamation was introduced 25 years after damage occurred. The following aspects are analyzed: hydrogeologic conditions, range of landslides, types of rocks in landslide areas, water conditions, methods for stabilizing slopes, safety aspects.

  6. Construction and modernization of underground and surface mines. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burshtein, N M

    1983-12-01

    Development of the Sredazugol' association in Soviet Central Asia from 1976 to 1985 is discussed. From 1976 to 1980 investment in the association amounted to 151 million rubles, 87.5 million of which fell on construction. Major development projects of the 1976-1980 period are reviewed: construction of new mining levels in underground coal mines, development of a number of operating surface mines, modernization of earthmoving and mining equipment, development of mine haulage by locomotives and railroad cars, improving occupational safety in coal mining, increasing slope stability in surface mining, especially in the area of the Atchinsk landslide in the Angren mine. From 1981 to 1985 investment in the Sredazugol' association should amount to 202 million rubles, of which 126 million rubles will be spent on construction. Investment will be 35% higher than in the 1976-1980 period and investment in mine construction 43% higher. The largest development project will be modernization of the Angren surface mine and increasing its targeted coal output from 5.2 Mt/y to 10.3 Mt/y by 1990. Modernization and reconstruction of the Angren mine will be carried out in 2 stages. Coal output of the mine will increase by 1.2 Mt/y in the current 5 year plan (by 1985), and by 3.9 Mt/y in the next 5 year period. Reconstruction and development of the Angren mine will cost approximately 254 million rubles. Mining and earthmoving equipment which will be used in the Angren mine is reviewed: EhRGV-630 bucket wheel excavators, EhSh-10/70 and EhSh-13/50 walking draglines, etc.

  7. International overview of ISL uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, P.; Slezak, J.; Pool, T.; Beneš, V.; Gorbatenko, O.; Jones, B.; Märten, H.; Solodov, I.

    2014-01-01

    In situ leach (ISL; also called in situ leaching or in situ recovery, ISR) mining has become one of the standard uranium production methods, following early experimentation and production in the 1960s. Its application to amenable uranium deposits (in certain sedimentary formations) has been growing in view of its competitive production costs and low surface impacts. In 1997 the ISL share in total uranium production was 13%; by 2009 it had grown to over 30%, reaching 46% in 2011. In the past, ISL technology was applied mainly in Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Bulgaria and the United States of America (USA). Recently it has been used in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, the USA, Australia, China and the Russian Federation, with small operations or experiments elsewhere. ISL mining is gaining widespread acceptance. The IAEA is preparing an overview document to show how ISL experience around the world can be used to direct the development of technical activities, taking into account environmental considerations and an emphasis on the economics of the process, including responsible mine closure. With this document Member States and interested parties will have more information to design and efficiently and safely regulate current and future projects, with a view to maximize economic performance and minimize negative environmental impact. Highlights of the report’s findings will be provided here with a summary of the IAEA’s involvement in ISL over recent decades. Many reference links are provided to allow access to voluminous additional information. (author)

  8. Determination of Seismic Safety Zones during the Surface Mining Operation Development in the Case of the “Buvač” Open Pit

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Malbasic; Lazar Stojanovic

    2018-01-01

    Determination of the blasting safety area is a very important step in the process of drilling and blasting works, and the preparation of solid rock materials for loading. Through monitoring and analysis of the negative seismic effects to the objects and infrastructures around and at the mine area, we were able to adapt the drilling and blasting parameters and organization of drilling and blasting operation according to the mining progress so that the affected infrastructures could be protecte...

  9. Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Chakraborty, K.

    1994-01-01

    Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

  10. 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains research results presented at the 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining, ISCSM Aachen 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers in the lignite mining industry and practitioners in this field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  11. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  12. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated, except as otherwise approved in the ventilation plan, or when...

  13. Optimization of shovel-truck system for surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercelebi, S.G.; Bascetin, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-15

    In surface mining operations, truck haulage is the largest item in the operating costs, constituting 50 to 60% of the total. In order to reduce this cost, it is necessary to allocate and dispatch the trucks efficiently. This paper describes shovel and truck operation models and optimization approaches for the allocation and dispatching of trucks under various operating conditions. Closed queuing network theory is employed for the allocation of trucks and linear programming for the purpose of truck dispatching to shovels. A case study was applied for the Orhaneli open Pit Coal Mine in Turkey. This approach would provide the capability of estimating system performance measures (mine throughput, mean number of trucks, mean waiting time, etc.) for planning purposes when the truck fleet is composed of identical trucks. A computational study is presented to show how choosing the optimum number of trucks and optimum dispatching policy affect the cost of moving material in a truck-shovel system.

  14. Designing vertical mine shafts under conditions of increasing shaft depth with rock hoisting to the operating mining level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-05-01

    A system for shaft excavation in deep coal mines with mining depth exceeding 1,000 m is discussed. During mine sinking rocks are removed to the ground surface. When depth of a deep mine shaft is increased rocks are removed to the operating mining level, causing lower investment costs than the system with rock hoisting to the ground surface. The Yuzhgiproshakht design firm carries out investigations on the optimum methods for increasing shaft depth in coal mines. Coal mines with the following coal output are included in evaluations: 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 Mt/year. Mine shaft depth of 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m is analyzed. Shaft depth is increased by 100, 200, 300 or 400 m. Shaft sinking rate ranges from 10 to 70 m/month. Effects of rock hoisting from the shaft bottom on the hoisting scheme in a mine shaft are analyzed. Position of hoisting bucket in relation to cages or skips moving in a shaft is investigated. Investigation results are given in 5 schemes. Analyses show that use of a shaft sinking system with rock hoisting to the ground surface during shaft excavation and with rock hoisting to the operating mining level during shaft depth increasing is economical when a shaft with skips is from 7 to 8 m in diameter or when a cage shaft is 6 m, 7 m or 8 m in diameter. Use of standardized shaft excavation systems is recommended. (In Russian)

  15. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  16. Gas migration from closed coal mines to the surface. Risk assessment methodology and prevention means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokryszka, Z.; Tauziede, Ch.; Lagny, C.; Guise, Y.; Gobillot, R.; Planchenault, J.M.; Lagarde, R.

    2005-01-01

    French law as regards renunciation to mining concessions calls for the mining operator to first undertake analyses of the risks represented by their underground mining works. The problem of gas migration to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate to the earth's surface, then present significant risks: explosion, suffocation or gas poisoning risks. As part of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national mining operator Charbonnages de France, a general methodology for assessing the risk linked to gas in the context of closed coal mines. This article presents the principles of this methodology. An application example based on a true case study is then described. This is completed by a presentation of the preventive and monitoring resources recommended and usually applied in order to manage the risk linked to gaseous emissions. (authors)

  17. Impact of ICRP-60 on the operation of underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Hussein, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Reduction of occupational exposure from: 50 mSv to 20 mSv per annum for uranium miners faces difficulties. For miners this affects the gamma radiation dose and ALI's except radon gas and its short lived daughters of Uranium and Thorium whereas the ICRP planned to review radon daughters exposure limits. New dose limits introduce other mines, e.g. phosphate mines, to be considered as occupational areas. Reclassification of radiation workers has to be done; control, licensing, cost, Gamma dose rate is influenced by the grade and type of ore body and the mining method. The primary mode of radionuclide intake in the mine environment is inhalation, however, ventilation is the principal control of airborne dust. The current average radon daughters dose rate in several underground mines among those are phosphate mines in Egypt is well above 20 mSv/a. Recorded values of Egyptian phosphate mines are more than 1 WL of radon daughters (1WL = 62 uSv/h) considering 2000 h/y, therefore, the annual dose = 124 mSv/a. Mining method dictated by location, size and shape of ore body, hydrology. Priority is given for conventional safety of work place, e.g. rock collapse as well as care of economics of the process and mine development. It is well defined that the control of gamma radiation dose is very much dependent upon the geometry of ore body. Shielding of ore trucks could not be justified (fuel consumption and its pollution). Bulk ore handling method may reduce gamma doses but it generates dust which may increase inhalation doses of long lived alpha emitters. Ventilation is the principal method to control inhalation hazards of dust and radon daughters, but high rates of ventilation has reverse effects of generating more dust and drying wet surfaces of ores. Accordingly, reduction in radon daughters exposure will result in high cost of production. In Egypt radon and thoron (risk/problems) are previously monitored in phosphate mines (upper Egypt). Values greater than 1 WL were

  18. Control of groundwater in surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, C. O.

    1982-03-01

    The presence of groundwater in surface mining operations often creates serious problems. The most important is generally a reduction in stability of the pit slopes. This is caused by pore water pressures and hydrodynamic shock due to blasting which reduce the shear strength and seepage pressures, water in tension cracks and increased unit weight which increase the shear stress. Groundwater and seepage also increase the cost of pit drainage, shipping, drilling and blasting, tyre wear and equipment maintenance. Surface erosion may also be increased and, in northern climates, ice flows on the slopes may occur. Procedures have been developed in the field of soil mechanics and engineering of dams to obtain quantitative data on pore water pressures and rock permeability, to evaluate the influence of pore water and seepage pressures on stability and to estimate the magnitude of ground-water flow. Based on field investigations, a design can be prepared for the control of groundwater in the slope and in the pit. Methods of control include the use of horizontal drains, blasted toe drains, construction of adits or drainage tunnels and pumping from wells in or outside of the pit. Recent research indicates that subsurface drainage can be augmented by applying a vacuum or by selective blasting. Instrumentation should be installed to monitor the groundwater changes created by drainage. Typical case histories are described that indicate the approach used to evaluate groundwater conditions.

  19. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2005-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted in the first year of the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of ''software machine kinematics'' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A Bobcat{reg_sign} 435 excavator was retrofitted with electro-hydraulic control valve elements. The modular electronic control was tested and the basic valve characteristics were measured for each valve at the Robotics Laboratory at UNR. Position sensors were added to the individual joint control actuators, and the sensors were calibrated. An electronic central control system consisting of a portable computer, converters and electronic driver components was interfaced to the electro-hydraulic valves and position sensors. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's ''Lone Tree'' mine in Nevada.

  20. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  1. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  2. A feasibility analysis of the employment of satellite imagery to monitor and inspect surface mining operations in western Kentucky, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, B. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Surface mining violation estimates were scaled by scores assigned by ten inspectors from western Kentucky to each violation. A sensitivity analysis was made by varying the violation costs; costs were varied by using three different average durations. These durations were: (1) best estimated duration; (2) longest possible duration as restricted by the one year permit renewal and bond release regulations, and (3) shortest possible duration when inspections were made. If a social cost cannot be reduced, then the value of the social cost is irrelevant. Indications from the increased inspection rate of 1975 were that the total amount of fines collected per year remains constant independent of the increased detection rate.

  3. Underground black-coal mining and its impact on the land surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollmann, H.J.; Wilke, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    This book wants to describe the special requirements and consequences resulting from natural conditions at the deposit as well as from decisions and processes of mining operations. On this basis it should be possible to assess the degree to which the impact of mining on defined areas of the land surface can be influenced with reasonable effort. Furthermore, the consequences from conditions governing mining activities for the planning and realization of mining operations and their impact and the granting of permissions and approvals on the part of the mining authorities are discussed. (HS) [de

  4. Process for integrating surface drainage constraints on mine planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawatsky, L.F; Ade, F.L.; McDonald, D.M.; Pullman, B.J. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Surface drainage for mine closures must be considered during all phases of mine planning and design in order to minimize environmental impacts and reduce costs. This paper discussed methods of integrating mine drainage criteria and associated mine planning constraints into the mine planning process. Drainage constraints included stream diversions; fish compensation channels; collection receptacles for the re-use of process water; separation of closed circuit water from fresh water; and the provision of storage ponds. The geomorphic approach replicated the ability of natural channels to respond to local and regional changes in hydrology as well as channel disturbances from extreme flood events, sedimentation, debris, ice jams, and beaver activity. The approach was designed to enable a sustainable system and provide conveyance capacity for extreme floods without spillage to adjacent watersheds. Channel dimensions, bank and bed materials, sediment loads, bed material supplies and the hydrologic conditions of the analogue stream were considered. Hydrologic analyses were conducted to determine design flood flow. Channel routes, valley slopes, sinuosity, width, and depth were established. It was concluded that by incorporating the geomorphic technique, mine operators and designers can construct self-sustaining drainage systems that require little or no maintenance in the long-term. 7 refs.

  5. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  6. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  7. Introduction of an automated mine surveying system - a method for effective control of mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhdrakov, M.

    1987-04-01

    Reviews developments in automated processing of mine survey data in Bulgaria for 1965-1970. This development has occurred in three phases. In the first phase, computers calculated coordinates of mine survey points; in the second phase, these data were electronically processed; in the third phase, surface and underground mine development is controlled by electronic data processing equipment. Centralized and decentralized electronic processing of data has been introduced at major coal mines. The Bulgarian Pravets 82 microcomputer and the ASMO-MINI program package are in current use at major coal mines. A lack of plotters, due to financial limitations, handicaps large-scale application of automated mine surveying in Bulgaria.

  8. Waste water treatment in surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navasardyants, M A; Esipov, V Z; Ryzhkov, Yu A

    1981-01-01

    This paper evaluates problems associated with waste water from coal surface mines of the Kemerovougol' association in the Kuzbass. Waste water treatment in the Kuzbass is of major importance as the region is supplied with water from only one river, the Tom river. Water influx to Kemerovougol' surface mines in a year amounts to 136 million m/sup 3/. The water is used during technological processes, for fire fighting, and spraying to prevent dusting; the rest, about 82.1 million m/sup 3/, is discharged into surface waters. Of this amount, 25.1 million m/sup 3/ is heavily polluted water, 46.6 million m3 are polluted but within limits, and 10.4 million m/sup 3/ are characterized as relatively clean. Waste water is polluted with: suspended matters, oils and oil products, nitrates, nitrides and chlorides. Suspended matter content sometimes reaches 4,000 and 5,000 mg/l, and oil product content in water amounts to 2.17 mg/l. Water treatment in surface mines is two-staged: sumps and sedimentation tanks are used. Water with suspended matter content of 50 to 100 mg/l in winter and summer, and 200 to 250 mg/l in spring and autumn is reduced in sumps to 25 to 30 mg/l in summer and winter and to 40 to 50 mg/l in autumn and spring. During the first stage water treatment efficiency ranges from 50 to 80%. During the second stage water is collected in sedimentation tanks. It is noted that so-called secondary pollution is one of the causes of the relatively high level of suspended matter in discharged water. Water discharged from sedimentation tanks carries clay and loam particles from the bottom and walls of water tanks and channels.

  9. Mining Pribram in science and technology. Proceedings of Session R - Mechanization of mine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, J.; Bernatik, O.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings contain 30 papers of which two deal with uranium mine problems, viz.: ''Current and prospective orientation of mechanized driving of mines and underground infrastructures'' and ''The operation of rail-less mine mechanization in the Hamr area''. (J.B.)

  10. Atlas of western surface-mined lands: coal, uranium, and phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.K.; Uhleman, E.W.; Eby, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The atlas contains available information on all coal, uranium, and phosphate surface mines in excess of 10 acres that were in operation prior to 1976 in the western 11 contiguous states plus North Dakota and South Dakota. It is assembled in a format that allows a systematic and comprehensive review of surface-mined lands so that appropriate areas can be selected for intensive biological assessment of natural and man-induced revegetation and refaunation. For each identified mine, the following information has been obtained wherever possible: geographic location and locating instructions, operator and surface and subsurface ownership, summary of the mining plan and methods, summary of the reclamation plan and methods, dates of operation, area affected by mining activities, reclamation history, where applicable, and current land use and vegetation conditions

  11. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3A. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: South Boulder Creek Park Project, Sand and Gravel Operations, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L R; Perry, A O; LaFevers, J R

    1977-02-01

    This case study details reclamation planning for the Flatiron Companies' South Boulder Creek Park Project in Boulder, Colorado. The site contains a deposit of high-quality sand and gravel considered to be one of the best and largest known deposits of aggregate materials in the Front Range area. The aggregate deposit is located in a highly visible site just off the Denver-Boulder Turnpike at the entrance to the city from Denver, and adjacent to a residential portion of the city. In order to make maximum use of pre-mining planning, as a tool for resolving a conflict over the company's proposed operation, an extensive cooperative planning effort was initiated. This included the preparation of an environmental impact assessment, numerous public hearings, operating and reclamation plan review by city authorities, annexation of the site to the city, and the granting of a scenic easement on the property to the city for the development of a regional recreation park. A suite of contractual agreements was worked out among Flatiron Companies, the City of Boulder, the Colorado Open Lands Foundation, and the Federal Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The purpose of this case study is to allow the planner to gain insight into the procedures, possibilities, and constraints involved in premining planning in a cooperative situation.

  12. Surface mining machines problems of maintenance and modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Rusiński, Eugeniusz; Moczko, Przemysław; Pietrusiak, Damian

    2017-01-01

    This unique volume imparts practical information on the operation, maintenance, and modernization of heavy performance machines such as lignite mine machines, bucket wheel excavators, and spreaders. Problems of large scale machines (mega machines) are highly specific and not well recognized in the common mechanical engineering environment. Prof. Rusiński and his co-authors identify solutions that increase the durability of these machines as well as discuss methods of failure analysis and technical condition assessment procedures. "Surface Mining Machines: Problems in Maintenance and Modernization" stands as a much-needed guidebook for engineers facing the particular challenges of heavy performance machines and offers a distinct and interesting demonstration of scale-up issues for researchers and scientists from across the fields of machine design and mechanical engineering.

  13. Electric shovels meet the demands for mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    Rugged, intelligent shovels offer better productivity and help mine operators avoid costly downtime in a very tight market. In 2007 P & H Mining Equipment began to produce a new breed of electric mining shovels designed to help reduce operating cost in coal and other mining operations. These were designated the P & H C-Series. All have an advanced communication, command and control system called the Centurion system. Coal mining applications for this series include 4100XPCs in Australia, China and Wyoming, USA. The Centurion system provides information on shovel performance and systems health which is communicated via graphic user interface terminals to the operators cab. Bucyrus International is developing a hydraulic crowd mechanism for its electric shovels and is now field testing one for its 495 series shovel. The company has also added greater capability in the primary software in the drive system for troubleshooting and fault identification to quickly diagnose problems onboard or remotely. 4 photos.

  14. Reforesting unused surface mined lands by replanting with native trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick N. Angel; James A. Burger; Carl E. Zipper; Scott Eggerud

    2012-01-01

    More than 600,000 ha (1.5 million ac) of mostly forested land in the Appalachian region were surface mined for coal under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Today, these lands are largely unmanaged and covered with persistent herbaceous species, such as fescue (Festuca spp.) and sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata [Dum. Cours.] G. Don,) and a mix of...

  15. Residence time of contaminants released in surface coal mines -- a wind-tunnel study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Surface coal mining operations (blasting, shoveling, loading, trucking, etc.) are sources of airborne particles. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct the EPA to analyze the accuracy of the Industrial Source Complex model and the AP-42 emission factors, and to make revisions as may be necessary to eliminate any significant over-prediction of air concentration of fugitive particles from surface coal mines. A wind-tunnel study was performed at the US EPA`s Fluid Modeling Facility to investigate dispersion from surface coal mines in support of the dispersion modeling activities. Described here is the portion of the study directed at determining the residence time that material released near the floor of a mine will stay within the mine.

  16. Sand and gravel mine operations and reclamation planning using microcomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariffin, J.B.

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to focus on the application of microcomputers, also known as personal computers, in planning for sand and gravel mine operations and reclamation at a site in Story County, Iowa. This site, called the Arrasmith Pit, is operated by Martin Marietta Aggregates, Inc. The Arrasmith site, which encompasses an area of about 25 acres, is a relatively small site for aggregate mining. However, planning for the concurrent mine operation and reclamation program at this site is just as critical as with larger sites and the planning process is the same.

  17. Challenges in radon management at uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulka, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Radon and its radioactive decay products are present some unique challenges to radiation protection professionals working at the uranium mining operations. This paper will detail some examples of these challenges and methods that can be employed to ensure doses to workers and members of the public are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Examples will be presented for conventional open pit and underground mining and In Situ recovery operations. One of the challenges facing new operations seeking approval is the demonstration that radon and its radioactive decay products sourced from the operations will not adversely impact local populations, Methodologies recently employed in the most recent environmental impact statements from uranium mining companies seeking approval are reviewed. The International Commission of Radiological Protection are currently reviewing the dose conversion factors used radon and its decay products. The challenges this change will present to uranium mining operators are presented.

  18. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  19. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota, E-mail: dburchart@gig.eu; Fugiel, Agata, E-mail: afugiel@gig.eu; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna, E-mail: kczaplicka@gig.eu; Turek, Marian, E-mail: mturek@gig.eu

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  20. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  1. Evaluation and Adaptation of Mine-Hunting Operations with AUVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, R. van; Giodini, S.; Hunter, A.J.; Beckers, A.L.D.; Williams, D.F.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of mine-hunting operations with autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are greatly influenced by environmental conditions, such as seabed, turbidity, currents, and tides. Therefore accurate environmental information is needed for the planning and evaluation of

  2. Data mining of air traffic control operational errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of : applying data mining techniques to identify patterns and : anomalies in air traffic control operational errors (OEs). : Reducing the OE rate is of high importance and remains a : challenge in the aviation saf...

  3. Experiments at the Soudan mine: operating and proposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    We report on the initial operation of a 30 ton dense calorimeter and on the proposed construction of a 1000 ton calorimeter at the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota - both optimized for the detection of proton decay

  4. On 3D Geo-visualization of a Mine Surface Plant and Mine Roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia; FU Yongming; FU Erjiang

    2007-01-01

    Constructing the 3D virtual scene of a coal mine is the objective requirement for modernizing and processing information on coal mining production. It is also the key technology to establish a "digital mine". By exploring current worldwide research, software and hardware tools and application demands, combined with the case study site (the Dazhuang mine of Pingdingshan coal group), an approach for 3D geo-visualization of a mine surface plant and mine roadway is deeply discussed. In this study, the rapid modeling method for a large range virtual scene based on Arc/Info and SiteBuilder3D is studied, and automatic generation of a 3D scene from a 2D scene is realized. Such an automatic method which can convert mine roadway systems from 2D to 3D is realized for the Dazhuang mine. Some relevant application questions are studied, including attribute query, coordinate query, distance measure, collision detection and the dynamic interaction between 2D and 3D virtual scenes in the virtual scene of a mine surface plant and mine roadway. A prototype system is designed and developed.

  5. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  6. Bomb Strike Experiment for Mine Clearance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    avenue of trade is responsible for 25 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ), up from 11 percent in 1970, and experts agree that this figure...of Recent Changes and Developments. Defense Scientific Establishment, Auckland , New Zealand, Report 149. Johnson, S., Damn The Mines --- Full Speed

  7. Potential utility of the thematic mapper for surface mine monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, J.R.; Lachowski, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    One of many potential applications of the thematic mapper (TM) is surface mine monitoring. To assess this potential, data acquired by an aircraft multispectral scanner over Pennsylvania surface mines were preprocessed to simulate the anticipated spectral, spatial, and radiometric characteristics of TM data. False color imagery and thematic maps were derived from the simulated data and compared to imagery and maps derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner subsystems data. On the basis of this comparison, TM data should definitely increase the detail and accuracy of remotely acquired surface mine information and may enable the remote determination of compliance with reclamation regulations

  8. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 2. The status of state surface mining regulations as of January 1980 and the fish and wildlife information needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This is part 2 of a three part series to assist government agencies and private citizens in determining fish and wildlife information needs for new coal mining operations pursuant to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This portion documents the status of individual state surface mining regulations as of January 1980 in those states having significant strippable reserves and/or active strip mining operations. It also provides documentation of fish and wildlife information needs identified in the state regulations of compliance to PL 95-87.

  9. A Data Mining Approach to Intelligence Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah; Hicks, David; Harkiolakis, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    agencies.   An emphasis in the paper is placed on Social Network Analysis and Investigative Data Mining, and the use of these technologies in the counterterrorism domain.  Tools and techniques from both areas are described, along with the important tasks for which they can be used to assist...... with the investigation and analysis of terrorist organizations.  The process of collecting data about these organizations is also considered along with the inherent difficulties that are involved....

  10. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Operational radiation protection in UK mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    The radiological conditions of the mining industry (coal-national, coal-private, non-coal) in the UK are described. From the point of view of radiological protection, non-coal miners have the highest occupational exposure of any group in the UK in relation to a recommended limit. From the point of view of general health and safety in non-coal mining, however, the situation does not look no serious. This is illustrated as follows. The US epidemiological study of uranium miners yields, on extrapolation, a risk estimate of some 0.3 deaths annually from lung cancer per 1000 miners exposed to 100 WLM. On the other hand, accident statistics for non-coal mines in the UK yield an estimate of two deaths annually per 1000 miners. Further perspective is given to the problem by the incidence of lung cancer among adult males within the UK, that is, 1.5 cases annually per 1000 persons. Narrow concern for the radiological safety of miners must therefore be tempered with broader concern for the other hazards they face

  12. Approach to operational mine planning: Case study Tamnava West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Dejan R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary mining industry is very difficult to achieve production targets and profit without investing effort in detailed excavation planning. It is especially true for deposits with complex geological structure and production technology, as is the case for many coal mines in Serbia. The majority of coal production is used for generation of electricity in power plant. This fact is the main reason why production objectives of coal mine and power plant are strongly connected. Due to the fluctuation of the coal quality, operational mine planning (as a part of coal homogenization process, is of critical importance for managing successful coal quality control and meeting criteria of power plant. This paper investigates advantage of proper operational planning on coal quality control process and overall production performance. For better understanding case study is conducted on open pit Tamnava West field. Successful operational mine planning is almost impossible without use of modern software packages. For that reason in presented case study operational mine planning is done with Minex software.

  13. Coordinating decentralized optimization of truck and shovel mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, R.; Fraser Forbes, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; San Yip, W. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Canada's oil sands contain the largest known reserve of oil in the world. Oil sands mining uses 3 functional processes, ore hauling, overburden removal and mechanical maintenance. The industry relies mainly on truck-and-shovel technology in its open-pit mining operations which contributes greatly to the overall mining operation cost. Coordination between operating units is crucial for achieving an enterprise-wide optimal operation level. Some of the challenges facing the industry include multiple or conflicting objectives such as minimizing the use of raw materials and energy while maximizing production. The large sets of constraints that define the feasible domain pose as challenge, as does the uncertainty in system parameters. One solution lies in assigning truck resources to various activities. This fully decentralized approach would treat the optimization of ore production, waste removal and equipment maintenance independently. It was emphasized that mine-wide optimal operation can only be achieved by coordinating ore hauling and overburden removal processes. For that reason, this presentation proposed a coordination approach for a decentralized optimization system. The approach is based on the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and auction-based methods that have been previously used to decompose large-scale optimization problems. The treatment of discrete variables and coordinator design was described and the method was illustrated with a simple truck and shovel mining simulation study. The approach can be applied to a wide range of applications such as coordinating decentralized optimal control systems and scheduling. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Front End Loader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for front end loader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  15. Track Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for track dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  16. Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  17. Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  18. Grader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for grader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  19. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  20. Shovel Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Larry

    This training outline for shovel operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  1. The Effect of Mining Activity on the Surface in the Safety Shaft Pillar Area of Mayrau Mine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Živor, Roman; Klos, Pavel; Pechoč, Jiří; Brož, Milan

    M-24(340) (2002), s. 227-235 ISSN 0138-015X. [Polish-Czech-Slovakian Symposium on Mining Geophysics /28./. Niedzica, 11.06.2001-13.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3086005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : shaft pillar * mining * surface subsidence Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  2. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic aspects of comprehensive mechanization of mining operations. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemla, F

    1978-02-01

    The development of mining equipment for longwall mining and effects of mechanization of mining operations on labor productivity and output of underground coal mines in Poland from 1950 to 1976 are discussed. Mining equipment used from 1950 to 1960 (cutters, steel or timber supports, chain conveyors, drilling and blasting), from 1960 to 1970 (cutter loaders, chain conveyors and steel supports), from 1970 to 1976 (shearer loaders, chain conveyors and powered or shield supports) is analyzed. Coal output of faces mined by mechanized equipment increased from 9.7% in 1950 to 63.1% in 1969 and to 87.6% of total coal output in 1976. The total coal output of underground coal mines increased from 99.1 Mt in 1959 to 125.0 Mt in 1969 and 179.3 Mt in 1976. Labor productivity per miner increased from 1.561 t/d in 1959 to 2.529 t/d in 1969 and to 3.433 t/d in 1976.

  4. Method of operator safety assessment for underground mobile mining equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Działak, Paulina; Karliński, Jacek; Rusiński, Eugeniusz

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a method of assessing the safety of operators of mobile mining equipment (MME), which is adapted to current and future geological and mining conditions. The authors focused on underground mines, with special consideration of copper mines (KGHM). As extraction reaches into deeper layers of the deposit it can activate natural hazards, which, thus far, have been considered unusual and whose range and intensity are different depending on the field of operation. One of the main hazards that affect work safety and can become the main barrier in the exploitation of deposits at greater depths is climate threat. The authors have analysed the phenomena which may impact the safety of MME operators, with consideration of accidents that have not yet been studied and are not covered by the current safety standards for this group of miners. An attempt was made to develop a method for assessing the safety of MME operators, which takes into account the mentioned natural hazards and which is adapted to current and future environmental conditions in underground mines.

  5. Method of operator safety assessment for underground mobile mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Działak Paulina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of assessing the safety of operators of mobile mining equipment (MME, which is adapted to current and future geological and mining conditions. The authors focused on underground mines, with special consideration of copper mines (KGHM. As extraction reaches into deeper layers of the deposit it can activate natural hazards, which, thus far, have been considered unusual and whose range and intensity are different depending on the field of operation. One of the main hazards that affect work safety and can become the main barrier in the exploitation of deposits at greater depths is climate threat. The authors have analysed the phenomena which may impact the safety of MME operators, with consideration of accidents that have not yet been studied and are not covered by the current safety standards for this group of miners. An attempt was made to develop a method for assessing the safety of MME operators, which takes into account the mentioned natural hazards and which is adapted to current and future environmental conditions in underground mines.

  6. Mined Geologic Disposal System Concept of Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidt, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    A Concept of Operations has been developed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The Concept of Operations has been developed to document a cormion understanding of how the repository is to be operated. It is based on the repository architecture identified in the Initial Summary Report for Repository/Waste Package Advanced Conceptual Design and describes the operation of the repository from the initial receipt of waste through repository closure. Also described are operations for waste retrieval

  7. Perchlorate in Lake Water from an Operating Diamond Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lianna J D; Ptacek, Carol J; Blowes, David W; Groza, Laura G; Moncur, Michael C

    2015-07-07

    Mining-related perchlorate [ClO4(-)] in the receiving environment was investigated at the operating open-pit and underground Diavik diamond mine, Northwest Territories, Canada. Samples were collected over four years and ClO4(-) was measured in various mine waters, the 560 km(2) ultraoligotrophic receiving lake, background lake water and snow distal from the mine. Groundwaters from the underground mine had variable ClO4(-) concentrations, up to 157 μg L(-1), and were typically an order of magnitude higher than concentrations in combined mine waters prior to treatment and discharge to the lake. Snow core samples had a mean ClO4(-) concentration of 0.021 μg L(-1) (n=16). Snow and lake water Cl(-)/ClO4(-) ratios suggest evapoconcentration was not an important process affecting lake ClO4(-) concentrations. The multiyear mean ClO4(-) concentrations in the lake were 0.30 μg L(-1) (n = 114) in open water and 0.24 μg L(-1) (n = 107) under ice, much below the Canadian drinking water guideline of 6 μg L(-1). Receiving lake concentrations of ClO4(-) generally decreased year over year and ClO4(-) was not likely [biogeo]chemically attenuated within the receiving lake. The discharge of treated mine water was shown to contribute mining-related ClO4(-) to the lake and the low concentrations after 12 years of mining were attributed to the large volume of the receiving lake.

  8. Development of a new methodology for mitigating acid mine drainage (AMD) at reclaimed surface mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackman, T.E.; Kim, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    A 1.2 hectare (ha) experimental site located on a 14.5 ha reclaimed surface mine in Greene County, PA was injected with a 141 cubic meters (m 3 ) of fly ash and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash grout that included acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge. An evaluation of this AMD abatement approach by the Bureau of Mines found that the average net acidity and concentrations of several metal ions at the discharge seep and monitoring wells decreased after grouting. Changes in metal concentrations were assumed to be related to alkaline addition and/or encapsulation. Initial results indicate that this technique is potentially an effective AMD abatement method

  9. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land-use planning. Volume 3C. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: Georgia Kaolin Company Clay Mines, Washington County, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guernsey, J L; Brown, L A; Perry, A O

    1978-02-01

    This case study examines the reclamation practices of the Georgia Kaolin's American Industrial Clay Company Division, a kaolin producer centered in Twiggs, Washington, and Wilkinson Counties, Georgia. The State of Georgia accounts for more than one-fourth of the world's kaolin production and about three-fourths of U.S. kaolin output. The mining of kaolin in Georgia illustrates the effects of mining and reclaiming lands disturbed by area surface mining. The disturbed areas are reclaimed under the rules and regulations of the Georgia Surface Mining Act of 1968. The natural conditions influencing the reclamation methodologies and techniques are markedly unique from those of other mining operations. The environmental disturbances and procedures used in reclaiming the kaolin mined lands are reviewed and implications for planners are noted.

  10. AN OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR A COAL MINING PRODUCTION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The coal mining industry faces increased pressure for higher quality coal at lower cost and increased volumes. To satisfy these requirements the industry needs technically skilled first line supervisors with operational management skills. Most first line supervisors possess the necessary technical, but not the required operational management skills. Various operational management philosophies, describing world-class operational management practices exist; however, it is not possible to implement these philosophies as-is in a mining environment due to the various differences between manufacturing and mining. The solution is to provide an operational management model, adapted from these philosophies, to first line supervisors in the coal mining industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die steenkoolmynbedryf ervaar groeiende druk van die mark vir hoër gehalte steenkool, laer koste en verhoogde volumes. Om hierdie behoefte te bevredig benodig die myn tegniesgeskoolde eerstelyntoesighouers met bedryfsbestuursvaardighede. Ongelukkig beskik die meeste toesighouers wel oor die nodige tegniese kennis, maar nie die nodige bedryfsbestuursvaardighede nie. Daar bestaan verskeie bedryfsbestuursfilosofieë wat wêreldklas bedryfsbestuurspraktyke omskryf. Dit is egter nie moontlik om die filisofieë net so in die mynbedryf te implimenteer nie a.g.v. die verskille tussen vervaardiging en mynbou. Die oplossing is om ‘n bedryfsbestuurmodel wat op hierdie filosofieë geskoei is, aan eerstelyntoesighouers in die steenkoolbedryf te verskaf.

  11. Mine alarm stations for mine haulage systems in coal surface mines. Stantsiya pozharnoi signalizatsii dlya gorno-transportnogo oborudovaniya ugol'nykh razrezov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terebilo, N.I.; Bukhanets, B.N.; Rozhkov, V.L.; Martynenko, V.D. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornospasatel' nogo Dela, Donetsk (USSR))

    1988-01-01

    Describes design and operation of the STs fire alarm station developed by the Spetsavtomatika plant in Minsk and successfully tested in the Borodino surface coal mine. The station consists of 14 measuring circuits with the measuring cycle not longer than 4 s. The station detects fires at earthmoving and haulage equipment, cuts off energy supply to fire zones and activates fire extinguishing equipment. The station will be manufactured on a commercial scale. 2 refs.

  12. Utilization of test boreholes in prospecting and mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierak, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Test boreholes are of fundamental importance for mining and prospecting operations. The drilling techniques are suited to the geological conditions and to the nature of the information desired. At Cogema, non-coring test boreholes, mainly drilled by a rotary percussive method, represent over 90% of the footage drilled; they achieve impressive performances at a cost which is by far less than that of coring test boreholes. The geological exploitation of these test boreholes is effected by a combined investigation of well logging and of cuttings. These investigations lead to an assessment for certain substances like uranium or coal or they mark the limits for favourable zones which alone will form the object of coring boreholes. In mining operations, boreholes indicate the definition for workable panels; they ensure at less cost the distribution of fluids, the forwarding of stowing material and the mine ventilation [fr

  13. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 1. Fish and wildlife information needs in the federal surface mining permanent regulations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This is part 1 of three part series to assist government agencies and private citizens in determining fish and wildlife information needs for new coal mining operations pursuant to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Part 2 will document status of individual state surface mining regulations as of January 1980 in those states having significant strippable reserves and/or active strip mining operations. It will also provide documentation of fish and wildlife information needs identified in the state regulations of compliance to PL 95-87. Part 3 will be a discussion of the information needed to develop the Fish and Wildlife Plan identified in the Permanent Regulations. The objective of this three part series is to include consideration of fish and wildlife resources in the surface mining process.

