WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface mining operation

  1. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  2. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  3. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations. ...

  4. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations. ...

  5. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  6. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...

  7. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations. ...

  8. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall...

  9. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands on...

  10. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain types...

  11. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions...

  12. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  13. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  14. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  15. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  16. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  17. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  18. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  19. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  20. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

  1. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  2. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  3. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  4. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall notify the Washington Department of...

  5. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining operations beginning June 24, 1996, one year after the effective date of this program. ...

  6. 30 CFR 942.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required for postmining water treatment must remain bonded. However, the trust fund or annuity may serve as... coal mining and reclamation operations. 942.800 Section 942.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING...

  7. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations...) Indirect financial interest in underground or surface coal mining operations means the same financial... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interests in underground or surface coal...

  8. LANDSAT remote sensing: observations of an Appalachian mountaintop surface coal mining and reclamation operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The potential benefits of using LANDSAT remote sensing data by state agencies as an aide in monitoring surface coal mining operations are reviewed. A mountaintop surface mine in eastern Kentucky was surveyed over a 5 year period using satellite multispectral scanner data that were classified by computer analyses. The analyses were guided by aerial photography and by ground surveys of the surface mines procured in 1976. The application of the LANDSAT data indicates that: (1) computer classification of the various landcover categories provides information for monitoring the progress of surface mining and reclamation operations, (2) successive yearly changes in barren and revegetated areas can be qualitatively assessed for surface mines of 100 acres or more of disrupted area, (3) barren areas consisting of limestone and shale mixtures may be recognized, and revegetated areas in various stages of growth may be identified against the hilly forest background

  9. NEWS RELEASE - Agencies Agree to Joint Regulatory Framework for Processing Applications for Surface Coal Mining Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    News release from February 10, 2005 announcing a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that offers a joint framework to improve permit application procedures for surface coal mining operations that place dredged or fill material in waters of the United States.

  10. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... in terms of mine design, site and materials management, or water treatment systems, consistent with... of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental... Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and...

  11. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not...

  12. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  13. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  14. Underground mining operation supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khusid, M.B.; Kozel, A.M.

    1980-12-10

    Underground mining operation supports include the supporting layer surrounded by a cylindrical jacket of cemented rock. To decrease the loss of support material due to the decreasing rock pressure on the supporting layer, the cylindrical jacket of cemented rock has an uncemented layer inside, dividing it into 2 concentric cylindrical parts.

  15. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL...

  16. Applications of Geomatics in Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachowski, Jan; Górniak-Zimroz, Justyna; Milczarek, Wojciech; Pactwa, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    In terms of method of extracting mineral from deposit, mining can be classified into: surface, underground, and borehole mining. Surface mining is a form of mining, in which the soil and the rock covering the mineral deposits are removed. Types of surface mining include mainly strip and open-cast methods, as well as quarrying. Tasks associated with surface mining of minerals include: resource estimation and deposit documentation, mine planning and deposit access, mine plant development, extraction of minerals from deposits, mineral and waste processing, reclamation and reclamation of former mining grounds. At each stage of mining, geodata describing changes occurring in space during the entire life cycle of surface mining project should be taken into consideration, i.e. collected, analysed, processed, examined, distributed. These data result from direct (e.g. geodetic) and indirect (i.e. remote or relative) measurements and observations including airborne and satellite methods, geotechnical, geological and hydrogeological data, and data from other types of sensors, e.g. located on mining equipment and infrastructure, mine plans and maps. Management of such vast sources and sets of geodata, as well as information resulting from processing, integrated analysis and examining such data can be facilitated with geomatic solutions. Geomatics is a discipline of gathering, processing, interpreting, storing and delivering spatially referenced information. Thus, geomatics integrates methods and technologies used for collecting, management, processing, visualizing and distributing spatial data. In other words, its meaning covers practically every method and tool from spatial data acquisition to distribution. In this work examples of application of geomatic solutions in surface mining on representative case studies in various stages of mine operation have been presented. These applications include: prospecting and documenting mineral deposits, assessment of land accessibility

  17. Protection and restoration of soil in mining operations which disrupt the surface of the earth, with the open pit method of working minerals (problems, obtained data and recommendations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelak, M.

    1981-01-01

    A critical analysis is made of the current state and the ways to solve the problem of protection and restoration of the sections of the earth's surface and sources of drinking water which can be disrupted with the open pit method of working minerals. The need is advanced for creating a system of coordination and planning of the activity of all the organizations associated with working minerals, restoration operations and inspection of them. The order of preparation for recultivation during mining operations (in particular, storage of the fertile ground) and conducting them after the end of mining are described.

  18. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ecological values; and control of erosion, flooding, and pollution of water; the isolation of toxic materials; the prevention of air pollution; the reclamation by revegetation, replacement of soil or by other... Administration that the proposed operation would not be in violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  19. Risks inherent with mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellmer, F.W.

    1981-12-01

    The risk inherent in mining is compared with the risk inherent in other industrial activities of metallurgical plants and processing plants, either during the decision on investments or before making this decision. A distriction is made between internal and external risk. Internal risk means uncertainty in the estimation of investment and operating cost of all types of projects. External risk comprises price fluctuations, siting problems, and geological factors. Price fluctuations affect all plants of the raw materials industries, though in different degrees, while siting problems are mostly encountered in mining and geological influences exclusively in mining. These risk factors all add up in mining, so that the resulting risk is twice as high than with other industrial activities.

  20. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  1. Surface Mines, Other - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  2. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  3. Polar Organic Compounds in Surface Waters Collected Near Lead-Zinc Mine and Milling Operations in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C. E.; Schmitt, C. J.; Schumacher, J. G.; Leiker, T. J.

    2007-12-01

    Surface-water samples were collected near a lead mine and mill tailings about 70 miles southwest of St. Louis, Missouri, during the summer of 2006. The purpose of this sampling was to determine if polar organic compounds were present that could be a cause of documented negative impacts to biota downstream. Water samples contained relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon for surface waters (greater than 20 mg/L), but were colorless, which precluded naturally occurring aquatic humic or fulvic acids. Previous analysis indicated that samples were devoid of pesticides and acid/base/neutral extractable semi-volatile organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. After isolation by three different types of solid phase extraction, samples were analyzed by electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Polar organic compounds commonly used in the milling process, such as alkyl xanthates, were not found; however, xanthate degradation products were detected. Most of the polar organic compounds identified contained sulfonate groups, which are characteristic of some of the reagents used in the milling process. Sulfonate compounds may have low sorption onto soil or sediments and be mobile in the aqueous environment.

  4. Applying WEPP technologies to western alkaline surface coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Q. Wu; S. Dun; H. Rhee; X. Liu; W. J. Elliot; T. Golnar; J. R. Frankenberger; D. C. Flanagan; P. W. Conrad; R. L. McNearny

    2011-01-01

    One aspect of planning surface mining operations, regulated by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), is estimating potential environmental impacts during mining operations and the reclamation period that follows. Practical computer simulation tools are effective for evaluating site-specific sediment control and reclamation plans for the NPDES....

  5. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and

  6. Mining-induced surface damage and the study of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jixian

    1994-01-01

    Coal constitutes China's major energy resource. The majority of the coal is produced from underground mining operations. Surface subsidence may amount to 80% of the thickness of the seam mined, while the subsided volume is around 60% of the mined volume underground. An area of 20 hectares of land will be affected with each 1 million tons of coal mined, thereby causing severe surface damage. Following a description of the characteristics of surface damages due to underground mining disturbance, this paper elaborates on the damage prediction method, standards applied for evaluating the damages experienced by surface buildings, land reclamation methods in subsided area, measures for reinforcing and protecting buildings in mining-affected areas, and performance of antideformation buildings

  7. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweigard, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig

  8. Surface deformation of the secondary former mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Głowacki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discuss the problem of secondary deformation observed on the surface of the land in the area of the old, non-existent copper and coal mines. The authors discuss the formation of the deformation in the final period of the mine, and after his arrest, after the close of any work of protecting the surface area of influence of mining activities. Discusses the reduction of the surface of the example of two disused mines: mining copper “Konrad” in Iwiny and “Thorez” in Walbrzych, an old coal mine. In the first part of the paper discusses a brief history of the creation of old copper basin and the Lower Silesian coal basin. It then discusses the formation of deformation processes in mining areas. Conducting continuous surveying allows you to monitor changes in the formation of land, in the paper indicate the source of the vertical displacements after ending of operation, the closure of the mine and stopped all work safety. In the area of Lower Silesia there are many remnants of disused mines, surface geodetic measurements show a constant activity in post-mining areas and the need to control the formation of the surface.

  9. Determination of Seismic Safety Zones during the Surface Mining Operation Development in the Case of the “Buvač” Open Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Malbasic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the blasting safety area is a very important step in the process of drilling and blasting works, and the preparation of solid rock materials for loading. Through monitoring and analysis of the negative seismic effects to the objects and infrastructures around and at the mine area, we were able to adapt the drilling and blasting parameters and organization of drilling and blasting operation according to the mining progress so that the affected infrastructures could be protected. This paper analyses the safety distances and model safety zones of drilling and blasting for the period 2013–2018 at the open pit at “Buvač”, Omarska. This mathematical calculation procedure can be used during the whole life of the mine. By monitoring of the blasting seismic influence in first years of the mine's work, as well as by using recorded vibration velocities, mathematical dependence of the important parameters can be defined. Additionally, the level and laws of distribution and intensity of the seismic activity can be defined. On one hand, those are known quantities of the explosive and the distances between blasting location and endangered objects. On the other hand, those are coefficients of the manner of blasting and the environment where blasting is done, K, as well as the coefficient of the weakening of seismic waves as they spread, n. With the usage of the allowed vibration velocities, based on certain safety criteria and mathematical formulas of laws of spreading and intensity of seismic influence for a concrete case, it is possible to calculate explosive quantities and distances, with numerically-defined values of parameter K and n. Minimum distances are calculated based on defined or projected explosive quantities. Additionally, we calculate the maximum allowed explosive quantities based on known distances which can be used based on projected drilling-blasting parameters. For the purpose of the planning of drilling and blasting

  10. International overview of ISL uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, P.; Slezak, J.; Pool, T.; Beneš, V.; Gorbatenko, O.; Jones, B.; Märten, H.; Solodov, I.

    2014-01-01

    In situ leach (ISL; also called in situ leaching or in situ recovery, ISR) mining has become one of the standard uranium production methods, following early experimentation and production in the 1960s. Its application to amenable uranium deposits (in certain sedimentary formations) has been growing in view of its competitive production costs and low surface impacts. In 1997 the ISL share in total uranium production was 13%; by 2009 it had grown to over 30%, reaching 46% in 2011. In the past, ISL technology was applied mainly in Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Bulgaria and the United States of America (USA). Recently it has been used in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, the USA, Australia, China and the Russian Federation, with small operations or experiments elsewhere. ISL mining is gaining widespread acceptance. The IAEA is preparing an overview document to show how ISL experience around the world can be used to direct the development of technical activities, taking into account environmental considerations and an emphasis on the economics of the process, including responsible mine closure. With this document Member States and interested parties will have more information to design and efficiently and safely regulate current and future projects, with a view to maximize economic performance and minimize negative environmental impact. Highlights of the report’s findings will be provided here with a summary of the IAEA’s involvement in ISL over recent decades. Many reference links are provided to allow access to voluminous additional information. (author)

  11. Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Chakraborty, K.

    1994-01-01

    Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

  12. The Impact of Contract Operations on Safety in Underground Coal Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buessing, Marric; Boden, Leslie I

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test for differences in injury rates for contractor-operated underground coal mines relative to owner-operated mines in Kentucky, controlling for other covariates. We used disparities between MSHA contractor data and surface reclamation permit data to identify mines operated by contractors. We then used negative binomial regression to estimate injury rates from 1999 to 2013, controlling for mine and controller characteristics available from MSHA and the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Contractor-operated mines with 15 or fewer full-time equivalent workers (FTEs) had a statistically significant 57% higher covariate-adjusted reported traumatic injury rate than similar mines without contract operators. Larger contractor-operated mines did not have a statistically significant elevated rate. We detected a significant elevation of traumatic injury rates only among the smallest contractor-operated mines. This increase appears substantial enough to warrant attention.

  13. 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains research results presented at the 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining, ISCSM Aachen 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers in the lignite mining industry and practitioners in this field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  14. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  15. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated, except as otherwise approved in the ventilation plan, or when...

  16. Quartz exposure levels in the underground and surface coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, S.M.; Gero, A.J.; Parobeck, P.S; Tomb, T.F. [US Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Occupational quartz exposure data gathered from the Mine Safety and Health Adminsitration`s respirable dust enforcement program and a program to monitor quartz exposure in several mining occupations were compiled and analyzed to assess the status of quartz exposures in the coal mining industry. The analysis showed that, in underground mines, a substantial number of samples contained greater than 5% quartz. Occupations that showed a high frequency of excessive quartz exposure included the roof bolter, continuous miner operator, and continuous miner operator helper. In surface coal mines the highwall drill operator and helper, bulldozer operator, scraper operator, and truck driver were frequently exposed to high quartz concentrations.

  17. Designing vertical mine shafts under conditions of increasing shaft depth with rock hoisting to the operating mining level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-05-01

    A system for shaft excavation in deep coal mines with mining depth exceeding 1,000 m is discussed. During mine sinking rocks are removed to the ground surface. When depth of a deep mine shaft is increased rocks are removed to the operating mining level, causing lower investment costs than the system with rock hoisting to the ground surface. The Yuzhgiproshakht design firm carries out investigations on the optimum methods for increasing shaft depth in coal mines. Coal mines with the following coal output are included in evaluations: 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 Mt/year. Mine shaft depth of 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m is analyzed. Shaft depth is increased by 100, 200, 300 or 400 m. Shaft sinking rate ranges from 10 to 70 m/month. Effects of rock hoisting from the shaft bottom on the hoisting scheme in a mine shaft are analyzed. Position of hoisting bucket in relation to cages or skips moving in a shaft is investigated. Investigation results are given in 5 schemes. Analyses show that use of a shaft sinking system with rock hoisting to the ground surface during shaft excavation and with rock hoisting to the operating mining level during shaft depth increasing is economical when a shaft with skips is from 7 to 8 m in diameter or when a cage shaft is 6 m, 7 m or 8 m in diameter. Use of standardized shaft excavation systems is recommended. (In Russian)

  18. Gas migration from closed coal mines to the surface. Risk assessment methodology and prevention means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokryszka, Z.; Tauziede, Ch.; Lagny, C.; Guise, Y.; Gobillot, R.; Planchenault, J.M.; Lagarde, R.

    2005-01-01

    French law as regards renunciation to mining concessions calls for the mining operator to first undertake analyses of the risks represented by their underground mining works. The problem of gas migration to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate to the earth's surface, then present significant risks: explosion, suffocation or gas poisoning risks. As part of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national mining operator Charbonnages de France, a general methodology for assessing the risk linked to gas in the context of closed coal mines. This article presents the principles of this methodology. An application example based on a true case study is then described. This is completed by a presentation of the preventive and monitoring resources recommended and usually applied in order to manage the risk linked to gaseous emissions. (authors)

  19. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  20. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2005-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted in the first year of the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of ''software machine kinematics'' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A Bobcat{reg_sign} 435 excavator was retrofitted with electro-hydraulic control valve elements. The modular electronic control was tested and the basic valve characteristics were measured for each valve at the Robotics Laboratory at UNR. Position sensors were added to the individual joint control actuators, and the sensors were calibrated. An electronic central control system consisting of a portable computer, converters and electronic driver components was interfaced to the electro-hydraulic valves and position sensors. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's ''Lone Tree'' mine in Nevada.

  1. Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosols from Mining Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csavina, Janae; Landázuri, Andrea; Wonaschütz, Anna; Rine, Kyle; Rheinheimer, Paul; Barbaris, Brian; Conant, William; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Fine particulates such as those resulting from smelting operations may disperse more readily into the environment than coarser tailings dust. Fine particles also penetrate more deeply into the human respiratory system, and may become more bioavailable due to their high specific surface area. In this work, we report the size-fractionated chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols sampled over a period of a year near an active mining and smelting site in Arizona. Aerosols were characterized with a 10-stage (0.054 to 18 μm aerodynamic diameter) multiple orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a total suspended particulate (TSP) collector. The MOUDI results show that arsenic and lead concentrations follow a bimodal distribution, with maxima centered at approximately 0.3 and 7.0 μm diameter. We hypothesize that the sub-micron arsenic and lead are the product of condensation and coagulation of smelting vapors. In the coarse size, contaminants are thought to originate as aeolian dust from mine tailings and other sources. Observation of ultrafine particle number concentration (SMPS) show the highest readings when the wind comes from the general direction of the smelting operations site.

  2. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  3. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  4. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  5. Mining Pribram in science and technology. Proceedings of Session R - Mechanization of mine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, J.; Bernatik, O.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings contain 30 papers of which two deal with uranium mine problems, viz.: ''Current and prospective orientation of mechanized driving of mines and underground infrastructures'' and ''The operation of rail-less mine mechanization in the Hamr area''. (J.B.)

  6. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3A. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: South Boulder Creek Park Project, Sand and Gravel Operations, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L R; Perry, A O; LaFevers, J R

    1977-02-01

    This case study details reclamation planning for the Flatiron Companies' South Boulder Creek Park Project in Boulder, Colorado. The site contains a deposit of high-quality sand and gravel considered to be one of the best and largest known deposits of aggregate materials in the Front Range area. The aggregate deposit is located in a highly visible site just off the Denver-Boulder Turnpike at the entrance to the city from Denver, and adjacent to a residential portion of the city. In order to make maximum use of pre-mining planning, as a tool for resolving a conflict over the company's proposed operation, an extensive cooperative planning effort was initiated. This included the preparation of an environmental impact assessment, numerous public hearings, operating and reclamation plan review by city authorities, annexation of the site to the city, and the granting of a scenic easement on the property to the city for the development of a regional recreation park. A suite of contractual agreements was worked out among Flatiron Companies, the City of Boulder, the Colorado Open Lands Foundation, and the Federal Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The purpose of this case study is to allow the planner to gain insight into the procedures, possibilities, and constraints involved in premining planning in a cooperative situation.

  7. Surface mine impoundments as wildlife and fish habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble

    1989-01-01

    Unreclaimed surface mine impoundments provide poor fish and wildlife habitat. Recommendations given here for reclaiming "prelaw" impoundments and creating new impoundments could provide valuable fish and wildlife habitat if incorporated into existing laws and mine plans.

  8. Atlas of western surface-mined lands: coal, uranium, and phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.K.; Uhleman, E.W.; Eby, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The atlas contains available information on all coal, uranium, and phosphate surface mines in excess of 10 acres that were in operation prior to 1976 in the western 11 contiguous states plus North Dakota and South Dakota. It is assembled in a format that allows a systematic and comprehensive review of surface-mined lands so that appropriate areas can be selected for intensive biological assessment of natural and man-induced revegetation and refaunation. For each identified mine, the following information has been obtained wherever possible: geographic location and locating instructions, operator and surface and subsurface ownership, summary of the mining plan and methods, summary of the reclamation plan and methods, dates of operation, area affected by mining activities, reclamation history, where applicable, and current land use and vegetation conditions

  9. Private and social costs of surface mine reforestation performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than $700/ha and a social cost ranging from $428/ha to $710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately $200/ha, and a social cost in the range of $120 to $208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  10. Impact of surface coal mining on soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Liu; J. Q. Wu; P. W. Conrad; S. Dun; C. S. Todd; R. L. McNearny; William Elliot; H. Rhee; P. Clark

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is strongly related to soil hydraulic properties. Understanding how surface coal mining affects these properties is therefore important in developing effective management practices to control erosion during reclamation. To determine the impact of mining activities on soil hydraulic properties, soils from undisturbed areas, areas of roughly graded mine...

  11. NOVEL EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMIC SURFACE MINING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong

    2005-05-01

    Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design

  12. Surface mining machines problems of maintenance and modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Rusiński, Eugeniusz; Moczko, Przemysław; Pietrusiak, Damian

    2017-01-01

    This unique volume imparts practical information on the operation, maintenance, and modernization of heavy performance machines such as lignite mine machines, bucket wheel excavators, and spreaders. Problems of large scale machines (mega machines) are highly specific and not well recognized in the common mechanical engineering environment. Prof. Rusiński and his co-authors identify solutions that increase the durability of these machines as well as discuss methods of failure analysis and technical condition assessment procedures. "Surface Mining Machines: Problems in Maintenance and Modernization" stands as a much-needed guidebook for engineers facing the particular challenges of heavy performance machines and offers a distinct and interesting demonstration of scale-up issues for researchers and scientists from across the fields of machine design and mechanical engineering.

  13. Sand and gravel mine operations and reclamation planning using microcomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariffin, J.B.

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to focus on the application of microcomputers, also known as personal computers, in planning for sand and gravel mine operations and reclamation at a site in Story County, Iowa. This site, called the Arrasmith Pit, is operated by Martin Marietta Aggregates, Inc. The Arrasmith site, which encompasses an area of about 25 acres, is a relatively small site for aggregate mining. However, planning for the concurrent mine operation and reclamation program at this site is just as critical as with larger sites and the planning process is the same.

  14. Surface Mining: Soil, Coal, and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. Fred

    Soil is a resource that is for all practical purposes nonrenewable. Natural soils have been formed over periods of thousands of years, although with intensive management and with inputs of nutrients and conditioners this time could be reduced.Coal is another precious resource, of critical importance as an interim fuel for perhaps the next hundred years or so, until renewable energy resources based on nuclear fusion or solar energy can become economic and widespread. Surface mining is the most efficient method for obtaining coal at lowest cost. But it disturbs the soil and takes it out of agricultural production for many years or decades, and sometimes forever, unless the land is properly restored at considerable cost.

  15. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  16. 30 CFR 800.17 - Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonding requirements for underground coal mines... REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.17 Bonding requirements for...

  17. Reforesting unused surface mined lands by replanting with native trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick N. Angel; James A. Burger; Carl E. Zipper; Scott Eggerud

    2012-01-01

    More than 600,000 ha (1.5 million ac) of mostly forested land in the Appalachian region were surface mined for coal under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Today, these lands are largely unmanaged and covered with persistent herbaceous species, such as fescue (Festuca spp.) and sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata [Dum. Cours.] G. Don,) and a mix of...

  18. Data mining of air traffic control operational errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of : applying data mining techniques to identify patterns and : anomalies in air traffic control operational errors (OEs). : Reducing the OE rate is of high importance and remains a : challenge in the aviation saf...

  19. Evaluation and Adaptation of Mine-Hunting Operations with AUVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, R. van; Giodini, S.; Hunter, A.J.; Beckers, A.L.D.; Williams, D.F.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of mine-hunting operations with autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are greatly influenced by environmental conditions, such as seabed, turbidity, currents, and tides. Therefore accurate environmental information is needed for the planning and evaluation of

  20. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota, E-mail: dburchart@gig.eu; Fugiel, Agata, E-mail: afugiel@gig.eu; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna, E-mail: kczaplicka@gig.eu; Turek, Marian, E-mail: mturek@gig.eu

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  1. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  2. Detecting and masking transient failures in computers used for coal mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noore, A.; Cooley, W.L.; Nutter, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of lightning poses a significant problem to computer systems and electronic equipment used in surface and underground mines. Conventional protection schemes such a shielding, insulation, and filtering circuits are not adequate. The field-induced voltages and currents cause transients that can create an upset in digital or computer systems. In this paper tow effective approaches are proposed to detect and recover from transient faults when monitoring, processing, or controlling critical mining operations

  3. MINE DESIGN, OPERATIONS & CLOSURE CONFERENCE 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    A one-day short course will instill the usefulness of environmental modeling with respect to understanding mining-related impacts. It will focus on the development aspects of modeling rather than the numerical computations. The course will encompass the basics of sensitivity anal...

  4. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  5. A Data Mining Approach to Intelligence Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah; Hicks, David; Harkiolakis, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    agencies.   An emphasis in the paper is placed on Social Network Analysis and Investigative Data Mining, and the use of these technologies in the counterterrorism domain.  Tools and techniques from both areas are described, along with the important tasks for which they can be used to assist...... with the investigation and analysis of terrorist organizations.  The process of collecting data about these organizations is also considered along with the inherent difficulties that are involved....

  6. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Approach to operational mine planning: Case study Tamnava West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Dejan R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary mining industry is very difficult to achieve production targets and profit without investing effort in detailed excavation planning. It is especially true for deposits with complex geological structure and production technology, as is the case for many coal mines in Serbia. The majority of coal production is used for generation of electricity in power plant. This fact is the main reason why production objectives of coal mine and power plant are strongly connected. Due to the fluctuation of the coal quality, operational mine planning (as a part of coal homogenization process, is of critical importance for managing successful coal quality control and meeting criteria of power plant. This paper investigates advantage of proper operational planning on coal quality control process and overall production performance. For better understanding case study is conducted on open pit Tamnava West field. Successful operational mine planning is almost impossible without use of modern software packages. For that reason in presented case study operational mine planning is done with Minex software.

  8. Potential utility of the thematic mapper for surface mine monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, J.R.; Lachowski, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    One of many potential applications of the thematic mapper (TM) is surface mine monitoring. To assess this potential, data acquired by an aircraft multispectral scanner over Pennsylvania surface mines were preprocessed to simulate the anticipated spectral, spatial, and radiometric characteristics of TM data. False color imagery and thematic maps were derived from the simulated data and compared to imagery and maps derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner subsystems data. On the basis of this comparison, TM data should definitely increase the detail and accuracy of remotely acquired surface mine information and may enable the remote determination of compliance with reclamation regulations

  9. Long-Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Operable Unit 2, Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents a description and evaluation of the ground water and surface water monitoring program associated with the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (Bunker Hill) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  10. Metal and metalloid contaminants in atmospheric aerosols from mining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csavina, Janae

    Mining operations, including crushing, grinding, smelting, refining, and tailings management, are a significant source of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants such as As, Pb, Cd and other potentially toxic elements. Dust particles emitted from mining operations can accumulate in surrounding soils, natural waters and vegetation at relatively high concentrations through wind and water transport. Human exposure to the dust can occur through inhalation and, especially in the case of children, incidental dust ingestion, particularly during the early years when children are likely to exhibit pica. Furthermore, smelting operations release metals and metalloids in the form of fumes and ultra-fine particulate matter, which disperses more readily than coarser soil dusts. Of specific concern, these fine particulates can be transported to the lungs, allowing contaminants to be transferred into the blood stream. The main aim of this research is to assess the role of atmospheric aerosol and dust in the transport of metal and metalloid contaminants from mining operations to assess the deleterious impacts of these emissions to ecology and human health. In a field campaign, ambient particulates from five mining sites and four reference sites were examined utilizing micro-orifice deposit impactors (MOUDI), total suspended particulate (TSP) collectors, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and Dusttrak optical particle counters for an understanding of the fate and transport of atmospheric aerosols. One of the major findings from size-resolved chemical characterization at three mining sites showed that the majority of the contaminant concentrations were found in the fine size fraction (fine size fraction when compared to reference sites. Additionally, with dust events being a growing concern because of predicted climate change and mine tailings being a significant source for dust, high wind conditions around mine tailings were studied for dust generation. Relative humidity

  11. Multiattribute prediction of terrain stability above underground mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the problem of stability prediction of the terrain above underground mining operations. After the initial introduction to the problem, then the short analysis of the model approaches used to solve it, and giving the algorithm for rock massif stability prediction, we describe the concept of the multiattirbute terrain stability prediction method. The application of the multiattribute prediction method for stability of the terrain above underground mining operations is presented on the example of the Brown Coal Mine Aleksinac. The used method is original, essentially different from the other methods of mathematical modeling, because its prognosis of the rock massif stability under the influence of underground mining operations is based on the balance of the stability indicators. Our comparative analysis of the results obtained by multiattribute prediction and the data obtained by measurements of real deformations and terrain settling in multiple mines shows high mutual correlation, with an average deviation of less than ±10%. These results are confirmed entirely on the example of the Brown Coal Mine Aleksinac.

  12. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  13. Mined Geologic Disposal System Concept of Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidt, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    A Concept of Operations has been developed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The Concept of Operations has been developed to document a cormion understanding of how the repository is to be operated. It is based on the repository architecture identified in the Initial Summary Report for Repository/Waste Package Advanced Conceptual Design and describes the operation of the repository from the initial receipt of waste through repository closure. Also described are operations for waste retrieval

  14. Method of operator safety assessment for underground mobile mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Działak Paulina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of assessing the safety of operators of mobile mining equipment (MME, which is adapted to current and future geological and mining conditions. The authors focused on underground mines, with special consideration of copper mines (KGHM. As extraction reaches into deeper layers of the deposit it can activate natural hazards, which, thus far, have been considered unusual and whose range and intensity are different depending on the field of operation. One of the main hazards that affect work safety and can become the main barrier in the exploitation of deposits at greater depths is climate threat. The authors have analysed the phenomena which may impact the safety of MME operators, with consideration of accidents that have not yet been studied and are not covered by the current safety standards for this group of miners. An attempt was made to develop a method for assessing the safety of MME operators, which takes into account the mentioned natural hazards and which is adapted to current and future environmental conditions in underground mines.

  15. Method of operator safety assessment for underground mobile mining equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Działak, Paulina; Karliński, Jacek; Rusiński, Eugeniusz

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a method of assessing the safety of operators of mobile mining equipment (MME), which is adapted to current and future geological and mining conditions. The authors focused on underground mines, with special consideration of copper mines (KGHM). As extraction reaches into deeper layers of the deposit it can activate natural hazards, which, thus far, have been considered unusual and whose range and intensity are different depending on the field of operation. One of the main hazards that affect work safety and can become the main barrier in the exploitation of deposits at greater depths is climate threat. The authors have analysed the phenomena which may impact the safety of MME operators, with consideration of accidents that have not yet been studied and are not covered by the current safety standards for this group of miners. An attempt was made to develop a method for assessing the safety of MME operators, which takes into account the mentioned natural hazards and which is adapted to current and future environmental conditions in underground mines.

  16. Loosewall stability in United Kingdom surface coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, D.; Singh, R. (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Department of Geological Sciences)

    1989-05-01

    In order to successfully exploit surface coal mine reserves, a database was compiled over the last 10 years containing information on loosewall slope failures such as mine locality information, failure date, failure height, failure slope angle, failure depth, failure length, failure volume, assumed failure mechanism, pavement dip, failure surface type, water data, curvature of slope in plan and section, and mining method. Both the Bishop's simplified and the biplanar wedge methods were used to conduct a detailed two-dimensional limit equilibrium back. 11 figs., 31 refs.,

  17. Perchlorate in Lake Water from an Operating Diamond Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lianna J D; Ptacek, Carol J; Blowes, David W; Groza, Laura G; Moncur, Michael C

    2015-07-07

    Mining-related perchlorate [ClO4(-)] in the receiving environment was investigated at the operating open-pit and underground Diavik diamond mine, Northwest Territories, Canada. Samples were collected over four years and ClO4(-) was measured in various mine waters, the 560 km(2) ultraoligotrophic receiving lake, background lake water and snow distal from the mine. Groundwaters from the underground mine had variable ClO4(-) concentrations, up to 157 μg L(-1), and were typically an order of magnitude higher than concentrations in combined mine waters prior to treatment and discharge to the lake. Snow core samples had a mean ClO4(-) concentration of 0.021 μg L(-1) (n=16). Snow and lake water Cl(-)/ClO4(-) ratios suggest evapoconcentration was not an important process affecting lake ClO4(-) concentrations. The multiyear mean ClO4(-) concentrations in the lake were 0.30 μg L(-1) (n = 114) in open water and 0.24 μg L(-1) (n = 107) under ice, much below the Canadian drinking water guideline of 6 μg L(-1). Receiving lake concentrations of ClO4(-) generally decreased year over year and ClO4(-) was not likely [biogeo]chemically attenuated within the receiving lake. The discharge of treated mine water was shown to contribute mining-related ClO4(-) to the lake and the low concentrations after 12 years of mining were attributed to the large volume of the receiving lake.

  18. The Effect of Mining Activity on the Surface in the Safety Shaft Pillar Area of Mayrau Mine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Živor, Roman; Klos, Pavel; Pechoč, Jiří; Brož, Milan

    M-24(340) (2002), s. 227-235 ISSN 0138-015X. [Polish-Czech-Slovakian Symposium on Mining Geophysics /28./. Niedzica, 11.06.2001-13.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3086005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : shaft pillar * mining * surface subsidence Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  19. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of test boreholes in prospecting and mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierak, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Test boreholes are of fundamental importance for mining and prospecting operations. The drilling techniques are suited to the geological conditions and to the nature of the information desired. At Cogema, non-coring test boreholes, mainly drilled by a rotary percussive method, represent over 90% of the footage drilled; they achieve impressive performances at a cost which is by far less than that of coring test boreholes. The geological exploitation of these test boreholes is effected by a combined investigation of well logging and of cuttings. These investigations lead to an assessment for certain substances like uranium or coal or they mark the limits for favourable zones which alone will form the object of coring boreholes. In mining operations, boreholes indicate the definition for workable panels; they ensure at less cost the distribution of fluids, the forwarding of stowing material and the mine ventilation [fr

  1. The intrinsic roles of regulatory instruments in mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola O. Odeku

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prospecting and exploiting natural mineral resources for economic growth and development could be beneficial if done in sustainable ways and manners. However, if the operation is done in such a way that cause harm to the environment and people, this will amount to unsustainable mining activity and anti-sustainable development. Therefore, there is need to ensure that appropriate and adequate plans and programmes are put in place in order to mitigate, minimise and avoid negative environmental impacts. Against the backdrop of these concerns and the need to ensure that the environment is not degraded and destroyed, South Africa, as part of the countries that promotes sustainable prospecting and mining has put in place and currently implementing tools known as environmental management plan and programme to regulate and control all prospecting and mining activities. These tools contain a bundle of remedial actions in the forms of compensation, rehabilitation and restoration of any harm done to the environment during the course of mining activities. They also contain information on mitigation, ingredients for good practice approach on how to conduct sustainable prospecting and mining. This article looks at the intrinsic roles of these tools and accentuates the importance and operations of their use in the decision making processe

  2. Wide Strip Backfill Mining for Surface Subsidence Control and Its Application in Critical Mining Conditions of a Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Critical mining under buildings, railways, and water bodies (BRW brings the contradiction between high recovery rate and minor environmental hazards. To lessen this contradiction, an innovative mining method referred to as “wide strip backfill mining” (WSBM was proposed in this study. A Winkler beam model is applied to the primary key strata (PKS, and the study revealed a surface subsidence control mechanism and designed the technical parameters of the method. The respective numerical simulations suggested the feasibility of the proposed method and the main influencing factors on surface subsidence can be ranked in descending order as wide filling strip width (WFSW, filling ratio, and pillar width. Meanwhile, a drop in the WFSW from 96 m to 72 m brought out the surface subsidence reduction by 44.5%. By using the super-high water content filling material, the proposed method was applied in the Taoyi coal mine under critical mining conditions. The resulting surface subsidence and deformations met the safety requirements for building protection level 1, and the recovery rate reached 75.9%. Moreover, the application of the method achieved significant technical and economic benefits. The research can provide a theoretical and experimental substantiation for critical mining under BRW.

  3. RASSOR - Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Mueller, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) is a lightweight excavator for mining in reduced gravity. RASSOR addresses the need for a lightweight (robot that is able to overcome excavation reaction forces while operating in reduced gravity environments such as the moon or Mars. A nominal mission would send RASSOR to the moon to operate for five years delivering regolith feedstock to a separate chemical plant, which extracts oxygen from the regolith using H2 reduction methods. RASSOR would make 35 trips of 20 kg loads every 24 hours. With four RASSORs operating at one time, the mission would achieve 10 tonnes of oxygen per year (8 t for rocket propellant and 2 t for life support). Accessing craters in space environments may be extremely hard and harsh due to volatile resources - survival is challenging. New technologies and methods are required. RASSOR is a product of KSC Swamp Works which establishes rapid, innovative and cost effective exploration mission solutions by leveraging partnerships across NASA, industry and academia.

  4. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  5. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Bon Jun Koo; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    The first quarter of 2004 was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During the first year of this project there was not available mine land to plant in the Hazard area, so 107 acres were planted in the Martin County mine location. This year 120 acres were planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres were planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. Additional sets of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for carbon sequestration demonstrations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on the newly established areas as well as continual measurements of the first year's plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 seedlings. During the second quarter of this year monitoring systems were established for all the new research areas. Weather data pertinent to the research as well as hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas. Studies established to assess specific questions pertaining to carbon flux and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals are being quantified. Experimental practices initiated with this research project will eventually allow for the planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and allow mountain top removal areas to be constructed with loose spoil with no grading of the final layers of rooting material when establishing trees for the final land use designation. Monitoring systems have been installed to measure treatment effects on both above and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the planting areas. Soil and tissue samples were collected from both years planting and analyses were conducted in the laboratory. Examination of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots continued during the reporting period. Entire planted trees were

  6. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    A monitoring program to measure treatment effects on above ground, and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools for the planting areas is being conducted. The collection of soil and tissue samples from both the 2003 and 2004 plantings is complete and are currently being processed in the laboratory. Detailed studies have been initiated to address specific questions pertaining to carbon cycling. Examinations of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots were continued during this reporting period. A whole-tree harvesting method was employed to evaluate carbon accumulation as a function of time on the mined site. The trees were extracted from the sites and separated into the following components: foliage, stems, branches, and roots.

  7. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress. ...

