WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface mining environment

  1. Surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  2. Mining the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J.; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25506128

  3. Mining the Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-12-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area.

  4. Mining and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecka, V.; Nemec, V.; Bradka, S.; Placek, V.; Sulovsky, P.

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings contain 30 contributions, out of which 9 have been inputted in INIS. They are concerned with uranium mines and mills in the Czech Republic. The impacts of the mining activities and of the mill tailings on the environment and the population are assessed, and it is concluded that the radiation hazard does not exceed that from natural background. Considerable attention is paid to the monitoring of the surroundings of mines and mills and to landscaping activities. Proposed technologies for the purification of waste waters from the chemical leaching process are described. Ways to eliminate environmental damage from abandoned tailings settling ponds are suggested. (M.D.). 18 tabs., 21 figs., 43 refs

  5. Mining and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimiento, Elkin Vargas

    1998-01-01

    In order to obtain the best social and environmental results from mining activities, different solutions, which involve a variety of perspectives, have been proposed. These include the worldwide perspective based in the economy globalization paradigms; the regional perspective, focused in the integration of countries; the national perspective, which emphasizes the natural assets and development options, and finally a local perspective is incorporated to account for the participation of directly affected communities. Within this framework, the mining industry is requested to develop both technological and managerial tools appropriate to evaluate, optimize and communicate the social and environmental performance and output of its related activities, mainly in the developing countries. On the other hand, the governments have been committed to implement regulatory actions, of command and control type, based on an environmental legislation in line with the above mentioned perspectives and also to use economical instruments as a mean to accomplish environmental objectives. In Colombia the direct regulation methods have been traditionally used to prevent the environmental deterioration produced by mining activities, however, since the 1991 political constitution and the law 99 of 1993, the communities' participation and economical instruments were incorporated. A historic summary of the environmental legislation in our country from the early 70's up to now, showing its implications in mining is presented. Then a favorable tendency is indicated in the environmental improvement of the national extractive industry, accomplished as a result of the implementation of new strategies to minimize the impact of mining on the environment and to improve the well being of local communities

  6. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Water from Pristine Environments and Major Mining Areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yaw Hadzi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The concentrations of heavy metals in the Nyam, Subri, Bonsa and Birim Rivers from the mining sites and the Atiwa Range, Oda, Ankasa and Bosomkese Rivers from the pristine sites were found to be either below or within the USEPA and WHO's recommended limits for surface water. The health risk assessment values for the hazard quotient for ingestion of water (HQing, dermal contact (HQderm and chronic daily intake (CDI indicated no adverse effects as a result of ingestion or dermal contact from the rivers. However, arsenic (As in both the pristine and mining sites and chromium (Cr in the pristine sites pose a carcinogenic threat to the local residents.

  7. Sustainable Mining Environment: Technical Review of Post-mining Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Juniah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry exists because humans need mining commodities to meet their daily needs such as motor vehicles, mobile phones, electronic equipment and others. Mining commodities as mentioned in Government Regulation No. 23 of 2010 on Implementation of Mineral and Coal Mining Business Activities are radioactive minerals, metal minerals, nonmetallic minerals, rocks and coal. Mineral and coal mining is conducted to obtain the mining commodities through production operations. Mining and coal mining companies have an obligation to ensure that the mining environment in particular after the post production operation or post mining continues. The survey research aims to examine technically the post-mining plan in coal mining of PT Samantaka Batubara in Indragiri Hulu Regency of Riau Province towards the sustainability of the mining environment. The results indicate that the post-mining plan of PT Samantaka Batubara has met the technical aspects required in post mining planning for a sustainable mining environment. Postponement of post-mining land of PT Samantaka Batubara for garden and forest zone. The results of this study are expected to be useful and can be used by stakeholders, academics, researchers, practitioners and associations of mining, and the environment.

  8. Surface Mines, Other - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  9. Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.

    2013-01-01

    A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier transform and fast multipole method accelerated surface integral equation-based EM simulator to statistically characterize fields from wireless transmitters in complex mine environments. 1536-1225 © 2013 IEEE.

  10. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  11. Data Mining Solutions for the Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Stefania PETRE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, data mining became a matter of considerable importance due to the large amounts of data available in the applications belonging to various domains. Data mining, a dynamic and fast-expanding field, that applies advanced data analysis techniques, from statistics, machine learning, database systems or artificial intelligence, in order to discover relevant patterns, trends and relations contained within the data, information impossible to observe using other techniques. The paper focuses on presenting the applications of data mining in the business environment. It contains a general overview of data mining, providing a definition of the concept, enumerating six primary data mining techniques and mentioning the main fields for which data mining can be applied. The paper also presents the main business areas which can benefit from the use of data mining tools, along with their use cases: retail, banking and insurance. Also the main commercially available data mining tools and their key features are presented within the paper. Besides the analysis of data mining and the business areas that can successfully apply it, the paper presents the main features of a data mining solution that can be applied for the business environment and the architecture, with its main components, for the solution, that would help improve customer experiences and decision-making

  12. Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Chakraborty, K.

    1994-01-01

    Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

  13. Mining and its effects on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadlec, J.

    1996-01-01

    The article advocates mineral resource mining against fierce environmentalists who can see only the adverse aspects of this branch of industry. The following concepts are argued against: endangerment and permanent disturbance of the environment due to the mining and processing of mineral raw materials; excessive exploitation and selling-out of Czech national mineral resources; and inefficiency of administrative tools to protect Czech mineral resources and environment. It is concluded that mineral raw materials mining does not endanger the environment more than other anthropogenic activities do. Mining on its own is not responsible for the current poor condition of the environment in the Czech Republic, nor is it a source of permanent disturbance of the environment, as often unjustly claimed. The permanently sustainable development programme, referred to in the Environmental Protection Act, should only mitigate some adverse aspects of anthropogenic activities but is not expected to eliminate them altogether because this would imply elimination of their inflicter as such. (P.A.)

  14. Reclamation of slopes left after surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmitko, J [Banske Projekty, Teplice (Czech Republic)

    1993-03-01

    Discusses land reclamation of abandoned slopes from brown coal surface mining in the North Bohemian brown coal basin in the Czech Republic. Problems associated with reclamation of landslide areas in two former coal mines are evaluated: the Otokar mine in Kostany (mining from 1956 to 1966) and the CSM mine in Pozorka (mining from 1955 to 1967). Land reclamation was introduced 25 years after damage occurred. The following aspects are analyzed: hydrogeologic conditions, range of landslides, types of rocks in landslide areas, water conditions, methods for stabilizing slopes, safety aspects.

  15. A clean environment approach to uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grancea, Luminita

    2015-01-01

    A global and multi-faceted response to climate change is essential if meaningful and cost-effective progress is to be made in reducing the effects of climate change around the world. There is no doubt that the uranium mining sector has an important role to play in such a goal. Uranium is the raw material used to produce fuel for long-lived nuclear facilities, necessary for the generation of significant amounts of baseload low-carbon electricity for decades to come. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity and the associated uranium demand, enhancing awareness of leading practices in uranium mining is indispensable. Actors in the uranium mining sector operate in a complex world, throughout different geographies, and involving global supply chains. They manage climate-sensitive water, land and energy resources and balance the interests of various stakeholders. Managed well, uranium mining delivers sustainable value for economic growth, employment and infrastructure, with specific attention given to the preservation of the environment. In the early phases of the industry, however, downside risks existed, which created legacy environmental and health issues that still can be recalled today. This article addresses key aspects of modern uranium mining operations that have been introduced as regulations and practices have evolved in response to societal attitudes about health, safety and environmental protection. Such aspects of mine management were seldom, if ever, respected in the early stages of uranium mining. With the implementation of modern mine lifecycle parameters and regulatory requirements, uranium mining has become a leader in safety and environmental management. Today, uranium mining is conducted under significantly different circumstances and is now the most regulated and one of the safest forms of mining in the world. Experiences from modern uranium mines show that successful companies develop innovative strategies to manage all the

  16. OCHRE PRECIPITATES AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE IN A MINE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANISLAV MÁŠA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused to characterize the ochre precipitates and the mine water effluents of some old mine adits and settling pits after mining of polymetallic ores in Slovakia. It was shown that the mine water effluents from two different types of deposits (adits; settling pits have similar composition and represent slightly acidic sulphate water (pH in range 5.60-6.05, sulphate concentration from 1160 to 1905 g.dm-3. The ochreous precipitates were characterized by methods of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and B.E.T. method for measuring the specific surface area and porosity. The dominant phases were ferrihydrite with goethite or goethite with lepidocrocide.

  17. Applications of Geomatics in Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachowski, Jan; Górniak-Zimroz, Justyna; Milczarek, Wojciech; Pactwa, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    In terms of method of extracting mineral from deposit, mining can be classified into: surface, underground, and borehole mining. Surface mining is a form of mining, in which the soil and the rock covering the mineral deposits are removed. Types of surface mining include mainly strip and open-cast methods, as well as quarrying. Tasks associated with surface mining of minerals include: resource estimation and deposit documentation, mine planning and deposit access, mine plant development, extraction of minerals from deposits, mineral and waste processing, reclamation and reclamation of former mining grounds. At each stage of mining, geodata describing changes occurring in space during the entire life cycle of surface mining project should be taken into consideration, i.e. collected, analysed, processed, examined, distributed. These data result from direct (e.g. geodetic) and indirect (i.e. remote or relative) measurements and observations including airborne and satellite methods, geotechnical, geological and hydrogeological data, and data from other types of sensors, e.g. located on mining equipment and infrastructure, mine plans and maps. Management of such vast sources and sets of geodata, as well as information resulting from processing, integrated analysis and examining such data can be facilitated with geomatic solutions. Geomatics is a discipline of gathering, processing, interpreting, storing and delivering spatially referenced information. Thus, geomatics integrates methods and technologies used for collecting, management, processing, visualizing and distributing spatial data. In other words, its meaning covers practically every method and tool from spatial data acquisition to distribution. In this work examples of application of geomatic solutions in surface mining on representative case studies in various stages of mine operation have been presented. These applications include: prospecting and documenting mineral deposits, assessment of land accessibility

  18. Tackling mine wastes for a better environment | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    develop effective methods to control mine waste pollution;; generate mine site ... where he is responsible for the "Mining Environment" module in the Earth Sciences ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  19. 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains research results presented at the 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining, ISCSM Aachen 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers in the lignite mining industry and practitioners in this field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  20. Effect of Traditional Gold Mining to Surface Water Quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wilopo, W; Resili, R; Putra, D P E

    2013-01-01

    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  1. Ochre precipitates and Acid Mine Drainage in a mine environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máša, B.; Pulišová, Petra; Bezdička, Petr; Michalková, E.; Šubrt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 9-14 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB0810136 Grant - others:Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic(SK) VEGA 1/0529/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : ochre precipitate * Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) * X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) * Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) * specific surface area and porosity Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012

  2. Interaction of mining activities and aquatic environment: A review from Greek mine sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Greece a significant amount of mineral and ore deposits have been recorded accompanied by large industrial interest and a long mining history. Today many active and/or abandoned mine sites are scattered within the country; while mining activities take place in different sites for exploiting various deposits (clay, limestone, slate, gypsum, kaolin, mixed sulphide ores (lead, zinc, olivine, pozzolan, quartz lignite, nickel, magnesite, aluminum, bauxite, gold, marbles etc). The most prominent recent ones are: (i) the lignite exploitation that is extended in the area of Ptolemais (Western Macedonia) and Megalopolis (Central Peloponnese); and (ii) the major bauxite deposits located in central Greece within the Parnassos-Ghiona geotectonic zone and on Euboea Island. In the latter area, significant ores of magnesite were exploited and mixed sulphide ores. Centuries of intensive mining exploitation and metallurgical treatment of lead-silver deposits in Greece, have also resulted in significant abandoned sites, such as the one in Lavrion. Mining activities in Lavrio, were initiated in ancient times and continued until the 1980s, resulting in the production of significant waste stockpiles deposited in the area, crucial for the local water resources. Ιn many mining sites, environmental pressures are also recorded after the mine closure to the aquatic environment, as the surface waters flow through waste dump areas and contaminated soils. This paper aims to the geospatial visualization of the mining activities in Greece, in connection to their negative (surface- and/or ground-water pollution; overpumping due to extensive dewatering practices) or positive (enhanced groundwater recharge; pit lakes, improvement of water budget in the catchment scale) impacts on local water resources.

  3. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL...

  4. UST-IDRC national symposium on the mining industry and the environment: programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The National Symposium on the mining industry and the environment was organized by the UST/IDRC Environmental Research Group in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. The symposium generally covered strategies for the development of the mining industry as well as solutions to the environmental problems associated with the industry in Ghana. The publication contains the programme and abstracts of scientific sessions of the Symposium. The abstracts covered the following topics among others: multi-element analysis of mineral ores samples, review of environmental studies related to gold mining in Ghana, local sulphooxidizing bacteria for environmentally friendly gold mining, arsenic pollution in streams and sediments, rainfall erositivity and soil loss from degraded lands and mine spoils, the impact of surface mining on forest structure and environment, current environmental practices in the mining industry, and the role of the mining industry in the economy of Ghana

  5. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  6. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  7. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and

  8. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  9. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweigard, R.J. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA). Dept. of Mining Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig.

  10. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweigard, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig

  11. A research for environmental problems in the vicinity of mining area. Investigation into the impact of metallic mining on the environment and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong Sik; Cheong, Young Wook; Lee, Hyun Joo; Song, Duk Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on the impacts of metalliferous mines on the environment in the vicinity of the abandoned and active mines and establishment of abatements of mining environmental problems. Total number of metalliferous mines surveyed were 40 in which samples of waters, mine wastes and soil were taken. Water parameters such as the pH, Eh, TDS, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured in the field. Elements such as As, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, Mn, sulfate and cyanide were analyzed. Significant concentrations of heavy metals, mainly Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Al, were found in mine waters from adit and in leachates extracted from mine wastes. The mine waters flowing out from the Dalsung and Ilgwang mines were the typical acid mine drainage(AMD) contaminated by the heavy metals. Passive biological systems(Anoxic wetland) to treat AMD for metals were designed and monitored for effluents from the reactors with 4 types of composts, cow manure and limestones, Results showed that the mushroom compost with cow manure and limestone was the best substrates in metal removing efficiencies. Results from leaching of mine wastes showed that As, Cd and Cu were extracted from some of mine wastes. AMD from the mine waste dump of the Daduk mine was found. These mean that mine wastes can contaminate the soil, surface water and ground waters in vicinity of mines. Therefore cover systems or liner system for containments of mine wastes were suggested to preserve the environment. Cu and As concentrations in soils surveyed were below the heavy metal concentrations in soils of Korean standard preventing plant of the crops. However, most of the acid mine waters are drained untreated, and mine wastes with heavy metals are distributed near soil environment. Therefore efforts to reduce possibilities of soil contamination in the vicinity of mining areas is required. (author). 33 refs.

  12. Waste disposal in underground mines -- A technology partnership to protect the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Environmentally compatible disposal sites must be found despite all efforts to avoid and reduce the generation of dangerous waste. Deep geologic disposal provides the logical solution as ever more categories of waste are barred from long-term disposal in near-surface sites through regulation and litigation. Past mining in the US has left in its wake large volumes of suitable underground space. EPA studies and foreign practice have demonstrated deep geologic disposal in mines to be rational and viable. In the US, where much of the mined underground space is located on public lands, disposal in mines would also serve the goal of multiple use. It is only logical to return the residues of materials mined from the underground to their origin. Therefore, disposal of dangerous wastes in mined underground openings constitutes a perfect match between mining and the protection and enhancement of the environment

  13. Waste water treatment in surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navasardyants, M A; Esipov, V Z; Ryzhkov, Yu A

    1981-01-01

    This paper evaluates problems associated with waste water from coal surface mines of the Kemerovougol' association in the Kuzbass. Waste water treatment in the Kuzbass is of major importance as the region is supplied with water from only one river, the Tom river. Water influx to Kemerovougol' surface mines in a year amounts to 136 million m/sup 3/. The water is used during technological processes, for fire fighting, and spraying to prevent dusting; the rest, about 82.1 million m/sup 3/, is discharged into surface waters. Of this amount, 25.1 million m/sup 3/ is heavily polluted water, 46.6 million m3 are polluted but within limits, and 10.4 million m/sup 3/ are characterized as relatively clean. Waste water is polluted with: suspended matters, oils and oil products, nitrates, nitrides and chlorides. Suspended matter content sometimes reaches 4,000 and 5,000 mg/l, and oil product content in water amounts to 2.17 mg/l. Water treatment in surface mines is two-staged: sumps and sedimentation tanks are used. Water with suspended matter content of 50 to 100 mg/l in winter and summer, and 200 to 250 mg/l in spring and autumn is reduced in sumps to 25 to 30 mg/l in summer and winter and to 40 to 50 mg/l in autumn and spring. During the first stage water treatment efficiency ranges from 50 to 80%. During the second stage water is collected in sedimentation tanks. It is noted that so-called secondary pollution is one of the causes of the relatively high level of suspended matter in discharged water. Water discharged from sedimentation tanks carries clay and loam particles from the bottom and walls of water tanks and channels.

  14. Uranium Mining (Environment Control) Act 1979 No 46 of 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to control the mining of uranium in the Alligator Rivers Region with a view to lessening any damage which may be caused to the environment. The Act provides for the control of mining of certain substances, for an authorization system for construction and use of facilities, equipment and processes as well as for environmental protection requirements. (NEA) [fr

  15. Statistical characterization of wave propagation in mine environments

    KAUST Repository

    Bakir, Onur

    2012-07-01

    A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation (ME-PC) method with a novel domain-decomposition (DD) integral equation-based EM simulator to obtain statistics of electric fields due to wireless transmitters in realistic mine environments. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Surface mining machines problems of maintenance and modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Rusiński, Eugeniusz; Moczko, Przemysław; Pietrusiak, Damian

    2017-01-01

    This unique volume imparts practical information on the operation, maintenance, and modernization of heavy performance machines such as lignite mine machines, bucket wheel excavators, and spreaders. Problems of large scale machines (mega machines) are highly specific and not well recognized in the common mechanical engineering environment. Prof. Rusiński and his co-authors identify solutions that increase the durability of these machines as well as discuss methods of failure analysis and technical condition assessment procedures. "Surface Mining Machines: Problems in Maintenance and Modernization" stands as a much-needed guidebook for engineers facing the particular challenges of heavy performance machines and offers a distinct and interesting demonstration of scale-up issues for researchers and scientists from across the fields of machine design and mechanical engineering.

  17. Agriculture and brown coal surface mining. The example of the Rhenish brown coal mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, B.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive surface mining in the Rhenish brown coal exploitation area has led to marked changes to the environment and living conditions there. This applies particularly to agriculture, which now has to subsist with a competitor for land. The progressive sacrifice of farmland and widespread relocation compaigns are grossly interfering with the business of farming. Only in exceptional cases do farms move as part of the relocation of whole villages. New sites are often found in hamlets and group settlements. This happens in connection with farming of newly reclaimed land or recultivated land reorganised and returned in land consolidation campaigns. (orig.) [de

  18. Distributed computing environment for Mine Warfare Command

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Lane L.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Mine Warfare Command in Charleston, South Carolina has been converting its information systems architecture from a centralized mainframe based system to a decentralized network of personal computers over the past several years. This thesis analyzes the progress Of the evolution as of May of 1992. The building blocks of a distributed architecture are discussed in relation to the choices the Mine Warfare Command has made to date. Ar...

  19. Data Mining Solutions for the Business Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra-Stefania PETRE

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, data mining became a matter of considerable importance due to the large amounts of data available in the applications belonging to various domains. Data mining, a dynamic and fast-expanding field, that applies advanced data analysis techniques, from statistics, machine learning, database systems or artificial intelligence, in order to discover relevant patterns, trends and relations contained within the data, information impossible to observe using other techniques. The p...