  14. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by Act of Congress. 937.761 Section 937.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  15. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 912.761 Section 912.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  16. The intrinsic roles of regulatory instruments in mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola O. Odeku

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prospecting and exploiting natural mineral resources for economic growth and development could be beneficial if done in sustainable ways and manners. However, if the operation is done in such a way that cause harm to the environment and people, this will amount to unsustainable mining activity and anti-sustainable development. Therefore, there is need to ensure that appropriate and adequate plans and programmes are put in place in order to mitigate, minimise and avoid negative environmental impacts. Against the backdrop of these concerns and the need to ensure that the environment is not degraded and destroyed, South Africa, as part of the countries that promotes sustainable prospecting and mining has put in place and currently implementing tools known as environmental management plan and programme to regulate and control all prospecting and mining activities. These tools contain a bundle of remedial actions in the forms of compensation, rehabilitation and restoration of any harm done to the environment during the course of mining activities. They also contain information on mitigation, ingredients for good practice approach on how to conduct sustainable prospecting and mining. This article looks at the intrinsic roles of these tools and accentuates the importance and operations of their use in the decision making processe

  17. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  18. 30 CFR 937.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 937.784 Section 937.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  19. 30 CFR 903.784 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 903.784 Section 903.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, applies to any person who submits an application...

  20. 30 CFR 910.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 910.784 Section 910.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  1. 30 CFR 947.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 947.784 Section 947.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  2. 30 CFR 942.784 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 942.784 Section 942.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  3. 30 CFR 939.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 939.784 Section 939.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  4. 30 CFR 941.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 941.784 Section 941.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  5. 30 CFR 922.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 922.784 Section 922.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  6. 30 CFR 905.784 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 905.784 Section 905.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  7. 30 CFR 933.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 933.784 Section 933.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  8. 30 CFR 912.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 912.784 Section 912.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  9. 30 CFR 921.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 921.784 Section 921.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  10. Evaluating operational efficiency of drainage holes in the Belchatow coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, A.; Paluch, W.

    1979-03-01

    This paper characterizes drainage holes used for lowering water level in the Belchatow brown coal surface mine in central Poland. Machines and installations used for drilling holes, and filter construction are described. Two types of filters are evaluated, one based an a steel construction, the other an a concrete- asbestos construction. The problem of evaluating operational efficiency of drainage holes is discussed. Yield of the well is presented as the factor characterizing operational efficiency of the hole. Factors influencing yield of the well are described. The proposed analysis of drainage hole efficiency makes it possible to compare efficiency of work of the filters with steel construction and asbestos-concrete construction. Under conditions of the Belchatow mine the asbestos-concrete filters are more efficient than steel filters. All drainage holes at the mine are characterized by declining efficiency. This can be caused prematurely by silting up. (2 refs.) (In Polish)

  11. Integrated system of production information processing for surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Wang, S.; Zeng, Z.; Wei, J.; Ren, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept of Mining Engineering

    2000-09-01

    Based on the concept of geological statistic, mathematical program, condition simulation, system engineering, and the features and duties of each main department in surface mine production, an integrated system for surface mine production information was studied systematically and developed by using the technology of data warehousing, CAD, object-oriented and system integration, which leads to the systematizing and automating of the information management, data processing, optimization computing and plotting. In this paper, its overall object, system design, structure and functions and some key techniques were described. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  12. RASSOR - Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Mueller, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) is a lightweight excavator for mining in reduced gravity. RASSOR addresses the need for a lightweight (robot that is able to overcome excavation reaction forces while operating in reduced gravity environments such as the moon or Mars. A nominal mission would send RASSOR to the moon to operate for five years delivering regolith feedstock to a separate chemical plant, which extracts oxygen from the regolith using H2 reduction methods. RASSOR would make 35 trips of 20 kg loads every 24 hours. With four RASSORs operating at one time, the mission would achieve 10 tonnes of oxygen per year (8 t for rocket propellant and 2 t for life support). Accessing craters in space environments may be extremely hard and harsh due to volatile resources - survival is challenging. New technologies and methods are required. RASSOR is a product of KSC Swamp Works which establishes rapid, innovative and cost effective exploration mission solutions by leveraging partnerships across NASA, industry and academia.

  13. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for... inspections and investigations in coal or other mines shall be made each year for the purposes of, among other...

  14. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Bascompta, Marc; Rossell, Josep M; Anticoi, Hernán Francisco; Guash, Eduard

    2018-03-07

    An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector-either surface or underground mining-based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents.

  15. Chapter 10: Establishing native trees on legacy surface mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Burger; C.E. Zipper; P.N. Angel; N. Hall; J.G. Skousen; C.D. Barton; S. Eggerud

    2017-01-01

    More than 1 million acres have been surface mined for coal in the Appalachian region. Today, much of this land is unmanaged, unproductive, and covered with nonnative plants. Establishing productive forests on such lands will aid restoration of ecosystem services provided by forests—services such as watershed protection, water quality enhancement, carbon storage, and...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress. ...

  17. P-ANFO: new era in surface coal mining; P-ANFO: acik ocak komur isletmeciliginde yeni bir cag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tek, A. [Atlas Ltd., Istanbul (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    ANFO, an effective and inexpensive explosive, is widely used in rock blasting operations. However, for weak strata, ANFO often produces too much shock energy and leads to inefficiencies in the mining operation. Especially in Turkish surface coal mines where ANFO is used with the decking system, it is desirable to develop a low shock energy but a high heave energy ammonium nitrate based explosive. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The influence of the mining operation on the mine seismicity of Vorkuta coal deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmushko, T.; Turuntaev, S. B.; Kulikov, V. I.

    2012-04-01

    The mine seismicity of Vorkuta coal deposit was analyzed. Seismic network consisting of 24 seismic sensors (accelerometers) cover the area of "Komsomolskaya" and "North" mines of Vorkuta deposit. Also there is seismic station of IDG RAS with three-component seismometer near this mines for better defining energy of the seismic events. The catalogs of seismic events contain 9000 and 7000 events with maximum magnitude M=2.3 for "Komsomolskaya" and "North" mines respectively and include the period from 01.09.2008 to 01.09.2011. The b-value of the magnitude-frequency relation was -1.0 and -1.15 respectively for the mines, meanwhile b-value for the nature seismicity was -0,9. It was found, that the number of seismic events per hour during mine combine operation is higher in 2.5 times than the number of seismic events during the break in the operation. Also, the total energy of the events per hour during the operation is higher in 3-5 times than during the break. The study showed, that the number and the energy of the seismic events relate with the hours of mine combine operation. The spatial distribution of the seismic events showed, that 80% of all events and 85% of strong events (M>1.6) were located in and near the longwall under development during the mine combine operations as well asduring the breaks. The isoclines of seismic event numbers proved that the direction of motion of the boundary of seismic events extension coincides with the direction of development, the maximum number of events for any period lies within the wall under operation. The rockburst with M=2.3 occurring at the North mine at July 16, 2011 was considered. The dependences of the energy and of the number of events with different magnitudes on the time showed that the number of events with M=1 and especially M=0.5 before the rockburst decreased, which corresponds to the prognostic seismic quietness, described in the research works. The spatial distribution of the events for the 6 month before the

  19. Development of ergonomics audits for bagging, haul truck and maintenance and repair operations in mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick G; Pollard, Jonisha; Porter, William L; Mayton, Alan; Heberger, John R; Gallagher, Sean; Reardon, Leanna; Drury, Colin G

    2017-12-01

    The development and testing of ergonomics and safety audits for small and bulk bag filling, haul truck and maintenance and repair operations in coal preparation and mineral processing plants found at surface mine sites is described. The content for the audits was derived from diverse sources of information on ergonomics and safety deficiencies including: analysis of injury, illness and fatality data and reports; task analysis; empirical laboratory studies of particular tasks; field studies and observations at mine sites; and maintenance records. These diverse sources of information were utilised to establish construct validity of the modular audits that were developed for use by mine safety personnel. User and interrater reliability testing was carried out prior to finalising the audits. The audits can be implemented using downloadable paper versions or with a free mobile NIOSH-developed Android application called ErgoMine. Practitioner Summary: The methodology used to develop ergonomics audits for three types of mining operations is described. Various sources of audit content are compared and contrasted to serve as a guide for developing ergonomics audits for other occupational contexts.

  20. Energy utilization in surface mining project : with case study illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.K.; De, Amitosh

    1992-01-01

    The importance of reducing energy consumption per tonne of output in the mining projects needs an innovative approach and style to change the behaviour and postures of the technical characteristics. The need for suitable energy policy can not be overlooked with the addition of new large size surface mining projects having a lot of technological development. But the immediate prescription to the problem is to pinpoint specific high energy consuming areas prefixed by thorough diagnosis and followed by deep scientific thought into it. To that extent this paper makes a primary attempt to characterise the various problems. (author). 7 tabs

  1. Legal protection against outline operating plans under mining law; Rechtsschutz gegen Rahmenbetriebsplaene im Bergrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Holger; Mausch, Marlen [Rechtsanwaltskanzlei Noerr LLP, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    In the outline planning for a mining project the question of to what extent the interests of potentially affected surface owners must be taken into account at this early stage of project planning regularly arises. In this contribution the authors explain after a brief introduction to the subject the current jurisdiction of the Federal Administrative Court in respect of the corresponding legal requirements on the outline operating plants, the legal effects of the approval of an outline operating plan and the right of the surface owners to contest the operating plan approval. In addition the permissibility of the initial treatment of owner interests in subsequent special operating plans is described. It is evident that the binding effect of the outline operating plans on the one hand and the transfer of owner interests to special operating plans on the other conflict to a certain extent. (orig.)

  2. Simultaneous caving and surface restoration system for oil shale mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allsman, P.T.

    1968-10-01

    A modified caving method is introduced for mining oil shale and simultaneous restoration of the land surface by return of spent shale onto the subsided area. Other methods have been designed to mine the relatively thin richer beds occurring near outcrops in the Piceance Creek Basin of NW. Colorado. Since the discovery of the much thicker beds in the N.-central part of the basin, some attention has focused on in situ and open-pit methods of recovery. Although caving has been recognized as a possible means of mining shale, most people have been skeptical of its success. This stems from the unknown and salient factors of cavability and size of broken rock with caving. Wisdom would seem to dictate that serious evaluation of the caving method be made along with the other methods.

  3. Methods to reduce mercury pollution in small gold mining operations

    OpenAIRE

    Pantoja-Timarán, F.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, R.; Rodríguez-Avelló, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. Some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air and now have been ...

  4. Underground coal mine subsidence impacts on surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, D.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that subsidence from underground coal mining alters surface water discharge and availability. The magnitude and areal extent of these impacts are dependent on many factors, including the amount of subsidence, topography, geology, climate, surface water - ground water interactions, and fractures in the overburden. There alterations may have positive and/or negative impacts. One of the most significant surface water impacts occurred in July 1957 near West Pittston, Pennsylvania. Subsidence in the Knox Mine under the Coxton Yards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad allowed part of the discharge in the Susquehanna River to flow into the mine and create a crater 200 feet in diameter and 300 feet deep. Fourteen railroad gondola cars fell into the hole which was eventually filled with rock, sand, and gravel. Other surface water impacts from subsidence may include the loss of water to the ground water system, the gaining of water from the ground water system, the creation of flooded subsidence troughs, the increasing of impoundment storage capacity, the relocation of water sources (springs), and the alteration of surface drainage patterns

  5. Mechanization of operations in underground workings in coal mines and research project trends. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, K; Skoczynski, W; Sikora, W

    1985-01-01

    Structure of black coal reserves of Poland, imported and Polish made equipment for underground mining, prospects for mechanization of selected operations in underground mines and research programs of the KOMAG Center for Mechanization of Mining are evaluated. Prospects for longwall mining with caving or stowing in thick coal seams (slice mining), thin (0.8 to 1.2 m), level or inclined coal seams and steep seams are analyzed. The following equipment for mechanization of underground mining is evaluated: integrated face systems, shearer loaders, chain conveyors, belt conveyors, coal plows, equipment for mine drivage, hoists, drive systems for mining equipment. The following research programs of the KOMAG Center are reviewed: modernization of face systems for coal seams with uncomplicated mining conditions, development of equipment for thin seam mining, development of types of mining equipment for coal seams from 1.5 to 3.0 m thick with dip angles to 25 degrees, modernization of equipment for thick seam mining, increasing efficiency of mine drivage (new types of heading machines, materials handling equipment for mine drivage), mechanization of auxiliary operations in underground coal mines, improving quality of mining equipment, development of equipment for coal preparation, increasing occupational safety in underground mining.

  6. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Sanmiquel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector—either surface or underground mining—based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents.

  7. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Bascompta, Marc; Rossell, Josep M.; Anticoi, Hernán Francisco; Guash, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector—either surface or underground mining—based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents. PMID:29518921

  8. Exclusion, exemption and clearance in the mining and minerals industry: Practical application to South African operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Although South Africa has no primary uranium mines, a major portion of its very large mining industry involves minerals with moderately elevated levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides, typical of elevated levels found in similar mineral deposits worldwide. Evidence both locally and internationally suggests that, where radioactive elements are not concentrated or extracted, such operations cannot normally give rise to undue radiological risks. The concept of exclusion should therefore play the major role in establishing which minerals-related operations should be subject to regulatory control, but exclusion criteria, which tend to be numerical rather than descriptive, vary widely between countries - in South Africa, very little is excluded and opportunities for granting exemptions are limited. The need for exemptions and clearance would be reduced if more extensive use of the exclusion concept were made, but it is nevertheless important to have better guidance on determining appropriate numerical exemption and clearance criteria - again, there are currently wide variations between countries, one example being the surface activity clearance levels for the reuse or recycling of uranium-contaminated items. Two examples, relating to gold mining tailings disposal and recycling of contaminated scrap steel respectively, are used to illustrate the difficulties that have arisen in South Africa on the clearance of low activity materials from the mining and minerals industry. Radon is identified as requiring separate consideration, and is the one area where more specific international guidance, based on action levels for intervention, is available. The action level for workplaces recommended by the IAEA would appear to represent a common basis for exclusion and exemption with respect to radon exposures from mining and minerals operations. For public exposures, the corresponding action level for homes, although not specifically intended for dealing with radon from nearby

  9. Seismicity induced by mining operations in the surrounding of the uranium ore mine Schlema-Alberoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, Olaf; Hiller, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The uranium mine Schlema-Alberoda of the Wismut GmbH (Chemnitz, Federal Republic of Germany) is situated in the Westerzgebirge between the villages Aue, Schneeberg and Hartenstein. This 22 km 2 large area contains the villages Bad Schlema with the districts Oberschlema, Niederschlema and Wildbach as well as the district Alberode of the village Aue. The most important waters are the Zwickauer Mulde flowing through this territory from the south to the north. This territory can be designated as a densely populated low mountain range landscape being characterized by mining operations for centuries. Subsequently to the year 1945, the former Soviet 'Saxonian mining administration' started the first explorations on uranium ores inter alia in the area around Schneeberg and Schlema. In the year 1946, the intensive exploration and exploitation began in the health resort Oberschlema well-known by the existence of water containing radium. Up to the year 1959, the part deposit Oberschlema was dismantled. The dismantling ranged till to a depth of 750 m. With the expansion of the explorations in north-western direction, in 1948 the first uranium containing corridors of the part deposit Niederschlema-Alberoda was verified. The mining activities began in the year 1949 and culminated in the midst of the 1960ies with an annual production of more than 4,000 tons of uranium. The 1,800 m floor level as the deepest floor level was reached in the year 1986. A total of 49.5 million cubic meters of rocks was dissolved, and a total of 80,500 tons of uranium ores was mined. These were nearly 35% of the total production of the former Soviet-German public limited company Wismut (SDAG Wismut).

  10. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 942.761 Section 942.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  11. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 903.761 Section 903.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining...

  12. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 910.761 Section 910.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  13. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 921.761 Section 921.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  14. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 947.761 Section 947.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  15. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 939.761 Section 939.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  16. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 941.761 Section 941.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  17. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 922.761 Section 922.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  18. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 905.761 Section 905.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  19. Assessment of the impact of underground mining on ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomik, Arvi

    1999-01-01

    The mine able oil shale bed is located in horizontally lying Ordovician limestones at a depth of 10-60 meters from the ground surface. Limestones are covered with Quaternary sediments, mainly till and loam, sporadically seams of clay occur. The overburden rocks of oil shale bed are jointed limestones with weak contacts between layers. The upper part of limestones is weakened additionally due to weathering to depths of 10-20 metres. Ground movements caused by mining reach the ground surface easily due to the shallow location of workings. The size and nature of these movements depend on mining and roof control methods used. In this study the impact of geotechnical processes on the ground surface caused by four different mining methods is analysed. A new, artificial micro relief is formed on undermined areas, where the ground surface depressions are alternating with rising grounds. When the Quaternary cover contains loamy sediments, the surface (rain) water will accumulate in the depressions. The response of usable lands on undermined areas depends on the degree of changes in the relief and water regime. There exists a maximum degree (limit) of changes of ground movements in case of which the changes in land use are not yet considerable. The factor of land deterioration was developed for arable and forest lands taking into account the character and degree of negative impacts. When no one deterioration factor exceeds the limit, the value of arable land will be 1.0 (100%). When some factor exceeds the limit, then water logging in subsidence troughs will diminish the value to 0.7, slopes to 0.8 and the area of weathered basic rocks to 0.9. In case of a combined effect of all these factors the value of arable land will fall to 0.5. As the long-term character of ground movement after room and pillar mining is not yet established, the factor for quasi stable areas is taken preliminarily as 0.9. Using detailed plans of mined out areas and the proposed factors, it is possible

  20. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  2. Comments on Interior’s Surface Mining Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-05

    regulations and responses to pro- posed regulati n, (2) identified studies on cost/benefit analy- sis of environme ital regulations and selected ...agricultural production at the national level, in some rural counties essentially the entire area is underlain with strippable coal. obviously, surface mining...1980).) Illinois, which has the most strippable coal reserves underlying prime farmland, has two heavily worked coal seams which are continuous. One

  3. Economics of mine water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáček, Jaroslav; Vidlář, Jiří; Štěrba, Jiří; Heviánková, Silvie; Vaněk, Michal; Barták, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Mine water poses a significant problem in lignite coal mining. The drainage of mine water is the fundamental prerequisite of mining operations. Under the legislation of the Czech Republic, mine water that discharges into surface watercourse is subject to the permission of the state administration body in the water management sector. The permission also stipulates the limits for mine water pollution. Therefore, mine water has to be purified prior to discharge. Although all...

  4. Slope failures in surface mines, methods of studying landslides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flisiak, J; Korman, S; Mazurek, J

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a review of methods of measuring landslide fissures, displacement of ground surface points in the landslide area and of points inside the landslide. An analysis of the landslide process is given, stressing various stages and phases of a landslide. Studies carried out by the Institute of Mining Geomechanics of the Technical University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow are evaluated. The studies concentrated on the final state of slopes in brown coal surface mines after a landslide occurs. The necessity of developing an apparatus for continuous recording of displacements of points on a landslide surface is stressed. An apparatus developed by the Institute and used for continuous measuring and recording of displacements is described. The apparatus is used to measure displacements of points during the initial phase of a landslide and during the phase of the largest displacements. The principle of the system consists in locating a number of observation points on the ground and a slope. The points are connected among themselves by flexible connectors. The connectors are equipped with potentiometric transmitters which transform the relative displacements into electric pulses. These pulses are recorded by a conventional recording apparatus. (55 refs.) (In Polish)

  5. Evaluation of the risk to underground mine personnel due to the rockmass response to continuous mining operations.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aswegen, G

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available rockmass response to mining. This helps to understand how the time of day distribution of seismic events can be affected by changes in mining operations. The literature survey did not contribute to the development of particular procedures for the difference...

  6. An influence function method based subsidence prediction program for longwall mining operations in inclined coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Luo; Jian-wei Cheng [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2009-09-15

    The distribution of the final surface subsidence basin induced by longwall operations in inclined coal seam could be significantly different from that in flat coal seam and demands special prediction methods. Though many empirical prediction methods have been developed, these methods are inflexible for varying geological and mining conditions. An influence function method has been developed to take the advantage of its fundamentally sound nature and flexibility. In developing this method, significant modifications have been made to the original Knothe function to produce an asymmetrical influence function. The empirical equations for final subsidence parameters derived from US subsidence data and Chinese empirical values have been incorporated into the mathematical models to improve the prediction accuracy. A corresponding computer program is developed. A number of subsidence cases for longwall mining operations in coal seams with varying inclination angles have been used to demonstrate the applicability of the developed subsidence prediction model. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Influence of surface water accumulations of the Stupnica creek on underground coal mining in the Durdevic coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valjarevic, R; Urosevic, V

    1986-01-01

    Discusses hydrological, geological and mining conditions at the Durdevic underground coal mine. A landslide at a spoil bank dammed the creek flowing above the mine. Two exploratory boreholes (62 m and 68 m) were drilled for hydrological investigations. Water coloring techniques, chemical water analysis, measurement of underground water level and water flow were used to determine whether a sudden inrush of rainfall and accumulated surface water could endanger the mine. Underground water inflow to mine rooms varies from 110-200 m/sup 3//min, depending on the season. Diversion of the creek bed with the accumulated water and accumulation and subsequent drainage of surface water via large diameter concrete pipes were considered as possible ways of improving safety in the mine. Details of these projects are included. 4 refs.

  8. Quantification of Operational Risk Using A Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, J. Sebastian

    1999-01-01

    What is Data Mining? - Data Mining is the process of finding actionable information hidden in raw data. - Data Mining helps find hidden patterns, trends, and important relationships often buried in a sea of data - Typically, automated software tools based on advanced statistical analysis and data modeling technology can be utilized to automate the data mining process

  9. Social license to operate: case from brazilian mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ana Lúcia F.; Demajorovic, Jacques; Aledo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The approach of the Social License to Operate (SLO) emerges as an important element in academic discussions and business practices related to extractive industries. It appears that in productive activities with great potential to produce economic, social and environmental impacts, conventional approaches based on legal compliance no longer sufficient to legitimize the actions of companies and engagement stakeholders. Studies highlight the need of mining activities receiving a SLO "issued" by companies stakeholders, including society, government, non-governmental organizations, media and communities. However, local communities appears as major stakeholders in governance arrangements, by virtue of its proximity to extractive areas and ability to affect the company's results. Stakeholders with unmet expectations can generate conflicts and risks to the company, the knowledge of these expectations and an awareness of company managers of the importance of Social License to Operate (SLO), can generate strategies and mitigating actions to prevent and or minimize possible conflicts. The concept of SLO arises in engineering extractive industry, when you need to respond to social challenges, beyond the usual environmental challenges, technological and management. According to Franks and Cohen (2012) there is a tendency of engineering sectors, sustainability, environmental, safety and especially in risk mappings, treat the technological issues in a neutral manner, separating the technological research projects of social influences. I want to contribute to the advancement of the debate on stakeholder engagement and adopting as focus on the company's relationship with the community, the aim of this study was to understand how a social project held by one of the largest mining companies in Brazil contributed to the process of SLO. This methodological procedure adopted was a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory interviews with the communities located in rural areas of direct

  10. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 933.761 Section 933.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with...

  11. Operator bosonization on Riemann surfaces: new vertex operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new formalism is proposed for the construction of an operator theory of generalized ghost systems (bc theories of spin J) on Riemann surfaces (loop diagrams of the theory of closed strings). The operators of the bc system are expressed in terms of operators of the bosonic conformal theory on a Riemann surface. In contrast to the standard bosonization formulas, which have meaning only locally, operator Baker-Akhiezer functions, which are well defined globally on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, are introduced. The operator algebra of the Baker-Akhiezer functions generates explicitly the algebraic-geometric τ function and correlation functions of bc systems on Riemann surfaces

  12. Ways of increasing safety in mining at the Berezovskii-1 surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, N N; Malyarenko, V I

    1986-12-01

    Methods are descrubed wgucg were developed to alleviate or prevent the effects of landslides in a Kansk-Achinsk surface mine. Such a landslide took place in 1983 at the Berezovskii-1 mine when 250 m of an excavation trench suffered a collapse involving 680,000 mT of materials. Surveys revealed large zones of flooded ground with high proportions of argillites and aleurolites which swell in the presence of water. To keep costs down, a method using gravity is proposed for safety of re-excavation work near spoil banks. In this method a pillar of rock is left at the base of the spoil bank, the edge of the slope of which is moved back from the trench. Hard rock is placed at the leading edge of the spoil bank. The stability factor of the trench side may be raised from 0.87 to 1.12, and this is accompanied by savings in labor and costs.

  13. Technology for mining overburden with hard inclusions in landslide zones of KATEhK surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egin, B A; Semikobyla, Ya G [Leningradskii Gornyi Institut (USSR)

    1990-10-01

    Discusses selected problems associated with overburden removal in the Berezovo and Uryup mines of the Kansk-Achinsk coal basin. The overburden consists of sandstones, clays and aleurites with a moisture content of 15-24%. Hard inclusions (lens) 0.1-4.5 m thick and up to 50 m long consist of sandstones and aleurites. The overburden will be mined by heavy-duty bucket wheel excavators with a capacity from 5,250 to 12,500 m{sup 3}. Effects of moisture content in the overburden and hard lens on excavator operation and landslide hazard are analyzed. Schemes for overburden removal and oversize crushing recommended by 2 research institutes would result in increasing slope angle from 47-50 degrees to 70 degrees and cause a safety factor increase (1.6 times). 2 refs.

  14. 77 FR 62266 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... conducting an on shift examination for hazardous conditions, mine operators better ensure a safe working environment for the miners and a reduction in accidents. II. Desired Focus of Comments The Mine Safety and... (30 CFR 77.1713) requires coal mine operators to conduct examinations of each active working area of...

  15. Feasibility of a continuous surface mining machine using impact breakers. First quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report on the efforts to evaluate the feasibility of excavating coal and overburden from surface mines using impact breakers. The initial stages of the project are devoted to a literature search, equipment selection, test site selection, and conceptual test system design. Hence, this report details the progress made in these areas; the next quarter will see the finalization of Phase I. Included as appendices to this report are FMA internal reports on the individual mines visited. These reports are the basis of the test site selection, and have been censored here to remove data the mine operators deemed as confidential.

  16. Effect of Traditional Gold Mining to Surface Water Quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wilopo, W; Resili, R; Putra, D P E

    2013-01-01

    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... prior to mining. Prior to reopening any surface coal mine after it has been abandoned or declared... an authorized representative of the Secretary before any mining operations in such mine are...

  18. A New Method for Haul Road Design in Open-Pit Mines to Support Efficient Truck Haulage Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Baek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a haul road for an open-pit mine can significantly affect the cost associated with hauling ore and waste to the surface. This study proposes a new method for haul road design in open-pit mines to support efficient truck haulage operations. The road layout in open-pit mines was optimized by using raster-based least-cost path analysis, and the resulting zigzag road sections were simplified by applying the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. In addition, the road layout was modified by reflecting the radius of curvature suggested in the road design guides. Finally, a three-dimensional model reflecting the results of the road design was created by combining the road layout modification result with the slope of the open-pit mine and the bench design result. The application of the proposed method to an area containing gold deposits made it possible to design a haul road for open-pit mines such that it supported efficient truck haulage operations; furthermore, the time required for truck movement along the road could be estimated. The proposed method is expected to be useful for planning and designing open-pit mines and to facilitate the improvement of the road design function of existing mining software applications.

  19. Surface Operations Systems Improve Airport Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center, Mosaic ATM of Leesburg, Virginia created software to analyze surface operations at airports. Surface surveillance systems, which report locations every second for thousands of air and ground vehicles, generate massive amounts of data, making gathering and analyzing this information difficult. Mosaic?s Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool is an off-line support tool that can analyze how well the airport surface operation is working and can help redesign procedures to improve operations. SODAA helps researchers pinpoint trends and correlations in vast amounts of recorded airport operations data.

  20. Intervention strategies to eliminate truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Kecojevic, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to build upon a previous study on the root causes of truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining operations in West Virginia, and to develop intervention strategies to eliminate these fatalities. This review considers a two-pronged approach to accident prevention: one that is fundamental and traditional (safety regulations, training and education, and engineering of the work environment); and one that is innovative and creative (e.g., applying technological advances to better control and eliminate the root causes of accidents). Suggestions for improving current training and education system are proposed, and recommendations are provided on improving the safety of mine working conditions, specifically safety conditions on haul roads, dump sites, and loading areas. We also discuss various currently available technologies that can help prevent haul truck-related fatal accidents. The results of this review should be used by mine personnel to help create safer working conditions and decrease truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining.

  1. Ra-226 collective dosimetry for surface waters in the uranium mining region of Pocos de Caldas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Graphs of the collective dose equivalent for the whole body, bone, gastro-intestinal tract (lower large intestine), kidneys, and liver, via the pathways of drinking water and ingestion of food grown in irrigated fields are presented as a function of the 226 Ra concentrations in the surface waters of the Pocos de Caldas region. The collective dose equivalent calculated from the 226 Ra concentrations measured in the baseline studies are compared with those collective dose equivalent estimated from the projected higher 226 Ra concentrations in the river waters. The 226 Ra concentrations in river waters of the region are expected to be enhanced due to 226 Ra releases from uranium mining and milling operations. The dose equivalent commitment for the exposed population for the referred pathways is also estimated for the contribution of the mine during its predicted time of operation. The assumptions for the dose calculations are presented and the results obtained are discussed. (H.K.)

  2. Agriculture and brown coal surface mining. The example of the Rhenish brown coal mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, B.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive surface mining in the Rhenish brown coal exploitation area has led to marked changes to the environment and living conditions there. This applies particularly to agriculture, which now has to subsist with a competitor for land. The progressive sacrifice of farmland and widespread relocation compaigns are grossly interfering with the business of farming. Only in exceptional cases do farms move as part of the relocation of whole villages. New sites are often found in hamlets and group settlements. This happens in connection with farming of newly reclaimed land or recultivated land reorganised and returned in land consolidation campaigns. (orig.) [de

  3. Soil bioengineering methods for abandoned mine land surface drainage channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotir, R.B.; Simms, A.P.; Sweigard, R.J.; Hammer, P.; Graves, D.H.; Adkins, M. [Robbin B. Sotir & Associates, Marietta, GA (USA)

    1999-07-01

    Research to determine the suitability of soil bioengineering for slope stabilization at abandoned surface mining sites is described. The technology uses live woody plant material as a structural component, in this case live fascine with coir erosion control fabric made from coconut. A large water collection pond draining to nine channels on the slope below was constructed as a test site. The pond has drainage channels for testing at low, intermediate, and steep slope grades. Each group of three channels is composed of one riprap rock channel, one gabion channel, and one soil bioengineering channel. The channels will be tested summer 1999. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs., 8 photos.

  4. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecka Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV. The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  5. Mars Exploration Rover: surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. K.; Adler, M.; Crisp, J.; Mishkin, A.; Welch, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the planned mission, and also focus on the different operations challenges inherent in operating these two very off road vehicles, and the solutions adopted to enable the best utilization of their capabilities for high science return and responsiveness to scientific discovery.

  6. Northern bobwhite breeding season ecology on a reclaimed surface mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Peters, David C.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Surface coal mining and subsequent reclamation of surface mines have converted large forest areas into early successional vegetative communities in the eastern United States. This reclamation can provide a novel opportunity to conserve northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). We evaluated the influence of habitat management activities on nest survival, nest-site selection, and brood resource selection on managed and unmanaged units of a reclaimed surface mine, Peabody Wildlife Management Area (Peabody), in west-central Kentucky, USA, from 2010 to 2013. We compared resource selection, using discrete-choice analysis, and nest survival, using the nest survival model in Program MARK, between managed and unmanaged units of Peabody at 2 spatial scales: the composition and configuration of vegetation types (i.e., macrohabitat) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood locations (i.e., microhabitat). On managed sites, we also investigated resource selection relative to a number of different treatments (e.g., herbicide, disking, prescribed fire). We found no evidence that nest-site selection was influenced by macrohabitat variables, but bobwhite selected nest sites in areas with greater litter depth than was available at random sites. On managed units, bobwhite were more likely to nest where herbicide was applied to reduce sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) compared with areas untreated with herbicide. Daily nest survival was not influenced by habitat characteristics or by habitat management but was influenced by nest age and the interaction of nest initiation date and nest age. Daily nest survival was greater for older nests occurring early in the breeding season (0.99, SE < 0.01) but was lower for older nests occurring later in the season (0.08, SE = 0.13). Brood resource selection was not influenced by macrohabitat or microhabitat variables we measured, but broods on managed units selected areas treated with herbicide to control sericea lespedeza

  7. Soil and water characteristics of a young surface mine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Cole, C.; Lefebvre, Eugene A.

    1991-05-01

    Coal companies are reluctant to include wetland development in reclamation plans partly due to a lack of information on the resulting characteristics of such sites. It is easier for coal companies to recreate terrestrial habitats than to attempt experimental methods and possibly face significant regulatory disapproval. Therefore, we studied a young (10 years) wetland on a reclaimed surface coal mine in southern Illinois so as to ascertain soil and water characteristics such that the site might serve as a model for wetland development on surface mines. Water pH was not measured because of equipment problems, but evidence (plant life, fish, herpetofauna) suggests suitable pH levels. Other water parameters (conductivity, salinity, alkalinity, chloride, copper, total hardness, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate) were measured, and only copper was seen in potentially high concentrations (but with no obvious toxic effects). Soil variables measured included pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, iron, sulfate, chloride, and percent organic matter. Soils were slightly alkaline and most parameters fell within levels reported for other studies on both natural and manmade wetlands. Aluminum was high, but this might be indicative more of large amounts complexed with soils and therefore unavailable, than amounts actually accessible to plants. Organic matter was moderate, somewhat surprising given the age of the system.

  8. Continuous Rating for Diggability Assessment in Surface Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    IPHAR, Melih

    2016-10-01

    The rocks can be loosened either by drilling-blasting or direct excavation using powerful machines in opencast mining operations. The economics of rock excavation is considered for each method to be applied. If blasting operation is not preferred and also the geological structures and rock mass properties in site are convenient (favourable ground conditions) for ripping or direct excavation method by mining machines, the next step is to determine which machine or excavator should be selected for the excavation purposes. Many researchers have proposed several diggability or excavatability assessment methods for deciding on excavator type to be used in the field. Most of these systems are generally based on assigning a rating for the parameters having importance in rock excavation process. However, the sharp transitions between the two adjacent classes for a given parameter can lead to some uncertainties. In this paper, it has been proposed that varying rating should be assigned for a given parameter called as “continuous rating” instead of giving constant rating for a given class.

  9. Soil macropores: Control on infiltration, hillslope and surface hydrology on a reclaimed surface-mined watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, M.D.; Gardner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrologic response of a surface-mined watershed in central Pennsylvania is controlled by rapid macropore flow within the unsaturated man-made topsoil. Newly reclaimed surface-mined watersheds in central Pennsylvania exhibit low steady-state infiltration rates (1--2 cm/hr) and produce runoff dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow. However, within four years after reclamation, infiltration rates on some mine surfaces approach premined rates (8 cm/hr). As infiltration rate increases, the volume of infiltrated water increases, but the total porosity of minesoil matrix remains constant. There is little change in the surface discharge volume, indicating that infiltrated water continues to contribute to the basin surface discharge by the processes of throughflow and return flow. Throughflow in the topsoil horizon occurs in rapid response to rainfall input, producing large volumes of water with throughflow rates closely related to rainfall rates and with throughflow peaks following rainfall peaks by only minutes. Increased return flow alters the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph by slightly lagging behind infiltration excess overland flow. These changes in the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph reduce the potential for severe gully erosion on the reclaimed site. In addition, throughflow water remains predominantly in the topsoil horizon, and therefore has limited contact with potentially acid-producing backfill. Better understanding of macropore flow processes in reclaimed minesoils will help investigators evaluate past strategies and develop new reclamation techniques that will minimize the short-term surface erosional effects of mining and reclamation, while optimizing the long-term effluent and groundwater quality

  10. Whole body vibration exposure in heavy earth moving machinery operators of metalliferrous mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanerkar, A P; Kulkarni, N P; Zade, P D; Kamavisdar, A S

    2008-08-01

    As mining operations get mechanized, the rate of profit generation increases and so do the rate of occupational hazards. This study deals with one such hazard - occupational vibration. The present study was carried out to determine the whole body vibration (WBV) exposure of the heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM) operators in two types of metalliferous mines in India, when they were engaged in the mining activity. Cross-comparison was done of the vibration dose value (VDV) for HEMM operators as well as each type of mine. The VDV for the shovel operator in bauxite mine was observed to be 13.53 +/- 5.63 m/s(7/4) with 25% of the readings higher than the prescribed limit whereas in iron ore mine VDV for dumper operator was 10.81 +/- 3.44 m/s(7/4) with 14.62% readings on the higher side. Cross-comparison of the VDV values for bauxite and iron ore mines revealed that it was 9.57 +/- 4.93 and 8.21 +/- 5.12 m/s(7/4) with 21.28 and 14.95% of the readings on the higher side respectively. The Student's t test level was found to be insignificant for both type of mines, indicating that the WBV exposure is not dependent on the type of mine but is dependent on the working condition and type of HEMM in operation.