  8. Development of ergonomics audits for bagging, haul truck and maintenance and repair operations in mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick G; Pollard, Jonisha; Porter, William L; Mayton, Alan; Heberger, John R; Gallagher, Sean; Reardon, Leanna; Drury, Colin G

    2017-12-01

    The development and testing of ergonomics and safety audits for small and bulk bag filling, haul truck and maintenance and repair operations in coal preparation and mineral processing plants found at surface mine sites is described. The content for the audits was derived from diverse sources of information on ergonomics and safety deficiencies including: analysis of injury, illness and fatality data and reports; task analysis; empirical laboratory studies of particular tasks; field studies and observations at mine sites; and maintenance records. These diverse sources of information were utilised to establish construct validity of the modular audits that were developed for use by mine safety personnel. User and interrater reliability testing was carried out prior to finalising the audits. The audits can be implemented using downloadable paper versions or with a free mobile NIOSH-developed Android application called ErgoMine. Practitioner Summary: The methodology used to develop ergonomics audits for three types of mining operations is described. Various sources of audit content are compared and contrasted to serve as a guide for developing ergonomics audits for other occupational contexts.

  9. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Bascompta, Marc; Rossell, Josep M; Anticoi, Hernán Francisco; Guash, Eduard

    2018-03-07

    An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector-either surface or underground mining-based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents.

  10. Reforestation of surface mines on lands of VICC Land Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas F. Evans

    1980-01-01

    This Virginia coal company's surface mined lands show an adequate stocking of tree seedlings in terms of number per acre, but the distribution of seedlings has been affected by past reclamation practices. Natural reseeding has been an important contributor to the present seedling stock.

  11. Hearing-impairment among workers in a surface gold mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to determine the impact of hazardous noise on workers was conducted in a surface gold mining company in Ghana. The procedure adopted included noise survey, case history, otoscopy and conventional pure-tone audiometry. Five main areas were surveyed for hazardous noise namely, Pit, Processing, Ana ...

  12. Chapter 10: Establishing native trees on legacy surface mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Burger; C.E. Zipper; P.N. Angel; N. Hall; J.G. Skousen; C.D. Barton; S. Eggerud

    2017-01-01

    More than 1 million acres have been surface mined for coal in the Appalachian region. Today, much of this land is unmanaged, unproductive, and covered with nonnative plants. Establishing productive forests on such lands will aid restoration of ecosystem services provided by forests—services such as watershed protection, water quality enhancement, carbon storage, and...

  13. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takla, G.; Froml, K. [OKD, DPB, Paskov (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  14. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takla, G.; Froml, K.

    2005-01-01

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  15. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  16. Surface movement above an underground coal longwall mine after closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, André

    2016-09-01

    The surface movement in an area of about 22 km2 above the underground coal mine of Houthalen was analyzed based on Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. After its closure in 1992, a residual subsidence was observed over a period of several years, followed by an uplift of the surface above and around the past longwall panels, whereby the rate of movement was, in absolute terms, of the same order for the two types of movements. The processes behind these movements are different. The process of subsidence is caused by the caving of the roof above the mined-out area and is mainly a mechanical stress-deformation process, including time-dependent aspects. However, the process of uplift is most probably caused by the swelling of the clay minerals in the argillaceous rocks in the coal strata after the flooding of the underground workings. Hence, the areas in which there is the greatest risk of damage to the surface infrastructure are not the same for the hazards linked to subsidence and uplift. For example, the zone in which the maximum uplift occurs clearly is at a different location from that of the zone with the maximum residual subsidence. There is no clear sign that the amount of mining underneath affects the residual subsidence, and there is no indication that the process of uplift is linked directly to the mining characteristics. It is more likely that uplift as the result of flooding is initiated at, or close to, the vertical shafts.

  17. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) presence and proliferation on former surface coal mines in Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Adam J.; Wynne, R.H.; Zipper, Carl E.; Ford, W. Mark; Donovan, P. F.; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plants threaten native plant communities. Surface coal mines in the Appalachian Mountains are among the most disturbed landscapes in North America, but information about land cover characteristics of Appalachian mined lands is lacking. The invasive shrub autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) occurs on these sites and interferes with ecosystem recovery by outcompeting native trees, thus inhibiting re-establishment of the native woody-plant community. We analyzed Landsat 8 satellite imagery to describe autumn olive’s distribution on post-mined lands in southwestern Virginia within the Appalachian coalfield. Eight images from April 2013 through January 2015 served as input data. Calibration and validation data obtained from high-resolution aerial imagery were used to develop a land cover classification model that identified areas where autumn olive was a primary component of land cover. Results indicate that autumn olive cover was sufficiently dense to enable detection on approximately 12.6 % of post-mined lands within the study area. The classified map had user’s and producer’s accuracies of 85.3 and 78.6 %, respectively, for the autumn olive coverage class. Overall accuracy was assessed in reference to an independent validation dataset at 96.8 %. Autumn olive was detected more frequently on mines disturbed prior to 2003, the last year of known plantings, than on lands disturbed by more recent mining. These results indicate that autumn olive growing on reclaimed coal mines in Virginia and elsewhere in eastern USA can be mapped using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager imagery; and that autumn olive occurrence is a significant landscape vegetation feature on former surface coal mines in the southwestern Virginia segment of the Appalachian coalfield.

  18. Simultaneous caving and surface restoration system for oil shale mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allsman, P.T.

    1968-10-01

    A modified caving method is introduced for mining oil shale and simultaneous restoration of the land surface by return of spent shale onto the subsided area. Other methods have been designed to mine the relatively thin richer beds occurring near outcrops in the Piceance Creek Basin of NW. Colorado. Since the discovery of the much thicker beds in the N.-central part of the basin, some attention has focused on in situ and open-pit methods of recovery. Although caving has been recognized as a possible means of mining shale, most people have been skeptical of its success. This stems from the unknown and salient factors of cavability and size of broken rock with caving. Wisdom would seem to dictate that serious evaluation of the caving method be made along with the other methods.

  19. Underground coal mine subsidence impacts on surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, D.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that subsidence from underground coal mining alters surface water discharge and availability. The magnitude and areal extent of these impacts are dependent on many factors, including the amount of subsidence, topography, geology, climate, surface water - ground water interactions, and fractures in the overburden. There alterations may have positive and/or negative impacts. One of the most significant surface water impacts occurred in July 1957 near West Pittston, Pennsylvania. Subsidence in the Knox Mine under the Coxton Yards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad allowed part of the discharge in the Susquehanna River to flow into the mine and create a crater 200 feet in diameter and 300 feet deep. Fourteen railroad gondola cars fell into the hole which was eventually filled with rock, sand, and gravel. Other surface water impacts from subsidence may include the loss of water to the ground water system, the gaining of water from the ground water system, the creation of flooded subsidence troughs, the increasing of impoundment storage capacity, the relocation of water sources (springs), and the alteration of surface drainage patterns

  20. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Sanmiquel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector—either surface or underground mining—based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents.

  1. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Bascompta, Marc; Rossell, Josep M.; Anticoi, Hernán Francisco; Guash, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector—either surface or underground mining—based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents. PMID:29518921

  2. Achieving revegetation standards on surface mined lands. [Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Standards for revegetation success on surface mined lands have been developed by federal and state regulatory authorities. Because reclamation science is young, its potential for meeting revegetation standards is untested. This paper reviews the Montana revegetation standards which require establishment of a diverse, effective, and permanent vegetational cover. In addition, productivity, cover, and diversity must be comparable to that of reference areas. Fifty-one percent of the cover must be of native species. A plant succession study at Colstrip, MT, has been directed toward documenting establishment, succession, and stability of vegetation on surface mined land. Data from the study were used to discuss success of reclamation seedings since 1969. Major problem areas identified include achieving: comparable life form composition, cover of perennial vegetation, species diversity, and seasonality of forage and browse. Achieving erosion control, comparable production, and native species dominance did not appear to be major problems. Achieving revegetation standards on mined lands in the future will require very specialized reclamation procedures and continued research. Naturally revegetated mined lands at Colstrip indicate good potential for reclamation success.

  3. Factors affecting the development of a surface coal mine safety and training program in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, D.W.; Gilliss, A.M.

    1982-09-01

    During the past decade, a general awareness of the need for and subsequent development of increased safety in United States coal mines has taken place. Government and industry alike were stimulated into accelerating their actions through unacceptable accident statistics and costs (in terms of human misery and dollar values). Those of us who work in the United States coal industry are aware of the development of governmental controls on mine safety. Both Federal and State regulations have placed increased responsibility upon mine owners and operators to insure a safe working environment and to provide training for miners. No other industrial group of workers has received such attention or, in our opinion, deserves it more. It should be pointed out that surface coal mines are safe places to work, considering the size of equipment, depths of excavation, use of high voltage electricity, explosives, and other hazards associated with continuous operations in all weather conditions. United States surface miners are, we believe, in a far safer environment while working at the mine than they are while driving to and from the mine, or performing a host of other non-mine related activities. While it is not the purpose of this paper to argue the effectiveness of governmental regulations, a brief review of the Federal control of mine safety will be made. Along with regulations, management expertise has also been developed. Since coal mining is an expensive, complex business, management sophistication has increased and with this enlightened viewpoint, all aspects of the business have been and are being analyzed. The impact management has on mine safety will also be discussed. Finally, and as the main function of this paper, we will describe management's use of principles and courses of action used to develop the safety function at a large volume surface lignite coal mine in the United States.

  4. Assessment of the impact of underground mining on ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomik, Arvi

    1999-01-01

    The mine able oil shale bed is located in horizontally lying Ordovician limestones at a depth of 10-60 meters from the ground surface. Limestones are covered with Quaternary sediments, mainly till and loam, sporadically seams of clay occur. The overburden rocks of oil shale bed are jointed limestones with weak contacts between layers. The upper part of limestones is weakened additionally due to weathering to depths of 10-20 metres. Ground movements caused by mining reach the ground surface easily due to the shallow location of workings. The size and nature of these movements depend on mining and roof control methods used. In this study the impact of geotechnical processes on the ground surface caused by four different mining methods is analysed. A new, artificial micro relief is formed on undermined areas, where the ground surface depressions are alternating with rising grounds. When the Quaternary cover contains loamy sediments, the surface (rain) water will accumulate in the depressions. The response of usable lands on undermined areas depends on the degree of changes in the relief and water regime. There exists a maximum degree (limit) of changes of ground movements in case of which the changes in land use are not yet considerable. The factor of land deterioration was developed for arable and forest lands taking into account the character and degree of negative impacts. When no one deterioration factor exceeds the limit, the value of arable land will be 1.0 (100%). When some factor exceeds the limit, then water logging in subsidence troughs will diminish the value to 0.7, slopes to 0.8 and the area of weathered basic rocks to 0.9. In case of a combined effect of all these factors the value of arable land will fall to 0.5. As the long-term character of ground movement after room and pillar mining is not yet established, the factor for quasi stable areas is taken preliminarily as 0.9. Using detailed plans of mined out areas and the proposed factors, it is possible

  5. A waterjet mining machine for use in room and pillar mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, D.A.

    1990-06-01

    A new mining machine is constructed for use in room and pillar mining operations. This machine uses the action of computer controlled, centrally located high pressure cutting lances to cut deep slots in a coal face. These slots stress relieve the coal ahead of the machine and outline blocks of coal. The movement forward of the machine then wedges up the lower block of coal. This wedging action is assisted by the gathering arms of the loader section of the machine, and by underlying oscillating waterjets which create a slot ahead of the loading wedge as it advances. Finally the top section of coal is brought down by the sequential advance of wedge faced roof support members, again assisted by the waterjet action from the central cutting arms. The machine is designed to overcome major disadvantages of existing room and pillar mining machines in regard to a reduction in respirable dust, the creation of an immediate roof support, and an increase in product size, with concomitant reduction in cleaning costs.

  6. A waterjet mining machine for use in room and pillar mining operations. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, D.A.

    1990-06-01

    A new mining machine is constructed for use in room and pillar mining operations. This machine uses the action of computer controlled, centrally located high pressure cutting lances to cut deep slots in a coal face. These slots stress relieve the coal ahead of the machine and outline blocks of coal. The movement forward of the machine then wedges up the lower block of coal. This wedging action is assisted by the gathering arms of the loader section of the machine, and by underlying oscillating waterjets which create a slot ahead of the loading wedge as it advances. Finally the top section of coal is brought down by the sequential advance of wedge faced roof support members, again assisted by the waterjet action from the central cutting arms. The machine is designed to overcome major disadvantages of existing room and pillar mining machines in regard to a reduction in respirable dust, the creation of an immediate roof support, and an increase in product size, with concomitant reduction in cleaning costs.

  7. Operator bosonization on Riemann surfaces: new vertex operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new formalism is proposed for the construction of an operator theory of generalized ghost systems (bc theories of spin J) on Riemann surfaces (loop diagrams of the theory of closed strings). The operators of the bc system are expressed in terms of operators of the bosonic conformal theory on a Riemann surface. In contrast to the standard bosonization formulas, which have meaning only locally, operator Baker-Akhiezer functions, which are well defined globally on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, are introduced. The operator algebra of the Baker-Akhiezer functions generates explicitly the algebraic-geometric τ function and correlation functions of bc systems on Riemann surfaces

  8. Economics of mine water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáček, Jaroslav; Vidlář, Jiří; Štěrba, Jiří; Heviánková, Silvie; Vaněk, Michal; Barták, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Mine water poses a significant problem in lignite coal mining. The drainage of mine water is the fundamental prerequisite of mining operations. Under the legislation of the Czech Republic, mine water that discharges into surface watercourse is subject to the permission of the state administration body in the water management sector. The permission also stipulates the limits for mine water pollution. Therefore, mine water has to be purified prior to discharge. Although all...

  9. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Social license to operate: case from brazilian mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ana Lúcia F.; Demajorovic, Jacques; Aledo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The approach of the Social License to Operate (SLO) emerges as an important element in academic discussions and business practices related to extractive industries. It appears that in productive activities with great potential to produce economic, social and environmental impacts, conventional approaches based on legal compliance no longer sufficient to legitimize the actions of companies and engagement stakeholders. Studies highlight the need of mining activities receiving a SLO "issued" by companies stakeholders, including society, government, non-governmental organizations, media and communities. However, local communities appears as major stakeholders in governance arrangements, by virtue of its proximity to extractive areas and ability to affect the company's results. Stakeholders with unmet expectations can generate conflicts and risks to the company, the knowledge of these expectations and an awareness of company managers of the importance of Social License to Operate (SLO), can generate strategies and mitigating actions to prevent and or minimize possible conflicts. The concept of SLO arises in engineering extractive industry, when you need to respond to social challenges, beyond the usual environmental challenges, technological and management. According to Franks and Cohen (2012) there is a tendency of engineering sectors, sustainability, environmental, safety and especially in risk mappings, treat the technological issues in a neutral manner, separating the technological research projects of social influences. I want to contribute to the advancement of the debate on stakeholder engagement and adopting as focus on the company's relationship with the community, the aim of this study was to understand how a social project held by one of the largest mining companies in Brazil contributed to the process of SLO. This methodological procedure adopted was a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory interviews with the communities located in rural areas of direct

  11. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  12. Quantification of Operational Risk Using A Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, J. Sebastian

    1999-01-01

    What is Data Mining? - Data Mining is the process of finding actionable information hidden in raw data. - Data Mining helps find hidden patterns, trends, and important relationships often buried in a sea of data - Typically, automated software tools based on advanced statistical analysis and data modeling technology can be utilized to automate the data mining process

  13. Chemical properties and particle-size distribution of 39 surface-mine spoils in southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Plass; Willis G. Vogel

    1973-01-01

    A survey of 39 surface-mine sites in southern West Virginia showed that most of the spoils from current mining operations had a pH of 5.0 or higher. Soil-size material averaged 37 percent of the weight of the spoils sampled. A major problem for the establishment of vegetation was a deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. This can be corrected with additions of...

  14. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with the exception of §§ 761.11(c) and 761.12(f)(1), shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

  15. Feasibility of a continuous surface mining machine using impact breakers. First quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report on the efforts to evaluate the feasibility of excavating coal and overburden from surface mines using impact breakers. The initial stages of the project are devoted to a literature search, equipment selection, test site selection, and conceptual test system design. Hence, this report details the progress made in these areas; the next quarter will see the finalization of Phase I. Included as appendices to this report are FMA internal reports on the individual mines visited. These reports are the basis of the test site selection, and have been censored here to remove data the mine operators deemed as confidential.

  16. Vibration response of waste rock dump in open pit mine caused by blasting operation

    OpenAIRE

    Lednická, M. (Markéta); Kaláb, Z. (Zdeněk)

    2015-01-01

    In the open pit mine near Jarnoltowek (Poland), phyllite is excavated and rock waste is deposited on the dump directly in the mine; that is at a distance of approximately 150 m from the quarry face. Blasting operations are used as mining technology here so the rock waste dump could be influenced by these vibrations significantly. The paper presents results of experimental seismological measurement performed on four levels of the rock waste dump in the discussed mine.

  17. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... prior to mining. Prior to reopening any surface coal mine after it has been abandoned or declared... an authorized representative of the Secretary before any mining operations in such mine are...

  18. Biological mine water treatment operating a one stage reactor system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, MJ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Mine drainage arises from oxidation of pyrites, due to exposure to air and water. Acid mine drainage normally contains high concentrations of sulphate, metals and acidity. These pollutants can be reduced by applying the biological sulphate reduction...

  19. Effect of Traditional Gold Mining to Surface Water Quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wilopo, W; Resili, R; Putra, D P E

    2013-01-01

    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  20. Ra-226 collective dosimetry for surface waters in the uranium mining region of Pocos de Caldas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Graphs of the collective dose equivalent for the whole body, bone, gastro-intestinal tract (lower large intestine), kidneys, and liver, via the pathways of drinking water and ingestion of food grown in irrigated fields are presented as a function of the 226 Ra concentrations in the surface waters of the Pocos de Caldas region. The collective dose equivalent calculated from the 226 Ra concentrations measured in the baseline studies are compared with those collective dose equivalent estimated from the projected higher 226 Ra concentrations in the river waters. The 226 Ra concentrations in river waters of the region are expected to be enhanced due to 226 Ra releases from uranium mining and milling operations. The dose equivalent commitment for the exposed population for the referred pathways is also estimated for the contribution of the mine during its predicted time of operation. The assumptions for the dose calculations are presented and the results obtained are discussed. (H.K.)

  1. Intervention strategies to eliminate truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Kecojevic, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to build upon a previous study on the root causes of truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining operations in West Virginia, and to develop intervention strategies to eliminate these fatalities. This review considers a two-pronged approach to accident prevention: one that is fundamental and traditional (safety regulations, training and education, and engineering of the work environment); and one that is innovative and creative (e.g., applying technological advances to better control and eliminate the root causes of accidents). Suggestions for improving current training and education system are proposed, and recommendations are provided on improving the safety of mine working conditions, specifically safety conditions on haul roads, dump sites, and loading areas. We also discuss various currently available technologies that can help prevent haul truck-related fatal accidents. The results of this review should be used by mine personnel to help create safer working conditions and decrease truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining.

  2. Whole body vibration exposure in heavy earth moving machinery operators of metalliferrous mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanerkar, A P; Kulkarni, N P; Zade, P D; Kamavisdar, A S

    2008-08-01

    As mining operations get mechanized, the rate of profit generation increases and so do the rate of occupational hazards. This study deals with one such hazard - occupational vibration. The present study was carried out to determine the whole body vibration (WBV) exposure of the heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM) operators in two types of metalliferous mines in India, when they were engaged in the mining activity. Cross-comparison was done of the vibration dose value (VDV) for HEMM operators as well as each type of mine. The VDV for the shovel operator in bauxite mine was observed to be 13.53 +/- 5.63 m/s(7/4) with 25% of the readings higher than the prescribed limit whereas in iron ore mine VDV for dumper operator was 10.81 +/- 3.44 m/s(7/4) with 14.62% readings on the higher side. Cross-comparison of the VDV values for bauxite and iron ore mines revealed that it was 9.57 +/- 4.93 and 8.21 +/- 5.12 m/s(7/4) with 21.28 and 14.95% of the readings on the higher side respectively. The Student's t test level was found to be insignificant for both type of mines, indicating that the WBV exposure is not dependent on the type of mine but is dependent on the working condition and type of HEMM in operation.

  3. Bubbling surface operators and S-duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Matsuura, Shunji

    2007-01-01

    We construct smooth asymptotically /ADS solutions of Type IIB supergravity corresponding to all the half-BPS surface operators in N = 4 SYM. All the parameters labeling a half-BPS surface operator are identified in the corresponding bubbling geometry. We use the supergravity description of surface operators to study the action of the SL(2,Z) duality group of N 4 SYM on the parameters of the surface operator, and find that it coincides with the recent proposal by Gukov and Witten in the framework of the gauge theory approach to the geometrical Langlands with ramification. We also show that whenever a bubbling geometry becomes singular that the path integral description of the corresponding surface operator also becomes singular

  4. Northern bobwhite breeding season ecology on a reclaimed surface mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Peters, David C.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Surface coal mining and subsequent reclamation of surface mines have converted large forest areas into early successional vegetative communities in the eastern United States. This reclamation can provide a novel opportunity to conserve northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). We evaluated the influence of habitat management activities on nest survival, nest-site selection, and brood resource selection on managed and unmanaged units of a reclaimed surface mine, Peabody Wildlife Management Area (Peabody), in west-central Kentucky, USA, from 2010 to 2013. We compared resource selection, using discrete-choice analysis, and nest survival, using the nest survival model in Program MARK, between managed and unmanaged units of Peabody at 2 spatial scales: the composition and configuration of vegetation types (i.e., macrohabitat) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood locations (i.e., microhabitat). On managed sites, we also investigated resource selection relative to a number of different treatments (e.g., herbicide, disking, prescribed fire). We found no evidence that nest-site selection was influenced by macrohabitat variables, but bobwhite selected nest sites in areas with greater litter depth than was available at random sites. On managed units, bobwhite were more likely to nest where herbicide was applied to reduce sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) compared with areas untreated with herbicide. Daily nest survival was not influenced by habitat characteristics or by habitat management but was influenced by nest age and the interaction of nest initiation date and nest age. Daily nest survival was greater for older nests occurring early in the breeding season (0.99, SE < 0.01) but was lower for older nests occurring later in the season (0.08, SE = 0.13). Brood resource selection was not influenced by macrohabitat or microhabitat variables we measured, but broods on managed units selected areas treated with herbicide to control sericea lespedeza

  5. Object and operation supported maintenance for mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bartelmus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aroused in answer to discussion in Mining Magazine (MM September 2011 and July/August 2013. The paper shows that discussion given in the MM issue July/August 2013 does not fulfill expectations expressed in MM issue 2011. The presented paper is the review on maintenance that is based on condition monitoring as tool for detection of faults and failure prevention. Fault and failure are regarded as inevitable during the machine operation as the process of wear and the process of degradation. The question is, if one can influence the wear and degradation process, using condition monitoring. The paper will present technology (in reference to cited papers which demonstrates that the use of the proper method can influence the wear and machine degradation process, using proper condition monitoring techniques and knowing scenarios of wear and degradation process, the maintenance can be rationalized. The presented paper shows possible improvements which are needed to fulfill expectations expressed in MM September 2011 and they are not taken into consideration in MM July/August 3013. These improvements can be fulfilling on the bases of object and operation supported maintenance.

  6. Response of transplanted aspen to irrigation and weeding on a Colorado reclaimed surface coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Wayne D. Shepperd; Frederick W. Smith; Lance A. Asherin; Brian W. Gee

    2012-01-01

    Successful re-establishment of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) on surface-mined lands in the western United States is problematic because the species generally regenerates vegetatively by sprouting from parent roots in the soil; however, topsoil is removed in the mining process. Previous attempts to plant aspen on reclaimed mine sites have failed because...

  7. Soil macropores: Control on infiltration, hillslope and surface hydrology on a reclaimed surface-mined watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, M.D.; Gardner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrologic response of a surface-mined watershed in central Pennsylvania is controlled by rapid macropore flow within the unsaturated man-made topsoil. Newly reclaimed surface-mined watersheds in central Pennsylvania exhibit low steady-state infiltration rates (1--2 cm/hr) and produce runoff dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow. However, within four years after reclamation, infiltration rates on some mine surfaces approach premined rates (8 cm/hr). As infiltration rate increases, the volume of infiltrated water increases, but the total porosity of minesoil matrix remains constant. There is little change in the surface discharge volume, indicating that infiltrated water continues to contribute to the basin surface discharge by the processes of throughflow and return flow. Throughflow in the topsoil horizon occurs in rapid response to rainfall input, producing large volumes of water with throughflow rates closely related to rainfall rates and with throughflow peaks following rainfall peaks by only minutes. Increased return flow alters the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph by slightly lagging behind infiltration excess overland flow. These changes in the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph reduce the potential for severe gully erosion on the reclaimed site. In addition, throughflow water remains predominantly in the topsoil horizon, and therefore has limited contact with potentially acid-producing backfill. Better understanding of macropore flow processes in reclaimed minesoils will help investigators evaluate past strategies and develop new reclamation techniques that will minimize the short-term surface erosional effects of mining and reclamation, while optimizing the long-term effluent and groundwater quality

  8. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  9. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  10. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  11. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  12. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  13. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  14. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  15. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  16. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  17. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  18. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal...

  19. Impacts of surface gold mining on land use systems in Western Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Vivian; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Schröder, Hilmar

    2011-07-01

    Land use conflicts are becoming increasingly apparent from local to global scales. Surface gold mining is an extreme source of such a conflict, but mining impacts on local livelihoods often remain unclear. Our goal here was to assess land cover change due to gold surface mining in Western Ghana, one of the world's leading gold mining regions, and to study how these changes affected land use systems. We used Landsat satellite images from 1986-2002 to map land cover change and field interviews with farmers to understand the livelihood implications of mining-related land cover change. Our results showed that surface mining resulted in deforestation (58%), a substantial loss of farmland (45%) within mining concessions, and widespread spill-over effects as relocated farmers expand farmland into forests. This points to rapidly eroding livelihood foundations, suggesting that the environmental and social costs of Ghana's gold boom may be much higher than previously thought.

  20. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  1. Surface water quality associated with the surface mining of Iowa coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliford, J.B.; Wildman, R.B.; Payne, L.K.

    1977-11-07

    The findings of an exhaustive study of coal mining and coal preparation industries are reviewed for the purpose of developing limitation guidelines and performance standards. Successful technologies are discussed for treatment of acid mine water collected in settling ponds. A combination of limestone (less expensive, safer to handle, most effective at low pH levels) and lime (more effective in neutralizing at higher pH's) is recommended when cost is an important consideration, as in Iowa mining. We recommend two ponds, with raw water entering the second pond after treatment with limestone/lime on a regulated dose/flow rate with thorough mixing. The second pond would serve a clarifying purpose for settling of the floc of insoluble sulfates and hydroxides. Adequate retention time is important before discharge of the effluent to the receiving stream. We are confident that the effluent from this secondary pond could be expected to meet EPA and DEQ standards if the pH of the treated water were raised to 7 to 9. EPA has documented these performance standards at the mining operations included in their study. The engineering and application costs of this treatment method should be well within reach of Iowa mining companies.

  2. Project proposal for surface-mined land enhancement (SMILE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, A.M.

    1975-01-29

    Reclaiming strip-mined land is a program ideally suited to meet the requirements of the Job Opportunities Program. It will provide healthy and vigorous outdoor activity involving surveying, earth-moving, revegetation, tree planting, construction of roads, paths, lakes, and park facilities. It is work which states and communities are anxious to have started. It can be done with relatively small capital expenditure. Technical expertise is available in the various states concerned. FEA is the ideal agency to initiate such a project. It has regional offices throughout the country with close contacts with states and local communities. It is a temporary emergency agency with considerable experience in initiating and carrying out crash programs. It is not tied down to the procedures and bureaucratic problems which burden an old-line agency attempting to take on new work. Finally, FEA has a vital interest in energy and surface mining in particular. It played a major role in drafting the new legislation. The initial program development is described, including the technical aspects, economic aspects and administration, cost, budget, cooperation with state agencies, etc.

  3. Vibration response of the waste rock dump in open pit mine caused by blasting operation

    OpenAIRE

    Markéta Lednická; Zdeněk Kaláb

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of slope stability is often solved when designing and realizing waste dumps. Vibration effect needs to be taken into account, especially when the waste dump is situated in close distance to the seismic loading source. In the open pit mine near Jarnoltowek (Poland), phyllite is excavated, and rock waste is deposited on the dump directly in the mine; that is at a distance of approximately 150 m from the quarry face. Blasting operations are used as mining technology here so the...

  4. Environmental impacts of mining: monitoring, restoration and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.

    1993-01-01

    Contains 12 chapters with the following titles: mining and the environment; surface coal mining with reclamation; reclamation and revegetation of mined land; the acid mine drainage problem from coal mines; acid rock drainage and metal migration; hydrologic impact; erosion and sediment control; wetlands; blasting; mining subsidence; postmining land use; environmental effects of gold heap-leaching operations.

  5. MINING OPERATIONS'' SAFETY PROVISION - FUNDAMENTAL AND APPLIED SCIENCE TASK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov V.N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The stages of the modern Russian scientiic school of comprehensive exploitation of mineral resourcesformation, the main directions of which were concentrated in the Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources are considered. The main directions of ICEMR scientiic activity and the most important results of fundamental and applied research are presented, which are the scientiic Ьasis of modern research related to the safety of mineral reserves use provision. The importance of studying the coal and methane interaction, gas dynamic phenomena in coal mines, coal seam degassing technologies and mine methane utilization, mathematical modeling and solving proЬlems in the ield of stressed-deformed state, strength, fracturing mechanics, thermal conductivity, hydromechanics, forced viЬration, etc. are outlined.The effectiveness analysis of the state, academic and industrial Ьranch scientiic centers, university science, design organizations and mining companies joint efforts to reduce industrial injuries in the mining sector of the Russian economy is conducted. The need for targeted measures to move to new technical-technological and regulatory levels of mining, allowing to prevent the accidents with massive fatal injuries, was determined. The solution of these tasks is possiЬle only Ьy comЬining the efforts of the specialized institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, of the Ьranch science, of universities and mining companies through the implementation of the "Mining Safety" Scientiic Research Comprehensive Plan, coordinated Ьy ICEMR RAS.

  6. Finite element modeling of surface subsidence induced by underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, D.W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to predict the effects of longwall mining on topography and surface structures is important for any coal company in making permit applications and anticipating potential mining problems. The sophisticated finite element model described and evaluated in this paper is based upon five years of underground and surface observations and evolutionary development of modeling techniques and attributes. The model provides a very powerful tool to address subsidence and other ground control questions. The model can be used to calculate postmining stress and strain conditions at any horizon between the mine and the ground surface. This holds the promise of assisting in the prediction of mining-related hydrological effects

  7. Mine and land ownership in operation planning procedures. On the framing of issues of conflicting civil rights under administrative law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Assmann, E.; Schoch, F.

    1994-01-01

    On the framing of issues of conflicting civil rights under administrative law. The available arsenal of legal instruments for solving conflicts between proprietary titles to land surfaces and mines is more extensive and differentiated and, if properly deployed, more effective than one might at first expect. The control mechanisms become effective either immediately through laws or through administrative or private acts and are based on public or on private law. They range from the sphere of mining rights, operation planning law, the law on the prevention of damage to private persons over to the regulations under mining law on the payment of damages. The constitutionality of the mining regulations examined here is beyond dispute. They comply with the constitutional requirement to frame the issue concerned and afford protection while at the same time providing the required measure of openness and flexibility for conforming to the peculiarities of the mining business and permitting the necessary sensitivity of administrative control for managing this multipolar legal relationship. At the statutory level the regulatory purpose of the mining law in force is thus fulfilled. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Vertical Displacement of the Surface Area over the Leakage to the Transverse salt Mine in 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipecki, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    The leakage of water in the salt mine caused considerable deformation of the surface. This article shows the vertical displacement in the area of leakage to the mine excavation, measured by precision leveling, carried out from the first days of leakage in 1992 until 2012. The geological and hydrogeological conditions of the mine, as well as the associated water hazards were described, which in conjunction with the inconvenient location of the excavation site in the northern frontage of the Carpathians and also inadequately conducted mining operations, contributed to the risk of flooding mine. The analysis of the vertical movements of the surface - subsidence and uplift - were present as well as the process of formation of the depression trough in the form of maps and graphs. The analyzes were based on 49 measurement series, starting from the first days of the disaster within the next 20 years. The course of development of the depression trough and the condition of the surface after stopping the water from the rock mass has been shown, which caused the surface to uplift.

  9. Methods to reduce mercury pollution is small gold mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja-Timaran, F.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Rodriguez-Avello, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air, and now have been changed to the utilization of artisan iron retorts which considerable reduce the emissions of mercury vapors to the atmosphere, but there are still high losses of mercury into the waste solids or tailings coming from the amalgamation process (nearly most of the total weight of the ore treated). In order to reduce the mercury losses into the tailings from the process, this research work has been based in the use of cheap systems, available to the isolated miners, to proof that it is feasible to get an important reduction of the losses and the pollution. the procedure has been accomplished by means of washing the ores with alkaline or detergent agents, together with the use of activated mercury purified by electrowinning in a simple device, easily manufactured in site by the own workers. It is also proven herewith that controlling the time of amalgamation and the total amount of mercury used could reduce the total pollution, and in addition, the gold recovery would be improved. This investigation reports the possibility of a reduction of mercury losses down to 2.4 g per 100 of gold produced (case of rich ores like LaBruja), with gold recovery up to 94%; and 8,6 g per 100 g of gold produced (from ores with average grades like La Gruesa), and gold recoveries in the range of 92%. All that is about 20 to 100 times lower than data reported in current bibliography. The introduction of a previous step of the ore concentration in shaking tables, decreases the total amount of solids for

  10. Evaluation of the risk to underground mine personnel due to the rockmass response to continuous mining operations.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aswegen, G

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine whether there is a difference in the seismic response of the rockmass between 11-day mining cycle and full calendar operations - FULCO. A literature survey was useful to gain insight in the time dependent...

  11. Water balance model for a no release mining operation in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The uranium mining region of the Northern Territory of Australia is characterised by extremes in rainfall. This must be considered in planning mining operations in the area. Plans must include provision of water during the dry season, control of water during the wet season, provision of access throughout all seasons and management of water to minimise environmental pollution

  12. Usage of emulsion explosives on surface open pit mine “Zelenikovec” - Skopje

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Bosevski, Trajce

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages of using emulsion explosives on the surface mine ”Zelenikovec”. A comparison has been made with the other types of explosives regarding the cost of drilling, blasting, environmental protection and the safety while using them. In the estimates, the criteria for using this type of emulsion explosives on the surface mine “Zelenikovec” have been met.

  13. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for underground...

  14. Main trends in scientific-research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinets, V.N.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to main trends in research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts of Priargunsky mine-chemical association. Develops and introduced principally new design solutions and technologies in the field of open mining, underground mining, as well as in-situ and heap leaching, are described

  15. Environmental regulation of exploration and mining operations in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.; Naito, Koh; Pring, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper offers a new perspective on the environmental laws in Asian nations affecting the exploration, mining, and reclamation activities of the mineral resource industry: the perspective of the senior government officials in those countries, whose job is to enforce these new environmental laws. The article presents the results of a 1998 survey of national environmental officials in Asia conducted by the Colorado School of Mines and the Metal Mining Agency of Japan. Officials in 10 diverse countries - Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam - responded to a detailed questionnaire covering applicable laws, agencies, protected areas, covered mineral activities, financial assurance, environmental impact assessment, public involvement, environmental standards, permit and reclamation requirements. The survey confirms that Asian nations are part of the global trend towards national government regulatory structures that balance mineral development objectives with environmental considerations. The survey also shows developing regulatory systems (some embryonic, some more mature) utilizing a combination of mining and environmental acts, and often an 'insider' perspective of the national officials administering the laws. While that perspective is not without its biases (not least the rigor of enforcement), it may nevertheless be of use in company planning. The emerging regulatory picture contradicts the conventional notion that it is the 'lower' level of regulation in Asia that is attracting foreign direct investment in mining. (author)

  16. ¡VAMOS! (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System) - a 'Horizon 2020' project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Cameron; Bodo, Balazs; Kapusniak, Stef; Bosman, Frank; Rainbird, Jenny; Silva, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    The 42-month ¡VAMOS! project (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System, Grant Agreement 642477, www.vamos-project.eu), funded by the EC H2020 Programme, will enable access to high-grade EU reserves of mineral ore-bodies by developing an innovative clean and low visibility mining technique. The project will demonstrate the technological and economic viability of the underwater extraction of metallic mineral deposits which are currently technologically, economically, and environmentally unobtainable. In doing so, ¡VAMOS! hopes to encourage investment in abandoned open-pit mines and prospective mines, helping to put the EU back on a level playing field with the rest of the world in terms of access to strategically important minerals. The ¡VAMOS! concept is defined by a remotely-operated underwater mining vehicle, adapted and improved from existing subsea mining technology. Operating in tandem with an HROV, the mining vehicle will connect to a flexible riser through which slurried mined material will be pumped from the mudline to onshore dewatering facilities via a floating mobile deployment-module, on which will be fitted a bypass system linked to an LIBS, allowing real-time grade-control. Analysis of European and national regulation and stakeholder assessments found there is significant support for developing the technology among local communities and governments. An initial environmental assessment of the potential impact of the innovative mining operation concluded the project has a smaller environmental footprint than conventional mining operations: this is due to factors including the quieter operation and absence of blasting, zero water-table flux, and the higher stripping ratio enabled by higher fluid pressure acting on the sidewalls of the mine. The prototypes are currently in their construction phase following a final design freeze in October 2016. Work is now underway on the foresight visioning, economic evaluation and policy guidelines for the

  17. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings: Comparing different operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo, Adrian; Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analyzed, such as remediation time, voltage drop, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields. The results show that electric cu...

  18. Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines

  19. Restoring forests and associated ecosystem services on appalachian coal surface mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E; Burger, James A; Skousen, Jeffrey G; Angel, Patrick N; Barton, Christopher D; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  20. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  1. Debilitating lung disease among surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Reed, William R; Joy, Gerald J; Colinet, Jay F; Rider, James P; Petsonk, Edward L; Abraham, Jerrold L; Wolfe, Anita L; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner's lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor.