  20. Setup of a testing environment for mission planning in mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, J.P.J.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mission planning algorithms for surface mining applications are difficult to test as a result of the large scale tasks. To validate these algorithms, a scaled setup is created where the mining excavator is mimicked by an industrial robot. This report discusses the development of a software

  1. Safety and health in the Canadian mine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.G.; Hardcastle, S.G.

    1990-01-01

    CANMET's Mining Research Laboratories (MRL) in Elliot Lake and Bell's Corners, Ontario, with the cooperation of the mining industry, have contributed to improving environmental conditions in underground and surface mining and milling operations. The extent of collaboration and efforts vary widely from long-term, multi-million dollar projects between several interested parties to smaller projects involving one laboratory and a single mining operation. This paper gives examples of such collaborative efforts and potential future directions as they apply to mine ventilation analysis using tracer gas techniques, optimization of mine ventilation network efficiency using real-time monitoring and controlled recirculation (heat saving), respirable dust and radiation sampling and control techniques, diesel emission control using regenerative ceramic filters and, the control of sulphide dust explosions and resulting sulphur dioxide production. (27 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.)

  2. Mining-induced surface damage and the study of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jixian

    1994-01-01

    Coal constitutes China's major energy resource. The majority of the coal is produced from underground mining operations. Surface subsidence may amount to 80% of the thickness of the seam mined, while the subsided volume is around 60% of the mined volume underground. An area of 20 hectares of land will be affected with each 1 million tons of coal mined, thereby causing severe surface damage. Following a description of the characteristics of surface damages due to underground mining disturbance, this paper elaborates on the damage prediction method, standards applied for evaluating the damages experienced by surface buildings, land reclamation methods in subsided area, measures for reinforcing and protecting buildings in mining-affected areas, and performance of antideformation buildings

  3. Construction and modernization of underground and surface mines. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burshtein, N M

    1983-12-01

    Development of the Sredazugol' association in Soviet Central Asia from 1976 to 1985 is discussed. From 1976 to 1980 investment in the association amounted to 151 million rubles, 87.5 million of which fell on construction. Major development projects of the 1976-1980 period are reviewed: construction of new mining levels in underground coal mines, development of a number of operating surface mines, modernization of earthmoving and mining equipment, development of mine haulage by locomotives and railroad cars, improving occupational safety in coal mining, increasing slope stability in surface mining, especially in the area of the Atchinsk landslide in the Angren mine. From 1981 to 1985 investment in the Sredazugol' association should amount to 202 million rubles, of which 126 million rubles will be spent on construction. Investment will be 35% higher than in the 1976-1980 period and investment in mine construction 43% higher. The largest development project will be modernization of the Angren surface mine and increasing its targeted coal output from 5.2 Mt/y to 10.3 Mt/y by 1990. Modernization and reconstruction of the Angren mine will be carried out in 2 stages. Coal output of the mine will increase by 1.2 Mt/y in the current 5 year plan (by 1985), and by 3.9 Mt/y in the next 5 year period. Reconstruction and development of the Angren mine will cost approximately 254 million rubles. Mining and earthmoving equipment which will be used in the Angren mine is reviewed: EhRGV-630 bucket wheel excavators, EhSh-10/70 and EhSh-13/50 walking draglines, etc.

  4. Reforesting unused surface mined lands by replanting with native trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick N. Angel; James A. Burger; Carl E. Zipper; Scott Eggerud

    2012-01-01

    More than 600,000 ha (1.5 million ac) of mostly forested land in the Appalachian region were surface mined for coal under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Today, these lands are largely unmanaged and covered with persistent herbaceous species, such as fescue (Festuca spp.) and sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata [Dum. Cours.] G. Don,) and a mix of...

  5. Control of groundwater in surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, C. O.

    1982-03-01

    The presence of groundwater in surface mining operations often creates serious problems. The most important is generally a reduction in stability of the pit slopes. This is caused by pore water pressures and hydrodynamic shock due to blasting which reduce the shear strength and seepage pressures, water in tension cracks and increased unit weight which increase the shear stress. Groundwater and seepage also increase the cost of pit drainage, shipping, drilling and blasting, tyre wear and equipment maintenance. Surface erosion may also be increased and, in northern climates, ice flows on the slopes may occur. Procedures have been developed in the field of soil mechanics and engineering of dams to obtain quantitative data on pore water pressures and rock permeability, to evaluate the influence of pore water and seepage pressures on stability and to estimate the magnitude of ground-water flow. Based on field investigations, a design can be prepared for the control of groundwater in the slope and in the pit. Methods of control include the use of horizontal drains, blasted toe drains, construction of adits or drainage tunnels and pumping from wells in or outside of the pit. Recent research indicates that subsurface drainage can be augmented by applying a vacuum or by selective blasting. Instrumentation should be installed to monitor the groundwater changes created by drainage. Typical case histories are described that indicate the approach used to evaluate groundwater conditions.

  6. On 3D Geo-visualization of a Mine Surface Plant and Mine Roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia; FU Yongming; FU Erjiang

    2007-01-01

    Constructing the 3D virtual scene of a coal mine is the objective requirement for modernizing and processing information on coal mining production. It is also the key technology to establish a "digital mine". By exploring current worldwide research, software and hardware tools and application demands, combined with the case study site (the Dazhuang mine of Pingdingshan coal group), an approach for 3D geo-visualization of a mine surface plant and mine roadway is deeply discussed. In this study, the rapid modeling method for a large range virtual scene based on Arc/Info and SiteBuilder3D is studied, and automatic generation of a 3D scene from a 2D scene is realized. Such an automatic method which can convert mine roadway systems from 2D to 3D is realized for the Dazhuang mine. Some relevant application questions are studied, including attribute query, coordinate query, distance measure, collision detection and the dynamic interaction between 2D and 3D virtual scenes in the virtual scene of a mine surface plant and mine roadway. A prototype system is designed and developed.

  7. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  8. Potential utility of the thematic mapper for surface mine monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, J.R.; Lachowski, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    One of many potential applications of the thematic mapper (TM) is surface mine monitoring. To assess this potential, data acquired by an aircraft multispectral scanner over Pennsylvania surface mines were preprocessed to simulate the anticipated spectral, spatial, and radiometric characteristics of TM data. False color imagery and thematic maps were derived from the simulated data and compared to imagery and maps derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner subsystems data. On the basis of this comparison, TM data should definitely increase the detail and accuracy of remotely acquired surface mine information and may enable the remote determination of compliance with reclamation regulations

  9. Microbial communities in acid water environments of two mines, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengmu, Xiao; Xuehui, Xie [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); Jianshe, Liu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); School of Resources Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha (China)], E-mail: xiaoshengmu@gmail.com

    2009-03-15

    To understand the compositions and structures of microbial communities in different acid-aqueous environments, a PCR-based cloning approach was used. A total of five samples were collected from two mines in China. Two samples, named as G1 and G2, were acid mine drainage (AMD) samples and from Yunfu sulfide mine in Guangdong province, China. The rest of the three samples named as D1, DY and D3, were from three sites undertaking bioleaching in Yinshan lead-zinc mine in Jiangxi province, China. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that bacteria in the five samples fell into six putative divisions, which were {alpha}-Proteobacteria, {beta}-Proteobacteria, {gamma}-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Nitrospira. Archaea was only detected in the three samples from Yinshan lead-zinc mine, which fell into two phylogenentic divisions, Thermoplsma and Ferroplasma. In addition, the results of principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that more similar the geochemical properties in samples were, more similar microbial community structures in samples were. - Microbial community compositions in acid-aqueous environments from Chinese mines were studied, and the relationship with geochemical properties was obtained.

  10. Microbial communities in acid water environments of two mines, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shengmu; Xie Xuehui; Liu Jianshe

    2009-01-01

    To understand the compositions and structures of microbial communities in different acid-aqueous environments, a PCR-based cloning approach was used. A total of five samples were collected from two mines in China. Two samples, named as G1 and G2, were acid mine drainage (AMD) samples and from Yunfu sulfide mine in Guangdong province, China. The rest of the three samples named as D1, DY and D3, were from three sites undertaking bioleaching in Yinshan lead-zinc mine in Jiangxi province, China. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that bacteria in the five samples fell into six putative divisions, which were α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Nitrospira. Archaea was only detected in the three samples from Yinshan lead-zinc mine, which fell into two phylogenentic divisions, Thermoplsma and Ferroplasma. In addition, the results of principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that more similar the geochemical properties in samples were, more similar microbial community structures in samples were. - Microbial community compositions in acid-aqueous environments from Chinese mines were studied, and the relationship with geochemical properties was obtained

  11. Uranium mining in the Canadian social environment in the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board considers the health and safety of workers and members of the public to be of primary concern in the assessment of any proposed uranium mine or mill. Of great importance also is the influence mining practices may have on waste streams, subsequent waste management, and consequently the environment. Past mistakes and the reluctance of mining companies to talk openly to the public have resulted in the loss of credibility of the uranium mining industry. The public is subjected to the biased views of nuclear critics and does not have a balanced picture of the industry. The health hazards of radiation are generally overstated, and society is not willing to accept the small risks associated with nuclear power. Complete openness on the part of the industry and regulatory agencies will be required in order to regain public confidence

  12. Remote Mine Detection Technologies for Land and Water Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Eddie R.

    1999-05-11

    The detection of mines, both during and after hostilities, is a growing international problem. It limits military operations during wartime and unrecovered mines create tragic consequences for civilians. From a purely humanitarian standpoint an estimated 100 million or more unrecovered mines are located in over 60 countries worldwide. This paper presents an overview of some of the technologies currently being investigated by Sandia National Laboratories for the detection and monitoring of minefields in land and water environments. The three technical areas described in this paper are: 1) the development of new mathematical techniques for combining or fusing the data from multiple sources for enhanced decision-making; 2) an environmental fate and transport (EF&T) analysis approach that is central to improving trace chemical sensing technique; and 3) the investigation of an underwater range imaging device to aid in locating and characterizing mines and other obstacles in coastal waters.

  13. Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Microbiology of Molybdenum in Mining-Affected Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Frascoli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum is an essential element for life, with growing production due to a constantly expanding variety of industrial applications. The potentially harmful effects of Mo on the environment, and on human and ecosystem health, require knowledge of Mo behavior in mining-affected environments. Mo is usually present in trace amounts in ore deposits, but mining exploitation can lead to wastes with very high Mo concentrations (up to 4000 mg/kg Mo for tailings, as well as soil, sediments and water contamination in surrounding areas. In mine wastes, molybdenum is liberated from sulfide mineral oxidation and can be sorbed onto secondary Fe(III-minerals surfaces (jarosite, schwertmannite, ferrihydrite at moderately acidic waters, or taken up in secondary minerals such as powellite and wulfenite at neutral to alkaline pH. To date, no Mo-metabolising bacteria have been isolated from mine wastes. However, laboratory and in-situ experiments in other types of contaminated land have suggested that several Mo-reducing and -oxidising bacteria may be involved in the cycling of Mo in and from mine wastes, with good potential for bioremediation. Overall, a general lack of data is highlighted, emphasizing the need for further research on the contamination, geochemistry, bio-availability and microbial cycling of Mo in mining-affected environments to improve environmental management and remediation actions.

  14. On-Site Radon Detection of Mining-induced Fractures from Overlying Strata to the Surface: A Case Study of the Baoshan Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale longwall mining of shallow coal seams may cause mining-induced fractures that can project completely through to the surface. This could lead to a series of mine safety and environmental issues, further deteriorating the already fragile ecological environment in the Western mining areas in China. Therefore, an accurate and effective understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution law of mining-induced fractures in overlying strata and its relationship to upper aquifers is critical. In this paper, the application of the geophysical-chemical properties of radon in mining engineering is explored as a potential solution to the shortcomings of existing surveying methods. A radioactive measurement method is proposed for the detection of the development of mining-induced fractures from overlying strata to the surface in the Baoshan Coal Mine (BCM. The on-site test indicated that the first weighting step is approximately 60 m, the average periodic weighting step is approximately 20 m, and the influence coverage of the advanced abutment pressure is approximately 30 m. The presented method could be used as an indirect technical support to increase the safety of coal mining by acting as a simple, fast, and reliable method of detecting mining-induced fractures in overlying strata.

  15. The Effect of Mining Activity on the Surface in the Safety Shaft Pillar Area of Mayrau Mine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Živor, Roman; Klos, Pavel; Pechoč, Jiří; Brož, Milan

    M-24(340) (2002), s. 227-235 ISSN 0138-015X. [Polish-Czech-Slovakian Symposium on Mining Geophysics /28./. Niedzica, 11.06.2001-13.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3086005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : shaft pillar * mining * surface subsidence Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  16. Acid mine drainage arising from gold mining activity in Johannesburg, South Africa and environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naicker, K.; Cukrowska, E.; McCarthy, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water within the mining district is heavily contaminated and acidified. - The Witwatersrand region of South Africa is famous for its gold production and a major conurbation, centred on Johannesburg, has developed as a result of mining activity. A study was undertaken of surface and ground water in a drainage system in this area. Soils were also analysed from a site within the mining district. This study revealed that the ground water within the mining district is heavily contaminated and acidified as a result of oxidation of pyrite (FeS 2 ) contained within mine tailings dumps, and has elevated concentrations of heavy metals. Where the water table is close to surface, the upper 20 cm of soil profiles are severely contaminated by heavy metals due to capillary rise and evaporation of the ground water. The polluted ground water is discharging into streams in the area and contributes up to 20% of stream discharge, causing a lowering of pH of the stream water. Much of the metal load is precipitated in the stream: Fe and Mn precipitate as a consequence of oxidation, while other heavy metals are being removed by co-precipitation. The oxidation of iron has created a redox buffer which controls the pH of the stream water. The rate of oxidation and of dilution is slow and the deleterious effect of the addition of contaminated water persists for more than 10 km beyond the source

  17. Development of a new methodology for mitigating acid mine drainage (AMD) at reclaimed surface mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackman, T.E.; Kim, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    A 1.2 hectare (ha) experimental site located on a 14.5 ha reclaimed surface mine in Greene County, PA was injected with a 141 cubic meters (m 3 ) of fly ash and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash grout that included acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge. An evaluation of this AMD abatement approach by the Bureau of Mines found that the average net acidity and concentrations of several metal ions at the discharge seep and monitoring wells decreased after grouting. Changes in metal concentrations were assumed to be related to alkaline addition and/or encapsulation. Initial results indicate that this technique is potentially an effective AMD abatement method

  18. Noise pollution in opencast mines - its impact on human environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, D.P.; Patnaik, N.K.

    1994-01-01

    Noise could be defined as sound without agreeable musical quality or as unwanted sound. The problem of noise has been accentuated in the mining industry due to increased mechanisation. In opencast mines, noise is generated in almost all the mining operations, becoming thereby an integral part of the mining environment. Prolonged exposure to high levels of noise (>90dBA) proves harmful and may culminate in NIHL. Noise may also bring about other physiological disorders which could lead to irritability and lowering of efficiency. Before initiating any administrative, engineering and medical measures against the noise hazards, noise surveys are essential. They help in identifying the noise pollution sources and quantifying the risk exposures of workers. Effective antinoise measures can accordingly be formulated and implemented. The present paper discusses the results of noise studies in a limestone and dolomite quarry and analyses the SPL (dBA) produced by different machinery in this mine. Further, it focuses on the adverse effects of noise and lists the instruments available for noise monitoring. It also presents the noise standards recommended in India and abroad and suggests the noise abatement strategies to be adopted for protecting the workers against NHL. 7 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs., 1 app

  19. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  1. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by Act of Congress. 937.761 Section 937.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  2. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 912.761 Section 912.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  3. Measurement Techniques for Radon in Mines, Dwellings and the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1983-06-01

    Definitions and units appropriate for radon and radon daughters are given. The principle methods of detection are ionization chamber, scintillation technique, nuclear track detector, thermoluminescent discs and alpha spectrometry. The activity concentration is determined by grab sampling and subsequent measurement, frequent or continuous grab sampling and measurement and continuous sampling and long time integrated measurement. Sampling and measurement strategies for mines, dwellings and the environment are discussed. (author)

  4. Integrated system of production information processing for surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Wang, S.; Zeng, Z.; Wei, J.; Ren, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept of Mining Engineering

    2000-09-01

    Based on the concept of geological statistic, mathematical program, condition simulation, system engineering, and the features and duties of each main department in surface mine production, an integrated system for surface mine production information was studied systematically and developed by using the technology of data warehousing, CAD, object-oriented and system integration, which leads to the systematizing and automating of the information management, data processing, optimization computing and plotting. In this paper, its overall object, system design, structure and functions and some key techniques were described. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Disposing of coal combustion residues in inactive surface mines: Effects on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.; Ackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) in surface and underground coal mines can provide a stable, low-maintenance alternative to landfills, benefiting the mining and electric power industries. The material may be able to improve water quality at acid generating abandoned or reclaimed coal mine sites. Most combustion residues are alkaline, and their addition to the subsurface environment could raise the pH, limiting the propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reducing the rate of acid generation. Many of these CCR are also pozzolanic, capable of forming cementitious grouts. Grouts injected into the buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. Both mechanisms, alkaline addition and water diversion, are capable of reducing the amount of acid produced at the disposal site. The US Bureau of Mines is cooperating in a test of subsurface injection of CCR into a reclaimed surface mine. Initially, a mixture of fly ash, lime, and acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge was injected. Lime was the source of calcium for the formation of the pozzolanic grout. Changes in water quality parameters (pH, acidity, anions, and trace metals) in water samples from wells and seeps indicate a small but significant improvement after CCR injection. Changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the water flowing across the site were apparently influenced by the presence of flyash

  6. Process for integrating surface drainage constraints on mine planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawatsky, L.F; Ade, F.L.; McDonald, D.M.; Pullman, B.J. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Surface drainage for mine closures must be considered during all phases of mine planning and design in order to minimize environmental impacts and reduce costs. This paper discussed methods of integrating mine drainage criteria and associated mine planning constraints into the mine planning process. Drainage constraints included stream diversions; fish compensation channels; collection receptacles for the re-use of process water; separation of closed circuit water from fresh water; and the provision of storage ponds. The geomorphic approach replicated the ability of natural channels to respond to local and regional changes in hydrology as well as channel disturbances from extreme flood events, sedimentation, debris, ice jams, and beaver activity. The approach was designed to enable a sustainable system and provide conveyance capacity for extreme floods without spillage to adjacent watersheds. Channel dimensions, bank and bed materials, sediment loads, bed material supplies and the hydrologic conditions of the analogue stream were considered. Hydrologic analyses were conducted to determine design flood flow. Channel routes, valley slopes, sinuosity, width, and depth were established. It was concluded that by incorporating the geomorphic technique, mine operators and designers can construct self-sustaining drainage systems that require little or no maintenance in the long-term. 7 refs.

  7. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for... inspections and investigations in coal or other mines shall be made each year for the purposes of, among other...

  8. Arsenic-Microbe-Mineral Interactions in Mining-Affected Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson-Edwards

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The toxic element arsenic (As occurs widely in solid and liquid mine wastes. Aqueous forms of arsenic are taken up in As-bearing sulfides, arsenides, sulfosalts, oxides, oxyhydroxides, Fe-oxides, -hydroxides, -oxyhydroxides and -sulfates, and Fe-, Ca-Fe- and other arsenates. Although a considerable body of research has demonstrated that microbes play a significant role in the precipitation and dissolution of these As-bearing minerals, and in the alteration of the redox state of As, in natural and simulated mining environments, the molecular-scale mechanisms of these interactions are still not well understood. Further research is required using traditional and novel mineralogical, spectroscopic and microbiological techniques to further advance this field, and to help design remediation schemes.