  11. Mercury emission and distribution: Potential environmental risks at a small-scale gold mining operation, Phichit Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataranawat, Poranee; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination was assessed in environment near an amalgamation gold recovery operation located at a small scale mining operation (Phanom Pha) in Phichit Province, Thailand. Total mercury (THg) concentrations was determined in water, sediment, bivalves in the aquatic environment and as dry deposition or atmospheric fallout on surface soil and leaves of Neem tree (Azadirachta indica Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) near the mining operation. THg in surface soil, Neem flowers (edible part) and rice grain in surrounding terrestrial habitat and with distance from the mining area were also evaluated for possible contamination. Potential environmental risks were evaluated using the hazard quotient equation. Hg analyses conducted in the aquatic habitat showed that THg in water, sediment and bivalves (Scabies cripata Gould) ranged from 0.4 to 4 microg L(-1), 96 to 402 microg kg(-1)dry weight (dw) and 15 to 584 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. High concentrations of THg in water, sediment and bivalves were observed in the receiving stream near the mining operation which was located near the Khao Chet Luk Reservoir. Whereas the THg concentration in water, sediment and bivalves from monitoring stations outside the gold mining operation (upstream and downstream), were considerably lower with the values of 0.4-0.8 microg L(-1), 96-140 microg kg(-1) dw and 88-658 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. The elevated concentration of Hg found in the sediment near the mining operation was consistent with Hg accumulation measured in bivalves. The elevated Hg levels found in living bivalves collected from highly contaminated sites suggested that the sediment bound Hg was bioavailable. THg in surface soils, brown rice grain (Jasmine rice #105) and Neem flowers of terrestrial habitats were in the range of 16 to 180 microg kg(-1) dw, 190 to 300 microg kg(-1) dw, and 622 to 2150 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Elevated concentrations of mercury were found in Neem flowers

  12. Impacts of surface gold mining on land use systems in Western Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Vivian; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Schröder, Hilmar

    2011-07-01

    Land use conflicts are becoming increasingly apparent from local to global scales. Surface gold mining is an extreme source of such a conflict, but mining impacts on local livelihoods often remain unclear. Our goal here was to assess land cover change due to gold surface mining in Western Ghana, one of the world's leading gold mining regions, and to study how these changes affected land use systems. We used Landsat satellite images from 1986-2002 to map land cover change and field interviews with farmers to understand the livelihood implications of mining-related land cover change. Our results showed that surface mining resulted in deforestation (58%), a substantial loss of farmland (45%) within mining concessions, and widespread spill-over effects as relocated farmers expand farmland into forests. This points to rapidly eroding livelihood foundations, suggesting that the environmental and social costs of Ghana's gold boom may be much higher than previously thought.

  13. Colloidal mobilization of arsenic from mining-affected soils by surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Voegelin, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Bolea, Eduardo; Laborda, Francisco; Garrido, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Scorodite-rich wastes left as a legacy of mining and smelting operations pose a threat to environmental health. Colloids formed by the weathering of processing wastes may control the release of arsenic (As) into surface waters. At a former mine site in Madrid (Spain), we investigated the mobilization of colloidal As by surface runoff from weathered processing wastes and from sediments in the bed of a draining creek and a downstream sedimentation-pond. Colloids mobilized by surface runoff during simulated rain events were characterized for their composition, structure and mode of As uptake using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively plasma mass spectrometry (AF4-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the As and Fe K-edges. Colloidal scorodite mobilized in surface runoff from the waste pile is acting as a mobile As carrier. In surface runoff from the river bed and the sedimentation pond, ferrihydrite was identified as the dominant As-bearing colloidal phase. The results from this study suggest that mobilization of As-bearing colloids by surface runoff may play an important role in the dispersion of As from metallurgical wastes deposited above ground and needs to be considered in risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bubbling surface operators and S-duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Matsuura, Shunji

    2007-01-01

    We construct smooth asymptotically /ADS solutions of Type IIB supergravity corresponding to all the half-BPS surface operators in N = 4 SYM. All the parameters labeling a half-BPS surface operator are identified in the corresponding bubbling geometry. We use the supergravity description of surface operators to study the action of the SL(2,Z) duality group of N 4 SYM on the parameters of the surface operator, and find that it coincides with the recent proposal by Gukov and Witten in the framework of the gauge theory approach to the geometrical Langlands with ramification. We also show that whenever a bubbling geometry becomes singular that the path integral description of the corresponding surface operator also becomes singular

  15. Object and operation supported maintenance for mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bartelmus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aroused in answer to discussion in Mining Magazine (MM September 2011 and July/August 2013. The paper shows that discussion given in the MM issue July/August 2013 does not fulfill expectations expressed in MM issue 2011. The presented paper is the review on maintenance that is based on condition monitoring as tool for detection of faults and failure prevention. Fault and failure are regarded as inevitable during the machine operation as the process of wear and the process of degradation. The question is, if one can influence the wear and degradation process, using condition monitoring. The paper will present technology (in reference to cited papers which demonstrates that the use of the proper method can influence the wear and machine degradation process, using proper condition monitoring techniques and knowing scenarios of wear and degradation process, the maintenance can be rationalized. The presented paper shows possible improvements which are needed to fulfill expectations expressed in MM September 2011 and they are not taken into consideration in MM July/August 3013. These improvements can be fulfilling on the bases of object and operation supported maintenance.

  16. Response of surface springs to longwall coal mining Wasatch Plateau, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadnuck, L.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    High-extraction longwall coal mining creates zones in the overburden where strata bend, fracture, or cave into the mine void. These physical alterations to the overburden stratigraphy have associated effects on the hydrologic regime. The US Bureau of Mines (SBM) studied impacts to the local hydrologic system caused by longwall mining in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Surface springs in the vicinity of two coal mines were evaluated for alterations in flow characteristics as mining progressed. Fourteen springs located above the mines were included in the study. Eight of the springs were located over longwall panels, four were located over barrier pillars and mains, and two ere located outside the area disturbed by mining. Flow hydrographs for each spring were compared to climatic data and time of undermining to assess if mining in the vicinity had influenced flow. Heights of fracturing and caving in the overburden resulting from seam extraction were calculated using common subsidence formulas, and used in conjunction with elevations of springs to assess if fracturing influenced the water-bearing zones studied. One spring over a panel exhibited a departure from a normally-shaped hydrograph after being undermined. Springs located over other mine structures, or outside the mine area did not show discernible effects from mining. The limited response of the springs was attributed to site-specific conditions that buffered mining impacts including the elevation of the springs above the mine level, and presence of massive sandstones and swelling clays in the overburden materials

  17. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  18. Screening and prioritisation of chemical risks from metal mining operations, identifying exposure media of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jilang; Oates, Christopher J; Ihlenfeld, Christian; Plant, Jane A; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-04-01

    Metals have been central to the development of human civilisation from the Bronze Age to modern times, although in the past, metal mining and smelting have been the cause of serious environmental pollution with the potential to harm human health. Despite problems from artisanal mining in some developing countries, modern mining to Western standards now uses the best available mining technology combined with environmental monitoring, mitigation and remediation measures to limit emissions to the environment. This paper develops risk screening and prioritisation methods previously used for contaminated land on military and civilian sites and engineering systems for the analysis and prioritisation of chemical risks from modern metal mining operations. It uses hierarchical holographic modelling and multi-criteria decision making to analyse and prioritise the risks from potentially hazardous inorganic chemical substances released by mining operations. A case study of an active platinum group metals mine in South Africa is used to demonstrate the potential of the method. This risk-based methodology for identifying, filtering and ranking mining-related environmental and human health risks can be used to identify exposure media of greatest concern to inform risk management. It also provides a practical decision-making tool for mine acquisition and helps to communicate risk to all members of mining operation teams.

  19. Finite element modeling of surface subsidence induced by underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, D.W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to predict the effects of longwall mining on topography and surface structures is important for any coal company in making permit applications and anticipating potential mining problems. The sophisticated finite element model described and evaluated in this paper is based upon five years of underground and surface observations and evolutionary development of modeling techniques and attributes. The model provides a very powerful tool to address subsidence and other ground control questions. The model can be used to calculate postmining stress and strain conditions at any horizon between the mine and the ground surface. This holds the promise of assisting in the prediction of mining-related hydrological effects

  20. A business case for social responsibility in mining operations | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... ... director of Community Relations and Institutional Affairs for giant Australian mining ... “These voluntary mechanisms are not an alternative to public ... Mining was used as a case study to gauge the report's call that the private ...

  1. Environmental impacts of mining: monitoring, restoration and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.

    1993-01-01

    Contains 12 chapters with the following titles: mining and the environment; surface coal mining with reclamation; reclamation and revegetation of mined land; the acid mine drainage problem from coal mines; acid rock drainage and metal migration; hydrologic impact; erosion and sediment control; wetlands; blasting; mining subsidence; postmining land use; environmental effects of gold heap-leaching operations.

  2. Computerization of administration and operation management in Polish black coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastej, R.; Syrkiewicz, J. (Centralny Osrodek Informatyki Gornictwa (Poland))

    1990-08-01

    Characterizes main solutions of the computerized management model adopted in Poland for the mining industry and the technical and oganizational structure of computer system application. Computer systems for black coal mines and the range of microprocessor application are shown in block diagrams. The COIG mining information center makes about 45 computer system modules with independent implementation available for black coal mines. The general concept foresees central data processing in the COIG center on the ODRA 1305 and ICL 297 computers with the G-3 operating system in the first stage and an ICL series 39 computer with the VME operating system in the second stage. For mines where no transmission lines are available local solutions based on smaller ICL computers, minicomputers or computer networks with the NOVELL network operating system or multi-access systems with the UNIX operating system are planned. 3 refs.

  3. Vertical Displacement of the Surface Area over the Leakage to the Transverse salt Mine in 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipecki, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    The leakage of water in the salt mine caused considerable deformation of the surface. This article shows the vertical displacement in the area of leakage to the mine excavation, measured by precision leveling, carried out from the first days of leakage in 1992 until 2012. The geological and hydrogeological conditions of the mine, as well as the associated water hazards were described, which in conjunction with the inconvenient location of the excavation site in the northern frontage of the Carpathians and also inadequately conducted mining operations, contributed to the risk of flooding mine. The analysis of the vertical movements of the surface - subsidence and uplift - were present as well as the process of formation of the depression trough in the form of maps and graphs. The analyzes were based on 49 measurement series, starting from the first days of the disaster within the next 20 years. The course of development of the depression trough and the condition of the surface after stopping the water from the rock mass has been shown, which caused the surface to uplift.

  4. Vertical Displacement of the Surface Area over the Leakage to the Transverse salt Mine in 1992–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipecki Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The leakage of water in the salt mine caused considerable deformation of the surface. This article shows the vertical displacement in the area of leakage to the mine excavation, measured by precision leveling, carried out from the first days of leakage in 1992 until 2012. The geological and hydrogeological conditions of the mine, as well as the associated water hazards were described, which in conjunction with the inconvenient location of the excavation site in the northern frontage of the Carpathians and also inadequately conducted mining operations, contributed to the risk of flooding mine. The analysis of the vertical movements of the surface – subsidence and uplift – were present as well as the process of formation of the depression trough in the form of maps and graphs. The analyzes were based on 49 measurement series, starting from the first days of the disaster within the next 20 years. The course of development of the depression trough and the condition of the surface after stopping the water from the rock mass has been shown, which caused the surface to uplift.

  5. Preoperational assessment of solute release from waste rock at proposed mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapakko, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling to estimate solute release from waste rock at proposed mines is described. • Components of the modeling process are identified and described. • Modeling inputs required are identified and described. • Examples of data generated and their application are presented. • Challenges inherent to environmental review are identified. - Abstract: Environmental assessments are conducted prior to mineral development at proposed mining operations. Among the objectives of these assessments is prediction of solute release from mine wastes projected to be generated by the proposed mining and associated operations. This paper provides guidance to those engaged in these assessments and, in more detail, provides insights on solid-phase characterization and application of kinetic test results for predicting solute release from waste rock. The logic guiding the process is consistent with general model construction practices and recent publications. Baseline conditions at the proposed site are determined and a detailed operational plan is developed and imposed upon the site. Block modeling of the mine geology is conducted to identify the mineral assemblages present, their masses and compositional variations. This information is used to select samples, representative of waste rock to be generated, that will be analyzed and tested to describe characteristics influencing waste rock drainage quality. The characterization results are used to select samples for laboratory dissolution testing (kinetic tests). These tests provide empirical data on dissolution of the various mineral assemblages present as waste rock. The data generated are used, in conjunction with environmental conditions, the proposed method of mine waste storage, and scientific and technical principles, to estimate solute release rates for the operational scale waste rock. Common concerns regarding waste rock are generation of acidic drainage and release of heavy metals and sulfate. Key solid

  6. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for underground...

  7. A techno-economic model for optimum regeneration of surface mined land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Manas K.; Sinha, Indra N.

    2006-07-01

    The recent global scenario in the mineral sector may be characterized by rising competitiveness, increasing production costs and a slump in market price. This has pushed the mineral sector in general and that in the developing countries in particular to a situation where the industry has a limited capacity to sustain unproductive costs. This, more often than not, results in a situation where the industry fails to ensure environmental safeguards during and after mineral extraction. The situation is conspicuous in the Indian coal mining industry where more than 73% production comes from surface operations. India has an ambitious power augmentation projection for the coming 10 years. A phenomenal increase in coal production is proposed from the power grade coalfields in India. One of the most likely fall-outs of land degradation due to mining in these areas would be significant reduction of agricultural and other important land-uses. Currently, backfilling costs are perceived as prohibitive and abandonment of land is the easy way out. This study attempts to provide mine planners with a mathematical model that distributes generated overburden at defined disposal options while ensuring maximization of backfilled land area at minimum direct and economic costs. Optimization has been accomplished by linear programming (LP) for optimum distribution of each year’s generated overburden. Previous year’s disposal quantity outputs are processed as one set of the inputs to the LP model for generation of current year’s disposal output. From various geo-mining inputs, site constants of the LP constraints are calculated. Arrived value of economic vectors, which guide the programming statement, decides the optimal overburden distribution in defined options. The case example (with model test run) indicates that overburden distribution is significantly sensitive to coal seam gradient. The model has universal applicability to cyclic system (shovel dumper combination) of opencast

  8. A hybrid heuristic algorithm for the open-pit-mining operational planning problem.

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Marcone Jamilson Freitas; Coelho, Igor Machado; Ribas, Sabir; Santos, Haroldo Gambini; Merschmann, Luiz Henrique de Campos

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the Open-Pit-Mining Operational Planning problem with dynamic truck allocation. The objective is to optimize mineral extraction in the mines by minimizing the number of mining trucks used to meet production goals and quality requirements. According to the literature, this problem is NPhard, so a heuristic strategy is justified. We present a hybrid algorithm that combines characteristics of two metaheuristics: Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures and General Varia...

  9. MINING OPERATIONS'' SAFETY PROVISION - FUNDAMENTAL AND APPLIED SCIENCE TASK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov V.N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The stages of the modern Russian scientiic school of comprehensive exploitation of mineral resourcesformation, the main directions of which were concentrated in the Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources are considered. The main directions of ICEMR scientiic activity and the most important results of fundamental and applied research are presented, which are the scientiic Ьasis of modern research related to the safety of mineral reserves use provision. The importance of studying the coal and methane interaction, gas dynamic phenomena in coal mines, coal seam degassing technologies and mine methane utilization, mathematical modeling and solving proЬlems in the ield of stressed-deformed state, strength, fracturing mechanics, thermal conductivity, hydromechanics, forced viЬration, etc. are outlined.The effectiveness analysis of the state, academic and industrial Ьranch scientiic centers, university science, design organizations and mining companies joint efforts to reduce industrial injuries in the mining sector of the Russian economy is conducted. The need for targeted measures to move to new technical-technological and regulatory levels of mining, allowing to prevent the accidents with massive fatal injuries, was determined. The solution of these tasks is possiЬle only Ьy comЬining the efforts of the specialized institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, of the Ьranch science, of universities and mining companies through the implementation of the "Mining Safety" Scientiic Research Comprehensive Plan, coordinated Ьy ICEMR RAS.

  10. Mine and land ownership in operation planning procedures. On the framing of issues of conflicting civil rights under administrative law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Assmann, E.; Schoch, F.

    1994-01-01

    On the framing of issues of conflicting civil rights under administrative law. The available arsenal of legal instruments for solving conflicts between proprietary titles to land surfaces and mines is more extensive and differentiated and, if properly deployed, more effective than one might at first expect. The control mechanisms become effective either immediately through laws or through administrative or private acts and are based on public or on private law. They range from the sphere of mining rights, operation planning law, the law on the prevention of damage to private persons over to the regulations under mining law on the payment of damages. The constitutionality of the mining regulations examined here is beyond dispute. They comply with the constitutional requirement to frame the issue concerned and afford protection while at the same time providing the required measure of openness and flexibility for conforming to the peculiarities of the mining business and permitting the necessary sensitivity of administrative control for managing this multipolar legal relationship. At the statutory level the regulatory purpose of the mining law in force is thus fulfilled. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Decommissioning and reclamation of the Beaverlodge uranium mine/mill operation: ecosystem in recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himbeault, K.; Phillips, R.L.J.; Vanriel, P.; Wells, K.; Halbert, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Beaverlodge uranium mining and milling facility, located near Uranium City in northern Saskatchewan, operated for a period of thirty-two years between 1950 and 1982, making it one of the longest operating facilities of its type in Canada. Ore was extracted from the ma in underground mine and from smaller underground and open pit satellite deposits in a ratio of 94% and 6% respectively. Decommissioning activities consisted of four phases, shutdown, salvage and reclamation which occurred from 1982-1985, and the current transition monitoring phase from 1985 to present. Following transition monitoring to prove that the system is behaving as expected, licence revocation and hence completion of decommissioning is expected to occur. The plan to achieve delicensing from the federal Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and surface lease revocation from the provincial government is currently captured in a 10-year plan, 2003-2013. The main remaining objective of the decommissioning plan is to document the aquatic ecosystem recovery of the former tailings management facility (TMF), which consisted of two natural lakes, and of the two former underground satellite areas, Hab and Dubyna. Extensive environmental monitoring has been carried out in the receiving environment, Beaverlodge Lake, the former Dubyna mine area and the TMF. Recovery of the aquatic ecosystems is occurring within an environment containing above-background levels of natural radionuclides. This makes Beaverlodge, with its relatively clean ore and long history of natural recovery, one of the better places to study low-level radioactive environmental biological effects. The Dubyna area has above background uranium concentrations in the water, sediment and fish, and a benthic invertebrate community similar to reference. In the receiving environment, Beaverlodge Lake, metal concentrations are highest with the deeper sediment. This trend fits well with the increased impacts of 32-years of operation followed by

  12. Methods to reduce mercury pollution is small gold mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja-Timaran, F.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Rodriguez-Avello, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air, and now have been changed to the utilization of artisan iron retorts which considerable reduce the emissions of mercury vapors to the atmosphere, but there are still high losses of mercury into the waste solids or tailings coming from the amalgamation process (nearly most of the total weight of the ore treated). In order to reduce the mercury losses into the tailings from the process, this research work has been based in the use of cheap systems, available to the isolated miners, to proof that it is feasible to get an important reduction of the losses and the pollution. the procedure has been accomplished by means of washing the ores with alkaline or detergent agents, together with the use of activated mercury purified by electrowinning in a simple device, easily manufactured in site by the own workers. It is also proven herewith that controlling the time of amalgamation and the total amount of mercury used could reduce the total pollution, and in addition, the gold recovery would be improved. This investigation reports the possibility of a reduction of mercury losses down to 2.4 g per 100 of gold produced (case of rich ores like LaBruja), with gold recovery up to 94%; and 8,6 g per 100 g of gold produced (from ores with average grades like La Gruesa), and gold recoveries in the range of 92%. All that is about 20 to 100 times lower than data reported in current bibliography. The introduction of a previous step of the ore concentration in shaking tables, decreases the total amount of solids for

  13. 20 CFR 726.1 - Statutory insurance requirements for coal mine operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory insurance requirements for coal mine operators. 726.1 Section 726.1 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS...

  14. Water balance model for a no release mining operation in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The uranium mining region of the Northern Territory of Australia is characterised by extremes in rainfall. This must be considered in planning mining operations in the area. Plans must include provision of water during the dry season, control of water during the wet season, provision of access throughout all seasons and management of water to minimise environmental pollution

  15. Main trends in scientific-research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinets, V.N.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to main trends in research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts of Priargunsky mine-chemical association. Develops and introduced principally new design solutions and technologies in the field of open mining, underground mining, as well as in-situ and heap leaching, are described

  16. Operation and manning of the Rietspruit opencast coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, T; Ive, J I

    1982-02-18

    Four coal seams, with a total thickness of 16 m, are in production at this opencast mine in the Transvaal; the first coal was mined in 1978. The overburden is stripped by three draglines, and the coal is worked with one shovel and three front-end loaders. Daily production capacity is 28 000 t of coal. The preparation plant has a rated throughput of 1750 t of run-of-mine coal per hour. 5 mt of coal were mined in 1981 and dispatched to Richards Bay, from where the coal is shipped to Western industrial nations. Some 200 million R were invested in the opencast mine, the preparation plant and the infrastructure. Company policy is much concerned with the training and education of the people on the mine; 25% of the personnel attended training courses last year. Pay categories are established in relation to the Peterson evaluation plan; jobs are graded from Group 1 (the lowest) to Group 15 (the grade of the General Manager). The current minimum wage is 214 to 231 R and is well above the living level and the cost of living. The employees live in Company one-family houses, or in bachelor accommodation in the case of unmarried employees. The quality of housing is exactly the same for Blacks and Whites. The housing estates include recreational facilities, sportsfields, a primary school, a clinic, a central restaurant and shops. The present article also gives details of leave entitlements and pensions.

  17. Assessment of pneumoconiosis hazards associated with mining operations in coal mines. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V; Menyailo, N I; Petul' ko, S N

    1984-07-01

    Methods are discussed for evaluating hazards of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mines. Pneumoconiosis hazards are decisively influenced by: content of respirable dusts in mine air at a working place, dust composition, temperature and time of a miner's contact with dusts. The following classification of pneumoconiosis hazards is used in the USSR: low hazards when a miner is endangered by pneumoconiosis after 20 years or more, medium hazards when pneumoconiosis may occur after 10 to 20 years, high pneumoconiosis hazards when a miner is endangered by pneumoconiosis after less than 10 years of contact with dusts. High air temperature in deep coal mines increases pneumoconiosis hazards: when temperature exceeds 26 C a temperature increase of 1 C causes a 10% increase in dust chemical activity. Safety standards which describe the maximum permissible dust level in coal mine air in the USSR, the FRG, France and Poland are compared.

  18. Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines

  19. Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

    1999-07-01

    The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines.

  20. Environmental regulation of exploration and mining operations in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.; Naito, Koh; Pring, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper offers a new perspective on the environmental laws in Asian nations affecting the exploration, mining, and reclamation activities of the mineral resource industry: the perspective of the senior government officials in those countries, whose job is to enforce these new environmental laws. The article presents the results of a 1998 survey of national environmental officials in Asia conducted by the Colorado School of Mines and the Metal Mining Agency of Japan. Officials in 10 diverse countries - Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam - responded to a detailed questionnaire covering applicable laws, agencies, protected areas, covered mineral activities, financial assurance, environmental impact assessment, public involvement, environmental standards, permit and reclamation requirements. The survey confirms that Asian nations are part of the global trend towards national government regulatory structures that balance mineral development objectives with environmental considerations. The survey also shows developing regulatory systems (some embryonic, some more mature) utilizing a combination of mining and environmental acts, and often an 'insider' perspective of the national officials administering the laws. While that perspective is not without its biases (not least the rigor of enforcement), it may nevertheless be of use in company planning. The emerging regulatory picture contradicts the conventional notion that it is the 'lower' level of regulation in Asia that is attracting foreign direct investment in mining. (author)

  1. ¡VAMOS! (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System) - a 'Horizon 2020' project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Cameron; Bodo, Balazs; Kapusniak, Stef; Bosman, Frank; Rainbird, Jenny; Silva, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    The 42-month ¡VAMOS! project (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System, Grant Agreement 642477, www.vamos-project.eu), funded by the EC H2020 Programme, will enable access to high-grade EU reserves of mineral ore-bodies by developing an innovative clean and low visibility mining technique. The project will demonstrate the technological and economic viability of the underwater extraction of metallic mineral deposits which are currently technologically, economically, and environmentally unobtainable. In doing so, ¡VAMOS! hopes to encourage investment in abandoned open-pit mines and prospective mines, helping to put the EU back on a level playing field with the rest of the world in terms of access to strategically important minerals. The ¡VAMOS! concept is defined by a remotely-operated underwater mining vehicle, adapted and improved from existing subsea mining technology. Operating in tandem with an HROV, the mining vehicle will connect to a flexible riser through which slurried mined material will be pumped from the mudline to onshore dewatering facilities via a floating mobile deployment-module, on which will be fitted a bypass system linked to an LIBS, allowing real-time grade-control. Analysis of European and national regulation and stakeholder assessments found there is significant support for developing the technology among local communities and governments. An initial environmental assessment of the potential impact of the innovative mining operation concluded the project has a smaller environmental footprint than conventional mining operations: this is due to factors including the quieter operation and absence of blasting, zero water-table flux, and the higher stripping ratio enabled by higher fluid pressure acting on the sidewalls of the mine. The prototypes are currently in their construction phase following a final design freeze in October 2016. Work is now underway on the foresight visioning, economic evaluation and policy guidelines for the

  2. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  3. Factors affecting driver alertness during the operation of haul trucks in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the seriousness of haul trucks accidents, SIMRAC initiated research to identify factors affecting haul truck driver alertness during mining operations. The information obtained during the risk analysis was used to identify possible...

  4. Feasibility of introducing continuous systems in surface mines of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordia, S K

    1987-06-01

    The paper presents a brief outline of the mineral types, production trends and techno-economic feasiblity associated with the possible introduction of continuous mining systems to India. Production trends are outlined for coal, limestone, bauxite, phosphate, and iron ore. Continuous mining systems described are heavy-duty bucket wheel excavators, road milling type machines and shearing type machines. 8 refs.

  5. Mining Royalties and Incentives for Security Operations: Evidence from India's Red Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Eynde , Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Can tax regimes shape the incentives of governments to engage in or support counterinsurgency operations? India’s Maoist belt contains a large share of the country’s most valuable mineral deposits. Indian mining royalties benefit the States, but they are set by the central government. States are largely responsible for counter-insurgency operations within their territory. Therefore, the royalty regime could shape the incentive of states to support counter-insurgency efforts ien mining areas. ...

  6. Time cycle calculation procedure for the special crew during the mining mobile machine complex operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmurygin, V; Lukyanov, V; Maslovsky, A

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the research is specified by the necessity to optimize the delft mobile tunneling equipment operation. Target of the research is tunneling time cycle justification for the special crew during the mining mobile machine complex operation. Methods of the research included the consideration of operation organization schemes in the drifting face and effective use of the mobile equipment during mine exploratory working operations. Time cycle calculation procedures for major processes have been considered. This has been done for the special crew during the mobile machine complex operations for several working faces and various organization schemes

  7. Debilitating lung disease among surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Reed, William R; Joy, Gerald J; Colinet, Jay F; Rider, James P; Petsonk, Edward L; Abraham, Jerrold L; Wolfe, Anita L; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner's lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor.

  8. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  9. A complex of optimization problems in planning for the development of mining operations in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, A K; Arnaudov, B K; Brankova, B A; Gyuleva, B I; Zakhariyev, G K

    1977-01-01

    The system for planning for the development of coal mines is a complex of interrelated plan optimization, plan calculation and supporting (accounting-analytical and standards) tasks. An important point in this complex is held by the plan optimization tasks. The questions about the synthesis and the structural peculiarities of the system, the essence and machine realization of the tasks are examined.

  10. Environmental and ventilation benefits for underground mining operations using fuel cell powered production equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, C.; Hardcastle, S.

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells in mine production equipment were discussed. The paper was part of a multi-year feasibility study conducted to evaluate the use of hydrogen fuel cell-powered equipment to replace diesel engine powered equipment in underground mining operations. The feasibility study demonstrated that fuel cells are capable of eliminating the unwanted by-products of combustion engines. However, the use of fuel cells also reduced the amount of ventilation that mines needed to supply, thereby further reducing energy consumption. This study examined the benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells, and discussed the mitigating qualifiers that may limit ventilation energy savings. Solutions to retaining and maintaining additional ventilation in the event of hydrogen leaks from fuel cell stacks were also investigated. The analyses were conducted on 6 operating mines. Current operating costs were compared with future operating conditions using fuel cell powered production vehicles. Operating costs of the primary ventilation system were established with a mine ventilation simulator. The analysis considered exhaust shaft velocities, heating system air velocities, and levels of silica exposure. Canadian mine design criteria were reviewed. It was concluded that appropriate safeguards are needed along hydrogen distribution lines to lower the impacts of hydrogen leaks. Large financial commitments may also be required to ensure a spark-free environment. 20 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region V. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. This volume is specifically for the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

  12. Effect of high-extraction coal mining on surface and ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendorski, F.S.

    1993-01-01

    Since first quantified around 1979, much new data have become available. In examining the sources of data and the methods and intents of the researchers of over 65 case histories, it became apparent that the strata behaviors were being confused with overlapping vertical extents reported for the fractured zones and aquiclude zones depending on whether the researcher was interested in water intrusion into the mine or in water loss from surface or ground waters. These more recent data, and critical examination of existing data, have led to the realization that the former Aquiclude Zone defined for its ability to prevent or minimize the intrusion of ground or surface waters into mines has another important character in increasing storage of surface and shallow ground waters in response to mining with no permanent loss of waters. This zone is here named the Dilated Zone. Surface and ground waters can drain into this zone, but seldom into the mine, and can eventually be recovered through closing of dilations by mine subsidence progression away from the area, or filling of the additional void space created, or both. A revised model has been developed which accommodates the available data, by modifying the zones as follows: collapse and disaggregation extending 6 to 10 times the mined thickness above the panel; continuous fracturing extending approximately 24 times the mined thickness above the panel, allowing temporary drainage of intersected surface and ground waters; development of a zone of dilated, increased storativity, and leaky strata with little enhanced vertical permeability from 24 to 60 times the mined thickness above the panel above the continuous fracturing zone, and below the constrained or surface effects zones; maintenance of a constrained but leaky zone above the dilated zone and below the surface effects zone; and limited surface fracturing in areas of extension extending up to 50 ft or so beneath the ground surface. 119 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Application of Three Existing Stope Boundary Optimisation Methods in an Operating Underground Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Gamze; Yavuz, Mahmut

    2017-12-01

    The underground mine planning and design optimisation process have received little attention because of complexity and variability of problems in underground mines. Although a number of optimisation studies and software tools are available and some of them, in special, have been implemented effectively to determine the ultimate-pit limits in an open pit mine, there is still a lack of studies for optimisation of ultimate stope boundaries in underground mines. The proposed approaches for this purpose aim at maximizing the economic profit by selecting the best possible layout under operational, technical and physical constraints. In this paper, the existing three heuristic techniques including Floating Stope Algorithm, Maximum Value Algorithm and Mineable Shape Optimiser (MSO) are examined for optimisation of stope layout in a case study. Each technique is assessed in terms of applicability, algorithm capabilities and limitations considering the underground mine planning challenges. Finally, the results are evaluated and compared.

  14. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  15. Radioactive air emissions from non-uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silhanek, J.S.; Andrews, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Section 122 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, Public Law 9595, directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to review all relevant information and determine whether emissions of radioactive pollutants into ambient air will cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health. A section of this document presented a theoretical analysis of the radioactive airborne emissions from several non-uranium mines including iron, copper, zinc, clay, limestone, fluorspar, and phosphate. Since 1978 EPA's Las Vegas Laboratory has been gathering field data on actual radionuclide emissions from these mines to support the earlier theoretical analysis. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of those field measurements in comparison with the assumed values for the theoretical analysis

  16. Surface hydrology of drainage basins disturbed by surface mining and reclamation, central Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Infilration capacity of newly reclaimed minesoils is uniformly low (< 1 cm/hr) and generally increases (up to 6 cm/hr) with age, the magnitude of increase being dependent on soil characteristics and vegetation. In drainage basins with lower rates of infiltration recovery (< 2 cm/hr), infiltration-excess overland flow is the dominant runoff process. Increased peek runoff rate and stream power in the basins are sufficient to initiate drainage network evolution, with phases of network expansion and abstraction. In contrast, in basins where infiltration recovery is greater than 2 cm/hr, the hydrologic system is initially dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow but evolves toward a system dominated by saturation overland flow. Drainage development is limited to skeletal network initiation and elongation and occurs during the early period of infiltration-excess dominated flow conditions. Total runoff remains essentially constant due to increased proportions of return flow, reflected in the extended and less steep recession limb of saturation-dominated storm hydrographs. The results of this study are applicable to hydrologic prediction for purposes of surface mine permitting and reclamation design. Previously limited availability of rainfall-runoff data from watersheds disturbed by surface mining preclude adequate calibration of empirical methods, such as the runoff curve number method, or evaluation of a more sophisticated approach, such as the use of distributed hydrologic models, for hydrologic prediction. Runoff curve numbers calibrated by means of rainfall-runoff data from the study drainage basins indicate that presently accepted methods of determining curve numbers, using pre-mine soil classification, underestimate total runoff by as much as 50%

  17. Occupational Malfunctioning and Fatigue Related Work Stress Disorders (FRWSDs): An Emerging Issue in Indian Underground Mine (UGM) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Shibaji Ch.; Dey, Netai Chandra; Sharma, Gourab Dhara

    2018-04-01

    Indian underground mining (UGM) transport system largely deals with different fore and back bearing work processes associated with different occupational disorders and fatigue related work stress disorders (FRWSDs). Therefore, this research study is specifically aimed to determine the fatigue related problems in general and determination of Recovery Heart Rate (Rec HR) pattern and exact cause of FRWSDs in particular. A group of twenty (N = 20) UGM operators are selected for the study. Heart rate profiles and work intensities of selected workforces have been recorded continuously during their regular mine operation and the same workforces are tested on a treadmill on surface with almost same work intensity (%Maximal Heart Rate) which was earlier observed in the mine. Recovery Heart Rate (Rec HR) in both the experiment zones is recorded. It is observed that with almost same work intensity, the recovery patterns of submaximal prolonged work in mine are different as compared to treadmill. This research study indicates that non-biomechanical muscle activity along with environmental stressors may have an influence on recovery pattern and FRWSDs.

  18. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  19. Vertical components of surface vibrations induced by mining tremors in the Upper Silesian Coalfield, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciag, E.; Kowalski, W.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of vertical components of surface vibration is epicentral zones due to mining tremors in the Upper Silesian Coalfield (USC) are analysed. Both maximum acceleration amplitudes and dominant frequencies of vertical (Z) and horizontal (N-S and E-W) components of vibrations are compared. The role played by the vertical components of vibrations in estimates of hazard for surface structures excited by mining tremors is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs

  20. Experience of the leading miner crew in the 'Severo-Vostochnyi' im. 50-letiya Velikogo Oktyabrya surface mine. Opyt raboty peredovykh brigad razreza 'Severo-vostochnyi' im. 50-letiya Velikogo Oktyabrya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banshchikov, G I; Demidova, A O

    1981-01-01

    The paper evaluates surface coal mining in the Dal'vostugol' association. Five surface mines of the association mined 13.8 Mt in 1980, 105,900 m/sup 3/ of overburden were removed, overburden to coal ratio was 7.67 m/sup 3//t, labor productivity per miner was 663 t/month, mining cost 2.70 ruble/t. Use of powerful walking draglines for mining, overburden removal and spoil bank formation influenced mining schemes and permitted labor productivity to be increased. Mining schemes without transport of overburden are shown . The following types of mining equipment were used: EhSh-15/90, EhSh-14/75, EhSh-10/60 and EhSh-10/70 draglines, EhKG-4.6u and EhVG-4I face shovels. Mining and geologic conditions are described: climatic conditions are characterized by intensive temperature fluctuation. Air temperature in January ranges from minus 26.8 C to minus 41.0 C and in July from 7.2 C to 31.9 C, the annual precipitation is 622 mm. Thickness of frozen soil in winter ranges from 2.5 to 3.0 m. Geologic conditions of the basin are analyzed: coal seam thickness, depth, coal properties, ash, sulfur, volatile matter, moisture, calorific value, stratification of overburden, mechanical properties of overburden, ground water and water influx. Operation of the Dal'vostugol' mines is described on the example of the Severo-Vostochnyi surface mine, the largest of the region (47% of the coal output). The following aspects of mine operation are evaluated: coal output, economic analysis, mining cost, mining equipment, earthmoving equipment (draglines), mine haulage, effects of climates (particularly equipment repairs), mining schemes, failures of excavators, innovation and safety.

  1. 2d index and surface operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role

  2. Enhancing Nitrification at Low Temperature with Zeolite in a Mining Operations Retention Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up ...

  3. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick, E-mail: mark.taylor@mq.edu.au; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-15

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m{sup 2}) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m{sup 2}) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m{sup 2}) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust.