  2. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot Excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Ebert, Thomas; Cox, Rachel; Rahmatian, Laila; Wood, James; Schuler, Jason; Nick, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) excavator robot is a teleoperated mobility platform with a space regolith excavation capability. This more compact, lightweight design (<50 kg) has counterrotating bucket drums, which results in a net-zero reaction horizontal force due to the self-cancellation of the symmetrical, equal but opposing, digging forces.

  3. Large Omnivore Movements in Response to Surface Mining and Mine Reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Boyce, Mark S

    2016-01-11

    Increasing global demands have resulted in widespread proliferation of resource extraction. Scientists are challenged to develop environmental mitigation strategies that meet societal expectations of resource supply, while achieving minimal disruption to sensitive "wilderness" species. We used GPS collar data from a 9-year study on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) (n = 18) in Alberta, Canada to assess movements and associated space use during versus after mining. Grizzly bear home range overlap with mined areas was lower during active mining except for females with cubs, that also had shortest movements on active mines. However, both females with cubs and males made shorter steps when on/close to mines following mine closure and reclamation. Our results show differences in bear movement and space-use strategies, with individuals from a key population segment (females with cubs) appearing most adaptable to mining disturbance. Preserving patches of original habitat, reclaiming the landscape and minimizing the risk of direct human-induced mortality during and after development can help conserve bears and other wildlife on industrially modified landscapes.

  4. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  5. Radioactive air emissions from non-uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silhanek, J.S.; Andrews, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Section 122 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, Public Law 9595, directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to review all relevant information and determine whether emissions of radioactive pollutants into ambient air will cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health. A section of this document presented a theoretical analysis of the radioactive airborne emissions from several non-uranium mines including iron, copper, zinc, clay, limestone, fluorspar, and phosphate. Since 1978 EPA's Las Vegas Laboratory has been gathering field data on actual radionuclide emissions from these mines to support the earlier theoretical analysis. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of those field measurements in comparison with the assumed values for the theoretical analysis

  6. Occupational Malfunctioning and Fatigue Related Work Stress Disorders (FRWSDs): An Emerging Issue in Indian Underground Mine (UGM) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Shibaji Ch.; Dey, Netai Chandra; Sharma, Gourab Dhara

    2017-09-01

    Indian underground mining (UGM) transport system largely deals with different fore and back bearing work processes associated with different occupational disorders and fatigue related work stress disorders (FRWSDs). Therefore, this research study is specifically aimed to determine the fatigue related problems in general and determination of Recovery Heart Rate (Rec HR) pattern and exact cause of FRWSDs in particular. A group of twenty (N = 20) UGM operators are selected for the study. Heart rate profiles and work intensities of selected workforces have been recorded continuously during their regular mine operation and the same workforces are tested on a treadmill on surface with almost same work intensity (%Maximal Heart Rate) which was earlier observed in the mine. Recovery Heart Rate (Rec HR) in both the experiment zones is recorded. It is observed that with almost same work intensity, the recovery patterns of submaximal prolonged work in mine are different as compared to treadmill. This research study indicates that non-biomechanical muscle activity along with environmental stressors may have an influence on recovery pattern and FRWSDs.

  7. 2d index and surface operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role

  8. Enhancing Nitrification at Low Temperature with Zeolite in a Mining Operations Retention Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up ...

  9. Recent developments in the reclamation of surface mined lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K.D.; Gough, L.P.; Kumar, S.; Sharma, B.K.; Saxena, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A broad review of mine land reclamation problems and challenges in arid lands is presented with special emphasis on work recently completed in India. The economics of mining in the Indian Desert is second only to agriculture in importance. Lands disturbed by mining, however, have only recently been the focus of reclamation attempts. Studies were made and results compiled of problems associated with germplasm selection, soil, plant and overburden characterization and manipulation, plant establishment methods utilized, soil amendment needs, use and conservation of available water and the evaluation of ecosystem sustainability. Emphasis is made of the need for multi-disciplinary approaches to mine land reclamation research and for the long-term monitoring of reclamation success.

  10. Effect of high-extraction coal mining on surface and ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendorski, F.S.

    1993-01-01

    Since first quantified around 1979, much new data have become available. In examining the sources of data and the methods and intents of the researchers of over 65 case histories, it became apparent that the strata behaviors were being confused with overlapping vertical extents reported for the fractured zones and aquiclude zones depending on whether the researcher was interested in water intrusion into the mine or in water loss from surface or ground waters. These more recent data, and critical examination of existing data, have led to the realization that the former Aquiclude Zone defined for its ability to prevent or minimize the intrusion of ground or surface waters into mines has another important character in increasing storage of surface and shallow ground waters in response to mining with no permanent loss of waters. This zone is here named the Dilated Zone. Surface and ground waters can drain into this zone, but seldom into the mine, and can eventually be recovered through closing of dilations by mine subsidence progression away from the area, or filling of the additional void space created, or both. A revised model has been developed which accommodates the available data, by modifying the zones as follows: collapse and disaggregation extending 6 to 10 times the mined thickness above the panel; continuous fracturing extending approximately 24 times the mined thickness above the panel, allowing temporary drainage of intersected surface and ground waters; development of a zone of dilated, increased storativity, and leaky strata with little enhanced vertical permeability from 24 to 60 times the mined thickness above the panel above the continuous fracturing zone, and below the constrained or surface effects zones; maintenance of a constrained but leaky zone above the dilated zone and below the surface effects zone; and limited surface fracturing in areas of extension extending up to 50 ft or so beneath the ground surface. 119 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  12. Experiences with the operational radiation protection in the mine of Key Lake (Canada) and Forstau (Austria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, B.

    1978-01-01

    To control exposure to radiation all mining operations, e.g. in Key Lake, consisting of mine, processing, auxiliary plants and offices, are divided by the safety engineer into 'workplaces'. One or more monitoring devices are at each workplace. The frequency of measurements depends on the activity and its fluctuation. Besides the individual personal dosimetry which is made with film dosimeters, the β/γ-radiation is measured by highly sensitive dosimeters with digital display. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB [de

  13. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick, E-mail: mark.taylor@mq.edu.au; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-15

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m{sup 2}) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m{sup 2}) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m{sup 2}) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust.

  14. Coal quality monitoring at Whitewood Operations coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, L.C. [Fording Coal Limited, Wabamun, AB (Canada)

    1998-04-01

    The development of a Live Stockpile model to simulate the stacking and draw down features of a stockpile at the Wabamun power plant in Alberta, Canada is described. The model is used as an inventory management tool to optimize quality of fuel fed to the plant and to improve power generation and plant efficiency. Background of the Wabamun power plant and the associated Whitewood mine, programme objectives and development, critical limitations, results of the coal quality management programme, and recent improvements that include commissioning of an on-line ash and moisture analyzer are described. 6 figs.

  15. Sleep Patterns of Naval Aviation Personnel Conducting Mine Hunting Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    that are set off by the sound or magnetic signature of a passing ship. These "influence" mines can be either scattered along the ocean floor or...disk churns the water to simulate the sound of a ship’s cavitating propellers. The pilots on minesweeping missions must fly straight tracks back and...have you been told about snoring loud enough to disturb the sleep of others? 1. Never 2. Rarely (less than once a week) 3. Occasionally (1 – 3

  16. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  17. Methods to reduce mercury pollution in small gold mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantoja-Timarán, F.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. Some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air and now have been changed to the utilization of artisan iron retorts which considerably reduce the emissions of mercury vapors to the atmosphere, but there are still high losses of mercury into the waste solids or tailings coming from the amalgamation process (nearly most of the total weight of the ore treated. In order to reduce the mercury losses into the tailings from the process, this research work has been based in the use of cheap systems, available to the isolated miners, to proof that it is feasible to get an important reduction of the losses and the pollution. The procedure has been accomplished by means of washing the ores with alkaline or detergent agents, together with the use of activated mercury purified by electrowinning in a simple device, easily manufactured in site by the own workers. It is also proven herewith that controlling the time of amalgamation and the total amount of mercury used could reduce the total pollution, and in addition, the gold recovery would be improved. This investigation reports the possibility of a reduction of mercury losses down to 2.4 g per 100 g of gold produced (case of rich ores like La Bruja, with gold recovery up to 94 %; and 8,6 g per 100 g of gold produced (from ores with average grades like La Gruesa, and gold recoveries in the range of 92 %. All that is about 20 to 100 times lower than data reported in current bibliography. The introduction of a previous step of the ore concentration in shaking tables, decreases the total

  18. 78 FR 63463 - Intent To Prepare a Regional Environmental Impact Statement for Surface Coal and Lignite Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for Surface Coal and Lignite Mining in the State of Texas AGENCY: Department of... responsibility. These coal and lignite mining activities may eventually require authorization from the USACE... by mail. Surface coal and lignite mining projects in the USACE Fort Worth's area of responsibility...

  19. Development of a tree classifier for discrimination of surface mine activity from Landsat digital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. L.; Miller, W. F.; Quattrochi, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    In a cooperative project with the Geological Survey of Alabama, the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Applications Program has developed a single purpose, decision-tree classifier using band-ratioing techniques to discriminate various stages of surface mining activity. The tree classifier has four levels and employs only two channels in classification at each level. An accurate computation of the amount of disturbed land resulting from the mining activity can be made as a product of the classification output. The utilization of Landsat data provides a cost-efficient, rapid, and accurate means of monitoring surface mining activities.

  20. Treatment of pit water from uranium mining operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, A.; Lafforgue, P.; Lyaudet, G.

    1984-01-01

    The pit water from uranium mines is normally treated to eliminate the soluble radium and suspended solids. The radium is precipitated together with the barium sulphate. The latter results from the reaction of barium chloride with an excess of sulphate ions. The suspended solids are flocculated by aluminium salts (chloride, polychloride). If necessary, synthetic flocculants are also used. Certain grades of pit water contain, sometimes incidentally, a few milligrams of uranium per litre. These quantities always remain too low for any direct recovery (treatment by ion exchange resins). By applying certain measures, the preceding processes can also be used to eliminate uranium. The latter is carried away by aluminium hydroxide in a very narrow zone of pH (6 to 7,4) which corresponds to the minimum solubility of the hydroxide. Depending on the characteristic of the water (pH, salinity), use is made either of aluminium sulphate or of sodium aluminate, with an addition of a base in extreme cases. This article gives various examples of applications in the Haute-Vienne, Chardon in Vendee, the Commanderie mine in Vendee, at Cerilly in Allier and at Lodeve in Herault [fr

  1. Utah's uranium mines operated by new company as merger requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    When Utah International became a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Electric Company on December 20, 1976, a special provision of the merger was that Utah and General Electric would divest themselves of Utah's uranium operations. A new wholly-owned subsidiary of Utah was established, Lucky McUranium Corporation, to manage and operate Utah's uranium properties. The article briefly describes the operations

  2. COMPLEMENTARY USE OF INFORMATION FROM SPACE-BASED DINSAR AND FIELD MEASURING SYSTEMS FOR OPERATIONAL MONITORING PURPOSES IN OPEN PIT IRON MINES OF CARAJÁS MINING COMPLEX (BRAZILIAN AMAZON REGION)

    OpenAIRE

    W. R. Paradella; J. C. Mura; F. F. Gama; A. R. Santos; G. G. Silva; M. Galo; P. O. Camargo; A. Q. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Now spanning five simultaneous open-pit operations with exploration carried out through open pit benching, Carajás complex encompasses the world´s largest iron reserves. Open pit mining operations in the area can lead to slope instabilities with risks to personnel, equipment and production due to intense excavations in rock products of low geomechanical quality, blasting practices and heavy precipitation. Thus, an effective prediction and management of surface deformations should be ...

  3. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings: Comparing different operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo, Adrian; Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analyzed, such as remediation time, voltage drop, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields. The results show that electric...... of copper citrate complexes. Using pulsed electric fields the remediation process with sulphuric acid addition was also improved by a decrease in the polarization cell. Main results: considering remediation with watery tailing as the base line, for three weeks experiments no copper removal was observed......, adding sulphuric acid total copper removal reached 39%. Adding citric acid, total copper removal was improved in terms of remediation time: after 5h experiment copper removal was 16% instead of 9% obtained after 72h with sulphuric acid addition. Using pulsed electric fields total copper removal was also...

  4. MANAGEMENT OF POWER NETWORK OPERATION SAFETY IN MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiusz BORON

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper characterizes hazards resulting from the use of power networks in underground workings of mines, with particular emphasis placed on electric shock and explosion hazards. Protection measures that mitigate hazards caused by network failures are presented. These measures are related to the proper design of equipment and cable lines, network arrangement and principles of selecting adequate protection equipment. The vast majority of electrical accidents are caused by the incorrect behaviour of people, mostly intentional (resulting from not respecting the rules. For this reason, particular attention should be paid to the level of skills and awareness of the risks of electrical personnel, especially for junior employees. The article presents selected safety rules when working on electrical equipment.

  5. Operational Monitoring of Mines by COSMO-SkyMed PSP SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Malvarosa, Fabio; Miniati, Federico; de Assis, Luciano Mozer

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry is a powerful technology for detection and monitoring of slow ground surface movements. Monitoring of ground deformations in mining structures is an important application, particularly difficult because the scene changes with time. The persistent scatterer pair (PSP) approach, recently proposed to overcome some limitations of standard persistent scatter interferometry, proved to be effective also for mine monitoring. In this work, after resuming the main ideas of the PSP method, we describe the PSP measurements obtained from high- resolution X-band COSMO-SkyMed data over a large mining area in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The outcomes demonstrate that dense and accurate ground deformation measurements can be obtained on the mining area and its structures (such as open pits, waste dumps, conveyor belts, water and tailings dams, etc.), achieving a consistent global view including also areas where field instruments are not installed.

  6. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  7. Centaur: a mobile dexterous humanoid for surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Ambrose, Robert O.; Goza, S. Michael; Junkin, Lucien; Neuhaus, Peter D.; Pratt, Jerry E.

    2005-05-01

    Future human and robotic planetary expeditions could benefit greatly from expanded Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities supporting a broad range of multiple, concurrent surface operations. Risky, expensive and complex, conventional EVAs are restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower, creating a resource management problem. A mobile, highly dexterous Extra-Vehicular Robotic (EVR) system called Centaur is proposed to cost-effectively augment human astronauts on surface excursions. The Centaur design combines a highly capable wheeled mobility platform with an anthropomorphic upper body mounted on a three degree-of-freedom waist. Able to use many ordinary handheld tools, the robot could conserve EVA hours by relieving humans of many routine inspection and maintenance chores and assisting them in more complex tasks, such as repairing other robots. As an astronaut surrogate, Centaur could take risks unacceptable to humans, respond more quickly to EVA emergencies and work much longer shifts. Though originally conceived as a system for planetary surface exploration, the Centaur concept could easily be adapted for terrestrial military applications such as de-mining, surveillance and other hazardous duties.

  8. Co-Operative Coevolutionary Neural Networks for Mining Functional Association Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Merrick, Kathryn E; Abbass, Hussein A

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel form of association rules (ARs) that do not require discretization of continuous variables or the use of intervals in either sides of the rule. This rule form captures nonlinear relationships among variables, and provides an alternative pattern representation for mining essential relations hidden in a given data set. We refer to the new rule form as a functional AR (FAR). A new neural network-based, co-operative, coevolutionary algorithm is presented for FAR mining. The algorithm is applied to both synthetic and real-world data sets, and its performance is analyzed. The experimental results show that the proposed mining algorithm is able to discover valid and essential underlying relations in the data. Comparison experiments are also carried out with the two state-of-the-art AR mining algorithms that can handle continuous variables to demonstrate the competitive performance of the proposed method.

  9. Thermal infrared remote sensing in assessing groundwater and surface-water resources related to Hannukainen mining development site, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Anne B.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti I.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Mining development sites occasionally host complicated aquifer systems with notable connections to natural surface water (SW) bodies. A low-altitude thermal infrared (TIR) imaging survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along the subarctic rivers in the proximity of the Hannukainen mining development area, northern Finland. In addition to TIR data, stable isotopic compositions ( δ 18O, δD) and dissolved silica concentrations were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater (GW) discharge into the river system. Based on the TIR survey, notable GW discharge into the main river channel and its tributaries (61 km altogether) was observed and over 500 GW discharge sites were located. On the basis of the survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers were found to be highly variable. Hydrological and hydrogeological information is crucial in planning and siting essential mining operations, such as tailing areas, in order to prevent any undesirable environmental impacts. The observed notable GW discharge was taken into consideration in the planning of the Hannukainen mining development area. The results of this study support the use of TIR imagery in GW-SW interaction and environmental studies in extensive and remote areas with special concerns for water-related issues but lacking the baseline research.

  10. Role of mycorrhizae in forestation of surface mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald H. Marx

    1980-01-01

    A brief introduction to ecto- and endomycorrhizae and their importance to plants is presented. Recent findings confirm the significance of ectomycorrhizae, particularly those formed by Pisolithus tinctorius in nurseries, to survival and growth of pine seedlings on strip-mined lands. Commercial inoculum of this fungus may be available in 1981. Recent...

  11. Using lichens as bioindicators of air pollution deposition near remote mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, S.; Straker, J.; Straker, D.

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of using biological receptors to characterize pollutant deposition across a large study area was examined. The unique characteristics of lichens render them suitable for use in air pollution assessment and monitoring. These non-vascular plants absorb nutrients directly from the atmosphere, while also accumulating atmospheric contaminants. The elemental content in lichens collected near remote industrial sources can help determine spatial patterns of atmospheric pollutant deposition, including fugitive dust escapement from mining and milling operations and atmospheric emissions from processing and mine fleet operations. This paper presented 2 studies in which lichens were used as bioindicators of air pollution. The first study involved the use of epiphytic lichens in the Athabasca oil sands region of northeastern Alberta. Lichen elemental content revealed patterns of nitrogen and sulphur deposition in the region. An analysis for trace metals was used to identify specific pollutant sources. The second study involved the use of terrestrial lichen to evaluate off-site airborne transport of metals from the Anvil Range open-pit lead-zinc mine in south-central Yukon. The study revealed elevated lead and zinc concentrations in lichens up to 20 km from the mine site. The studies confirmed the utility of lichens as biomonitors of pollutant deposition. It was concluded that several objectives regarding the mitigation of environmental impacts from mining operations can be addressed using this approach. 23 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  12. Measurements of very large deformations in potash salt in conjunction with an ongoing mining operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, A.R.; Christensen, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Room and pillar deformation were measured in conjunction with a relatively new type of mining operation in a southeastern New Mexico potash mine. The extraction ration was approximately 90 percent in a first mining operation. Due to severe deformations encountered, instrumentation had to be developed/modified for these measurements. This paper concentrates on experiment design, design of special instrumentation, field installation of equipment, and presentation of the data. Measurements made include extensometers in the pillar, in the floor and ceiling in the room between pillars, absolute level measurements, floor ceiling closure, and stress (strain) measurements. Associated laboratory rock mechanics measurements of samples from the mine are being done separately. Two separate room pillar complexes were instrumented. In the first complex, floor-ceiling deformations of approximately 1 inch/day and pillar deformations around 1/2 inch/day were measured. In the second complex, instrumentation was installed while the pillar was a part of a long wall and the subsequent sequential mining (long wall-pillar with only one adjoining room on one side - pillar in the middle of room pillar complex) was observed. Data return from this operation was good

  13. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  14. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of the 2nd year of a research project on the implementation of a novel human-robot control system for hydraulic machinery. Sensor and valve re-calibration experiments were conducted to improve open loop machine control. A Cartesian control example was tested both in simulation and on the machine; the results are discussed in detail. The machine tests included open-loop as well as closed-loop motion control. Both methods worked reasonably well, due to the high-quality electro-hydraulic valves used on the experimental machine. Experiments on 3-D analysis of the bucket trajectory using marker tracking software are also presented with the results obtained. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the machine. A novel, closed-loop control adjustment provides a remedy, while retaining much of the advantages of the open-loop control based on kinematics transformation. Additional analysis of previously recorded, three-dimensional working trajectories of the bucket of large mine shovels was completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system.

  15. Selected problems of the influence of underground mining on ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gren, K.; Popiolek, E.; Janusz, W.; Bartosik-Sroka, T.; Ostrowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Problems associated with forecasting ground deformation caused by underground mining are discussed. Irregularities in surface deformations are described. Two cases of irregularities which occur in the Lower Silesian coal basin are presented. In the Nowa Ruda coal mine, irregularities accompany mining of coal seams located at a depth of about 400 m using pneumatic stowing. Mining geological conditions of working fronts are discussed. The mined coal seams are located in the protective pillar under Nowa Ruda. Zone of increased deformation is characterized by horizontal deformations 2.5 times higher than the maximum average deformation. The second case is associated with coal mining in the safety coal pillar of Nowe Miasto (a section of the town of Walbrzych). Irregularities in ground deformations occur on the rise side of mined coal seams: compression deformations are two times higher than the maximum compression beyond the zone and the three times higher than the maximum tension deformations. Ground deformations and the irregularities are shown in four diagrams. It is suggested that the described cases of deformation irregularities point out the need for individual analysis of geological and mining conditions of coal seams. (9 refs.) (In Polish)

  16. Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzer, Alan J.; Halford, Carl

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, multiple regression techniques were applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance-derived data to develop parsimonious model(s) for fuel consumption on the Boeing 757 airplane. The present study examined several data mining algorithms, including neural networks, on the fuel consumption problem and compared them to the multiple regression results obtained earlier. Using regression methods, parsimonious models were obtained that explained approximately 85% of the variation in fuel flow. In general data mining methods were more effective in predicting fuel consumption. Classification and Regression Tree methods reported correlation coefficients of .91 to .92, and General Linear Models and Multilayer Perceptron neural networks reported correlation coefficients of about .99. These data mining models show great promise for use in further examining large FOQA databases for operational and safety improvements.

  17. The risks of liability for former mine operators: the implementation of a plan for preventing legal risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinet, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Shutting down mines has 'mechanically' increased the risks of cave-ins. The local (communal and/or departmental) administrations responsible for supervising the situation do not necessarily have the means for managing shafts and tunnels. For this reason, two acts were passed in 1994 and 1999 to reform how mines are managed after shutdowns. Managing post-mining operations has spawned lawsuits against former operators, even though they shut down their mines in compliance with the laws and regulations in force at the time. By virtue of these two acts, administrative authorities are now trying to make the former operators fill in shafts and tunnels. Moreover, individuals often try to obtain compensation for the damages caused by shut-down mines. This situation causes uncertainty for various parties; and the legal settlements being proposed are not sufficiently clear. Information is provided for thinking about how to implement a 'legal risk prevention plan', which former mine operators should bear in mind. (author)

  18. Residence time of contaminants released in surface coal mines: A wind-tunnel study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.S.

    1993-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate and modify, as required, existing dispersion models for the prediction of dispersion of dust from surface coal mines. The application of mathematical air pollution dispersion models to the dispersion of dust from surface coal mines requires knowledge of not only the amount of dust generated in the mine, but the fraction of that generated that actually escapes from the mine. The escape fraction can be related to the residence time that released material will remain, on average, within the mine. The concentration in the mine was found to follow an exponential decay function from which an exponential decay time constant (or residence time) was computed for each case. A semi-empirical formula was found that related the residence time to the mine geometry and wind direction quite well. This formula can be used to estimate escape fraction in determining the source strength for the application of mathematical dispersion models.

  19. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Cox, Rachel E.; Schuler, Jason M.; Ebert, Tom; Nick, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Regolith is abundant on extra-terrestrial surfaces and is the source of many resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, titanium, aluminum, iron, silica and other valuable materials, which can be used to make rocket propellant, consumables for life support, radiation protection barrier shields, landing pads, blast protection berms, roads, habitats and other structures and devices. Recent data from the Moon also indicates that there are substantial deposits of water ice in permanently shadowed crater regions and possibly under an over burden of regolith. The key to being able to use this regolith and acquire the resources, is being able to manipulate it with robotic excavation and hauling machinery that can survive and operate in these very extreme extra-terrestrial surface environments. In addition, the reduced gravity on the Moon, Mars, comets and asteroids poses a significant challenge in that the necessary reaction force for digging cannot be provided by the robot's weight as is typically done on Earth. Space transportation is expensive and limited in capacity, so small, lightweight payloads are desirable, which means large traditional excavation machines are not a viable option. A novel, compact and lightweight excavation robot prototype for manipulating, excavating, acquiring, hauling and dumping regolith on extra-terrestrial surfaces has been developed and tested. Lessons learned and test results will be presented including digging in a variety of lunar regolith simulant conditions including frozen regolith mixed with water ice.

  20. On-Site Radon Detection of Mining-induced Fractures from Overlying Strata to the Surface: A Case Study of the Baoshan Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale longwall mining of shallow coal seams may cause mining-induced fractures that can project completely through to the surface. This could lead to a series of mine safety and environmental issues, further deteriorating the already fragile ecological environment in the Western mining areas in China. Therefore, an accurate and effective understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution law of mining-induced fractures in overlying strata and its relationship to upper aquifers is critical. In this paper, the application of the geophysical-chemical properties of radon in mining engineering is explored as a potential solution to the shortcomings of existing surveying methods. A radioactive measurement method is proposed for the detection of the development of mining-induced fractures from overlying strata to the surface in the Baoshan Coal Mine (BCM. The on-site test indicated that the first weighting step is approximately 60 m, the average periodic weighting step is approximately 20 m, and the influence coverage of the advanced abutment pressure is approximately 30 m. The presented method could be used as an indirect technical support to increase the safety of coal mining by acting as a simple, fast, and reliable method of detecting mining-induced fractures in overlying strata.

  1. Evaluation of gas emission from closed mines surface to atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Pokryszka, Zbigniew; Tauziède, Christian

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The closed mines are likely to release into atmosphere polluting or/and dangerous gases. The detection and hazard evaluation of those emissions are a complex problem. In order to quantify and qualify these gas emissions and check gas migrations special measuring methods are required. The research done at INERIS resulted in a reliable and appropriate methodology using a flux chamber. This methodology is intended for detecting, quantifying and qualifying gas discharges, ...

  2. Implementation of state-of-art mining knowledge and technologies in design and operation of a safe and efficient deep gold mine stope for 21st Century.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, JN

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Implementation of state-of-art mining knowledge and technologies in design and operation of a safe and efficient deep gold mine stope for 21st Century van der Merwe, J. N., Wojno, L. and Toper, A. Z. Research agency : Rock... total of 2 years involvement) ...........68 13 1 Introduction 1.1 Research problem Assess the potential for underground implementation of state-of-art mining knowledge and technologies in the design and operation of a safe and efficient deep gold...

  3. BBUNS: Bluetooth Beacon-Based Underground Navigation System to Support Mine Haulage Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Baek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Bluetooth beacon-based underground navigation system (BBUNS was developed to identify the optimal haul road in an underground mine, track the locations of dump trucks, and display this information on mobile devices. A three-dimensional (3-D geographic information system (GIS database of the haul roads in an underground mine was constructed, and the travel time for each section was calculated. A GIS database was also constructed for 50 Bluetooth beacons that were installed along the haul roads. An Android-based BBUNS application was developed to visualize the current location of each dump truck and the optimal haul road to the destination on mobile devices, using the Bluetooth beacon system that was installed in the underground mine. Whenever the BBUNS recognized all of the Bluetooth beacons installed in the underground mine, it could provide the dump truck drivers with information on the current location and the two-dimensional (2-D and 3-D haul road properties. The operating time of each dump truck and the time spent on each unit task could be analyzed using recorded data on the times when Bluetooth beacon signals were recognized by the BBUNS. The underground mine navigation system that was developed in this study can contribute to the improvement of haul operation efficiency and productivity.

  4. Exploring the Politics of Water Grabbing: The Case of Large Mining Operations in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Sosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The operations of the large mining company Yanacocha in Cajamarca (Peru provoke and require a fundamental reshuffling of how rights to water are allocated, resulting in changes in the distribution of the benefits and burdens of accessing water. We use this paper to argue that these changes in water use and tenure can be understood as a form of water grabbing, since they result in a transfer of water control from farmers’ collectives and government agencies to the mining company, with the company also assuming de facto responsibility over executing water allocation and safeguarding certain water-quality levels. We illustrate – by using two cases: La Ramada canal and the San José reservoir – the company’s overt and covert strategies to achieve control over water, showing how these are often backed up by neo-liberal government policies and by permissive local water authorities. Next to active attempts to obtain water rights, these strategies also include skilfully bending and breaking the resistance of (some farmers through negotiation and offering compensation. The de facto handing over of water governance powers to a multinational mining company raises troubling questions about longer-term water management, such as who controls the mining company, to whom are they accountable, and what will happen after mining operations stop.

  5. Precalculation of rock and ground subsidence from mining operations by means of a PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, F.; Sroka, A.

    1988-08-01

    A PC-based method of calculating rock and ground subsidence from mining operation is described and illustrated by an example. Two-dimensional objects, linear objects, and point-shaped objects are discussed. Another interesting field of application is in the planning, coordination and design of object-centered safety measures. (orig./MOS).

  6. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas... Federal agencies with an opportunity to comment on proposed and continuing collections of information in...

  7. Chapter 4: Low compaction grading to enhance reforestation success on coal surface mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sweigard; J. Burger; C. Zipper; J. Skousen; C. Barton; P. Angel

    2017-01-01

    This Forest Reclamation Advisory describes final-grading techniques for reclaiming coal surface mines to forest postmining land uses. Final grading that leaves a loose soil and a rough surface increases survival of planted seedlings and forest productivity. Such practices are often less costly than traditional "smooth grading" while meeting the requirements...

  8. What is Mine is Yours: The Art of Operational Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39 18 Adobe Professional 7 .0 Name of Candidate: Major William W...air assets to sustain offensive operations for a two-month period, something that had caught him and his staff there by 76 Tomblin, With Utmost Spirit...Centurions (New York: Random House , 2013), 150. 28

  9. Development and Application of Blast Casting Technique in Large-Scale Surface Mines: A Case Study of Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast casting is a high-efficiency technique applied in surface mines for overburden removal and results in stripping cost savings. According to ballistic theory and center-of-mass frame basic movement principles, key factors influencing blast casting effect were analyzed, which include bench height and mining panel width, inclined angle of blast holes, explosive unit consumption (EUC, delay-time interval, presplitting, and blast hole pattern parameters. An intelligent design software was developed for obtaining better breaking and casting effect, and the error rates predicted with actual result can be controlled with 10%. Blast casting technique was successfully applied in Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine (HSCM with more than 34% of material casted into the inner dump. A ramp ditch was set within the middle inner dump for coal transportation. The procedure of stripping and excavating was implemented separately and alternately in the two sections around the middle ramp ditch. An unconstrained-nonlinear model was deduced for optimizing the shift distance of the middle ramp. The calculation results show that optimum shift distance of HSCM is 480 m, and the middle ditch should be shifted after 6 blast casting mining panels being stripped.

  10. Uranium in Surface Waters and Sediments Affected by Historical Mining in the Denver West 1:100,000 Quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Robert A.; Otton, James K.; Schumann, R. Randall; Wirt, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    .05), and this distinctive isotopic composition may be preserved in iron-oxyhydroxide precipitates of acid drainage origin. The study area includes a particularly large vein-type uranium deposit (Schwartzwalder mine) with past uranium production. Stream water and sediment collected downstream from the mine's surface operations have locally anomalous concentrations of uranium. Fine-grained sediments downstream from the mine contain rare minute particles (10-20 micrometers) of uraninite, which is unstable in a stream environment and thus probably of recent origin related to mining. Additional rare particles of very fine grained (less than 5 micrometer) barite likely entered the stream as discharge from settling ponds in which barite precipitation was formerly used to scavenge dissolved radium from mine effluent.

  11. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Thomas M. [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Erlach, Celeste [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  12. Deep Impact: Effects of Mountaintop Mining on Surface Topography, Bedrock Structure, and Downstream Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew R V; McGlynn, Brian L; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2016-02-16

    Land use impacts are commonly quantified and compared using 2D maps, limiting the scale of their reported impacts to surface area estimates. Yet, nearly all land use involves disturbances below the land surface. Incorporating this third dimension into our estimates of land use impact is especially important when examining the impacts of mining. Mountaintop mining is the most common form of coal mining in the Central Appalachian ecoregion. Previous estimates suggest that active, reclaimed, or abandoned mountaintop mines cover ∼7% of Central Appalachia. While this is double the areal extent of development in the ecoregion (estimated to occupy impacts are far more extensive than areal estimates alone can convey as the impacts of mines extend 10s to 100s of meters below the current land surface. Here, we provide the first estimates for the total volumetric and topographic disturbance associated with mining in an 11 500 km(2) region of southern West Virginia. We find that the cutting of ridges and filling of valleys has lowered the median slope of mined landscapes in the region by nearly 10 degrees while increasing their average elevation by 3 m as a result of expansive valley filling. We estimate that in southern West Virginia, more than 6.4km(3) of bedrock has been broken apart and deposited into 1544 headwater valley fills. We used NPDES monitoring datatsets available for 91 of these valley fills to explore whether fill characteristics could explain variation in the pH or selenium concentrations reported for streams draining these fills. We found that the volume of overburden in individual valley fills correlates with stream pH and selenium concentration, and suggest that a three-dimensional assessment of mountaintop mining impacts is necessary to predict both the severity and the longevity of the resulting environmental impacts.

  13. Mined-out land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno; Toomik, Arvi; Valgma, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    Estonian mineral resources are deposited in low depth and mining fields are large, therefore vast areas are affected by mining. There are at least 800 deposits with total area of 6,000 km 2 and about the same number of underground mines, surface mines, peat fields, quarries, and sand and gravel pits. The deposits cover more than 10% of Estonian mainland. The total area of operating mine claims exceeds 150 km 2 that makes 0.3 % of Estonian area. The book is written mainly for the people who are living or acting in the area influenced by mining. The observations and research could benefit those who are interested in geography and environment, who follow formation and look of mined-out landscapes. The book contains also warnings for careless people on and under the surface of the mined-out land. Part of the book contains results of the research made in 1968-1993 by the first two authors working at the Estonian branch of A.Skochinsky Institute of Mining. Since 1990, Arvi Toomik continued this study at the Northeastern section of the Institute of Ecology of Tallinn Pedagogical University. Enno Reinsalu studied aftereffects of mining at the Mining Department of Tallinn Technical University from 1998 to 2000. Geographical Information System for Mining was studied by Ingo Valgma within his doctoral dissertation, and this book is one of the applications of his study

  14. Restoration of surface-mined lands with rainfall harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, R.H.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    Strip mining for coal in the arid western US will remove grazing land as energy demands are met. Conventional resotration usually includes leveling the spoil banks and covering them with top soil, fertilizing, seeding and irrigation with well or river water. An overview of research on an alternate method of restoring this land is reported. From 1976 through 1981 studies were conducted on the use of water harvesting, the collection and use of rainfall runoff, to restore the vegetative productivity of strip mined lands in arid regions. These studies tested the technical and economic feasibility of using partially leveled spoil banks at strip mines as catchment areas to collect and direct runoff to the topsoiled valley floor where crops were cultivated. Information was collected on the efficiency of seven treatments to increase runoff from the catchment areas and on the productivity of seven crops. The experiments were conducted in arid areas of Washington, Arizona, and Colorado. It was concluded that water harvesting can replace or augment expensive and inadequate supplies of well and river water in arid regions with a suitable climate. These studies showed that some treatments provided adequate runoff to produce a useful crop in the valleys, thus making this alternative approach to restoration technically feasible. This approach was also potentially economically feasible where the treatment costs of the catchment areas were low, the treatment was effective, the crop was productive and valuable, and earthmoving costs were lower than with conventional restoration involving complete leveling of spoil banks. It was also concluded that water harvesting can be made more effective with further information on catchment area treatments, which crops are most adaptable to water harvesting, the optimum incline of the catchment areas and climatic influences on water harvesting.

  15. Issues of Exploitation of Induction Motors in the Course of Underground Mining Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumula, Stanisław; Hudy, Wiktor; Piaskowska-Silarska, Malgorzata; Pytel, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Mining industry is one of the most important customers of electric motors. The most commonly used in the contemporary mining industry is alternating current machines used for processing electrical energy into mechanical energy. The operating problems and the influence of qualitative interference acting on the inputs of individual regulators to field-oriented system in the course of underground mining operations has been presented in the publication. The object of controlling the speed is a slip-ring induction motor. Settings of regulators were calculated using an evolutionary algorithm. Examination of system dynamics was performed by a computer with the use of the MATLAB / Simulink software. According to analyzes, large distortion of input signals of regulators adversely affects the rotational speed that pursued by the control system, which may cause a large vibration of the whole system and, consequently, its much faster destruction. Designed system is characterized by a significantly better resistance to interference. The system is stable with the properly selected settings of regulators, which is particularly important during the operation of machinery used in underground mining.