  9. Construct mine environment monitoring system based on wireless mesh network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Ge, Gengyu; Liu, Yinmei; Cheng, Aimin; Wu, Jun; Fu, Jun

    2018-04-01

    The system uses wireless Mesh network as a network transmission medium, and strive to establish an effective and reliable underground environment monitoring system. The system combines wireless network technology and embedded technology to monitor the internal data collected in the mine and send it to the processing center for analysis and environmental assessment. The system can be divided into two parts: the main control network module and the data acquisition terminal, and the SPI bus technology is used for mutual communication between them. Multi-channel acquisition and control interface design Data acquisition and control terminal in the analog signal acquisition module, digital signal acquisition module, and digital signal output module. The main control network module running Linux operating system, in which the transplant SPI driver, USB card driver and AODV routing protocol. As a result, the internal data collection and reporting of the mine are realized.

  10. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Bascompta, Marc; Rossell, Josep M; Anticoi, Hernán Francisco; Guash, Eduard

    2018-03-07

    An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector-either surface or underground mining-based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents.

  11. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  12. Chapter 10: Establishing native trees on legacy surface mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Burger; C.E. Zipper; P.N. Angel; N. Hall; J.G. Skousen; C.D. Barton; S. Eggerud

    2017-01-01

    More than 1 million acres have been surface mined for coal in the Appalachian region. Today, much of this land is unmanaged, unproductive, and covered with nonnative plants. Establishing productive forests on such lands will aid restoration of ecosystem services provided by forests—services such as watershed protection, water quality enhancement, carbon storage, and...

  13. Energy utilization in surface mining project : with case study illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.K.; De, Amitosh

    1992-01-01

    The importance of reducing energy consumption per tonne of output in the mining projects needs an innovative approach and style to change the behaviour and postures of the technical characteristics. The need for suitable energy policy can not be overlooked with the addition of new large size surface mining projects having a lot of technological development. But the immediate prescription to the problem is to pinpoint specific high energy consuming areas prefixed by thorough diagnosis and followed by deep scientific thought into it. To that extent this paper makes a primary attempt to characterise the various problems. (author). 7 tabs

  14. Optimization of shovel-truck system for surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercelebi, S.G.; Bascetin, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-15

    In surface mining operations, truck haulage is the largest item in the operating costs, constituting 50 to 60% of the total. In order to reduce this cost, it is necessary to allocate and dispatch the trucks efficiently. This paper describes shovel and truck operation models and optimization approaches for the allocation and dispatching of trucks under various operating conditions. Closed queuing network theory is employed for the allocation of trucks and linear programming for the purpose of truck dispatching to shovels. A case study was applied for the Orhaneli open Pit Coal Mine in Turkey. This approach would provide the capability of estimating system performance measures (mine throughput, mean number of trucks, mean waiting time, etc.) for planning purposes when the truck fleet is composed of identical trucks. A computational study is presented to show how choosing the optimum number of trucks and optimum dispatching policy affect the cost of moving material in a truck-shovel system.

  15. Simultaneous caving and surface restoration system for oil shale mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allsman, P.T.

    1968-10-01

    A modified caving method is introduced for mining oil shale and simultaneous restoration of the land surface by return of spent shale onto the subsided area. Other methods have been designed to mine the relatively thin richer beds occurring near outcrops in the Piceance Creek Basin of NW. Colorado. Since the discovery of the much thicker beds in the N.-central part of the basin, some attention has focused on in situ and open-pit methods of recovery. Although caving has been recognized as a possible means of mining shale, most people have been skeptical of its success. This stems from the unknown and salient factors of cavability and size of broken rock with caving. Wisdom would seem to dictate that serious evaluation of the caving method be made along with the other methods.

  16. Underground coal mine subsidence impacts on surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, D.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that subsidence from underground coal mining alters surface water discharge and availability. The magnitude and areal extent of these impacts are dependent on many factors, including the amount of subsidence, topography, geology, climate, surface water - ground water interactions, and fractures in the overburden. There alterations may have positive and/or negative impacts. One of the most significant surface water impacts occurred in July 1957 near West Pittston, Pennsylvania. Subsidence in the Knox Mine under the Coxton Yards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad allowed part of the discharge in the Susquehanna River to flow into the mine and create a crater 200 feet in diameter and 300 feet deep. Fourteen railroad gondola cars fell into the hole which was eventually filled with rock, sand, and gravel. Other surface water impacts from subsidence may include the loss of water to the ground water system, the gaining of water from the ground water system, the creation of flooded subsidence troughs, the increasing of impoundment storage capacity, the relocation of water sources (springs), and the alteration of surface drainage patterns

  17. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Sanmiquel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector—either surface or underground mining—based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents.

  18. Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Bascompta, Marc; Rossell, Josep M.; Anticoi, Hernán Francisco; Guash, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector—either surface or underground mining—based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents. PMID:29518921

  19. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 942.761 Section 942.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  20. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 903.761 Section 903.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining...

  1. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 910.761 Section 910.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  2. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 921.761 Section 921.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  3. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 947.761 Section 947.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  4. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 939.761 Section 939.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  5. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 941.761 Section 941.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  6. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 922.761 Section 922.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  7. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 905.761 Section 905.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  8. Assessment of the impact of underground mining on ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomik, Arvi

    1999-01-01

    The mine able oil shale bed is located in horizontally lying Ordovician limestones at a depth of 10-60 meters from the ground surface. Limestones are covered with Quaternary sediments, mainly till and loam, sporadically seams of clay occur. The overburden rocks of oil shale bed are jointed limestones with weak contacts between layers. The upper part of limestones is weakened additionally due to weathering to depths of 10-20 metres. Ground movements caused by mining reach the ground surface easily due to the shallow location of workings. The size and nature of these movements depend on mining and roof control methods used. In this study the impact of geotechnical processes on the ground surface caused by four different mining methods is analysed. A new, artificial micro relief is formed on undermined areas, where the ground surface depressions are alternating with rising grounds. When the Quaternary cover contains loamy sediments, the surface (rain) water will accumulate in the depressions. The response of usable lands on undermined areas depends on the degree of changes in the relief and water regime. There exists a maximum degree (limit) of changes of ground movements in case of which the changes in land use are not yet considerable. The factor of land deterioration was developed for arable and forest lands taking into account the character and degree of negative impacts. When no one deterioration factor exceeds the limit, the value of arable land will be 1.0 (100%). When some factor exceeds the limit, then water logging in subsidence troughs will diminish the value to 0.7, slopes to 0.8 and the area of weathered basic rocks to 0.9. In case of a combined effect of all these factors the value of arable land will fall to 0.5. As the long-term character of ground movement after room and pillar mining is not yet established, the factor for quasi stable areas is taken preliminarily as 0.9. Using detailed plans of mined out areas and the proposed factors, it is possible

  9. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mining sites and mining operations vary widely with respect to topography, climate, surrounding land uses... and mining operations. 216.4 Section 216.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING, AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216...

  10. Weathering behavior of mine tailings and waste rock: A surface investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domvile, S.J.; Li, M.G.; Sollner, D.D.; Nesbitt, W.

    1994-01-01

    A study focusing on the ion movement in the near surface of sulfide minerals was conducted to better understand the weathering mechanisms of mine waste materials. Tailings and waste rock samples from Canadian mines were subjected to controlled weathering studies using various chemical leachants. Leachates were analyzed for various parameters, and petrographic analyses were conducted on the solid residues. Laboratory oxidation studies of pure pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite were carried out using the surface techniques X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The data derived from the weathering study and the surface techniques were correlated to determine mechanisms of oxidation. Several results were observed during the project: ferric iron constitutes one third of the iron present in pyrrhotite, sulfide oxidation is initiated when rock is blasted, sulfide sulfur is oxidized to di- and poly-sulfides prior to forming sulfates, and significantly more sulfate is produced upon exposure to aqueous environments than to air alone

  11. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Application of γ field theory based calculation method to the monitoring of mine nuclear radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yanjun; Liu Qingcheng; Liu Hongzhang; Qin Guoxiu

    2009-01-01

    In order to find the feasibility of calculating mine radiation dose based on γ field theory, this paper calculates the γ radiation dose of a mine by means of γ field theory based calculation method. The results show that the calculated radiation dose is of small error and can be used to monitor mine environment of nuclear radiation. (authors)

  13. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  14. Comments on Interior’s Surface Mining Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-05

    regulations and responses to pro- posed regulati n, (2) identified studies on cost/benefit analy- sis of environme ital regulations and selected ...agricultural production at the national level, in some rural counties essentially the entire area is underlain with strippable coal. obviously, surface mining...1980).) Illinois, which has the most strippable coal reserves underlying prime farmland, has two heavily worked coal seams which are continuous. One

  15. Slope failures in surface mines, methods of studying landslides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flisiak, J; Korman, S; Mazurek, J

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a review of methods of measuring landslide fissures, displacement of ground surface points in the landslide area and of points inside the landslide. An analysis of the landslide process is given, stressing various stages and phases of a landslide. Studies carried out by the Institute of Mining Geomechanics of the Technical University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow are evaluated. The studies concentrated on the final state of slopes in brown coal surface mines after a landslide occurs. The necessity of developing an apparatus for continuous recording of displacements of points on a landslide surface is stressed. An apparatus developed by the Institute and used for continuous measuring and recording of displacements is described. The apparatus is used to measure displacements of points during the initial phase of a landslide and during the phase of the largest displacements. The principle of the system consists in locating a number of observation points on the ground and a slope. The points are connected among themselves by flexible connectors. The connectors are equipped with potentiometric transmitters which transform the relative displacements into electric pulses. These pulses are recorded by a conventional recording apparatus. (55 refs.) (In Polish)

  16. Influence of surface water accumulations of the Stupnica creek on underground coal mining in the Durdevic coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valjarevic, R; Urosevic, V

    1986-01-01

    Discusses hydrological, geological and mining conditions at the Durdevic underground coal mine. A landslide at a spoil bank dammed the creek flowing above the mine. Two exploratory boreholes (62 m and 68 m) were drilled for hydrological investigations. Water coloring techniques, chemical water analysis, measurement of underground water level and water flow were used to determine whether a sudden inrush of rainfall and accumulated surface water could endanger the mine. Underground water inflow to mine rooms varies from 110-200 m/sup 3//min, depending on the season. Diversion of the creek bed with the accumulated water and accumulation and subsequent drainage of surface water via large diameter concrete pipes were considered as possible ways of improving safety in the mine. Details of these projects are included. 4 refs.

  17. Effects of radiation on coal mine environment -a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Varma, N.K.; Sahay, N.; Ahmad, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to mass-scale industrialization, world's environment is being polluted every day endangering the existence of living beings on the earth. This has attracted the attention of environmental engineers, medical practitioners, planners and researchers throughout the world. Attempts are being made to make air, water and atmosphere clean and to prevent likely hazards arising out of various industrial activities. In addition, the radiation from natural sources is all around us and has been here since time immemorial. Coal miners have small occupational radiation which arise from naturally occurring radioactive substance(s) underground. The predominant source of natural radiation present in coal mines is the radon gas. This paper describes the origin of radon and its radiological hazards. An attempt has been made to review the status of the problem likely to be caused by the different radioactive elements present in Indian coal, coal ash and allied coal-based industries. (author)

  18. Biotype assessment and evaluation as a method to quantify the external costs related to surface brown coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabrna, M.; Peleska, O.

    2009-01-01

    Externalities express the uncompensated effects of human individuals on each other and on nature. Externalities include costs and benefits which impact human individuals and environment and are not included in the costs and benefits of their creators and are often defined as the differences between social costs or revenues from economic activity and private costs or revenues. Surface brown coal mining can be characterized by a large range of adverse environmental effects. In order to compensate for the environmental damage caused by mining activities in the Czech Republic, various environmental fees paid by mining companies were introduced to the Czech legislation. The Hessian method of quantifying impacts on the environment is an expert methods that is appropriate for the evaluating environmental damage caused by large-scale impacts on landscape. This paper described the methodology of the Hessian method and its application to a selected opencast mine in north-western Bohemia called the Vrsany-Sverma mine. The paper also discussed current environmental charges in the Czech Republic. It was concluded that the calculated amount of environmental damage caused by surface mining balances the amount of environmental fees currently paid by mining companies. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  19. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mining operations vary widely with respect to topography, climate, surrounding land uses, proximity to... surface exploration and mining operations. 23.5 Section 23.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.5 Technical examination...

  20. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 933.761 Section 933.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with...

  1. 30 CFR 942.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required for postmining water treatment must remain bonded. However, the trust fund or annuity may serve as... coal mining and reclamation operations. 942.800 Section 942.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING...

  2. Ways of increasing safety in mining at the Berezovskii-1 surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, N N; Malyarenko, V I

    1986-12-01

    Methods are descrubed wgucg were developed to alleviate or prevent the effects of landslides in a Kansk-Achinsk surface mine. Such a landslide took place in 1983 at the Berezovskii-1 mine when 250 m of an excavation trench suffered a collapse involving 680,000 mT of materials. Surveys revealed large zones of flooded ground with high proportions of argillites and aleurolites which swell in the presence of water. To keep costs down, a method using gravity is proposed for safety of re-excavation work near spoil banks. In this method a pillar of rock is left at the base of the spoil bank, the edge of the slope of which is moved back from the trench. Hard rock is placed at the leading edge of the spoil bank. The stability factor of the trench side may be raised from 0.87 to 1.12, and this is accompanied by savings in labor and costs.

  3. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. A.; McGibbney, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mining is known to cause environmental degradation, but software tools to identify its impacts are lacking. However, remote sensing, spectral reflectance, and geographic data are readily available, and high-performance cloud computing resources exist for scientific research. Coal and Open-pit surface mining impacts on American Lands (COAL) provides a suite of algorithms and documentation to leverage these data and resources to identify evidence of mining and correlate it with environmental impacts over time.COAL was originally developed as a 2016 - 2017 senior capstone collaboration between scientists at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and computer science students at Oregon State University (OSU). The COAL team implemented a free and open-source software library called "pycoal" in the Python programming language which facilitated a case study of the effects of coal mining on water resources. Evidence of acid mine drainage associated with an open-pit coal mine in New Mexico was derived by correlating imaging spectrometer data from the JPL Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer - Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG), spectral reflectance data published by the USGS Spectroscopy Laboratory in the USGS Digital Spectral Library 06, and GIS hydrography data published by the USGS National Geospatial Program in The National Map. This case study indicated that the spectral and geospatial algorithms developed by COAL can be used successfully to analyze the environmental impacts of mining activities.Continued development of COAL has been promoted by a Startup allocation award of high-performance computing resources from the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE). These resources allow the team to undertake further benchmarking, evaluation, and experimentation using multiple XSEDE resources. The opportunity to use computational infrastructure of this caliber will further enable the development of a science gateway to continue foundational COAL

  4. The Impact of Mining Activity upon the Aquatic Environment in the Southern Apuseni Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIGISMUND DUMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Apuseni Mountains, mining activities have taken place since Antiquity, leaving their marks upon the natural environment, the aquatic one inclusively. If the traditional technologies had a low impact upon the aquatic environment, the ones in the modern period have affected it up to the “dead water” level. It is about the disorganization of the hydrographical basins and especially about aggressive pollution of surface waters with some of the most toxic chemical substances such as cyanides, as well as by an increase in the contents of metallic ions, chlorides, sulphides, sulphates, suspensions and fixed residuum. The decrease in pH, and implicitly the acidification of waters, is also remarkable. It must be mentioned that no systematic studies of the impact of mining activities upon the aquatic environment have been conducted in the area in the last years. In these conditions, the data about water quality have been taken over from the studies conducted by author between 1996 and 1998. The cause of the lack of concern in the field is no other but the cease in ore valorization activities in the majority of the mining objectives in the area. As none of the tailings settling ponds has guard canals, the direct pluvial waters and the ones drained from the slopes transport tailings with noxes which they subsequently discharge in the local pluvial network. In these conditions, both the quality of the mine waters which run freely into the emissary and of the ones that flow from the waste dumps remain mainly in the qualitative parameters analyzed and presented in the study.

  5. Uranium mining in the Canadian social environment in the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-11-01

    Factors considered by the author to be responsible for the image crisis being experienced by all types of mining are discussed. The additional problems introduced by the presence of radiation in uranium mining are detailed along with the associated regulatory concerns. The Canadian regulatory system as it pertains to uranium mining is outlined very generally, followed by the author's views on improving the image of both uranium mining and the nuclear industry as a whole

  6. The viability of business data mining in the sports environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data mining can be viewed as the process of extracting previously unknown information from large databases and utilising this information to make crucial business decisions (Simoudis, 1996: 26). This paper considers the viability of using data mining tools and techniques in sports, particularly with regard to mining the ...

  7. Environmental impact of coal mining on the natural environment in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysocka, M.; Chalupnik, S.; Michalik, B.; Skowronek, J.; Skubacz, K.

    2002-01-01

    Saline waters occurring in underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226 Ra from uranium series and 228 Ra from thorium series. Approximately 40% of total amount of radium remains underground in a form of radioactive deposits, but 225 MBq of 226 Ra and 400 MBq of 228 Ra are released daily to the rivers with mine effluents. Technical measures as spontaneous precipitation of radium in gobs, decreasing of amounts of water inflows into underground working etc. have been undertaken in several coal mines and as the result total amount of radium released to the surface waters diminished of about 60% during last 5-6 years. Mine waters can cause a severe impact on the natural environment, mainly due to its salinity. But also the enhancement of radium concentration in river waters, bottom sediments and vegetation is observed. Sometimes radium concentration in rivers exceeds 0.7 kBq/m 3 , which is due to Polish law a permissible level for waste waters. The extended investigations were performed in all coal mines and on this basis the radium balance in effluents has been calculated. Measurements done in the vicinity of mine water's settling ponds and in rivers gave us an opportunity to survey radium behaviour in river waters and the range of contamination. Solid waste materials with enhanced natural radioactivity have been produced in huge amounts in power and coal industries in Poland. There are two main sources of these waste products. As a result of combustion of coal in power plants low radioactive waste materials are produced, with 226 Ra concentration seldom exceeding few hundreds of Bq/kg. Different situation is observed in coal mines, where as a result of precipitation of radium from radium-bearing waters radioactive deposits are formed. Sometimes natural radioactivity of such materials is very high, in case of scaling from coal mines radium concentration may reach 400 000 Bq/kg - similar activity as for 3% uranium ore

  8. Mapping informal small-scale mining features in a data-sparse tropical environment with a small UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Dewitt, Jessica D.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of a small unmanned aerial system (UAS) to collect imagery over artisanal mining sites in West Africa. The purpose of this study is to consider how very high-resolution imagery and digital surface models (DSMs) derived from structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques from a small UAS can fill the gap in geospatial data collection between satellite imagery and data gathered during field work to map and monitor informal mining sites in tropical environments. The study compares both wide-angle and narrow field of view camera systems in the collection and analysis of high-resolution orthoimages and DSMs of artisanal mining pits. The results of the study indicate that UAS imagery and SfM photogrammetric techniques permit DSMs to be produced with a high degree of precision and relative accuracy, but highlight the challenges of mapping small artisanal mining pits in remote and data sparse terrain.