  4. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m 2 ) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m 2 ) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m 2 ) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 208 Pb/ 207 Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust

  5. Economics, organization, and planning in surface mining. Part I. Ekonomika, organizacja, i planowanie w gornictwie odkrywkowym. Czesc I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembecki, A; Uberman, R

    1975-01-01

    Describes the organization of the Ministry of Mining and Energy of the Polish People's Republic and the Union of the Brown Coal Industry. Principles of organization and management of brown coal mines are also outlined. Analyzed are: management structure of production at brown coal mines, management structure of coal preparation and of brown coal mining planning. Methods of production analysis are also explained including analysis of working time and methods based on photography. Organization of work and management of brown coal surface mines is described: organization of belt conveyor haulage, rail transport, truck transport, organization scheme for relocating belt conveyors and rails in surface mines. (31 refs.) (In Polish)

  6. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  7. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  8. Methods to reduce mercury pollution in small gold mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantoja-Timarán, F.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. Some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air and now have been changed to the utilization of artisan iron retorts which considerably reduce the emissions of mercury vapors to the atmosphere, but there are still high losses of mercury into the waste solids or tailings coming from the amalgamation process (nearly most of the total weight of the ore treated. In order to reduce the mercury losses into the tailings from the process, this research work has been based in the use of cheap systems, available to the isolated miners, to proof that it is feasible to get an important reduction of the losses and the pollution. The procedure has been accomplished by means of washing the ores with alkaline or detergent agents, together with the use of activated mercury purified by electrowinning in a simple device, easily manufactured in site by the own workers. It is also proven herewith that controlling the time of amalgamation and the total amount of mercury used could reduce the total pollution, and in addition, the gold recovery would be improved. This investigation reports the possibility of a reduction of mercury losses down to 2.4 g per 100 g of gold produced (case of rich ores like La Bruja, with gold recovery up to 94 %; and 8,6 g per 100 g of gold produced (from ores with average grades like La Gruesa, and gold recoveries in the range of 92 %. All that is about 20 to 100 times lower than data reported in current bibliography. The introduction of a previous step of the ore concentration in shaking tables, decreases the total

  9. Treatment of pit water from uranium mining operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, A.; Lafforgue, P.; Lyaudet, G.

    1984-01-01

    The pit water from uranium mines is normally treated to eliminate the soluble radium and suspended solids. The radium is precipitated together with the barium sulphate. The latter results from the reaction of barium chloride with an excess of sulphate ions. The suspended solids are flocculated by aluminium salts (chloride, polychloride). If necessary, synthetic flocculants are also used. Certain grades of pit water contain, sometimes incidentally, a few milligrams of uranium per litre. These quantities always remain too low for any direct recovery (treatment by ion exchange resins). By applying certain measures, the preceding processes can also be used to eliminate uranium. The latter is carried away by aluminium hydroxide in a very narrow zone of pH (6 to 7,4) which corresponds to the minimum solubility of the hydroxide. Depending on the characteristic of the water (pH, salinity), use is made either of aluminium sulphate or of sodium aluminate, with an addition of a base in extreme cases. This article gives various examples of applications in the Haute-Vienne, Chardon in Vendee, the Commanderie mine in Vendee, at Cerilly in Allier and at Lodeve in Herault [fr

  10. An introduction to the integrated design of surface mine haul roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.J.; Visser, A.T. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The world-wide expansion of surface mining has led to the development of very large off-highway trucks currently capable of hauling layloads in excess of 160 t. Typical axle loads ranging from 110 t to 170 t are applied to haul roads that have been, at best, empirically designed on the premise of `satisfactory` or `failed`, both in terms of structure and function of the road. The use of these empirical pavement design techniques will prove inadequate when high axle loads are encountered. Not only will the maintenance costs of existing haul roads of inadequate thickness increase, but vehicle operating and maintenance costs will also increase prohibitively. Under these conditions there is thus a clearly defined need for improved construction and management techniques for flexible mine haulage roads, appropriate for the wheel loads of vehicles now in use. The aim of this paper is to introduce developments in haul road structural, functional and maintenance design and management which overcome the limitations associated with the previously empirical design techniques and to show how these developments are combined into an integrated design strategy combining construction techniques, available material and road maintenance equipment with hauler choice to realise a reduction in haulage and road maintenance costs. Future contributions will enumerate on the fundamental haul road structural, functional and maintenance design and management research from which these developments originated. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Thermal infrared remote sensing in assessing groundwater and surface-water resources related to Hannukainen mining development site, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Anne B.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti I.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Mining development sites occasionally host complicated aquifer systems with notable connections to natural surface water (SW) bodies. A low-altitude thermal infrared (TIR) imaging survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along the subarctic rivers in the proximity of the Hannukainen mining development area, northern Finland. In addition to TIR data, stable isotopic compositions ( δ 18O, δD) and dissolved silica concentrations were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater (GW) discharge into the river system. Based on the TIR survey, notable GW discharge into the main river channel and its tributaries (61 km altogether) was observed and over 500 GW discharge sites were located. On the basis of the survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers were found to be highly variable. Hydrological and hydrogeological information is crucial in planning and siting essential mining operations, such as tailing areas, in order to prevent any undesirable environmental impacts. The observed notable GW discharge was taken into consideration in the planning of the Hannukainen mining development area. The results of this study support the use of TIR imagery in GW-SW interaction and environmental studies in extensive and remote areas with special concerns for water-related issues but lacking the baseline research.

  12. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  13. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings: Comparing different operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo, Adrian; Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analyzed, such as remediation time, voltage drop, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields. The results show that electric...... of copper citrate complexes. Using pulsed electric fields the remediation process with sulphuric acid addition was also improved by a decrease in the polarization cell. Main results: considering remediation with watery tailing as the base line, for three weeks experiments no copper removal was observed......, adding sulphuric acid total copper removal reached 39%. Adding citric acid, total copper removal was improved in terms of remediation time: after 5h experiment copper removal was 16% instead of 9% obtained after 72h with sulphuric acid addition. Using pulsed electric fields total copper removal was also...

  14. The model of interaction with the National Operator when doing uranium mining in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yermilov, A.; Niyetbayev, M.; Sakharova, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The report presents a model of organizational and production interaction with the National Operator, NAC Kazatomprom JSC, with regard to uranium mining in Kazakhstan by means of mechanism of joint management of mining, processing and service companies. NAC Kazatomprom JSC is the world's largest producer of uranium, and Uranium One Holding is the largest foreign partner of the National Operator. The mining assets of Uranium One Holdings include the following joint ventures: Betpak Dala LLP (South Inkai and Akdala Mines), Karatau LLP, Akbastau JSC, Kyzylkum LLP and KRC Zarechnoye JSC. It shows that the project management in the form of joint ventures allows for minimization of investment risks in Kazakhstan. The practice of corporate communication with NAC Kazatomprom JSC goes far beyond the “investment– receipt of dividends” scheme when the investment guarantees mean control over the enterprise activities through participation in the meetings of enterprise management bodies. The sustainable model has been developed for the interaction with the National Operator and with state authorities of the Republic of Kazakhstan through or together with the National Operator, whereby various projects have been implemented starting with the joint support of social development of Kazakhstan regions in excess of the minimum amounts established by the government in subsoil use contracts (through Kazatomprom-Demeu LLP, specially established for this purpose) and ending with the implementation of such major projects as the “Atomic Ring” or innovative projects on the construction of alternative energy sources (solar power plant) on sites of joint industrial projects. Effective cooperation with the National operator Kazatomprom allowed to successfully establish and run at the jointly owned mines the program of efficiency improvement which stimulates continuous improvement of current operations and results in considerable cost reduction. The key ideas of the Efficiency

  15. Using remote sensing imagery to monitoring sea surface pollution cause by abandoned gold-copper mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, H. M.; Ren, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    2010-08-01

    The Chinkuashih Benshen mine was the largest gold-copper mine in Taiwan before the owner had abandoned the mine in 1987. However, even the mine had been closed, the mineral still interacts with rain and underground water and flowed into the sea. The polluted sea surface had appeared yellow, green and even white color, and the pollutants had carried by the coast current. In this study, we used the optical satellite images to monitoring the sea surface. Several image processing algorithms are employed especial the subpixel technique and linear mixture model to estimate the concentration of pollutants. The change detection approach is also applied to track them. We also conduct the chemical analysis of the polluted water to provide the ground truth validation. By the correlation analysis between the satellite observation and the ground truth chemical analysis, an effective approach to monitoring water pollution could be established.

  16. Lead-210 analyses of sediment accumulation rates in five Southern Illinois surface mine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugam, R.B.; Carlson, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    210 Pb is a naturally occurring radionuclide with a short half-life (22 yrs) which can be used to determine sedimentation rates in lakes. The technique was applied in 5 Southern Illinois surface mine lakes where it revealed past sedimentation rates to have been extremely variable. In some of the lakes there was evidence for extensive slumping immediately after mining ceased followed by a more regular sedimentary regime that continued until the present. In others there have been one or more changes in sediment accumulation rates since lacustrine sedimentation began. These results suggest that simply measuring the amount of sediment that has accumulated in a surface mine lake since mining ceased is inadequate to determine filling rates. Sedimentation rates in the 5 lakes varied from .60 +- .19 to 1.46 +- .19 cm/y. These rates are similar to natural lakes with moderately disturbed watersheds

  17. On-Site Radon Detection of Mining-induced Fractures from Overlying Strata to the Surface: A Case Study of the Baoshan Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale longwall mining of shallow coal seams may cause mining-induced fractures that can project completely through to the surface. This could lead to a series of mine safety and environmental issues, further deteriorating the already fragile ecological environment in the Western mining areas in China. Therefore, an accurate and effective understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution law of mining-induced fractures in overlying strata and its relationship to upper aquifers is critical. In this paper, the application of the geophysical-chemical properties of radon in mining engineering is explored as a potential solution to the shortcomings of existing surveying methods. A radioactive measurement method is proposed for the detection of the development of mining-induced fractures from overlying strata to the surface in the Baoshan Coal Mine (BCM. The on-site test indicated that the first weighting step is approximately 60 m, the average periodic weighting step is approximately 20 m, and the influence coverage of the advanced abutment pressure is approximately 30 m. The presented method could be used as an indirect technical support to increase the safety of coal mining by acting as a simple, fast, and reliable method of detecting mining-induced fractures in overlying strata.

  18. Measurements of very large deformations in potash salt in conjunction with an ongoing mining operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, A.R.; Christensen, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Room and pillar deformation were measured in conjunction with a relatively new type of mining operation in a southeastern New Mexico potash mine. The extraction ration was approximately 90 percent in a first mining operation. Due to severe deformations encountered, instrumentation had to be developed/modified for these measurements. This paper concentrates on experiment design, design of special instrumentation, field installation of equipment, and presentation of the data. Measurements made include extensometers in the pillar, in the floor and ceiling in the room between pillars, absolute level measurements, floor ceiling closure, and stress (strain) measurements. Associated laboratory rock mechanics measurements of samples from the mine are being done separately. Two separate room pillar complexes were instrumented. In the first complex, floor-ceiling deformations of approximately 1 inch/day and pillar deformations around 1/2 inch/day were measured. In the second complex, instrumentation was installed while the pillar was a part of a long wall and the subsequent sequential mining (long wall-pillar with only one adjoining room on one side - pillar in the middle of room pillar complex) was observed. Data return from this operation was good

  19. Effects of Topography and Surface Soil Cover on Erosion for Mining Reclamation: The Experimental Spoil Heap at El Machorro Mine (Central Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Moreno, Cristina; Martín Duque, J. F.; Nicolau, J. M.; Hernando, N.; Sanz, M. A.; Sánchez Castillo, L.

    2013-01-01

    Mining reclamation tries to reduce environmental impacts, including accelerated runoff, erosion and sediment load in the nearby fluvial networks and their ecosystems. This study compares the effects of topography and surface soil cover on erosion on man-made slopes coming from surface mining reclamation in Central Spain. Two topographic profiles, linear and concave, with two surface soil covers, subsoil and topsoil, were monitored for two hydrologic years. Sediment load, rill development and ...

  20. Development and Application of Blast Casting Technique in Large-Scale Surface Mines: A Case Study of Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast casting is a high-efficiency technique applied in surface mines for overburden removal and results in stripping cost savings. According to ballistic theory and center-of-mass frame basic movement principles, key factors influencing blast casting effect were analyzed, which include bench height and mining panel width, inclined angle of blast holes, explosive unit consumption (EUC, delay-time interval, presplitting, and blast hole pattern parameters. An intelligent design software was developed for obtaining better breaking and casting effect, and the error rates predicted with actual result can be controlled with 10%. Blast casting technique was successfully applied in Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine (HSCM with more than 34% of material casted into the inner dump. A ramp ditch was set within the middle inner dump for coal transportation. The procedure of stripping and excavating was implemented separately and alternately in the two sections around the middle ramp ditch. An unconstrained-nonlinear model was deduced for optimizing the shift distance of the middle ramp. The calculation results show that optimum shift distance of HSCM is 480 m, and the middle ditch should be shifted after 6 blast casting mining panels being stripped.

  1. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of the 2nd year of a research project on the implementation of a novel human-robot control system for hydraulic machinery. Sensor and valve re-calibration experiments were conducted to improve open loop machine control. A Cartesian control example was tested both in simulation and on the machine; the results are discussed in detail. The machine tests included open-loop as well as closed-loop motion control. Both methods worked reasonably well, due to the high-quality electro-hydraulic valves used on the experimental machine. Experiments on 3-D analysis of the bucket trajectory using marker tracking software are also presented with the results obtained. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the machine. A novel, closed-loop control adjustment provides a remedy, while retaining much of the advantages of the open-loop control based on kinematics transformation. Additional analysis of previously recorded, three-dimensional working trajectories of the bucket of large mine shovels was completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system.

  2. Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzer, Alan J.; Halford, Carl

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, multiple regression techniques were applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance-derived data to develop parsimonious model(s) for fuel consumption on the Boeing 757 airplane. The present study examined several data mining algorithms, including neural networks, on the fuel consumption problem and compared them to the multiple regression results obtained earlier. Using regression methods, parsimonious models were obtained that explained approximately 85% of the variation in fuel flow. In general data mining methods were more effective in predicting fuel consumption. Classification and Regression Tree methods reported correlation coefficients of .91 to .92, and General Linear Models and Multilayer Perceptron neural networks reported correlation coefficients of about .99. These data mining models show great promise for use in further examining large FOQA databases for operational and safety improvements.

  3. The risks of liability for former mine operators: the implementation of a plan for preventing legal risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinet, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Shutting down mines has 'mechanically' increased the risks of cave-ins. The local (communal and/or departmental) administrations responsible for supervising the situation do not necessarily have the means for managing shafts and tunnels. For this reason, two acts were passed in 1994 and 1999 to reform how mines are managed after shutdowns. Managing post-mining operations has spawned lawsuits against former operators, even though they shut down their mines in compliance with the laws and regulations in force at the time. By virtue of these two acts, administrative authorities are now trying to make the former operators fill in shafts and tunnels. Moreover, individuals often try to obtain compensation for the damages caused by shut-down mines. This situation causes uncertainty for various parties; and the legal settlements being proposed are not sufficiently clear. Information is provided for thinking about how to implement a 'legal risk prevention plan', which former mine operators should bear in mind. (author)

  4. Deep Impact: Effects of Mountaintop Mining on Surface Topography, Bedrock Structure, and Downstream Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew R V; McGlynn, Brian L; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2016-02-16

    Land use impacts are commonly quantified and compared using 2D maps, limiting the scale of their reported impacts to surface area estimates. Yet, nearly all land use involves disturbances below the land surface. Incorporating this third dimension into our estimates of land use impact is especially important when examining the impacts of mining. Mountaintop mining is the most common form of coal mining in the Central Appalachian ecoregion. Previous estimates suggest that active, reclaimed, or abandoned mountaintop mines cover ∼7% of Central Appalachia. While this is double the areal extent of development in the ecoregion (estimated to occupy mines extend 10s to 100s of meters below the current land surface. Here, we provide the first estimates for the total volumetric and topographic disturbance associated with mining in an 11 500 km(2) region of southern West Virginia. We find that the cutting of ridges and filling of valleys has lowered the median slope of mined landscapes in the region by nearly 10 degrees while increasing their average elevation by 3 m as a result of expansive valley filling. We estimate that in southern West Virginia, more than 6.4km(3) of bedrock has been broken apart and deposited into 1544 headwater valley fills. We used NPDES monitoring datatsets available for 91 of these valley fills to explore whether fill characteristics could explain variation in the pH or selenium concentrations reported for streams draining these fills. We found that the volume of overburden in individual valley fills correlates with stream pH and selenium concentration, and suggest that a three-dimensional assessment of mountaintop mining impacts is necessary to predict both the severity and the longevity of the resulting environmental impacts.

  5. Mined-out land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno; Toomik, Arvi; Valgma, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    Estonian mineral resources are deposited in low depth and mining fields are large, therefore vast areas are affected by mining. There are at least 800 deposits with total area of 6,000 km 2 and about the same number of underground mines, surface mines, peat fields, quarries, and sand and gravel pits. The deposits cover more than 10% of Estonian mainland. The total area of operating mine claims exceeds 150 km 2 that makes 0.3 % of Estonian area. The book is written mainly for the people who are living or acting in the area influenced by mining. The observations and research could benefit those who are interested in geography and environment, who follow formation and look of mined-out landscapes. The book contains also warnings for careless people on and under the surface of the mined-out land. Part of the book contains results of the research made in 1968-1993 by the first two authors working at the Estonian branch of A.Skochinsky Institute of Mining. Since 1990, Arvi Toomik continued this study at the Northeastern section of the Institute of Ecology of Tallinn Pedagogical University. Enno Reinsalu studied aftereffects of mining at the Mining Department of Tallinn Technical University from 1998 to 2000. Geographical Information System for Mining was studied by Ingo Valgma within his doctoral dissertation, and this book is one of the applications of his study

  6. Assessment of surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the research carried out at West Virginia University in order to assess surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to longwall mining. Extensive instrumentation and measurements have been made over three longwall mines in northern West Virginia during a three-year period. Various monitoring techniques including full profile borehole extensometer, full profile borehole inclinometers, time domain reflectometry, sonic reflection technique, a unique mechanical grouting method, photographic and visual observations, standard surveying, and water-level measurements were utilized. The paper's emphasis is first on surface ground movement and its impact on integrity of surface ground and structures and second on type and magnitude of subsurface ground movements associated with mine geometry and geology. A subsidence prediction model based on implementation of both mechanisms of ground movement around the excavation and the geologic and geotechnical properties of the rock/coal surrounding the excavation has been developed. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  7. Exploring the Politics of Water Grabbing: The Case of Large Mining Operations in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Sosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The operations of the large mining company Yanacocha in Cajamarca (Peru provoke and require a fundamental reshuffling of how rights to water are allocated, resulting in changes in the distribution of the benefits and burdens of accessing water. We use this paper to argue that these changes in water use and tenure can be understood as a form of water grabbing, since they result in a transfer of water control from farmers’ collectives and government agencies to the mining company, with the company also assuming de facto responsibility over executing water allocation and safeguarding certain water-quality levels. We illustrate – by using two cases: La Ramada canal and the San José reservoir – the company’s overt and covert strategies to achieve control over water, showing how these are often backed up by neo-liberal government policies and by permissive local water authorities. Next to active attempts to obtain water rights, these strategies also include skilfully bending and breaking the resistance of (some farmers through negotiation and offering compensation. The de facto handing over of water governance powers to a multinational mining company raises troubling questions about longer-term water management, such as who controls the mining company, to whom are they accountable, and what will happen after mining operations stop.

  8. Form follows function: the architecture of operational requirements. [Winstow Mine of UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C W

    1984-07-01

    Wistow Mine, in the Selby Coalfield (UK) has recently received a Festival of Architecture Award. The success of the visual appearance of the site is the result of careful consideration of the NCB's operational requirements, by a special design team, and the subsequent development of designs for all the buildings on the site and the layout of the site itself, which satisfy those requirements.

  9. Disposing of coal combustion residues in inactive surface mines: Effects on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.; Ackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) in surface and underground coal mines can provide a stable, low-maintenance alternative to landfills, benefiting the mining and electric power industries. The material may be able to improve water quality at acid generating abandoned or reclaimed coal mine sites. Most combustion residues are alkaline, and their addition to the subsurface environment could raise the pH, limiting the propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reducing the rate of acid generation. Many of these CCR are also pozzolanic, capable of forming cementitious grouts. Grouts injected into the buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. Both mechanisms, alkaline addition and water diversion, are capable of reducing the amount of acid produced at the disposal site. The US Bureau of Mines is cooperating in a test of subsurface injection of CCR into a reclaimed surface mine. Initially, a mixture of fly ash, lime, and acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge was injected. Lime was the source of calcium for the formation of the pozzolanic grout. Changes in water quality parameters (pH, acidity, anions, and trace metals) in water samples from wells and seeps indicate a small but significant improvement after CCR injection. Changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the water flowing across the site were apparently influenced by the presence of flyash

  10. Surface structural damage associated with longwall mining near Tuscaloosa, Alabama: a case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isphording, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Initially the paper examines the frequency of coal mine subsidence and the influence on surface subsidence of subsurface mining methods, i.e. room and pillar and longwall mining. A case study of the subsidence damage caused to a log house near Tuscaloosa, Alabama (USA), when a longwall panel passed beneath it is presented. The damage resulted in the homeowners suing the mining company for negligence. The article discusses information provided to the plaintiffs attorneys by the author. Aspects covered are: the subsidence and damage to the property; prediction of subsidence; the monitoring of subsidence; and the prevention of subsidence. An out-of-court settlement was agreed by the two parties. 15 refs., 5 figs

  11. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  12. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. Considerable emphasis is placed on postmining assistance. This volume is specifically for the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.

  13. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region IV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana.

  14. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia.

  15. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.

  16. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Thomas M. [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Erlach, Celeste [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  17. Climate and surface water hydrology baseline data for Aurora Mine EIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A climate and hydrology database was assembled to describe the existing climatic and surface water hydrological characteristics of the proposed Aurora Mine area in Leases 10, 12, 13, 31, and 34 east of the Athabasca River near Fort McKay. The study was based upon data available from the regional hydrometeorological monitoring network operated by the Governments of Canada and Alberta. The study also included the installation and monitoring of one climate station and five streamflow gauging stations on small watersheds in the area. The representative climatic and hydrologic characteristics of the area, including precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, temperature and wind, were determined. Streamflow characteristics such as flood frequencies, low flow frequencies, water yield and flow durations representative of large gauged watersheds within the study area were also determined. The results offer a good basis for preliminary design of surface water management systems. It was recommended that the monitoring program should be continued to monitor potential environmental impacts of proposed development activities. 9 refs., 29 tabs., 32 figs.

  18. Issues of Exploitation of Induction Motors in the Course of Underground Mining Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumula, Stanisław; Hudy, Wiktor; Piaskowska-Silarska, Malgorzata; Pytel, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Mining industry is one of the most important customers of electric motors. The most commonly used in the contemporary mining industry is alternating current machines used for processing electrical energy into mechanical energy. The operating problems and the influence of qualitative interference acting on the inputs of individual regulators to field-oriented system in the course of underground mining operations has been presented in the publication. The object of controlling the speed is a slip-ring induction motor. Settings of regulators were calculated using an evolutionary algorithm. Examination of system dynamics was performed by a computer with the use of the MATLAB / Simulink software. According to analyzes, large distortion of input signals of regulators adversely affects the rotational speed that pursued by the control system, which may cause a large vibration of the whole system and, consequently, its much faster destruction. Designed system is characterized by a significantly better resistance to interference. The system is stable with the properly selected settings of regulators, which is particularly important during the operation of machinery used in underground mining.

  19. Utilization of InSAR differential interferometry for surface deformation detection caused by mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F.; Shao, Y.; Guichen, M.

    2010-01-01

    In China, the surface deformation of ground has been a significant geotechnical problem as a result of cracks in the ground surface, collapsing of house, and subsidence of roads. A powerful technology for detecting surface deformation in the ground is differential interferometry using synthetic aperture radar (INSAR). The technology enables the analysis from different phase of micro-wave between two observed data by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of surface deformation of ground such as ground subsidence, land slide, and slope failure. In January 2006, the advanced land observing satellite was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presented an analytical investigation to detect ground subsidence or change caused by mining, overuse of ground water, and disaster. Specifically, the paper discussed the INSAR monitoring technology of the mine slope, including INSAR data sources and processing software; the principle of synthetic aperture radar interferometry; principles of differential SAR interferometry; and INSAR technology to slope monitoring of the Haizhou open pit mine. The paper also discussed the Haizhou strip mine side slope INSAR monitoring results and tests. It was concluded that the use of synthetic aperture radar interferometer technique was the optimal technique to provide three-dimensional spatial information and minimal change from ground surface by spatial remote sensing device. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Utilization of InSAR differential interferometry for surface deformation detection caused by mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). School of Geomatics; Shao, Y. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). Dept. of Foreign Language; Guichen, M. [Gifu Univ., Yanagido, Gifu (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In China, the surface deformation of ground has been a significant geotechnical problem as a result of cracks in the ground surface, collapsing of house, and subsidence of roads. A powerful technology for detecting surface deformation in the ground is differential interferometry using synthetic aperture radar (INSAR). The technology enables the analysis from different phase of micro-wave between two observed data by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of surface deformation of ground such as ground subsidence, land slide, and slope failure. In January 2006, the advanced land observing satellite was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presented an analytical investigation to detect ground subsidence or change caused by mining, overuse of ground water, and disaster. Specifically, the paper discussed the INSAR monitoring technology of the mine slope, including INSAR data sources and processing software; the principle of synthetic aperture radar interferometry; principles of differential SAR interferometry; and INSAR technology to slope monitoring of the Haizhou open pit mine. The paper also discussed the Haizhou strip mine side slope INSAR monitoring results and tests. It was concluded that the use of synthetic aperture radar interferometer technique was the optimal technique to provide three-dimensional spatial information and minimal change from ground surface by spatial remote sensing device. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Assistance in MSD Research and Development: Part 2, Full scale field testing at mining operations: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsey, P.N.; Canon, C.

    1988-06-01

    Full scale and field testing of a simple mechanical stemming aid is described. The aid comprises a solid unit placed in the stemming above the explosive column and is designed to improve blasting efficiency and reduce drilling and blasting costs. It is designed to work with back filled drill cuttings or any other suitable stemming material. The results of Phase I testing were highly successful, indicating that the stemming aid has technically an extremely good chance of success at full scale when constructed of low cost materials. Phase II of the stemming aid research and development program comprised of the testing of various forms of the stemming is at full scale in non-research oriented i.e. field settings. The stemming aid was field tested at 4 different sites for a variety of mining application: First in underground workings at the UMR experimental mine in one and three quarter inch diameter horizontal blast holes incorporated into full blast patterns; three and three and a half inch blast holes at two crushed rock/limestone quarries in the Rolla area and at a surface coal mine operation run by Peabody Coal Company at Lynnville, Indiana in which nine and seven eighths, ten and five eighths and fifteen and a quarter inch diameter blast holes were used for parting and overburden removal. 2 refs., 37 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Longwall face recovery operations at Mine 26 of the Old Ben Coal Company, Benton, Illinois, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monks, W R; Hodgkinson, D; Ferris, W

    1985-02-01

    The paper describes a longwall face recovery (salvage) operation witnessed by National Coal Board Western Areas personnel at No. 26 Mine of the Old Ben Coal Company in Venton, Illinois. A brief review is made of the company and No. 26 Mine, and followed by a description of the longwall face salvage operations detailing the face equipment, preparation work, salvage equipment used, the method of operation and the results obtained. Particular reference is made to the successful use of Free Steered Vehicles (FSVs) for salvaging equipment and the use of roof bolts for the primary support of the face line. Finally, a number of conclusions are made which lead to firm recommendations for UK adoption.

  3. Planning maximum extraction of a safety pillar in the Most surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helis, P; Hess, L; Kubiznak, K [SHR - Banske Projekty, Teplice (Czechoslovakia)

    1990-11-01

    Discusses planned coal surface mining in the Most mine in the area of the Hnevin safety pillar with coal reserves amounting to about 7.5 Mt. The following aspects are evaluated: coal reserves and their distribution in the pillar, coal seam thickness and dip angles, water conditions, water influx rates, mechanical properties of the overburden and strata situated in the seam floor, slope stability and hazards of landslides, effects of water influx on landslide hazards, types of bucket wheel excavators used for overburden removal and mining, types of belt conveyors used for mine haulage, stackers, position of mining equipment in the mine. A scheme developed by Banske Projekty Teplice for partial extraction of the safety pillar would result in extraction of 4.5 Mt coal. About 1.7 Mt coal would be left in a safety coal layer about 10.0 m thick situated in the floor in zones with landslide hazards. KU 300 bucket wheel excavators, belt conveyors 1,200 mm wide and ZP 2,500 stackers would be used. 4 refs.

  4. Automation of technological processes at surface mines in the GDR as one of the main directions of increased coal extraction effectiveness by surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jona, U.

    1987-12-01

    In the GDR, about 53% of brown coal is mined with the use of overburden conveyor bridges, 27% with the use of belt conveyors, and 20% with the use of rail transport. Compares efficiency and cost per 1 m/sup 3/ of these transport methods. The overburden conveyor bridges, their specifications and microcomputer control are described. Describes utilization of microcomputer techniques, especially the stereochart system of Carl Zeiss Jena, for automated processing of data on surface mine geometry. Other computer applications are also presented, e.g. for surveying, slope stability calculation, and conveyor bridge control. Maintains that application of the KED/KEM microcomputer system for overburden conveyor bridge control increases its effectiveness by 10%, i.e. by 8 million m/sup 3//a.

  5. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  6. The design procedures on brick building against surface ground deformations due to mining and earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, J.; Yang, S. (China University of Mining and Technology (China))

    1992-05-01

    By analysing the effects of ground motion and deformation on surface buildings, and drawing on the experience of damages caused by the Tangshan and Chenhai earthquakes, the authors discuss the design of brick and concrete buildings which are protected against the damaging effects of both earthquakes and mining activities. 5 figs.

  7. Baseline studies and evaluation of effects of surface discharge of deep-sea mining - INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sardessai, S.

    . An evaluation of possible effects of surface discharge of mining fines - a slurry consisting of fine nodule fragments, bottom water and sediments - suggests that the discharge, with an expected solid content of 50 g/l, will induce increased primary production...

  8. Monitoring of Surface Subsidence of the Mining Area Based on Sbas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Zhou, S.; Zang, D.; Lu, T.

    2018-05-01

    This paper has collected 7 scenes of L band PALSAR sensor radar data of a mine in FengCheng city, jiangxi province, using the Small-baseline Subset (SBAS) method to invert the surface subsidence of the mine. Baselines of interference less than 800m has been chosen to constitute short baseline differential interference atlas, using pixels whose average coherent coefficient was larger than or equal to 0.3 as like high coherent point target, using singular value decomposition (SVD) method to calculate deformation phase sequence based on these high coherent points, and the accumulation of settlements of study area of different period had been obtained, so as to reflect the ground surface settlement evolution of the settlement of the area. The results of the study has showed that: SBAS technology has overcome coherent problem of the traditionality D-InSAR technique, continuous deformation field of surface mining in time dimension of time could been obtained, characteristics of ground surface settlement of mining subsidence in different period has been displayed, so to improve the accuracy and reliability of the monitoring results.

  9. Modeling forest ecosystem changes resulting from surface coal mining in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Brown; Andrew J. Lister; Mary Ann Fajvan; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Christine Mazzarella

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to assess the effects of surface coal mining on forest ecosystem disturbance and restoration in the Coal River Subbasin in southern West Virginia. Our approach is to develop disturbance impact models for this subbasin that will serve as a case study for testing the feasibility of integrating currently available GIS data layers, remote...

  10. Quantifying topographic differences between premining and reclaimed landscapes at a large surface coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Premining and reclaimed landscapes on 2,300 acres were compared quantitatively at a surface coal mine in western North Dakota. Weighted average slopes were determined by calculating acres in each slope class (0% to 3%, 3% to 6%, 6% to 9%, 9% to 15%, and > 15%) and dividing by the total number of acres. Weighted average slopes were 3.8% and 3.0% for all premining and reclaimed lands respectively. Weighted average slopes were 2.7% and 2.1% for premining and reclaimed croplands respectively. Reclaimed native rangeland slopes are 5.5% compared to 7.0% premining. The acreage of native rangeland with >9% slopes decreased more than 50% during reclamation. For all mined lands there is 25% more reclaimed land with 0% to 3% slopes and 25% less reclaimed land with >6% slopes than before mining. Topographic changes caused by surface mining and reclamation enhance soil conservation, moisture retention, and agricultural productivity. A cross-sectional profile had 26.8 and 15.5 premining and reclaimed land up-down gradient changes per mile respectively, indicating reclaimed land is less diverse than it was prior to mining. Slope class map units average 3.5 and 4.4 acres respectively on premining and reclaimed lands, further indicating reduced diversity. Landscape improvements conflict with regulatory diversity requirements to determine reclamation success

  11. Complex source mechanisms of mining-induced seismic events - implications for surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, B.; Cesca, S.; Lasocki, S.; Rudzinski, L.; Lizurek, L.; Wiejacz, P.; Urban, P.; kozlowska, M.

    2012-04-01

    The seismicity of Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGCD) is induced by mining activities in three mines: Lubin, Rudna and Polkowice-Sieroszowice. Ground motion caused by strong tremors might affect local infrastructure. "Żelazny Most" tailings pond, the biggest structure of this type in Europe, is here under special concern. Due to surface objects protection, Rudna Mine has been running ground motion monitoring for several years. From June 2010 to June 2011 unusually strong and extensive surface impact has been observed for 6 mining tremors induced in one of Rudna mining sections. The observed peak ground acceleration (PGA) for both horizontal and vertical component were in or even beyond 99% confidence interval for prediction. The aim of this paper is analyze the reason of such unusual ground motion. On the basis of registrations from Rudna Mine mining seismological network and records from Polish Seismological Network held by the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (IGF PAN), the source mechanisms of these 6 tremors were calculated using a time domain moment tensor inversion. Furthermore, a kinematic analysis of the seismic source was performed, in order to determine the rupture planes orientations and rupture directions. These results showed that in case of the investigated tremors, point source models and shear fault mechanisms, which are most often assumed in mining seismology, are invalid. All analyzed events indicate extended sources with non-shear mechanism. The rapture planes have small dip angles and the rupture starts at the tremors hypocenter and propagates in the direction opposite to the plane dip. The tensional component plays here also big role. These source mechanisms well explain such observed strong ground motion, and calculated synthetic PGA values well correlates with observed ones. The relationship between mining tremors were also under investigation. All subsequent tremors occurred in the area of increased stress due to

  12. The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho

    OpenAIRE

    Madowe, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling. Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of published mineral reserves...

  13. 'Blocked area' of a citizens' action group in operating plan permit accoding to Mining Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-26

    On the question as to whether a citizen's action group, organized in the form of a registered club, has the right to file suit as defined by paragraph 2 of sect. 42 of the rules of administrative courts, in case they bring forward that their right to the reforestation of an estate, ensured by easement, will be affected by a skeleton operating plan permit issued under the mining law. Since the protection of the recreational function of forests is a task the safeguarding of which is solely assigned to bodies of public administration, anyone who has a real right may not claim neighbourly protection under public law in so far. On the relationship between operating plan approval, procedures are according to mining laws and the licensing procedures concerning construction permits.

  14. Some design and operating aspects of the Ranger uranium mine treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baily, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental considerations were key factors in the design of the Ranger Uranium Mines treatment plant. The mine is located adjacent to the Kakadu National Park and has an average rainfall of 1.6m per annum. No contaminated water or liquid effluents are to be released from the project area and thus water management is a key design and operating fact. Particulate and gas emission criteria influenced design as did occupational hygiene factors (dust, radon, housekeeping, maintenance access). Equipment selection and engineering standards were conservative and resulted in the plant attaining design performance in less than three months from the date of commissioning. A number of mechanical and operational problems were experienced. However, none of these problems have had a significant effect on production

  15. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  16. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated by...

  17. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. A.; McGibbney, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mining is known to cause environmental degradation, but software tools to identify its impacts are lacking. However, remote sensing, spectral reflectance, and geographic data are readily available, and high-performance cloud computing resources exist for scientific research. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL) provides a suite of algorithms and documentation to leverage these data and resources to identify evidence of mining and correlate it with environmental impacts over time.COAL was originally developed as a 2016 - 2017 senior capstone collaboration between scientists at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and computer science students at Oregon State University (OSU). The COAL team implemented a free and open-source software library called "pycoal" in the Python programming language which facilitated a case study of the effects of coal mining on water resources. Evidence of acid mine drainage associated with an open-pit coal mine in New Mexico was derived by correlating imaging spectrometer data from the JPL Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer - Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG), spectral reflectance data published by the USGS Spectroscopy Laboratory in the USGS Digital Spectral Library 06, and GIS hydrography data published by the USGS National Geospatial Program in The National Map. This case study indicated that the spectral and geospatial algorithms developed by COAL can be used successfully to analyze the environmental impacts of mining activities.Continued development of COAL has been promoted by a Startup allocation award of high-performance computing resources from the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE). These resources allow the team to undertake further benchmarking, evaluation, and experimentation using multiple XSEDE resources. The opportunity to use computational infrastructure of this caliber will further enable the development of a science gateway to continue foundational COAL

  18. Hydrogeochemical Investigations of Historic Mining Districts, Central Western Slope of Colorado, Including Influence on Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This report describes reconnaissance hydrogeochemical investigations of 22 mining districts on the Western Slope of Colorado in the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests and adjacent public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Sources and fates of contaminants from historic mines, mine waste, and mill tailings are interpreted from chemical analyses for 190 samples of surface waters; 185 samples of mined rocks, mill tailings, and altered rocks; and passive leach analyses of 116 samples of those mineralized materials. Short reaches of several headwater streams show relatively low level effects of historic mining; the headwaters of the Uncompahgre River are highly contaminated by mines and unmined altered rocks in the Red Mountain district. There is encouraging evidence that natural processes attenuate mine-related contamination in most districts.