  16. Assessment of surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the research carried out at West Virginia University in order to assess surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to longwall mining. Extensive instrumentation and measurements have been made over three longwall mines in northern West Virginia during a three-year period. Various monitoring techniques including full profile borehole extensometer, full profile borehole inclinometers, time domain reflectometry, sonic reflection technique, a unique mechanical grouting method, photographic and visual observations, standard surveying, and water-level measurements were utilized. The paper's emphasis is first on surface ground movement and its impact on integrity of surface ground and structures and second on type and magnitude of subsurface ground movements associated with mine geometry and geology. A subsidence prediction model based on implementation of both mechanisms of ground movement around the excavation and the geologic and geotechnical properties of the rock/coal surrounding the excavation has been developed. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  17. Disposing of coal combustion residues in inactive surface mines: Effects on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.; Ackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) in surface and underground coal mines can provide a stable, low-maintenance alternative to landfills, benefiting the mining and electric power industries. The material may be able to improve water quality at acid generating abandoned or reclaimed coal mine sites. Most combustion residues are alkaline, and their addition to the subsurface environment could raise the pH, limiting the propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reducing the rate of acid generation. Many of these CCR are also pozzolanic, capable of forming cementitious grouts. Grouts injected into the buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. Both mechanisms, alkaline addition and water diversion, are capable of reducing the amount of acid produced at the disposal site. The US Bureau of Mines is cooperating in a test of subsurface injection of CCR into a reclaimed surface mine. Initially, a mixture of fly ash, lime, and acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge was injected. Lime was the source of calcium for the formation of the pozzolanic grout. Changes in water quality parameters (pH, acidity, anions, and trace metals) in water samples from wells and seeps indicate a small but significant improvement after CCR injection. Changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the water flowing across the site were apparently influenced by the presence of flyash

  18. Surface structural damage associated with longwall mining near Tuscaloosa, Alabama: a case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isphording, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Initially the paper examines the frequency of coal mine subsidence and the influence on surface subsidence of subsurface mining methods, i.e. room and pillar and longwall mining. A case study of the subsidence damage caused to a log house near Tuscaloosa, Alabama (USA), when a longwall panel passed beneath it is presented. The damage resulted in the homeowners suing the mining company for negligence. The article discusses information provided to the plaintiffs attorneys by the author. Aspects covered are: the subsidence and damage to the property; prediction of subsidence; the monitoring of subsidence; and the prevention of subsidence. An out-of-court settlement was agreed by the two parties. 15 refs., 5 figs

  19. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  20. Assistance in MSD Research and Development: Part 2, Full scale field testing at mining operations: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsey, P.N.; Canon, C.

    1988-06-01

    Full scale and field testing of a simple mechanical stemming aid is described. The aid comprises a solid unit placed in the stemming above the explosive column and is designed to improve blasting efficiency and reduce drilling and blasting costs. It is designed to work with back filled drill cuttings or any other suitable stemming material. The results of Phase I testing were highly successful, indicating that the stemming aid has technically an extremely good chance of success at full scale when constructed of low cost materials. Phase II of the stemming aid research and development program comprised of the testing of various forms of the stemming is at full scale in non-research oriented i.e. field settings. The stemming aid was field tested at 4 different sites for a variety of mining application: First in underground workings at the UMR experimental mine in one and three quarter inch diameter horizontal blast holes incorporated into full blast patterns; three and three and a half inch blast holes at two crushed rock/limestone quarries in the Rolla area and at a surface coal mine operation run by Peabody Coal Company at Lynnville, Indiana in which nine and seven eighths, ten and five eighths and fifteen and a quarter inch diameter blast holes were used for parting and overburden removal. 2 refs., 37 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Complementary Use of Information from Space-Based Dinsar and Field Measuring Systems for Operational Monitoring Purposes in Open Pit Iron Mines of Carajas Mining Complex (brazilian Amazon Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradella, W. R.; Mura, J. C.; Gama, F. F.; Santos, A. R.; Silva, G. G.; Galo, M.; Camargo, P. O.; Silva, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Now spanning five simultaneous open-pit operations with exploration carried out through open pit benching, Carajas complex encompasses the world's largest iron reserves. Open pit mining operations in the area can lead to slope instabilities with risks to personnel, equipment and production due to intense excavations in rock products of low geomechanical quality, blasting practices and heavy precipitation. Thus, an effective prediction and management of surface deformations should be a key concern for the mining operations. The ground displacement monitoring techniques in Carajas include surface measurement techniques at discrete points (total station/reflective prisms) and over area using SSR (Slope Stability Radar, a ground based radar). On the other hand, DInSAR techniques are receiving relevance in the mining industry for reasons such a synoptic and continuous coverage without the need for ground instrumentation and a point-to-point good accuracy of measuring displacements (millimeter to centimeter scale) over a dense grid. Using a stack of 33 StripMap TerraSAR-X images acquired over Carajas covering the time span from March 2012 to April 2013, a monitoring approach is discussed based on the complementary use of information provided by DInSAR (DInSAR Time-Series and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) and surface measuring techniques (total station/prisms, ground-based radar).

  2. Utilization of InSAR differential interferometry for surface deformation detection caused by mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). School of Geomatics; Shao, Y. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). Dept. of Foreign Language; Guichen, M. [Gifu Univ., Yanagido, Gifu (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In China, the surface deformation of ground has been a significant geotechnical problem as a result of cracks in the ground surface, collapsing of house, and subsidence of roads. A powerful technology for detecting surface deformation in the ground is differential interferometry using synthetic aperture radar (INSAR). The technology enables the analysis from different phase of micro-wave between two observed data by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of surface deformation of ground such as ground subsidence, land slide, and slope failure. In January 2006, the advanced land observing satellite was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presented an analytical investigation to detect ground subsidence or change caused by mining, overuse of ground water, and disaster. Specifically, the paper discussed the INSAR monitoring technology of the mine slope, including INSAR data sources and processing software; the principle of synthetic aperture radar interferometry; principles of differential SAR interferometry; and INSAR technology to slope monitoring of the Haizhou open pit mine. The paper also discussed the Haizhou strip mine side slope INSAR monitoring results and tests. It was concluded that the use of synthetic aperture radar interferometer technique was the optimal technique to provide three-dimensional spatial information and minimal change from ground surface by spatial remote sensing device. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Use of Lead Isotopes to Identify Sources of Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosol from Mining Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Félix, Omar I.; Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Rine, Kyle P.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Mining operations are a potential source of metal and metalloid contamination by atmospheric particulate generated from smelting activities, as well as from erosion of mine tailings. In this work, we show how lead isotopes can be used for source apportionment of metal and metalloid contaminants from the site of an active copper mine. Analysis of atmospheric aerosol shows two distinct isotopic signatures: one prevalent in fine particles (< 1 μm aerodynamic diameter) while the other corresponds...

  4. Some design and operating aspects of the Ranger uranium mine treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baily, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental considerations were key factors in the design of the Ranger Uranium Mines treatment plant. The mine is located adjacent to the Kakadu National Park and has an average rainfall of 1.6m per annum. No contaminated water or liquid effluents are to be released from the project area and thus water management is a key design and operating fact. Particulate and gas emission criteria influenced design as did occupational hygiene factors (dust, radon, housekeeping, maintenance access). Equipment selection and engineering standards were conservative and resulted in the plant attaining design performance in less than three months from the date of commissioning. A number of mechanical and operational problems were experienced. However, none of these problems have had a significant effect on production

  5. 77 FR 62266 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... collections of information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. This program helps to assure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines; Certified Person...

  6. Baseline studies and evaluation of effects of surface discharge of deep-sea mining - INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sardessai, S.

    . An evaluation of possible effects of surface discharge of mining fines - a slurry consisting of fine nodule fragments, bottom water and sediments - suggests that the discharge, with an expected solid content of 50 g/l, will induce increased primary production...

  7. Reforestation species study on a reclaimed surface mine in western Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay A. Engle

    1980-01-01

    Westvaco Forest Research established a species comparison test including eighteen species of trees in the spring of 1978 on a recently reclaimed surface mine in Garrett County, Maryland. After two growing seasons height growth of all species has not been impressive. Seven species have better than 75 percent survival with pitch pine being best. Seven other species have...

  8. Reforestation Efforts in Indiana Following the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Fillmore; John W. Groninger

    2004-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, data were collected from 22 post-Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act sites in southwestern Indiana. Tree growth across these sites was generally poor, with site index values typically less than 40 feet (base age 50) for upland oaks. Robinina pseudoacacia (black locust) was observed to be the primary overstory tree...

  9. The design procedures on brick building against surface ground deformations due to mining and earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, J.; Yang, S. (China University of Mining and Technology (China))

    1992-05-01

    By analysing the effects of ground motion and deformation on surface buildings, and drawing on the experience of damages caused by the Tangshan and Chenhai earthquakes, the authors discuss the design of brick and concrete buildings which are protected against the damaging effects of both earthquakes and mining activities. 5 figs.

  10. Blasting injuries in surface mining with emphasis on flyrock and blast area security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpayee, T.S.; Rehak, T.R.; Mowrey, G.L.; Ingram, D.K. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2004-07-01

    Blasting is a hazardous component of surface mining. Serious injuries and fatalities result from improper judgment or practice during rock blasting. This paper describes several fatal injury case studies, analyzes causative factors, and emphasizes preventive measures. During the 21-year period from 1978 to 1998, the mean yearly explosive-related injuries (fatal and nonfatal) for surface coal mines was 8.86 (95% CI: 6.38-11.33), and for surface metal/nonmetal mines 10.76 (95% CI: 8.39-13.14). Flyrock and lack of blast area security accounted for 68.2% of these injuries. Case studies indicate that the causative factors for fatal injuries are primarily personal and task-related and to some extent environmental. A reduction in the annual injuries in surface coal mines was observed during the 10-year period of 1989-1998 (5.80 (95% CI: 2.71-8.89)) compared to the previous 10-year period of 1979-1988 (10.90 (95% CI: 7.77-14.14)). However, such reduction was not noticed in the metal/nometal sector (i.e., 9.30 (95% CI: 6.84-11.76) for the period 1989-1998 compared with 11.00 (95% CI: 7.11-14.89) for the period 1979-1988). Discussion of case studies during safety meetings will help to mitigate fatal injuries and derive important payoffs in terms of lower risks and costs of injuries.

  11. Modeling forest ecosystem changes resulting from surface coal mining in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Brown; Andrew J. Lister; Mary Ann Fajvan; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Christine Mazzarella

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to assess the effects of surface coal mining on forest ecosystem disturbance and restoration in the Coal River Subbasin in southern West Virginia. Our approach is to develop disturbance impact models for this subbasin that will serve as a case study for testing the feasibility of integrating currently available GIS data layers, remote...

  12. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  13. Characteristics of hazardous airborne dust around an Indian surface coal mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Mrinal K; Majee, S R

    2007-07-01

    Surface coal mining creates more air pollution problems with respect to dust than underground mining . An investigation was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the airborne dust created by surface coal mining in the Jharia Coalfield. Work zone air quality monitoring was conducted at six locations, and ambient air quality monitoring was conducted at five locations, for a period of 1 year. Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) concentration was found to be as high as 3,723 microg/m(3), respirable particulate matter (PM10) 780 microg/m(3), and benzene soluble matter was up to 32% in TSP in work zone air. In ambient air, the average maximum level of TSP was 837 microg/m(3), PM10 170 microg/m(3) and benzene soluble matter was up to 30%. Particle size analysis of TSP revealed that they were more respirable in nature and the median diameter was around 20 microm. Work zone air was found to have higher levels of TSP, PM10 and benzene soluble materials than ambient air. Variations in weight percentages for different size particles are discussed on the basis of mining activities. Anionic concentration in TSP was also determined. This paper concludes that more stringent air quality standards should be adopted for coal mining areas and due consideration should be given on particle size distribution of the air-borne dust while designing control equipment.

  14. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated by...

  15. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-01

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1-4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m(2)) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m(2)) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m(2)) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(207)Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contamination in surface waters around uranium mines in the Guadiana Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, J.D.; Tome, F.V.; Sanchez, A.M.; Sanchez, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the contamination by uranium mines in the River Guadiana basin, we have found the natural higher concentration of uranium in samples collected near the mines and the expected decrease with distance in samples farther away. In spite of this expected result, there is another interesting fact: a natural isotopic separation is observed. Measurements were by alpha spectrometry with a silicon surface barrier detector. The study was completed with total gamma activity at the same sites as for alphas, using an Nal(Tl) detector. (author).

  17. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strager, Michael P; Strager, Jacquelyn M; Evans, Jeffrey S; Dunscomb, Judy K; Kreps, Brad J; Maxwell, Aaron E

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2) gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  18. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Strager

    Full Text Available Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2 gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  19. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. A.; McGibbney, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mining is known to cause environmental degradation, but software tools to identify its impacts are lacking. However, remote sensing, spectral reflectance, and geographic data are readily available, and high-performance cloud computing resources exist for scientific research. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL) provides a suite of algorithms and documentation to leverage these data and resources to identify evidence of mining and correlate it with environmental impacts over time.COAL was originally developed as a 2016 - 2017 senior capstone collaboration between scientists at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and computer science students at Oregon State University (OSU). The COAL team implemented a free and open-source software library called "pycoal" in the Python programming language which facilitated a case study of the effects of coal mining on water resources. Evidence of acid mine drainage associated with an open-pit coal mine in New Mexico was derived by correlating imaging spectrometer data from the JPL Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer - Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG), spectral reflectance data published by the USGS Spectroscopy Laboratory in the USGS Digital Spectral Library 06, and GIS hydrography data published by the USGS National Geospatial Program in The National Map. This case study indicated that the spectral and geospatial algorithms developed by COAL can be used successfully to analyze the environmental impacts of mining activities.Continued development of COAL has been promoted by a Startup allocation award of high-performance computing resources from the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE). These resources allow the team to undertake further benchmarking, evaluation, and experimentation using multiple XSEDE resources. The opportunity to use computational infrastructure of this caliber will further enable the development of a science gateway to continue foundational COAL

  20. Fusion of Landsat TM and ground spectrometry data in monitoring of non-operating mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo N.

    2009-09-01

    Surface mining activities in Europe are estimated to cover an area of 5-10 000 km2. In this paper we suggest that the availability of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) for Earth observation allows the collection of environmental and minerelated data for use in the planning and undertaking of mine restoration work on cost-effective basis. The advantage is that these data are acquired digitally and can be easily processed and utilized in various information formats. Important step in the data processing is the verification of airborne data. For this purpose ground spectrometry measurements of samples taken from test sites have been performed. In the last decade several mining areas and corresponding dumps are subject to reclamation process in Bulgaria. We focused our research on one of the most important in the copper production for 20 year period for our country - Asarel-Medet deposit. This mining complex consists of an open mine, the dumps and a processing plant. After ceasing the exploitation of Medet deposit in 1994 a rehabilitation program for soil cover and hydrographic network was established and launched. A continuous task is the monitoring of these activities from the beginning for at least 15 years period, which is to end this year. To process the data, which characterize the progress of the land cover restoration, several techniques, both standard, such as basic and advanced statistics, image enhancement and data fusion, and novel methods for supervised classification were used. The results obtained show that used data and the implemented approach are useful in environmental monitoring and are economically attractive for the company responsible for the ecological state of the region.

  1. Surface-layer gusts for aircraft operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, G.S.; Kristensen, L.

    1992-01-01

    We use Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to extend the Kristensen et al. (1991) aviation gust estimation technique from the neutral to the diabatic surface layer. Example calculations demonstrate the importance of this correction. Simple stability class methods using only standard aviation surface ...

  2. USING THE SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS TO TREAT RESIDUAL MERCURY WASTES FROM GOLD MINING OPERATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN,B.ADAMS,J.KALB,P.WAN,R.Y.LEVIER,M.

    2003-02-24

    Large quantities of mercury are generated as a by-product during the processing of gold ore following mining operations. Newmont Mining Corporation (NMC), which operates some of the world's largest gold mines, sought a method to permanently ''retire'' its mercury by-products, thereby avoiding potential environmental liability. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization-Solidification (SPSS) is an innovative technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated materials, such as soil, sludge and debris. BNL conducted a treatability study to determine the potential applicability of SPSS for treatment of Newmont mercury, and the treated product passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test for toxicity. The SPSS process has been shown to be effective on radioactive and nonradioactive mercury and mercury-contaminated materials with a pilot-scale batch system capable of producing 0.03 m{sup 3} (1 ft{sup 3}) per batch. Engineering scale-up issues are discussed and material property tests addressing these issues are described.

  3. Weathering behavior of mine tailings and waste rock: A surface investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domvile, S.J.; Li, M.G.; Sollner, D.D.; Nesbitt, W.

    1994-01-01

    A study focusing on the ion movement in the near surface of sulfide minerals was conducted to better understand the weathering mechanisms of mine waste materials. Tailings and waste rock samples from Canadian mines were subjected to controlled weathering studies using various chemical leachants. Leachates were analyzed for various parameters, and petrographic analyses were conducted on the solid residues. Laboratory oxidation studies of pure pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite were carried out using the surface techniques X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The data derived from the weathering study and the surface techniques were correlated to determine mechanisms of oxidation. Several results were observed during the project: ferric iron constitutes one third of the iron present in pyrrhotite, sulfide oxidation is initiated when rock is blasted, sulfide sulfur is oxidized to di- and poly-sulfides prior to forming sulfates, and significantly more sulfate is produced upon exposure to aqueous environments than to air alone

  4. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertook the creation of a Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool to store data relevant to airport surface research and...

  5. Preferential flow characteristics of reclaimed mine soils in a surface coal mine dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Lv; Jun, Li; Yexin, Li; Ting, Wang; Yazhuo, Liu; Xinyang, Fu

    2017-06-01

    % of the total soil profile (0∼60 cm). Moreover, a Pearson correlation was used to analyze the relationship between environmental factors (soil, water, and plant factors) and the dye coverage ratio. The dye coverage ratio of soil preferential flow under different reclamation vegetations was very significantly or significantly positively correlated with the gravel content, mean radius of soil macropores, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, root weight density, and root length density, which promoted the formation and development of soil preferential flow. This study will provide a scientific basis for understanding the formation mechanism and perfecting the research system of soil preferential flow, vegetation restoration, and reconstruction in a dump; furthermore, this research offers significance guidance in the construction of green mines and the development of regional economics.

  6. The determination of a continuous radon daughter equilibrium factor in an operating uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, D.

    1992-01-01

    Radon daughter exposures to workers at the Olympic Dam Operations copper and uranium mine are calculated from a series of grab samples obtained from various work locations around the mine. Currently under consideration is the introduction of personal passive radon dosimeters to determine the workers' radon daughter exposures. The study reported in this paper involved the determination of long-term equilibrium factors using real-time monitoring of radon and radon daughters. Consequently, variation in equilibrium factor for different tasks can be identified. In practice, the equilibrium factor varies with location and task; however, a conservative over-estimate of 0.28 can be confidently applied to all tasks. The error due to over-estimation remains minimal for all workers. This real-time monitoring method will reduce potential errors in dose assessment compared with the grab sampling technique. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. Characterization and risk of exposure to elements from artisanal gold mining operations in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonis, Brian; Grassman, Jean; Johnson, Glen; Diaz, Yilmael; Caravanos, Jack

    2017-04-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) offers low-skilled workers an opportunity to elevate themselves out of poverty. However, this industry operates with little to no pollution controls and the cost to the environment and human health can be large. The objectives of this study were to measure levels of arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in the environment and characterize health risks to miners and residents in an area with active ASGM operations. An exposure assessment was conducted at two different mining sites and a nearby village in the Bolivian Anders. The resulting measurements were then used to quantify cancerous and noncancerous health risks to children and adults working at and living near ASGM areas. Soil concentrations of As were well above background levels and showed great variations between the village and mining area. Mercury vapor levels at the two mining sites were approximately 30 times larger than the EPA reference concentration. The risk of developing non-cancerous health effects were primarily due to exposure to As and Hg. The probability of individuals developing cancer was considerably increased with adult miners having a probability of 1.3 out of 100. Cancer potential was driven by exposure to As, with de minimus cancer risk from all other elements. Based on the environmental characterization of elements in soils and Hg vapors, the risk of developing cancerous and non-cancerous health outcomes were above a level of concern based on EPA risk assessment guidance. Personal protective equipment was not worn by workers and Hg amalgam is commonly heated in workers' homes. Better education of the risks of ASGM is needed as well as simple controls to reduce exposure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Geomechanical Assessments of Simultaneous Operation in the Case of Transition from Open Pit to Underground Mine in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Nguyen, Phu Minh Vuong; Widzyk-Capehart, Eleonora

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, for a number of reasons, many open pit mines are considering a transition from Open Pit (OP) to Underground (UG) to remain competitive. In OP-UG transition, UG operation is operated simultaneously with the OP operation for a certain period of time. Guidelines for the simultaneous operation of OP and UG are very difficult to establish, as there are very few case studies available. Yet, because of the OP-UG interactions; the operation has a higher safety, technical and management requirements than the OP or UG methods when considered separately. In Vietnam, Cao Son is one of many OP mines, which decided to change the operational system from OP to UG. Simultaneous operation started in 2015 and will be conducted until 2030 when the OP mine Cao Son ends its mining activities. In this paper, selected geomechanical considerations of the simultaneous operation are presented. A number of numerical modelling calculations using finitedifference software with code FLAC were carried out for calibration process, slope stability analysis and the OP-UG interaction analysis for the Cao Son - Khe Cham II-IV mine. Based on the results obtained from numerical modelling, the geomechanical assessments of simultaneous operation Cao Son - Khe Cham II-IV are discussed in this paper.

  9. Guidebook on good practice in the management of uranium mining and mill operations and the preparation for their closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Over the past fifty years the uranium industry has moved from a labor-intensive industry to a 'high-tech' and capital intensive industry. Organization of knowledge, manpower and material had to change to meet the demands of several stakeholders inherent to any project and to constantly adapt to technological innovations. Today, the mission of a uranium operation is not only to make a profit while selling yellow cake to electrical power stations but also to address issues regarding safety, health, environment and demands of the regulators and the public and assure the sustainability of the operations. Good mining practice begins with the proper planning and forecasting from the discovery of a deposit to decommissioning of a mine. This report describes and defines what is considered as good practice in the various activities of a mining operation and provides an overview of the management of a single operation. As technologies are progressing rapidly in the mining industry, and as this industry is transitional, this report emphasizes the importance of training employees at all levels of the organization. The statement on good practices for the various activities of a mining operation will be useful for organizations which are planning to open new mines or intend to modernize ongoing operations. Practical examples are given in the case of histories for four different countries. The objective of this publication is not to provide strict rules on the application of good practice but to give general guidelines that can be consulted and used in many different countries

  10. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  11. Effects of lignite surface mining on local communities: controversies and areas of negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badera Jarosław

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Selecting locations for lignite mining and power generation complexes has been the subject of intense controversy. As a result, there have been many conflicts in society due to environmental and economic concerns. This paper poses the question of how lignite surface mining affects local communities. These effects may be both negative and positive and some of them are intangible. It is very difficult to balance the pros and cons objectively as it depends on the assumed objectives and criteria of the analysis. Different social and economic structures in different communities, and various additional factors, are just some of the reasons why this balance may significantly differ around a country. The authors hold opposing views on the role of lignite in the energy mix and the balance of negative and positive effects that surface mining exerts on local communities. They agree, however, that the most important elements of the societal debate on lignite mining have not yet been adequately studied or presented in public discourse. The authors propose to introduce the procedure of Social Impact Assessment to the Polish legal system. This could be effective as a means to prevent many conflicts in the energy sector and be the best way to reach a compromise.

  12. Suitability of dredged material for reclamation of surface-mined land. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Van Luik, A.

    1979-12-01

    Eroding ridges of acidic coal-mine spoil in La Salle County, Illinois, were leveled to form a gently-sloped raised plateau. Four test plots were constructed: a control plot and three treatment plots that received a 0.9-m-thick cover of dredged material obtained from the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago. Two treatment plots received lime applications and all plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses. Pressure-vacuum soil water samplers were installed, in duplicate, at two levels in the control plot and at three levels in each treatment plot. The three levels in the treatment plots coincided with dredged material, the dredged-material mine-spoil interface, and the underlying mine spoil. Surface water, soil water, and groundwater were monitored for 29 water-quality parameters for one year. Rainfall, air temperature, runoff, and water-level elevation data were collected also. Detailed analysis of the data indicates that the dredged material used in this study does not adversely affect water quality; it supports abundant plant growth, lessens groundwater contamination, and controls acid runoff. The dredged material is judged to be a suitable material for use in reclamation of surface-mined land.

  13. Modeling and Simulating Airport Surface Operations with Gate Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Windhorst, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The Surface Operations Simulator and Scheduler (SOSS) is a fast-time simulation platform used to develop and test future surface scheduling concepts such as NASAs Air Traffic Demonstration 2 of time-based surface metering at Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT). Challenges associated with CLT surface operations have driven much of SOSS development. Recently, SOSS functionality for modeling hardstand operations was developed to address gate conflicts, which occur when an arrival and departure wish to occupy the same gate at the same time. Because surface metering concepts such as ATD2 have the potential to increase gates conflicts as departure are held at their gates, it is important to study the interaction between surface metering and gate conflict management. Several approaches to managing gate conflicts with and without the use of hardstands were simulated and their effects on surface operations and scheduler performance compared.

  14. 30 CFR 933.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 933.785 Section 933.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of...

  15. 30 CFR 903.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 903.785 Section 903.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  16. 30 CFR 912.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 912.785 Section 912.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  17. 30 CFR 910.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 910.785 Section 910.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  18. 30 CFR 905.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 905.785 Section 905.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  19. 30 CFR 921.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 921.785 Section 921.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of...

  20. 30 CFR 922.785 - Requirements for permits for special categories of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of mining. 922.785 Section 922.785 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.785 Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. Part 785 of this...

  1. Development of a new mathematical model for prediction of surface subsidence due to inclined coal-seam mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, A.; Shahriar, K.; Goshtasbi, K.; Najm, K. [Islam Azad University, Tehran (Iran). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2005-01-01

    Subsidence phenomenon as an unwanted consequence of underground mining can cause problems for environment and surface structures in mine area. Surface subsidence prediction for inclined and steep seams has been given less attention than horizontal seams due to the difficulties involved in the extraction of such coal-seams. This paper introduces a new profile function method for prediction of surface subsidence due to inclined coal-seam mining. The results of calculation with the new function indicate that the predicted value has good agreement with the measured data.

  2. Stochastic Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Backbreak due to Blasting Operations in Open Pit Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mehmet; Ghasemi, Ebrahim; Ataei, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Backbreak is an undesirable side effect of bench blasting operations in open pit mines. A large number of parameters affect backbreak, including controllable parameters (such as blast design parameters and explosive characteristics) and uncontrollable parameters (such as rock and discontinuities properties). The complexity of the backbreak phenomenon and the uncertainty in terms of the impact of various parameters makes its prediction very difficult. The aim of this paper is to determine the suitability of the stochastic modeling approach for the prediction of backbreak and to assess the influence of controllable parameters on the phenomenon. To achieve this, a database containing actual measured backbreak occurrences and the major effective controllable parameters on backbreak (i.e., burden, spacing, stemming length, powder factor, and geometric stiffness ratio) was created from 175 blasting events in the Sungun copper mine, Iran. From this database, first, a new site-specific empirical equation for predicting backbreak was developed using multiple regression analysis. Then, the backbreak phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results reveal that stochastic modeling is a good means of modeling and evaluating the effects of the variability of blasting parameters on backbreak. Thus, the developed model is suitable for practical use in the Sungun copper mine. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed that stemming length is the most important parameter in controlling backbreak.

  3. USE OF BIOLOGICAL ADHESIVE FOR EFFECTIVE DUST SUPPRESSION IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Sergeevich Danilov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores modern methods of reclamation of lands disturbed processes of mining, based on monitoring disturbed lands using unmanned aircraft and dusty surfaces coated biologically active adhesive, biological foam. In the article new highly efficint methods of remote monitoring of environment components are considered on based of unmanned aircrafts. For monitoring, it is suggested to draw complexes based of small unmanned aircraft vehicle, equipped with special equipment (a digital camera, a thermal imaging camera, dust meter. Land reclamation on the biological stage is encouraged by using new bio-adhesives, developed on the basis of polysaccharides and various microorganisms. This composition helps reduce the consumption of fertilizers, pesticides and other components, pioneer in growing crops on dusty surfaces in the disturbed lands. As a result of such an event, dust discharge from the surface technogenic structures is reduced up to 10 times.

  4. Localization of Surface or Near-surface Drifting Mines for Unmanned Systems in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    many cases of interdiction mining, the minefields are covertly laid off enemy ports or assets. Once such a minefield is discovered , the port in...few days, and density-driven currents or thermohaline circulation varies over a period of weeks. The strong tidal currents create a bottom, mechanical

  5. Application of underground microseismic monitoring for ground failure and secure longwall coal mining operation: A case study in an Indian mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, G. K.; Sivakumar, C.

    2018-03-01

    Longwall mining technique has been widely used around the globe due to its safe mining process. However, mining operations are suspended when various problems arise like collapse of roof falls, cracks and fractures propagation in the roof and complexity in roof strata behaviors. To overcome these colossal problems, an underground real time microseismic monitoring technique has been implemented in the working panel-P2 in the Rajendra longwall underground coal mine at South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL), India. The target coal seams appears at the panel P-2 within a depth of 70 m to 76 m. In this process, 10 to 15 uniaxial geophones were placed inside a borehole at depth range of 40 m to 60 m located over the working panel-P2 with high rock quality designation value for better seismic signal. Various microseismic events were recorded with magnitude ranging from -5 to 2 in the Richter scale. The time-series processing was carried out to get various seismic parameters like activity rate, potential energy, viscosity rate, seismic moment, energy index, apparent volume and potential energy with respect to time. The used of these parameters helped tracing the events, understanding crack and fractures propagation and locating both high and low stress distribution zones prior to roof fall occurrence. In most of the cases, the events were divided into three stage processes: initial or preliminary, middle or building, and final or falling. The results of this study reveal that underground microseismic monitoring provides sufficient prior information of underground weighting events. The information gathered during the study was conveyed to the mining personnel in advance prior to roof fall event. This permits to take appropriate action for safer mining operations and risk reduction during longwall operation.

  6. Quantification of proportions of different water sources in a mining operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2018-04-01

    The water drained in mining operations (galleries, shafts, open pits) usually comes from different sources. Evaluating the contribution of these sources is very often necessary for water management. To determine mixing ratios, a conventional mass balance is often used. However, the presence of more than two sources creates uncertainties in mass balance applications. Moreover, the composition of the end-members is not commonly known with certainty and/or can vary in space and time. In this paper, we propose a powerful tool for solving such problems and managing groundwater in mining sites based on multivariate statistical analysis. This approach was applied to the Cobre Las Cruces mining complex, the largest copper mine in Europe. There, the open pit water is a mixture of three end-members: runoff (RO), basal Miocene (Mb) and Paleozoic (PZ) groundwater. The volume of water drained from the Miocene base aquifer must be determined and compensated via artificial recharging to comply with current regulations. Through multivariate statistical analysis of samples from a regional field campaign, the compositions of PZ and Mb end-members were firstly estimated, and then used for mixing calculations at the open pit scale. The runoff end-member was directly determined from samples collected in interception trenches inside the open pit. The application of multivariate statistical methods allowed the estimation of mixing ratios for the hydrological years 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. Open pit water proportions have changed from 15% to 7%, 41% to 36%, and 44% to 57% for runoff, Mb and PZ end-members, respectively. An independent estimation of runoff based on the curve method yielded comparable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Integral criterion of mining machines technical condition level at their operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S. L.; Shishkin, P. V.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays classification of systems of equipment maintenance and repair (M&R), in particular, mining machines, has a wide range. However, existing systems of maintenance and repair have their own disadvantages like resource-intensiveness and cost, lack of guarantees to prevent emergency failures. In order to reduce the costs for carrying out M&R, the service system CM&R (Conscientious Maintenance and Repair) was offered, which is focused on the tendency to achieve zero emergency failures, to reduce costs and to achieve the maximum possible effectiveness of the object functioning in actual operating conditions. A unified integrated indicator of the degree of object’s degradation has been offered.

  8. 30 CFR 716.2 - Steep-slope mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... original contour restoration requirements. (1) This section applies to surface coal mining operations on... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steep-slope mining. 716.2 Section 716.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM...

  9. 30 CFR 785.14 - Mountaintop removal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountaintop removal mining. 785.14 Section 785.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY...

  10. 30 CFR 785.13 - Experimental practices mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental practices mining. 785.13 Section 785.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER...

  11. 30 CFR 785.15 - Steep slope mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steep slope mining. 785.15 Section 785.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS...

  12. Geomorphic evaluation of erosional stability at reclaimed surface mines in northwestern Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The report identifies geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic conditions that are associated with erosion of reclaimed surface-mined lands in northwestern Colorado. The report also presents methods for determining the appropriate values of geomorphic variables that can be manipulated during reclamation to increase erosional stability. A section on geomorphic principles associated with erosion of reclaimed land surfaces is designed for use as a primer by mine personnel and reclamation planners. The areas of interest in the study were those that were reclaimed under jurisdiction of current (1988) SMCRA reclamation regulations, yet were still affected by relatively rapid erosion rates several years after reclamation activities were completed. Geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic data were collected onsite and from topographic maps. Data from reclaimed areas undergoing accelerated erosion were compared with data from reclaimed areas undergoing minimal erosion to identify conditions that controlled erosion on reclaimed surface-mined lands and to identify some postmining equilibrium landform characteristics. These data also were used to develop threshold relations

  13. Developments in the analysis of footwall slopes in surface coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, D.; Eberhardt, E. [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Surface mining of coal, particularly in areas of mountainous topography, often involves the formation of extensive footwall slopes parallel to the strata dip. Due to structural deformation steep dips on the limbs of folds may be encountered in association with thrust faults, jointing and residual shear strength conditions. Such an environment necessitates a rigorous assessment of footwall stability in order to ensure safe and economic exploitation of the coal. This paper provides a detailed review of the factors influencing footwall slope instability in surface coal mining and the major instability mechanisms. The analysis of footwalls in the design stage and the back analysis of footwall slope failures has in general been undertaken using predominantly two-dimensional limit equilibrium techniques often incorporating a simplistic elastic column analysis. The application of numerical modelling techniques to surface coal mine footwalls has received little attention. Here the authors illustrate the potential for investigating footwall failure mechanisms and stability using the distinct element method and other modelling techniques. 44 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  15. Assessment of radiological status of Bagjata underground uranium mine operating in the east Singhbhum District of Jharkhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.K.; Meena, J.S.; Thakur, V.K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Bagjata uranium mine deposits (22 °28’ 07”N and 86°29’ 36” E) is located in Dhalmugarh subdivision of East Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. This mine was commissioned in 2008 and presently it is operating with a production capacity of 500 tonne/day. The mining of uranium ores can lead to both internal and external exposures of workers. Internal exposure arises from the inhalation of radon gas and its decay products and radionuclides in ore dust. The contribution of respirable ore dust toward internal exposure has been reported to be insignificant in a low ore grade uranium mines by several authors. Radon gas is produced by the alpha decay of 226 Ra, which is a product of the long lived antecedent uranium ( 238 U), is present in the rocks, decays to a number of short-lived decay products that are themselves radioactive. Radon gas diffuses into the mine air through cracks and fissures present in the ore body, during blasting, mucking and fragmentation of ore body in mine. The short-lived daughters, 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 214 Po, are the principal contributor to internal exposure to mine workers. Radon has been recognized as a radiation hazard causing excess lung cancer among underground miners (NAS, 1988; ATSDR, 1990). 222 Rn concentration in the mine air was estimated by using a scintillation cell technique

  16. Use of lead isotopes to identify sources of metal and metalloid contaminants in atmospheric aerosol from mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Omar I; Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Rine, Kyle P; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-03-01

    Mining operations are a potential source of metal and metalloid contamination by atmospheric particulate generated from smelting activities, as well as from erosion of mine tailings. In this work, we show how lead isotopes can be used for source apportionment of metal and metalloid contaminants from the site of an active copper mine. Analysis of atmospheric aerosol shows two distinct isotopic signatures: one prevalent in fine particles (atmospheric dust. The results validate the use of lead isotope signatures for source apportionment of metal and metalloid contaminants transported by atmospheric particulate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. What Gives You a Social Licence? An Exploration of the Social Licence to Operate in the Australian Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bice, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which major, multinational mining companies operating within Australia understand sustainable development and articulate their “social licence to operate”. The article contributes a novel perspective to ongoing discussions about the social licence by exploring the ways in which leading Australian mining companies define and assert their social licences through sustainable development discourse. A content and discourse analysis of 18 sustainability reports acr...

  18. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3F. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: Cannelton Mine No. 9-S, Cannelton, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, J E; Perry, A O

    1977-02-01

    A mountain-top removal coal mining operation in south-central West Virginia is examined in this case study. A 2010 acre tract that is partly owned and partly leased by Cannelton Industries, Inc., has been about half stripped of the 5 Block and 6 Block Coals. The surrounding land area is characterized by steep-sided hills and generally lacks extensive tracts of level land suitable for agricultural or residential/commercial development. The Cannelton operation, which has already leveled several ridges, is creating areas which may be considered to have a higher land use potential than before mining. Although this site is generally isolated from urbanized areas and thus from structured regional planning efforts, it merits study as an excellent example of an innovating mining technique and integrated site-specific mining and reclamation planning.

  19. Emission factors for wind erosion of exposed aggregates at surface coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowherd, C.

    1982-06-01

    The information presented in this paper is directed to those interested in inventorying dust emissions generated by wind erosion of exposed aggregates at surface coal mines. A testing program is described which entailed the use of a portable wind tunnel and an isokinetic sampling system to measure windblown dust emissions from coal and overburden materials at three western mine sites. Test measurements consisted of particle mass emission rates and size distributions for various control wind speeds and times after the initiation of wind erosion. The results indicate that natural surface crusts are very effective in mitigating suspended dust emissions and that a given surface has a finite potential for wind erosion subsequent to mechanical disturbance. Test data are used to develop a predictive emission factor equation which relates emission rate (per unit surface area) to the frequency of disturbance and the erosion potential corresponding to the fastest mile of wind for the period between disturbances. This equation can be used directly for flat surfaces or it can be coupled with an analysis of wind flow patterns around elevated storage piles to develop dust emission estimates for overall pile erosion.

  20. Possible use of wetlands in ecological restoration of surface mined lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, R.B.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining for coal has dramatically altered millions of hectares throughout the Appalachian region of eastern North America. Flat benches and vertical high walls have replaced well-drained slopes, and wetlands have developed 'accidentally' on abandoned benches. Surface mining is continuing in this region, but new regulations do not include specifications for wetland construction in the reclamation process. Recent research has suggested that many ecosystem services appropriate for the Appalachian landscape could be performed by constructed wetlands. Inclusion of wetland construction in a reclamation plan could lead to a net increase in wetland acreage locally, as well as offset the loss of natural and/or accidental wetlands that are constructed to enhance nontreatment goals in reclamation. Study sites included 14 emergent wetlands in Wise County, Virginia. Sampling in June and August detected a total of 94 species in 36 vascular plant facilities. Obligate wetlands species, species that occur in wetlands over 99% of the time, were found in all 14 sites and included 26 species. The presence of so many wetland species without intentional management efforts suggests that wetland establishment could become a common component of mine reclamation. 18 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Using RFID Tagging in a Mining Industry Maintenance, Repair, and Operating (MRO) Supply Warehouse: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George D.