  9. Landuse change detection in a surface coal mine area using multi-temporal high resolution satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, N.; Duzgun, S.; Kemal Emil, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the landcover and landuse of a mine area can be caused by surface mining activities, exploitation of ore and stripping and dumping overburden. In order to identify the long-term impacts of mining on the environment and land cover, these changes must be continuously monitored. A facility to regularly observe the progress of surface mining and reclamation is important for effective enforcement of mining and environmental regulations. Remote sensing provides a powerful tool to obtain rigorous data and reduce the need for time-consuming and expensive field measurements. The purpose of this study was to conduct post classification change detection for identifying, quantifying, and analyzing the spatial response of landscape due to surface lignite coal mining activities in Goynuk, Bolu, Turkey, from 2004 to 2008. The paper presented the research algorithm which involved acquiring multi temporal high resolution satellite data; preprocessing the data; performing image classification using maximum likelihood classification algorithm and performing accuracy assessment on the classification results; performing post classification change detection algorithm; and analyzing the results. Specifically, the paper discussed the study area, data and methodology, and image preprocessing using radiometric correction. Image classification and change detection were also discussed. It was concluded that the mine and dump area decreased by 192.5 ha from 2004 to 2008 and was caused by the diminishing reserves in the area and decline in the required production. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Intervention strategies to eliminate truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Kecojevic, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to build upon a previous study on the root causes of truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining operations in West Virginia, and to develop intervention strategies to eliminate these fatalities. This review considers a two-pronged approach to accident prevention: one that is fundamental and traditional (safety regulations, training and education, and engineering of the work environment); and one that is innovative and creative (e.g., applying technological advances to better control and eliminate the root causes of accidents). Suggestions for improving current training and education system are proposed, and recommendations are provided on improving the safety of mine working conditions, specifically safety conditions on haul roads, dump sites, and loading areas. We also discuss various currently available technologies that can help prevent haul truck-related fatal accidents. The results of this review should be used by mine personnel to help create safer working conditions and decrease truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining.

  11. Description of the physical environment an coal-mining history of West-Central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Crawford, Charles G.; Duwelius, Richard F.; Renn, Danny E.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the physical and human environment and coal-mining history of west-central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds selected for study of the hydrologic effects of surface coal mining. The report summarizes information on the geology, geomorphology, soils, climate, hydrology, water use, land use, population, and coal-mining history of Clay, Owen, Sullivan, and Vigo Counties in Indiana. Site-specific information is given on the morphology, geology, soils, land use, coal-mining history, and hydrologic instrumentation of the six watersheds, which are each less than 3 square miles in area.

  12. Soil bioengineering methods for abandoned mine land surface drainage channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotir, R.B.; Simms, A.P.; Sweigard, R.J.; Hammer, P.; Graves, D.H.; Adkins, M. [Robbin B. Sotir & Associates, Marietta, GA (USA)

    1999-07-01

    Research to determine the suitability of soil bioengineering for slope stabilization at abandoned surface mining sites is described. The technology uses live woody plant material as a structural component, in this case live fascine with coir erosion control fabric made from coconut. A large water collection pond draining to nine channels on the slope below was constructed as a test site. The pond has drainage channels for testing at low, intermediate, and steep slope grades. Each group of three channels is composed of one riprap rock channel, one gabion channel, and one soil bioengineering channel. The channels will be tested summer 1999. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs., 8 photos.

  13. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecka Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV. The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  14. Evaluation of environment benefits based on new-type mining of coal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Futong; Ren, Zaixiang

    2017-08-01

    According to the energy structure characteristics in China, this paper analyzed the current situation of liquefaction and gasification exploitation of coal as an emerging mining method. Simultaneously, setting the UCG (UCG) as an example, this paper analyzed the factors impacting the new-type mining method of coal resources and the mining damages, obtaining that the main damages of UCG include surface subsidence, groundwater pollution and other pollution. This paper, which proposed to evaluate the environmental benefits of the new-type mining method, established a evaluation system of environmental benefits of UCG and adopted fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, obtaining four-class comprehensive evaluation indexes of the new-type mining method.

  15. The impact of unconfined mine tailings in residential areas from a mining town in a semi-arid environment: Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Maier, Raina M; de la O-Villanueva, Margarita; Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Moreno-Zazueta, Alan; Rivera, Jacinto; Campillo, Alberto; Grandlic, Christopher J; Anaya, Ricardo; Palafox-Reyes, Juan

    2009-09-01

    Past mining activities in northern Mexico left a legacy of delerict landscapes devoid of vegetation and seasonal formation of salt efflorescence. Metal content was measured in mine tailings, efflorescent salts, soils, road dust, and residential soils to investigate contamination. Climatic effects such as heavy wind and rainfall events can have great impact on the dispersion of metals in semi-arid areas, since soils are typically sparsely vegetated. Geochemical analysis of this site revealed that even though total metal content in mine tailings was relatively low (e.g. Cu= 1000 mg kg(-1)), metals including Mn, Ba, Zn, and Cu were all found at significantly higher levels in efflorescence salts formed by evaporation on the tailings impoundment surface following the rainy season (e.g. Cu= 68,000 mg kg(-1)). Such efflorescent fine-grained salts are susceptible to wind erosion resulting in increased metal spread to nearby residential soils. Our results highlight the importance of seasonally dependent salt-formation and wind erosion in determining risk levels associated with potential inhalation or ingestion of airborne particulates originating from contaminated sites such as tailings impoundments. In low metal-content mine tailings located in arid and semi-arid environments, efflorescence salts could represent a human health risk and a challenge for plant establishment in mine tailings.

  16. Seqenv: linking sequences to environments through text mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Lucas; Ijaz, Umer Z; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Coolen, Marco J L; Gubry-Rangin, Cecile; Chroňáková, Alica; Oulas, Anastasis; Pavloudi, Christina; Schnetzer, Julia; Weimann, Aaron; Ijaz, Ali; Eiler, Alexander; Quince, Christopher; Pafilis, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of taxa and associated traits across different environments is one of the central questions in microbial ecology. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) studies are presently generating huge volumes of data to address this biogeographical topic. However, these studies are often focused on specific environment types or processes leading to the production of individual, unconnected datasets. The large amounts of legacy sequence data with associated metadata that exist can be harnessed to better place the genetic information found in these surveys into a wider environmental context. Here we introduce a software program, seqenv, to carry out precisely such a task. It automatically performs similarity searches of short sequences against the "nt" nucleotide database provided by NCBI and, out of every hit, extracts-if it is available-the textual metadata field. After collecting all the isolation sources from all the search results, we run a text mining algorithm to identify and parse words that are associated with the Environmental Ontology (EnvO) controlled vocabulary. This, in turn, enables us to determine both in which environments individual sequences or taxa have previously been observed and, by weighted summation of those results, to summarize complete samples. We present two demonstrative applications of seqenv to a survey of ammonia oxidizing archaea as well as to a plankton paleome dataset from the Black Sea. These demonstrate the ability of the tool to reveal novel patterns in HTS and its utility in the fields of environmental source tracking, paleontology, and studies of microbial biogeography. To install seqenv, go to: https://github.com/xapple/seqenv.

  17. Seqenv: linking sequences to environments through text mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Sinclair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of taxa and associated traits across different environments is one of the central questions in microbial ecology. High-throughput sequencing (HTS studies are presently generating huge volumes of data to address this biogeographical topic. However, these studies are often focused on specific environment types or processes leading to the production of individual, unconnected datasets. The large amounts of legacy sequence data with associated metadata that exist can be harnessed to better place the genetic information found in these surveys into a wider environmental context. Here we introduce a software program, seqenv, to carry out precisely such a task. It automatically performs similarity searches of short sequences against the “nt” nucleotide database provided by NCBI and, out of every hit, extracts–if it is available–the textual metadata field. After collecting all the isolation sources from all the search results, we run a text mining algorithm to identify and parse words that are associated with the Environmental Ontology (EnvO controlled vocabulary. This, in turn, enables us to determine both in which environments individual sequences or taxa have previously been observed and, by weighted summation of those results, to summarize complete samples. We present two demonstrative applications of seqenv to a survey of ammonia oxidizing archaea as well as to a plankton paleome dataset from the Black Sea. These demonstrate the ability of the tool to reveal novel patterns in HTS and its utility in the fields of environmental source tracking, paleontology, and studies of microbial biogeography. To install seqenv, go to: https://github.com/xapple/seqenv.

  18. Uranium mining in the Canadian social environment of the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-11-01

    The attitude of the Canadian public to the mining industry as a whole has changed in recent years to one of mistrust because of the public perception of mining as environmentally harmful and humanly degrading. In addition, uranium mining has had to cope with the public fear of radiation. The uranium mining industry is closely regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board, not only in the area of radiation protection but also in other fields affecting worker health and safety. Uranium mining has been the subject of many hearings in Canada, and all but one have concluded that it is environmentally and socially acceptable. It is up to the mining industry to convey this message to the public

  19. 77 FR 62266 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... conducting an on shift examination for hazardous conditions, mine operators better ensure a safe working environment for the miners and a reduction in accidents. II. Desired Focus of Comments The Mine Safety and... (30 CFR 77.1713) requires coal mine operators to conduct examinations of each active working area of...

  20. Proceedings of the Sudbury 2003 Mining and the Environment Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiers, G.; Beckett, P.; Conroy, H.

    2003-01-01

    Sudbury is considered to be the centre of the Canadian mining industry and has gained a reputation for environmentally sound mining practices that are being met through mine site rehabilitation and regional land reclamation. This international conference provided a forum to exchange ideas and information pertinent to mine reclamation activities. More than 400 delegates, including leading scientists and technical experts from around the world participated at the conference. Approximately 150 papers were presented on a wide range of topics related to mine site rehabilitation issues and environmental protection methods associated with mining. Both current and future challenges faced by the mining industry were discussed with particular reference to the long-term sustainability of the mining process. Topics of discussion included issues pertaining to reclamation and rehabilitation of disturbed lands and waterways as well as specific site reclamation challenges associated with the oil industry. Reclamation activities include a wide range of expertise including plant ecology, forestry, soil science, land use planning, civil and mine engineering, wildlife biology, and reclamation. Six papers from the conference have been processed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Northern bobwhite breeding season ecology on a reclaimed surface mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Peters, David C.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Surface coal mining and subsequent reclamation of surface mines have converted large forest areas into early successional vegetative communities in the eastern United States. This reclamation can provide a novel opportunity to conserve northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). We evaluated the influence of habitat management activities on nest survival, nest-site selection, and brood resource selection on managed and unmanaged units of a reclaimed surface mine, Peabody Wildlife Management Area (Peabody), in west-central Kentucky, USA, from 2010 to 2013. We compared resource selection, using discrete-choice analysis, and nest survival, using the nest survival model in Program MARK, between managed and unmanaged units of Peabody at 2 spatial scales: the composition and configuration of vegetation types (i.e., macrohabitat) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood locations (i.e., microhabitat). On managed sites, we also investigated resource selection relative to a number of different treatments (e.g., herbicide, disking, prescribed fire). We found no evidence that nest-site selection was influenced by macrohabitat variables, but bobwhite selected nest sites in areas with greater litter depth than was available at random sites. On managed units, bobwhite were more likely to nest where herbicide was applied to reduce sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) compared with areas untreated with herbicide. Daily nest survival was not influenced by habitat characteristics or by habitat management but was influenced by nest age and the interaction of nest initiation date and nest age. Daily nest survival was greater for older nests occurring early in the breeding season (0.99, SE < 0.01) but was lower for older nests occurring later in the season (0.08, SE = 0.13). Brood resource selection was not influenced by macrohabitat or microhabitat variables we measured, but broods on managed units selected areas treated with herbicide to control sericea lespedeza

  2. Soil and water characteristics of a young surface mine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Cole, C.; Lefebvre, Eugene A.

    1991-05-01

    Coal companies are reluctant to include wetland development in reclamation plans partly due to a lack of information on the resulting characteristics of such sites. It is easier for coal companies to recreate terrestrial habitats than to attempt experimental methods and possibly face significant regulatory disapproval. Therefore, we studied a young (10 years) wetland on a reclaimed surface coal mine in southern Illinois so as to ascertain soil and water characteristics such that the site might serve as a model for wetland development on surface mines. Water pH was not measured because of equipment problems, but evidence (plant life, fish, herpetofauna) suggests suitable pH levels. Other water parameters (conductivity, salinity, alkalinity, chloride, copper, total hardness, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate) were measured, and only copper was seen in potentially high concentrations (but with no obvious toxic effects). Soil variables measured included pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, iron, sulfate, chloride, and percent organic matter. Soils were slightly alkaline and most parameters fell within levels reported for other studies on both natural and manmade wetlands. Aluminum was high, but this might be indicative more of large amounts complexed with soils and therefore unavailable, than amounts actually accessible to plants. Organic matter was moderate, somewhat surprising given the age of the system.

  3. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  4. Gas migration from closed coal mines to the surface. Risk assessment methodology and prevention means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokryszka, Z.; Tauziede, Ch.; Lagny, C.; Guise, Y.; Gobillot, R.; Planchenault, J.M.; Lagarde, R.

    2005-01-01

    French law as regards renunciation to mining concessions calls for the mining operator to first undertake analyses of the risks represented by their underground mining works. The problem of gas migration to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate to the earth's surface, then present significant risks: explosion, suffocation or gas poisoning risks. As part of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national mining operator Charbonnages de France, a general methodology for assessing the risk linked to gas in the context of closed coal mines. This article presents the principles of this methodology. An application example based on a true case study is then described. This is completed by a presentation of the preventive and monitoring resources recommended and usually applied in order to manage the risk linked to gaseous emissions. (authors)

  5. Natural radionuclides in the environment and problems of uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowie, S.H.U.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (U-238, U-235, Th-232, K-40, and their decay products); distribution of radionuclides; α, β and γ radiation; uranium in rocks; uranium in soil and water; uranium mining (hazards of uranium and radon during mining and in tailings); assessment of risk. (U.K.)

  6. Soil macropores: Control on infiltration, hillslope and surface hydrology on a reclaimed surface-mined watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, M.D.; Gardner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrologic response of a surface-mined watershed in central Pennsylvania is controlled by rapid macropore flow within the unsaturated man-made topsoil. Newly reclaimed surface-mined watersheds in central Pennsylvania exhibit low steady-state infiltration rates (1--2 cm/hr) and produce runoff dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow. However, within four years after reclamation, infiltration rates on some mine surfaces approach premined rates (8 cm/hr). As infiltration rate increases, the volume of infiltrated water increases, but the total porosity of minesoil matrix remains constant. There is little change in the surface discharge volume, indicating that infiltrated water continues to contribute to the basin surface discharge by the processes of throughflow and return flow. Throughflow in the topsoil horizon occurs in rapid response to rainfall input, producing large volumes of water with throughflow rates closely related to rainfall rates and with throughflow peaks following rainfall peaks by only minutes. Increased return flow alters the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph by slightly lagging behind infiltration excess overland flow. These changes in the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph reduce the potential for severe gully erosion on the reclaimed site. In addition, throughflow water remains predominantly in the topsoil horizon, and therefore has limited contact with potentially acid-producing backfill. Better understanding of macropore flow processes in reclaimed minesoils will help investigators evaluate past strategies and develop new reclamation techniques that will minimize the short-term surface erosional effects of mining and reclamation, while optimizing the long-term effluent and groundwater quality

  7. Treatment of sulphated water of surface origin produced by an open pit coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Campos-Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to select the most suitable method of treatment of sulfated water produced by an open pit coal mine in Venezuela. Samples of water taken on surface, middle and bottom of water bodies in three areas were subjected to basic, gravimetric, volumetric and colorimetric analysis. The results indicated that the pH is within limits permitted by current environmental regulations, while total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and sulfates exceed the normed values. The aerobic wetland method was selected as the most efficient for the removal of sulfates, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the sulphated waters from the mine and because they are systems that use natural energy to purify water, its construction and maintenance costs Is significantly inferior to the conventional treatments and because, being replicas of natural ecosystems, they are integrated to the environment.

  8. Talent retention among trainers and learners in a mining environment / Nyaradzo Chidyamakono

    OpenAIRE

    Chidyamakono, Nyaradzo

    2010-01-01

    Global growth in mining activities has resulted in stiff competition for talented employees and characterised the mining industry with high turnover rates. The South African mining environment has not been an exception to this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to inform the design of talent retention strategies through determination of turnover intention predictors and exploration of the turnover process experienced by employees. The study hypothesised that job satisfaction and affective ...

  9. Environmental impacts of mining: monitoring, restoration and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.

    1993-01-01

    Contains 12 chapters with the following titles: mining and the environment; surface coal mining with reclamation; reclamation and revegetation of mined land; the acid mine drainage problem from coal mines; acid rock drainage and metal migration; hydrologic impact; erosion and sediment control; wetlands; blasting; mining subsidence; postmining land use; environmental effects of gold heap-leaching operations.

  10. Impacts of surface gold mining on land use systems in Western Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Vivian; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Schröder, Hilmar

    2011-07-01

    Land use conflicts are becoming increasingly apparent from local to global scales. Surface gold mining is an extreme source of such a conflict, but mining impacts on local livelihoods often remain unclear. Our goal here was to assess land cover change due to gold surface mining in Western Ghana, one of the world's leading gold mining regions, and to study how these changes affected land use systems. We used Landsat satellite images from 1986-2002 to map land cover change and field interviews with farmers to understand the livelihood implications of mining-related land cover change. Our results showed that surface mining resulted in deforestation (58%), a substantial loss of farmland (45%) within mining concessions, and widespread spill-over effects as relocated farmers expand farmland into forests. This points to rapidly eroding livelihood foundations, suggesting that the environmental and social costs of Ghana's gold boom may be much higher than previously thought.

  11. Response of surface springs to longwall coal mining Wasatch Plateau, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadnuck, L.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    High-extraction longwall coal mining creates zones in the overburden where strata bend, fracture, or cave into the mine void. These physical alterations to the overburden stratigraphy have associated effects on the hydrologic regime. The US Bureau of Mines (SBM) studied impacts to the local hydrologic system caused by longwall mining in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Surface springs in the vicinity of two coal mines were evaluated for alterations in flow characteristics as mining progressed. Fourteen springs located above the mines were included in the study. Eight of the springs were located over longwall panels, four were located over barrier pillars and mains, and two ere located outside the area disturbed by mining. Flow hydrographs for each spring were compared to climatic data and time of undermining to assess if mining in the vicinity had influenced flow. Heights of fracturing and caving in the overburden resulting from seam extraction were calculated using common subsidence formulas, and used in conjunction with elevations of springs to assess if fracturing influenced the water-bearing zones studied. One spring over a panel exhibited a departure from a normally-shaped hydrograph after being undermined. Springs located over other mine structures, or outside the mine area did not show discernible effects from mining. The limited response of the springs was attributed to site-specific conditions that buffered mining impacts including the elevation of the springs above the mine level, and presence of massive sandstones and swelling clays in the overburden materials

  12. Socially Responsible Mining: the Relationship between Mining and Poverty, Human Health and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Raina M.; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Field, James A.; Hopkins, James; Klein, Bern; Poulton, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing global demand for metals is straining the ability of the mining industry to physically keep up with demand (physical scarcity). On the other hand, social issues including the environmental and human health consequences of mining as well as the disparity in income distribution from mining revenues are disproportionately felt at the local community level. This has created social rifts, particularly in the developing world, between affected communities and both industry and governments. Such rifts can result in a disruption of the steady supply of metals (situational scarcity). Here we discuss the importance of mining in relationship to poverty, identify steps that have been taken to create a framework for socially responsible mining, and then discuss the need for academia to work in partnership with communities, government, and industry to develop trans-disciplinary research-based step change solutions to the intertwined problems of physical and situational scarcity. PMID:24552962

  13. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  14. Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.; Liu, Yang; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier

  15. Finite element modeling of surface subsidence induced by underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, D.W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to predict the effects of longwall mining on topography and surface structures is important for any coal company in making permit applications and anticipating potential mining problems. The sophisticated finite element model described and evaluated in this paper is based upon five years of underground and surface observations and evolutionary development of modeling techniques and attributes. The model provides a very powerful tool to address subsidence and other ground control questions. The model can be used to calculate postmining stress and strain conditions at any horizon between the mine and the ground surface. This holds the promise of assisting in the prediction of mining-related hydrological effects

  16. Mechanization of drill-and-blast operations in surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogan, B.

    1985-07-01

    Comments on recent developments in blasting techniques in modern surface mines and quarries. The tendency to use large boreholes (up to 320 mm diameter) and on site manufactured ANFO and slurry explosives is stressed. Soviet experience with ANFO and slurry explosives and with 9 types of explosive-mixing/charging vehicles is presented. One type of vehicle is used as a stable explosive mixing unit, the others (SUZN-1B, SUZN-2, SUZN-5A, SUZN-5AM, ZS-1B, MZS-1M, MAZ-509P) are used as mobile explosive mixing and loading units. Some also incorporate a borehole stemming device. Mixtures of ANFO and slurry (aquatol) explosives, explosive charging capacities (outputs 9-30 t/h) and other characteristics of mechanized explosive charging vehicles are described. Obligatory safety measures during usage are quoted. 4 refs.