  19. Methods and means for the in-house training of mining machine operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velikanov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quality issue of the in-house training process for mining machine operators. The authors prove the urgency of the designated problem. The changes in modern society, as well as the development of science and technology have a direct impact on the vocational education system. This paper describes the main aspects of the in-house training process of mining machine operators; define the essence, structure, contents, and main directions of its revitalization. The following solutions are proposed in order to improve the quality of the in-house training process: to use the original method based on a rating system of the operator knowledge evaluation, active and interactive forms of using modern training technologies. The authors conducted testing techniques in mining enterprises with the aim of confirming the adequacy of the suggested approaches. The results are given in the work. It was proposed that the methods and tools integration has a positive impact on professional training system.

  20. Detecting voids in coal seams in surface mining by means of a biophysical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bek, E.

    1985-07-01

    Soviet research institutes, in cooperation with research intitutes from other countries, developed the Radar 1 system for detecting abandoned workings in coal seams in surface mines. The system will be used for detecting voids in seams at depths to 50 m. The Academy of Sciences of Czechoslovakia tested use of dowsing for detecting abandoned workings in the Pohranicni straz, the Brezova and the Medard coal surface mines. The workings were situated at depths from 2 to 12 m from the ground surface (dowser position). The dowser was not informed of position or dimensions of the workings. Accuracy of determining position of abandoned workings in coal seams was high. Results of dowsing were checked by drilling. 4 references.

  1. Weathering behavior of mine tailings and waste rock: A surface investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domvile, S.J.; Li, M.G.; Sollner, D.D.; Nesbitt, W.

    1994-01-01

    A study focusing on the ion movement in the near surface of sulfide minerals was conducted to better understand the weathering mechanisms of mine waste materials. Tailings and waste rock samples from Canadian mines were subjected to controlled weathering studies using various chemical leachants. Leachates were analyzed for various parameters, and petrographic analyses were conducted on the solid residues. Laboratory oxidation studies of pure pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite were carried out using the surface techniques X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The data derived from the weathering study and the surface techniques were correlated to determine mechanisms of oxidation. Several results were observed during the project: ferric iron constitutes one third of the iron present in pyrrhotite, sulfide oxidation is initiated when rock is blasted, sulfide sulfur is oxidized to di- and poly-sulfides prior to forming sulfates, and significantly more sulfate is produced upon exposure to aqueous environments than to air alone

  2. Minimization of gully erosion on reclaimed surface mines using the stable slope and sediment transport computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, R.A.; Gardner, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Disequilibrium between slope form and hydrologic and erosion processes on reclaimed surface coal mines in the humid temperate northeastern US, can result in gully erosion and sediment loads which are elevated above natural, background values. Initial sheetwash erosion is surpassed by gully erosion on reclamation sites which are not in equilibrium with post-mining hydrology. Long-term stability can be attained by designing a channel profile which is in equilibrium with the increased peak discharges found on reclaimed surface mines. The Stable Slope and Sediment transport model (SSAST) was developed to design stable longitudinal channel profiles for post-mining hydrologic and erosional processes. SSAST is an event based computer model that calculates the stable slope for a channel segment based on the post-mine hydrology and median grain size of a reclaimed surface mine. Peak discharge, which drives post-mine erosion, is calculated from a 10-year, 24-hour storm using the Soil Conservation Service curve number method. Curve number calibrated for Pennsylvania surface mines are used. Reclamation sites are represented by the rectangle of triangle which most closely fits the shape of the site while having the same drainage area and length. Sediment transport and slope stability are calculated using a modified Bagnold's equation with a correction factor for the irregular particle shapes formed during the mining process. Data from three reclaimed Pennsylvania surface mines were used to calibrate and verify SSAST. Analysis indicates that SSAST can predict longitudinal channel profiles for stable reclamation of surface mines in the humid, temperate northeastern US

  3. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  4. Suitability of dredged material for reclamation of surface-mined land. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Van Luik, A.

    1979-12-01

    Eroding ridges of acidic coal-mine spoil in La Salle County, Illinois, were leveled to form a gently-sloped raised plateau. Four test plots were constructed: a control plot and three treatment plots that received a 0.9-m-thick cover of dredged material obtained from the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago. Two treatment plots received lime applications and all plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses. Pressure-vacuum soil water samplers were installed, in duplicate, at two levels in the control plot and at three levels in each treatment plot. The three levels in the treatment plots coincided with dredged material, the dredged-material mine-spoil interface, and the underlying mine spoil. Surface water, soil water, and groundwater were monitored for 29 water-quality parameters for one year. Rainfall, air temperature, runoff, and water-level elevation data were collected also. Detailed analysis of the data indicates that the dredged material used in this study does not adversely affect water quality; it supports abundant plant growth, lessens groundwater contamination, and controls acid runoff. The dredged material is judged to be a suitable material for use in reclamation of surface-mined land.

  5. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new truck operation diagram was established, which was further developed to a basic data matrix and a production measurement model. The new model allowed to calculatethe production measurement of the transport, loading, unloading, material and etc, respectively, as well as with any calculation in combination of more than one factor as needed.It solved the compatibility issue between conventional production measurement and the production measurement of fixed assignment of truck with good practical results.

  6. The dynamic behaviour of rail vehicles operating at high speeds for manriding in British coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manen, P. van

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of trains used at high speeds for transporting men along mine railways is examined using a number of mathematical models. These models predict the responses of different rail vehicles to typical irregularities in the track, and are used to examine the guidance, the ride, and the likelihood of derailment of the main classes of manriding trains used in British coal mines. The outcome of the modelling compares favourably with the results of tests carried out on actual vehicles. The investigation has shown that the safe speed at which trains may operate is ultimately restricted by the condition of the track, but changes in the design of the vehicles can lead to an improved performance. The use of conventional wheelsets, for example, can reduce flange wear significantly and so allow higher speeds to be reached. Guidelines for the design of vehicles intended for high speed use are included in this thesis. (36 refs.)

  7. The determination of a continuous radon daughter equilibrium factor in an operating uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, D.

    1992-01-01

    Radon daughter exposures to workers at the Olympic Dam Operations copper and uranium mine are calculated from a series of grab samples obtained from various work locations around the mine. Currently under consideration is the introduction of personal passive radon dosimeters to determine the workers' radon daughter exposures. The study reported in this paper involved the determination of long-term equilibrium factors using real-time monitoring of radon and radon daughters. Consequently, variation in equilibrium factor for different tasks can be identified. In practice, the equilibrium factor varies with location and task; however, a conservative over-estimate of 0.28 can be confidently applied to all tasks. The error due to over-estimation remains minimal for all workers. This real-time monitoring method will reduce potential errors in dose assessment compared with the grab sampling technique. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  8. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertook the creation of a Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool to store data relevant to airport surface research and...

  9. 30 CFR 903.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 903.785 Section 903.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  10. 30 CFR 912.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 912.785 Section 912.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  11. 30 CFR 910.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 910.785 Section 910.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  12. 30 CFR 905.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 905.785 Section 905.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  13. 30 CFR 921.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 921.785 Section 921.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of...

  14. 30 CFR 922.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 922.785 Section 922.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  15. Guidebook on good practice in the management of uranium mining and mill operations and the preparation for their closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Over the past fifty years the uranium industry has moved from a labor-intensive industry to a 'high-tech' and capital intensive industry. Organization of knowledge, manpower and material had to change to meet the demands of several stakeholders inherent to any project and to constantly adapt to technological innovations. Today, the mission of a uranium operation is not only to make a profit while selling yellow cake to electrical power stations but also to address issues regarding safety, health, environment and demands of the regulators and the public and assure the sustainability of the operations. Good mining practice begins with the proper planning and forecasting from the discovery of a deposit to decommissioning of a mine. This report describes and defines what is considered as good practice in the various activities of a mining operation and provides an overview of the management of a single operation. As technologies are progressing rapidly in the mining industry, and as this industry is transitional, this report emphasizes the importance of training employees at all levels of the organization. The statement on good practices for the various activities of a mining operation will be useful for organizations which are planning to open new mines or intend to modernize ongoing operations. Practical examples are given in the case of histories for four different countries. The objective of this publication is not to provide strict rules on the application of good practice but to give general guidelines that can be consulted and used in many different countries

  16. Geomechanical Assessments of Simultaneous Operation in the Case of Transition from Open Pit to Underground Mine in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Nguyen, Phu Minh Vuong; Widzyk-Capehart, Eleonora

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, for a number of reasons, many open pit mines are considering a transition from Open Pit (OP) to Underground (UG) to remain competitive. In OP-UG transition, UG operation is operated simultaneously with the OP operation for a certain period of time. Guidelines for the simultaneous operation of OP and UG are very difficult to establish, as there are very few case studies available. Yet, because of the OP-UG interactions; the operation has a higher safety, technical and management requirements than the OP or UG methods when considered separately. In Vietnam, Cao Son is one of many OP mines, which decided to change the operational system from OP to UG. Simultaneous operation started in 2015 and will be conducted until 2030 when the OP mine Cao Son ends its mining activities. In this paper, selected geomechanical considerations of the simultaneous operation are presented. A number of numerical modelling calculations using finitedifference software with code FLAC were carried out for calibration process, slope stability analysis and the OP-UG interaction analysis for the Cao Son - Khe Cham II-IV mine. Based on the results obtained from numerical modelling, the geomechanical assessments of simultaneous operation Cao Son - Khe Cham II-IV are discussed in this paper.

  17. Quantifying Surface Coal-Mining Patterns to Promote Regional Sustainability in Ordos, Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Zeng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ordos became the new “coal capital” of China within a few decades since the country’s economic reform in 1978, as large-scale surface coal mining dramatically propelled its per capita GDP from being one of the lowest to one of the highest in China, exceeding Hong Kong in 2009. Surface coal-mining areas (SCMAs have continued to expand in this region during recent decades, resulting in serious environmental and socioeconomic consequences. To understand these impacts and promote regional sustainability, quantifying the spatiotemporal patterns of SCMAs is urgently needed. Thus, the main objectives of this study were to quantify the spatiotemporal patterns of SCMAs in the Ordos region from 1990 to 2015, and to examine some of the major environmental and socioeconomic impacts in the study region. We extracted the SCMAs using remote-sensing data, and then quantified their spatiotemporal patterns using landscape metrics. The loss of natural habitat and several socioeconomic indicators were examined in relation to surface coal mining. Our results show that the area of SCMAs increased from 7.12 km2 to 355.95 km2, an increase of nearly 49 times from 1990 to 2015 in the Ordos region. The number of SCMAs in this region increased from 82 to 651, a nearly seven-fold increase. In particular, Zhungeer banner (an administrative division, Yijinhuoluo banner, Dongsheng District and Dalate banner in the north-eastern part of the Ordos region had higher growth rates of SCMAs. The income gap between urban and rural residents increased along with the growth in SCMAs, undermining social equity in the Ordos region. Moreover, the rapid increase in SCMAs resulted in natural habitat loss (including grasslands, forests, and deserts across this region. Thus, we suggest that regional sustainability in Ordos needs to emphasize effective measures to curb large-scale surface coal mining in order to reduce the urban–rural income gap, and to restore degraded natural

  18. Surface water contamination by uranium Mining/Milling activities in Northern guangdong province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin; Song, Gang; Chen, Yongheng; Zhu, Li [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Juan [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Li, Hongchun [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Xiao, Tangfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China); Qi, Jianying [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-12-15

    The northern region of Guangdong Province, China, has suffered from the extensive mining/milling of uranium for several decades. In this study, surface waters in the region were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the concentrations of uranium (U), thorium (Th), and non-radioactive metals (Fe, Mn, Mg, Li, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn). Results showed highly elevated concentrations of the studied radionuclides and metals in the discharged effluents and the tailing seepage of the U mining/milling sites. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations were also observed to be overall enhanced in the recipient stream that collected the discharged effluents from the industrial site, compared to the control streams, and rivers with no impacts from the U mining/milling sites. They displayed significant spatial variations and a general decrease downstream away from upper point-source discharges of the industrial site. In addition, obvious positive correlations were found between U and Th, Fe, Zn, Li, and Co (R{sup 2} > 0.93, n = 28) in the studied water samples, which suggest for an identical source and transport pathway of these elements. In combination with present surface water chemistry and chemical compositions of uraniferous minerals, the elevation of the analyzed elements in the recipient stream most likely arose from the liquid effluents, processing water, and acid drainage from the U mining/milling facilities. The dispersion of radionuclides and hazardous metals is actually limited to a small area at present, but some potential risk should not be negligible for local ecosystem. The results indicate that environmental remediation work is required to implement and future cleaner production technology should be oriented to avoid wide dispersion of radioactivity and non-radioactive hazards in U mining/milling sites. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Triggered surface slips in the Salton Trough associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, M.J.; Boatwright, J.; Seekins, L.C.; Yule, J.D.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Surface fracturing occurred along the southern San Andreas, Superstition Hills, and Imperial faults in association with the 16 October 1999 (Mw 7.1) Hector Mine earthquake, making this at least the eighth time in the past 31 years that a regional earthquake has triggered slip along faults in the Salton Trough. Fractures associated with the event formed discontinuous breaks over a 39-km-long stretch of the San Andreas fault, from the Mecca Hills southeastward to Salt Creek and Durmid Hill, a distance from the epicenter of 107 to 139 km. Sense of slip was right lateral; only locally was there a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 13 mm. Maximum slip values in 1999 and earlier triggered slips are most common in the central Mecca Hills. Field evidence indicates a transient opening as the Hector Mine seismic waves passed the southern San Andreas fault. Comparison of nearby strong-motion records indicates several periods of relative opening with passage of the Hector Mine seismic wave-a similar process may have contributed to the field evidence of a transient opening. Slip on the Superstition Hills fault extended at least 9 km, at a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 188 to 196 km. This length of slip is a minimum value, because we saw fresh surface breakage extending farther northwest than our measurement sites. Sense of slip was right lateral; locally there was a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 18 mm, with the largest amounts found distributed (or skewed) away from the Hector Mine earthquake source. Slip triggered on the Superstition Hills fault commonly is skewed away from the earthquake source, most notably in 1968, 1979, and 1999. Surface slip on the Imperial fault and within the Imperial Valley extended about 22 km, representing a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 204 to 226 km. Sense of slip dominantly was right lateral; the right-lateral component of slip

  20. Effects on Buildings of Surface Curvature Caused by Underground Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground curvature caused by underground mining is one of the most obvious deformation quantities in buildings. To study the influence of surface curvature on buildings and predict the movement and deformation of buildings caused by ground curvature, a prediction model of the influence function on mining subsidence was used to establish the relationship between surface curvature and wall deformation. The prediction model of wall deformation was then established and the surface curvature was obtained from mining subsidence prediction software. Five prediction lines were set up in the wall from bottom to top and the predicted deformation of each line was used to calculate the crack positions in the wall. Thus, the crack prediction model was obtained. The model was verified by a case study from a coalmine in Shanxi, China. The results show that when the ground curvature is positive, the crack in the wall is shaped like a “V”; when the ground curvature is negative, the crack is shaped like a “∧”. The conclusion provides the basis for a damage evaluation method for buildings in coalmine areas.

  1. Geomorphic evaluation of erosional stability at reclaimed surface mines in northwestern Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The report identifies geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic conditions that are associated with erosion of reclaimed surface-mined lands in northwestern Colorado. The report also presents methods for determining the appropriate values of geomorphic variables that can be manipulated during reclamation to increase erosional stability. A section on geomorphic principles associated with erosion of reclaimed land surfaces is designed for use as a primer by mine personnel and reclamation planners. The areas of interest in the study were those that were reclaimed under jurisdiction of current (1988) SMCRA reclamation regulations, yet were still affected by relatively rapid erosion rates several years after reclamation activities were completed. Geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic data were collected onsite and from topographic maps. Data from reclaimed areas undergoing accelerated erosion were compared with data from reclaimed areas undergoing minimal erosion to identify conditions that controlled erosion on reclaimed surface-mined lands and to identify some postmining equilibrium landform characteristics. These data also were used to develop threshold relations

  2. USE OF BIOLOGICAL ADHESIVE FOR EFFECTIVE DUST SUPPRESSION IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Sergeevich Danilov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores modern methods of reclamation of lands disturbed processes of mining, based on monitoring disturbed lands using unmanned aircraft and dusty surfaces coated biologically active adhesive, biological foam. In the article new highly efficint methods of remote monitoring of environment components are considered on based of unmanned aircrafts. For monitoring, it is suggested to draw complexes based of small unmanned aircraft vehicle, equipped with special equipment (a digital camera, a thermal imaging camera, dust meter. Land reclamation on the biological stage is encouraged by using new bio-adhesives, developed on the basis of polysaccharides and various microorganisms. This composition helps reduce the consumption of fertilizers, pesticides and other components, pioneer in growing crops on dusty surfaces in the disturbed lands. As a result of such an event, dust discharge from the surface technogenic structures is reduced up to 10 times.

  3. 30 CFR 785.14 - Mountaintop removal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountaintop removal mining. 785.14 Section 785.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY...

  4. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steep slope mining. 785.15 Section 785.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS...

  5. Sustainable application of reciprocating gas engines operating on coal mine methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Teo, T. [Caterpillar China Investment Co., Beijing (China); Tnay, C.H. [Westrac Inc., Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    According to the World Coal Institute, coal provides 25 per cent of worldwide primary energy needs and generates 40 per cent of the world's electricity. China produces the largest amount of hard coal. The anthropogenic release of methane (CH{sub 4}) into the environment is a byproduct of the coal mining process. The global warming potential of this methane continues to draw attention around the world. In particular, China's government has recognized the need for environmental responsibility in the pursuit of greater power production. The Kyoto Protocol requires developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and targets must be met within a five-year time frame between 2008 and 2012. Sequestering coal mine methane (CMM) as an alternative fuel for reciprocating gas engine generator sets is a mature and proven technology for greenhouse gas mitigation. Prior to commissioning CMM-fueled power systems, the methane gas composition must be evaluated. An integrated systems approach can then be used to develop a CMM-fueled power project. This paper discussed the sustainable application of reciprocating gas engines operating on coal mine methane. It discussed the Kyoto Protocol, clean development mechanism, and CMM as compared to other fuel sources. It was concluded that there is considerable opportunity for growth in the Asia-Pacific region for electric power applications using CMM. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Application of underground microseismic monitoring for ground failure and secure longwall coal mining operation: A case study in an Indian mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, G. K.; Sivakumar, C.

    2018-03-01

    Longwall mining technique has been widely used around the globe due to its safe mining process. However, mining operations are suspended when various problems arise like collapse of roof falls, cracks and fractures propagation in the roof and complexity in roof strata behaviors. To overcome these colossal problems, an underground real time microseismic monitoring technique has been implemented in the working panel-P2 in the Rajendra longwall underground coal mine at South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL), India. The target coal seams appears at the panel P-2 within a depth of 70 m to 76 m. In this process, 10 to 15 uniaxial geophones were placed inside a borehole at depth range of 40 m to 60 m located over the working panel-P2 with high rock quality designation value for better seismic signal. Various microseismic events were recorded with magnitude ranging from -5 to 2 in the Richter scale. The time-series processing was carried out to get various seismic parameters like activity rate, potential energy, viscosity rate, seismic moment, energy index, apparent volume and potential energy with respect to time. The used of these parameters helped tracing the events, understanding crack and fractures propagation and locating both high and low stress distribution zones prior to roof fall occurrence. In most of the cases, the events were divided into three stage processes: initial or preliminary, middle or building, and final or falling. The results of this study reveal that underground microseismic monitoring provides sufficient prior information of underground weighting events. The information gathered during the study was conveyed to the mining personnel in advance prior to roof fall event. This permits to take appropriate action for safer mining operations and risk reduction during longwall operation.

  7. Numerical modelling of surface subsidence arising from longwall mining of steeply inclined coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, M.A.; Reddish, D.J. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The paper presents results from and the methodology of a numerical modelling investigation into the surface ground movements above longwall mining of inclined and steep seams with varying panel configurations. A modelling approach was developed using a finite difference numercial model Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC). On the basis of this methodology, representative surface subsidence profiles were simulated and the results of simulations were validated against the UK data using the Subsidence Engineer`s Handbook (SEH) and influence function methods. Furthermore, the proposed methodology was applied to two UK case histories for validation purposes. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Quantification of proportions of different water sources in a mining operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2018-04-01

    The water drained in mining operations (galleries, shafts, open pits) usually comes from different sources. Evaluating the contribution of these sources is very often necessary for water management. To determine mixing ratios, a conventional mass balance is often used. However, the presence of more than two sources creates uncertainties in mass balance applications. Moreover, the composition of the end-members is not commonly known with certainty and/or can vary in space and time. In this paper, we propose a powerful tool for solving such problems and managing groundwater in mining sites based on multivariate statistical analysis. This approach was applied to the Cobre Las Cruces mining complex, the largest copper mine in Europe. There, the open pit water is a mixture of three end-members: runoff (RO), basal Miocene (Mb) and Paleozoic (PZ) groundwater. The volume of water drained from the Miocene base aquifer must be determined and compensated via artificial recharging to comply with current regulations. Through multivariate statistical analysis of samples from a regional field campaign, the compositions of PZ and Mb end-members were firstly estimated, and then used for mixing calculations at the open pit scale. The runoff end-member was directly determined from samples collected in interception trenches inside the open pit. The application of multivariate statistical methods allowed the estimation of mixing ratios for the hydrological years 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. Open pit water proportions have changed from 15% to 7%, 41% to 36%, and 44% to 57% for runoff, Mb and PZ end-members, respectively. An independent estimation of runoff based on the curve method yielded comparable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Problem of Multiple Criteria Selection of the Surface Mining Haul Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodziony, Przemysław; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Sawicki, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Vehicle transport is a dominant type of technological processes in rock mines, and its profit ability is strictly dependent on overall cost of its exploitation, especially on diesel oil consumption. Thus, a rational design of transportation system based on haul trucks should result from thorough analysis of technical and economic issues, including both cost of purchase and its further exploitation, having a crucial impact on the cost of minerals extraction. Moreover, off-highway trucks should be selected with respect to all specific exploitation conditions and even the user's preferences and experience. In this paper a development of universal family of evaluation criteria as well as application of evaluation method for haul truck selection process for a specific exploitation conditions in surface mining have been carried out. The methodology presented in the paper is based on the principles of multiple criteria decision aiding (MCDA) using one of the ranking method, i.e. ELECTRE III. The applied methodology has been allowed for ranking of alternative solution (variants), on the considered set of haul trucks. The result of the research is a universal methodology, and it consequently may be applied in other surface mines with similar exploitation parametres.

  10. Possible use of wetlands in ecological restoration of surface mined lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, R.B.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining for coal has dramatically altered millions of hectares throughout the Appalachian region of eastern North America. Flat benches and vertical high walls have replaced well-drained slopes, and wetlands have developed 'accidentally' on abandoned benches. Surface mining is continuing in this region, but new regulations do not include specifications for wetland construction in the reclamation process. Recent research has suggested that many ecosystem services appropriate for the Appalachian landscape could be performed by constructed wetlands. Inclusion of wetland construction in a reclamation plan could lead to a net increase in wetland acreage locally, as well as offset the loss of natural and/or accidental wetlands that are constructed to enhance nontreatment goals in reclamation. Study sites included 14 emergent wetlands in Wise County, Virginia. Sampling in June and August detected a total of 94 species in 36 vascular plant facilities. Obligate wetlands species, species that occur in wetlands over 99% of the time, were found in all 14 sites and included 26 species. The presence of so many wetland species without intentional management efforts suggests that wetland establishment could become a common component of mine reclamation. 18 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Mining and information: defining the need

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.; Peck, J. [AQUILA Mining Systems Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    Some of the current technologies at surface mining operations are discussed. The information system and communication system requirements needed to integrate these components are considered. A plan of a new mine that uses operating information, optimization through planning, monitoring, and locating systems, data processing and analysis, and integration of monitored data and information via the Total Mining System (TMS) is described. The TMS will allow integration of a network of stand-alone modules. There is an immediate requirement for setting standards in surface mining operations to prevent duplication of effort. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Assessment of radiological status of Bagjata underground uranium mine operating in the east Singhbhum District of Jharkhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.K.; Meena, J.S.; Thakur, V.K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Bagjata uranium mine deposits (22 °28’ 07”N and 86°29’ 36” E) is located in Dhalmugarh subdivision of East Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. This mine was commissioned in 2008 and presently it is operating with a production capacity of 500 tonne/day. The mining of uranium ores can lead to both internal and external exposures of workers. Internal exposure arises from the inhalation of radon gas and its decay products and radionuclides in ore dust. The contribution of respirable ore dust toward internal exposure has been reported to be insignificant in a low ore grade uranium mines by several authors. Radon gas is produced by the alpha decay of 226 Ra, which is a product of the long lived antecedent uranium ( 238 U), is present in the rocks, decays to a number of short-lived decay products that are themselves radioactive. Radon gas diffuses into the mine air through cracks and fissures present in the ore body, during blasting, mucking and fragmentation of ore body in mine. The short-lived daughters, 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 214 Po, are the principal contributor to internal exposure to mine workers. Radon has been recognized as a radiation hazard causing excess lung cancer among underground miners (NAS, 1988; ATSDR, 1990). 222 Rn concentration in the mine air was estimated by using a scintillation cell technique

  13. Treatment of sulphated water of surface origin produced by an open pit coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Campos-Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to select the most suitable method of treatment of sulfated water produced by an open pit coal mine in Venezuela. Samples of water taken on surface, middle and bottom of water bodies in three areas were subjected to basic, gravimetric, volumetric and colorimetric analysis. The results indicated that the pH is within limits permitted by current environmental regulations, while total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and sulfates exceed the normed values. The aerobic wetland method was selected as the most efficient for the removal of sulfates, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the sulphated waters from the mine and because they are systems that use natural energy to purify water, its construction and maintenance costs Is significantly inferior to the conventional treatments and because, being replicas of natural ecosystems, they are integrated to the environment.

  14. Routing of platforms in a maritime surface surveillance operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grob, M.J.H.B.

    2006-01-01

    Maritime surface surveillance is the process of obtaining and maintaining information about surface ships in a certain sea area. It is carried out by maritime platforms such as frigates, helicopters or maritime patrol aircraft. Surface surveillance plays a vital role in maritime operations like

  15. Design Criteria for Wireless Mesh Communications in Underground Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Kenneth Reed

    2009-01-01

    The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act of 2006 was enacted in response to several coal mining accidents that occurred in the beginning of 2006. The MINER Act does not just require underground mines to integrate wireless communication and tracking systems, but aims to overall enhance health and safety in mining at both surface and underground operations. In 2006, the underground communication technologies available to the mining industry had inherent problems that limited ...

  16. An assessment of microbial communities associated with surface mining-disturbed overburden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, Dominique M; Cavender, Nicole; Cutright, Teresa J; Senko, John M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the microbiological changes that occur during the maturation of overburden that has been disturbed by surface mining of coal, a surface mining-disturbed overburden unit in southeastern Ohio, USA was characterized. Overburden from the same unit that had been disturbed for 37 and 16 years were compared to undisturbed soil from the same region. Overburden and soil samples were collected as shallow subsurface cores from each subregion of the mined area (i.e., land 16 years and 37 years post-mining, and unmined land). Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of overburden samples were determined, as were microbial respiration rates. The composition of microbial communities associated with overburden and soil were determined using culture-independent, nucleic acid-based approaches. Chemical and mineralogical evaluation of overburden suggested that weathering of disturbed overburden gave rise to a setting with lower pH and more oxidized chemical constituents. Overburden-associated microbial biomass and respiration rates increased with time after overburden disturbance. Evaluation of 16S rRNA gene libraries that were produced by "next-generation" sequencing technology revealed that recently disturbed overburden contained an abundance of phylotypes attributable to sulfur-oxidizing Limnobacter spp., but with increasing time post-disturbance, overburden-associated microbial communities developed a structure similar to that of undisturbed soil, but retained characteristics of more recently disturbed overburden. Our results indicate that over time, the biogeochemical weathering of disturbed overburden leads to the development of geochemical conditions and microbial communities that approximate those of undisturbed soil, but that this transition is incomplete after 37 years of overburden maturation.

  17. An operator calculus for surface and volume modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The mathematical techniques which form the foundation for most of the surface and volume modeling techniques used in practice are briefly described. An outline of what may be termed an operator calculus for the approximation and interpolation of functions of more than one independent variable is presented. By considering the linear operators associated with bivariate and multivariate interpolation/approximation schemes, it is shown how they can be compounded by operator multiplication and Boolean addition to obtain a distributive lattice of approximation operators. It is then demonstrated via specific examples how this operator calculus leads to practical techniques for sculptured surface and volume modeling.

  18. Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, P A; Gates, T E

    1999-01-01

    The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Ran...

  19. Internet technologies in the mining industry. Towards unattended mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzykawski, Michal [FAMUR Group, Katowice (Poland)

    2009-08-27

    Global suppliers of longwall systems focus mainly on maximising the efficiency of the equipment they manufacture. Given the fact that, since 2004, coal demand on world markets has been constantly on the increase, even during an economic downturn, this endeavour seems fully justified. However, it should be remembered that maximum efficiency must be accompanied by maximum safety of all underground operations. This statement is based on the belief that the mining industry, which exploits increasingly deep and dangerous coal beds, faces the necessity to implement comprehensive IT systems for managing all mining processes and, in the near future, to use unmanned mining systems, fully controllable from the mine surface. The computerisation of mines is an indispensable element of the development of the world mining industry, a belief which has been put into practice with e-mine, developed by the FAMUR Group. (orig.)

  20. Special method of coal winning in Hambach open-cast mine in 1987 using large machines in tandem operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, M; Muellensiefen, K

    1988-05-01

    In 1987 an additional 1,75 Mt coal, which were only overlain by slight layers of overburden, were won from the marginal batter system at Hambach open-cast mine by using a bucket wheel dredger with a daily output of 240 000 m/sup 3/ (solid) and at the same time bringing up the inside dump. During this working method the dredger and the spreader operated with a common belt conveyor in so-called tandem operation. Thanks to the efficient co-operation of the head planning department, field mining department, opencast mine surveying department and rock and soil mechanics department of the head office of the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG, this special coal winning operation could be completed successfully.

  1. Landuse change detection in a surface coal mine area using multi-temporal high resolution satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, N.; Duzgun, S.; Kemal Emil, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the landcover and landuse of a mine area can be caused by surface mining activities, exploitation of ore and stripping and dumping overburden. In order to identify the long-term impacts of mining on the environment and land cover, these changes must be continuously monitored. A facility to regularly observe the progress of surface mining and reclamation is important for effective enforcement of mining and environmental regulations. Remote sensing provides a powerful tool to obtain rigorous data and reduce the need for time-consuming and expensive field measurements. The purpose of this study was to conduct post classification change detection for identifying, quantifying, and analyzing the spatial response of landscape due to surface lignite coal mining activities in Goynuk, Bolu, Turkey, from 2004 to 2008. The paper presented the research algorithm which involved acquiring multi temporal high resolution satellite data; preprocessing the data; performing image classification using maximum likelihood classification algorithm and performing accuracy assessment on the classification results; performing post classification change detection algorithm; and analyzing the results. Specifically, the paper discussed the study area, data and methodology, and image preprocessing using radiometric correction. Image classification and change detection were also discussed. It was concluded that the mine and dump area decreased by 192.5 ha from 2004 to 2008 and was caused by the diminishing reserves in the area and decline in the required production. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Real time gamma monitoring for employees working in an operational underground copper / uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Cameron E.

    2010-01-01

    For many years electronic devices have been available that are compact enough to utilise for personal gamma radiation monitoring. At BHP Billiton's Olympic Dam underground copper / uranium mine two different types of electronic gamma dosimeters are being used to assess and control exposure to gamma rays present in the underground operations. Canberra Dosicards are being used as part of a program that replaced the use of monthly issued Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) badges with quarterly issue for some work groups. Two types of Polimaster gamma watches have also been introduced to specific work groups to assist with the determination of sites that may require remedial controls for their level of gamma radiation. To date, both programs have been successfully implemented into the radiation monitoring program for the underground operation and have provided dramatic improvements for the control and determination of sources of gamma radiation in the underground environment.

  3. Stakeholders' Engagement Methods for the Mining Social Responsibility Practice: Determination of Local Issues and Concerns Related to the Mines Operations in Northwest of the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, all around the world, global environmental change affects the human habitat. This is effect enhanced by the mining operation, and creates new challenges in relationship between the mining and local community. The purpose of this project are developed the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan which is currently developed in University of Nevada, Reno for the Emigrant mining project, located in the central Nevada, USA, and belong to the Newmont Mining Corporation, one of the gold production leader worldwide. The needs for this project is to create the open dialog between Newmont mining company and all interested parties which have social or environmental impacts from the Emigrant mine. Identification of the stakeholders list is first and one of the most difficult steps in the developing of mine social responsibility. Stakeholders' engagement evaluation plan must be based on the timing and available resources of the mining company, understanding the goals for the engagement, and on analyzes of the possible risks from engagement. In conclusion, the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan includes: first, determinations of the stakeholders list, which must include any interested or effected by the mine projects groups, for example: state and local government representatives, people from local communities, business partners, environmental NGOs, indigenous people, and academic groups. The contacts and availability for communication is critical for Stakeholders engagement. Next, is to analyze characteristics of all these parties and determinate the level of interest and level of their influence on the project. The next step includes the Stakeholders matrix and mapping development, where all these information will be put together.After that, must be chosen the methods for stakeholders' engagement. The methods usually depends from the goals of engagement (create the dialog lines, collect the data, determinations of the local issues and concerns, or establish

  4. Hydrology and geochemistry of a surface coal mine in northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Clark, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrology and geochemistry of a reclaimed coal mine in northwestern Colorado were monitored during water years 1988 and 1989. Some data also were collected in water years 1987 and 1990. This report describes (1) the sources of hydrologic recharge to and discharge from reclaimed spoil, (2) the relative contributions of recharge to the reclaimed spoil aquifer from identified source waters and the rate of water movement from those sources to the reclaimed spoil, and (3) the geochemical reactions that control water quality in reclaimed spoil. The study area was at a dip-slope coal mine encompassing about 7 square miles with land slopes of varying aspect. The area was instrumented and monitored at five sites; two sites had unmined and reclaimed- spoil areas adjacent to each other and three sites were unmined. The mined areas had been reclaimed. Instrumentation at the study sites included 1 climate station, 3 rain gages, 19 soil-water access tubes, 2 lysimeters, 18 wells completed in bedrock, 7 wells completed in reclaimed spoil, and 2 surface- water gaging stations. The results of the study indicate that the reclaimed spoil is recharged from surface recharge and underburden aquifers. Discharge, as measured by lysimeters, was about 3 inches per year and occurred during and after snowmelt. Hydraulic-head measurements indicated a potential for ground-water movement from deeper to shallower aquifers. Water levels rose in the reclaimed-spoil aquifer and spring discharge at the toe of the spoil slopes increased rapidly in response to snowmelt. Water chemistry, stable isotopes, geochemical models, and mass-balance calculations indicate that surface recharge and the underburden aquifers each contribute about 50 percent of the water to the reclaimed-spoil aquifers. Geochemical information indicates that pyrite oxidation and dissolution of carbonate and efflorescent sulfate minerals control the water chemistry of the reclaimed-spoil aquifer.

  5. Prime farmland disturbance from coal surface mining in the corn belt, 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D.P.

    1979-09-01

    The five midwestern states that make up the Corn Belt farm production region - Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Ohio - contain about 110 billion tons of coal reserves (19% of which are surface mineable) and 110 million acres of arable land (69% of which are prime farmlands). In 1975, this region was the site of 21% of the nation's total coal production and 50% of the nation's corn and soybean harvest. Because corn and soybeans are key elements in US foreign trade and because nearly two-thirds of the regional coal production is from surface coal mines, it is important to understand the potential conflicts that may arise between the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt. This report presents background data on the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt states, along with the results of a quantitative analysis of the potential disruption of land and associated prime farmland due to future coal surface mining activity in the region. Estimates of potential land dusruptions indicate that 452,000 acres of land, including 127,000 acres of prime farmland, could be disturbed in the period 1980-2000. Additionally, the data indicate that certain counties in the Corn Belt states may experience impacts significantly greater than the regional average would suggest.