    2008-01-01

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been shown to be successful by reducing operating costs in the retail and manufacturing industries, but has never been considered in the literature for a mining industry maintenance, repair, and operating (MRO) supply chain. This field study was conducted to determine whether or not…

  2. Treatment of sulphated water of surface origin produced by an open pit coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Campos-Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to select the most suitable method of treatment of sulfated water produced by an open pit coal mine in Venezuela. Samples of water taken on surface, middle and bottom of water bodies in three areas were subjected to basic, gravimetric, volumetric and colorimetric analysis. The results indicated that the pH is within limits permitted by current environmental regulations, while total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and sulfates exceed the normed values. The aerobic wetland method was selected as the most efficient for the removal of sulfates, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the sulphated waters from the mine and because they are systems that use natural energy to purify water, its construction and maintenance costs Is significantly inferior to the conventional treatments and because, being replicas of natural ecosystems, they are integrated to the environment.

  3. Stakeholders' Engagement Methods for the Mining Social Responsibility Practice: Determination of Local Issues and Concerns Related to the Mines Operations in Northwest of the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, all around the world, global environmental change affects the human habitat. This is effect enhanced by the mining operation, and creates new challenges in relationship between the mining and local community. The purpose of this project are developed the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan which is currently developed in University of Nevada, Reno for the Emigrant mining project, located in the central Nevada, USA, and belong to the Newmont Mining Corporation, one of the gold production leader worldwide. The needs for this project is to create the open dialog between Newmont mining company and all interested parties which have social or environmental impacts from the Emigrant mine. Identification of the stakeholders list is first and one of the most difficult steps in the developing of mine social responsibility. Stakeholders' engagement evaluation plan must be based on the timing and available resources of the mining company, understanding the goals for the engagement, and on analyzes of the possible risks from engagement. In conclusion, the Stakeholders engagement evaluation plan includes: first, determinations of the stakeholders list, which must include any interested or effected by the mine projects groups, for example: state and local government representatives, people from local communities, business partners, environmental NGOs, indigenous people, and academic groups. The contacts and availability for communication is critical for Stakeholders engagement. Next, is to analyze characteristics of all these parties and determinate the level of interest and level of their influence on the project. The next step includes the Stakeholders matrix and mapping development, where all these information will be put together.After that, must be chosen the methods for stakeholders' engagement. The methods usually depends from the goals of engagement (create the dialog lines, collect the data, determinations of the local issues and concerns, or establish

  4. Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha eMiazga-Rodriguez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to nine months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4 °C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10 g was added to retention pond water (100 mL amended with 5 mM ammonium and incubated at 12 °C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4 °C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20 mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass.

  5. Improving the extraction-and-loading process in the open mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheban A. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the explosions is the main way to prepare solid rocks for the excavation, and that results in the formation of a rock mass of uneven granulometric composition, which makes it impossible to use a conveyor quarry transport without the preliminary large crushing of the rock mass obtained during the explosion. A way to achieve the greatest technical and economic effect is the full conveyorization of quarry transport, what, in this case, ensures the sequenced-flow of transport operations, automation of management and high labor productivity. The extraction-and-loading machines are the determining factor in the performance of mining and transport machines in the technological flow of the quarry. When extracting a blasted rock mass with single-bucket excavators or loaders working in combination with bottom-hole conveyors, one uses self-propelled crushing and reloading units of various designs to grind large individual parts to fractions of conditioning size. The presence of a crushing and reloading unit in the pit-face along with the excavator requires an additional space for its placement, complicates the maneuvering of the equipment in the pit-face, and increases the number of personnel and the cost of maintaining the extraction-and-reloading operations. The article proposes an improved method for carrying out the extraction-and-loading process, as well as the design of extraction-and-grinding unit based on a quarry hydraulic excavator. The design of the proposed unit makes it possible to convert the cyclic process of scooping the rock mass into the continuous process of its loading on the bottom-hole conveyor. Using the extraction-and-grinding unit allows one to combine the processes of excavation, preliminary crushing and loading of the rock mass, which ensures an increase in the efficiency of mining operations.

  6. Groundwater Surface Water Interactions in a Gold-Mined Dredged Floodplain of the Merced River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, L.; Conklin, M. H.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Merced River, originating in the Sierra Nevada, California, drains a watershed with an area of ~3,305 km2. Merced River has been highly altered due to diversions, mechanically dredged mining, and damming. A year of groundwater-surface water interactions were studied to elucidate the hydrological connection between the Main Canal, an unlined canal that contains Merced River water flows parallel to the river with an average elevation of 89m, the highly conductive previously dredged floodplain, and the Merced River with an average elevation of 84m. Upstream of the study reach, located in an undredged portion, of the floodplain are two fish farms that have been operating for approximately 40 years. This study reach has been historically important for salmon spawning and rearing, where more than 50% of the Chinook salmon of the Merced River spawn. Currently salmon restoration is focusing gravel augmentation and adding side channel and ignoring groundwater influences. Exchanges between the hyporheic and surrounding surface, groundwater, riparian, and alluvial floodplain habitats occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Pressure transducers were installed in seven wells and four ponds located in the dredged floodplain. All wells were drilled to the Mehrten Formation, a confining layer, and screened for last 3m. These groundwater well water levels as well as the surface water elevations of the Main Canal and the Merced River were used to determine the direction of sublateral surface flows using Groundwater Vistas as a user interface for MODFLOW. The well and pond waters and seepage from the river banks were sampled for anion/cation, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total iron, and total dissolved iron concentrations to determine water sources and the possibility of suboxic water. Field analysis indicated that water in all wells and ponds exhibit low dissolved oxygen, high conductivity rates, and oxidation/reduction potentials that switched from

  7. Habitat manipulation influences northern bobwhite resource selection on a reclaimed surface mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Peters, David C.; Unger, Ashley M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 600,000 ha of mine land have been reclaimed in the eastern United States, providing large contiguous tracts of early successional vegetation that can be managed for northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). However, habitat quality on reclaimed mine land can be limited by extensive coverage of non-native invasive species, which are commonly planted during reclamation. We used discrete-choice analysis to investigate bobwhite resource selection throughout the year on Peabody Wildlife Management Area, a 3,330-ha reclaimed surface mine in western Kentucky. We used a treatment-control design to study resource selection at 2 spatial scales to identify important aspects of mine land vegetation and whether resource selection differed between areas with habitat management (i.e., burning, disking, herbicide; treatment) and unmanaged units (control). Our objectives were to estimate bobwhite resource selection on reclaimed mine land and to estimate the influence of habitat management practices on resource selection. We used locations from 283 individuals during the breeding season (1 Apr–30 Sep) and 136 coveys during the non-breeding season (1 Oct–Mar 31) from August 2009 to March 2014. Individuals were located closer to shrub cover than would be expected at random throughout the year. During the breeding season, individuals on treatment units used areas with smaller contagion index values (i.e., greater interspersion) compared with individuals on control units. During the non-breeding season, birds selected areas with greater shrub-open edge density compared with random. At the microhabitat scale, individuals selected areas with increased visual obstruction >1 m aboveground. During the breeding season, birds were closer to disked areas (linear and non-linear) than would be expected at random. Individuals selected non-linear disked areas during winter but did not select linear disked areas (firebreaks) because they were planted to winter wheat each fall and

  8. Hydrology and geochemistry of a surface coal mine in northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Clark, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrology and geochemistry of a reclaimed coal mine in northwestern Colorado were monitored during water years 1988 and 1989. Some data also were collected in water years 1987 and 1990. This report describes (1) the sources of hydrologic recharge to and discharge from reclaimed spoil, (2) the relative contributions of recharge to the reclaimed spoil aquifer from identified source waters and the rate of water movement from those sources to the reclaimed spoil, and (3) the geochemical reactions that control water quality in reclaimed spoil. The study area was at a dip-slope coal mine encompassing about 7 square miles with land slopes of varying aspect. The area was instrumented and monitored at five sites; two sites had unmined and reclaimed- spoil areas adjacent to each other and three sites were unmined. The mined areas had been reclaimed. Instrumentation at the study sites included 1 climate station, 3 rain gages, 19 soil-water access tubes, 2 lysimeters, 18 wells completed in bedrock, 7 wells completed in reclaimed spoil, and 2 surface- water gaging stations. The results of the study indicate that the reclaimed spoil is recharged from surface recharge and underburden aquifers. Discharge, as measured by lysimeters, was about 3 inches per year and occurred during and after snowmelt. Hydraulic-head measurements indicated a potential for ground-water movement from deeper to shallower aquifers. Water levels rose in the reclaimed-spoil aquifer and spring discharge at the toe of the spoil slopes increased rapidly in response to snowmelt. Water chemistry, stable isotopes, geochemical models, and mass-balance calculations indicate that surface recharge and the underburden aquifers each contribute about 50 percent of the water to the reclaimed-spoil aquifers. Geochemical information indicates that pyrite oxidation and dissolution of carbonate and efflorescent sulfate minerals control the water chemistry of the reclaimed-spoil aquifer.

  9. Evaluation of environmental impacts of uranium mining and milling operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, M.; Lopez Romero, A.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium mining and production activities have been carried out by ENUSA since 1973. This report describes the evaluation of environmental aspects connected with uranium mining and milling. (author). 7 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  11. Prime farmland disturbance from coal surface mining in the corn belt, 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D.P.

    1979-09-01

    The five midwestern states that make up the Corn Belt farm production region - Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Ohio - contain about 110 billion tons of coal reserves (19% of which are surface mineable) and 110 million acres of arable land (69% of which are prime farmlands). In 1975, this region was the site of 21% of the nation's total coal production and 50% of the nation's corn and soybean harvest. Because corn and soybeans are key elements in US foreign trade and because nearly two-thirds of the regional coal production is from surface coal mines, it is important to understand the potential conflicts that may arise between the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt. This report presents background data on the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt states, along with the results of a quantitative analysis of the potential disruption of land and associated prime farmland due to future coal surface mining activity in the region. Estimates of potential land dusruptions indicate that 452,000 acres of land, including 127,000 acres of prime farmland, could be disturbed in the period 1980-2000. Additionally, the data indicate that certain counties in the Corn Belt states may experience impacts significantly greater than the regional average would suggest.

  12. Derived surface contamination limits for the uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, S.H.

    1984-10-01

    Derived Surface Contamination Limits (DSCL) are proposed for the control of surface contamination at the work place for the uranium mining and milling industry. They have been derived by a method incorporating recent ICRP recommendations and consideration of the radiation exposure pathways of ingestion, inhalation and external irradiation of the basal layer of skin. A generalized DSCL of 10 5 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is recommended for all contaminants likely to be found in uranium mine and mill workplaces except for fresh uranium concentrates. In the latter case, the DSCL is expressed in terms of alpha activity because the ratio of beta to alpha activities for fresh uranium concentrates is variable; the beta activity increases with the ingrowth of U-238 daughter products (Th-234 and Pa-234m) until secular equilibrium is re-established in about six months. A surface contamination limit of 10 4 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is proposed for the release of non-porous materials and equipment with no detectable loose contamination to the public domain

  13. Effect of coal mine dust and clay extracts on the biological activity of the quartz surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, V.; Jones, R.; Rollo, K.; Duffin, R.; Donaldson, K.; Brown, D.M. [Napier University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Science

    2004-04-01

    Modification of the quartz surface by aluminum salts and metallic iron have been shown to reduce the biological activity of quartz. This study aimed to investigate the ability of water soluble extracts of coal mine dust (CMD), low aluminum clays (hectorite and montmorillonite) and high aluminum clays (attapulgite and kaolin) to inhibit the reactivity of the quartz surface. DQ12 induced significant haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes in vitro and inflammation in vivo as indicated by increases in the total cell numbers, neutrophil cell numbers, MIP-2 protein and albumin content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Treatment of DQ12 with CMD extract prevented both haemolysis and inflammation. Extracts of the high aluminum clays (kaolin and attapulgite) prevented inhibition of DQ12 induced haemolysis, and the kaolin extract inhibited quartz driven inflammation. DQ12 induced haemolysis by coal mine dust and kaolin extract could be prevented by pre-treatment of the extracts with a cation chellator. Extracts of the low aluminum clays (montmorillonite and hectorite) did not prevent DQ12 induced haemolysis, although the hectorite extract did prevent inflammation. These results suggest that CMD, and clays both low and rich in aluminum, all contain soluble components (possibly cations) capable of masking the reactivity of the quartz surface.

  14. Arsenic Concentration in the Surface Water of a Former Mining Area: The La Junta Creek, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz Lamadrid, Miguel; Acosta Vargas, Baudilio

    2018-01-01

    The mining activity in the San Antonio-El Triunfo district, located in a mountainous region at 60 km southeast of La Paz, occured for more than 250 years and left behind severe contamination of soils and riverbed sediments which led to elevated concentrations of arsenic and other trace elements in the surface- and groundwater of the region. Although the main mining activity ended around 1911, contamination is still beeing distributed, especially from left behind tailings and mine waste piles. The contamination levels in the groundwater have been reported in several studies, but there is little information available on the surface water quality, and especially the temporal variation. In this study, we analyzed the surface water of the La Junta creek, in the southern part of the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining district. The working hypothesis was that by means of a spatial analysis of surface water and shallow groundwater, in combination with the temporal observation of the concentrations in runoff water, the effects of different sources of arsenic (natural geogene anomalies, due to historic mining activity, and hydrothermal related impact) in the La Junta creek can be recognized. This present study revealed that historic mining activity caused a mojor impact of arsenic but less contamination was observed than in the northern part of the district and elevated arsenic concentrations in stream water generally occurred during times of low streamflow. PMID:29498700

  15. Diagnostic measurements on the great machines conditions of lignite surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helebrant, F.; Jurman, J.; Fries, J. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis of loading and service dependability of a rail-mounted excavator used in surface lignite mining is described. Wheel power vibrations in electric motor bearings and electric motor input bearings to the gearbox were measured in situ, in horizontal, vertical, and axial directions. The data were analyzed using a mathematical relationship. The results are presented in a loading diagram that shows the deterioration and the acceptable lower bound of machine conditions over time. Work is continuing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Numerical modelling of buckling and ploughing slope instability in surface coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, E.; Stead, D. (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    Buckling and ploughing are characteristic failure mechanisms affecting the footwall slopes of surface coal mines. These failures may cause large losses in production, pose serious safety hazards and necessitate extensive deformation monitoring schemes. A brief survey of the factors influencing buckling and ploughing failures is presented based on a detailed examination of the published literature. A critical review of conventional methods of analysis: two-dimensional limit equilibrium, Euler theory, three-hinge buckling and physical modelling, is undertaken. Preliminary results of numerical modelling using finite difference and distinct element techniques are presented using a typical footwall slope and a selected case history. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Environmental assessment related to the operation of Hansen uranium mill project, WM-24, Cyprus Mines Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental assessment was prepared by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, in response to a request for technical assistance from the State of Colorado in connection with licensing action on the proposed Cyprus Mines Corporation, Hansen uranium project. The major components of discussion are (1) a summary and recommended licensing conditions, (2) a description of the site environment and the proposed facility operation as well as alternatives in comparison with NRC's performance objectives for tailings management, and (3) a radiological assessment for estimating the facility's compliance with 10 CFR 20 and 40 CFR 190 dose regulations. The NRC recommends licensing the proposed mill subject to stipulated license conditions

  18. SARDA: An Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is an integrated decision support tool for airlines and air traffic control tower enabling surface collaborative decision making (CDM) and departure metering in order to enhance efficiency of surface operations at congested airports. The presentation describes the concept and architecture of the SARDA as a CDM tool, and the results from a human-in-the-loop simulation of the tool conducted in 2012 at the FutureFlight Central, the tower simulation facility. Also, presented is the current activities and future plan for SARDA development. The presentation was given at the meeting with the FAA senior advisor of the Surface Operations Office.

  19. Soil-characterization and soil-amendment use on coal surface mine lands: An annotated bibliography. Information Circular/1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norland, M.R.; Veith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines Report on United States and Canadian Literature pertaining to soil characterization and the use of soil amendments as a part of the reclamation process of coal surface-mined lands contains 1,280 references. The references were published during the 1977 to 1988 period. Each reference is evaluated by keywords, providing the reader with a means of rapidly sorting through the references to locate those articles with the coal mining regions and subjects of interest. All references are annotated

  20. Field Trial of Resin-Based Composite Materials for the Treatment of Surface Collapses Associated with Former Shallow Coal Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Philip T. Broughton; Mark P. Bettney; Isla L. Smail

    2016-01-01

    Effective treatment of ground instability is essential when managing the impacts associated with historic mining. A field trial was undertaken by the Coal Authority to investigate the geotechnical performance and potential use of composite materials comprising resin and fill or stone to safely treat surface collapses, such as crown-holes, associated with shallow mining. Test pits were loosely filled with various granular fill materials. The fill material was injected with commercially availab...

  1. Assessing Surface Hydrological Processes on a Rehabilitated Mine Landform in Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qi; Saynor, Mike; Lowry, John; Lu, Ping; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    To assist with the evaluation of the proposed rehabilitation designs for the mine closure at a Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia, a trial landform (200 m × 400 m) was constructed using waste rocks, with its surface ripped along the contour. The surface hydrological performance of this landform was investigated in this study. Field infiltration measurements were conducted using both large and regular ring infiltrometers to investigate the surface hydraulic properties, and water contents and surface runoff were monitored continuously in two 30 m × 30 m runoff plots for four years. A Cellular Automata based runoff model (RunCA) was also used to simulate the runoff behaviors under different rainfall conditions. Results showed a higher infiltration capacity in the areas of rip lines than the non-ripped areas due to the disturbance to the surface. Runoff coefficient was less than 6% and 10% for 80% of the 304 observed rainfall events on plot 1 and plot 2, respectively. The low levels of runoff were well explained by the simulated flow maps of RunCA, which demonstrated the roles of the rip lines in storing flow water and discontinuing the runoff paths. However, when the maximum storage capacity of these rip lines was exceeded during several large rainfall events, the runoff became much more significant and led to high potentials for erosion and landform instability. RunCA simulations on the virtual landforms with higher rip lines indicated dramatically reduced runoff rates. Therefore, it is suggested here that the current landform may be subjected to great runoff and erosion risks under extreme rainfall events, and raising the rip line height may potentially solve this problem.

  2. Changes in the Extent of Surface Mining and Reclamation in the Central Appalachians Detected Using a 1976-2006 Landsat Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Philip A.; Helmers, David P.; Kingdon, Clayton C.; McNeil, Brenden E.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Eshleman, Keith N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining and reclamation is the dominant driver of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in the Central Appalachian Mountain region of the Eastern U.S. Accurate quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this LCLUC affects ecosystem services such as aesthetics, biodiversity, and mitigation of flooding.We used Landsat imagery from 1976, 1987, 1999 and 2006 to map the extent of surface mines and mine reclamation for eight large watersheds in the Central Appalachian region of West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. We employed standard image processing techniques in conjunction with a temporal decision tree and GIS maps of mine permits and wetlands to map active and reclaimed mines and track changes through time. For the entire study area, active surface mine extent was highest in 1976, prior to implementation of the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act in 1977, with 1.76% of the study area in active mines, declining to 0.44% in 2006. The most extensively mined watershed, Georges Creek in Maryland, was 5.45% active mines in 1976, declining to 1.83% in 2006. For the entire study area, the area of reclaimed mines increased from 1.35% to 4.99% from 1976 to 2006, and from 4.71% to 15.42% in Georges Creek. Land cover conversion to mines and then reclaimed mines after 1976 was almost exclusively from forest. Accuracy levels for mined and reclaimed cover was above 85% for all time periods, and was generally above 80% for mapping active and reclaimed mines separately, especially for the later time periods in which good accuracy assessment data were available. Among other implications, the mapped patterns of LCLUC are likely to significantly affect watershed hydrology, as mined and reclaimed areas have lower infiltration capacity and thus more rapid runoff than unmined forest watersheds, leading to greater potential for extreme flooding during heavy rainfall events.

  3. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 and Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 is an excavation robot for mining regolith on a planet like Mars. The robot is programmed using the Robotic Operating System (ROS) and it also uses a physical simulation program called Gazebo. This internship focused on various functions of the program in order to make it a more professional and efficient robot. During the internship another project called the Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator was worked on. This is a robot that is designed to dig through sand and extract sample material. The intern worked on programming the Sand-Swimming robot, and designing the electrical system to power and control the robot.

  4. Thirteen-year hardwood tree performance on a Midwest surface mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, W.C.; Kolar, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa Michx.), and pin oak (Q. palustris Muenchh.) seedlings were planted both fall 1980 and spring 1981 on mixed overburden strip-mining banks (ungraded), mixed overburden graded to approximate original contour (AOC) (graded), mixed overburden graded to AOC wit h 60 cm of replaced pre-mining surface soil materials (topsoil), and on old fields near the strip-mine (unmined). Black walnut and pin oak were also planted as seed, with a total of 6000 seedlings/seed spots in the study. Initial species field viability ranged from 86 to 100%. With one exception, after 3 growing seasons oak seedlings had 50% or greater survival. Survival was mostly lower after 3 years with some additional mortality by years 8 and 13. Height and diameter breast height were measured after 13 years. Survival and growth of trees planted fall or spring was similar overall with variable performance by species. Seedlings of several species on the ungraded site had over 50% survival after 13 years, with fewer trees where planted as seed. Mean height of all species combined was significantly greater on the ungraded than on any other site and was lowest on the topsoil site. The unmined sites had high variability in species survival and height. Better reclamation with trees resulted from a deep, well-drained rooting medium with minimal compaction and a mineral-rich surface soil including coarse fragments over 2 mm in size for long-term productivity

  5. Thirteen-year hardwood tree performance on a Midwest surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, W.C.; Kolar, C.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1998-12-31

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa Michx.), and pin oak (Q. palustris Muenchh.) seedlings were planted both fall 1980 and spring 1981 on mixed overburden strip-mining banks (ungraded), mixed overburden graded to approximate original contour (AOC) (graded), mixed overburden graded to AOC wit h 60 cm of replaced pre-mining surface soil materials (topsoil), and on old fields near the strip-mine (unmined). Black walnut and pin oak were also planted as seed, with a total of 6000 seedlings/seed spots in the study. Initial species field viability ranged from 86 to 100%. With one exception, after 3 growing seasons oak seedlings had 50% or greater survival. Survival was mostly lower after 3 years with some additional mortality by years 8 and 13. Height and diameter breast height were measured after 13 years. Survival and growth of trees planted fall or spring was similar overall with variable performance by species. Seedlings of several species on the ungraded site had over 50% survival after 13 years, with fewer trees where planted as seed. Mean height of all species combined was significantly greater on the ungraded than on any other site and was lowest on the topsoil site. The unmined sites had high variability in species survival and height. Better reclamation with trees resulted from a deep, well-drained rooting medium with minimal compaction and a mineral-rich surface soil including coarse fragments over 2 mm in size for long-term productivity.

  6. Assessment of mercury erosion by surface water in Wanshan mercury mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, ZhiHui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-08-01

    Soil erosion is a main cause of land degradation, and in its accelerated form is also one of the most serious ecological environmental problems. Moreover, there are few studies on migration of mercury (Hg) induced by soil erosion in seriously Hg-polluted districts. This paper selected Wanshan Hg mining area, SW China as the study area. Revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and Geographic information system (GIS) methods were applied to calculate soil and Hg erosion and to classify soil erosion intensity. Our results show that the soil erosion rate can reach up to 600,884tkm(-2)yr(-1). Surfaces associated with very slight and extremely severe erosion include 76.6% of the entire land in Wanshan. Furthermore, the cumulative erosion rates in the area impacted by extremely severe erosion make up 90.5% of the total. On an annual basis, Hg surface erosion load was predicted to be 505kgyr(-1) and the corresponding mean migration flux of Hg was estimated to be 3.02kgkm(-2)yr(-1). The erosion loads of Hg resulting from farmland and meadow soil were 175 and 319kgyr(-1) respectively, which were enhanced compared to other landscape types due to the fact that they are generally located in the steep zones associated with significant reclamation. Contributing to establish a mass balance of Hg in Wanshan Hg mining area, this study supplies a dependable scientific basis for controlling soil and water erosion in the local ecosystems. Land use change is the most effective way for reducing Hg erosion load in Wanshan mining area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Remining to reclaim abandoned mined lands: Virginia's initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, C.E.; Lambert, B.

    1998-01-01

    Abandoned Mined Lands (AML) are lands that were mined prior to implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) in 1977, but were inadequately reclaimed. Re-mining of AML is being conducted on a routine basis by coal-mining operations in eastern states such as Virginia. Re-mining is a potentially important means of reclaiming AML. However, under current policies, re-mining operations often fail to permit and reclaim priority 1, 2, and 3 AML, especially those areas which present the most severe environmental problems. This paper describes policy issues which affect the potential for AML reclamation by re-mining operations in mountainous mining areas, such as Virginia; efforts underway in Virginia which seek to resolve those issues; and progress achieved to date under that initiative

  8. 30 CFR 57.22204 - Main fan operation and inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation and inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22204 Section 57.22204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Main fan operation and inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). Main fans shall be— (a) Provided...

  9. Mining soil phosphorus by zero P-application: an effective method to reduce the risk of P loading to surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Chardon, W.J.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to find field evidence for the effectiveness of P-mining to reduce the risk of P leaching to surface water. In 2002, a P-mining was conducted on four grassland sites in the Netherlands on sand (two sites), peat and clay soils. The mining plots received no P and an annual N surplus of

  10. Local community opinions regarding the socio-environmental aspects of lignite surface mining: Experiences from central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badera, Jarosław; Kocoń, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Surface lignite mining covers large areas and usually generates social conflicts which pose one of several energy security threats to certain states. Therefore, defining the social conditions determines the success of a mining project. Two communes were chosen for a public opinion study: Kleszczów, where the Bełchatów mine is located, and Złoczew, where a lignite deposit will soon be developed. The analysis shows, as opposed to other areas in Poland that have been projected for development, that both local communities are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. In both cases, awareness about the profits was stronger than anxiety about the investment's negative effects. However, most inhabitants could not assess the mining company's diligence concerning its responsibility for mining damages as well as the diligence of external experts assessing the environmental impacts of excavation. Most respondents also could not assess if the legal regulations of public participation in the decision process were sufficient, but the negative opinions outweighed the positive ones. From the perspective of the energy policy, dialogue-type social communication is needed for every case of a new energy-mining project. Research on local public opinion should be the first step to opening up a social debate. - Highlights: • Lignite mining can generate social conflicts, which may threaten energy security. • Examined communes are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. • Inhabitants cannot assess if the legal regulations of mining activity are sufficient. • From the perspective of the energy policy, broader social communication is needed. • Research on the public opinion should be the first step to open up a social debate

  11. Operational Decision Support for Material Management in Continuous Mining Systems: From Simulation Concept to Practical Full-Scale Implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soleymani Shishvan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Material management in opencast mines is concerned with planning, organizing, and control of the flow of materials from their extraction points to destinations. It can be strongly affected by operational decisions that have to be made during the production process. To date, little research has focused on the application of simulation modeling as a powerful supportive tool for decision making in such systems. Practical experiences from implementing a simulation model of a mine for the operational support on an industrial scale are not known to the authors. This paper presents the extension of a developed stochastic simulation model by the authors from a conceptual stage (TRL4 to a new Technology Readiness Level (TRL 6 by implementing it in an industrially relevant environment. A framework for modeling, simulation, and validation of the simulation model applied to two large opencast lignite mines is presented in detail. Operational implementation issues, experiences, and challenges in practical applications are discussed. Furthermore, the strength of applying the simulation modeling as an operational decision support for material management in coal mining is demonstrated. Results of the case studies are used to describe the details of the framework, and to illustrate the strength and limitations of its application.

  12. Operational decision support for material management in continuous mining systems : From simulation concept to practical full-scale implementations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleymani Shishvan, M.; Benndorf, J.

    2017-01-01

    Material management in opencast mines is concerned with planning, organizing, and control of the flow of materials from their extraction points to destinations. It can be strongly affected by operational decisions that have to be made during the production process. To date, little research has

  13. Control and evaluation methodology of reclaimed surfaces in coal mines; Metodologia para el Seguimiento y Evaluacion de Superficies Restauradas en Minas de Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to establish a control and evaluation methodology of reclaimed surfaces in coal mines, ash dumps,... etc. to be applied especially in locations with limited availability of ton soil, and to be used by mining companies to establish an internal quality control of the reclamation carried out. This methodology has been developed based on the evaluation of the results obtained from the reclamation that Endesa carries out at the Puentes mine. An operating and simplified method which may be adopted by smaller sites has been developed. This project has been carried out during the period 1994-1996 and includes a study about the physicochemical conditions of reclaimed surfaces, soil organisms study and about vegetation productivity associated to micorrizae. The conclusions and recommendations obtained include reclamation techniques (study and management of the deposit dumped, top soil management, addition of basic correctors, fertilization, top soil and maintenance works) and reclaimed surface control techniques (physicochemical soil conditions, soil organisms and vegetation). (Author)

  14. Deadline scramble : oilsands mining operators and outsiders investigate more rapid tailings pond cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2010-05-15

    Oil sand tailings ponds composed of a slurry of water, clay, sand, silt and residual bitumen have become one of the biggest environmental and public relations challenges facing the oil sand industry. The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board's Directive 74 requires that oilsands mining companies convert at least 20 per cent of the fine particles in their tailings ponds to solid waste by June 2011, rising to 50 per cent by 2013 and annually thereafter. Tailings ponds must be ready for surface reclamation within 5 years of the ponds becoming inactive. Directive 74 also stipulates that within 1 year of the creation of a dedicated disposal area, it must attain a minimum undrained shear strength of 5 kilopascals, rising to a minimum shear strength in 5 years of 10 kPa, trafficable and ready for reclamation. To date, only Suncor has committed to meeting the directive's deadlines. Syncrude Canada Ltd. has been testing centrifuge technology, and smaller companies, such as Solid Environmental Services Ltd, Foret Plasma Labs, LLC and Micro-TES, Inc. are also promoting their own solutions. The greatest challenge with the tailings ponds is to reach that 5 kPa rating. This article described some technologies that may attain the criteria, including the bentonite-based PitDry solidification process that is used to treat a variety of drilling, mining and industrial wastes; the Plasma Whirl, a plasma hydrocyclone that can be used for water treatment and heavy oil upgrading; and super bugs in which microbes break down hydrocarbons and other organic wastes into non-hazardous components such as fatty acids, carbon dioxide and water. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  15. The Influence of Surface Coal Mining on Runoff Processes and Stream Chemistry in the Elk Valley, British Colubmbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Wellen, C. C.; Shatilla, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock, thereby allowing access to mineable ore. Following this, the removed overburden rock is deposited in adjacent valleys as waste rock spoils. Previous research has identified that areas downstream of surface coal mining have impaired water quality, yet there is limited information about the interaction of hydrology and geochemistry across a range of mining conditions, particularly at the headwater scale. Here, we provide an analysis of an extensive long-term data set of geochemistry and flows across a gradient of coal mining in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. This work is part of a broader R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that water from waste rock piles has an ionic profile distinct from unimpacted catchments. While the concentration of geochemicals increased with the degree of mine impact, the control of hydrological transport capacity over geochemical export did not vary with degree of mine impact. Geochemical export in mine-influenced catchments was limited more strongly by transport capacity than supply, implying that more water moving through the waste rock mobilized more geochemicals. Placement of waste rock within the catchment (headwaters or outlet) did not affect chemical concentrations but did alter the timing with which chemically distinct water mixed. This work advances on results reported earlier using empirical models of selenium loading and further highlights the importance of limiting water inputs into waste rock piles.

  16. COAL MINING OPERATIONS AND ITS IMPACT ON SECTORAL AND REGIONAL AREA: EVIDENCE OF EAST KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian Hilmawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining sector plays important roles for Indonesian economic performance, especially in East Kalimantan. This study investigates: (a whether economic linkages of the mining sector related with other economic sectors in East Kalimantan, (b who gets benefit from such mining activities; (c how is the impact of mining sector for rural and urban households; and (d what happens if coal mining, oil and gas productions are completely depleted. The quantitative analysis framework using Input-Output and Social Accounting Matrix Tables in period 2009-2010 has been implemented as main data set. The result shows that mining sector was underdeveloped sector in East Kalimantan, including Kutai Kartanegara district. Activities from mining sector tended to give benefit for the owners of capital, which is larger than that benefit for workers employed. Structural Path Analysis (SPA shows that urban households gain the greatest advantages from the activities of this sector. The result also shows that the total output decreased by 65.12% when the mining, oil and gas dissapeared. A drastic reducing income after mining and oil and gas era will have an impact on the decline in the purchasing power in the region. However, the interesting finding of this research shows that the loss of mining and oil or gas sectors actually increases the strength of employment multiplier by 19%.

  17. Comparison of discrete Hodge star operators for surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2016-05-10

    We investigate the performance of various discrete Hodge star operators for discrete exterior calculus (DEC) using circumcentric and barycentric dual meshes. The performance is evaluated through the DEC solution of Darcy and incompressible Navier–Stokes flows over surfaces. While the circumcentric Hodge operators may be favorable due to their diagonal structure, the barycentric (geometric) and the Galerkin Hodge operators have the advantage of admitting arbitrary simplicial meshes. Numerical experiments reveal that the barycentric and the Galerkin Hodge operators retain the numerical convergence order attained through the circumcentric (diagonal) Hodge operators. Furthermore, when the barycentric or the Galerkin Hodge operators are employed, a super-convergence behavior is observed for the incompressible flow solution over unstructured simplicial surface meshes generated by successive subdivision of coarser meshes. Insofar as the computational cost is concerned, the Darcy flow solutions exhibit a moderate increase in the solution time when using the barycentric or the Galerkin Hodge operators due to a modest decrease in the linear system sparsity. On the other hand, for the incompressible flow simulations, both the solution time and the linear system sparsity do not change for either the circumcentric or the barycentric and the Galerkin Hodge operators.

  18. 30 CFR 77.1504 - Auger equipment; operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1504 Auger equipment; operation. (a) Persons shall be kept clear of the auger train... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger equipment; operation. 77.1504 Section 77...

  19. Water treatment strategy for underground and surface waters in order to reduce the hydro-network contamination due to close out of a uranium mining area in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, D.; Radulescu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the present circumstances, in correlation with the national nuclear program and strategy, it is foreseen to stop the exploitation activities in two important uranium mining areas from Romania. This close-out action is involving a number of technical decisions for environmental restoration. Reduction of waters radioactive contamination in these zones, both during the operating period and after the closeout period, is one of the main components of the environment rehabilitation strategy. In this paper there are presented the today situation and the program foreseen for ground and surface water treatment at an uranium mining unit situated in the SW side of Romania, program based on the results of our own research carried out to decrease the content of pollutant radioactive elements. (author)

  20. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  1. Inevitable surface dependence of some operator products and integrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigemoto, Kazuyasu; Tanaka, Azuma; Taguchi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kunio.

    1976-01-01

    In general even in local theory the operator products at the same space-time point must be considered as a limit of non-local products. It is natural to confine non-locality on a space-like surface. In this case some operator products with three or more constituents possess an inevitable and purely quantum-mechanical surface dependence. Taking the pion-nucleon system as an example, we explicitly calculate in the order of g 2 this kind of the surface dependence of the interaction Hamiltonian. In order to obtain a consistent theory, this surface is required to be identified with the space-like surface in the Tomonaga-Schwinger equation. Then the interaction Hamiltonian needs an additional, non-canonical and surface-dependent term, which can be derived uniquely from the canonical Hamiltonian. The integrability of the Tomonaga-Schwinger equation is proved by taking account of this surface dependence together with the gradient term in the equal-time commutator. (auth.)

  2. Utilization of textile surface covers for stabilizing slopes in brown coal surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, K.; Ganz, R.; Taubert, E.; Scheler, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of tests on preventing slope erosion at a spoil bank by covering inclined surfaces with textile. Three polyethylene and one polyamide cloth types with varying mesh size and material elasticity were attached to the ground after seeding of grass plants. Slope erosion and grass growth were evaluated at three-week intervals. Best results were achieved with polyethylene cloth with a 10/20 mm mesh to facilitate grass growth and with low elasticity, which showed the best adaption to the slope of the ground and prevented washout from below. Economic advantages of using surface covers are described as reducing expenditures in labor employed in slope maintenance. A 50% cost saving is estimated, which depends on the availability of low cost ground covers, preferably from waste products. The suitability of textile from magnetic tape scrap will be tested.

  3. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  4. Role of soil health in maintaining environmental sustainability of surface coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Peter M; Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott; Jones, Alice L; Rowe, Harold; Martin, Darren; Bryson, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) in the Southern Appalachian forest region greatly impacts both soil and aquatic ecosystems. Policy and practice currently in place emphasize water quality and soil stability but do not consider upland soil health. Here we report soil organic carbon (SOC) measurements and other soil quality indicators for reclaimed soils in the Southern Appalachian forest region to quantify the health of the soil ecosystem. The SOC sequestration rate of the MCM soils was 1.3 MgC ha(-1) yr(-1) and stocks ranged from 1.3 ± 0.9 to 20.9 ± 5.9 Mg ha(-1) and contained only 11% of the SOC of surrounding forest soils. Comparable reclaimed mining soils reported in the literature that are supportive of soil ecosystem health had SOC stocks 2.5-5 times greater than the MCM soils and sequestration rates were also 1.6-3 times greater. The high compaction associated with reclamation in this region greatly reduces both the vegetative rooting depth and infiltration of the soil and increases surface runoff, thus bypassing the ability of soil to naturally filter groundwater. In the context of environmental sustainability of MCM, it is proposed that the entire watershed ecosystem be assessed and that a revision of current policy be conducted to reflect the health of both water and soil.