  17. Uranium mining and metallurgy library information service under the network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lilei

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of the network environment on the uranium mining and metallurgy of the information service. Introduces some measures such as strengthening professional characteristic literature resources construction, changing the service mode, building up information navigation, deepening service, meet the individual needs of users, raising librarian's quality, promoting the co-construction and sharing of library information resources, and puts forward the development idea of uranium mining and metallurgy library information service under the network environment. (author)

  18. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for underground...

  19. Underground black-coal mining and its impact on the land surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollmann, H.J.; Wilke, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    This book wants to describe the special requirements and consequences resulting from natural conditions at the deposit as well as from decisions and processes of mining operations. On this basis it should be possible to assess the degree to which the impact of mining on defined areas of the land surface can be influenced with reasonable effort. Furthermore, the consequences from conditions governing mining activities for the planning and realization of mining operations and their impact and the granting of permissions and approvals on the part of the mining authorities are discussed. (HS) [de

  20. Assessment on ecological environment impact caused by the exploitation of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueli; Xu Lechang; Li Xianjie; Wang Erqi; Wei Guangzhi; Hu Penghua

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of investigation, the assessment index of ecological environment impact is determined from the aspects of natural eco-environment and social eco-environment. Both qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment are adopted for assessing the ecological environment impact during the exploitation of a uranium mine in Jiangxi province. The results show that some values of the assessment index in natural eco-subsystem decline slightly, while those of the assessment index in social eco-subsystem ascend so that the ecological environment quality around the uranium mine ascend slightly. Moreover, some reasonable advices on eco-environment protection measures are put forward in order to build a ecotype uranium mine. (authors)

  1. LANDSAT remote sensing: observations of an Appalachian mountaintop surface coal mining and reclamation operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The potential benefits of using LANDSAT remote sensing data by state agencies as an aide in monitoring surface coal mining operations are reviewed. A mountaintop surface mine in eastern Kentucky was surveyed over a 5 year period using satellite multispectral scanner data that were classified by computer analyses. The analyses were guided by aerial photography and by ground surveys of the surface mines procured in 1976. The application of the LANDSAT data indicates that: (1) computer classification of the various landcover categories provides information for monitoring the progress of surface mining and reclamation operations, (2) successive yearly changes in barren and revegetated areas can be qualitatively assessed for surface mines of 100 acres or more of disrupted area, (3) barren areas consisting of limestone and shale mixtures may be recognized, and revegetated areas in various stages of growth may be identified against the hilly forest background

  2. Towards Cooperative Predictive Data Mining in Competitive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisý, Viliam; Jakob, Michal; Benda, Petr; Urban, Štěpán; Pěchouček, Michal

    We study the problem of predictive data mining in a competitive multi-agent setting, in which each agent is assumed to have some partial knowledge required for correctly classifying a set of unlabelled examples. The agents are self-interested and therefore need to reason about the trade-offs between increasing their classification accuracy by collaborating with other agents and disclosing their private classification knowledge to other agents through such collaboration. We analyze the problem and propose a set of components which can enable cooperation in this otherwise competitive task. These components include measures for quantifying private knowledge disclosure, data-mining models suitable for multi-agent predictive data mining, and a set of strategies by which agents can improve their classification accuracy through collaboration. The overall framework and its individual components are validated on a synthetic experimental domain.

  3. Mine drainage treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Water flowing from underground and surface mines and contains high concentrations of dissolved metals is called mine drainage. Mine drainage can be categorized into several basic types by their alkalinity or acidity. Sulfide rich and carbonate poor materials are expected to produce acidic drainage, and alkaline rich materials, even with significant sulfide concentrations, often produce net alkaline water. Mine drainages are dangerous because pollutants may decompose in the environment. In...

  4. Building of effluence and environment monitoring capability of uranium mining and metallurgy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianjie; Hu Penghua; Duan Jianchen; Xue Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    The status of effluence and environmental monitoring capability of nine uranium mining and metallurgy corporations in operation in China was investigated and analyzed. The results show that there exist some problems in all corporations such as imperfect monitoring plan, ineligible analyst, aging equipment, insufficient analysis capacity, lack of good detection limit. In order to solve the problems, several steps have been taken by Department of Safety and Environment Protection and Department of Geology and Mining (CNNC) in three years, including establishing three-level monitoring sys- tem, equipping corresponding monitoring instrument, holding three training classes, enhancing the analyst capacity, publishing the model for effluence and environment monitoring capability of uranium mining and metallurgy and carrying out comparison on monitoring of U and Ra in water, which greatly improved effluence and environment monitoring capability of uranium mining and metallurgy. (authors)

  5. Controlled study of the evolution of radon and its decay products in radioactive mine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calizaya A, F.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis discusses three aspects related to radon emissions and control of radon decay products in mine environments: (1) measurement of the effects of environmental parameters on radiation levels, (2) analysis of the data using ordinary linear regression and transfer function models and (3) prediction of the concentration of radioactive contaminants in the mine air. In-mine and laboratory experiments were conducted to develop the research data. In mine tests were conducted in a bulkhead isolated mine drift containing low grade uranium ore at the Colorado School of Mines, Experimental Mine with the US Bureau of Mines - Spokane Research Center (USBM, SRC) micro-computer based radiation monitoring system. Parameters such as amount of ore, amount of condensation nuclei in the mine air, temperature, air velocity, and barometric pressure were studied. The laboratory tests were conducted in an air-tight radon chamber equipped with a container of the radioactive material, various monitors, and the USBM, SRC Data Acquisition System. The effect of parameters such as ore grade, particle size, rock moisture, air temperature and relative humidity on radon concentrations were measured in the laboratory. Radiation levels, together with parameters affecting these levels, were measured over a period of one year (June 1984-July 1985) both in the laboratory model and in the field

  6. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  7. Effects of surface coal mining and reclamation on the geohydrology of six small watersheds in west-central Indiana. Chapter B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.D.; Duwelius, R.F.; Crawford, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been and will continue to be a major source of energy in the United States for the foreseeable future. Surface mining is presently the most efficient method of extracting coal. The mining practice, however, usually has a detrimental effect on the environment by altering topography and ecologic systems. Surface coal mining also can degrade surface- and ground-water quality and quantity. The U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1979 to identify changes in the quantity of surface- and ground-water resources caused by surface coal mining in Indiana. As part of the study, six small watersheds in west-central Indiana were instrumented for the collection of hydrologic and meteorologic data. The Water-Supply Paper comprises two reports resulting from the investigation. The physical environment and coal mining history of west-central Indiana and the six small watersheds selected for intensive study are described in chapter A. The surface- and ground-water systems of each of the small watersheds and the hydrologic effects of coal mining and reclamation are described in chapter B

  8. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in surface waters of a region impacted by historical metal mining (Cornwall, UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic heavy metal whose concentrations and distributions in the aquatic environment are poorly defined. In this study, concentrations of aqueous and total Tl have been measured in water samples from a variety of rivers and effluents (the latter related to historical metal mining) in the county of Cornwall, SW England. Aqueous concentrations ranged from about 13 ng L(-1) in a river whose catchment contained no metal mines to 2,640 ng L(-1) in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine shaft. Concentrations of Tl in rivers were greatest in the vicinity of mine-related effluents, with a maximum value measured of about 770 ng L(-1). Thallium was not efficiently removed by the conventional, active treatment of mine water, and displayed little interaction with suspended particles. Its mobility in surface waters, coupled with concentrations that are close to a quality guideline of 800 ng L(-1), is cause for concern. Accordingly, we recommend that the metal is more closely monitored in this and other regions impacted by mining activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of radon and thoron daughter behaviour in two underground uranium mine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    Measurements were made of aerosol concentration and size distribution in 5 locations downstream of working areas in two Canadian uranium mines which use track and trackless mining methods. In the track mining area the aerosol concentration ranged from 3x10 4 to 7x10 4 /cm 3 , averaging 5x10 4 /cm 3 . The highest values were associated with the passage of diesel equipment. The count median diameter of the aerosol varied from 32 to 94 nm, with the smaller sizes associated with the presence of diesel exhaust. The activity median diameter was measured for radon and thoron daughters in each environment. In the track mine the diameter of 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi averaged 54, 50, 54 nm respectively, and of 212 Pb averaged 70 nm. In the trackless mine, these diameters were 73, 70, 85 and 100 nm, respectively. The activity median diameter in terms of radon Total Potential Alpha Energy was found to be 89 nm

  10. Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines

  11. Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

    1999-07-01

    The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines.

  12. On the impact of the "Holbinsky" mine on the components of the natural environment of the Eastern Sayan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Ivanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to the problem of rational use of natural resources have undergone radical changes in recent years, as, due to increasing pollution and resource depletion, a thorough reassessment of existing concepts and priorities became necessary. To this end, the authors conducted the research on the impact of the mining industry (the "Kholbinsky" mine on the ecosystems of the Eastern Sayan. The "Kholbinsky" mine is located at an altitude of 1965-2270m above sea level, in the basins of the small rivers Samarta, Zun-Holba and Barun-Holba, which are tributaries of the rivers Kitoya and Urik. The mine has three industrial sites: the Samarta industrial site with a shift camp, the Zun-Holba industrial site, also with a shift camp, and mining operation sites. The main site for processing ore and extracting gold is the Samarta industrial site, which includes a gold recovery factory (GRF, a hydrometallurgy workshop, a garage with an open parking lot, a concrete mixing plant, a carpentry workshop, ore and coal warehouses, a slag dump from a boiler house, a diesel power plant, an auxiliary production - smithy, welding sectors, a tailing pit for flotation tailings and a tailing pit for sorption tailings. An auxiliary production and heating boiler-houses are located on the Zun-Holba industrial site. The mining mass (ores and rocks delivery to the surface and the rock storing to dumps takes place on mining operation sites. The authors reveal long-term impact of harmful substances emissions into the atmosphere, and provide the main factors contributing to the accumulation of harmful impurities in the ground air layer. One of indicators of the state of the aquatic environment is the state of fish and chiromids larvae in water bodies, so the authors evaluated the fish production parameters for the watercourses of the Samarta River. The study also showed that the field surface in the process of geological prospecting and mining operations became

  13. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  14. Feasibility of introducing continuous systems in surface mines of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordia, S K

    1987-06-01

    The paper presents a brief outline of the mineral types, production trends and techno-economic feasiblity associated with the possible introduction of continuous mining systems to India. Production trends are outlined for coal, limestone, bauxite, phosphate, and iron ore. Continuous mining systems described are heavy-duty bucket wheel excavators, road milling type machines and shearing type machines. 8 refs.

  15. Uranium mining and processing: their radiation impact into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostapczuk, Peter; Zoriy, Petro; Dederichs, Herbert; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Based on Thorium and Uranium determination in soil and plants samples collected in the region of Aktau, Kazakhstan the distribution pattern of environmental pollution by these elements was correlated with the radiation dose. The main radiation source was the waste deposit of the equipment used by the uranium processing (dose higher than 5 μSv/h). The mining area and also the transportation way from mine to the uranium factory has also an radiation impact which is difficult to estimate. Based on the data found by plants and soil samples all the area under study has a higher pollution level by Thorium and Uranium than the control area (about 0.1μSv/h). Due to observed strong wind blowing in different directions it is possible that the particle of uranium ore has been transported for long distance and polluted the plants and upper soil layer. The further investigations should get more information about this supposition. (author)

  16. System dynamics model for environment - human systems interaction in the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, B.K.

    1994-01-01

    Use of advanced technology in the mining activities are polluting the natural environment, interfering with the normal life of the miners/residents. In this paper, health hazards due to underground workings and effect of environmental conditions on men are discussed. A composite system inter-relationship of the mining industries with the Government, society and environmental sectors is established. Allowing certain level of pollution, a system dynamics model is developed considering the parameters like more revenues from the mining industries, degradation of quality of life index - environmental index on long-term and short-term basis, new diseases due to pollution, social awareness, health care facilities, tax exemption etc. This model will help us to understand the optimisation of the parameters to establish the better interaction in the environment-human systems in the mining industries. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Regulating Mining in South Africa and Zimbabwe: Communities, the Environment and Perpetual Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumai Murombo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining as an extractive activity has the potential to promote sustainable economic growth in developing countries; however this largely depends on how the activities are regulated. Mining contributes to environmental pollution and degradation, and the social degeneration of local communities. Corporate social responsibility initiatives are often self-serving short-term programs that in the long term do not benefit mining communities. In this article, the mining, environment and community trilemma is investigated through the lens of what is happening in South Africa and Zimbabwe. It is argued that continued calls for nationalisation and indigenisation are the sequel of the failure of postcolonial mineral law and policy reforms. Regulatory continuity from colonial laws has seen mining companies continue to treat mineral rich developing countries as sources of raw materials. Little is done to develop the communities impacted by mining activities. Recommendations are made on how mining can support sustainable development without creating a cycle of poverty within mining communities. This can happen through effective regulation embedded within sustainable development, transparency and accountability and equitable access to mineral wealth.

  18. Characterization of phosphorus in the sedimentary environments of inundated agricultural soils around the Huainan Coal Mines, Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qitao; Xie, Kai; Sun, Pengfei; Kim, Youngchul

    2014-02-15

    Extensive coal mining in the Huainan Coal Mines, Anhui China, in light of the local hydrology and geology, has resulted in extensive land subsidence and submergence around the mines. This has led to the formation of large (>100 km(2)) lakes. Three representative lakes were selected to study the mechanisms of phosphorus (P) unavailability for primary production from the perspective of sedimentary environments, which in turn owe their formation to permanently inundated agricultural soils. Two important issues were considered: (1) potential of P transport from the cultivated soil column toward surface sediments and (2) characterization of P behavior in view of regional ecological rehabilitation and conservation. Accordingly, we conducted field sediment analyses, combined with simulation experiments of soil column inundation/submergence lasting for four months. Enrichment of Fe-(hydr)oxides in surface sediments was verified to be the main reason for limitations in regional P availability in water bodies. Iron (Fe), but not its bound P, moved upward from the submerged soil column to the surface. However, an increasing upward gradient in the contents of organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (TP), and different P fractions was caused by spatial heterogeneity in soil properties. Phosphorus was unable to migrate upward toward the surface sediments as envisioned, because of complex secondary reactions within soil minerals. Phosphorus bound to Fe and/or Al comprised over 50% of TP, which has important implications for local ecological rehabilitation and water conservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Critical Study on the Underground Environment of Coal Mines in India-an Ergonomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Netai Chandra; Sharma, Gourab Dhara

    2013-04-01

    Ergonomics application on underground miner's health plays a great role in controlling the efficiency of miners. The job stress in underground mine is still physically demanding and continuous stress due to certain posture or movement of miners during work leads to localized muscle fatigue creating musculo-skeletal disorders. A good working environment can change the degree of job heaviness and thermal stress (WBGT values) can directly have the effect on stretch of work of miners. Out of many unit operations in underground mine, roof bolting keeps an important contribution with regard to safety of the mine and miners. Occupational stress of roof bolters from ergonomic consideration has been discussed in the paper.

  20. Identification of hazards for water environment in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin caused by the discharge of salt mine water containing particularly harmful substances and radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bondaruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Silesian urban-industrial agglomeration is one of the most industrialized areas in Europe. The intense industrialization should be attributed mostly to the presence of coal and other minerals deposits and its extraction. Mining areas of hard coal mines comprise approximately 25% of the total catchment area of watercourses in the area of Upper Silesian Coal Basin, including the river basin of the Upper Oder River and the Little Vistula River. The mining, its scope and depth, duration of mining works, extraction systems being used and the total volume of the drainage fundamentally affect the conditions of groundwater and surface water in the studied area. In this paper, an overall characteristics of the coal mining industry in the area of USCB was made, including the issues of its influence on water environment in the light of the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD and its guidelines transposed into Polish law. An analysis of the collected data, obtained from collieries, relating to the quantity and quality of water flowing into the workings and discharged to surface watercourses, was performed. An approach to the requirements for wastewater discharge into the environment by these enterprises was presented regarding the physicochemical parameters, possible harmful substances and radionuclides measured in mine waters. The main goal of the paper is to recognize the condition of surface water bodies in the area of Upper Silesian Coal Basin and to make the assessment of the biological condition using Ecological Risk Assessment and bioindication methods.

  1. Atlas of western surface-mined lands: coal, uranium, and phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.K.; Uhleman, E.W.; Eby, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The atlas contains available information on all coal, uranium, and phosphate surface mines in excess of 10 acres that were in operation prior to 1976 in the western 11 contiguous states plus North Dakota and South Dakota. It is assembled in a format that allows a systematic and comprehensive review of surface-mined lands so that appropriate areas can be selected for intensive biological assessment of natural and man-induced revegetation and refaunation. For each identified mine, the following information has been obtained wherever possible: geographic location and locating instructions, operator and surface and subsurface ownership, summary of the mining plan and methods, summary of the reclamation plan and methods, dates of operation, area affected by mining activities, reclamation history, where applicable, and current land use and vegetation conditions

  2. Residence time of contaminants released in surface coal mines -- a wind-tunnel study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Surface coal mining operations (blasting, shoveling, loading, trucking, etc.) are sources of airborne particles. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct the EPA to analyze the accuracy of the Industrial Source Complex model and the AP-42 emission factors, and to make revisions as may be necessary to eliminate any significant over-prediction of air concentration of fugitive particles from surface coal mines. A wind-tunnel study was performed at the US EPA`s Fluid Modeling Facility to investigate dispersion from surface coal mines in support of the dispersion modeling activities. Described here is the portion of the study directed at determining the residence time that material released near the floor of a mine will stay within the mine.

  3. Review : Pollution due to Coal Mining Activity and its Impact on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Arif Setiawan; Dedik Budianta; Dwi Putro Priadi; Suheryanto

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of natural resources in the form of coal mines has a positive impact on economic and energy development, in addition to coal mining activities have a negative impact on the environment that result in environmental pollution in soil, water, and air. Pollution begins when clearing land, taking exploitation, transporting, stockpile and when the coal is burned. When land clearing causes damage to forest ecosystems. At the time of exploitation impact on air pollution by coal dust parti...

  4. THE IMPACT OF THE MINING EXPLOITATIONS FROM BUDOI ON THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin CREłU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The work is an attempt to respond to what extent the environment affected by serious anthropogenic interventions (the mining exploitation from the Budoi tunnel and the Budoi Village is close to its original state or a similar one, as a result of cessation of anthropic impact and the conduct of a program of restoration and preservation of the environment.