  6. Derived surface contamination limits for the uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, S.H.

    1984-10-01

    Derived Surface Contamination Limits (DSCL) are proposed for the control of surface contamination at the work place for the uranium mining and milling industry. They have been derived by a method incorporating recent ICRP recommendations and consideration of the radiation exposure pathways of ingestion, inhalation and external irradiation of the basal layer of skin. A generalized DSCL of 10 5 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is recommended for all contaminants likely to be found in uranium mine and mill workplaces except for fresh uranium concentrates. In the latter case, the DSCL is expressed in terms of alpha activity because the ratio of beta to alpha activities for fresh uranium concentrates is variable; the beta activity increases with the ingrowth of U-238 daughter products (Th-234 and Pa-234m) until secular equilibrium is re-established in about six months. A surface contamination limit of 10 4 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is proposed for the release of non-porous materials and equipment with no detectable loose contamination to the public domain

  7. Treatment and utilization of waste waters of surface mines in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khmel' , N S

    1981-01-01

    Waste water of brown coal surface mines in the Dnieper basin is characterized. The water's pH value is 7, alkalinity ranges from 5.1 to 5.9 mg equivalent/1, it has no odor, a low mineralization level ranging from 1000 to 1100 mg/l. Concentration of mechanical impurities (suspended matter) ranges from 90 to 900 mg/l, and its maximum level can reach 5000 mg/l. An improved design of tanks in which waste water from surface mines is treated, and mechanical impurities settle, is proposed. Conventional design of a water sedimentation tank consists of a long ditch in which suspended matter settles, and a rectangular water reservoir at its end. In the improved version the long ditch is enlarged in some places to create additional tanks and to reduce velocity of flowing waste water. This improvement increases the amount of suspended matter which settles in the ditch and in its enlarged zones. When water reaches the rectangular sedimentation tank at the end of the system its suspended matter content is reduced to 40-45 mg/l. Formulae used to calculate dimensions of water treatment system, gradient of the ditch and size of sedimentation tank are presented. Methods of discharging treated waste water to surface water, rivers and stagnant waters, are evaluated. (In Russian)

  8. Effect of coal mine dust and clay extracts on the biological activity of the quartz surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, V.; Jones, R.; Rollo, K.; Duffin, R.; Donaldson, K.; Brown, D.M. [Napier University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Science

    2004-04-01

    Modification of the quartz surface by aluminum salts and metallic iron have been shown to reduce the biological activity of quartz. This study aimed to investigate the ability of water soluble extracts of coal mine dust (CMD), low aluminum clays (hectorite and montmorillonite) and high aluminum clays (attapulgite and kaolin) to inhibit the reactivity of the quartz surface. DQ12 induced significant haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes in vitro and inflammation in vivo as indicated by increases in the total cell numbers, neutrophil cell numbers, MIP-2 protein and albumin content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Treatment of DQ12 with CMD extract prevented both haemolysis and inflammation. Extracts of the high aluminum clays (kaolin and attapulgite) prevented inhibition of DQ12 induced haemolysis, and the kaolin extract inhibited quartz driven inflammation. DQ12 induced haemolysis by coal mine dust and kaolin extract could be prevented by pre-treatment of the extracts with a cation chellator. Extracts of the low aluminum clays (montmorillonite and hectorite) did not prevent DQ12 induced haemolysis, although the hectorite extract did prevent inflammation. These results suggest that CMD, and clays both low and rich in aluminum, all contain soluble components (possibly cations) capable of masking the reactivity of the quartz surface.

  9. Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha eMiazga-Rodriguez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to nine months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4 °C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10 g was added to retention pond water (100 mL amended with 5 mM ammonium and incubated at 12 °C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4 °C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20 mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass.

  10. Arsenic Concentration in the Surface Water of a Former Mining Area: The La Junta Creek, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz Lamadrid, Miguel; Acosta Vargas, Baudilio

    2018-01-01

    The mining activity in the San Antonio-El Triunfo district, located in a mountainous region at 60 km southeast of La Paz, occured for more than 250 years and left behind severe contamination of soils and riverbed sediments which led to elevated concentrations of arsenic and other trace elements in the surface- and groundwater of the region. Although the main mining activity ended around 1911, contamination is still beeing distributed, especially from left behind tailings and mine waste piles. The contamination levels in the groundwater have been reported in several studies, but there is little information available on the surface water quality, and especially the temporal variation. In this study, we analyzed the surface water of the La Junta creek, in the southern part of the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining district. The working hypothesis was that by means of a spatial analysis of surface water and shallow groundwater, in combination with the temporal observation of the concentrations in runoff water, the effects of different sources of arsenic (natural geogene anomalies, due to historic mining activity, and hydrothermal related impact) in the La Junta creek can be recognized. This present study revealed that historic mining activity caused a mojor impact of arsenic but less contamination was observed than in the northern part of the district and elevated arsenic concentrations in stream water generally occurred during times of low streamflow. PMID:29498700

  11. Diagnostic measurements on the great machines conditions of lignite surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helebrant, F.; Jurman, J.; Fries, J. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis of loading and service dependability of a rail-mounted excavator used in surface lignite mining is described. Wheel power vibrations in electric motor bearings and electric motor input bearings to the gearbox were measured in situ, in horizontal, vertical, and axial directions. The data were analyzed using a mathematical relationship. The results are presented in a loading diagram that shows the deterioration and the acceptable lower bound of machine conditions over time. Work is continuing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Ground and surface water in New Mexico: are they protected against uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, K.K.

    1978-01-01

    Inadequate funds to allow New Mexico to collect data on the effects of uranium mining and milling on ground and surface water resources and vigorous opposition by the uranium companies have made the Environmental Protection Agency reluctant to adopt the state's request for control of discharges. The state is unable to monitor for the presence of toxic materials and questions have been raised over EPA's jurisdiction over groundwater. Federal and state water pollution regulations are reviewed and weaknesses noted, particularly the effect of terrain and the limitations on regulation of navigable waters

  13. Failure rate and reliability of the KOMATSU hydraulic excavator in surface limestone mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish Kumar N., S.; Choudhary, R. P.; Murthy, Ch. S. N.

    2018-04-01

    The model with failure rate function of bathtub-shaped is helpful in reliability analysis of any system and particularly in reliability associated privative maintenance. The usual Weibull distribution is, however, not capable to model the complete lifecycle of the any with a bathtub-shaped failure rate function. In this paper, failure rate and reliability analysis of the KOMATSU hydraulic excavator/shovel in surface mine is presented and also to improve the reliability and decrease the failure rate of each subsystem of the shovel based on the preventive maintenance. The model of the bathtub-shaped for shovel can also be seen as a simplification of the Weibull distribution.

  14. Flexible automated systems of real time mining operation management: concepts, architecture, models of network engineering for data transmission and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markhasin, A.B.

    1987-11-01

    Since the mid 1960's considerable effort has been invested by the mining industry and its research institutions and by universities to create real time mining management automation systems. Some of the shortcomings which still persist in realizing the efficiency such systems can offer are due to objective and subjective factors within and outside the management systems: the creation of the component base, automation equipment, and computer technology, on the one hand, and the organization, process, engineering, and coordination of mining work on the other. This review addresses several of these shortcomings with recommendations for their solution in a primary and systematic way and suggests methods for the implementation of microprocessors and a network of flexible data transmission and processing facilities for both surface and underground mining.

  15. A practical trial to increase the coal recovery in highwall auger mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Matsui; A. Yabuki; H. Shimada; T. Sasaoka; T. Ueda; T. Yuasa

    2003-07-01

    The basic concept of auger mining is to extract coal beyond the economic limits of surface mining technology by drilling holes of an appropriate diameter size into the exposed seam of the highwall as deep as is technically, economically and operationally feasible. This method of mining is used at the final highwall of typical surface mining operations. This paper describes the auger mining systems and discusses the methods to increase the coal recovery in auger mining from a field trial at Muswell Brook mine in Hunter Valley, NSW in Australia. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Improving the extraction-and-loading process in the open mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheban A. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the explosions is the main way to prepare solid rocks for the excavation, and that results in the formation of a rock mass of uneven granulometric composition, which makes it impossible to use a conveyor quarry transport without the preliminary large crushing of the rock mass obtained during the explosion. A way to achieve the greatest technical and economic effect is the full conveyorization of quarry transport, what, in this case, ensures the sequenced-flow of transport operations, automation of management and high labor productivity. The extraction-and-loading machines are the determining factor in the performance of mining and transport machines in the technological flow of the quarry. When extracting a blasted rock mass with single-bucket excavators or loaders working in combination with bottom-hole conveyors, one uses self-propelled crushing and reloading units of various designs to grind large individual parts to fractions of conditioning size. The presence of a crushing and reloading unit in the pit-face along with the excavator requires an additional space for its placement, complicates the maneuvering of the equipment in the pit-face, and increases the number of personnel and the cost of maintaining the extraction-and-reloading operations. The article proposes an improved method for carrying out the extraction-and-loading process, as well as the design of extraction-and-grinding unit based on a quarry hydraulic excavator. The design of the proposed unit makes it possible to convert the cyclic process of scooping the rock mass into the continuous process of its loading on the bottom-hole conveyor. Using the extraction-and-grinding unit allows one to combine the processes of excavation, preliminary crushing and loading of the rock mass, which ensures an increase in the efficiency of mining operations.

  17. Biotype assessment and evaluation as a method to quantify the external costs related to surface brown coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabrna, M.; Peleska, O.

    2009-01-01

    Externalities express the uncompensated effects of human individuals on each other and on nature. Externalities include costs and benefits which impact human individuals and environment and are not included in the costs and benefits of their creators and are often defined as the differences between social costs or revenues from economic activity and private costs or revenues. Surface brown coal mining can be characterized by a large range of adverse environmental effects. In order to compensate for the environmental damage caused by mining activities in the Czech Republic, various environmental fees paid by mining companies were introduced to the Czech legislation. The Hessian method of quantifying impacts on the environment is an expert methods that is appropriate for the evaluating environmental damage caused by large-scale impacts on landscape. This paper described the methodology of the Hessian method and its application to a selected opencast mine in north-western Bohemia called the Vrsany-Sverma mine. The paper also discussed current environmental charges in the Czech Republic. It was concluded that the calculated amount of environmental damage caused by surface mining balances the amount of environmental fees currently paid by mining companies. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Soil-characterization and soil-amendment use on coal surface mine lands: An annotated bibliography. Information Circular/1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norland, M.R.; Veith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines Report on United States and Canadian Literature pertaining to soil characterization and the use of soil amendments as a part of the reclamation process of coal surface-mined lands contains 1,280 references. The references were published during the 1977 to 1988 period. Each reference is evaluated by keywords, providing the reader with a means of rapidly sorting through the references to locate those articles with the coal mining regions and subjects of interest. All references are annotated

  19. CSIR Division of Mining Technology annual review 1993/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Division of Mining Technology of the CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research) works in partnership with the mining industry to solve problems threatening the health, safety and well-being of the workforce, and the productivity of mining operations through the development and implementation of knowledge and technology. The annual review describes the Division's research projects in the following field: rock engineering (for gold, platinum and coal mining); mining environment; occupational hygiene; surface environment; and mining equipment and systems (systems and equipment, orebody information, coal mining and causes of accidents). Details are also given of the Division's publications, research and consultancy services and information centre.

  20. Mines in the Four Corners anticipate growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-02-15

    Productive mines in the southwest deplete reserves, while the government drags its heels on new power projects. Production in Arizona and New Mexico has fallen 18% over the last four years to 34.1 million tons. With Chevron Mining's McKinley mine rapidly depleting its reserves the industry will continue to contract. In the last three years at least three large mines in the Four Corners have terminated operations. Three others remain captive operations: BHP Billiton's San Juan Underground and Navajo Surface operations and Peabody Energy's Kayenta surface mine. In 2006 the Black Mesa mine stopped producing coal. These four mines are isolated from the national railways. Peabody's new El Segundo surface mine near Grants, NM is increasing production. If the planned $3 billion Desert Rock coal-fired power plant is built this will present a new market for the Navajo mine. The article gives details about the state of the aforementioned mines and of the new King II coal mine on the northern periphery of the San Juan basin and discusses the state of plans for the Desert Rock Energy Project. 5 photos.

  1. Arsenic transport in groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone of a mine-influenced stream-aquifer system

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Brendan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the transport of dissolved arsenic in groundwater, surface water and the hyporheic zone in a stream-aquifer system influenced by an abandoned arsenopyrite mine. Mine tailing piles consisting of a host of arsenic-bearing minerals including arsenopyrite and scorodite remain adjacent to the stream and represent a continuous source of arsenic. Arsenic loads from the stream, springs, and groundwater were quantified at the study reach on nine dates from January to August 2005 and ...

  2. Evaluation of environmental impacts of uranium mining and milling operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, M.; Lopez Romero, A.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium mining and production activities have been carried out by ENUSA since 1973. This report describes the evaluation of environmental aspects connected with uranium mining and milling. (author). 7 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Thirteen-year hardwood tree performance on a Midwest surface mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, W.C.; Kolar, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa Michx.), and pin oak (Q. palustris Muenchh.) seedlings were planted both fall 1980 and spring 1981 on mixed overburden strip-mining banks (ungraded), mixed overburden graded to approximate original contour (AOC) (graded), mixed overburden graded to AOC wit h 60 cm of replaced pre-mining surface soil materials (topsoil), and on old fields near the strip-mine (unmined). Black walnut and pin oak were also planted as seed, with a total of 6000 seedlings/seed spots in the study. Initial species field viability ranged from 86 to 100%. With one exception, after 3 growing seasons oak seedlings had 50% or greater survival. Survival was mostly lower after 3 years with some additional mortality by years 8 and 13. Height and diameter breast height were measured after 13 years. Survival and growth of trees planted fall or spring was similar overall with variable performance by species. Seedlings of several species on the ungraded site had over 50% survival after 13 years, with fewer trees where planted as seed. Mean height of all species combined was significantly greater on the ungraded than on any other site and was lowest on the topsoil site. The unmined sites had high variability in species survival and height. Better reclamation with trees resulted from a deep, well-drained rooting medium with minimal compaction and a mineral-rich surface soil including coarse fragments over 2 mm in size for long-term productivity

  4. Assessment of mercury erosion by surface water in Wanshan mercury mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, ZhiHui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-08-01

    Soil erosion is a main cause of land degradation, and in its accelerated form is also one of the most serious ecological environmental problems. Moreover, there are few studies on migration of mercury (Hg) induced by soil erosion in seriously Hg-polluted districts. This paper selected Wanshan Hg mining area, SW China as the study area. Revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and Geographic information system (GIS) methods were applied to calculate soil and Hg erosion and to classify soil erosion intensity. Our results show that the soil erosion rate can reach up to 600,884tkm(-2)yr(-1). Surfaces associated with very slight and extremely severe erosion include 76.6% of the entire land in Wanshan. Furthermore, the cumulative erosion rates in the area impacted by extremely severe erosion make up 90.5% of the total. On an annual basis, Hg surface erosion load was predicted to be 505kgyr(-1) and the corresponding mean migration flux of Hg was estimated to be 3.02kgkm(-2)yr(-1). The erosion loads of Hg resulting from farmland and meadow soil were 175 and 319kgyr(-1) respectively, which were enhanced compared to other landscape types due to the fact that they are generally located in the steep zones associated with significant reclamation. Contributing to establish a mass balance of Hg in Wanshan Hg mining area, this study supplies a dependable scientific basis for controlling soil and water erosion in the local ecosystems. Land use change is the most effective way for reducing Hg erosion load in Wanshan mining area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Uranium mine venting during operation of self-propelled Diesel engine mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemer, M.

    1983-01-01

    A draft directive has been issued for the ventilation of uranium mines which takes into consideration the concentration of radon daughter products, radon volume activity as well as the concentration of harmful wastes emitted by the Diesel engines of mining mechanisms. The mathematical relations are given for the calculation of the required amount of pure mine winds. Also listed are the technical requirements for ventilation, dust emission and the control and maintenance of mining mechanisms. (M.D.)

  6. Environmental assessment related to the operation of Hansen uranium mill project, WM-24, Cyprus Mines Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental assessment was prepared by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, in response to a request for technical assistance from the State of Colorado in connection with licensing action on the proposed Cyprus Mines Corporation, Hansen uranium project. The major components of discussion are (1) a summary and recommended licensing conditions, (2) a description of the site environment and the proposed facility operation as well as alternatives in comparison with NRC's performance objectives for tailings management, and (3) a radiological assessment for estimating the facility's compliance with 10 CFR 20 and 40 CFR 190 dose regulations. The NRC recommends licensing the proposed mill subject to stipulated license conditions

  7. Influence of surface mining on ground water (effects and possibilities of prevention)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libicki, J

    1977-01-01

    This article analyzes the negative impact of surface mining on ground water. The effects of water depression on water supply for households and industry, and for vegetation and agriculture are evaluated. The negative impact of lowering the ground water level under various water conditions are analyzed: (1) vegetation is supplied with water only by rainfall, (2) vegetation is supplied with water in some seasons by rainfall and in some by ground water, and (3) vegetation uses ground water only. The impact of deteriorating water supply on forests is discussed. Problems connected with storage of waste materials in abandoned surface mines are also discussed. The influence of black coal ash and waste material from coal preparation plants on ground water is analyzed: penetration of some elements and chemical compounds to the ground water and its pollution. Some preventive measures are proposed: injection of grout in the bottom and walls of storage areas to reduce their permeability (organic resins can also be used but they are more expensive). The distance between injection boreholes should be 15 to 20 m. Covering the bottom of the storage area with plastic sheets can also be applied.

  8. Remote sensing for investigations of woodlands impacted by lignite open surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarski, M. [ILV-Fernerkundung GmbH, Teltow (Germany); Lohstraeter, O. [Abteilung Markscheidewesen, MIBRAG mbH, Theissen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    The development of a long term monitoring concept for post-mining landscapes and mine surroundings as ordered by the company MIBRAG requires different preliminary studies. Objectives of these methodologically oriented analyses presented were the recording of ecologically relevant parameters, their changes and of possible effects caused by the mining activities in the flood plains of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder' situated between the open surface lignite mines 'Vereinigtes Schleenhain' and 'Profen' south of Leipzig. Besides other information, repeatedly generated satellite data of the SPOT system was prepared for research of various vegetation types, selected by certain criteria for a long term monitoring. The satellite data analysis methodology and research findings are presented. The generation of radiometrical and comparable data records using the atmosphere correction software 'ATCOR' as part of the image processing system 'ERDAS IMAGINE' and the evaluation of the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index NDVI are important parts of the analysis. Based on deciduous woodland maps near the rivers of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder', which were categorised as ecologically valuable, statistical analyses were made using the vegetation status evaluated by remote sensing. As a result, tendencies of vegetation change are demonstrated. To obtain more details about special relations between vegetation development and remote sensing data, further research is necessary involving spectral features of deciduous plant canopy and their causalities. Future gathering of high-precision geometric and radiometric (digital airborne) data is one way of reaching more detailed information of the objects in question. The high geometric accuracy of digital camera data (by DMC) and the color bands are benefits for the mining company which can now replace regular air-borne surveying made with analogous technology

  9. Mining soil phosphorus by zero P-application: an effective method to reduce the risk of P loading to surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Chardon, W.J.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to find field evidence for the effectiveness of P-mining to reduce the risk of P leaching to surface water. In 2002, a P-mining was conducted on four grassland sites in the Netherlands on sand (two sites), peat and clay soils. The mining plots received no P and an annual N surplus of

  10. Reclamation Strategies and Geomorphic Outcomes in Coal Surface Mines of Eastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M.; Jaeger, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Coal surface mining is a significant landscape disturbance in the United States. Since 1977, the reclamation of mined lands has been regulated by the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). Prior to the act, many coalfields were left un-reclaimed or partially reclaimed, with highly irregular topology and drainage networks. Under the act, the reverse is often true; adherence to SMCRA often leads to the homogenization of surfaces and channel networks. While both pre and post-SMCRA landscapes are highly altered, they exhibit strongly dissimilar characteristics. We examine pre-SMCRA, post-SMCRA and unmined watersheds at 3 spatial scales in order to compare the geomorphic differences between reclamation strategies. In particular, we attempt to separate anthropogenic factors from pre-existing, natural factors via comparisons to unmined watersheds. Our study design incorporates a 3 scale top-down analysis of 21 independent watersheds (7 of each treatment type). Each watershed has an area of approximately 1km2. All watersheds share similar geography, climate and geology. At the landscape scale, characteristics are derived from 0.762m (2.5ft) resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). At the channel network scale, DEMs, as well as remote sensing data (including the National Wetlands Inventory database) are used. Finally, the reach scale incorporates longitudinal and cross-section surveys (using a total station) as well as a particle size distribution. At each scale, attributes are parameterized for statistical comparison. Post-SMCRA sites are characterized by a general reduction of watershed surface slopes (11.9% median) compared to pre-SMCRA (19.3%) and unmined (19.8%) sites. Both pre and post-SMCRA channel networks are characterized by significant surface impoundments (in the form of remnant headwall trenches on pre-SMCRA sites and engineered retention basins on post-SMCRA sites). Pre-SMCRA outlet reaches have significantly steeper bed slopes (2.79% mean) than

  11. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  12. Local community opinions regarding the socio-environmental aspects of lignite surface mining: Experiences from central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badera, Jarosław; Kocoń, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Surface lignite mining covers large areas and usually generates social conflicts which pose one of several energy security threats to certain states. Therefore, defining the social conditions determines the success of a mining project. Two communes were chosen for a public opinion study: Kleszczów, where the Bełchatów mine is located, and Złoczew, where a lignite deposit will soon be developed. The analysis shows, as opposed to other areas in Poland that have been projected for development, that both local communities are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. In both cases, awareness about the profits was stronger than anxiety about the investment's negative effects. However, most inhabitants could not assess the mining company's diligence concerning its responsibility for mining damages as well as the diligence of external experts assessing the environmental impacts of excavation. Most respondents also could not assess if the legal regulations of public participation in the decision process were sufficient, but the negative opinions outweighed the positive ones. From the perspective of the energy policy, dialogue-type social communication is needed for every case of a new energy-mining project. Research on local public opinion should be the first step to opening up a social debate. - Highlights: • Lignite mining can generate social conflicts, which may threaten energy security. • Examined communes are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. • Inhabitants cannot assess if the legal regulations of mining activity are sufficient. • From the perspective of the energy policy, broader social communication is needed. • Research on the public opinion should be the first step to open up a social debate

  13. A review on the importance of metals and metalloids in atmospheric dust and aerosol from mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Taylor, Mark P; Gao, Song; Landázuri, Andrea; Betterton, Eric A; Sáez, A Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Contaminants can be transported rapidly and over relatively long distances by atmospheric dust and aerosol relative to other media such as water, soil and biota; yet few studies have explicitly evaluated the environmental implications of this pathway, making it a fundamental but understudied transport mechanism. Although there are numerous natural and anthropogenic activities that can increase dust and aerosol emissions and contaminant levels in the environment, mining operations are notable with respect to the quantity of particulates generated, the global extent of area impacted, and the toxicity of contaminants associated with the emissions. Here we review (i) the environmental fate and transport of metals and metalloids in dust and aerosol from mining operations, (ii) current methodologies used to assess contaminant concentrations and particulate emissions, and (iii) the potential health and environmental risks associated with airborne contaminants from mining operations. The review evaluates future research priorities based on the available literature and suggest that there is a particular need to measure and understand the generation, fate and transport of airborne particulates from mining operations, specifically the finer particle fraction. More generally, our findings suggest that mining operations play an important but underappreciated role in the generation of contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosol and the transport of metal and metalloid contaminants, and highlight the need for further research in this area. The role of mining activities in the fate and transport of environmental contaminants may become increasingly important in the coming decades, as climate change and land use are projected to intensify, both of which can substantially increase the potential for dust emissions and transport. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Review on the Importance of Metals and Metalloids in Atmospheric Dust and Aerosol from Mining Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Taylor, Mark P.; Gao, Song; Landázuri, Andrea; Betterton, Eric A.; Sáez, A. Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Contaminants can be transported rapidly and over relatively long distances by atmospheric dust and aerosol relative to other media such as water, soil and biota; yet few studies have explicitly evaluated the environmental implications of this pathway, making it a fundamental but understudied transport mechanism. Although there are numerous natural and anthropogenic activities that can increase dust and aerosol emissions and contaminant levels in the environment, mining operations are notable with respect to the quantity of particulates generated, the global extent of area impacted, and the toxicity of contaminants associated with the emissions. Here we review (i) the environmental fate and transport of metals and metalloids in dust and aerosol from mining operations, (ii) current methodologies used to assess contaminant concentrations and particulate emissions, and (iii) the potential health and environmental risks associated with airborne contaminants from mining operations. The review evaluates future research priorities based on the available literature and suggest that there is a particular need to measure and understand the generation, fate and transport of airborne particulates from mining operations, specifically the finer particle fraction. More generally, our findings suggest that mining operations play an important but underappreciated role in the generation of contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosol and the transport of metal and metalloid contaminants, and highlight the need for further research in this area. The role of mining activities in the fate and transport of environmental contaminants may become increasingly important in the coming decades, as climate change and land use are projected to intensify, both of which can substantially increase the potential for dust emissions and transport. PMID:22766428

  15. SARDA: An Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is an integrated decision support tool for airlines and air traffic control tower enabling surface collaborative decision making (CDM) and departure metering in order to enhance efficiency of surface operations at congested airports. The presentation describes the concept and architecture of the SARDA as a CDM tool, and the results from a human-in-the-loop simulation of the tool conducted in 2012 at the FutureFlight Central, the tower simulation facility. Also, presented is the current activities and future plan for SARDA development. The presentation was given at the meeting with the FAA senior advisor of the Surface Operations Office.

  16. Automatic identification in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, D; Patrick, C [Mine Computers and Electronics Inc., Morehead, KY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of monitoring the locations and vital statistics of equipment and personnel in surface and underground mining operations has increased with advancements in radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This paper addresses the use of RFID technology, which is relatively new to the mining industry, to track surface equipment in mine pits, loading points and processing facilities. Specific applications are discussed, including both simplified and complex truck tracking systems and an automatic pit ticket system. This paper concludes with a discussion of the future possibilities of using RFID technology in mining including monitoring heart and respiration rates, body temperatures and exertion levels; monitoring repetitious movements for the study of work habits; and logging air quality via personnel sensors. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Remining to reclaim abandoned mined lands: Virginia's initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, C.E.; Lambert, B.

    1998-01-01

    Abandoned Mined Lands (AML) are lands that were mined prior to implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) in 1977, but were inadequately reclaimed. Re-mining of AML is being conducted on a routine basis by coal-mining operations in eastern states such as Virginia. Re-mining is a potentially important means of reclaiming AML. However, under current policies, re-mining operations often fail to permit and reclaim priority 1, 2, and 3 AML, especially those areas which present the most severe environmental problems. This paper describes policy issues which affect the potential for AML reclamation by re-mining operations in mountainous mining areas, such as Virginia; efforts underway in Virginia which seek to resolve those issues; and progress achieved to date under that initiative

  18. Seismicity induced by mining operations in the surrounding of the uranium ore mine Schlema-Alberoda; Bergbauinduzierte Seismizitaet im Umfeld der Uranerzgrube Schlema-Alberoda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Olaf [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany). Abt. Koordinierung/Markscheidewesen; Hiller, Axel [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany). Geologisches Archiv

    2013-02-15

    The uranium mine Schlema-Alberoda of the Wismut GmbH (Chemnitz, Federal Republic of Germany) is situated in the Westerzgebirge between the villages Aue, Schneeberg and Hartenstein. This 22 km{sup 2} large area contains the villages Bad Schlema with the districts Oberschlema, Niederschlema and Wildbach as well as the district Alberode of the village Aue. The most important waters are the Zwickauer Mulde flowing through this territory from the south to the north. This territory can be designated as a densely populated low mountain range landscape being characterized by mining operations for centuries. Subsequently to the year 1945, the former Soviet 'Saxonian mining administration' started the first explorations on uranium ores inter alia in the area around Schneeberg and Schlema. In the year 1946, the intensive exploration and exploitation began in the health resort Oberschlema well-known by the existence of water containing radium. Up to the year 1959, the part deposit Oberschlema was dismantled. The dismantling ranged till to a depth of 750 m. With the expansion of the explorations in north-western direction, in 1948 the first uranium containing corridors of the part deposit Niederschlema-Alberoda was verified. The mining activities began in the year 1949 and culminated in the midst of the 1960ies with an annual production of more than 4,000 tons of uranium. The 1,800 m floor level as the deepest floor level was reached in the year 1986. A total of 49.5 million cubic meters of rocks was dissolved, and a total of 80,500 tons of uranium ores was mined. These were nearly 35% of the total production of the former Soviet-German public limited company Wismut (SDAG Wismut).

  19. Control and evaluation methodology of reclaimed surfaces in coal mines; Metodologia para el Seguimiento y Evaluacion de Superficies Restauradas en Minas de Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to establish a control and evaluation methodology of reclaimed surfaces in coal mines, ash dumps,... etc. to be applied especially in locations with limited availability of ton soil, and to be used by mining companies to establish an internal quality control of the reclamation carried out. This methodology has been developed based on the evaluation of the results obtained from the reclamation that Endesa carries out at the Puentes mine. An operating and simplified method which may be adopted by smaller sites has been developed. This project has been carried out during the period 1994-1996 and includes a study about the physicochemical conditions of reclaimed surfaces, soil organisms study and about vegetation productivity associated to micorrizae. The conclusions and recommendations obtained include reclamation techniques (study and management of the deposit dumped, top soil management, addition of basic correctors, fertilization, top soil and maintenance works) and reclaimed surface control techniques (physicochemical soil conditions, soil organisms and vegetation). (Author)

  20. Hybrid electrical generation system utilizing wind, diesel and hydropower for operation of an underground zinc mine in southern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridley, Norman [Minera El Toqui (Chile); Banto, Marcelo [Seawind Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid electrical generation system used for underground zinc mine operations that utilizes wind, diesel and hydropower. This mine is located in Coyhaique and had a total energy consumption of 32,567 MWh in 2010 which is anticipated to increase by 25% in 2011. Power generation in this mine is independent of the power grid. It consists of four main portals: ventilation, electrical and drainage systems and ramp access to all mining zones. The technical details for all the parts of the mine and the hybrid generation system are given. A tabular form shows the energy consumed every month from 2005-2010 for all three systems involved, namely wind power generation, diesel generation and the hydro generation system. Benefits of this hybrid system include stability and constant power generation under variable loads. This system can also be applied to other mines using a grid. From the study it can be concluded that the hybrid system is environmentally friendly, economical and sustainable.

  1. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 and Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 is an excavation robot for mining regolith on a planet like Mars. The robot is programmed using the Robotic Operating System (ROS) and it also uses a physical simulation program called Gazebo. This internship focused on various functions of the program in order to make it a more professional and efficient robot. During the internship another project called the Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator was worked on. This is a robot that is designed to dig through sand and extract sample material. The intern worked on programming the Sand-Swimming robot, and designing the electrical system to power and control the robot.

  2. 30 CFR 57.22204 - Main fan operation and inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation and inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22204 Section 57.22204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Main fan operation and inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). Main fans shall be— (a) Provided...

  3. An Australian perspective on environmental protection at uranium mines during the operational and post-operational phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, S.

    1996-01-01

    A high level of public interest surrounds uranium mining in Australia near Kakadu National Park, and government regulatory and audit systems are in place to deliver a high level of environmental protection. There is considered to be no significant level of radiological risk of the environment, although there is evidence of radio accumulation in some organisms which is relevant to calculation of radiological dose to Aboriginal communities pursuing a traditional lifestyle in the region. Assessment of environmental risk focuses mainly on water chemistry, where the main contaminants are uranium, sulphate, and magnesium. Assessment of ecosystem health are made mainly on the basis of whole effluent tests. Post-operational protection is aimed at achieving rehabilitation compatible with likely future land use: mainly wilderness and traditional Aboriginal foraging and occasional occupation. Passive management systems with landscapes and vegetation similar to the preexisting condition, and a high degree of chemical, radiological and physiographic stability for the long term (<10000 years) are key objectives in rehabilitation planning and execution

  4. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  5. Operational Decision Support for Material Management in Continuous Mining Systems: From Simulation Concept to Practical Full-Scale Implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soleymani Shishvan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Material management in opencast mines is concerned with planning, organizing, and control of the flow of materials from their extraction points to destinations. It can be strongly affected by operational decisions that have to be made during the production process. To date, little research has focused on the application of simulation modeling as a powerful supportive tool for decision making in such systems. Practical experiences from implementing a simulation model of a mine for the operational support on an industrial scale are not known to the authors. This paper presents the extension of a developed stochastic simulation model by the authors from a conceptual stage (TRL4 to a new Technology Readiness Level (TRL 6 by implementing it in an industrially relevant environment. A framework for modeling, simulation, and validation of the simulation model applied to two large opencast lignite mines is presented in detail. Operational implementation issues, experiences, and challenges in practical applications are discussed. Furthermore, the strength of applying the simulation modeling as an operational decision support for material management in coal mining is demonstrated. Results of the case studies are used to describe the details of the framework, and to illustrate the strength and limitations of its application.

  6. 78 FR 13379 - Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; Proposed Mining Plan of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ...] Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; Proposed Mining Plan of Operations AGENCY: National...) unpatented placer claims within Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. Public Availability: This plan...: Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Headquarters, Mile 106.8 Richardson Highway, Post Office Box...

  7. Operational decision support for material management in continuous mining systems : From simulation concept to practical full-scale implementations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleymani Shishvan, M.; Benndorf, J.

    2017-01-01

    Material management in opencast mines is concerned with planning, organizing, and control of the flow of materials from their extraction points to destinations. It can be strongly affected by operational decisions that have to be made during the production process. To date, little research has

  8. Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9 months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10 g) was added to retention pond water (100 mL) amended with 5 mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20 mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass.

  9. Water treatment strategy for underground and surface waters in order to reduce the hydro-network contamination due to close out of a uranium mining area in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, D.; Radulescu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the present circumstances, in correlation with the national nuclear program and strategy, it is foreseen to stop the exploitation activities in two important uranium mining areas from Romania. This close-out action is involving a number of technical decisions for environmental restoration. Reduction of waters radioactive contamination in these zones, both during the operating period and after the closeout period, is one of the main components of the environment rehabilitation strategy. In this paper there are presented the today situation and the program foreseen for ground and surface water treatment at an uranium mining unit situated in the SW side of Romania, program based on the results of our own research carried out to decrease the content of pollutant radioactive elements. (author)

  10. Close-out concepts for the Elliot Lake uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, K.B.; Chakravatti, J.L.; Gorber, D.M.; Knapp, R.A.; Davis, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the Elliot Lake area, approximately 100 million tonnes of tailings have been generated and deposited in ten separate management areas covering a total of 460 hectares. With continued placement of tailings into land-based management areas, the ultimate combined area covered with tailings would be in the order of 1500 to 2000 hectares. The principal environmental concerns associated with the land-based management areas in the long term (after mining has ceased), as seen by the Canadian regulatory authorities, are the potential of acid generation from pyrite oxidation, and the release and migration of radionuclides into air and water. The development of close-out criteria and concepts, therefore, has focussed on addressing these concerns. A position paper was issued for comment by the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board on long-term aspects of uranium tailings management. In response, three of the uranium companies, Rio Algom Limited, Denison Mines Limited, and Eldorado Nuclear Limited, have countered with their own position and supported it with the extensive research on close-out procedures that has been carried out on their properties. The companies' position is that regulations should allow for site specific solutions and that institutional control is a valid long-term control option. As radiological loadings to air and water in the long term will be less than during operations, the only long-term concern in Elliot Lake is pyrite oxidation. Research has indicated that pyrite oxidation can be controlled in the upper zone of tailings. A summary of options available to control pyrite oxidation in this upper zone, including vegetation, limestone addition, pyrite removal, and physical cover is presented as well as preliminary cost estimates of each alternative. (author)

  11. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  12. Role of soil health in maintaining environmental sustainability of surface coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Peter M; Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott; Jones, Alice L; Rowe, Harold; Martin, Darren; Bryson, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) in the Southern Appalachian forest region greatly impacts both soil and aquatic ecosystems. Policy and practice currently in place emphasize water quality and soil stability but do not consider upland soil health. Here we report soil organic carbon (SOC) measurements and other soil quality indicators for reclaimed soils in the Southern Appalachian forest region to quantify the health of the soil ecosystem. The SOC sequestration rate of the MCM soils was 1.3 MgC ha(-1) yr(-1) and stocks ranged from 1.3 ± 0.9 to 20.9 ± 5.9 Mg ha(-1) and contained only 11% of the SOC of surrounding forest soils. Comparable reclaimed mining soils reported in the literature that are supportive of soil ecosystem health had SOC stocks 2.5-5 times greater than the MCM soils and sequestration rates were also 1.6-3 times greater. The high compaction associated with reclamation in this region greatly reduces both the vegetative rooting depth and infiltration of the soil and increases surface runoff, thus bypassing the ability of soil to naturally filter groundwater. In the context of environmental sustainability of MCM, it is proposed that the entire watershed ecosystem be assessed and that a revision of current policy be conducted to reflect the health of both water and soil.