  5. Measurement of sub-surface strata behaviour in bord and pillar mining: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ranigunj coalfield (India) has been facing significant problems due to subsidence as a result of underground mining of coal seams. The occurrence of the thick seams in close proximity, shallow depth, great variation in the nature of superincumbent strata from site to site, followed by the slow rate of extraction, has aggravated subsidence problems. In the recent past, many such workings have collapsed, damaging a large number of surface structures. In view of the aforesaid need, a comprehensive project financed by the Ministry of Energy (Coal), was undertaken by the Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, at a Colliery in Ranigunj Coalfield. This investigation revealed that the caving horizon occurred at 4 times the extracted seam height, which differs from the findings in the UK, USA, and Australia. Also, it appears possible to estimate strata displacements from geological and physicomechanical information from the overlying rocks using the bending moment principle. Further, it was observed that the shallow workings could give rise to a sink hole type of subsidence, which is dangerous and could adversely affect the environment, safety of the public and properties. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  6. Cost of mining Eastern coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper, Chapter 7.2.3 of the 'surface mining' reference book, gives an example of how the cost of mining a ton of coal is calculated. Conditions set down are for a coal tract of 50.6 ha in West Virginia, USA to be mined by the contour surface method, the seam being 101.6cm thick. Elements of the costing are: permitting and bonding costs, engineering and construction costs, equipment and other operating expenses (such as hauling and wheeling), royalties, direct taxes and fees, costs of revegetation, and employment costs (payroll and medical expenses). 5 tabs

  7. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley

    2015-04-01

    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  8. Improving schemes for planning mining operations in deep mines in the Donbass. Sovershenstvovanie skhem planirovki gornykh rabot na glubokikh shakhtakh Donbassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, A.F.; Batmanov, Yu.K.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses effects of increasing mining depth in the Donbass on schemes of underground mining and hazards associated with increasing strata stresses, methane emission and higher temperatures. Mining and geologic conditions in the Donbass are characterized: coal seam thickness, inclination, depth, methane emission, mechanical properties of rock strata surrounding coal seams, coal seam properties, water influx rates, temperature gradients. In the next 2 decades the average mining depth in the Donbass will increase to 850 m or 900 m while the maximum mining depth will increase to 1400 m or 1600 m. Effects of increasing depth on stresses, strata movement, roof subsidence and floor heave are analyzed. Methods for strata control efficient at large depths are comparatively evaluated: mining with caving, mining with stowing, partial stowing, mining without leaving support pillars. Three mining schemes are analyzed: longwall mining, long pillar mining and a combined scheme. Advantages of long pillar systems under conditions of great depth in the Donbass are evaluated. (20 refs.)

  9. Next Generation Mine Countermeasures for the Very Shallow Water Zone in Support of Amphibious Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    mines that are secured to the ocean floor by taking advantage of the dolphin‟s echolocation ability (Marine Mammal Program: Fleet Systems, 2011). In...Fuller, A. (2011). MCM Theory & Application. NAVSEA. Gilbert, J. A. (2001). The Combined Mine Countermeasures Force: A Unified Commander-in

  10. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  11. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  12. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  13. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Surface Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Attributes include mine...

  14. Accumulation of selenium in aquatic systems downstream of a uranium mining operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, J.R.; Belknap, A.M.; Janz, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of selenium in lakes downstream of a uranium mine operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Selenium concentrations in sediment and biota were elevated in exposure areas even though water concentrations were low (<5 μg/L). The pattern (from smallest to largest) of selenium accumulation was: periphyton < plankton and filterer invertebrates < detritivore and predator invertebrates < small bodied (forage) fish and predatory fish. Biomagnification of selenium resulted in an approximately 1.5-6 fold increase in the selenium content between plankton, invertebrates and forage fish. However, no biomagnification was observed between forage fish and predatory fish. Selenium content in organisms from exposure areas exceeded the proposed 3-11 μg/g (dry weight) dietary toxicity threshold for fish, suggesting that the selenium released into these aquatic systems has the potential to bioaccumulate and reach levels that could impair fish reproduction. - Selenium bioaccumulation patterns in a north temperate, cold water aquatic ecosystem were similar to those reported from warm water systems

  15. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  16. 3D modeling of surface quarries and deposits of mined materials and the monitoring of slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Maňas

    2007-01-01

    The application of computer technology by simulating opencast mining and deposits of raw materials. The mathematic principles of three-dimensional probabilistic models of raw materials deposits and a familiarization with the user interface software GEOLOGICKY MODEL. The principles of the simulation of opencast mines, generation intersections with models of raw materials deposits, computation of mining materials with the quality scaling,and the design of advanced mining with the software BANSK...

  17. The Forestry Reclamation Approach: guide to successful reforestation of mined lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams

    2017-01-01

    Appalachian forests are among the most productive and diverse in the world. The land underlying them is also rich in coal, and surface mines operated on more than 2.4 million acres in the region from 1977, when the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act was passed, through 2015. Many efforts to reclaim mined lands most often resulted in the establishment of...

  18. 30 CFR 902.20 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available at: (a) Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, 3601 C Street... reclamation plan. 902.20 Section 902.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ALASKA...

  19. 30 CFR 903.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 903.819 Section 903.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903...

  20. 30 CFR 941.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 941.819 Section 941.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA...

  1. 30 CFR 921.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 921.819 Section 921.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS...

  2. 30 CFR 922.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 922.819 Section 922.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN...

  3. 30 CFR 937.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 937.819 Section 937.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937...

  4. 30 CFR 942.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 942.819 Section 942.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE...

  5. 30 CFR 905.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 905.819 Section 905.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA...

  6. 30 CFR 933.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 933.819 Section 933.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH...

  7. 30 CFR 910.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 910.819 Section 910.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910...

  8. 30 CFR 912.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 912.819 Section 912.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912...

  9. 30 CFR 939.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 939.819 Section 939.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND...

  10. 30 CFR 947.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 947.819 Section 947.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON...

  11. Simulated effects of surface coal mining and agriculture on dissolved solids in the Redwater River, east-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved solids concentrations in five reaches of the Redwater River in east-central Montana were simulated to evaluate the effects of surface coal mining and agriculture. A mass-balance model of streamflow and dissolved solids load developed for the Tongue River in southeastern Montana was modified and applied to the Redwater River. Mined acreages, dissolved solids concentrations in mined spoils, and irrigated acreage can be varied in the model to study relative changes in the dissolved solids concentration in consecutive reaches of the river. Because of extreme variability and a limited amount of data, the model was not consecutively validated. Simulated mean and median monthly mean streamflows and consistently larger than those calculated from streamflow records. Simulated mean and median monthly mean dissolved solids loads also are consistently larger than regression-derived values. These discrepancies probably result from extremely variable streamflow, overestimates of streamflow from ungaged tributaries, and weak correlations between streamflow and dissolved solids concentrations. The largest increases in simulated dissolved solids concentrations from mining and agriculture occur from September through January because of smaller streamflows and dissolved solids loads. Different combinations of agriculture and mining under mean flow conditions resulted in cumulative percentage increases of dissolved solids concentrations of less than 5% for mining and less than 2% for agriculture. (USGS)

  12. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in surface waters of a region impacted by historical metal mining (Cornwall, UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic heavy metal whose concentrations and distributions in the aquatic environment are poorly defined. In this study, concentrations of aqueous and total Tl have been measured in water samples from a variety of rivers and effluents (the latter related to historical metal mining) in the county of Cornwall, SW England. Aqueous concentrations ranged from about 13 ng L(-1) in a river whose catchment contained no metal mines to 2,640 ng L(-1) in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine shaft. Concentrations of Tl in rivers were greatest in the vicinity of mine-related effluents, with a maximum value measured of about 770 ng L(-1). Thallium was not efficiently removed by the conventional, active treatment of mine water, and displayed little interaction with suspended particles. Its mobility in surface waters, coupled with concentrations that are close to a quality guideline of 800 ng L(-1), is cause for concern. Accordingly, we recommend that the metal is more closely monitored in this and other regions impacted by mining activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 30 CFR 77.404 - Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery and equipment; operation and maintenance. 77.404 Section 77.404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for...

  14. Radiological assessment of surface water quality around proposed uranium mining site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Lenka, P; Gothankar, S; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D; Khating, D T

    2009-06-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activities were estimated for radiological assessment of surface water quality around the proposed uranium mining site Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya situated in a high rainfall area (12,000mm) in India. 189 Surface water samples were collected over different seasons of the year from nine different locations covering around 100km(2). Gross beta activities were found to vary from 144 to 361mBq/L which is much below the prescribed WHO limit of 1000mBq/L for drinking water. Gross alpha activities varied from 61 to 127mBq/L. These values are much below the reported gross alpha values by other countries. In about 7% of the samples the alpha activities remain exceeded the WHO guideline limit of 100mBq/L. Surface water samples collected during the summer season of the year show higher activity whereas low activity was found from samples collected during monsoon season. Results show that all water sources are acceptable as drinking water for human consumption from the radiological point of view, the higher gross alpha concentrations in a few locations remains so only for short duration during the summer season.

  15. Radiological assessment of surface water quality around proposed uranium mining site in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Lenka, P.; Gothankar, S.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.; Khating, D.T.

    2009-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activities were estimated for radiological assessment of surface water quality around the proposed uranium mining site Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya situated in a high rainfall area (12,000 mm) in India. 189 Surface water samples were collected over different seasons of the year from nine different locations covering around 100 km 2 . Gross beta activities were found to vary from 144 to 361 mBq/L which is much below the prescribed WHO limit of 1000 mBq/L for drinking water. Gross alpha activities varied from 61 to 127 mBq/L. These values are much below the reported gross alpha values by other countries. In about 7% of the samples the alpha activities remain exceeded the WHO guideline limit of 100 mBq/L. Surface water samples collected during the summer season of the year show higher activity whereas low activity was found from samples collected during monsoon season. Results show that all water sources are acceptable as drinking water for human consumption from the radiological point of view, the higher gross alpha concentrations in a few locations remains so only for short duration during the summer season.

  16. Optimizing integrated airport surface and terminal airspace operations under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Christabelle S.

    In airports and surrounding terminal airspaces, the integration of surface, arrival and departure scheduling and routing have the potential to improve the operations efficiency. Moreover, because both the airport surface and the terminal airspace are often altered by random perturbations, the consideration of uncertainty in flight schedules is crucial to improve the design of robust flight schedules. Previous research mainly focused on independently solving arrival scheduling problems, departure scheduling problems and surface management scheduling problems and most of the developed models are deterministic. This dissertation presents an alternate method to model the integrated operations by using a machine job-shop scheduling formulation. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem in the presence of uncertainty and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. The developed mixed-integer-linear-programming algorithm-based scheduler is capable of computing optimal aircraft schedules and routings that reflect the integration of air and ground operations. The assembled methodology is applied to a Los Angeles case study. To show the benefits of integrated operations over First-Come-First-Served, a preliminary proof-of-concept is conducted for a set of fourteen aircraft evolving under deterministic conditions in a model of the Los Angeles International Airport surface and surrounding terminal areas. Using historical data, a representative 30-minute traffic schedule and aircraft mix scenario is constructed. The results of the Los Angeles application show that the integration of air and ground operations and the use of a time-based separation strategy enable both significant surface and air time savings. The solution computed by the optimization provides a more efficient routing and scheduling than the First-Come-First-Served solution. Additionally, a data driven analysis is

  17. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  18. Nesting success of grassland and savanna birds on reclaimed surface coal mines of the midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galligan, E.W.; DeVault, T.L.; Lima, S.L. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Reclaimed surface coal mines in southwestern Indiana support many grassland and shrub/savanna bird species of conservation concern. We examined the nesting success of birds on these reclaimed mines to assess whether such 'unnatural' places represent productive breeding habitats for such species. We established eight study sites on two large, grassland-dominated mines in southwestern Indiana and classified them into three categories (open grassland, shrub/savanna, and a mixture of grassland and shrub/savanna) based on broad vegetation and landscape characteristics. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons, we found and monitored 911 nests of 31 species. Daily nest survival for the most commonly monitored grassland species ranged from 0.903 (Dickcissel, Spiza americana) to 0.961 (Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum). Daily survival estimates for the dominant shrub/savanna nesting species ranged from 0.932 (Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum) to 0.982 (Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii). Vegetation and landscape effects on nesting success were minimal, and only Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) showed a clear time-of-season effect, with greater nesting success in the first half of the breeding season. Rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were only 2.1% for grassland species and 12.0% for shrub/savanna species. The nesting success of birds on reclaimed mine sites was comparable to that in other habitats, indicating that reclaimed habitats on surface mines do not necessarily represent reproductive traps for birds.

  19. Operational analysis of the tailings bund wall drainage system at mirny ore mining and processing enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniskin Nikolay Alekseevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues of environmental safety of tailings of ore mining and processing enterprises are considered; parameters of drainage of bund walls are of great significance for the environmental safety. Description of the bund wall of Mirny ore mining and processing enterprise and the tailings filling layouts are given. Results of field observation and model study of the tailings bund wall drainage system at Mirny ore mining and processing enterprise are presented. The drainage system rebuilding project analysis was performed. Proposals for its improvement were set forward.

  20. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  1. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layback, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    For planning of Mars surface missions, to be operated on a sol-by-sol basis by a team on Earth (where a "sol" is a Martian day), activities are described in terms of "sol types" that are strung together to build a surface mission scenario. Some sol types require ground decisions based on a previous sol's results to feed into the activity planning ("ground in the loop"), while others do not. Due to the differences in duration between Earth days and Mars sols, for a given Mars local solar time, the corresponding Earth time "walks" relative to the corresponding times on the prior sol/day. In particular, even if a communication window has a fixed Mars local solar time, the Earth time for that window will be approximately 40 minutes later each succeeding day. Further complexity is added for non-Mars synchronous communication relay assets, and when there are multiple control centers in different Earth time zones. The solution is the development of "ops efficiency factors" that reflect the efficiency of a given operations configuration (how many and location of control centers, types of communication windows, synchronous or non-synchronous nature of relay assets, sol types, more-or-less sustainable operations schedule choices) against a theoretical "optimal" operations configuration for the mission being studied. These factors are then incorporated into scenario models in order to determine the surface duration (and therefore minimum spacecraft surface lifetime) required to fulfill scenario objectives. The resulting model is used to perform "what-if" analyses for variations in scenario objectives. The ops efficiency factor is the ratio of the figure of merit for a given operations factor to the figure of merit for the theoretical optimal configuration. The current implementation is a pair of models in Excel. The first represents a ground operations schedule for 500 sols in each operations configuration for the mission being studied (500 sols was chosen as being a long

  2. A Review on the Importance of Metals and Metalloids in Atmospheric Dust and Aerosol from Mining Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Taylor, Mark P.; Gao, Song; Landázuri, Andrea; Betterton, Eric A.; Sáez, A. Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Contaminants can be transported rapidly and over relatively long distances by atmospheric dust and aerosol relative to other media such as water, soil and biota; yet few studies have explicitly evaluated the environmental implications of this pathway, making it a fundamental but understudied transport mechanism. Although there are numerous natural and anthropogenic activities that can increase dust and aerosol emissions and contaminant levels in the environment, mining operations are notable ...

  3. Superstring vertex operators and scattering amplitudes on arbitrary Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabel, G.; Nunez, C.; Iengo, R.; Bonini, M.

    1987-12-01

    The construction of scattering amplitudes involving arbitrary bosonic mass level states is considered in both the closed superstring and in the heterotic string theories, at any order of perturbation. From massless particle scattering on a general Riemann surface, the super-covariant form of the vertex operators is derived via factorization. The super-covariant rules, including the normal ordering prescriptions, to be used in computing amplitudes, are automatically given by this procedure. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig

  4. Development of near surface seismic methods for urban and mining applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Brodic, Bojan; Place, Joachim; Juhlin, Christopher; Bastani, Mehrdad

    2014-05-01

    There is a great need to improve our understanding of the geological conditions in the shallow subsurface. Direct observations of the subsurface are cumbersome and expensive, and sometimes impossible. Urban and mining areas are especially challenging due to various sources of noise such as from traffic, buildings, cars, city trains, trams, bridges and high-voltage power-lines. Access is also restricted both in time and space, which requires the equipment to be versatile, fast to set up and pack, and produces the least disruptions. However, if properly designed and implemented, geophysical methods are capable of imaging detailed subsurface structures and can successfully be used to provide crucial information for site characterizations, infrastructure planning, brown- and near-field exploration, and mine planning. To address some of these issues Uppsala University, in collaboration with a number of public authorities, research organizations and industry partners, has recently developed a prototype broadband (0-800 Hz based on digital sensors) multi-component seismic landstreamer system. The current configuration consists of three segments with twenty 3C-sensors each 2 m apart and an additional segment with twenty 3C-sensors each 4 m apart, giving a total streamer length of 200 m. These four segments can be towed in parallel or in series, which in combination with synchronized wireless and cabled sensors can address a variety of complex near surface problems. The system is especially geared for noisy environments and areas where high-resolution images of the subsurface are needed. The system has little sensitivity to electrical noise and measures sensor tilt, important in rough terrains, so it can immediately be corrected for during the acquisition. Thanks to the digital sensors, the system can also be used for waveform tomography and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Both these methods require low frequencies and these are often sacrificed in

  5. Underground mining of the lower 163 zone through groundwater drainage at the Eagle Point Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, D.M.; Bashir, R.; Thomson, J.; Klemmer, S.; Rigden, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Eagle Point Mine is part of the Cameco Rabbit Lake Operation. The mine produces uranium ore using the long-hole, vertical and horizontal retreat mining method. The majority of the mine workings are under Wollaston Lake and cementitious grouting is used as one of the water control measures. Historical groundwater table in the mining area was close to ground surface. The Lower 163 Zone encompasses an estimated 4.2 million pounds U 3 O 8 geological resource that was not considered feasible to mine due to the expected groundwater flows in the area. Cross-hole testing was conducted to better understand the groundwater flow through various geologic units. A local depressurization test was conducted to assess the potential for lowering the water table. Following testing an active depressurization was conducted to lower the groundwater table below the planned mining areas. This resulted in safe and drier mining conditions and allowed for the successful extraction of the ore body. (author)

  6. Derived limits for occupational exposure to uranium mine and mill dusts in the air and on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Limits are derived for the concentration of uranium mine and mill dusts in the air based on ICRP30 and assumptions regarding the isotopic make up of the dusts. From these limits using a resuspension factor, limits for surface contamination are derived. Calculations are presented of the dose to the basal layer of the skin from mine and mill dusts on the skin. From these calculations limits for skin contamination are derived. A calculation of a limit based on direct ingestion is also presented. Exposure limits for the public are not considered

  7. Hydrogeochemical features of surface water and groundwater contaminated with acid mine drainage (AMD) in coal mining areas: a case study in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2016-09-01

    Effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) were investigated in surface waters (Laranjinha River and Ribeirão das Pedras stream) and groundwaters from a coal mining area sampled in two different seasons at Figueira city, Paraná State, Brazil. The spatial data distribution indicated that the acid effluents favor the chemical elements leaching and transport from the tailings pile into the superficial water bodies or aquifers, modifying their quality. The acid groundwaters in both sampling periods (dry: pH 2.94-6.04; rainy: pH 3.25-6.63) were probably due to the AMD generation and infiltration, after the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Such acid effluents cause an increase of the solubilization rate of metals, mainly iron and aluminum, contributing to both groundwater and surface water contamination. Sulfate in high levels is a result of waters' pollution due to AMD. In some cases, high sulfate and low iron contents, associated with less acidic pH values, could indicate that AMD, previously generated, is nowadays being neutralized. The chemistry of the waters affected by AMD is controlled by the pH, sulfide minerals' oxidation, oxygen, iron content, and microbial activity. It is also influenced by seasonal variations that allow the occurrence of dissolution processes and the concentration of some chemical elements. Under the perspective of the waters' quality evaluation, the parameters such as conductivity, dissolved sodium, and sulfate concentrations acted as AMD indicators of groundwaters and surface waters affected by acid effluents.

  8. Providing radiation safety for the environment and people at uranium ore mining and primary processing operations and treatment of radioactive wastes in the Navoi mining and metallurgy combinat, Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchersky, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    The rise of the uranium industry in the Republic of Uzbekistan is closely connected with the discovery of a number of significant uranium deposits of sheet sandstone type in the Kyzylkum desert area, between the Amu-Darya and Syr-Darya rivers. Based on these deposits, in 1958 the construction of Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combinat (NMMC) commenced. In 1965 the Hydrometallurgical Plant No. 1 (HMP-1), located in the industrial zone near the Navoi town, started producing the uranium protoxide-oxide (yellow cake). The structure of the NMMC uranium production operations includes HMP-1 and three mining facilities. Conventional open-pit and underground uranium mining were shut down here in 1994 and at present all the uranium is extracted by in situ leaching (ISL). The radiation and hygiene sanitary monitoring aimed at collecting information on the radiation conditions at the working places and in the environment, on the current and expected irradiation doses taken by the personnel and various population groups inhabiting the area involved in the activities of the existing, liquidated or temporarily closed NMMC facilities constitutes an integral part of the radiation safety providing system. No radioactive contamination of any environmental objects has been detected outside the sanitary zones and production sites. The radionuclides content in the atmosphere, on the ground surface, in the underground water was found to be at the background level. Current annual average exposure doses of the limited critical population groups were detected to be essentially lower than the current international standards and were about 1 mSv per year

  9. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhicao; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Wu, Dun; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Chuncai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  10. Long-term effects of surface coal mining on ground-water levels and quality in two small watersheds in eastern Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two small eastern Ohio watersheds surface mined for coal and reclaimed were studied during 1986-89. Water level and water quality data were compared with data from investigations conducted during 1976-83 to determine long-term effects of surface mining on the hydrologic system. Before mining, the watersheds were characterized by flatlying sedimentary rocks above clay beds underlying two major coal seams. Two aquifers overlay each under clay. Surface mining removed the upper aquifer, stripped the coal seam, and replaced the spoil, creating a new aquifer with hydraulic and chemical characteristics different from those of the original upper aquifer. Water levels were measured continuously in one well in each aquifer and every 2 months in other wells. Water levels in upper aquifers reached hydraulic equilibrium from 2 to 5 years after mining and, in middle aquifers, water levels increased more than 5 ft during mining; equilibrium occurred almost immediately thereafter. Water samples were collected from three upper aquifer wells, one middle-aquifer well, a seep from the upper aquifer, and the stream in each watershed. Samples were collected in 1986, 1987, 1988, and 1989. In both watersheds, sulfate replaced bicarbonate as the dominant anion in the upper aquifer after mining. In general, significant increases in concentrations of dissolved constituents in groundwater resulted from surface mining. The continued decrease in pH indicates that groundwater had not reached complete geochemical equilibrium in either watershed more than 8 years after mining ended

  11. 3D modeling of surface quarries and deposits of mined materials and the monitoring of slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maňas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of computer technology by simulating opencast mining and deposits of raw materials. The mathematic principles of three-dimensional probabilistic models of raw materials deposits and a familiarization with the user interface software GEOLOGICKY MODEL. The principles of the simulation of opencast mines, generation intersections with models of raw materials deposits, computation of mining materials with the quality scaling,and the design of advanced mining with the software BANSKY MODEL.The monitoring the potential of dynamic movements’ of unstable slopes with the automatic total station and a following interpretation in general time intervals by means of the software MONITORING.

  12. Feasibility of a continuous surface mining machine using impact breakers. Phase I report, 1 October 1979-31 March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, A. T.; Simpson, R. J.

    1980-04-01

    This is the first phase report of the efforts to evaluate the feasibility of excavating coal and overburden from surface mines using impact breakers. Phase I is divided into four task groups. Those tasks are as follows: Selection of Field Sites for Parametric, Selection of Impact Hammers for Field, Design Test System, and Prepare Parametric Test Plan. A detailed description and accounting of each task is given in the body of this report. Included as appendices are the FMA internal reports on the individual mines visited. These reports are the basis of test site selection. The basic finding of this phase are that industry interest in the concept of impact mining tends toward the removal of multiple thin seams of coal and parting rather than deep coal or overburden and, while the intent of this contract is to explore the feasibility of impactors in a vertical array for use in a terraced mine plan, future design of a continuous mining machine should take industry acceptance into account.

  13. Research on the surface water quality in mining influenced area in north-western part of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smical Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the current situation of the quality of surface water in the areas influenced by mining activities in the north-western part of Romania. In this respect a series of investigations have been conducted regarding the contamination with heavy metals of the water of the Someş and Tisa hydro- graphic Basins, which cover the northern part of Maramures County and the south-western area of Maramures County, respectively. The results of the comparative research refer to the period between 1999 and 2011 and reveal the specific heavy metal ions of mining activity: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb Cd and Ni, as well as the water pH. The presented values as annual average values reveal an increase in several heavy metals after the closure of mines, which is due to the lack of effectiveness of the closure and of the conservation of the mine galleries, as well as of the impaired functioning of the mining wastewater treatment plants.

  14. Geochemical evolution of acidic ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved sulfate and acidity in ground water increase downflow in mine spoil and underlying bedrock at a reclaimed surface coal mine in the bituminous field of western Pennsylvania. Elevated dissolved sulfate and negligible oxygen in ground water from bedrock about 100 feet below the water table suggest that pyritic sulfur is oxidized below the water table, in a system closed to oxygen. Geochemical models for the oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) and production of sulfate (SO42-) and acid (H+) are presented to explain the potential role of oxygen (O2) and ferric iron (Fe3+) as oxidants. Oxidation of pyrite by O2 and Fe3+ can occur under oxic conditions above the water table, whereas oxidation by Fe3+ also can occur under anoxic conditions below the water table. The hydrated ferric-sulfate minerals roemerite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)4·14H2O], copiapite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2·20H20], and coquimbite [Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O] were identified with FeS2 in coal samples, and form on the oxidizing surface of pyrite in an oxic system above the water table. These soluble ferric-sulfate 11 salts11 can dissolve with recharge waters or a rising water table releasing Fe3+, SO42-. and H+, which can be transported along closed-system ground-water flow paths to pyrite reaction sites where O2 may be absent. The Fe3+ transported to these sites can oxidize pyritic sulfur. The computer programs WATEQ4F and NEWBAL were used to compute chemical speciation and mass transfer, respectively, considering mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions plus mixing of waters from different upflow zones. Alternative mass-balance models indicate that (a) extremely large quantities of O2, over 100 times its aqueous solubility, can generate the observed concentrations of dissolved SO42- from FeS2, or (b) under anoxic conditions, Fe3+ from dissolved ferric-sulfate minerals can oxidize FeS2 along closed-system ground-water flow paths. In a system open to O2, such as in the unsaturated zone, the aqueous

  15. Incorporating orphaned mine spoil reclamation into the mining plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliford, J.B.

    1978-06-13

    As a part of the coal mining and restoration research, a steeply sloped, forty acre pasture site of low agricultural productivity was chosen for Iowa Coal Project Demonstration Mine No. 1. During mining, 110,000 tons of coal were removed, impact on the surrounding environment was kept at a minimum and the site was restored to a series of level benched terraces suitable for intensive row crop production. Continuing experiments on this site will determine the effectiveness of the restoration with respect to environmental protection and agricultural productivity. As a part of this operation a unique project was initiated to develop a reclamation program for an abandoned surface mine site adjacent to the primary Demonstration Mine experiment.

  16. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining – The Way Forward | Suglo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Mining Journal ... By contracting out one or more of their mining operations, the mining companies can concentrate on their core businesses. This paper reviews ... The general trends in the mining industry show that contract mining will be the way forward for most mines under various circumstances in the future.

  17. Operational Efficiency Forecasting Model of an Existing Underground Mine Using Grey System Theory and Stochastic Diffusion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Strbac Savic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting the operational efficiency of an existing underground mine plays an important role in strategic planning of production. Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL is used to express the operational efficiency of production. The forecasting model should be able to involve common time horizon, taking the characteristics of the input variables that directly affect the value of DOL. Changes in the magnitude of any input variable change the value of DOL. To establish the relationship describing the way of changing we applied multivariable grey modeling. Established time sequence multivariable response formula is also used to forecast the future values of operating leverage. Operational efficiency of production is often associated with diverse sources of uncertainties. Incorporation of these uncertainties into multivariable forecasting model enables mining company to survive in today’s competitive environment. Simulation of mean reversion process and geometric Brownian motion is used to describe the stochastic diffusion nature of metal price, as a key element of revenues, and production costs, respectively. By simulating a forecasting model, we imitate its action in order to measure its response to different inputs. The final result of simulation process is the expected value of DOL for every year of defined time horizon.

  18. Surface-water and groundwater interactions in an extensively mined watershed, upper Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Bartles, Michael D.; Risser, Dennis W.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Streams crossing underground coal mines may lose flow, while abandoned mine drainage (AMD) restores flow downstream. During 2005-12, discharge from the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel, the largest AMD source in the upper Schuylkill River Basin, had near-neutral pH and elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate. Discharge from the tunnel responded rapidly to recharge but exhibited a prolonged recession compared to nearby streams, consistent with rapid infiltration and slow release of groundwater from the mine. Downstream of the AMD, dissolved iron was attenuated by oxidation and precipitation while dissolved CO2 degassed and pH increased. During high-flow conditions, the AMD and downstream waters exhibited decreased pH, iron, and sulfate with increased acidity that were modeled by mixing net-alkaline AMD with recharge or runoff having low ionic strength and low pH. Attenuation of dissolved iron within the river was least effective during high-flow conditions because of decreased transport time coupled with inhibitory effects of low pH on oxidation kinetics. A numerical model of groundwater flow was calibrated using groundwater levels in the Pine Knot Mine and discharge data for the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel and the West Branch Schuylkill River during a snowmelt event in January 2012. Although the calibrated model indicated substantial recharge to the mine complex took place away from streams, simulation of rapid changes in mine pool level and tunnel discharge during a high flow event in May 2012 required a source of direct recharge to the Pine Knot Mine. Such recharge produced small changes in mine pool level and rapid changes in tunnel flow rate because of extensive unsaturated storage capacity and high transmissivity within the mine complex. Thus, elimination of stream leakage could have a small effect on the annual discharge from the tunnel, but a large effect on peak discharge and associated water quality in streams.

  19. PREDICTION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN END MILLING OPERATION OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. PHILIP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology has been used to study the effects of the machining parameters such as spindle speed, feed rate and axial depth of cut on surface roughness of duplex stainless steel in end milling operation. Dry milling experiments were conducted with three levels of spindle speed, feed rate and axial depth of cut. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the surface roughness in terms of the machining parameters using Box-Behnken design response surface methodology. The adequacy of the model was verified using analysis of variance. The prediction equation shows that the feed rate is the most important factor that influences the surface roughness followed by axial depth of cut and spindle speed. The validity of the model was verified by conducting the confirmation experiment.

  20. Causes Of Low Efficiency Of Combined Ventilation System In Coal Mines In Resolving The Problem Of Air Leaks (Inflows) Between Levels And Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Valeriy; Filatov, Yuriy; Lee, Hee; Golik, Anatoliy

    2017-11-01

    The paper discusses the problem of the underground mining safety control. The long-term air intake to coal accumulations is reviewed as one of the reasons of endogenous fires during mining. The methods of combating air leaks (inflows) in order to prevent endogenous fires are analyzed. The calculations showing the discrepancy between the design calculations for the mine ventilation, disregarding a number of mining-andgeological and mining-engineering factors, and the actual conditions of mining are given. It is proved that the conversion of operating mines to combined (pressure and exhaust) ventilation system in order to reduce the endogenous fire hazard of underground mining is unreasonable due to impossibility of providing an optimal distribution of aerodynamic pressure in mines. The conversion does not exclude the entry of air into potentially hazardous zones of endogenous fires. The essence of the combined application of positive and negative control methods for the distribution of air pressure is revealed. It consists of air doors installation in easily ventilated airways and installation of pressure equalization chambers equipped with auxiliary fans near the stoppings, working sections and in parallel airways.The effectiveness of the combined application of negative and positive control methods for the air pressure distribution in order to reduce endogenous fire hazard of mining operations is proved.

  1. Causes Of Low Efficiency Of Combined Ventilation System In Coal Mines In Resolving The Problem Of Air Leaks (Inflows Between Levels And Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the underground mining safety control. The long-term air intake to coal accumulations is reviewed as one of the reasons of endogenous fires during mining. The methods of combating air leaks (inflows in order to prevent endogenous fires are analyzed. The calculations showing the discrepancy between the design calculations for the mine ventilation, disregarding a number of mining-andgeological and mining-engineering factors, and the actual conditions of mining are given. It is proved that the conversion of operating mines to combined (pressure and exhaust ventilation system in order to reduce the endogenous fire hazard of underground mining is unreasonable due to impossibility of providing an optimal distribution of aerodynamic pressure in mines. The conversion does not exclude the entry of air into potentially hazardous zones of endogenous fires. The essence of the combined application of positive and negative control methods for the distribution of air pressure is revealed. It consists of air doors installation in easily ventilated airways and installation of pressure equalization chambers equipped with auxiliary fans near the stoppings, working sections and in parallel airways.The effectiveness of the combined application of negative and positive control methods for the air pressure distribution in order to reduce endogenous fire hazard of mining operations is proved.

  2. Determination of 228Th, 230Th, and 232Th in environmental samples from uranium mining and milling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, R.W.; Joshi, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of 228 Th, 230 Th, and 232 Th in environmental samples from uranium mining and milling operations. The analytical procedure is based on the direct determination of 228 Th in the sample by high resolution γ-spectrometry followed by extraction and purification of the thorium fraction using high molecular weight amines and an anion-exchange technique, respectively, prior to α-spectrometry to determine isotopic ratios. The lowest level of detection for each thorium isotope is 0.01 pCi/g for solid samples and 20 pCi/l for aqueous samples. Replicate analyses of a typical mine waste stream gave a standard deviation of +-3% for 228 Th. Standard deviations of the 230 Th and 232 Th increased to +-11% apparently due to traces of 210 Po interfering in the α-spectrometry. (author)

  3. Design and Testing of the Strain Transducer for Measuring Deformations of Pipelines Operating in the Mining-deformable Ground Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawedzki Waclaw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.

  4. Field and LiDAR observations of the Hector Mine California 1999 surface rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, F.; Akciz, S. O.; Harvey, J. C.; Hudnut, K. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Scharer, K. M.; Stock, J. M.; Witkosky, R.; Kendrick, K. J.; Wespestad, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report new field- and computer-based investigations of the surface rupture of the October 16, 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake. Since May 2012, in cooperation with the United States Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) at Twentynine Palms, CA, our team has been allowed ground and aerial access to the entire surface rupture. We have focused our new field-based research and imagery analysis along the ~10 kilometer-long maximum slip zone (MSZ) which roughly corresponds to the zone of >4 meter dextral horizontal offset. New data include: 1) a 1 km wide aerial LiDAR survey along the entire surface rupture (@ 10 shots/m2, May 2012, www.opentopography.org); 2) terrestrial LiDAR surveys at 5 sites within the MSZ (@ >1000 shots/m2, April 2014); 3) low altitude aerial photography and ground based photography of the entire MSZ; 4) a ground-truthed database of 87 out of the 94 imagery-based offset measurements made within the MSZ; and 5) a database of 50 new field-based offset measurements made within the MSZ by our team on the ground, 31 of which have also been made on the computer (Ladicaoz) with both the 2000 LiDAR data (@ 0.5 m DEM resolution; Chen et al, in review) and 2012 LiDAR data (@ 35 cm DEM resolution; our team). New results to date include 1) significant variability (> 2 m) in horizontal offsets measured along short distances of the surface rupture (~100 m) within segments of the surface rupture that are localized to a single fault strand; 2) strong dependence of decadal scale fault scarp preservation on local lithology (bedrock vs. alluvial fan vs. fine sediment) and geomorphology (uphill vs. downhill facing scarp); 3) newly observed offset features which were never measured during the post-event field response; 4) newly observed offset features too small to be resolved in airborne LiDAR data (judged by our team to warrant removal from the database due to incorrect feature reconstruction; and 6) significant variability in both accuracy of LiDAR offset

  5. Effects of Small-Scale Gold Mining on Surface and Ground Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    / Prestea mining area in the Western Region of Ghana were conducted with the aim of assessing the possible effects of mining on water quality. Water samples were collected for 6 consecutive months at ten sampling sites within the study area ...

  6. Predicting events in the development of a coal surface mine in the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn M. Ferrante; Edward C. Thor

    1980-01-01

    Sudden changes in the level of coal mining activity in an area can cause immediate and profound changes in every facet of life in a rural community. Local officials and administrators of Federal and State governments often bear the brunt of responding to the disruptions that result from these changes. The nature of coal mining in the West is such that the community in...

  7. Effects of XPS operational parameters on investigated sample surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrad, O.; Ismail, I.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of the operating conditions of the xray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis technique (XPS) on the investigated samples. Firstly, the performances of the whole system have been verified as well as the accuracy of the analysis. Afterwards, the problem of the analysis of insulating samples caused by the charge buildup on the surface has been studied. The use of low-energy electron beam (<100 eV) to compensate the surface charge has been applied. The effect of X-ray on the samples have been assessed and was found to be nondestructive within the analysis time. The effect of low- and high-energy electron beams on the sample surface have been investigated. Highenergy electrons were found to have destructive effect on organic samples. The sample heating procedure has been tested and its effect on the chemical stat of the surface was followed. Finally, the ion source was used to determine the elements distribution and the chemical stat of different depths of the sample. A method has been proposed to determine these depths (author).