  5. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  6. Geochemical characterization of acid mine lakes in northwest Turkey and their effect on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

    2013-04-01

    Mining activity generates a large quantity of mine waste. The potential hazard of mine waste depends on the host mineral. The tendency of mine waste to produce acid mine drainage (AMD) containing potentially toxic metals depends on the amounts of sulfide, carbonate minerals, and trace-element concentrations found in ore deposits. The acid mine process is one of the most significant environmental challenges and a major source of water pollution worldwide. AMD and its effects were studied in northwest Turkey where there are several sedimentary and hydrothermal mineral deposits that have been economically extracted. The study area is located in Can county of Canakkale province. Canakkale contains marine, lagoon, and lake sediments precipitated with volcanoclastics that occurred as a result of volcanism, which was active during various periods from the Upper Eocene to Plio-Quaternary. Can county is rich in coal with a total lignite reserve >100 million tons and contains numerous mines that were operated by private companies and later abandoned without any remediation. As a result, human intervention in the natural structure and topography has resulted in large open pits and deterioration in these areas. Abandoned open pit mines typically fill with water from runoff and groundwater discharge, producing artificial lakes. Acid drainage waters from these mines have resulted in the degradation of surface-water quality around Can County. The average pH and electrical conductivity of acid mine lakes (AMLs) in this study were found to be 3.03 and 3831.33 μS cm(-1), respectively. Total iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) levels were also found to be high (329.77 and 360.67 mg L(-1), respectively). The results show that the concentration of most elements, such as Fe and Al in particular, exceed national and international water-quality standards.

  7. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region V. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. This volume is specifically for the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

  8. Effect of high-extraction coal mining on surface and ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendorski, F.S.

    1993-01-01

    Since first quantified around 1979, much new data have become available. In examining the sources of data and the methods and intents of the researchers of over 65 case histories, it became apparent that the strata behaviors were being confused with overlapping vertical extents reported for the fractured zones and aquiclude zones depending on whether the researcher was interested in water intrusion into the mine or in water loss from surface or ground waters. These more recent data, and critical examination of existing data, have led to the realization that the former Aquiclude Zone defined for its ability to prevent or minimize the intrusion of ground or surface waters into mines has another important character in increasing storage of surface and shallow ground waters in response to mining with no permanent loss of waters. This zone is here named the Dilated Zone. Surface and ground waters can drain into this zone, but seldom into the mine, and can eventually be recovered through closing of dilations by mine subsidence progression away from the area, or filling of the additional void space created, or both. A revised model has been developed which accommodates the available data, by modifying the zones as follows: collapse and disaggregation extending 6 to 10 times the mined thickness above the panel; continuous fracturing extending approximately 24 times the mined thickness above the panel, allowing temporary drainage of intersected surface and ground waters; development of a zone of dilated, increased storativity, and leaky strata with little enhanced vertical permeability from 24 to 60 times the mined thickness above the panel above the continuous fracturing zone, and below the constrained or surface effects zones; maintenance of a constrained but leaky zone above the dilated zone and below the surface effects zone; and limited surface fracturing in areas of extension extending up to 50 ft or so beneath the ground surface. 119 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  10. Efficient frequent pattern mining algorithm based on node sets in cloud computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billa, V. N. Vinay Kumar; Lakshmanna, K.; Rajesh, K.; Reddy, M. Praveen Kumar; Nagaraja, G.; Sudheer, K.

    2017-11-01

    The ultimate goal of Data Mining is to determine the hidden information which is useful in making decisions using the large databases collected by an organization. This Data Mining involves many tasks that are to be performed during the process. Mining frequent itemsets is the one of the most important tasks in case of transactional databases. These transactional databases contain the data in very large scale where the mining of these databases involves the consumption of physical memory and time in proportion to the size of the database. A frequent pattern mining algorithm is said to be efficient only if it consumes less memory and time to mine the frequent itemsets from the given large database. Having these points in mind in this thesis we proposed a system which mines frequent itemsets in an optimized way in terms of memory and time by using cloud computing as an important factor to make the process parallel and the application is provided as a service. A complete framework which uses a proven efficient algorithm called FIN algorithm. FIN algorithm works on Nodesets and POC (pre-order coding) tree. In order to evaluate the performance of the system we conduct the experiments to compare the efficiency of the same algorithm applied in a standalone manner and in cloud computing environment on a real time data set which is traffic accidents data set. The results show that the memory consumption and execution time taken for the process in the proposed system is much lesser than those of standalone system.

  11. Surface hydrology of drainage basins disturbed by surface mining and reclamation, central Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Infilration capacity of newly reclaimed minesoils is uniformly low (< 1 cm/hr) and generally increases (up to 6 cm/hr) with age, the magnitude of increase being dependent on soil characteristics and vegetation. In drainage basins with lower rates of infiltration recovery (< 2 cm/hr), infiltration-excess overland flow is the dominant runoff process. Increased peek runoff rate and stream power in the basins are sufficient to initiate drainage network evolution, with phases of network expansion and abstraction. In contrast, in basins where infiltration recovery is greater than 2 cm/hr, the hydrologic system is initially dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow but evolves toward a system dominated by saturation overland flow. Drainage development is limited to skeletal network initiation and elongation and occurs during the early period of infiltration-excess dominated flow conditions. Total runoff remains essentially constant due to increased proportions of return flow, reflected in the extended and less steep recession limb of saturation-dominated storm hydrographs. The results of this study are applicable to hydrologic prediction for purposes of surface mine permitting and reclamation design. Previously limited availability of rainfall-runoff data from watersheds disturbed by surface mining preclude adequate calibration of empirical methods, such as the runoff curve number method, or evaluation of a more sophisticated approach, such as the use of distributed hydrologic models, for hydrologic prediction. Runoff curve numbers calibrated by means of rainfall-runoff data from the study drainage basins indicate that presently accepted methods of determining curve numbers, using pre-mine soil classification, underestimate total runoff by as much as 50%

  12. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  13. Environment managing all along the mining cycle: implementing an integrated and pro-active approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Uranium mining is a niche business because of its production volume and the size of its market that have nothing to do with coal market or iron ore business. It is a very concentrated business with only a few players. New AREVA is one of them with an output of 11.186 tons of uranium representing 15% of the world production in 2016. New AREVA has committed oneself to preserve the environment during the exploitation phase of a mine. Environment samples (soil, water, plants...) are collected to draw an initial picture of a site before mining activities begin in order to minimize the environmental impact. In some sites, for instance in Mongolia, water is scarce and has to be spared, a recycling technology for the sludge recovered from drilling operations, has been tested with success. Another challenge is the adaptation to the climate warming as both a player and a victim because most sites are in zones that are very sensitive to climate change and because mining can release greenhouse effect gases. The final challenge that faces New AREVA at the end of a mining cycle is to succeed the remediation of the site, it does not mean a come back to the initial situation which is impossible to reach but to get an environmental state that is safe and durable. In 2011 AREVA joined the International Counsel for mines and metals (ICMM) in order to share a code of practice for a sustainable development. (A.C.)

  14. An integrated approach to planning and rehabilitation for the future: proceedings of the 2. mining and the environment conference - Sudbury '99: volume two: ecosystems: health evaluation and restoration technologies, ground and surface water remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsack, D. [ed.] [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre in Mining and Mining Environment Research; Belzile, P. [ed.] [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept.of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Yearwood, P. [ed.] [Inco Ltd., Copper Cliff, ON (Canada). Environmental Control and Occupational Health; Hall, G. [ed.] [Falconbridge Ltd., Falconbridge, ON (Canada). Technology Centre

    1999-07-01

    Volume two of the symposium featured 27 papers under the general headings of ecosystems - health evaluation and restoration technologies; and ground and surface water remediation. Five papers are abstracted separately on the use of catchment liming for the improvement of drainage water quality from smelter-impacted lands, the effects of emission reductions from the smelters in Sudbury on recovery of lakes within the metal deposition zone, the effects of regional reductions in sulphur deposition on the recovery of biodiversity in lakes, the influence of drought-induced acidification on biotic recovery and the use of catchment liming for the improvement of drainage water quality from smelter-impacted lands.

  15. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  16. Vertical components of surface vibrations induced by mining tremors in the Upper Silesian Coalfield, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciag, E.; Kowalski, W.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of vertical components of surface vibration is epicentral zones due to mining tremors in the Upper Silesian Coalfield (USC) are analysed. Both maximum acceleration amplitudes and dominant frequencies of vertical (Z) and horizontal (N-S and E-W) components of vibrations are compared. The role played by the vertical components of vibrations in estimates of hazard for surface structures excited by mining tremors is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs

  17. An evaluation of the radiation environment in the Sulitjelma mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.; Berteig, L.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the concentration of radon 220 and radon 222 were carried out in the Sulitjelma mines in northern Norway. The highest concentrations found were 20 to 30 pCi/l. Dose equivalents for miners were estimatedto be from 5 to 22 mSv/yr with a mean of 10 mSv/yr in the two shafts with the highest values. Measures taken following these measurements in the shaft with the highest concentrationhave led to a reduction to about 10 pCi/l. It is concluded that no miner receives more than 30% of the annual dose limit, and that the average is less than 20% of the annual dose limit. (JIW)

  18. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues.

  19. The legal and regulatory framework relative to safety and environment in the uranium mines in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahamane, S.

    2001-01-01

    The mining sector holds an important position in Niger economy. Considerable funds have been invested for the promotion, exploration and exploitation of mineral resources since the colonial period. This has resulted in the discovery of numerous deposits among which are those of uranium. Today, uranium represents more than 3/4 of Niger export revenues. The mining sector is supervised by the Ministry of Mines and Energy. The Ministry applies the mining policy as defined by the government. It elaborates legislative and regulatory texts and sees to their implementation. Regarding uranium, mining activities have been governed since 1961 by various orientation laws and implementation decrees. However, to face up to the harmful consequences on national economy of successive drops of price and sales of its major export product, and taking into account the new international requirements relating to economy globalization and sustainable development, Niger set up a diversification strategy of its mining productions as part of which a new mining code particularly incentive has been established in 1993. The new mining code provides significant advantages to investors. These advantages insure them a great cost effectiveness of their investments in Niger and easy and less onerous respect of regulations regarding safety and protection of environment. Tremendous efforts have been, thus, provided by the IAEA, the Ministry of Mines and Energy and the uranium companies for an optimal protection of workers and the public, especially against the hazards of ionizing radiations. This will to improve the situation has resulted in the adoption of several laws and their application decrees as well as various sectorial laws designed by various Ministry departments concerned with environmental issues and risks prevention. Among these texts are the renewal of the order No 31 M/MH which has defined since 1979 the main axis of the Niger regulations as regards to radioprotection and the design of

  20. Environmental pollutants in the mining environs of Konongo in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntow, W. J.; Amonoo-Neizer, E. H.; Nyamah, D.

    1991-01-01

    The study was made to determine whether the present practice of gold mining at Konongo had affected the quality of Konongo fauna, flora and waterbed sediment. The possible environmental pollutants in the mining environs of Konongo are CN, Zn, Pb, B, and Mn. Zn, Pb and Mn were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Calorimetric procedure was adopted to determine B. CN was determined by titration with rhodamine indicator. Accumulation of pollutants in waterbed sediment, fauna and flora was in the range of 0.011 - 0.064 μgg -1 for CN; 0.188 - 1.17 μgg -1 for Zn; 0.015 - 0.122 μgg -1 for Pb; 0.101- 2.76 μgg -1 for Mn and 0.05 - 0.60μgg -1 for B. The significant differences observed with respect to the concentrations of the pollutants at different locations in the sampling area were due to the divergence of the level of pollution. It is inferred from the results that the mining environs of Konongo are not polluted to any extent by the mining processes and that if the present surveillance of the discharge of wastes was maintained, mining could continue without any adverse effect on Konongo environs. (au)

  1. Environmental pollutants in the mining environs of Konongo in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntow, W. J. [CSIR, Institute of Aquatic Biology, P.O. Box 38, Achimota, (Ghana); Amonoo-Neizer, E. H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, (Ghana); Nyamah, D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, (Ghana)

    1991-01-15

    The study was made to determine whether the present practice of gold mining at Konongo had affected the quality of Konongo fauna, flora and waterbed sediment. The possible environmental pollutants in the mining environs of Konongo are CN, Zn, Pb, B, and Mn. Zn, Pb and Mn were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Calorimetric procedure was adopted to determine B. CN was determined by titration with rhodamine indicator. Accumulation of pollutants in waterbed sediment, fauna and flora was in the range of 0.011 - 0.064 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu gg{sup -1} for CN; 0.188 - 1.17 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu gg{sup -1} for Zn; 0.015 - 0.122 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu gg{sup -1} for Pb; 0.101- 2.76 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu gg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.05 - 0.60 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu gg{sup -1} for B. The significant differences observed with respect to the concentrations of the pollutants at different locations in the sampling area were due to the divergence of the level of pollution. It is inferred from the results that the mining environs of Konongo are not polluted to any extent by the mining processes and that if the present surveillance of the discharge of wastes was maintained, mining could continue without any adverse effect on Konongo environs. (au)

  2. Hydrochemistry, mineralogy and sulfur isotope geochemistry of acid mine drainage at the Mt. Morgan mine environment, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edraki, M.; Golding, S.D.; Baublys, K.A.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Mineralogical, hydrochemical and S isotope data were used to constrain hydrogeochemical processes that produce acid mine drainage from sulfidic waste at the historic Mount Morgan Au-Cu mine, and the factors controlling the concentration of SO 4 and environmentally hazardous metals in the nearby Dee River in Queensland, Australia. Some highly contaminated acid waters, with metal contents up to hundreds of orders of magnitude greater than the Australia-New Zealand environmental standards, by-pass the water management system at the site and drain into the adjacent Dee River. Mine drainage precipitates at Mt. Morgan were classified into 4 major groups and were identified as hydrous sulfates and hydroxides of Fe and Al with various contents of other metals. These minerals contain adsorbed or mineralogically bound metals that are released into the water system after rainfall events. Sulfate in open pit water and collection sumps generally has a narrow range of S isotope compositions (δ 34 S = 1.8-3.7%o) that is comparable to the orebody sulfides and makes S isotopes useful for tracing SO 4 back to its source. The higher δ 34 S values for No. 2 Mill Diesel sump may be attributed to a difference in the source. Dissolved SO 4 in the river above the mine influence and 20 km downstream show distinctive heavier isotope compositions (δ 34 S = 5.4-6.8%o). The Dee River downstream of the mine is enriched in 34 S (δ 34 S = 2.8-5.4%o) compared with mine drainage possibly as a result of bacterial SO 4 reduction in the weir pools, and in the water bodies within the river channel. The SO 4 and metals attenuate downstream by a combination of dilution with the receiving waters, SO 4 reduction, and the precipitation of Fe and Al sulfates and hydroxides. It is suggested here that in subtropical Queensland, with distinct wet and dry seasons, temporary reducing environments in the river play an important role in S isotope systematics

  3. Technetium getters in the near surface environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Zhang, Pengchu; Westrich, Henry R.; Bryan, Charles R.; Molecke, Martin A.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional performance assessments assume that radioactive 99 Tc travels as a non-sorbing component with an effective K d (distribution coefficient) of 0. This is because soil mineral surfaces commonly develop net negative surface charges and pertechnetate (TcO 4 ), with large ionic size and low electrical density, is not sorbed onto them. However, a variety of materials have been identified that retain Tc and may eventually lead to promising Tc getters. In assessing Tc getter performance it is important to evaluate the environment in which the getter is to function. In many contaminant plumes Tc will only leach slowly from the source of the contamination and significant dilution is likely. Thus, sub-ppb Tc concentrations are expected and normal groundwater constituents will dominate the aquifer chemistry. In this setting a variety of constituents were found to retard TcO 4 : imogolite, boehmite, hydrotalcite, goethite, copper sulfide and oxide and coal. Near leaking tanks of high level nuclear waste, Tc may be present in mg/L level concentrations and groundwater chemistry will be dominated by constituents from the waste. Both bone char, and to a lesser degree, freshly precipitated Al hydroxides may be effective Tc scavengers in this environment. Thus, the search for Tc getters is far from hopeless, although much remains to be learned about the mechanisms by which these materials retain Tc

  4. Economics, organization, and planning in surface mining. Part I. Ekonomika, organizacja, i planowanie w gornictwie odkrywkowym. Czesc I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembecki, A; Uberman, R

    1975-01-01

    Describes the organization of the Ministry of Mining and Energy of the Polish People's Republic and the Union of the Brown Coal Industry. Principles of organization and management of brown coal mines are also outlined. Analyzed are: management structure of production at brown coal mines, management structure of coal preparation and of brown coal mining planning. Methods of production analysis are also explained including analysis of working time and methods based on photography. Organization of work and management of brown coal surface mines is described: organization of belt conveyor haulage, rail transport, truck transport, organization scheme for relocating belt conveyors and rails in surface mines. (31 refs.) (In Polish)

  5. Measurement of sub-surface strata behaviour in bord and pillar mining: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ranigunj coalfield (India) has been facing significant problems due to subsidence as a result of underground mining of coal seams. The occurrence of the thick seams in close proximity, shallow depth, great variation in the nature of superincumbent strata from site to site, followed by the slow rate of extraction, has aggravated subsidence problems. In the recent past, many such workings have collapsed, damaging a large number of surface structures. In view of the aforesaid need, a comprehensive project financed by the Ministry of Energy (Coal), was undertaken by the Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, at a Colliery in Ranigunj Coalfield. This investigation revealed that the caving horizon occurred at 4 times the extracted seam height, which differs from the findings in the UK, USA, and Australia. Also, it appears possible to estimate strata displacements from geological and physicomechanical information from the overlying rocks using the bending moment principle. Further, it was observed that the shallow workings could give rise to a sink hole type of subsidence, which is dangerous and could adversely affect the environment, safety of the public and properties. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  6. Virtual prototype simulation of hydraulic shovel kinematics for spatial characterization in surface mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Frimpong; Y. Li [University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering

    2005-12-15

    Hydraulic shovels are large-capacity equipment for excavating and loading dump trucks in constrained surface mining environments. Kinematics simulation of such equipment allows mine planning engineers to plan, design and control their spatial environments to achieve operating safety and efficiency. In this study, a hydraulic shovel was modelled as a mechanical manipulator with five degrees of freedom comprising the crawler, upper, boom, stick, bucket and bucket door components. The model was captured in a schematic diagram consisting of a six-bar linkage using the symbolic notation of Denavit and Hartenberg (Ho and Sriwattanathmma 1989). Homogeneous transformation matrices were used to capture the spatial configuration between adjacent links. The forward kinematics method was used to formulate the kinematics equations by attaching Cartesian coordinates to the schematic shovel diagram. Based on the kinematics model, a 3D virtual prototype of the hydraulic shovel was built in the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) environment to simulate the motions of the hydraulic shovel with selected time steps. The simulator was validated using real-world data with animation and numerical analysis of the digging, swinging and dumping motions of the shovel machinery. The superimposed display of the deployment of the hydraulic shovel in three phases allows a detailed motion examination of the system. The numerical results of linear and angular displacements of the bucket tip and bucket door can be used to analyse the kinematics motion of the hydraulic shovel for its optimization. This simulator provides a solid foundation for further dynamics modelling and dynamic hydraulic shovel performance studies.

  7. Analysis and Prevention of Geo-Environmental Hazards with High-Intensive Coal Mining: A Case Study in China’s Western Eco-Environment Frangible Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to address the problems of major geo-environmental hazards caused by high-intensive coal mining in China’s western eco-environment frangible area including strong mining pressure, surface subsidence, soil and water loss, and land desertification. Using the high-intensive mining at the Xiao-jihan Coal Mine, this paper investigates the compaction characteristics of aeolian sand-based backfilling materials, and then the evolution of water-conducting fractures and surface deformation laws with different backfill material’s compression ratios (BMCRs by using physical simulation and numerical simulation analysis methods. This study presents the technical system of water-preserved and environmental protection with rapid-backfilling methods in China’s western eco-environment frangible area. The backfill coal mining technique and application prospects are assessed and discussed. The results will be helpful for coordinated development of coal resources exploitation and environmental protection in China’s western eco-environment frangible area.