  13. Measurement of sub-surface strata behaviour in bord and pillar mining: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ranigunj coalfield (India) has been facing significant problems due to subsidence as a result of underground mining of coal seams. The occurrence of the thick seams in close proximity, shallow depth, great variation in the nature of superincumbent strata from site to site, followed by the slow rate of extraction, has aggravated subsidence problems. In the recent past, many such workings have collapsed, damaging a large number of surface structures. In view of the aforesaid need, a comprehensive project financed by the Ministry of Energy (Coal), was undertaken by the Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, at a Colliery in Ranigunj Coalfield. This investigation revealed that the caving horizon occurred at 4 times the extracted seam height, which differs from the findings in the UK, USA, and Australia. Also, it appears possible to estimate strata displacements from geological and physicomechanical information from the overlying rocks using the bending moment principle. Further, it was observed that the shallow workings could give rise to a sink hole type of subsidence, which is dangerous and could adversely affect the environment, safety of the public and properties. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  14. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF OPTIMAL VOLTAGE LEVEL FOR THE POWER SUPPLY OF DEEP MINE OPERATING HORIZONS

    OpenAIRE

    Shkrabets, F. P.; Ostapchuk, O. V.; Kozhevnikov, A. V.; Akulov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The most perspective option for possible deep mine power supply is the one with the deep input of 35 kV voltage by installing of underground 35kV/6 kV substation. This option is caused by the expected level of electrical loads, provided by mine development, the power consumers’ deep layout (considering the distance from the source to the shaft on the surface and from the shaft to the underground substation chamber) and primary and the most responsible power consumers (blind shaft lifting devi...

  15. Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Atiemo, M.A.; Markham, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

  16. 4D and 2D superconformal index with surface operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2011-08-01

    We study the superconformal index of the mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Milles theory on S 3 × S 1 with the half BPS superconformal surface operator (defect) inserted at the great circle of S 3. The half BPS superconformal surface operators preserve the same supersymmetry as well as the symmetry of the chemical potential used in the definition of the superconformal index, so the structure and the parameterization of the superconformal index remain unaffected by the presence of the surface operator. On the surface defect, a two-dimensional (4, 4) superconformal field theory resides, and the four-dimensional super-conformal index may be regarded as a superconformal index of the two-dimensional (4, 4) superconformal field theory coupled with the four-dimensional bulk system. We construct the matrix model that computes the superconformal index with the surface operator when it couples with the bulk mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Milles theory through the defect hypermultiplets on it.

  17. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Surface Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Attributes include mine...

  18. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  19. Cost of mining Eastern coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper, Chapter 7.2.3 of the 'surface mining' reference book, gives an example of how the cost of mining a ton of coal is calculated. Conditions set down are for a coal tract of 50.6 ha in West Virginia, USA to be mined by the contour surface method, the seam being 101.6cm thick. Elements of the costing are: permitting and bonding costs, engineering and construction costs, equipment and other operating expenses (such as hauling and wheeling), royalties, direct taxes and fees, costs of revegetation, and employment costs (payroll and medical expenses). 5 tabs

  20. Comparison of discrete Hodge star operators for surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2016-05-10

    We investigate the performance of various discrete Hodge star operators for discrete exterior calculus (DEC) using circumcentric and barycentric dual meshes. The performance is evaluated through the DEC solution of Darcy and incompressible Navier–Stokes flows over surfaces. While the circumcentric Hodge operators may be favorable due to their diagonal structure, the barycentric (geometric) and the Galerkin Hodge operators have the advantage of admitting arbitrary simplicial meshes. Numerical experiments reveal that the barycentric and the Galerkin Hodge operators retain the numerical convergence order attained through the circumcentric (diagonal) Hodge operators. Furthermore, when the barycentric or the Galerkin Hodge operators are employed, a super-convergence behavior is observed for the incompressible flow solution over unstructured simplicial surface meshes generated by successive subdivision of coarser meshes. Insofar as the computational cost is concerned, the Darcy flow solutions exhibit a moderate increase in the solution time when using the barycentric or the Galerkin Hodge operators due to a modest decrease in the linear system sparsity. On the other hand, for the incompressible flow simulations, both the solution time and the linear system sparsity do not change for either the circumcentric or the barycentric and the Galerkin Hodge operators.

  1. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  2. Effects of coal mining on ground and surface water quality, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R G

    1977-07-01

    Water quality data are compared. Areas disturbed extensively either by surface or underground mining for bituminous coal in Monongalia County, West Virginia yield water of poorer quality than similar terrain which is not so disturbed. Specifically, the disturbed areas yield hard water of the calcium-sulfate or calcium-magnesium-sulfate type which is low in pH, high in iron and aluminum, and which contains trace elements one or more orders of magnitude greater than water from undisturbed terrain. These hard waters differ from the more common type of hard waters in that sulfate rather than bicarbonate is the dominant anion. As such they may provide further insight into factors affecting the relationship between water hardness and cardiovascular disease rates. The necessary additional data are being collected.

  3. The effect of coal surface mine reclamation on lepidopteran populations in Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, K.D.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The goals of this research are to determine whether lepidopteran communities of reclaimed coal surface mines approximate those of the surrounding, unmined hardwood forests and which habitat variables are influencing lepidopteran communities on these sites. Surveys of 19 reclaimed and hardwood sites during the 1992 field season indicate that the lepidopteran fauna of reclaimed sites does not resemble that of the surrounding hardwoods. While plant species richness is not significantly correlated with lepidopteran species richness, multivariate analysis suggests that vegetative community composition has a strong influence on lepidopteran community composition. Nectar abundance is important in explaining butterfly species richness. While the number of species in reclaimed sites is similar to the number in the surrounding hardwoods, reclaimed sites tend to host widespread, r-selected species, which raises questions on the value of reclaimed sites in conserving less common

  4. Relocation of belt conveyors along the final slope of the Belacevac surface coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, N; Rosic, Z

    1987-07-01

    Describes how following a landslide on the northern wing of the Belacevac surface coal mine the belt conveyor lines had to be relocated in order to assure a reliable coal supply to the Kosovo A and Kosovo B thermal power stations. The relocation was achieved in three phases with new approach cuts being made, necessitating the removal of 280,000 m/sup 3/ of overburden in the first phase and 870,000 m/sup 3/ in the second phase of the reconstruction. Illustrates the relocation of the conveyor system by means of site plans and notes that the production of coal and the removal of overburden were not interrupted during the relocation exercise. 2 refs.

  5. Hybrid Type II fuzzy system & data mining approach for surface finish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Liang (Bill Tseng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new methodology in predicting a system output has been investigated by applying a data mining technique and a hybrid type II fuzzy system in CNC turning operations. The purpose was to generate a supplemental control function under the dynamic machining environment, where unforeseeable changes may occur frequently. Two different types of membership functions were developed for the fuzzy logic systems and also by combining the two types, a hybrid system was generated. Genetic algorithm was used for fuzzy adaptation in the control system. Fuzzy rules are automatically modified in the process of genetic algorithm training. The computational results showed that the hybrid system with a genetic adaptation generated a far better accuracy. The hybrid fuzzy system with genetic algorithm training demonstrated more effective prediction capability and a strong potential for the implementation into existing control functions.

  6. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: d.phillips@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  7. Assessment of Hg contamination and exposure to miners and schoolchildren at a small-scale gold mining and recovery operation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbangtalad, S; Parkpian, P; Visvanathan, C; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-12-01

    Gold extracted by Hg-amalgamation process, which can cause both health and environmental problems, is widespread in South East Asia including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Small-scale gold mining operations have been carried out since the year 2000 in Phanom Pha District, Phichit Province, Thailand. Since no data is available for evaluating Hg exposure, an investigation of mercury (Hg) contamination and exposure assessment was carried out at this mine site. Environmental monitoring illustrated the total Hg in water was as high as 4 microg/l while Hg in sediment ranged between 102 to 325 microg/kg dry weight. Both Hg deposition from the air (1.28 microg/100 cm(2)/day) and concentration in surface soil (20,960 microg/kg dry weight) were elevated in the area of amalgamation. The potential of Hg exposure to miners as well as to schoolchildren was assessed. The concentrations of Hg in urine of 79 miners who were directly (group I) or indirectly (group II) involved in the gold recovery operation were 32.02 and 20.04 microg/g creatinine, respectively, which did not exceed regulatory limits (35 microg/g creatinine). Hair Hg levels in both groups (group I and group II) also were not significantly higher than the non-exposed group. In terms of risk factors, gender and nature of food preparation and consumption were the two significant variables influencing the concentration of Hg in urine of miners (P mining process. In a second Hg exposure assessment, a group of 59 schoolchildren who attended an elementary school near the gold mine site was evaluated for Hg exposure. A slightly higher Hg urine concentration was detected in group I and group II (involved and not involved in gold recovery) at average levels of 15.82 and 9.95 microg/g creatinine, respectively. The average Hg values for both groups were below the established levels indicating no risk from Hg intake. Average Hg hair level in all schoolchildren (0.93 microg/g) was not significantly higher than reference

  8. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in surface waters of a region impacted by historical metal mining (Cornwall, UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic heavy metal whose concentrations and distributions in the aquatic environment are poorly defined. In this study, concentrations of aqueous and total Tl have been measured in water samples from a variety of rivers and effluents (the latter related to historical metal mining) in the county of Cornwall, SW England. Aqueous concentrations ranged from about 13 ng L(-1) in a river whose catchment contained no metal mines to 2,640 ng L(-1) in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine shaft. Concentrations of Tl in rivers were greatest in the vicinity of mine-related effluents, with a maximum value measured of about 770 ng L(-1). Thallium was not efficiently removed by the conventional, active treatment of mine water, and displayed little interaction with suspended particles. Its mobility in surface waters, coupled with concentrations that are close to a quality guideline of 800 ng L(-1), is cause for concern. Accordingly, we recommend that the metal is more closely monitored in this and other regions impacted by mining activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulated effects of surface coal mining and agriculture on dissolved solids in the Redwater River, east-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved solids concentrations in five reaches of the Redwater River in east-central Montana were simulated to evaluate the effects of surface coal mining and agriculture. A mass-balance model of streamflow and dissolved solids load developed for the Tongue River in southeastern Montana was modified and applied to the Redwater River. Mined acreages, dissolved solids concentrations in mined spoils, and irrigated acreage can be varied in the model to study relative changes in the dissolved solids concentration in consecutive reaches of the river. Because of extreme variability and a limited amount of data, the model was not consecutively validated. Simulated mean and median monthly mean streamflows and consistently larger than those calculated from streamflow records. Simulated mean and median monthly mean dissolved solids loads also are consistently larger than regression-derived values. These discrepancies probably result from extremely variable streamflow, overestimates of streamflow from ungaged tributaries, and weak correlations between streamflow and dissolved solids concentrations. The largest increases in simulated dissolved solids concentrations from mining and agriculture occur from September through January because of smaller streamflows and dissolved solids loads. Different combinations of agriculture and mining under mean flow conditions resulted in cumulative percentage increases of dissolved solids concentrations of less than 5% for mining and less than 2% for agriculture. (USGS)

  10. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  11. Radiological assessment of surface water quality around proposed uranium mining site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Lenka, P; Gothankar, S; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D; Khating, D T

    2009-06-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activities were estimated for radiological assessment of surface water quality around the proposed uranium mining site Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya situated in a high rainfall area (12,000mm) in India. 189 Surface water samples were collected over different seasons of the year from nine different locations covering around 100km(2). Gross beta activities were found to vary from 144 to 361mBq/L which is much below the prescribed WHO limit of 1000mBq/L for drinking water. Gross alpha activities varied from 61 to 127mBq/L. These values are much below the reported gross alpha values by other countries. In about 7% of the samples the alpha activities remain exceeded the WHO guideline limit of 100mBq/L. Surface water samples collected during the summer season of the year show higher activity whereas low activity was found from samples collected during monsoon season. Results show that all water sources are acceptable as drinking water for human consumption from the radiological point of view, the higher gross alpha concentrations in a few locations remains so only for short duration during the summer season.

  12. Radiological assessment of surface water quality around proposed uranium mining site in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Lenka, P.; Gothankar, S.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.; Khating, D.T.

    2009-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activities were estimated for radiological assessment of surface water quality around the proposed uranium mining site Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya situated in a high rainfall area (12,000 mm) in India. 189 Surface water samples were collected over different seasons of the year from nine different locations covering around 100 km 2 . Gross beta activities were found to vary from 144 to 361 mBq/L which is much below the prescribed WHO limit of 1000 mBq/L for drinking water. Gross alpha activities varied from 61 to 127 mBq/L. These values are much below the reported gross alpha values by other countries. In about 7% of the samples the alpha activities remain exceeded the WHO guideline limit of 100 mBq/L. Surface water samples collected during the summer season of the year show higher activity whereas low activity was found from samples collected during monsoon season. Results show that all water sources are acceptable as drinking water for human consumption from the radiological point of view, the higher gross alpha concentrations in a few locations remains so only for short duration during the summer season.

  13. 30 CFR 902.20 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available at: (a) Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, 3601 C Street... reclamation plan. 902.20 Section 902.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ALASKA...

  14. 30 CFR 903.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 903.819 Section 903.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903...

  15. 30 CFR 941.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 941.819 Section 941.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA...

  16. 30 CFR 921.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 921.819 Section 921.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS...

  17. 30 CFR 922.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 922.819 Section 922.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN...

  18. 30 CFR 937.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 937.819 Section 937.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937...

  19. 30 CFR 942.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 942.819 Section 942.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE...

  20. 30 CFR 905.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 905.819 Section 905.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA...

  1. 30 CFR 933.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 933.819 Section 933.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH...

  2. 30 CFR 910.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 910.819 Section 910.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910...

  3. 30 CFR 912.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 912.819 Section 912.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912...

  4. 30 CFR 939.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 939.819 Section 939.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND...

  5. 30 CFR 947.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 947.819 Section 947.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON...

  6. 30 CFR 906.20 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 906.20 Section 906.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE COLORADO...

  7. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  8. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  9. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  10. Nesting success of grassland and savanna birds on reclaimed surface coal mines of the midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galligan, E.W.; DeVault, T.L.; Lima, S.L. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Reclaimed surface coal mines in southwestern Indiana support many grassland and shrub/savanna bird species of conservation concern. We examined the nesting success of birds on these reclaimed mines to assess whether such 'unnatural' places represent productive breeding habitats for such species. We established eight study sites on two large, grassland-dominated mines in southwestern Indiana and classified them into three categories (open grassland, shrub/savanna, and a mixture of grassland and shrub/savanna) based on broad vegetation and landscape characteristics. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons, we found and monitored 911 nests of 31 species. Daily nest survival for the most commonly monitored grassland species ranged from 0.903 (Dickcissel, Spiza americana) to 0.961 (Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum). Daily survival estimates for the dominant shrub/savanna nesting species ranged from 0.932 (Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum) to 0.982 (Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii). Vegetation and landscape effects on nesting success were minimal, and only Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) showed a clear time-of-season effect, with greater nesting success in the first half of the breeding season. Rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were only 2.1% for grassland species and 12.0% for shrub/savanna species. The nesting success of birds on reclaimed mine sites was comparable to that in other habitats, indicating that reclaimed habitats on surface mines do not necessarily represent reproductive traps for birds.

  11. Accumulation of selenium in aquatic systems downstream of a uranium mining operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, J.R.; Belknap, A.M.; Janz, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of selenium in lakes downstream of a uranium mine operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Selenium concentrations in sediment and biota were elevated in exposure areas even though water concentrations were low (<5 μg/L). The pattern (from smallest to largest) of selenium accumulation was: periphyton < plankton and filterer invertebrates < detritivore and predator invertebrates < small bodied (forage) fish and predatory fish. Biomagnification of selenium resulted in an approximately 1.5-6 fold increase in the selenium content between plankton, invertebrates and forage fish. However, no biomagnification was observed between forage fish and predatory fish. Selenium content in organisms from exposure areas exceeded the proposed 3-11 μg/g (dry weight) dietary toxicity threshold for fish, suggesting that the selenium released into these aquatic systems has the potential to bioaccumulate and reach levels that could impair fish reproduction. - Selenium bioaccumulation patterns in a north temperate, cold water aquatic ecosystem were similar to those reported from warm water systems

  12. Examining microbial community response to a strong chemical gradient: the effects of surface coal mining on stream bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, R.; Lindberg, T. T.; Wang, S.; Ellis, J. C.; Di Giulio, R. T.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Surface coal mining is the dominant form of land cover change in northern and central Appalachia. In this process, shallow coal seams are exposed by removing overlying rock with explosives. The resulting fragmented carbonate rock and coal residues are disposed of in stream valleys. These valley fills generate alkaline mine drainage (AlkMD), dramatically increasing alkalinity, ionic strength, substrate supply (esp. SO42-), and trace element (Mn, Li, Se, U) concentrations in downstream rivers as well as significant losses of sensitive fish and macroinvertebrate species. In prior work within the Mud River, which drains the largest surface mine complex in Appalachia, we found that concentrations of AlkMD increase proportionally with the extent of upstream mining. Here we ask "How do stream microbial communities change along this strong chemical gradient?" We collected surface water and benthic biofilms from 25 stream reaches throughout the Mud River spanning the full range of surface mining impacts, with 0-96% of the contributing watershed area converted to surface coal mines. Microbial communities were collected from biofilms grown on a common substrate (red maple veneers) that were incubated in each stream reach for four months prior to collection in April, 2011. 16S rRNA genes from microbial communities at each study site were examined using 454 sequencing and compared with a generalized UniFrac distance matrix (674 sequence eveness) that was used in statistical analyses. Water chemistry at the sites was sampled monthly from July 2010 to December 2010 and again in April 2011. In April, surface water concentrations of SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Se2- increased linearly with the extent of upstream mining (all regressions R2 >0.43; pPERMANOVA; p=0.029). Bacterial diversity (OTU richness defined at 3% sequence difference) peaked at intermediate conductivities (600 μS cm-1). Environmental data that correlated significantly with the ordination axes were a variety of surface

  13. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The duration of a mission--and subsequently, the minimum spacecraft lifetime--is a key component in designing the capabilities of a spacecraft during mission formulation. However, determining the duration is not simply a function of how long it will take the spacecraft to execute the activities needed to achieve mission objectives. Instead, the effects of the interaction between the spacecraft and ground operators must also be taken into account. This paper describes a method, using "operations efficiency factors", to account for these effects for Mars surface missions. Typically, this level of analysis has not been performed until much later in the mission development cycle, and has not been able to influence mission or spacecraft design. Further, the notion of moving to sustainable operations during Prime Mission--and the effect that change would have on operations productivity and mission objective choices--has not been encountered until the most recent rover missions (MSL, the (now-cancelled) joint NASA-ESA 2018 Mars rover, and the proposed rover for Mars 2020). Since MSL had a single control center and sun-synchronous relay assets (like MER), estimates of productivity derived from MER prime and extended missions were used. However, Mars 2018's anticipated complexity (there would have been control centers in California and Italy, and a non-sun-synchronous relay asset) required the development of an explicit model of operations efficiency that could handle these complexities. In the case of the proposed Mars 2018 mission, the model was employed to assess the mission return of competing operations concepts, and as an input to component lifetime requirements. In this paper we provide examples of how to calculate the operations efficiency factor for a given operational configuration, and how to apply the factors to surface mission scenarios. This model can be applied to future missions to enable early effective trades between operations design, science mission

  14. RESEARCH PAPERS : Ionospheric signature of surface mine blasts from Global Positioning System measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calais, Eric; Bernard Minster, J.; Hofton, Michelle; Hedlin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Sources such as atmospheric or buried explosions and shallow earthquakes are known to produce infrasonic pressure waves in the atmosphere Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these acoustic and gravity waves induce variations of the ionospheric electron density. The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides a way of directly measuring the total electron content in the ionosphere and, therefore, of detecting such perturbations in the upper atmosphere. In July and August 1996, three large surface mine blasts (1.5 Kt each) were detonated at the Black Thunder coal mine in eastern Wyoming. As part of a seismic and acoustic monitoring experiment, we deployed five dual-frequency GPS receivers at distances ranging from 50 to 200 km from the mine and were able to detect the ionospheric perturbation caused by the blasts. The perturbation starts 10 to 15 min after the blast, lasts for about 30 min, and propagates with an apparent horizontal velocity of 1200 m s- 1. Its amplitude reaches 3 × 1014 el m- 2 in the 7-3 min period band, a value close to the ionospheric perturbation caused by the M=6.7 Northridge earthquake (Calais & Minster 1995). The small signal-to-noise ratio of the perturbation can be improved by slant-stacking the electron content time-series recorded by the different GPS receivers taking into account the horizontal propagation of the perturbation. The energy of the perturbation is concentrated in the 200 to 300 s period band, a result consistent with previous observations and numerical model predictions. The 300 s band probably corresponds to gravity modes and shorter periods to acoustic modes, respectively. Using a 1-D stratified velocity model of the atmosphere we show that linear acoustic ray tracing fits arrival times at all GPS receivers. We interpret the perturbation as a direct acoustic wave caused by the explosion itself. This study shows that even relatively small subsurface events can produce

  15. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  16. Yield and nutritive quality of forage legumes on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditsch, D.C.; Collins, M.

    1998-01-01

    Legumes are important in the long-term nitrogen economy of surface mined lands and for establishing and maintaining quality livestock forage. Little information is available to reclamation specialists for use in selection of forage legume species based on productivity potential, persistence and nutritive quality for livestock. A study was initiated at two sites in the Appalachian coal fields of Kentucky to evaluate monocultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) under management regimes suitable for livestock production. Legumes were harvested at the early bloom stage throughout the growing season for dry matter (DM) yield determination. Forage quality was determined by measuring crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose (CEL) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). High DM yields were produced by all species during the first production season (range 6.2-9.2 Mg ha -1 ) but yields of all species declined rapidly by year three. Birdsfoot trefoil demonstrated slightly greater drought tolerance during mid-season (July/August) than alfalfa and red clover. With the exception of site number-sign 1 in 1992 (4 harvests), no more than 3 harvests were made during a single growing season. Crude protein concentration of these forage legumes was found to be within the range commonly measured on undisturbed lands. However, high NDF and ADF values were observed above those reported by others for the same species. These results indicate that it may be difficult to maintain a high level of productivity throughout the five-year bonding period under hay management. Management practices such as summer stockpiling may be necessary to compensate for the rapid and wide fluctuations in DM yield and quality due to low water-holding capacity of mine spoils. 15 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Derived limits for occupational exposure to uranium mine and mill dusts in the air and on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Limits are derived for the concentration of uranium mine and mill dusts in the air based on ICRP30 and assumptions regarding the isotopic make up of the dusts. From these limits using a resuspension factor, limits for surface contamination are derived. Calculations are presented of the dose to the basal layer of the skin from mine and mill dusts on the skin. From these calculations limits for skin contamination are derived. A calculation of a limit based on direct ingestion is also presented. Exposure limits for the public are not considered

  18. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Water from Pristine Environments and Major Mining Areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yaw Hadzi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The concentrations of heavy metals in the Nyam, Subri, Bonsa and Birim Rivers from the mining sites and the Atiwa Range, Oda, Ankasa and Bosomkese Rivers from the pristine sites were found to be either below or within the USEPA and WHO's recommended limits for surface water. The health risk assessment values for the hazard quotient for ingestion of water (HQing, dermal contact (HQderm and chronic daily intake (CDI indicated no adverse effects as a result of ingestion or dermal contact from the rivers. However, arsenic (As in both the pristine and mining sites and chromium (Cr in the pristine sites pose a carcinogenic threat to the local residents.

  19. Weathering behaviour of overburden-coal ash blending in relation to overburden management for acid mine drainage prevention in coal surface mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautama, R.S.; Kusuma, G.J.; Lestari, I.; Anggana, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Potentially acid forming (PAF) materials are encapsulated with non-acid forming materials (NAF) in order to prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) in surface coal mines. NAF compaction techniques with fly and bottom ashes from coal-fired power plants are used in mines with limited amounts of NAF materials. This study investigated the weathering behaviour of blended overburden and coal combustion ash in laboratory conditions. Free draining column leach tests were conducted on different blending schemes. The weathering process was simulated by spraying the samples with de-ionized water once per day. The leachates were then analyzed using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analyses in order to identify the mineral composition of the samples over a 14 week period. Results of the study indicated that the weathering process plays a significant role in controlling infiltration rates, and may increase the capability of capping materials to prevent infiltration into PAF materials. Fly- and bottom-ash additions improved the performance of the encapsulation materials. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Underground mining of the lower 163 zone through groundwater drainage at the Eagle Point Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, D.M.; Bashir, R.; Thomson, J.; Klemmer, S.; Rigden, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Eagle Point Mine is part of the Cameco Rabbit Lake Operation. The mine produces uranium ore using the long-hole, vertical and horizontal retreat mining method. The majority of the mine workings are under Wollaston Lake and cementitious grouting is used as one of the water control measures. Historical groundwater table in the mining area was close to ground surface. The Lower 163 Zone encompasses an estimated 4.2 million pounds U_3O_8 geological resource that was not considered feasible to mine due to the expected groundwater flows in the area. Cross-hole testing was conducted to better understand the groundwater flow through various geologic units. A local depressurization test was conducted to assess the potential for lowering the water table. Following testing an active depressurization was conducted to lower the groundwater table below the planned mining areas. This resulted in safe and drier mining conditions and allowed for the successful extraction of the ore body. (author)

  1. Operational analysis of the tailings bund wall drainage system at mirny ore mining and processing enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniskin Nikolay Alekseevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues of environmental safety of tailings of ore mining and processing enterprises are considered; parameters of drainage of bund walls are of great significance for the environmental safety. Description of the bund wall of Mirny ore mining and processing enterprise and the tailings filling layouts are given. Results of field observation and model study of the tailings bund wall drainage system at Mirny ore mining and processing enterprise are presented. The drainage system rebuilding project analysis was performed. Proposals for its improvement were set forward.

  2. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhicao; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Wu, Dun; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Chuncai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  3. Optimizing integrated airport surface and terminal airspace operations under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Christabelle S.

    In airports and surrounding terminal airspaces, the integration of surface, arrival and departure scheduling and routing have the potential to improve the operations efficiency. Moreover, because both the airport surface and the terminal airspace are often altered by random perturbations, the consideration of uncertainty in flight schedules is crucial to improve the design of robust flight schedules. Previous research mainly focused on independently solving arrival scheduling problems, departure scheduling problems and surface management scheduling problems and most of the developed models are deterministic. This dissertation presents an alternate method to model the integrated operations by using a machine job-shop scheduling formulation. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem in the presence of uncertainty and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. The developed mixed-integer-linear-programming algorithm-based scheduler is capable of computing optimal aircraft schedules and routings that reflect the integration of air and ground operations. The assembled methodology is applied to a Los Angeles case study. To show the benefits of integrated operations over First-Come-First-Served, a preliminary proof-of-concept is conducted for a set of fourteen aircraft evolving under deterministic conditions in a model of the Los Angeles International Airport surface and surrounding terminal areas. Using historical data, a representative 30-minute traffic schedule and aircraft mix scenario is constructed. The results of the Los Angeles application show that the integration of air and ground operations and the use of a time-based separation strategy enable both significant surface and air time savings. The solution computed by the optimization provides a more efficient routing and scheduling than the First-Come-First-Served solution. Additionally, a data driven analysis is

  4. Line operators from M-branes on compact Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amariti, Antonio [Physics Department, The City College of the CUNY, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Orlando, Domenico [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Reffert, Susanne, E-mail: sreffert@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we determine the charge lattice of mutually local Wilson and 't Hooft line operators for class S theories living on M5-branes wrapped on compact Riemann surfaces. The main ingredients of our analysis are the fundamental group of the N-cover of the Riemann surface, and a quantum constraint on the six-dimensional theory. The latter plays a central role in excluding some of the possible lattices and imposing consistency conditions on the charges. This construction gives a geometric explanation for the mutual locality among the lines, fixing their charge lattice and the structure of the four-dimensional gauge group.

  5. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  6. Erodibility of surface-mine spoil banks in southeastern Ohio : an approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, C D; Studlick, J R.J.

    1979-07-01

    Measurements of accumulated sediment in inter-bank basins of unreclaimed strip mines determined the average annual site loss from unvegetated, 18-year-old spoil banks. Assuming that the universal soil loss equation (USLE) can be used to estimate sediment yield from strip mine slopes, the topographic factor in the USLE was determined in 2 ways, and values for erodibility well calculated. The technique is applicable to unreclaimed mines where inter-bank basins trap all slope-derived sediment.

  7. Long-term effects of surface coal mining on ground-water levels and quality in two small watersheds in eastern Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two small eastern Ohio watersheds surface mined for coal and reclaimed were studied during 1986-89. Water level and water quality data were compared with data from investigations conducted during 1976-83 to determine long-term effects of surface mining on the hydrologic system. Before mining, the watersheds were characterized by flatlying sedimentary rocks above clay beds underlying two major coal seams. Two aquifers overlay each under clay. Surface mining removed the upper aquifer, stripped the coal seam, and replaced the spoil, creating a new aquifer with hydraulic and chemical characteristics different from those of the original upper aquifer. Water levels were measured continuously in one well in each aquifer and every 2 months in other wells. Water levels in upper aquifers reached hydraulic equilibrium from 2 to 5 years after mining and, in middle aquifers, water levels increased more than 5 ft during mining; equilibrium occurred almost immediately thereafter. Water samples were collected from three upper aquifer wells, one middle-aquifer well, a seep from the upper aquifer, and the stream in each watershed. Samples were collected in 1986, 1987, 1988, and 1989. In both watersheds, sulfate replaced bicarbonate as the dominant anion in the upper aquifer after mining. In general, significant increases in concentrations of dissolved constituents in groundwater resulted from surface mining. The continued decrease in pH indicates that groundwater had not reached complete geochemical equilibrium in either watershed more than 8 years after mining ended

  8. 3D modeling of surface quarries and deposits of mined materials and the monitoring of slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maňas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of computer technology by simulating opencast mining and deposits of raw materials. The mathematic principles of three-dimensional probabilistic models of raw materials deposits and a familiarization with the user interface software GEOLOGICKY MODEL. The principles of the simulation of opencast mines, generation intersections with models of raw materials deposits, computation of mining materials with the quality scaling,and the design of advanced mining with the software BANSKY MODEL.The monitoring the potential of dynamic movements’ of unstable slopes with the automatic total station and a following interpretation in general time intervals by means of the software MONITORING.

  9. Research on the surface water quality in mining influenced area in north-western part of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smical Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the current situation of the quality of surface water in the areas influenced by mining activities in the north-western part of Romania. In this respect a series of investigations have been conducted regarding the contamination with heavy metals of the water of the Someş and Tisa hydro- graphic Basins, which cover the northern part of Maramures County and the south-western area of Maramures County, respectively. The results of the comparative research refer to the period between 1999 and 2011 and reveal the specific heavy metal ions of mining activity: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb Cd and Ni, as well as the water pH. The presented values as annual average values reveal an increase in several heavy metals after the closure of mines, which is due to the lack of effectiveness of the closure and of the conservation of the mine galleries, as well as of the impaired functioning of the mining wastewater treatment plants.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gulikova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust

  11. Geochemical evolution of acidic ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved sulfate and acidity in ground water increase downflow in mine spoil and underlying bedrock at a reclaimed surface coal mine in the bituminous field of western Pennsylvania. Elevated dissolved sulfate and negligible oxygen in ground water from bedrock about 100 feet below the water table suggest that pyritic sulfur is oxidized below the water table, in a system closed to oxygen. Geochemical models for the oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) and production of sulfate (SO42-) and acid (H+) are presented to explain the potential role of oxygen (O2) and ferric iron (Fe3+) as oxidants. Oxidation of pyrite by O2 and Fe3+ can occur under oxic conditions above the water table, whereas oxidation by Fe3+ also can occur under anoxic conditions below the water table. The hydrated ferric-sulfate minerals roemerite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)4·14H2O], copiapite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2·20H20], and coquimbite [Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O] were identified with FeS2 in coal samples, and form on the oxidizing surface of pyrite in an oxic system above the water table. These soluble ferric-sulfate 11 salts11 can dissolve with recharge waters or a rising water table releasing Fe3+, SO42-. and H+, which can be transported along closed-system ground-water flow paths to pyrite reaction sites where O2 may be absent. The Fe3+ transported to these sites can oxidize pyritic sulfur. The computer programs WATEQ4F and NEWBAL were used to compute chemical speciation and mass transfer, respectively, considering mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions plus mixing of waters from different upflow zones. Alternative mass-balance models indicate that (a) extremely large quantities of O2, over 100 times its aqueous solubility, can generate the observed concentrations of dissolved SO42- from FeS2, or (b) under anoxic conditions, Fe3+ from dissolved ferric-sulfate minerals can oxidize FeS2 along closed-system ground-water flow paths. In a system open to O2, such as in the unsaturated zone, the aqueous

  12. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layback, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    For planning of Mars surface missions, to be operated on a sol-by-sol basis by a team on Earth (where a "sol" is a Martian day), activities are described in terms of "sol types" that are strung together to build a surface mission scenario. Some sol types require ground decisions based on a previous sol's results to feed into the activity planning ("ground in the loop"), while others do not. Due to the differences in duration between Earth days and Mars sols, for a given Mars local solar time, the corresponding Earth time "walks" relative to the corresponding times on the prior sol/day. In particular, even if a communication window has a fixed Mars local solar time, the Earth time for that window will be approximately 40 minutes later each succeeding day. Further complexity is added for non-Mars synchronous communication relay assets, and when there are multiple control centers in different Earth time zones. The solution is the development of "ops efficiency factors" that reflect the efficiency of a given operations configuration (how many and location of control centers, types of communication windows, synchronous or non-synchronous nature of relay assets, sol types, more-or-less sustainable operations schedule choices) against a theoretical "optimal" operations configuration for the mission being studied. These factors are then incorporated into scenario models in order to determine the surface duration (and therefore minimum spacecraft surface lifetime) required to fulfill scenario objectives. The resulting model is used to perform "what-if" analyses for variations in scenario objectives. The ops efficiency factor is the ratio of the figure of merit for a given operations factor to the figure of merit for the theoretical optimal configuration. The current implementation is a pair of models in Excel. The first represents a ground operations schedule for 500 sols in each operations configuration for the mission being studied (500 sols was chosen as being a long

  13. Decommissioning and reclamation of the Beaverlodge uranium mine-mill operation: current state of the transition phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.L.J.; Himbeault, K.T.; Topp, B.J.; Halbert, B.E.; Fernandes, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Beaverlodge uranium mining and milling facilities were operated from 1952 to 1981 with about 94% of the ore extracted from the main underground mine and 6% from smaller satellite deposits. Decommissioning work occurred from 1982 to 1985 involving periods of shutdown, salvage and reclamation. Transition phase monitoring, leading to eventual delicencing commenced in July 1985. Over the last 15 years, discharge from the tailings management facility (TMF) and a fresh water stream, impacted during the operational phase by tailings spills, has improved in water quality for most parameters of concern. Loadings to the environment of three key contaminants (radium-226, total dissolved solids and uranium) have consistently been less than during the operational phase with radium-226 having the greatest variability. Outstanding environmental issues associated with the recovering drainage system formerly used for tailings disposal, are being addressed in an enhanced environmental monitoring program to commence in 2000. Changes in water chemistry and the natural re-introduction of aquatic organisms are issues of concern. In the meantime, application for release from selected satellite areas commenced in 1999. This paper reviews the issues which have arisen during the transition phase, outlines how they have and are being addressed, and provides a comparison of original and current predictions of the recovery process underway at the former Beaverlodge mine site. (author)

  14. Providing radiation safety for the environment and people at uranium ore mining and primary processing operations and treatment of radioactive wastes in the Navoi mining and metallurgy combinat, Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchersky, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    The rise of the uranium industry in the Republic of Uzbekistan is closely connected with the discovery of a number of significant uranium deposits of sheet sandstone type in the Kyzylkum desert area, between the Amu-Darya and Syr-Darya rivers. Based on these deposits, in 1958 the construction of Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combinat (NMMC) commenced. In 1965 the Hydrometallurgical Plant No. 1 (HMP-1), located in the industrial zone near the Navoi town, started producing the uranium protoxide-oxide (yellow cake). The structure of the NMMC uranium production operations includes HMP-1 and three mining facilities. Conventional open-pit and underground uranium mining were shut down here in 1994 and at present all the uranium is extracted by in situ leaching (ISL). The radiation and hygiene sanitary monitoring aimed at collecting information on the radiation conditions at the working places and in the environment, on the current and expected irradiation doses taken by the personnel and various population groups inhabiting the area involved in the activities of the existing, liquidated or temporarily closed NMMC facilities constitutes an integral part of the radiation safety providing system. No radioactive contamination of any environmental objects has been detected outside the sanitary zones and production sites. The radionuclides content in the atmosphere, on the ground surface, in the underground water was found to be at the background level. Current annual average exposure doses of the limited critical population groups were detected to be essentially lower than the current international standards and were about 1 mSv per year

  15. Estimation of immersion dose to the Tin mining in the seashore of Bangka island from NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurokhim; Erwansyah Lubis

    2015-01-01

    The estimation of immersion dose to the Tin (Sn) mining in the seashore of Bangka island using concentrations factor methods was carried out. In the estimation, the source-term of effluent released to Pacific ocean from Diablo Canyon and San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operations was used. The results indicated that the Sn mining with immersion in the sea water of 2, 4 and 6 hours per day will receives maximum effective dose of 4.45 × 10 -3 %; 8.90 ×10 -3 % and 1.34 × 10 -2 % from dose constraint of 0.3 mSv per years. The probability of cancer happen for individual are 2.67 × 10 -8 ; 5.34 × 10 -8 and 8.01 × 10 -8 respectively if the working hours are 2, 4 dan 6 hours per days as long as 40 years (reactor lifetime) . These data give the information if there are 50 millions of Sn mining, the potential of miner will receive a fatal cancer is around 4 persons. According to the population of Sn mining is very small, so the probabilities of fatal cancer is unsignificant. (author)

  16. An operational analysis of Lake Surface Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K. Fiedler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Operational analyses of Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT have many potential uses including improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models on regional scales. In November 2011, LSWT was included in the Met Office Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Ice Analysis (OSTIA product, for 248 lakes globally. The OSTIA analysis procedure, which has been optimised for oceans, has also been used for the lakes in this first version of the product. Infra-red satellite observations of lakes and in situ measurements are assimilated. The satellite observations are based on retrievals optimised for Sea Surface Temperature (SST which, although they may introduce inaccuracies into the LSWT data, are currently the only near-real-time information available. The LSWT analysis has a global root mean square difference of 1.31 K and a mean difference of 0.65 K (including a cool skin effect of 0.2 K compared to independent data from the ESA ARC-Lake project for a 3-month period (June to August 2009. It is demonstrated that the OSTIA LSWT is an improvement over the use of climatology to capture the day-to-day variation in global lake surface temperatures.