  8. Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms' underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940's. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination

  9. Use of barium-strontium carbonatite for flux welding and surfacing of mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, R. E.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Usoltsev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The results of application of barium-strontium carbonatite for modifying and refining iron-carbon alloys, used for welding and surfacing in ore mining and smelting industry, are generalized. The technology of manufacturing a flux additive containing 70 % of barium-strontium carbonatite and 30 % of liquid glass is proposed. Several compositions of welding fluxes based on silicomanganese slag were tested. The flux additive was introduced in an amount of 1, 3, 5 %. Technological features of welding with the application of the examined fluxes are determined. X-ray spectral analysis of the chemical composition of examined fluxes, slag crusts and weld metal was carried out, as well as metallographic investigations of welded joints. The principal possibility of applying barium-strontium carbonatite as a refining and gas-protective additive for welding fluxes is shown. The use of barium-strontium carbonatite reduces the contamination of the weld seam with nonmetallic inclusions: non-deforming silicates, spot oxides and brittle silicates, and increases the desulfurizing capacity of welding fluxes.

  10. Hydraulic Conductivity Modeling of Fractured Rock at Grasberg Surface Mine, Papua-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedy Agung Cahyadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Packer tests and slug tests were conducted at 49 points at the Grasberg surface mine, Indonesia to obtain hydraulic conductivity data. The HC-system approach, which relies on rock quality designation, lithology permeability index, depth index, and gouge content designation, was applied. Geotechnical drill holes in 441 locations, consisting of 4,850 points of information, were used to determine the K values using the equation K = 2x10-6x HC0.5571. The K values, which were within the range of 10-8 and 10-5 m/s, were distributed into five alternative 3D distributions using Ordinary Kriging (OK and Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The result of the ANN modeling showed that some of the K values, with log K varying from -10.51 m/s to -3.09 m/s, were outside the range of the observed K values. The OK modeling results of K values, with log K varying from -8.12 m/s to -5.75 m/s, were within the range of the observed K values. The ANN modeled K values were slightly more varied than the OK modeled values. The result of an alternative OK modeling was chosen to represent the existing data population of flow media because it fits well to the geological conditions.

  11. [Estimation of a nationwide statistics of hernia operation applying data mining technique to the National Health Insurance Database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunghong; Seon, Seok Kyung; Yang, Yeong-Ja; Lee, Aekyung; Bae, Jong-Myon

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a methodology for estimating a nationwide statistic for hernia operations with using the claim database of the Korea Health Insurance Cooperation (KHIC). According to the insurance claim procedures, the claim database was divided into the electronic data interchange database (EDI_DB) and the sheet database (Paper_DB). Although the EDI_DB has operation and management codes showing the facts and kinds of operations, the Paper_DB doesn't. Using the hernia matched management code in the EDI_DB, the cases of hernia surgery were extracted. For drawing the potential cases from the Paper_DB, which doesn't have the code, the predictive model was developed using the data mining technique called SEMMA. The claim sheets of the cases that showed a predictive probability of an operation over the threshold, as was decided by the ROC curve, were identified in order to get the positive predictive value as an index of usefulness for the predictive model. Of the claim databases in 2004, 14,386 cases had hernia related management codes with using the EDI system. For fitting the models with applying the data mining technique, logistic regression was chosen rather than the neural network method or the decision tree method. From the Paper_DB, 1,019 cases were extracted as potential cases. Direct review of the sheets of the extracted cases showed that the positive predictive value was 95.3%. The results suggested that applying the data mining technique to the claim database in the KHIC for estimating the nationwide surgical statistics would be useful from the aspect of execution and cost-effectiveness.

  12. Arsenic mobilization from historically contaminated mining soils in a continuously operated bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajpert, Liwia; Kolvenbach, Boris A.; Ammann, Erik M.; Hockmann, Kerstin; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Eiche, Elisabeth; Schäffer, Andreas; Corvini, Philippe Francois Xavier; Skłodowska, Aleksandra; Lenz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of soil arsenic (As) in the vicinity of the former Złoty Stok gold mine (Lower Silesia, southwest Poland) exceed 1000 μg g-1 in the area, posing an inherent threat to neighboring bodies of water. This study investigated continuous As mobilization under reducing

  13. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.; Smith, P.E.; Dziembowski, Z.; Oosthuizen, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000 m 3 h -1 . The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75 x 10 8 m 3 is derived compared to a classical calculation of 10 8 m 3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (orig.) [de

  14. Min(d)ing the land: The relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining and surface land arrangements in the southern Philippines, eastern DRC and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Cuvelier, J.; Bockstael, S. van

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and surface land tenure arrangements, through a comparison of mining areas in the southern Philippines, the eastern DRC and Liberia. In all three cases, ASM takes place in peripheral regions outside central state

  15. Restoration of intact ground waters and surface waters in the post-mining landscape; Wiederherstellung intakter Grund- und Oberflaechengewaesser nach dem Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Broder; Schipek, Mandy [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Scholz, Guenter; Rabe, Wolfgang; Clauss, Denny [MOVAB-D GmbH, Lauta (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The restoration of the territories of former brown coal mining increasingly requires special efforts for the protection of affected ground waters and surface waters. With newly developed methods (the so-called inlake technology), recently various solutions to neutralize acidic mining lakes could be created. Simultaneously, this improves the water quality of adjacent aquifers at reasonable financial cost.

  16. 30 CFR 710.12 - Special exemption for small operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dates of operation. (5) A copy of coal severance tax returns for coal produced during the year ending on... intends to conduct surface coal mining operations on or after May 3, 1978, that permittee may receive from... handling of spoil; (2) Apply to surface coal mining operations to be conducted under a permit or renewed...

  17. Greenhouse Gases and Energy Intensity of Granite Rock Mining Operations in Thailand: A Case of Industrial Rock-Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to systematically assess greenhouse gases (GHGs and energy intensity of the granite rock mining operations in Thailand and also identify a range of feasible options to minimize their GHG emissions. Mining factories A, B and C, located in the Eastern region of Thailand, were selected as research case studies. The results indicated that the 3-year average of GHGs emissions from factories A to C was 3387 718 kgCO2e per year with approximately 2.92 kgCO2e per ton of granite rock produced over 2012 to 2014. Of this, the carbon intensity of grid-electricity consumption for the crushed rock production was 1.84 kgCO2/kWh. Diesel fuel combustion for transport activities in the mining factories was the greatest contributor to GHGs emissions (68 % compared to the purchased electricity and explosion process, with 31 % and 1 %, respectively. In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (IPCC installation, haul truck payload optimization and management, and reduction in tire rolling resistance have shown potential to reduce carbon emissions accounted for 20 % to 70 %.

  18. What Gives You a Social Licence? An Exploration of the Social Licence to Operate in the Australian Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the ways in which major, multinational mining companies operating within Australia understand sustainable development and articulate their “social licence to operate”. The article contributes a novel perspective to ongoing discussions about the social licence by exploring the ways in which leading Australian mining companies define and assert their social licences through sustainable development discourse. A content and discourse analysis of 18 sustainability reports across a four year period, supplemented by qualitative interview data, draws out these issues. While most companies use these reports to confirm beliefs in the necessity of a social licence, the ways in which the licence is specifically defined and maintained are not generally made explicit. Additionally, key theoretical criteria required for a social licence, such as free, prior and informed consent, appear to be overlooked. In conclusion, the article suggests ways in which criteria for a social licence within the mining industry could be defined more clearly and raises consequent questions to shape future research.

  19. Comparison of mass concentrations determined with personal respirable coal mine dust samplers operating at 1.2 liters per minute and the Casella 113A gravimetric sampler (MRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treaftis, H N; Gero, A J; Kacsmar, P M; Tomb, T F

    1984-12-01

    Measuring respirable dust concentrations in coal mine environments is currently done using approved personal respirable dust sampling equipment operating at a flow rate of 2.0 liters per minute (Lpm). Measurements made with approved coal mine dust sampling equipment are converted to equivalent concentrations that would be obtained with a Mining Research Establishment (MRE) instrument known as the Casella 113A gravimetric sampler, using a conversion factor of 1.38. NIOSH has recently recommended that coal mine dust samplers (CMDS) used to measure respirable dust levels in mine environments be operated at 1.2 Lpm and measured concentrations be multiplied by 0.91 to obtain an equivalent MRE concentration. The purpose of this recommendation is to reduce systematic error caused by the variation in mine dust distributions. This paper presents and discusses data collected in the laboratory and in underground coal mines to evaluate the recommended 1.2 Lpm flow rate and 0.91 conversion factor. Comparative measurements were obtained in the laboratory with the CMDS operating at 2.0 and 1.2 liters per minute and the MRE, using aerosols of coal and limestone dust of varying particle size distribution. Similar comparative measurements were made in a number of underground coal mines at locations with environments having particle size distributions representative of different underground mining operations. It was concluded from this study that there is no significant change in the variability associated with the constant factor used to convert respirable dust measurements, obtained with approved respirable CMDS, to equivalent MRE measurements when the flow rate of the CMDS is reduced from 2.0 to 1.2 Lpm.

  20. Longwall mining and surface deformation – lessons learned from dInSAR measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, Jeanine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available including 1) subsidence related to mining and groundwater abstraction, 2) deformation following earthquake events, 3) monitoring of landslides and slope stability, 4) monitoring the stability of infrastructure and large engineering works, and 5) monitoring...

  1. Application of Elements of TPM Strategy for Operation Analysis of Mining Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodny, Jaroslaw; Tutak, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) strategy includes group of activities and actions in order to maintenance machines in failure-free state and without breakdowns thanks to tending limitation of failures, non-planned shutdowns, lacks and non-planned service of machines. These actions are ordered to increase effectiveness of utilization of possessed devices and machines in company. Very significant element of this strategy is connection of technical actions with changes in their perception by employees. Whereas fundamental aim of introduction this strategy is improvement of economic efficiency of enterprise. Increasing competition and necessity of reduction of production costs causes that also mining enterprises are forced to introduce this strategy. In the paper examples of use of OEE model for quantitative evaluation of selected mining devices were presented. OEE model is quantitative tool of TPM strategy and can be the base for further works connected with its introduction. OEE indicator is the product of three components which include availability and performance of the studied machine and the quality of the obtained product. The paper presents the results of the effectiveness analysis of the use of a set of mining machines included in the longwall system, which is the first and most important link in the technological line of coal production. The set of analyzed machines included the longwall shearer, armored face conveyor and cruscher. From a reliability point of view, the analyzed set of machines is a system that is characterized by the serial structure. The analysis was based on data recorded by the industrial automation system used in the mines. This method of data acquisition ensured their high credibility and a full time synchronization. Conclusions from the research and analyses should be used to reduce breakdowns, failures and unplanned downtime, increase performance and improve production quality.

  2. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist

  3. Radionuclides and radiation doses in heavy mineral sands and other mining operations in Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F. P.; Matine, O. F.; Taimo, S.; Oliveira, J. M.; Silva, L.; Malta, M.

    2014-01-01

    Sites at the littoral of Mozambique with heavy mineral sands exploited for ilmenite, rutile and zircon and inland mineral deposits exploited for tantalite, uranium and bauxite were surveyed for ambient radiation doses, and samples were collected for the determination of radionuclide concentrations. In heavy mineral sands, 238 U and 232 Th concentrations were 70±2 and 308±9 Bq kg -1 dry weight (dw), respectively, whereas after separation of minerals, the concentrations in the ilmenite fraction were 2240±64 and 6125±485 Bq kg -1 (dw), respectively. Tantalite displayed the highest concentrations with 44 738±2474 Bq kg -1 of 238 U. Radiation exposure of workers in mining facilities is likely to occur at levels above the dose limit for members of the public (1 mSv y -1 ) and therefore radiation doses should be assessed as occupational exposures. Local populations living in these regions in general are not exposed to segregated minerals with high radionuclide concentrations. However, there is intensive traditional mining and a large number of artisan miners and their families may be exposed to radiation doses exceeding the dose limit. A radiation protection programme is therefore needed to ensure radiation protection of the public and workers of developing mining projects. (authors)

  4. Radionuclides and radiation doses in heavy mineral sands and other mining operations in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Matine, Obete F; Taímo, Suzete; Oliveira, João M; Silva, Lídia; Malta, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Sites at the littoral of Mozambique with heavy mineral sands exploited for ilmenite, rutile and zircon and inland mineral deposits exploited for tantalite, uranium and bauxite were surveyed for ambient radiation doses, and samples were collected for the determination of radionuclide concentrations. In heavy mineral sands, (238)U and (232)Th concentrations were 70±2 and 308±9 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively, whereas after separation of minerals, the concentrations in the ilmenite fraction were 2240±64 and 6125±485 Bq kg(-1) (dw), respectively. Tantalite displayed the highest concentrations with 44 738±2474 Bq kg(-1) of (238)U. Radiation exposure of workers in mining facilities is likely to occur at levels above the dose limit for members of the public (1 mSv y(-1)) and therefore radiation doses should be assessed as occupational exposures. Local populations living in these regions in general are not exposed to segregated minerals with high radionuclide concentrations. However, there is intensive artisanal mining and a large number of artisanal miners and their families may be exposed to radiation doses exceeding the dose limit. A radiation protection programme is therefore needed to ensure radiation protection of the public and workers of developing mining projects.

  5. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  6. Dynamic surface fault tolerant control for underwater remotely operated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Alessandro; Ciabattoni, Lucio; Felicetti, Riccardo; Ferracuti, Francesco; Freddi, Alessandro; Monteriù, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present a two stages actuator Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) strategy for the trajectory tracking of a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Dynamic Surface Control (DSC) is used to generate the moment and forces required by the vehicle to perform the desired motion. In the second stage of the control system, a fault tolerant thruster allocation policy is employed to distribute moment and forces among the thrusters. Exhaustive simulations have been carried out in order to compare the performance of the proposed solution with respect to different control techniques (i.e., PID, backstepping and sliding mode approaches). Saturations, actuator dynamics, sensor noises and time discretization are considered, in fault-free and faulty conditions. Furthermore, in order to provide a fair and exhaustive comparison of the control techniques, the same meta-heuristic approach, namely Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (ABC), has been employed to tune the controllers parameters. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. WIRELESS MINE-WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2004-03-01

    A comprehensive mine-wide, two-way wireless voice and data communication system for the underground mining industry was developed. The system achieves energy savings through increased productivity and greater energy efficiency in meeting safety requirements within mines. The mine-wide system is comprised of two interfaced subsystems: a through-the-earth communications system and an in-mine communications system. The mine-wide system permits two-way communication among underground personnel and between underground and surface personnel. The system was designed, built, and commercialized. Several systems are in operation in underground mines in the United States. The use of these systems has proven they result in considerable energy savings. A system for tracking the location of vehicles and people within the mine was also developed, built and tested successfully. Transtek's systems are being used by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in their underground mine rescue team training program. This project also resulted in a spin-off rescue team lifeline and communications system. Furthermore, the project points the way to further developments that can lead to a GPS-like system for underground mines allowing the use of autonomous machines in underground mining operations, greatly reducing the amount of energy used in these operations. Some products developed under this program are transferable to applications in fields other than mining. The rescue team system is applicable to use by first responders to natural, accidental, or terrorist-caused building collapses. The in-mine communications system can be installed in high-rise buildings providing in-building communications to security and maintenance personnel as well as to first responders.

  8. Monitoring Metal Pollution Levels in Mine Wastes around a Coal Mine Site Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanliyuksel Yucel, D.; Yucel, M. A.; Ileri, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this case study, metal pollution levels in mine wastes at a coal mine site in Etili coal mine (Can coal basin, NW Turkey) are evaluated using geographical information system (GIS) tools. Etili coal mine was operated since the 1980s as an open pit. Acid mine drainage is the main environmental problem around the coal mine. The main environmental contamination source is mine wastes stored around the mine site. Mine wastes were dumped over an extensive area along the riverbeds, and are now abandoned. Mine waste samples were homogenously taken at 10 locations within the sampling area of 102.33 ha. The paste pH and electrical conductivity values of mine wastes ranged from 2.87 to 4.17 and 432 to 2430 μS/cm, respectively. Maximum Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations of wastes were measured as 109300, 70600, 309.86, 115.2, 38 and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The Al, Fe and Pb concentrations of mine wastes are higher than world surface rock average values. The geochemical analysis results from the study area were presented in the form of maps. The GIS based environmental database will serve as a reference study for our future work.

  9. Instructional maps of safe working methods and practices for separate types of opera-tions conducted in the oil mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. В. Климова

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Instructing personnel in the issues of labor protection and industrial safety at hazardous facilities is one of the main tasks that face the employer; the quality with which this procedure is organized and carried out defines not only company’s indicators, but the mere possibility of its normal functioning. The paper contains a detailed overview of the typical content of standard documentation, which is currently used when conducting operations in the oil mines of Yarega high-viscosity oil deposit. Distinct features and unique nature of this oil field require special measures to guarantee safety of personnel and all facilities in general.The author proposes and reviews an additional type of operating guidelines – instructional map of safe working methods and practices. It is more illustrative than existing documentation (charts of inclined shaft development, labor protection regulations, which allows to upgrade the process of instructing personnel in the oil mines, to improve the quality of instructions and to reduce the risk of emergencies, accidents, industrial injuries.The author reviews the structure of suggested instructional map, offers a detailed arrangement diagram for the main thematic sections of the map, as well as their content. Instructional maps are regarded as a type of operating guidelines that include: description and characteristics of equipment, instruments and appliances; general safety requirements; content and execution sequence of operational elements with their graphical images; distribution of responsibilities with an indication of their priority in case the operations are conducted by several workers; specific safety requirements for equipment, materials, instruments, safety clothes and footwear, personal protective gear etc. (prohibitions, warnings.Advantages and disadvantages of proposed instructional maps of safe working methods and practices are highlighted.

  10. Effects of surface damage on rf cavity operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hassanein

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a model of damage in rf cavities and show how this damage can limit cavity operation. We first present a review of mechanisms that may or may not affect the ultimate fields that can be obtained in rf cavities, assuming that mechanical stress explains the triggers of rf breakdown events. We present a method of quantifying the surface damage caused by breakdown events in terms of the spectrum of field enhancement factors, β, for asperities on the surface. We then model an equilibrium that can develop between damage and conditioning effects, and show how this equilibrium can determine cavity performance and show experimental evidence for this mechanism. We define three functions that quantify damage, and explain how the parameters that determine performance can be factored out and measured. We then show how this model can quantitatively explain the dependence of cavity performance on material, frequency, pulse length, gas, power supply, and other factors. The examples given in this paper are derived from a variety of incomplete data sets, so we outline an experimental program that should improve these predictions, provide mechanisms for comparing data from different facilities, and fill in many gaps in the existing data.

  11. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardić Vojka R.

    2015-01-01

    impact on the environment. The study included the following sources of pollution: mining waste and drainage water originating from the active mine (Bor pit , field 1 Krivelj large tailings, flotation tailings in Bor RTH, metallurgical water, as well as the drainage water from the flotation tailings, which are no longer in operation (field 2 flotation tailings Great Krivelj, drainage water from the old Bor flotation tailings, the old inactive landfill mine gangue (Saraka landfill, Veliki planir - tailings from the old Bor mine, landfill mine gangue from mine RTH and the city - urban waste water, which are discharged without treatment directly into the watercourse Bor River. Wastewater directly pollute Bor River and Krivalj River.

  12. Evaluating the Use of Tree Shelters for Direct Seeding of Castanea on a Surface Mine in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available American chestnut (Castanea dentata, once a primary constituent of the eastern hardwood forest ecosystem, was nearly extirpated from the forest canopy by the accidental introduction of chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica. An intensive breeding program has sought to breed blight resistance from Chinese chestnut into American chestnuts, while maintaining as much of the desirable American chestnut phenotypes as possible. Previous studies suggest that these blight resistant American chestnuts, termed “restoration chestnuts”, are capable of thriving on reclaimed surface mines. We direct seeded pure Chinese, pure American, and three backcross lines into brown sandstone minesoil on a mine site in Pike County, KY. To investigate the effects of tree sheltering on survival and growth, we installed tree shelters on half the plots, and left the rest of the plots unsheltered. Results indicated that shelters were highly effective at reducing initial mortality. In addition, while pure Chinese chestnut survival was highest, the three backcross lines have also survived well on this site. Our study demonstrates that American, Chinese, and backcrossed chestnuts can survive through five growing seasons on reclaimed surface mines with the use of tree shelters.

  13. Regional baseline geochemistry and environmental effects of gold placer mining operations on the Fortymile River, eastern Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Bronwen; Vohden, Jim; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.

    2000-01-01

    A systematic water-quality study of the Fortymile River and many of its major tributaries in eastern Alaska was conducted in June of 1997 and 1998. Surface-water samples were collected for chemical analyses to establish regional baseline geochemistry values and to evaluate the possible environmental effects of suction-dredge placer gold mining and bulldozer-operated placer gold mining (commonly referred to as “cat mining”). In general, the water quality of the Fortymile River is very good, with low total dissolved solids and only two cases in which the concentration of any element exceeded primary or secondary drinking-water quality standards. In both cases, iron exceeded secondary drinking-water limits. At the time this work was conducted, only a handful of suction dredges were operating on the lower Fortymile River, and cat mining was being conducted along Uhler Creek and Canyon Creek, two major tributaries to the river. Based on the water-quality and turbidity data, the suction dredges have no apparent impact on the Fortymile River system, although possible effects on biota have not been evaluated in this study. In contrast, the cat-mining operations in Canyon Creek appear to have a dramatic impact on water quality and stream-bed morphology, based on the field water-quality and turbidity measurements, on comparisons to adjacent unmined drainages, and on field observations of stream-bed morphology. The cat mining in Uhler Creek appears to have had less impact, perhaps because the main stream channel was not as heavily disrupted by the bulldozers, and the stability of the channel was mostly preserved.

  14. Effects of surface coal mining and reclamation on the geohydrology of six small watersheds in west-central Indiana. Chapter B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.D.; Duwelius, R.F.; Crawford, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been and will continue to be a major source of energy in the United States for the foreseeable future. Surface mining is presently the most efficient method of extracting coal. The mining practice, however, usually has a detrimental effect on the environment by altering topography and ecologic systems. Surface coal mining also can degrade surface- and ground-water quality and quantity. The U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1979 to identify changes in the quantity of surface- and ground-water resources caused by surface coal mining in Indiana. As part of the study, six small watersheds in west-central Indiana were instrumented for the collection of hydrologic and meteorologic data. The Water-Supply Paper comprises two reports resulting from the investigation. The physical environment and coal mining history of west-central Indiana and the six small watersheds selected for intensive study are described in chapter A. The surface- and ground-water systems of each of the small watersheds and the hydrologic effects of coal mining and reclamation are described in chapter B

  15. Royal Decree No. 1116/1984 dated 9th May 1984, in respect of restoration of land affected by opencast mining operations. [Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Of the set of norms relating to protection of the environment, which have come into force in Spain within the last few years, Royal Decree No. 1116/1984 of 9th May, 1984, and the Order from the Ministry of Industry and Energy dated 13th June 1984, which is complementary to it, are worth special mention in the field of mining. They both cover the restoration of open spaces affected by opencast mining operations.

  16. Ergonomics - Using Ergonomics to Enhance Safe Production at a Surface Coal Mine - A Case Study with Powder Crews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma-Krajewski, J.; Wiehagen, W.; Etcheverry, A.; Turin, F.; Unger, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Job tasks that involve exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) risk factors may impact both the risk of injury and production downtime. Common WMSD risks factors associated with mining tasks include forceful exertions, awkward postures, repetitive motion, jolting and jarring, forceful gripping, contact stress, and whole body and segmental vibration. Mining environments that expose workers to temperature/humidity extremes, windy conditions, and slippery and uneven walking surfaces also contribute to injury risk. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers worked with powder crew members from the Bridger Coal Company to identify and rank routine work tasks based on perceived exposure to WMSD risk factors. This article presents the process followed to identify tasks that workers believed involved the greatest exposure to risk factors and discusses risk reduction strategies. Specifically, the proposed prill truck design changes addressed cab ingress/egress, loading blast holes, and access to the upper deck of the prill truck.

  17. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  18. Unexpected hydrologic perturbation in an abandoned underground coal mine: Response to surface reclamation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Hartke, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A reclamation project at the abandoned Blackhawk Mine site near Terre Haute, Indiana, lasted about four months and involved the burial of coarse mine refuse in shallow (less than 9 m) pits excavated into loess and till in an area of about 16 ha. An abandoned flooded underground coal mine underlies the reclamation site at a depth of about 38 m; the total area underlain by the mine is about 10 km2. The potentiometric levels associated with the mine indicate a significant (2.7 m) and prolonged perturbation of the deeper confined groundwater system; 14 months after completing reclamation, the levels began to rise linearly (at an average rate of 0.85 cm/d) for 11 months, then fell exponentially for 25 months, and are now nearly stable. Prominent subsidence features exist near the reclamation site. Subsidence-related fractures were observed in cores from the site, and such fractures may have provided a connection between the shallower and deeper groundwater systems. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  19. Wegner Estimates for Some Random Operators with Anderson-type Surface Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Yoshihiko

    2010-03-01

    For Schrödinger operator with random potentials concentrated near a surface, Wegner-type estimates are proven by using the spectral averaging method of Combes, Hislop and Klopp. These estimates allow us to show the local regularity of the integrated density of surface states at the gap of the background periodic operator. Acoustic operator with random surface potentials is treated similarly.

  20. Effects of coal mine subsidence in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunrud, C. Richard; Osterwald, Frank W.

    1980-01-01

    Analyses of the surface effects of past underground coal mining in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area suggest that underground mining of strippable coal deposits may damage the environment more over long periods of time than would modern surface mining, provided proper restoration procedures are followed after surface mining. Subsidence depressions and pits are a continuing hazard to the environment and to man's activities in the Sheridan, Wyo., area above abandoned underground mines in weak overburden less than about 60 m thick and where the overburden is less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. In addition, fires commonly start by spontaneous ignition when water and air enter the abandoned mine workings via subsidence cracks and pits. The fires can then spread to unmined coal as they create more cavities, more subsidence, and more cracks and pits through which air can circulate. In modern surface mining operations the total land surface underlain by minable coal is removed to expose the coal. The coal is removed, the overburden and topsoil are replaced, and the land is regraded and revegetated. The land, although disturbed, can be more easily restored and put back into use than can land underlain by abandoned underground mine workings in areas where the overburden is less than about 60 m thick or less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. The resource recovery of modern surface mining commonly is much greater than that of underground mining procedures. Although present-day underground mining technology is advanced as compared to that of 25-80 years ago, subsidence resulting from underground mining of thick coal beds beneath overburden less than about 60 m thick can still cause greater damage to surface drainage, ground water, and vegetation than can properly designed surface mining operations. This report discusses (11 the geology and surface and underground effects of former large-scale underground coal mining in a 50-km 2 area 5-20 km

  1. Effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Otter Creek and in the Otter Creek alluvial aquifer, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Otter Creek drains an area of 709 square miles in the coal-rich Powder River structural basin of southeastern Montana. The Knobloch coal beds in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is a shallow aquifer and a target for future surface mining in the downstream part of the Otter Creek basin. A mass-balance model was used to estimate the effects of potential mining on the dissolved solids concentration in Otter Creek and in the alluvial aquifer in the Otter Creek valley. With extensive mining of the Knobloch coal beds, the annual load of dissolved solids to Otter Creek at Ashland at median streamflow could increase by 2,873 tons, or a 32-percent increase compared to the annual pre-mining load. Increased monthly loads of Otter Creek, at the median streamflow, could range from 15 percent in February to 208 percent in August. The post-mining dissolved solids load to the subirrigated part of the alluvial valley could increase by 71 percent. The median dissolved solids concentration in the subirrigated part of the valley could be 4,430 milligrams per liter, compared to the pre-mining median concentration of 2,590 milligrams per liter. Post-mining loads from the potentially mined landscape were calculated using saturated-paste-extract data from 506 overburdened samples collected from 26 wells and test holes. Post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley likely would continue at increased rates for hundreds of years after mining. If the actual area of Knobloch coal disturbed by mining were less than that used in the model, post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley would be proportionally smaller. (USGS)

  2. Operation and monitoring guidelines and the development of a screening tool for irrigating with coal mine water in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, D.; Usher, B. [University of Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Institute of Groundwater Studies

    2009-07-15

    It is predicted that vast volumes of impacted mine water will be produced by mining activities in the Mpumalanga coalfields of South Africa. The potential environmental impact of this excess water is of great concern in a water-scarce country like South Africa. Detailed research has been undertaken over the past number of years onl both undisturbed soils and in coal-mining spoils. These sites range from sandy soils to very clayey soils. The results indicate that many of the soils have considerable attenuation capacities and that over the period of irrigation, a large proportion of the salts are contained in the upper portions of the unsaturated zones below each irrigation pivot. The volumes and quality of water leaching through to the aquifers have been quantified at each site. From these data mixing ratios were calculated in order to determine the effect of the irrigation water on the underlying aquifers. One of the outcomes from this study was to define the conditions under which mine-water irrigation can be implemented and the associated operational and monitoring guidelines that should be followed. These have been based on the findings from this study, the fundamental considerations of mine-water irrigation, the regulatory environment and, as far as possible, the practical implementation of mine-water irrigation as part of optimal mine-water management. In an attempt to standardise decision-making regarding mine-water irrigation, the criteria, data, rules and fundamentals discussed have been combined in a user-friendly tool, called GIMI (Groundwater Impacts from Minewater Irrigation). This tool should assist in the practical implementation of mine-water irrigation as part of optimal mine-water management.

  3. Investigating uranium distribution in surface sediments and waters: a case study of contamination from the Juniper Uranium Mine, Stanislaus National Forest, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayzar, Theresa M; Villa, Adam C; Lobaugh, Megan L; Gaffney, Amy M; Williams, Ross W

    2014-10-01

    The uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions of waters, sediment leachates and sediments from Red Rock Creek in the Stanislaus National Forest of California were measured to investigate the transport of uranium from a point source (the Juniper Uranium Mine) to a natural surface stream environment. The ((234)U)/((238)U) composition of Red Rock Creek is altered downstream of the Juniper Mine. As a result of mine-derived contamination, water ((234)U)/((238)U) ratios are 67% lower than in water upstream of the mine (1.114-1.127 ± 0.009 in the contaminated waters versus 1.676 in the clean branch of the stream), and sediment samples have activity ratios in equilibrium in the clean creek and out of equilibrium in the contaminated creek (1.041-1.102 ± 0.007). Uranium concentrations in water, sediment and sediment leachates are highest downstream of the mine, but decrease rapidly after mixing with the clean branch of the stream. Uranium content and compositions of the contaminated creek headwaters relative to the mine tailings of the Juniper Mine suggest that uranium has been weathered from the mine and deposited in the creek. The distribution of uranium between sediment surfaces (leachable fraction) and bulk sediment suggests that adsorption is a key element of transfer along the creek. In clean creek samples, uranium is concentrated in the sediment residues, whereas in the contaminated creek, uranium is concentrated on the sediment surfaces (∼70-80% of uranium in leachable fraction). Contamination only exceeds the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water in the sample with the closest proximity to the mine. Isotopic characterization of the uranium in this system coupled with concentration measurements suggest that the current state of contamination in Red Rock Creek is best described by mixing between the clean creek and contaminated upper branch of Red Rock Creek rather than mixing directly with mine sediment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine... boundary lines of the active areas of the mine; (c) Contour lines passing through whole number elevations...

  5. Reducing an attack surface of an operating system

    OpenAIRE

    VALKONEN, VILLE

    2012-01-01

    Certain security choices done on the operating system level can mitigate harm done by an malicious attacker or a program. The main focus in the thesis is on open source operating systems. Asiasanat: software security, operating system security

  6. Arsenic toxicosis in cattle associated with soil and water contamination from mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeland, M.E.; Ruth, G.R.; Stack, R.L.; Emerick, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Arsenic toxicosis occurred in cattle from 2 herds located along rivers in western South Dakota that have been contaminated by effluence of mine tailings during many years of gold mining in the area. Clinical signs in cattle of various ages from herd A included aberrant behavior, progressive weakness, abscess formation, emaciation, and agonal convulsions. Cows from herd B exhibited posterior ataxia and recurrent epileptiform convulsions. Hepatic lipidosis was found in 2 cows, and cerebral edema plus necrosis of cerebrocortical neurons was seen in the brain of 1 cow. Soil from the cattle yard of premise A, which is on the floodplain of a contaminated creek, contained 2200 ppM arsenic. Corn silage that has been contaminated with soil during silo-filling contained 140 ppM arsenic. The arsenic content of hair from herd A cattle ranged from 2.4 to 22.0 ppM and the arsenic content of the liver and kidney of 1 cow from herd B was 3.0 and 7.0 ppM, respectively.

  7. Technology applied in the operation and detection of antipersonnel mines: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Andrés Ledezma-Ríos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation is to know the different technologies implemented for the detection of antipersonnel mines, documented by different bibliographic means of the latest updates used for the detection of buried objects, the factors that affect the loss of energy of the waves as transmitters of information between them, the characteristics of the soil, the amplitude of the emitted signal, the frequency and the conditions of the terrain. This paper informs about the computational means, of their work with the different algorithms to model correct information of what is happening with the phenomenon of detection. Thus, through this research, the scientific community is informed on the parameters of magnetic susceptibility, the percentage of water and porosity of the environment where the emitted waves react, the difficulty of the stability of the signal to be captured to detect antipersonnel mines, in a geographical context. Currently, PVC tubes, cans, syringes and hand-held devices are being used for their production, and the waves will behave differently against these materials.

  8. Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, B.A.; Bonaparte, R.; Othman, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers (SHBs) used in waste containment or remediation applications. In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system (LCS) and leak detection system (LDS) liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs. Operational data for over 200 waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The top liner of the double-liner system for the units is either a geomembrane (GMB) alone, geomembrane overlying a geosynthetic clay liner (GMB/GCL), or geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (GMB/CCL). In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: (i) infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste (i.e., source control). SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper

  9. Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P A; Gates, T E

    1999-01-01

    The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10378999

  10. A Systems-Based Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Determinants of a Social License to Operate in the Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prno, Jason; Slocombe, D. Scott

    2014-03-01

    The concept of a "social license to operate" (SLO) was coined in the 1990s and gained popularity as one way in which "social" considerations can be addressed in mineral development decision making. The need for a SLO implies that developers require the widespread approval of local community members for their projects to avoid exposure to potentially costly conflict and business risks. Only a limited amount of scholarship exists on the topic, and there is a need for research that specifically addresses the complex and changeable nature of SLO outcomes. In response to these challenges, this paper advances a novel, systems-based conceptual framework for assessing SLO determinants and outcomes in the mining industry. Two strands of systems theory are specifically highlighted—complex adaptive systems and resilience—and the roles of context, key system variables, emergence, change, uncertainty, feedbacks, cross-scale effects, multiple stable states, thresholds, and resilience are discussed. The framework was developed from the results of a multi-year research project which involved international mining case study investigations, a comprehensive literature review, and interviews conducted with mining stakeholders and observers. The framework can help guide SLO analysis and management efforts, by encouraging users to account for important contextual and complexity-oriented elements present in SLO settings. We apply the framework to a case study in Alaska, USA before discussing its merits and challenges. We also illustrate knowledge gaps associated with applications of complex adaptive systems and resilience theories to the study of SLO dynamics, and discuss opportunities for future research.

  11. Uranium mills and mines environmental restoration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Estevez, C.; Lozano Martinez, F.

    2000-01-01

    ENRESA and ENUSA have dismantled and restored a uranium mill in Andujar (Andalucia), a uranium facility based on open pit mining and plant in La Haba (Extremadura) and 19 old uranium mines in Andalucia and Extremadura. The Andujar Uranium Mill was operated from 1959 to 1981 and has been restorated between 1991 and 1994. The site included the tailings pile and the processing plant. The Haba Uranium Site included the Plant (operating from 1976 to 1999), four open-pit mines (operating from 1966 to 1990), the heaps leaching and the tailings dam and has been restorated between 1992 and 1997. The 19 abandoned uranium mines were developed by underground mining with the exception of two sites, which were operated by open pit mining. Mining operations started around 1959 and were shutdown in 1981. There was a great diversity among the mines, in terms of site conditions. Whereas in some sites there was little trace of the mining works, in other sites large excavations, mining debris piles, abandoned shafs and galeries and remaining surface structures and equipment were encountered. (author)

  12. The use of geographical information system (GIS) technology in surface mine reclamation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, C.

    1999-01-01

    The use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and related technologies (e.g., Digital cartographic tools, satellite image processing systems) can benefit the planning and monitoring of open-pit mine reclamation activities. PCI Geomatics, in conjunction with Luscar Limited's Line Creek Mine, has developed a GIS-based system designed to store information relevant to planning and assessing reclamation progress. Data that existed in various formats throughout the company, and which had been collected since the mine-planning phase, was integrated into the GIS. The system is used to summarize current reclamation activities and is linked to corporate costing procedures. Monitoring of reclamation activities and quantifying change in the mine area is easily done using the spatial analysis capabilities of the GIS. Assessments of the change in reclamation areas are enhanced by using satellite image data to produce inexpensive and timely information on the land base, and allow the comparison of the health of the vegetation to reclamation areas from year to year. The implemented system substantially reduces the time needed to generate statistics and produce maps for government or internal reports. Also, there are benefits in terms of both cost and effectiveness of reclamation planning

  13. Bioassessment of heavy metals in the surface soil layer of an opencast mine aimed for its rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ličina, Vlado; Akšić, Milica Fotirić; Tomić, Zorica; Trajković, Ivana; Antić Mladenović, Svetlana; Marjanović, Milena; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-01-15

    The contemporary reclamation method in an opencast coal mine closure comprises the use of the preserved surface soil layer (SSL) before mining, and can be directly returned to the areas being rehabilitated. The present study emphasizes a risk in the use of such a SSL in mine rehabilitation due to the possible excessive amount of heavy metals which usually derives from a metal-rich sediment or fluvial character of overburden material. This indication was approved by the bioassessment of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in root and aerial parts of maize (Zea mays), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum sativum), white clover (Trifolium repens), pasture (Poales sp.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and carrot (Daucus carota) grown on SSL in the opencast mine area. The fluvial layers of the investigated mine SSL revealed the excessive existence of Ni and Cr, probably of geogenic origin, according to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) which detected Ni- and Cr-bearing minerals in soil fractions. In addition, the highest residual fraction of these two heavy metals, obtained by sequential extraction analyses, together with all other tested soil parameters, supported this assumption. Nevertheless, the accumulations of Cr in tomato fruit (2.93 mg kg -1 ), potato tuber (5.89 mg kg -1 ) and carrot root (7.35 mg kg -1 ) grown on the investigated SSL were found to exceed a critical level of this element for human nutrition. However, despite the evident excess of Ni in the investigated SSL, a similar trend was not found in edible part of plants. The transfer and mobility of the investigated metals was evaluated using the accumulation factor (AF < 1.0) where the root were the preferential organ for the storage of heavy metals. This investigation could bring an important input for its acceptability of use in soil restoration

  14. The planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines: proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Pretoria, 9-13 April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetlefs, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited

  15. [The organization and management of health services during mine clearance operations in Finistère].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliou, Philippe; Largeau, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    The regional social affairs and health services department (DDASS) of Finistère in France, in cooperation with first-aid workers, the town hall and the police headquarters, have developed and refined a method for medical evacuations of people during mine clearance in the area of Brest. It consists of conducting a census of the population in their place of residence, identifying the hospitalisation needs, and organising their management and care provided by the first-aid workers. Having been applied and put into practice since 2003, this method is reliant on tools created by the regional social affairs and health services department of. It is frequently used and has proven its effectiveness.