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL MODEL FOR MINING METHOD SELECTION IN A FUZZY ENVIRONMENT; CASE STUDY: TAZAREH COAL MINE, SEMNAN PROVINCE, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asadi Ooriad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining method selection (MMS for mineral resources is one of the most significant steps in mining production management. Due to high costs involved and environmental problems, it is usually not possible to change the coal mining method after planning and starting the operation. In most cases, MMS can be considered as an irreversible process. Selecting a method for mining mainly depends on geological, geometrical properties of the resource, environmental impacts of exploration, impacts of hazardous activities and land use management. This paper seeks to develop a novel model for mining method selection in order to achieve a stable production rate and to reduce environmental problems. This novel model is illustrated by implementing for Tazareh coal mine. Given the disadvantages of the previous models for selecting coal mining method, the purpose of this research is modifying the previous models and offering a comprehensive model. In this respect, TOPSIS method is used as a powerful multi attribute decision-making procedure in Fuzzy environment. After implementation of the presented model in Tazareh coal mine, long wall mining method has been selected as the most appropriate mining method.

  9. Educational Data Mining Application for Estimating Students Performance in Weka Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, G. Shiyamala; Thulasiram, Ramasamy; Amit Baburao, Mahindra

    2017-11-01

    Educational data mining (EDM) is a multi-disciplinary research area that examines artificial intelligence, statistical modeling and data mining with the data generated from an educational institution. EDM utilizes computational ways to deal with explicate educational information keeping in mind the end goal to examine educational inquiries. To make a country stand unique among the other nations of the world, the education system has to undergo a major transition by redesigning its framework. The concealed patterns and data from various information repositories can be extracted by adopting the techniques of data mining. In order to summarize the performance of students with their credentials, we scrutinize the exploitation of data mining in the field of academics. Apriori algorithmic procedure is extensively applied to the database of students for a wider classification based on various categorizes. K-means procedure is applied to the same set of databases in order to accumulate them into a specific category. Apriori algorithm deals with mining the rules in order to extract patterns that are similar along with their associations in relation to various set of records. The records can be extracted from academic information repositories. The parameters used in this study gives more importance to psychological traits than academic features. The undesirable student conduct can be clearly witnessed if we make use of information mining frameworks. Thus, the algorithms efficiently prove to profile the students in any educational environment. The ultimate objective of the study is to suspect if a student is prone to violence or not.

  10. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  11. Mine alarm stations for mine haulage systems in coal surface mines. Stantsiya pozharnoi signalizatsii dlya gorno-transportnogo oborudovaniya ugol'nykh razrezov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terebilo, N.I.; Bukhanets, B.N.; Rozhkov, V.L.; Martynenko, V.D. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornospasatel' nogo Dela, Donetsk (USSR))

    1988-01-01

    Describes design and operation of the STs fire alarm station developed by the Spetsavtomatika plant in Minsk and successfully tested in the Borodino surface coal mine. The station consists of 14 measuring circuits with the measuring cycle not longer than 4 s. The station detects fires at earthmoving and haulage equipment, cuts off energy supply to fire zones and activates fire extinguishing equipment. The station will be manufactured on a commercial scale. 2 refs.

  12. Using remote sensing imagery to monitoring sea surface pollution cause by abandoned gold-copper mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, H. M.; Ren, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    2010-08-01

    The Chinkuashih Benshen mine was the largest gold-copper mine in Taiwan before the owner had abandoned the mine in 1987. However, even the mine had been closed, the mineral still interacts with rain and underground water and flowed into the sea. The polluted sea surface had appeared yellow, green and even white color, and the pollutants had carried by the coast current. In this study, we used the optical satellite images to monitoring the sea surface. Several image processing algorithms are employed especial the subpixel technique and linear mixture model to estimate the concentration of pollutants. The change detection approach is also applied to track them. We also conduct the chemical analysis of the polluted water to provide the ground truth validation. By the correlation analysis between the satellite observation and the ground truth chemical analysis, an effective approach to monitoring water pollution could be established.

  13. Lead-210 analyses of sediment accumulation rates in five Southern Illinois surface mine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugam, R.B.; Carlson, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    210 Pb is a naturally occurring radionuclide with a short half-life (22 yrs) which can be used to determine sedimentation rates in lakes. The technique was applied in 5 Southern Illinois surface mine lakes where it revealed past sedimentation rates to have been extremely variable. In some of the lakes there was evidence for extensive slumping immediately after mining ceased followed by a more regular sedimentary regime that continued until the present. In others there have been one or more changes in sediment accumulation rates since lacustrine sedimentation began. These results suggest that simply measuring the amount of sediment that has accumulated in a surface mine lake since mining ceased is inadequate to determine filling rates. Sedimentation rates in the 5 lakes varied from .60 +- .19 to 1.46 +- .19 cm/y. These rates are similar to natural lakes with moderately disturbed watersheds

  14. Technology for mining overburden with hard inclusions in landslide zones of KATEhK surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egin, B A; Semikobyla, Ya G [Leningradskii Gornyi Institut (USSR)

    1990-10-01

    Discusses selected problems associated with overburden removal in the Berezovo and Uryup mines of the Kansk-Achinsk coal basin. The overburden consists of sandstones, clays and aleurites with a moisture content of 15-24%. Hard inclusions (lens) 0.1-4.5 m thick and up to 50 m long consist of sandstones and aleurites. The overburden will be mined by heavy-duty bucket wheel excavators with a capacity from 5,250 to 12,500 m{sup 3}. Effects of moisture content in the overburden and hard lens on excavator operation and landslide hazard are analyzed. Schemes for overburden removal and oversize crushing recommended by 2 research institutes would result in increasing slope angle from 47-50 degrees to 70 degrees and cause a safety factor increase (1.6 times). 2 refs.

  15. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  16. Effects of Topography and Surface Soil Cover on Erosion for Mining Reclamation: The Experimental Spoil Heap at El Machorro Mine (Central Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Moreno, Cristina; Martín Duque, J. F.; Nicolau, J. M.; Hernando, N.; Sanz, M. A.; Sánchez Castillo, L.

    2013-01-01

    Mining reclamation tries to reduce environmental impacts, including accelerated runoff, erosion and sediment load in the nearby fluvial networks and their ecosystems. This study compares the effects of topography and surface soil cover on erosion on man-made slopes coming from surface mining reclamation in Central Spain. Two topographic profiles, linear and concave, with two surface soil covers, subsoil and topsoil, were monitored for two hydrologic years. Sediment load, rill development and ...

  17. Mastering Foreign Language Competence of Ecology and Environment Managers for Mining Industry of Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Oksana; Islamov, Roman; Sergeychick, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    The necessity to solve nature conservation problems of Kuzbass mining industry demands from postgraduate education institutions to train highly qualified specialists in ecology and environment management. As 21st century education is competence-based one, the article clarifies the concept of competence in education, focuses on key competences, namely foreign language competence and its relevance for specialists in ecology and environment management. Foreign language competence is acquired through the course of "Foreign Language" discipline which covers the following aspects: academic reading, academic writing and public speaking. The article also describes the experience of organizing students' individual work taking into account their motivation and specific conditions of the discipline as well. Thus, both the content of the discipline and the approach to organize students' learning contribute to mastering foreign language competence of ecology and environment managers as inherent condition of their professional efficiency for solving ecological problems of mining industry in Kuzbass region.

  18. Mining the Agave Microbiome for adaptions to arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Wojke, Tanja; North, Gretchen; Partida-Martinez, Laila; DeAngeli, Kristen; Clingenpeel, Scott; Gross, Stephen; Tringe, Susannah; Visel, Axel

    2013-03-25

    A major challenge facing the biofuels industry is the identification of high-yield plant feedstocks that can be cultivated with minimal resource inputs without competing for land and water supplies with existing food crops. Recent research has demonstrated that the Agave plant, cultivated in Mexico and Southwestern United States for the production of fiber and alcohol, meets these criteria1. Agaves grow on non-arable rocky soils in regions characterized by prolonged drought and extreme temperatures, due in part to physiological adaptions that prevent excess water-loss in arid environments2. Plant-microbial symbioses can play a role in helping plants adapt to heat and drought stress, increasing the accessibility of soil nutrients, or compete with plant pathogens3. Whether agaves have similar beneficial microbe interactions in their native environment is unknown. We aim to provide a comprehensive characterization of the Agave microbiome, with the goal of identifying specific community members that may contribute to Agave biotic and abiotic stress tolerance

  19. Development and Application of Blast Casting Technique in Large-Scale Surface Mines: A Case Study of Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast casting is a high-efficiency technique applied in surface mines for overburden removal and results in stripping cost savings. According to ballistic theory and center-of-mass frame basic movement principles, key factors influencing blast casting effect were analyzed, which include bench height and mining panel width, inclined angle of blast holes, explosive unit consumption (EUC, delay-time interval, presplitting, and blast hole pattern parameters. An intelligent design software was developed for obtaining better breaking and casting effect, and the error rates predicted with actual result can be controlled with 10%. Blast casting technique was successfully applied in Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine (HSCM with more than 34% of material casted into the inner dump. A ramp ditch was set within the middle inner dump for coal transportation. The procedure of stripping and excavating was implemented separately and alternately in the two sections around the middle ramp ditch. An unconstrained-nonlinear model was deduced for optimizing the shift distance of the middle ramp. The calculation results show that optimum shift distance of HSCM is 480 m, and the middle ditch should be shifted after 6 blast casting mining panels being stripped.

  20. Mined-out land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno; Toomik, Arvi; Valgma, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    Estonian mineral resources are deposited in low depth and mining fields are large, therefore vast areas are affected by mining. There are at least 800 deposits with total area of 6,000 km 2 and about the same number of underground mines, surface mines, peat fields, quarries, and sand and gravel pits. The deposits cover more than 10% of Estonian mainland. The total area of operating mine claims exceeds 150 km 2 that makes 0.3 % of Estonian area. The book is written mainly for the people who are living or acting in the area influenced by mining. The observations and research could benefit those who are interested in geography and environment, who follow formation and look of mined-out landscapes. The book contains also warnings for careless people on and under the surface of the mined-out land. Part of the book contains results of the research made in 1968-1993 by the first two authors working at the Estonian branch of A.Skochinsky Institute of Mining. Since 1990, Arvi Toomik continued this study at the Northeastern section of the Institute of Ecology of Tallinn Pedagogical University. Enno Reinsalu studied aftereffects of mining at the Mining Department of Tallinn Technical University from 1998 to 2000. Geographical Information System for Mining was studied by Ingo Valgma within his doctoral dissertation, and this book is one of the applications of his study

  1. Deep Impact: Effects of Mountaintop Mining on Surface Topography, Bedrock Structure, and Downstream Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew R V; McGlynn, Brian L; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2016-02-16

    Land use impacts are commonly quantified and compared using 2D maps, limiting the scale of their reported impacts to surface area estimates. Yet, nearly all land use involves disturbances below the land surface. Incorporating this third dimension into our estimates of land use impact is especially important when examining the impacts of mining. Mountaintop mining is the most common form of coal mining in the Central Appalachian ecoregion. Previous estimates suggest that active, reclaimed, or abandoned mountaintop mines cover ∼7% of Central Appalachia. While this is double the areal extent of development in the ecoregion (estimated to occupy mines extend 10s to 100s of meters below the current land surface. Here, we provide the first estimates for the total volumetric and topographic disturbance associated with mining in an 11 500 km(2) region of southern West Virginia. We find that the cutting of ridges and filling of valleys has lowered the median slope of mined landscapes in the region by nearly 10 degrees while increasing their average elevation by 3 m as a result of expansive valley filling. We estimate that in southern West Virginia, more than 6.4km(3) of bedrock has been broken apart and deposited into 1544 headwater valley fills. We used NPDES monitoring datatsets available for 91 of these valley fills to explore whether fill characteristics could explain variation in the pH or selenium concentrations reported for streams draining these fills. We found that the volume of overburden in individual valley fills correlates with stream pH and selenium concentration, and suggest that a three-dimensional assessment of mountaintop mining impacts is necessary to predict both the severity and the longevity of the resulting environmental impacts.

  2. Ergonomics - Using Ergonomics to Enhance Safe Production at a Surface Coal Mine - A Case Study with Powder Crews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma-Krajewski, J.; Wiehagen, W.; Etcheverry, A.; Turin, F.; Unger, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Job tasks that involve exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) risk factors may impact both the risk of injury and production downtime. Common WMSD risks factors associated with mining tasks include forceful exertions, awkward postures, repetitive motion, jolting and jarring, forceful gripping, contact stress, and whole body and segmental vibration. Mining environments that expose workers to temperature/humidity extremes, windy conditions, and slippery and uneven walking surfaces also contribute to injury risk. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers worked with powder crew members from the Bridger Coal Company to identify and rank routine work tasks based on perceived exposure to WMSD risk factors. This article presents the process followed to identify tasks that workers believed involved the greatest exposure to risk factors and discusses risk reduction strategies. Specifically, the proposed prill truck design changes addressed cab ingress/egress, loading blast holes, and access to the upper deck of the prill truck.

  3. Discussion on environment control technology of escaping cavern to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yongkai

    2012-01-01

    As the important refuge of Uranium Mines, the environment of Escaping Cavern is important to the miner's life. In order to attain the standard of Environment Control, the paper gave the method of Environment Control to the fire danger, pervious, collapse; Gave the isolating prevention time; represented the scheme of compressed-air self-help system, high pressure oxygen system, emergency oxygen system; Introduced the air purge equipment to handle the CO, CO 2 , bacterium and other harmful gas. At the same time, gave the method to control the temperature with the phase-change materials and private prevention. (author)

  4. Assessment of surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the research carried out at West Virginia University in order to assess surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to longwall mining. Extensive instrumentation and measurements have been made over three longwall mines in northern West Virginia during a three-year period. Various monitoring techniques including full profile borehole extensometer, full profile borehole inclinometers, time domain reflectometry, sonic reflection technique, a unique mechanical grouting method, photographic and visual observations, standard surveying, and water-level measurements were utilized. The paper's emphasis is first on surface ground movement and its impact on integrity of surface ground and structures and second on type and magnitude of subsurface ground movements associated with mine geometry and geology. A subsidence prediction model based on implementation of both mechanisms of ground movement around the excavation and the geologic and geotechnical properties of the rock/coal surrounding the excavation has been developed. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  5. Proceedings of the fifth national symposium on environment: focal theme environmental issues related to mining, milling and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, V.N.; Bapat, V.N.; Desai, M.V.M.

    1996-02-01

    The fifth National Symposium on Environment was held in Calcutta from February 28 to March 1, 1996. It focused on environmental issues related to mining, milling and metallurgy. Some of the topics covered are coal mining and related environmental issues, chromium mining and associated environmental problems, heavy metals especially nuclear materials and the environmental management strategies, arsenic contamination in water in West Bengal areas and radiological issues related to fertilizers and gypsum industries. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. refs., figs., tabs

  6. Surface structural damage associated with longwall mining near Tuscaloosa, Alabama: a case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isphording, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Initially the paper examines the frequency of coal mine subsidence and the influence on surface subsidence of subsurface mining methods, i.e. room and pillar and longwall mining. A case study of the subsidence damage caused to a log house near Tuscaloosa, Alabama (USA), when a longwall panel passed beneath it is presented. The damage resulted in the homeowners suing the mining company for negligence. The article discusses information provided to the plaintiffs attorneys by the author. Aspects covered are: the subsidence and damage to the property; prediction of subsidence; the monitoring of subsidence; and the prevention of subsidence. An out-of-court settlement was agreed by the two parties. 15 refs., 5 figs

  7. Continuous Rating for Diggability Assessment in Surface Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    IPHAR, Melih

    2016-10-01

    The rocks can be loosened either by drilling-blasting or direct excavation using powerful machines in opencast mining operations. The economics of rock excavation is considered for each method to be applied. If blasting operation is not preferred and also the geological structures and rock mass properties in site are convenient (favourable ground conditions) for ripping or direct excavation method by mining machines, the next step is to determine which machine or excavator should be selected for the excavation purposes. Many researchers have proposed several diggability or excavatability assessment methods for deciding on excavator type to be used in the field. Most of these systems are generally based on assigning a rating for the parameters having importance in rock excavation process. However, the sharp transitions between the two adjacent classes for a given parameter can lead to some uncertainties. In this paper, it has been proposed that varying rating should be assigned for a given parameter called as “continuous rating” instead of giving constant rating for a given class.

  8. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  9. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. Considerable emphasis is placed on postmining assistance. This volume is specifically for the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.

  10. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region IV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana.

  11. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia.

  12. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.

  13. An assessment of corporate entrepreneurship in the alloy mining environment / S.S. Scheepers

    OpenAIRE

    Scheepers, Sarah Susanna

    2009-01-01

    This study highlighted the influence of the 13 corporate entrepreneurial constructs on the entrepreneurial climate in corporate organisations. The primary objective of this study was to assess the level of corporate entrepreneurship in the South African alloy mining environment, with specific reference to Xstrata Alloys and to make recommendations on the encouragement and promoting of a climate conducive to corporate entrepreneurship in Xstrata South Africa (Pty) Ltd - Alloys. The empiri...

  14. Investigation to identify the inhibitors and facilitators of excessive absenteeism in a mining environment / Dianne Williamson

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of excessive absenteeism in a mining environment. Absenteeism can be one of the most important human resource issues in any organisation. Absenteeism can be really difficult, but with good understanding of what causes absenteeism and how to reduce it, organisations can limit the negative side effects of employee attendance issues. Absenteeism is not only a behaviour caused by an individual's character...

  15. The determination of radium-226 in the tailings of gold mines and their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malan, J.J.

    1981-10-01

    Radium-226, a daughter product in the uranium-238 decay series, is present in ore mined for the production of both gold and uranium. In this way the radium-226 finds its way into the tailings of mines and is therefore present in all the mine sand dumps and slimes dams in the Republic. Although this radium-226 is in a relatively stable and practically insoluble matrix, it is nevertheless possible for it to migrate from such slimes dams or sand dumps under the influence of various mechanisms. In order to make a survey in these mining environments, it was necessary to adapt an existing emanometric method. In this method radium-226 is co-precipitated from 5 dm 3 water samples with barium sulphate. An investigation was carried out on the recoverability of the radium-226 in this way and it was found that the best results were achieved at a pH of 1 with co-precipitation from a homogenous or a simulated homogenous medium. The barium sulphate precipitate was dissolved by a sodium carbonate fusion with the resulting carbonates dissolving in hydrochloric acid. The back-ground reading due to the presence of radium-266 in the reagents used and the radium-226 slightly contaminating the glassware, was determined with blank measurements. This mean background value was used to determine the detection limit. In the survey, samples of water, slimes, sand and sediment were taken in the main gold-mining areas of the RSA. From the results of the survey it appears that radium-226 is definitely present in the abovementioned environments, but that the concentrations are very low. It was, furthermore, evident that, in contrast with the relatively high concentrations measured near the pollution source, the measured quantity of radium-226 decreases rapidly with increasing distance from the source

  16. Utilization of InSAR differential interferometry for surface deformation detection caused by mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F.; Shao, Y.; Guichen, M.