  17. A Three-Dimensional Receiver Operator Characteristic Surface Diagnostic Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly applied as metrics for quantifying the performance of binary fault detection systems. An ROC curve provides a visual representation of a detection system s True Positive Rate versus False Positive Rate sensitivity as the detection threshold is varied. The area under the curve provides a measure of fault detection performance independent of the applied detection threshold. While the standard ROC curve is well suited for quantifying binary fault detection performance, it is not suitable for quantifying the classification performance of multi-fault classification problems. Furthermore, it does not provide a measure of diagnostic latency. To address these shortcomings, a novel three-dimensional receiver operator characteristic (3D ROC) surface metric has been developed. This is done by generating and applying two separate curves: the standard ROC curve reflecting fault detection performance, and a second curve reflecting fault classification performance. A third dimension, diagnostic latency, is added giving rise to 3D ROC surfaces. Applying numerical integration techniques, the volumes under and between the surfaces are calculated to produce metrics of the diagnostic system s detection and classification performance. This paper will describe the 3D ROC surface metric in detail, and present an example of its application for quantifying the performance of aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. Metric limitations and potential enhancements are also discussed

  18. Surface-water and groundwater interactions in an extensively mined watershed, upper Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Bartles, Michael D.; Risser, Dennis W.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Streams crossing underground coal mines may lose flow, while abandoned mine drainage (AMD) restores flow downstream. During 2005-12, discharge from the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel, the largest AMD source in the upper Schuylkill River Basin, had near-neutral pH and elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate. Discharge from the tunnel responded rapidly to recharge but exhibited a prolonged recession compared to nearby streams, consistent with rapid infiltration and slow release of groundwater from the mine. Downstream of the AMD, dissolved iron was attenuated by oxidation and precipitation while dissolved CO2 degassed and pH increased. During high-flow conditions, the AMD and downstream waters exhibited decreased pH, iron, and sulfate with increased acidity that were modeled by mixing net-alkaline AMD with recharge or runoff having low ionic strength and low pH. Attenuation of dissolved iron within the river was least effective during high-flow conditions because of decreased transport time coupled with inhibitory effects of low pH on oxidation kinetics. A numerical model of groundwater flow was calibrated using groundwater levels in the Pine Knot Mine and discharge data for the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel and the West Branch Schuylkill River during a snowmelt event in January 2012. Although the calibrated model indicated substantial recharge to the mine complex took place away from streams, simulation of rapid changes in mine pool level and tunnel discharge during a high flow event in May 2012 required a source of direct recharge to the Pine Knot Mine. Such recharge produced small changes in mine pool level and rapid changes in tunnel flow rate because of extensive unsaturated storage capacity and high transmissivity within the mine complex. Thus, elimination of stream leakage could have a small effect on the annual discharge from the tunnel, but a large effect on peak discharge and associated water quality in streams.

  19. Development of near surface seismic methods for urban and mining applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Brodic, Bojan; Place, Joachim; Juhlin, Christopher; Bastani, Mehrdad

    2014-05-01

    There is a great need to improve our understanding of the geological conditions in the shallow subsurface. Direct observations of the subsurface are cumbersome and expensive, and sometimes impossible. Urban and mining areas are especially challenging due to various sources of noise such as from traffic, buildings, cars, city trains, trams, bridges and high-voltage power-lines. Access is also restricted both in time and space, which requires the equipment to be versatile, fast to set up and pack, and produces the least disruptions. However, if properly designed and implemented, geophysical methods are capable of imaging detailed subsurface structures and can successfully be used to provide crucial information for site characterizations, infrastructure planning, brown- and near-field exploration, and mine planning. To address some of these issues Uppsala University, in collaboration with a number of public authorities, research organizations and industry partners, has recently developed a prototype broadband (0-800 Hz based on digital sensors) multi-component seismic landstreamer system. The current configuration consists of three segments with twenty 3C-sensors each 2 m apart and an additional segment with twenty 3C-sensors each 4 m apart, giving a total streamer length of 200 m. These four segments can be towed in parallel or in series, which in combination with synchronized wireless and cabled sensors can address a variety of complex near surface problems. The system is especially geared for noisy environments and areas where high-resolution images of the subsurface are needed. The system has little sensitivity to electrical noise and measures sensor tilt, important in rough terrains, so it can immediately be corrected for during the acquisition. Thanks to the digital sensors, the system can also be used for waveform tomography and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Both these methods require low frequencies and these are often sacrificed in

  20. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining – The Way Forward | Suglo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Mining Journal ... By contracting out one or more of their mining operations, the mining companies can concentrate on their core businesses. This paper reviews ... The general trends in the mining industry show that contract mining will be the way forward for most mines under various circumstances in the future.

  1. Surface Warfare. Mainstreaming, Mine Warfare. May/June 1998, Vol. 23, No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    grappling with a paper tiger. Nor is it a fleeting thought process — some- thing heard in briefings and filed away in the warrior’s subconscious ...tecting device designed to work with the Quickstrike series of bottom mines. This new TDD can be reprogrammed to enable the Quickstrike mines to

  2. Effects of Small-Scale Gold Mining on Surface and Ground Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    / Prestea mining area in the Western Region of Ghana were conducted with the aim of assessing the possible effects of mining on water quality. Water samples were collected for 6 consecutive months at ten sampling sites within the study area ...

  3. Impact of seismicity on surface in mining affected areas: general description

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2004), s. 35-39 ISSN 1211-1910. [Mining and Environmental geophysics/29./. Sedmihorky, 00.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/03/0078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : seismicity * mining affected areas Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  4. Application of the PHREEQC geochemical computer model during the design and operation of UK mine water treatment schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croxford, S.J.; England, A.; Jarvis, A.P. [IMC White Young Green Engineering and Environment, Sutton-in-Ashfield (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The UK Coal Authority operates more than 20 full-scale mine water treatment schemes. The PHREEQC geochemical model has been used during the design and operation of two of the UK Coal Authority's treatment systems to assess whether it is possible to more accurately predict the fate and behaviour of contaminants through the treatment process. These systems are at Frances Colliery, Fife, Scotland, and at Horden Colliery, County Durham, England. The characteristics of the mine water at these sites, and the treatment systems installed to remediate them, are described. At Frances Colliery the following issues have been investigated using the PHREEQC model: determination of optimum alkali dose rate; and investment of secondary mineralization that causes pipe fouling. At Horden Colliery areas investigated using the PHREEQC model are: prediction of sludge volume production for various alkali reagents; predication of the influence of elevated carbon dioxide partial pressures on alkali requirements; and influence of elevated chloride concentration on sludge characteristics and production. The results of the investigation are presented and discussed. The study suggests that geochemical modelling may be a useful tool in determining both the geochemical processes occurring within a mine water treatment system and ultimately the likely costs involved during the operation of a particular scheme. Plans for future work include further validation of the PHREEQC model predictions by careful sampling and analysis of water chemistry and secondary mineral phases through the treatment systems. In the future it is hoped that the PHREEQC model may become a useful tool in the design phase of mine water treatment systems. 7 refs., 8 tabs.

  5. Causes Of Low Efficiency Of Combined Ventilation System In Coal Mines In Resolving The Problem Of Air Leaks (Inflows) Between Levels And Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Valeriy; Filatov, Yuriy; Lee, Hee; Golik, Anatoliy

    2017-11-01

    The paper discusses the problem of the underground mining safety control. The long-term air intake to coal accumulations is reviewed as one of the reasons of endogenous fires during mining. The methods of combating air leaks (inflows) in order to prevent endogenous fires are analyzed. The calculations showing the discrepancy between the design calculations for the mine ventilation, disregarding a number of mining-andgeological and mining-engineering factors, and the actual conditions of mining are given. It is proved that the conversion of operating mines to combined (pressure and exhaust) ventilation system in order to reduce the endogenous fire hazard of underground mining is unreasonable due to impossibility of providing an optimal distribution of aerodynamic pressure in mines. The conversion does not exclude the entry of air into potentially hazardous zones of endogenous fires. The essence of the combined application of positive and negative control methods for the distribution of air pressure is revealed. It consists of air doors installation in easily ventilated airways and installation of pressure equalization chambers equipped with auxiliary fans near the stoppings, working sections and in parallel airways.The effectiveness of the combined application of negative and positive control methods for the air pressure distribution in order to reduce endogenous fire hazard of mining operations is proved.

  6. Causes Of Low Efficiency Of Combined Ventilation System In Coal Mines In Resolving The Problem Of Air Leaks (Inflows Between Levels And Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the underground mining safety control. The long-term air intake to coal accumulations is reviewed as one of the reasons of endogenous fires during mining. The methods of combating air leaks (inflows in order to prevent endogenous fires are analyzed. The calculations showing the discrepancy between the design calculations for the mine ventilation, disregarding a number of mining-andgeological and mining-engineering factors, and the actual conditions of mining are given. It is proved that the conversion of operating mines to combined (pressure and exhaust ventilation system in order to reduce the endogenous fire hazard of underground mining is unreasonable due to impossibility of providing an optimal distribution of aerodynamic pressure in mines. The conversion does not exclude the entry of air into potentially hazardous zones of endogenous fires. The essence of the combined application of positive and negative control methods for the distribution of air pressure is revealed. It consists of air doors installation in easily ventilated airways and installation of pressure equalization chambers equipped with auxiliary fans near the stoppings, working sections and in parallel airways.The effectiveness of the combined application of negative and positive control methods for the air pressure distribution in order to reduce endogenous fire hazard of mining operations is proved.

  7. Influence of the Trojan Nickel Mine on surface water quality, Mazowe valley, Zimbabwe: Runoff chemistry and acid generation potential of waste rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupankwa, Keretia; Love, David; Mapani, Benjamin; Mseka, Stephen; Meck, Maideyi

    The impacts of mining on the environment depend on the nature of the ore body, the type of mining and the size of operation. The focus of this study is on Trojan Nickel Mine which is located 90 km north of Harare, Zimbabwe. It produces nickel from iron, iron-nickel and copper-nickel sulphides and disposes of waste rock in a rock dump. Surface water samples were taken at 11 points selected from a stream which drains the rock dump, a stream carrying underground water and the river into which these streams discharge. Samples were analysed for metals using atomic absorption spectrometry, for sulphates by gravitation and for carbonates and bicarbonates by back titration. Ninteen rock samples were collected from the dump and static tests were performed using the Sobek acid base accounting method. The results show that near neutral runoff (pH 7.0-8.5) with high concentrations of sulphate (over 100 mg/L) and some metals (Pb > 1.0 mg/L and Ni > 0.2 mg/L) emanates from the dump. This suggests that acid mine drainage is buffered in the dump (probably by carbonates). This is supported by the static tests, which show that the fine fraction of dump material neutralises acid. Runoff from the dump flows into a pond. Concentrations of sulphates and metals decrease after the dump runoff enters the pond, but sufficient remains to increase levels of calcium, sulphate, bicarbonate, iron and lead in the Pote River. The drop in concentrations at the pond indicates that the settling process has a positive effect on water quality. This could be enhanced by treating the pond water to raise pH, thus precipitating out metals and decreasing their concentrations in water draining from the pond.

  8. Operational Efficiency Forecasting Model of an Existing Underground Mine Using Grey System Theory and Stochastic Diffusion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Strbac Savic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting the operational efficiency of an existing underground mine plays an important role in strategic planning of production. Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL is used to express the operational efficiency of production. The forecasting model should be able to involve common time horizon, taking the characteristics of the input variables that directly affect the value of DOL. Changes in the magnitude of any input variable change the value of DOL. To establish the relationship describing the way of changing we applied multivariable grey modeling. Established time sequence multivariable response formula is also used to forecast the future values of operating leverage. Operational efficiency of production is often associated with diverse sources of uncertainties. Incorporation of these uncertainties into multivariable forecasting model enables mining company to survive in today’s competitive environment. Simulation of mean reversion process and geometric Brownian motion is used to describe the stochastic diffusion nature of metal price, as a key element of revenues, and production costs, respectively. By simulating a forecasting model, we imitate its action in order to measure its response to different inputs. The final result of simulation process is the expected value of DOL for every year of defined time horizon.

  9. Min(d)ing the land: The relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining and surface land arrangements in the southern Philippines, eastern DRC and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Cuvelier, J.; Bockstael, S. van

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and surface land tenure arrangements, through a comparison of mining areas in the southern Philippines, the eastern DRC and Liberia. In all three cases, ASM takes place in peripheral regions outside central state

  10. Restoration of intact ground waters and surface waters in the post-mining landscape; Wiederherstellung intakter Grund- und Oberflaechengewaesser nach dem Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Broder; Schipek, Mandy [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Scholz, Guenter; Rabe, Wolfgang; Clauss, Denny [MOVAB-D GmbH, Lauta (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The restoration of the territories of former brown coal mining increasingly requires special efforts for the protection of affected ground waters and surface waters. With newly developed methods (the so-called inlake technology), recently various solutions to neutralize acidic mining lakes could be created. Simultaneously, this improves the water quality of adjacent aquifers at reasonable financial cost.

  11. Socio-economic impact assessment and community engagement to reduce conflict over mine operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rolfe; Stewart Lockie [Central Queensland University, Qld. (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    The broad aim of this project was to assist coal mining companies develop effective processes for engaging with their communities and developing impact assessment and planning processes that can be agreed by their stakeholders. The range of project outcomes have been summarised in a series of reports, as follows. Report 1. Overview of social and economic issues associated with the Bowen Basin coal industry; Report 2. A review of environmental impact assessments (EIA) for coal mine developments and the use of economic and social impact assessment in the Bowen Basin - tools and trends; Report 3. Accounting for social and economic impacts in annual sustainability reporting; Report 4. Regional Economic impact assessment: an overview of the input-output methods; Report 5. The impact of coal industry development projects on the Central Highlands, Fitzroy and Queensland economies: An application of input-output method; Report 6. Regional Economic impact assessment: factors influencing workforce mobility to regional mining towns; Report 7. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the township of Blackwater; Report 8. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the Bauhinia Shire (Springsure and Rolleston); Report 9. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (Blackwater); Report 10. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (the Bauhinia Shire); and Report 11. Summary and Recommendations. This report includes a number of summary findings about the social and economic impacts of coal mining on the communities in the Bowen Basin. The approaches used are outlined and briefly discussed.

  12. Design and Testing of the Strain Transducer for Measuring Deformations of Pipelines Operating in the Mining-deformable Ground Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawedzki Waclaw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.

  13. Determination of 228Th, 230Th, and 232Th in environmental samples from uranium mining and milling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, R.W.; Joshi, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of 228 Th, 230 Th, and 232 Th in environmental samples from uranium mining and milling operations. The analytical procedure is based on the direct determination of 228 Th in the sample by high resolution γ-spectrometry followed by extraction and purification of the thorium fraction using high molecular weight amines and an anion-exchange technique, respectively, prior to α-spectrometry to determine isotopic ratios. The lowest level of detection for each thorium isotope is 0.01 pCi/g for solid samples and 20 pCi/l for aqueous samples. Replicate analyses of a typical mine waste stream gave a standard deviation of +-3% for 228 Th. Standard deviations of the 230 Th and 232 Th increased to +-11% apparently due to traces of 210 Po interfering in the α-spectrometry. (author)

  14. Effect of stage development of mining operations on maximization the net present value in long-term planning of open pits

    OpenAIRE

    Kržanović, Daniel; Rajković, Radmilo; Mikić, Miomir; Ljubojev, Milenko

    2014-01-01

    Long-term planning in the mining industry has one main goal: maximizing the value that is realized by excavation and processing of mineral resources. When designing the open pits, determining the stages of development the mining operations, (eng. Pushback) is one of the important factors in the process of long-term production planning. Using the different scientific methods and mathematical algorithms underlying the operation of modern software for strategic planning of production, it is poss...

  15. A breakthrough in the technical dust abatement in the mining operations of RAG; Durchbruch in der technischen Staubbekaempfung der RAG-Abbaubetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Klaus-Peter [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Gelsenkrichen (Germany). Dezernat 62; Suedhofer, Frank [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Bottrop (Germany). Servicebereich Belegschaft - BB S1 Ergonomie/Umgebungseinfluesse

    2010-02-15

    In the years 2005 to 2007, the dust abatement in the mining operations of RAG AG (Bottrop, Federal Republic of Germany) fundamentally is regulated and standardised without a distinction between primary and secondary measures. In the contribution under consideration the authors report on measures and effects of the optimization of dust abatement in workings of the German coal mining. Positive developments of the dust load for the employees are stated on the basis of operational data.

  16. Sensors and OBIA synergy for operational monitoring of surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Eric; Thenard, Lucas

    2010-05-01

    This contribution will focus on combining Object Based Image Analysis (i.e. OBIA with e-Cognition 8) and recent sensors (i.e. Spot 5 XS, Pan and ALOS Prism, Avnir2, Palsar) to address the technical feasibility for an operational monitoring of surface water. Three cases of river meandering (India), flood mapping (Nepal) and dam's seasonal water level monitoring (Morocco) using recent sensors will present various application of surface water monitoring. The operational aspect will be demonstrated either by sensor properties (i.e. spatial resolution and bandwidth), data acquisition properties (i.e. multi sensor, return period and near real-time acquisition) but also with OBIA algorithms (i.e. fusion of multi sensors / multi resolution data and batch processes). In the first case of river meandering (India) we will address multi sensor and multi date satellite acquisition to monitor the river bed mobility within a floodplain using an ALOS dataset. It will demonstrate the possibility of an operational monitoring system that helps the geomorphologist in the analysis of fluvial dynamic and sediment budget for high energy rivers. In the second case of flood mapping (Nepal) we will address near real time Palsar data acquisition at high spatial resolution to monitor and to map a flood extension. This ALOS sensor takes benefit both from SAR and L band properties (i.e. atmospheric transparency, day/night acquisition, low sensibility to surface wind). It's a real achievement compared to optical imagery or even other high resolution SAR properties (i.e. acquisition swath, bandwidth and data price). These advantages meet the operational needs set by crisis management of hydrological disasters but also for the implementation of flood risk management plans. The last case of dam surface water monitoring (Morocco) will address an important issue of water resource management in countries affected by water scarcity. In such countries water users have to cope with over exploitation

  17. Effects of XPS operational parameters on investigated sample surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrad, O.; Ismail, I.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of the operating conditions of the xray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis technique (XPS) on the investigated samples. Firstly, the performances of the whole system have been verified as well as the accuracy of the analysis. Afterwards, the problem of the analysis of insulating samples caused by the charge buildup on the surface has been studied. The use of low-energy electron beam (<100 eV) to compensate the surface charge has been applied. The effect of X-ray on the samples have been assessed and was found to be nondestructive within the analysis time. The effect of low- and high-energy electron beams on the sample surface have been investigated. Highenergy electrons were found to have destructive effect on organic samples. The sample heating procedure has been tested and its effect on the chemical stat of the surface was followed. Finally, the ion source was used to determine the elements distribution and the chemical stat of different depths of the sample. A method has been proposed to determine these depths (author).

  18. Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms' underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940's. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination

  19. AfricaArray International Geophysics Field School: Applications of Near Surface Geophysics to challenges encountered in mine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S. J.; Jones, M. Q.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.; Snyman, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Hard rock exploration and mining presents many opportunities for the effective use of near surface geophysics. For over 10 years the AfricaArray international geophysics field school has been hosted at a variety of mines in South Africa. While the main objective of the field school is practical training for the next generation of geophysicists, being hosted at a mine has allowed us to investigate applications of near surface geophysics in the early stages of mine planning and development as geophysics is often cheaper and faster than drilling. Several applications include: detailed delineation of dykes and stringer dykes, physical property measurements on drill core for modeling and marker horizons, determination of overburden thickness, locations of water and faults. Dolerite dykes are usually magnetic and are associated with loss of ground (i.e. where the dyke replaces the ore and thus reduces the amount of ore available) and safety/stability concerns. Thus the accurate mapping of dykes and narrow stringers that are associated with them are crucial to the safe planning of a mine. We have acquired several case studies where ground magnetic surveys have greatly improved on the resolution and detail of airborne magnetic surveys in regions of complicated dyke swarms. In many cases, thin stringer dykes of less than 5 cm have been detected. Physical property measurements of these dykes can be used to distinguish between different ages of dykes. It is important to accurately determine overburden thickness when planning an open pit mine as this directly affects the cost of development. Depending on the nature of the overburden, both refraction seismic and or DC resistivity can provide continuous profiling in the area of interest that fills in gaps between boreholes. DC resistivity is also effective for determining water associated with dykes and structures that may affect mine planning. The field school mainly addresses the training of a variety of students. The core

  20. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.; Smith, P.E.; Oosthuizen, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large-diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000m 3 h -1 . The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that, with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post-bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75x10 8 m 3 is derived compared with a classical calculation of 10 8 m 3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (author)

  1. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.; Smith, P.E.; Dziembowski, Z.; Oosthuizen, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000 m 3 h -1 . The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75 x 10 8 m 3 is derived compared to a classical calculation of 10 8 m 3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (orig.) [de

  2. Technical and financial management of the fleet of vehicles of an opencast mining operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laversanne, J.

    1988-05-01

    The collieries of the Centre and Midi coalfield are equipped conventionally with shovels, wheeled loaders, dumpers and bulldozers. In 1986/87 the new strip mine of Carmaux was begun with its mixed extraction, using bucket wheel excavators for the Tertiary overburden and shovels and dumpers for the coal. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Longwall mining and surface deformation – lessons learned from dInSAR measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, Jeanine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available including 1) subsidence related to mining and groundwater abstraction, 2) deformation following earthquake events, 3) monitoring of landslides and slope stability, 4) monitoring the stability of infrastructure and large engineering works, and 5) monitoring...

  4. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist

  5. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  6. Proceedings of the 15. annual national meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation. Mining -- Gateway to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throgmorton, D.; Nawrot, J.; Mead, J.; Galetovic, J.; Joseph, W.

    1998-01-01

    The 124 papers of these proceedings are arranged under the following topical sections: Minerals education; Hydrology--Characterization and monitoring; Tailings--Reclamation; Reforestation; Mine drainage--Biogeochemical processes; Mine drainage--Treatment, general; Mine drainage--Passive treatment, wetlands; Mine drainage--Prediction and monitoring; Acid soils--Reclamation practices; Wildlife and fisheries habitat; Subsidence--Engineering practices and environmental effects; OSM acid forming materials mini workshops; RUSLE--Erosion prediction techniques on mined construction and reclaimed lands; IDNR wetlands technology transfer program; Mine planning and postmining land use; Vegetation establishment--Principles and practices; Vegetation establishment--Warm season grasses; Coal combustion by-products--General; Coal combustion by-products--Mine drainage treatment; and Prime farmland reclamation and mine soils management. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. Selenium concentrations and loads from coal mining operations in the Elk River Watershed, Southeastern BC : 2004-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, M.; Orr, P.; Franklin, W.; Fraser, C.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reported on a study in which selenium concentrations were measured at 27 receiving and 40 discharge water stations in British Columbia's Elk River watershed, where Teck Coal Ltd. operates 5 coal mines. Monthly measurements were taken in the Elk River and its major tributaries from 2004 to 2009 to evaluate trends for selenium concentrations in receiving waters, and for concentrations and loads at selected discharges. Selenium concentrations were found to be much higher than background levels of 1 g/L in areas downstream of mine discharges in the Fording River, Line Creek, Michel Creek and in the lower Elk River below its confluence with the Fording River. Concentrations increased considerably over time in the Fording and lower Elk Rivers, and in Line Creek. Most of the selenium loads discharged to the Elk River and its tributaries were found to originate from less than 10 major sources. Concentrations increased with time at most major sources. At some sources, selenium loads increased with time, but decreased at others. The increase in concentrations in the lower Elk River and at several major sources from 2007 to 2009 may be attributed in part to a decrease in flow. Options for reducing selenium loads discharged to downstream receiving waters are being investigated by the mines.

  8. What Gives You a Social Licence? An Exploration of the Social Licence to Operate in the Australian Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the ways in which major, multinational mining companies operating within Australia understand sustainable development and articulate their “social licence to operate”. The article contributes a novel perspective to ongoing discussions about the social licence by exploring the ways in which leading Australian mining companies define and assert their social licences through sustainable development discourse. A content and discourse analysis of 18 sustainability reports across a four year period, supplemented by qualitative interview data, draws out these issues. While most companies use these reports to confirm beliefs in the necessity of a social licence, the ways in which the licence is specifically defined and maintained are not generally made explicit. Additionally, key theoretical criteria required for a social licence, such as free, prior and informed consent, appear to be overlooked. In conclusion, the article suggests ways in which criteria for a social licence within the mining industry could be defined more clearly and raises consequent questions to shape future research.

  9. Greenhouse Gases and Energy Intensity of Granite Rock Mining Operations in Thailand: A Case of Industrial Rock-Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to systematically assess greenhouse gases (GHGs and energy intensity of the granite rock mining operations in Thailand and also identify a range of feasible options to minimize their GHG emissions. Mining factories A, B and C, located in the Eastern region of Thailand, were selected as research case studies. The results indicated that the 3-year average of GHGs emissions from factories A to C was 3387 718 kgCO2e per year with approximately 2.92 kgCO2e per ton of granite rock produced over 2012 to 2014. Of this, the carbon intensity of grid-electricity consumption for the crushed rock production was 1.84 kgCO2/kWh. Diesel fuel combustion for transport activities in the mining factories was the greatest contributor to GHGs emissions (68 % compared to the purchased electricity and explosion process, with 31 % and 1 %, respectively. In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (IPCC installation, haul truck payload optimization and management, and reduction in tire rolling resistance have shown potential to reduce carbon emissions accounted for 20 % to 70 %.

  10. Optimization of the operation of packed bed bioreactor to improve the sulfate and metal removal from acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Subhabrata; Roy, Shantonu; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2017-09-15

    The present study discusses the potentiality of using anaerobic Packed Bed Bioreactor (PBR) for the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). The multiple process parameters such as pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), concentration of marine waste extract (MWE), total organic carbon (TOC) and sulfate were optimized together using Taguchi design. The order of influence of the parameters towards biological sulfate reduction was found to be pH > MWE > sulfate > HRT > TOC. At optimized conditions (pH - 7, 20% (v/v) MWE, 1500 mg/L sulfate, 48 h HRT and 2300 mg/L TOC), 98.3% and 95% sulfate at a rate of 769.7 mg/L/d. and 732.1 mg/L/d. was removed from the AMD collected from coal and metal mine, respectively. Efficiency of metal removal (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mg and Ni) was in the range of 94-98%. The levels of contaminants in the treated effluent were below the minimum permissible limits of industrial discharge as proposed by Bureau of Indian Standards (IS 2490:1981). The present study establishes the optimized conditions for PBR operation to completely remove sulfate and metal removal from AMD at high rate. The study also creates the future scope to develop an efficient treatment process for sulfate and metal-rich mine wastewater in a large scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of commercially available seat suspensions to reduce whole body vibration exposures in mining heavy equipment vehicle operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Marin, Luz S; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2018-09-01

    As mining vehicle operators are exposed to high level of Whole body vibration (WBV) for prolonged periods of time, approaches to reduce this exposure are needed for the specific types of exposures in mining. Although various engineering controls (i.e. seat suspension systems) have been developed to address WBV, there has been lack of research to systematically evaluate these systems in reducing WBV exposures in mining heavy equipment vehicle settings. Therefore, this laboratory-based study evaluated the efficacy of different combinations of fore-aft (x-axis), lateral (y-axis), and vertical (z-axis) suspensions in reducing WBV exposures. The results showed that the active vertical suspension more effectively reduced the vertical vibration (∼50%; p's suspension (10%; p's suspension systems did not attenuate the corresponding axis vibration (p's > 0.06) and sometimes amplified the floor vibration, especially when the non-vertical vibration was predominant (p's suspensions to address non-vertical WBV exposures, especially because these non-vertical WBV exposures can increase risks for adverse health effects including musculoskeletal loading, discomfort, and impaired visual acuity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Greenhouse Gases and Energy Intensity of Granite Rock Mining Operations in Thailand: A Case of Industrial Rock-Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat; Chavalparit, Orathai; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan

    2016-12-01

    This paper is aimed to systematically assess greenhouse gases (GHGs) and energy intensity of the granite rock mining operations in Thailand and also identify a range of feasible options to minimize their GHG emissions. Mining factories A, B and C, located in the Eastern region of Thailand, were selected as research case studies. The results indicated that the 3-year average of GHGs emissions from factories A to C was 3387 718 kgCO2e per year with approximately 2.92 kgCO2e per ton of granite rock produced over 2012 to 2014. Of this, the carbon intensity of grid-electricity consumption for the crushed rock production was 1.84 kgCO2/kWh. Diesel fuel combustion for transport activities in the mining factories was the greatest contributor to GHGs emissions (68 %) compared to the purchased electricity and explosion process, with 31 % and 1 %, respectively. In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (IPCC) installation, haul truck payload optimization and management, and reduction in tire rolling resistance have shown potential to reduce carbon emissions accounted for 20 % to 70 %.

  13. Effect of vegetation and surface amelioration on simulated landform evolution of the post-mining landscape at ERA Ranger mine, Northern Territory. Supervising Scientist report 134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.G.; Saynor, M.J.; House, T.; The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW; Willgoose, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of vegetation and surface ripping on evolution of the ERA Ranger Mine (ERARM) post-mining landform was assessed using the SIBERIA landform evolution model. Data were collected from four sites on the waste rock dump at ERARM-(1) the cap site which was unvegetated and unripped with a surface slope of 0.028 m/m; (2) the batter site, surface slope 0.207 rn/m, also unvegetated and unripped but with a covering of coarse rock material; (3) the soil site, surface slope 0.012 m/m, which had ∼90% vegetation cover of low shrubs and grasses and had been topsoiled and surface ripped; and (4) the fire site, surface slope 0.023 m/m, which was topsoiled and ripped and is presently vegetated with well established trees, grasses and shrubs. Natural rainfall events were monitored on the four sites to collect rainfall, runoff and soil loss data to parameterise the SIBERIA sediment discharge equation. The SIBERIA sediment discharge equation was calibrated using output from a sediment transport model of the form T=β 2 S n1 ∫ Q m1 dt, and the DISTFW rainfall-runoff model. Low frequency high intensity events resulted in the greatest soil loss. Therefore, it is important that sediment loss during high intensity events is predicted accurately. Storms with a range of intensities were selected to derive the sediment transport model. DISTFW hydrology model parameters were derived by fitting four monitored events simultaneously. SIBERIA simulations of post-mining rehabilitated landform evolution showed that for the unvegetated and unripped surface, the landform at 1000 y would be dissected by localised erosion valleys (maximum depth = 7 6 m) with deposited fans (maximum depth 14.8 m) at the outlet of the valleys. Simulated valley form has been recognised in nature which indicates that SIBERIA models natural processes efficiently. For the vegetated and ripped condition reduced valley development (maximum 1000 y depth = 2 4 m) and deposition (maximum 1000 y depth = 4.8 m) occurred

  14. 30 CFR 750.14 - Lands designated unsuitable for mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lands designated unsuitable for mining by Act of Congress. 750.14 Section 750.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.14 Lands designated unsuitable for mining by Act of Congress...

  15. 30 CFR 710.12 - Special exemption for small operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dates of operation. (5) A copy of coal severance tax returns for coal produced during the year ending on... intends to conduct surface coal mining operations on or after May 3, 1978, that permittee may receive from... handling of spoil; (2) Apply to surface coal mining operations to be conducted under a permit or renewed...

  16. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardić Vojka R.

    2015-01-01

    impact on the environment. The study included the following sources of pollution: mining waste and drainage water originating from the active mine (Bor pit , field 1 Krivelj large tailings, flotation tailings in Bor RTH, metallurgical water, as well as the drainage water from the flotation tailings, which are no longer in operation (field 2 flotation tailings Great Krivelj, drainage water from the old Bor flotation tailings, the old inactive landfill mine gangue (Saraka landfill, Veliki planir - tailings from the old Bor mine, landfill mine gangue from mine RTH and the city - urban waste water, which are discharged without treatment directly into the watercourse Bor River. Wastewater directly pollute Bor River and Krivalj River.

  17. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  18. Monitoring Metal Pollution Levels in Mine Wastes around a Coal Mine Site Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanliyuksel Yucel, D.; Yucel, M. A.; Ileri, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this case study, metal pollution levels in mine wastes at a coal mine site in Etili coal mine (Can coal basin, NW Turkey) are evaluated using geographical information system (GIS) tools. Etili coal mine was operated since the 1980s as an open pit. Acid mine drainage is the main environmental problem around the coal mine. The main environmental contamination source is mine wastes stored around the mine site. Mine wastes were dumped over an extensive area along the riverbeds, and are now abandoned. Mine waste samples were homogenously taken at 10 locations within the sampling area of 102.33 ha. The paste pH and electrical conductivity values of mine wastes ranged from 2.87 to 4.17 and 432 to 2430 μS/cm, respectively. Maximum Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations of wastes were measured as 109300, 70600, 309.86, 115.2, 38 and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The Al, Fe and Pb concentrations of mine wastes are higher than world surface rock average values. The geochemical analysis results from the study area were presented in the form of maps. The GIS based environmental database will serve as a reference study for our future work.

  19. MONITORING METAL POLLUTION LEVELS IN MINE WASTES AROUND A COAL MINE SITE USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sanliyuksel Yucel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, metal pollution levels in mine wastes at a coal mine site in Etili coal mine (Can coal basin, NW Turkey are evaluated using geographical information system (GIS tools. Etili coal mine was operated since the 1980s as an open pit. Acid mine drainage is the main environmental problem around the coal mine. The main environmental contamination source is mine wastes stored around the mine site. Mine wastes were dumped over an extensive area along the riverbeds, and are now abandoned. Mine waste samples were homogenously taken at 10 locations within the sampling area of 102.33 ha. The paste pH and electrical conductivity values of mine wastes ranged from 2.87 to 4.17 and 432 to 2430 μS/cm, respectively. Maximum Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations of wastes were measured as 109300, 70600, 309.86, 115.2, 38 and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The Al, Fe and Pb concentrations of mine wastes are higher than world surface rock average values. The geochemical analysis results from the study area were presented in the form of maps. The GIS based environmental database will serve as a reference study for our future work.

  20. Evaluating the Use of Tree Shelters for Direct Seeding of Castanea on a Surface Mine in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available American chestnut (Castanea dentata, once a primary constituent of the eastern hardwood forest ecosystem, was nearly extirpated from the forest canopy by the accidental introduction of chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica. An intensive breeding program has sought to breed blight resistance from Chinese chestnut into American chestnuts, while maintaining as much of the desirable American chestnut phenotypes as possible. Previous studies suggest that these blight resistant American chestnuts, termed “restoration chestnuts”, are capable of thriving on reclaimed surface mines. We direct seeded pure Chinese, pure American, and three backcross lines into brown sandstone minesoil on a mine site in Pike County, KY. To investigate the effects of tree sheltering on survival and growth, we installed tree shelters on half the plots, and left the rest of the plots unsheltered. Results indicated that shelters were highly effective at reducing initial mortality. In addition, while pure Chinese chestnut survival was highest, the three backcross lines have also survived well on this site. Our study demonstrates that American, Chinese, and backcrossed chestnuts can survive through five growing seasons on reclaimed surface mines with the use of tree shelters.