  16. Consistent phase-change modeling for CO2-based heat mining operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Veje, Christian

    2017-01-01

    –gas phase transition with more accuracy and consistency. Calculation of fluid properties and saturation state were based on the volume translated Peng–Robinson equation of state and results verified. The present model has been applied to a scenario to simulate a CO2-based heat mining process. In this paper......The accuracy of mathematical modeling of phase-change phenomena is limited if a simple, less accurate equation of state completes the governing partial differential equation. However, fluid properties (such as density, dynamic viscosity and compressibility) and saturation state are calculated using...... a highly accurate, complex equation of state. This leads to unstable and inaccurate simulation as the equation of state and governing partial differential equations are mutually inconsistent. In this study, the volume-translated Peng–Robinson equation of state was used with emphasis to model the liquid...

  17. Lowering resistance of the Hoyle Pond Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjardins, M. [Goldcorp Canada Ltd., Porcupine Gold Mines, Hoyle Pond Mine, Timmins, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Hoyle Pond underground mine is located in the Porcupine Gold Camp, east of Timmins, Ontario. Various mining methods are used to excavate the gold, each with different ventilation requirements in terms of layout and volume. The mine was originally designed as a shallow mine but is planning to reach a depth of 2500 m. This paper described the events that lead to the high system pressures encountered at the mine, and the measures taken to reduce them. New surface fans and a new fresh air raise (FAR) were commissioned in 2005. The old FAR had to be sealed as soon as the new fans were in place in order to prevent short-circuiting. As a result, the mine resistance curve steepened considerably. The total pressure at the fan increased from 1500 Pa to 3000 Pa. As such, only 1 surface fan could operate at any give time, providing only half the possible volume of air. The challenge was to reduce the mine's resistance while getting the desired volume of air down to to the mining faces at depth. The solutions were to install booster fans and initiate a raise-bore program that would link the 450 m level to 900 m level. These measures twinned the existing fresh air circuit and resulted in a lowering of the overall mine resistance curve. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  18. Cancer incidence and mortality in populations living near uranium milling and mining operations in grants, New Mexico, 1950-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, John D; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J

    2010-11-01

    In a previous cohort study of workers engaged in uranium milling and mining activities near Grants, Cibola County, New Mexico, we found lung cancer mortality to be significantly increased among underground miners. Uranium mining took place from early in the 1950s to 1990, and the Grants Uranium Mill operated from 1958-1990. The present study evaluates cancer mortality during 1950-2004 and cancer incidence during 1982-2004 among county residents. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence (SIR) ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed, with observed numbers of cancer deaths and cases compared to expected values based on New Mexico cancer rates. The total numbers of cancer deaths and incident cancers were close to that expected (SMR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07; SIR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92-1.02). Lung cancer mortality and incidence were significantly increased among men (SMR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21; SIR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.64) but not women (SMR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85-1.10; SIR 1.01, 95% CI 0.78-1.29). Similarly, among the population of the three census tracts near the Grants Uranium Mill, lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated among men (SMR 1.57; 95% CI 1.21-1.99) but not women (SMR 1.12; 95% CI 0.75-1.61). Except for an elevation in mortality for stomach cancer among women (SMR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03-1.63), which declined over the 55-year observation period, no significant increases in SMRs or SIRs for 22 other cancers were found. Although etiological inferences cannot be drawn from these ecological data, the excesses of lung cancer among men seem likely to be due to previously reported risks among underground miners from exposure to radon gas and its decay products. Smoking, socioeconomic factors or ethnicity may also have contributed to the lung cancer excesses observed in our study. The stomach cancer increase was highest before the uranium mill began operation and then decreased to normal levels. With the exception of male lung cancer, this study provides no

  19. ESTIMATE OF GLOBAL METHANE EMISSIONS FROM COAL MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Country-specific emissions of methane (CH4) from underground coal mines, surface coal mines, and coal crushing and transport operations are estimated for 1989. Emissions for individual countries are estimated by using two sets of regression equations (R2 values range from 0.56 to...

  20. Spatial distribution patterns of illegal artisanal small scale gold mining (Galamsey) operations in Ghana: A focus on the Western Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Nimo, F; Mantey, J; Nyarko, K B; Appiah-Effah, Eugene; Aubynn, A

    2018-02-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by stakeholders to monitor illegal mining ( galamsey) activities, foster their formalization and reclaim the many abandoned wastelands in Ghana. However, limited information exists on the locations, abundance, scope and scale of galamsey types, which hinders the development of effective policy response. This study attempts to map and analyze the distribution patterns, abundance, activity statuses and the extents of nine (9) galamsey types within eleven (11) Municipal and District Assemblies (MDAs) of Ghana's Western Region. It explores the utility of field-based survey, using the Open Data Kit (ODK) system, ArcGIS and Google Earth Imagery to map and visualize different galamsey types under a hostile working environment. A total of 911 galamsey sightings, of which 547 were found in clusters (corresponding to approximately 7106 individual operational units) and 364 in stand-alone mode. Overall, a total of 7470 individual galamsey operations were encountered in 312 different communities (towns and villages). Operationally, the Alluvial Washing Board, Mill-House and Chamfi were found to be the three most popular and practiced galamsey types. The three main galamsey hotspot districts (out of the 11) are the Tarkwa Nsuaem (294 sightings and 3648 individual galamsey sites), Amenfi East (223 sightings and 1397 individual galamsey sites) and Prestea Huni-Valley Districts (156 sightings and 1130 individual galamsey sites). In terms of their activity statuses, 199 abandoned operations (entailing 1855 individual operations), 664 active (entailing 5055 individuals operations) and 48 semi-active (comprising 560 individuals within clusters) galamsey operations were sighted at the time of the study. While galamsey is generally acknowledged to be widespread in Ghana, the results suggest a scale that probably surpasses any previous estimate or expectation. The findings will adequately inform the prioritization of reclamation efforts.

  1. Determination of granite rock massif weathering and cracking of surface layers in the oldest parts of medieval mine depending on used mining method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 381-395 ISSN 0860-7001 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Jeroným Mine * non-destructive testing * granite Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2016 http://archiwum.img-pan.krakow.pl/index.php/AMS/article/view/785/692

  2. Sampling and sample handling procedures for priority pollutants in surface coal mining wastewaters. [Detailed list to be analyzed for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, R. S.; Johnson, D. O.; Henricks, J. D.

    1979-03-01

    The report describes the procedures used by Argonne National Laboratory to sample surface coal mine effluents in order to obtain field and laboratory data on 110 organic compounds or classes of compounds and 14 metals and minerals that are known as priority pollutants, plus 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/), total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS). Included are directions for preparation of sampling containers and equipment, methods of sampling and sample preservation, and field and laboratory protocols, including chain-of-custody procedures. Actual analytical procedures are not described, but their sources are referenced.

  3. Natural radionuclides in fish species from surface water of Bagjata and Banduhurang uranium mining areas, East Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Gurdeep; Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M

    2010-11-01

    To study the natural radionuclides in the freshwater fish samples around the uranium mining areas of Bagjata and Banduhurang, East Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India. The naturally occurring radioisotopes of uranium, U(nat), consisting of (234)U, (235)U and (238)U; (226)Ra, (230)Th and (210)Po were analysed in the fish samples from the surface water of Bagjata and Banduhurang mining areas after acid digestion. The ingestion dose, concentration factor and excess lifetime cancer risk of the radionuclides were estimated. The geometric mean activity of U(nat), (226)Ra, (230)Th and (210)Po in the fish samples was found to be 0.05, 0.19, 0.29 and 0.95 Bq kg(-1)(fresh) (Becquerel per kilogram fresh fish), respectively, in the Bagjata mining area, while for Banduhurang mining area it was estimated to be 0.08, 0.41, 0.22 and 2.48 Bq kg(-1)(fresh), respectively. The ingestion dose was computed to be 1.88 and 4.16 μSvY(-1), respectively, for both the areas which is much below the 1 mSv limit set in the new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. The estimation of the Concentration Factors (CF) reveal that the CF from water is greater than 1 l/kg(-1)in most of the cases while from sediment CF is less than 1. The excess individual lifetime cancer risk due to the consumption of fish was calculated to be 2.53 × 10(-5) and 6.48 × 10(-5), respectively, for Bagjata and Banduhurang areas, which is within the acceptable excess individual lifetime cancer risk value of 1 × 10(-4). The study confirms that current levels of radioactivity do not pose a significant radiological risk to freshwater fish consumers.

  4. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down

  5. Influence of ergonomic design on trackless mining machines on the health and safety of the operators, drivers and workers.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mason, S

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available optimising new vehicle ergonomics; mines specifying the ergonomics of new vehicles; and mines improving the ergonomics standards of their current vehicles by detailed risk assessment methodologies and cost-effective retrofit modifications....

  6. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  7. HF Surface Wave Radar Operation in Adverse Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ponsford, Anthony M; Dizaji, Reza M; McKerracher, Richard

    2005-01-01

    ...) system based on HF Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR). the primary objective behind the programme was to demonstrate the capability of HFSWR to continuously detect and track surface targets (ships and icebergs...

  8. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

    2013-10-01

    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote

  9. Assessment of Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Bao, Shanhu; Sai, Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Yuhong

    2017-03-14

    The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs were 25.81 ± 9.58, 24.85 ± 2.77, 29.40 ± 3.14, 923.0 ± 47.2, and 5.64 ± 4.56 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were 76.7 ± 3.1 nGy/h and 83.1 ± 3.8 μ Sv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, and internal hazard index were also calculated, and their mean values were within the acceptable limits. The estimated lifetime cancer risk was 3.2 × 10 -4 /Sv. The heavy metal contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb from the surface soil samples were measured and their health risks were then assessed. The concentrations of all heavy metals were much lower than the average backgrounds in China except for lead which was about three times higher than that of China's mean. The non-cancer and cancer risks from the heavy metals were estimated, which are all within the acceptable ranges. In addition, the correlations between the radionuclides and the heavy metals in surface soil samples were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Strong positive correlations between radionuclides and the heavy metals at the 0.01 significance level were found. In conclusion, the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area are at a normal level.

  10. Adhesion characterization of tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder. Influence of OPC concrete substance surface treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten mine waste mud (TMWM) was investigated for its potential use as repair material of ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete. Bond strength between OPC concrete substrate and three repair materials was analysed. TMWM geopolymeric binder and two commercial repair products were used as repair materials. Bond strength behaviour was assessed from slant shear tests. A total of 128 slant shear specimens were made in order to evaluate bond strength at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days curing. Four ki...

  11. Distribution of natural radionuclides in surface soils in the vicinity of abandoned uranium mines in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momčilović, Milan; Kovačević, Jovan; Tanić, Milan; Dorđević, Milan; Bačić, Goran; Dragović, Snežana

    2013-02-01

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soils from the area affected by uranium mining at Stara Planina Mountain in Serbia were studied and compared with the results obtained from an area with no mining activities (background area). In the affected area, the activity concentrations ranged from 1.75 to 19.2 mg kg(-1) for uranium and from 1.57 to 26.9 mg kg(-1) for thorium which is several-fold higher than those in the background area. The Th/U, K/U, and K/Th activity ratios were also determined and compared with data from similar studies worldwide. External gamma dose rate in the air due to uranium, thorium, and potassium at 1 m above ground level in the area affected by uranium mining was found to be 91.3 nGy h(-1), i.e., about two-fold higher than that in background area. The results of this preliminary study indicate the importance of radiological evaluation of the area and implementation of remedial measures in order to prevent further dispersion of radionuclides in the environment.

  12. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  13. First-Year Vitality of Reforestation Plantings in Response to Herbivore Exclusion on Reclaimed Appalachian Surface-Mined Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J. Hackworth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Appalachian surface-mine reclamation techniques repress natural forest regeneration, and tree plantings are often necessary for reforestation. Reclaimed Appalachian surface mines harbor a suite of mammal herbivores that forage on recently planted seedlings. Anecdotal reports across Appalachia have implicated herbivory in the hindrance and failure of reforestation efforts, yet empirical evaluation of herbivory impacts on planted seedling vitality in this region remains relatively uninitiated. First growing-season survival, height growth, and mammal herbivory damage of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L., shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill., and white oak (Quercus alba L. are presented in response to varying intensities of herbivore exclusion. Seedling survival was generally high, and height growth was positive for all species. The highest herbivory incidence of all tree species was observed in treatments offering no herbivore exclusion. While seedling protectors lowered herbivory incidence compared with no exclusion, full exclusion treatments resulted in the greatest reduction of herbivore damage. Although herbivory from rabbits, small mammals, and domestic animals was observed, cervids (deer and elk were responsible for 95.8% of all damaged seedlings. This study indicates that cervids forage heavily on planted seedlings during the first growing-season, but exclusion is effective at reducing herbivory.

  14. The effect of exposure to employees from mining and milling operations in a uranium mine on lead isotopes-a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian L.; Mizon, Karen J.; Dickson, Bruce L.; Korsch, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Potential exposure during mining and milling of uranium ore has resulted in the industry being highly regulated. Exposure can arise from inhalation of the daughter product radioactive gas radon ( 222 Rn), inhalation of radioactive dust particles from mining and milling, direct irradiation from outside the body, and ingestion of radionuclides (e.g. uranium or radium) in food or water. Making use of the highly unusual lead isotopic signature for uranium ores (high 206 Pb/ 204 Pb from the high uranium content, low 208 Pb/ 204 Pb from the low Th/U ratio), we undertook a pilot study of nine male mine employees and three controls from the Ranger uranium mine in the Northern Territory Australia to determine if it was feasible to use lead isotopes in blood to identify exposure to uranium-derived materials. The lead isotopic data for the mine employees and controls plot in two distinct fields which are consistent with predicted isotopic patterns. Assuming retention of 10% of the ingested lead, then the increases seen in 206 Pb represent intakes of between 0.9 and 15 mg, integrated over the years of exposure. The small amount of lead does not affect blood lead concentrations, but appears to be sufficient to be detectable with sensitive isotopic methods. Further studies, including those on urine, should be undertaken to confirm the veracity of the lead isotope method in monitoring exposure of uranium industry employees

  15. The effect of exposure to employees from mining and milling operations in a uranium mine on lead isotopes--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian L; Mizon, Karen J; Dickson, Bruce L; Korsch, Michael J

    2005-03-01

    Potential exposure during mining and milling of uranium ore has resulted in the industry being highly regulated. Exposure can arise from inhalation of the daughter product radioactive gas radon (222Rn), inhalation of radioactive dust particles from mining and milling, direct irradiation from outside the body, and ingestion of radionuclides (e.g. uranium or radium) in food or water. Making use of the highly unusual lead isotopic signature for uranium ores (high 206Pb/204Pb from the high uranium content, low 208Pb/204Pb from the low Th/U ratio), we undertook a pilot study of nine male mine employees and three controls from the Ranger uranium mine in the Northern Territory Australia to determine if it was feasible to use lead isotopes in blood to identify exposure to uranium-derived materials. The lead isotopic data for the mine employees and controls plot in two distinct fields which are consistent with predicted isotopic patterns. Assuming retention of 10% of the ingested lead, then the increases seen in 206Pb represent intakes of between 0.9 and 15 mg, integrated over the years of exposure. The small amount of lead does not affect blood lead concentrations, but appears to be sufficient to be detectable with sensitive isotopic methods. Further studies, including those on urine, should be undertaken to confirm the veracity of the lead isotope method in monitoring exposure of uranium industry employees.

  16. Surface deformation in areas of abandoned mining: a case study of InSAR applied in the Northumberland region of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormack, Harry; Bateson, Luke; Banton, Carl; Holley, Rachel; Lawrence, David; Cigna, Francesca; Watson, Ian; Burren, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The United Kingdom has a rich history of coal mining probably dating back to Roman times, and this was a driving force behind the industrial revolution. Although the amount of mining has decreased significantly in recent years, the effects of mining on ground stability are widespread, complex and under-monitored. The Coal Authority is responsible for protecting the public and environment in coal mining areas. Particularly they are responsible for administering coal mining subsidence damage claims and preventing problems due to rising groundwater in old mining areas. Drawing on the expertise of Fugro NPA (FNPA) and the British Geological Survey (BGS), the aim of this project was to show how a wide-area ground stability dataset with associated geological interpretation could help the Coal Authority better administer their subsidence claims and groundwater management. This work was performed within the Terrafirma project. The study area chosen was the Northumberland and Durham coalfield where the last active mine closed in 2005. More than 20 seams have been mined and as depths increased this led to the need to pump water to prevent the mines from flooding. As the mines shut down the pumping stopped, causing the water level to rise and recover. Using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques FNPA produced a surface deformation dataset which was interpreted by BGS to add value in the form of geological interpretation. The dataset covers two epochs; 1995-2000 and 2002-2008. During the earlier epoch eight to nine 'hotspots' of subsidence were identified, mainly in the south of the study area. All but one of the subsidence areas shows a strong spatial correlation with areas of past mining. However there is a discrepancy in the timing of InSAR deformations and the timing of subsidence that would be expected given the type of workings. It is suspected that the spatial and temporal pattern of deformation relates not only to material extraction but also to

  17. Water-quality data for two surface coal mines reclaimed with alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge, Clarion County, Pennsylvania, May 1983 through November 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, D.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Saad, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Water-quality and other hydrologic data for two surface coal mines in Clarion County, Pa., were collected during 1983-89 as part of studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. Water samples were collected from streams, seeps, monitor wells, and lysimeters on a monthly basis to evaluate changes in water quality resulting from the addition of alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge to the reclaimed mine-spoil surface. The mines are about 3.5 miles apart and were mined for bituminous coal of the upper and lower Clarion seams of the Allegheny Group of Pennsylvanian age. The coal had high sulfur (greater than 2 weight percent) concentrations. Acidic mine drainage is present at both mines. At one mine, about 8 years after mining was completed, large quantities (greater than 400 tons per acre) of alkaline waste consisting of limestone and lime-kiln flue dust were applied on two 2.5-acre plots within the 65-acre mine area. Water-quality data for the alkaline-addition plots and surrounding area were collected for 1 year before and 3 years after application of the alkaline additives (May 1983-July 1987). Data collected for the alkaline-addition study include ground-water level, surface-water discharge rate, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and concentrations of alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, iron (total and ferrous), manganese, aluminum, calcium, and magnesium. At the other mine, about 3.5 years after mining was completed, urban sewage sludge was applied over 60 acres within the 150-acre mine area. Waterquality data for the sludge-addition study were collected for 3.5 years after the application of the sludge (June 1986-December 1989). Data collected for the sludge-addition study include the above constituents plus dissolved oxygen, redox potential (Eh), and concentrations of dissolved solids, phosphorus, nitrogen species, sulfide, chloride, silica, sodium, potassium, cyanide, arsenic, barium

  18. An innovative approach to bioremediation of mercury contaminated soils from industrial mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Damien; Edwards, Grant C; Gustin, Mae S; Care, Andrew; Miller, Matthieu B; Sunna, Anwar

    2017-10-01

    Soils contaminated with mercury (Hg) have proved expensive and logistically difficult to remediate. Research continues into finding suitable environmentally-friendly and efficient ways of achieving this end. Bioremediation is an option, which employs the strategies microorganisms have evolved to deal with Hg. One microbial strategy involves uptake and intracellular volatilisation of mercuric ions, which passively diffuse from the cell and back into the atmosphere. In this work, Pseudomonas veronii cells grown to stationary phase were immobilised in a xanthan gum-based biopolymer via encapsulation. The P. veronii-biopolymer mix was then coated onto natural zeolite granules. Zeolite immobilised cells remained viable for at least 16 weeks stored under ambient room temperature. Furthermore, the immobilised cells were shown to retain both viability and Hg volatilisation functionality after transportation from Australia to the USA, where they were applied to Hg contaminated soil. Maximum flux rates exceeded 10 μg Hg m 2  h -1 from mine tailings (≈7 mg kg -1  Hg with 50% v/v water). This was 4 orders of magnitude above background flux levels. It is envisioned that emitted gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) can be readily captured, and transformed back into metallic Hg, which can then be stored appropriately or recycled. This breaks the Hg cycle, as GEM is no longer translocated back to the atmospheric compartment. The immobilising excipients used in this research overcome many logistical issues with delivery of suitable microbial loads to locations of mercury contamination and presents a facile and inexpensive method of augmenting contaminated sites with selected microbial consortia for bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors contributing to industrial accidents during coal mining operations. [Bulgaria: 1978 and 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkova, N.

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred cases of severe industrial traumas from 1978 to 1979 were analyzed on a computer. The information was coded into four groups, characterizing the human undergoing the trauma, the time of the event, the working environment and the equipment involved, the causes of the accident (objective and subjective with respect to the victim). Eighty-six variables (values) of two types were input into the computer: quantitative (age, length of service at that job and in the profession, the month, date, day, hour and shift); categorical (profession- 11 subgroups; place of the event- 12 subgroups; work being done at the time of the event- 12 subgroups; indirect cause of the accident- 10 subgroups; circumstances of the accident- 11 subgroups; objective 15 subgroups and subjective- 7 subgroups of causes with respect to the victim). Ten factors were identified which lead to industrial accidents (By level of importance); poor dicipline, work shift, profession, date of the month, mine transport, poor instruction, unsafe work place, length of service, month of the year, poor organization of the work place. The following conclusions were made on the basis of these results: 1) poor discipline is undoubtably a primary factor in work safety; In a narrow context, it is connected with insufficient knowledge and lack of expertise, inability to work safely, poor control and organization of the work place; 48% of industrial accidents occur among stope miners and timbermen; 27% among transport workers; 2) 50% of the accidents occurred during the first shift, 16% between 11 and 12 o'clock; 3) 39.5% occurred at the end of the month; 4) 39% occurred due to insufficient and poor quality instruction, lack of necessary expertise and the ability to work safely.

  20. Proceedings of the CIM maintenance engineering/mine operators' conference; Comptes rendus du colloque de ICM sur l'ingenierie de maintenance et l'exploitation miniere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This conference provided a forum to exchange knowledge and best practices that apply to to modern underground mining. It highlighted the synergy and co-operation that is essential for successful operations and maintenance practices. Solutions to mitigate increasing ventilation costs were presented along with possible alternatives to diesel powered equipment in order to maintain air quality at a level that is acceptable for human workers. The themes for the technical program were innovation and performance improvement; maintenance, and mining. The sessions were entitled: deep mining; environment; mining best practices; ground control; energy efficiency; research and development in mining; mining methods; narrow-vein mining; innovative equipment; predictive maintenance; research and development in maintenance; and, planning and scheduling. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry; Public... reclamation plan amendments. 904.25 Section 904.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  2. The management of heat flow in deep mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Horst [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria). Dept. Mineral Resources and Petroleum Engineering

    2013-04-15

    With the ever-increasing depth of mines, the management of heat has become a key issue for their design and operation. There are two main sources of heat: heat transfer from the rock mass into the mine workings and heat associated with mining operations. The principles of heat transfer from the rock mass are discussed and basic relationships presented. Sources of heat linked to mining operations are discussed. It is shown that in deep-level mines, heat transfer from the rock mass accounts more than 75 % of total mine heat load. In highly mechanized coal mines, heat from the use of mining machinery is also significant. Some models of heat flow prediction for deep gold mines are presented. It is shown that in the case of deep mines, control of heat flow is more important than increasing refrigeration capacity. Examples of heat flow management methods are given. Furthermore, the paper deals with the effects of heat on the human body and mine cooling strategies for deep mines. In detail the effects of heat on a worker are examined, heat stress and heat tolerance discussed and methods of assessing heat stress in different mining situations presented. Experiences from deep South African gold mines highlight the adverse effects of heat stress environment on safety and labour productivity. The principal methods of cooling of deep and ultra deep mines are discussed. It is shown that auto-compression of ventilation air is a deciding factor governing the choice of surface or underground cooling of ventilation air. In the case of deep and ultra deep mines, the use of chilled service water and ice slurry has shown to be the most cost effective means of mine cooling. In the case of ice slurry as cooling medium advantage is taken of the latent heat of ice which significantly reduces the amount of water required for mine cooling and hence the cost of pumping the water to surface. Cooling strategies for moderately deep, deep and ultra deep mines are discussed. Examples of cooling

  3. Evaluation of surface water quality in aquatic bodies under the influence of uranium mining (MG, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgher, Suzelei; de Azevedo, Heliana; Ferrari, Carla Rolim; Roque, Cláudio Vítor; Ronqui, Leilane Barbosa; de Campos, Michelle Burato; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes

    2013-03-01

    The quality of the water in a uranium-ore-mining area located in Caldas (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and in a reservoir (Antas reservoir) that receives the neutralized acid solution leaching from the waste heaps generated by uranium mining was investigated. The samples were collected during four periods (October 2008, January, April and July 2009) from six sampling stations. Physical and chemical analyses were performed on the water samples, and the data obtained were compared with those of the Brazilian Environmental Standards and WHO standard. The water samples obtained from waste rock piles showed high uranium concentrations (5.62 mg L(-1)), high manganese values (75 mg L(-1)) and low average pH values (3.4). The evaluation of the water quality at the point considered the limit between the Ore Treatment Unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries and the environment (Consulta Creek) indicated contamination by fluoride, manganese, uranium and zinc. The Antas reservoir showed seasonal variations in water quality, with mean concentrations for fluoride (0.50 mg L(-1)), sulfate (16 mg L(-1)) and hardness (20 mg L(-1)) which were low in January, evidencing the effect of rainwater flowing into the system. The concentrations for fluoride, sulfate and manganese were close or above to the limits established by current legislation at the point where the treated mining effluent was discharged and downstream from this point. This study demonstrated that the effluent discharged by the UTM affected the quality of the water in the Antas reservoir, and thus the treatments currently used for effluent need to be reviewed.

  4. Designing vertical shafts for mines with deepening and outlet of rock to the operating level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, Ye.M.

    1983-01-01

    Requirements for designing the cross sections of central shafts are examined, as well as those for determining the productivity of lifts and equipment of the shafts with a condition of use in a subsequent technological layout of their deepening with outlet of the rock to the operating level. Typical cross sections of skip and cellular shafts are given.

  5. Final Environmental Impact Statement to construct and operate the Crownpoint Uranium Solution Mining Project, Crownpoint, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) addresses the proposed action of issuing a combined source and 11e(2) byproduct material license and minerals operating leases for Federal and Indian lands to Hydro Resources, Inc. (HRI). This action would authorize HRI to conduct in-situ leach uranium mining in McKinley County, New Mexico. Such mining would involve drilling wells to access the ore bodies, then recirculating groundwater with added oxygen to mobilize uranium found in the ore. Uranium would then be removed from the solution using ion exchange technology in processing plants located at three separate sites. As proposed by HRI, a central plant would provide drying and packaging equipment for the entire project. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed action was prepared by an interagency review group comprising staff from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Bureau of Land Management, and published in October 1994. After evaluating the environmental impacts of the proposed action in the DEIS, the reviewing agencies concluded that the appropriate action was to issue the requested license and proposed leases authorizing HRI to proceed with the project. This FEIS reevaluates the proposed licensing action on the basis of written and oral comments received on the DEIS and on additional information obtained in 1995 and 1996. The FEIS describes and evaluates (1) the purpose of and need for the proposed action, (2) alternatives to the proposed action, (3) the environmental resources that could be affected by the proposed action and alternatives, (4) the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, and (5) the economic costs and benefits associated with the proposed action. Based on this assessment, the FEIS makes recommendations concerning the requested license and proposed leases

  6. Autonomous Surface Site Establishment to Ensure Safe Crew Arrival and Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Identify the surface assets and the autonomous operations necessary to provide an operational and safe destination that reduces risk for human Mars exploration...

  7. Landscape management in an area affected by surface brown coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vráblíková, J.; Wildová, E.; Vráblík, P.; Blažková, M.

    2017-10-01

    The contribution summarizes results of a project concentrated on landscape management of an area affected by brown coal mining located in northern Bohemia (The Most basin) focusing on restoration and reclamation processes. It describes in particular the shares of individual types of reclamations in the area of interest. A strategic document that also supports landscape restoration in anthropogenically burdened regions was written within the project called “Restart” and the second part of the contribution is focused on its chapters which address this issue.

  8. Assessment of the Pollutants in Soils and Surface Waters Around Gümüşköy Silver Mine (Kütahya, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Şebnem; Çelik, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface water and soil samples around Gümüşköy Silver Mine, located in Köprüören Basin, were determined to evaluate the anthropogenic level of contamination due to mining activities. The mean concentrations of As, Pb, Sb and Cd in 12 soil samples came out to be 1193, 844, 66 and 19 ppm, respectively. Soil pollution assessment was carried out by using geoaccumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF) and pollution index (PI). Igeo, EF and PI suggest anthropogenic pollution of As, Pb, Sb and Zn in the areas where there is leakage of these heavy metals from the waste pools of the silver mine facility. Water samples collected from the surface waters also have elevated concentrations of these heavy metals. The contaminants are most probably transported by surface waters in the rainy season.

  9. Vulnerability of soils towards mining operations in gold-bearing sands in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Manuel Miguel; González, Irma; Bech, Jaume; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Pardo, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The contamination levels in handicraft mining, despite less production and processing less equipment, have high repercussions upon the environment in many cases. High-grade ore extraction, flotation, gravity concentration, acid leaching cementation and mercury amalgamation are the main metallurgical technologies employed. Gold recovery involving milling and amalgamation appears to the most contamination source of mercury. This research work is only a starting point for carrying out a risk probability mapping of pollutants of the gold bearing sands. In southern Chile, with a mild and rainy climate, high levels of pollutants have been detected in some gold placer deposits. The handicraft gold-bearing sands studied are located in X Region of "Los Lagos" in southern Chile. A great quantity of existing secondary deposits in the X Region is located in the coastal mountain range. The lithological units that are found in this range correspond with metamorphic rocks of a Paleozoic crystalline base that present an auriferous content liberated from the successive erosive processes suffered. Metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks also make up part of this range, but their auriferous load is much smaller. The methodology used in the characterization of the associated mineralization consists of testing samples with a grain size distribution, statistical parameter analysis and mineralogical analysis using a petrographic microscope, XRD and SEM/EDX. The chemical composition was determined by means of XRF and micro-chemical analysis. The major concentrations of heavy minerals are located in areas of dynamic river energy. In the studied samples, more the 75 % of the heavy minerals were distributed among grain sizes corresponding to thin sand (0.25-0.05 mm) with good grain selection. The main minerals present in the selected analysed samples were gold, zircon, olivine, ilmenite, hornblende, hematite, garnet, choromite, augite, epidote, etc. The main heavy metals found were mercury

  10. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-08-01

    The author introduces the subject with an overview of the regulatory requirments and philosophy applied to uranium mines and mills. The special attention given to tailings management is highlighted, and a discussion of the basic environmental concerns is concluded with an itemizing of the main tasks facing the AECB. The extent of the environmental impact of uranium mining, milling and waste management is illustrated with specific details pertaining to mines in the Elliot Lake area. The author concludes that the impact on the ground and surface water system is not alarming, and the impact on air quality is not significant beyond a few hundred metres from the mining facilities. The publicly perceived impact is discussed, followed by a rationale for the continued licensing of new uranium mining operations complete with tailings management facilities

  11. Handbook for the design, construction and maintenance of mine haulage roads. Manual para el diseno, construccion y mantenimiento de pista mineras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Carcedo, F.J.; Ortiz, D.U.F.P.; Lopez, J.C.; Rodriguez Ortiz, J.M.; Kraemer, H.C.; Val, M.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The publication gives some easy guide-lines for the design and execution of surface mine roads, and their auxiliary elements, within the technical possibilities and equipment normally available in mining operations. A methodology for the mining haulage is proposed, taking into consideration the geometric and functional conditions of the surface mine haulage road and the vehicles used. 25 refs., 58 figs., 31 tabs., 10 photos.

  12. Barium concentrations and speciation in surface waters collected from an active barium mining area in Guizhou Province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qinhui; Xu, Xiaohang; Xu, Zhidong; Liang, Longchao; Shang, Lihai; Xiao, Dean; Zhang, Sensen; Jiang, Yuping; Qiu, Guangle

    2018-03-01

    Barium (Ba) is a toxic element and can cause serious health effects. Humans have experienced increased exposure to Ba due to its intensive usage in industrial areas and daily life. Anthropogenic activities of Ba mining and the manufacture of Ba containing products introduce the element into surrounding areas, posing environmental concerns. Concentrations of total Ba (TBa) and dissolved Ba (DBa) in water samples collected from active Ba mines in Tianzhu, east Guizhou Province, southwestern China were measured to show the regional dispersion of Ba contamination. Aqueous Ba species in water were calculated using the PHREEQC program. The results showed that TBa and DBa concentrations ranged from 6.7 to 483.1 μg/L and from 7.5 to 222.7 μg/L, respectively. TBa concentrations presented a high average value of 126.6 μg/L and greatly exceeded the reported common value of 10 μg/L Ba in surface water set by the Ministry of Environment Protection of China. PHREEQC results indicated that Ba species in water were present as Ba 2+ , BaSO 4 , BaHCO 3 , BaCO 3 , and BaOH + . The distribution of Ba species in water is controlled by pH and total organic carbon (TOC), and the lower pH (pH < 7) the higher the dissolved fractions. The log K d values (K d , dissolved-particulate distribution coefficients) varied from 2.41 to 6.32. Significant correlations were observed among Ba 2+ and K + , Na + , Cl - , NO 3 - , with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.425, 0.531, 0.853, 0.612, and 0.329, respectively (p < 0.01). Elevated Ba concentrations in water indicated that the Ba contamination and its distribution pattern in local aquatic ecosystems are derived from Ba mining sites in the Tianzhu area.

  13. 78 FR 39531 - Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Underground Coal Mine Operators and Mine Rescue Teams Type of mine rescue team Requirement Mine-site Composite Contract State-sponsored * * * * * * * Team must include at least two YES active employees from each covered large mine and at least one active employee from each covered small mine. Team...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall have... mine drawn on scale. Such map shall show: (a) The active workings; (b) All pillared, worked out, and...

  15. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Surface Management System (SMS), developed by NASA Ames Research Center in cooperation with the FAA, has received wide and significant acceptance by the air...

  16. Operational safety assessment of underground test facilities for mined geologic waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the operational safety assessment for the underground facilities for the exploratory studies facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Project. The systematic identification and evaluation of hazards related to the ESF is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach based on the analysis of potential accidents was used since radiological safety analysis was not required. The risk assessment summarized credible accident scenarios and the design provides mitigation of the risks to a level that the facility can be constructed and operated with an adequate level of safety. The risk assessment also provides reasonable assurance that all identifiable major accident scenarios have been reviewed and design mitigation features provided to ensure an adequate level of safety

  17. Trajectory Design to Benefit Trajectory-Based Surface Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trajectory-based operations constitute a key mechanism considered by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) for managing traffic in high-density or...

  18. Mountaintop mining consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Palmer; E.S. Bernhardt; W.H. Schlesinger; K.N. Eshleman; E. Foufoula-Georgiou; M.S. Hendryx; A.D. Lemly; G.E. Likens; O.L. Loucks; M.E. Power; P.S. White; P.R. Wilcock

    2010-01-01

    There has been a global, 30-year increase in surface mining (1), which is now the dominant driver of land-use change in the central Appalachian ecoregion of the United States (2). One major form of such mining, mountaintop mining with valley fills (MTM/VF) (3), is widespread throughout eastern Kentucky, West Virginia (WV), and southwestern Virginia. Upper elevation...

  19. National Underground Mines Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    washing facilities near the mine entrance at ground level. Telephones and/or radio phones are generally placed throughout mines for communication...023 0206001 04 000 0206002 04 000 0206003 04 000 ARKANSAS LIMESTONE OPERATION 0300051 05 065 261360 GUION MINE AND MILL 0300313 05 065 254100 EL DORADO

  20. Mining with communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Marcello M.; Scoble, Malcolm; McAllister, Mary Louise

    2001-01-01

    To be considered as sustainable, a mining community needs to adhere to the principles of ecological sustainability, economic vitality and social equity. These principles apply over a long time span, covering both the life of the mine and post-mining closure. The legacy left by a mine to the community after its closure is emerging as a significant aspect of its planning. Progress towards sustainability is made when value is added to a community with respect to these principles by the mining operation during its life cycle. This article presents a series of cases to demonstrate the diverse potential challenges to achieving a sustainable mining community. These case studies of both new and old mining communities are drawn mainly from Canada and from locations abroad where Canadian companies are now building mines. The article concludes by considering various approaches that can foster sustainable mining communities and the role of community consultation and capacity building. (author)