    2010-01-01

    In China, the surface deformation of ground has been a significant geotechnical problem as a result of cracks in the ground surface, collapsing of house, and subsidence of roads. A powerful technology for detecting surface deformation in the ground is differential interferometry using synthetic aperture radar (INSAR). The technology enables the analysis from different phase of micro-wave between two observed data by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of surface deformation of ground such as ground subsidence, land slide, and slope failure. In January 2006, the advanced land observing satellite was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presented an analytical investigation to detect ground subsidence or change caused by mining, overuse of ground water, and disaster. Specifically, the paper discussed the INSAR monitoring technology of the mine slope, including INSAR data sources and processing software; the principle of synthetic aperture radar interferometry; principles of differential SAR interferometry; and INSAR technology to slope monitoring of the Haizhou open pit mine. The paper also discussed the Haizhou strip mine side slope INSAR monitoring results and tests. It was concluded that the use of synthetic aperture radar interferometer technique was the optimal technique to provide three-dimensional spatial information and minimal change from ground surface by spatial remote sensing device. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Utilization of InSAR differential interferometry for surface deformation detection caused by mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). School of Geomatics; Shao, Y. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). Dept. of Foreign Language; Guichen, M. [Gifu Univ., Yanagido, Gifu (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In China, the surface deformation of ground has been a significant geotechnical problem as a result of cracks in the ground surface, collapsing of house, and subsidence of roads. A powerful technology for detecting surface deformation in the ground is differential interferometry using synthetic aperture radar (INSAR). The technology enables the analysis from different phase of micro-wave between two observed data by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of surface deformation of ground such as ground subsidence, land slide, and slope failure. In January 2006, the advanced land observing satellite was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presented an analytical investigation to detect ground subsidence or change caused by mining, overuse of ground water, and disaster. Specifically, the paper discussed the INSAR monitoring technology of the mine slope, including INSAR data sources and processing software; the principle of synthetic aperture radar interferometry; principles of differential SAR interferometry; and INSAR technology to slope monitoring of the Haizhou open pit mine. The paper also discussed the Haizhou strip mine side slope INSAR monitoring results and tests. It was concluded that the use of synthetic aperture radar interferometer technique was the optimal technique to provide three-dimensional spatial information and minimal change from ground surface by spatial remote sensing device. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land-use planning. Volume 3C. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: Georgia Kaolin Company Clay Mines, Washington County, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guernsey, J L; Brown, L A; Perry, A O

    1978-02-01

    This case study examines the reclamation practices of the Georgia Kaolin's American Industrial Clay Company Division, a kaolin producer centered in Twiggs, Washington, and Wilkinson Counties, Georgia. The State of Georgia accounts for more than one-fourth of the world's kaolin production and about three-fourths of U.S. kaolin output. The mining of kaolin in Georgia illustrates the effects of mining and reclaiming lands disturbed by area surface mining. The disturbed areas are reclaimed under the rules and regulations of the Georgia Surface Mining Act of 1968. The natural conditions influencing the reclamation methodologies and techniques are markedly unique from those of other mining operations. The environmental disturbances and procedures used in reclaiming the kaolin mined lands are reviewed and implications for planners are noted.

  19. Impacts of Mining and Urbanization on the Qin-Ba Mountainous Environment, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Qin-Ba Ecological Functional Zone is a component of China’s ecological security pattern designed to protect the regional ecosystem and maintain biodiversity. However, due to the impact of mining and urban encroachment, the plight of a sustainable ecosystem in the Qin-Ba mountainous area is deteriorating. This paper has used a remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS to examine the impacts of mining and urban encroachment on the environment in the Qin-Ba mountainous area. The results indicate that the total mined area in 2013 was 22 km2 and is predicted to escalate. Results also show that the ecosystems in Fengxian County, Shaanxi Province and Baokang County, Hubei Province were most severely affected by mining. Urbanization in the Qin-Ba mountainous area has seen an increase of 85.58 km2 in urban land use from 2010 to 2013. In addition, infrastructure development including airport construction, tourism resorts and real estate development in the Qin-Ba mountainous area has intensified environmental and biodiversity disturbances since large areas of forest have been cleared. Our results should provide insight and assistance to city planners and government officials in making informed decisions.

  20. Time-space coordination of mining operations for protection of the surface. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranz, B

    1975-01-01

    In Polish mines, more than 41 percent of coal resources beneath built-up areas can be extracted. In 1973 an analysis of the mining and geological conditions was conducted in one of the mines, principally from the point of view of suitably coordinated mining advance with caving. Various possible systems of extraction were analyzed for three time periods up to 1985. A detailed inventory was prepared of surface structures in the whole concession area, particular attention being paid to industrial and social or communal areas. Preliminary and final predictions were made of deformation indices for various time periods, including predicted subsidences, and dynamic and static horizontal strains. The optimum variant was chosen, and capital expenditure and economic effects were taken into account. Solutions worked out for various sectors of the overall problem were presented to the mine management in the form of programmes for advancing the mining face in individual panels and seams so as to obtain maximum possible production with roof caving, under protected buildings.

  1. Planning maximum extraction of a safety pillar in the Most surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helis, P; Hess, L; Kubiznak, K [SHR - Banske Projekty, Teplice (Czechoslovakia)

    1990-11-01

    Discusses planned coal surface mining in the Most mine in the area of the Hnevin safety pillar with coal reserves amounting to about 7.5 Mt. The following aspects are evaluated: coal reserves and their distribution in the pillar, coal seam thickness and dip angles, water conditions, water influx rates, mechanical properties of the overburden and strata situated in the seam floor, slope stability and hazards of landslides, effects of water influx on landslide hazards, types of bucket wheel excavators used for overburden removal and mining, types of belt conveyors used for mine haulage, stackers, position of mining equipment in the mine. A scheme developed by Banske Projekty Teplice for partial extraction of the safety pillar would result in extraction of 4.5 Mt coal. About 1.7 Mt coal would be left in a safety coal layer about 10.0 m thick situated in the floor in zones with landslide hazards. KU 300 bucket wheel excavators, belt conveyors 1,200 mm wide and ZP 2,500 stackers would be used. 4 refs.

  2. Automation of technological processes at surface mines in the GDR as one of the main directions of increased coal extraction effectiveness by surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jona, U.

    1987-12-01

    In the GDR, about 53% of brown coal is mined with the use of overburden conveyor bridges, 27% with the use of belt conveyors, and 20% with the use of rail transport. Compares efficiency and cost per 1 m/sup 3/ of these transport methods. The overburden conveyor bridges, their specifications and microcomputer control are described. Describes utilization of microcomputer techniques, especially the stereochart system of Carl Zeiss Jena, for automated processing of data on surface mine geometry. Other computer applications are also presented, e.g. for surveying, slope stability calculation, and conveyor bridge control. Maintains that application of the KED/KEM microcomputer system for overburden conveyor bridge control increases its effectiveness by 10%, i.e. by 8 million m/sup 3//a.

  3. Land reclamation in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Mines and its effect on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixta, J.

    1991-01-01

    Land reclamation actually begins the moment the opening of a new mine is planned. The following basic characteristics of the future landscape are decided on: the shape and size of outer waste dumps, location, shape and size of the remaining pit, ground modeling with respect to the airing of the territory and outflow of surface waters, and balance and exploitation of earth that can be made into arable land as well as of other resources. The success of the further use of the territory primarily depends on the mining-technical stage of the land reclamation activity. The biotechnical stage begins after closing the mine. This stage includes the supply of topsoil, a special 5-8 year sowing procedure, planting, etc. The post-reclamation stage, whose aim it is to sustain the desired pedogenetic development, is provided by the subsequent users of the reclaimed plots. The reclamation costs are included in the current mining costs. A detailed discussion is devoted to the economic and legal aspects of the future of reclamation activities. (M.D.). 2 tabs

  4. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not...

  5. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  6. The design procedures on brick building against surface ground deformations due to mining and earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, J.; Yang, S. (China University of Mining and Technology (China))

    1992-05-01

    By analysing the effects of ground motion and deformation on surface buildings, and drawing on the experience of damages caused by the Tangshan and Chenhai earthquakes, the authors discuss the design of brick and concrete buildings which are protected against the damaging effects of both earthquakes and mining activities. 5 figs.

  7. Baseline studies and evaluation of effects of surface discharge of deep-sea mining - INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sardessai, S.

    . An evaluation of possible effects of surface discharge of mining fines - a slurry consisting of fine nodule fragments, bottom water and sediments - suggests that the discharge, with an expected solid content of 50 g/l, will induce increased primary production...

  8. Monitoring of Surface Subsidence of the Mining Area Based on Sbas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Zhou, S.; Zang, D.; Lu, T.

    2018-05-01

    This paper has collected 7 scenes of L band PALSAR sensor radar data of a mine in FengCheng city, jiangxi province, using the Small-baseline Subset (SBAS) method to invert the surface subsidence of the mine. Baselines of interference less than 800m has been chosen to constitute short baseline differential interference atlas, using pixels whose average coherent coefficient was larger than or equal to 0.3 as like high coherent point target, using singular value decomposition (SVD) method to calculate deformation phase sequence based on these high coherent points, and the accumulation of settlements of study area of different period had been obtained, so as to reflect the ground surface settlement evolution of the settlement of the area. The results of the study has showed that: SBAS technology has overcome coherent problem of the traditionality D-InSAR technique, continuous deformation field of surface mining in time dimension of time could been obtained, characteristics of ground surface settlement of mining subsidence in different period has been displayed, so to improve the accuracy and reliability of the monitoring results.

  9. Modeling forest ecosystem changes resulting from surface coal mining in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Brown; Andrew J. Lister; Mary Ann Fajvan; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Christine Mazzarella

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to assess the effects of surface coal mining on forest ecosystem disturbance and restoration in the Coal River Subbasin in southern West Virginia. Our approach is to develop disturbance impact models for this subbasin that will serve as a case study for testing the feasibility of integrating currently available GIS data layers, remote...

  10. Quantifying topographic differences between premining and reclaimed landscapes at a large surface coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Premining and reclaimed landscapes on 2,300 acres were compared quantitatively at a surface coal mine in western North Dakota. Weighted average slopes were determined by calculating acres in each slope class (0% to 3%, 3% to 6%, 6% to 9%, 9% to 15%, and > 15%) and dividing by the total number of acres. Weighted average slopes were 3.8% and 3.0% for all premining and reclaimed lands respectively. Weighted average slopes were 2.7% and 2.1% for premining and reclaimed croplands respectively. Reclaimed native rangeland slopes are 5.5% compared to 7.0% premining. The acreage of native rangeland with >9% slopes decreased more than 50% during reclamation. For all mined lands there is 25% more reclaimed land with 0% to 3% slopes and 25% less reclaimed land with >6% slopes than before mining. Topographic changes caused by surface mining and reclamation enhance soil conservation, moisture retention, and agricultural productivity. A cross-sectional profile had 26.8 and 15.5 premining and reclaimed land up-down gradient changes per mile respectively, indicating reclaimed land is less diverse than it was prior to mining. Slope class map units average 3.5 and 4.4 acres respectively on premining and reclaimed lands, further indicating reduced diversity. Landscape improvements conflict with regulatory diversity requirements to determine reclamation success

  11. Complex source mechanisms of mining-induced seismic events - implications for surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, B.; Cesca, S.; Lasocki, S.; Rudzinski, L.; Lizurek, L.; Wiejacz, P.; Urban, P.; kozlowska, M.

    2012-04-01

    The seismicity of Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGCD) is induced by mining activities in three mines: Lubin, Rudna and Polkowice-Sieroszowice. Ground motion caused by strong tremors might affect local infrastructure. "Żelazny Most" tailings pond, the biggest structure of this type in Europe, is here under special concern. Due to surface objects protection, Rudna Mine has been running ground motion monitoring for several years. From June 2010 to June 2011 unusually strong and extensive surface impact has been observed for 6 mining tremors induced in one of Rudna mining sections. The observed peak ground acceleration (PGA) for both horizontal and vertical component were in or even beyond 99% confidence interval for prediction. The aim of this paper is analyze the reason of such unusual ground motion. On the basis of registrations from Rudna Mine mining seismological network and records from Polish Seismological Network held by the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (IGF PAN), the source mechanisms of these 6 tremors were calculated using a time domain moment tensor inversion. Furthermore, a kinematic analysis of the seismic source was performed, in order to determine the rupture planes orientations and rupture directions. These results showed that in case of the investigated tremors, point source models and shear fault mechanisms, which are most often assumed in mining seismology, are invalid. All analyzed events indicate extended sources with non-shear mechanism. The rapture planes have small dip angles and the rupture starts at the tremors hypocenter and propagates in the direction opposite to the plane dip. The tensional component plays here also big role. These source mechanisms well explain such observed strong ground motion, and calculated synthetic PGA values well correlates with observed ones. The relationship between mining tremors were also under investigation. All subsequent tremors occurred in the area of increased stress due to

  12. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 2. The status of state surface mining regulations as of January 1980 and the fish and wildlife information needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This is part 2 of a three part series to assist government agencies and private citizens in determining fish and wildlife information needs for new coal mining operations pursuant to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This portion documents the status of individual state surface mining regulations as of January 1980 in those states having significant strippable reserves and/or active strip mining operations. It also provides documentation of fish and wildlife information needs identified in the state regulations of compliance to PL 95-87.

  13. Review : Pollution due to Coal Mining Activity and its Impact on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Arif Setiawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of natural resources in the form of coal mines has a positive impact on economic and energy development, in addition to coal mining activities have a negative impact on the environment that result in environmental pollution in soil, water, and air. Pollution begins when clearing land, taking exploitation, transporting, stockpile and when the coal is burned. When land clearing causes damage to forest ecosystems. At the time of exploitation impact on air pollution by coal dust particles, the erosion, siltation of the river, the pollution of heavy metals and the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD. The high acid conditions cause the faster heavy metals such as Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni present in the coal dissolved and carried to the waters. Coal stockpile activity also causes pollution in the air, soil, and water. At the time the coal is burned as an energy source causes the emission of hazardous materials into the air of Hg, As, Se and CO2 gas, NOx, SO2. This condition has an impact on the environment and ultimately on human health.

  14. The impact of mining on the environment: necessary evil or merely a calamity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    Mankind has always used mineral assets and has become increasingly dependent upon them during his cultural, scientific and technological evolution. If it is true that mining is one of the ways in which man interferes with the environment by disfiguring, degrading and polluting it, it is no less true that mining is one of the ways to supply the needs indispensable to modern societies. For an unpredictable period of time to come, mankind will have to live with the consumption of metallic and non-metallic mineral and energy resources. It is impossible to sustain the unsustainable, to renew the non-renewable, but it is perfectly possible to make rationally executed mining compatible with the recovery and/or restoration of the environment. In developing countries like Brazil, politicians and business people, poorly-informed about environmental problems, usually try, without success, to solve the problems far away from metropolitan areas, for example in the Amazon region, forgetting about those problems close to home which make life intolerable in the great urban centres like Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Belo Horizonte. 10 refs

  15. Effect of mining and land reclamation on the radiological characteristics of the terrestrial environment of Florida's phosphate regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, C.E.; Kautz, R.; Bolch, W.E. Jr.; Wethington, J.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate the extent and nature of the redistribution of uranium-series radioactivity in phosphate mining, reclamation, and land development. Radium-226 was measured in waste materials that enter into land reclamation. Radium-226 surface soil concentrations and depth profile, soil surface radon flux, and gamma radiation above the surface were reported for unmined and mined, reclaimed, and otherwise altered lands. Mining, land reclamation, and construction site preparation can increase the near-surface soil radium and related characteristics. The impact was evaluated in terms of effect on actual and potential indoor radon progeny concentrations in structures. It was concluded that debris lands, resulting from a former mining practice, represent the greatest impact on existing structures

  16. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gulikova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust

  17. Grey relation projection model for evaluating permafrost environment in the Muli coal mining area, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Cao; Yu Sheng; Yinghong Qin; Jing Li; Jichun Wu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering

    2010-12-15

    This study attempts to estimate the current stage of the permafrost environment in the Muli coal mining area, an opencast mining site in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. The estimation is done by regarding this site's permafrost environment as a system which was divided into three subsystems consisting of permafrost freeze-thaw erosion sensibility, permafrost thermal stability, and permafrost ecological fragility. The subsystems were characterized with their influencing indicators, each of which was assigned with a weight according to analytic hierarchy process. The relationship between these indictors is established using an environmental evaluation model based on grey system theory. The evaluated results show that currently the normalised grey relation projection values (GRPV) of permafrost freezing-thawing erosion sensibility, permafrost thermal stability, permafrost ecological fragility and permafrost environment are 0.58 (general situation), 0.47 (bad situation), 0.63 (general situation) and 0.56 (general situation), respectively. These values imply that the permafrost environment has been deteriorated to a certain degree by human activities and potentially could be further degraded. However, at this degree, a new equilibrium could be achieved if the current environmental degradation ratio is held and if effective treatments are constructed against further damages.

  18. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  19. Hydrogeochemical Investigations of Historic Mining Districts, Central Western Slope of Colorado, Including Influence on Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This report describes reconnaissance hydrogeochemical investigations of 22 mining districts on the Western Slope of Colorado in the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests and adjacent public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Sources and fates of contaminants from historic mines, mine waste, and mill tailings are interpreted from chemical analyses for 190 samples of surface waters; 185 samples of mined rocks, mill tailings, and altered rocks; and passive leach analyses of 116 samples of those mineralized materials. Short reaches of several headwater streams show relatively low level effects of historic mining; the headwaters of the Uncompahgre River are highly contaminated by mines and unmined altered rocks in the Red Mountain district. There is encouraging evidence that natural processes attenuate mine-related contamination in most districts.

  20. Detecting voids in coal seams in surface mining by means of a biophysical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bek, E.

    1985-07-01

    Soviet research institutes, in cooperation with research intitutes from other countries, developed the Radar 1 system for detecting abandoned workings in coal seams in surface mines. The system will be used for detecting voids in seams at depths to 50 m. The Academy of Sciences of Czechoslovakia tested use of dowsing for detecting abandoned workings in the Pohranicni straz, the Brezova and the Medard coal surface mines. The workings were situated at depths from 2 to 12 m from the ground surface (dowser position). The dowser was not informed of position or dimensions of the workings. Accuracy of determining position of abandoned workings in coal seams was high. Results of dowsing were checked by drilling. 4 references.

  1. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Apostolou, Evangelia; Papavgeri, Georgia; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles

    2016-01-01

    The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions. This paper presents an integrated data management system which was developed over a number of years as well as the advantages through a specific application. The presented case study illustrates how the high production slopes of a mine that exceed depths of 100-120 m were successfully mined with an average displacement rate of 10- 20 mm/day, approaching an almost slow to moderate landslide velocity. Monitoring data of the past four years are included in the database and can be analyzed to produce valuable results. Time-series data correlations of movements, precipitation records, etc. are evaluated and presented in this case study. The results can be used to successfully manage mine operations and ensure the safety of the mine and the workforce.

  2. Minimization of gully erosion on reclaimed surface mines using the stable slope and sediment transport computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, R.A.; Gardner, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Disequilibrium between slope form and hydrologic and erosion processes on reclaimed surface coal mines in the humid temperate northeastern US, can result in gully erosion and sediment loads which are elevated above natural, background values. Initial sheetwash erosion is surpassed by gully erosion on reclamation sites which are not in equilibrium with post-mining hydrology. Long-term stability can be attained by designing a channel profile which is in equilibrium with the increased peak discharges found on reclaimed surface mines. The Stable Slope and Sediment transport model (SSAST) was developed to design stable longitudinal channel profiles for post-mining hydrologic and erosional processes. SSAST is an event based computer model that calculates the stable slope for a channel segment based on the post-mine hydrology and median grain size of a reclaimed surface mine. Peak discharge, which drives post-mine erosion, is calculated from a 10-year, 24-hour storm using the Soil Conservation Service curve number method. Curve number calibrated for Pennsylvania surface mines are used. Reclamation sites are represented by the rectangle of triangle which most closely fits the shape of the site while having the same drainage area and length. Sediment transport and slope stability are calculated using a modified Bagnold's equation with a correction factor for the irregular particle shapes formed during the mining process. Data from three reclaimed Pennsylvania surface mines were used to calibrate and verify SSAST. Analysis indicates that SSAST can predict longitudinal channel profiles for stable reclamation of surface mines in the humid, temperate northeastern US

  3. Behavior of 226Ra in the aquatic environment of the uranium mine region of Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Amaral, E.C. da.

    1979-08-01

    A sampling and analytical program for 238 U, 226 Ra and 210 Pb was started, at first, in the uranium mine region, at Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil. Afterwards, the interaction was studied between 226 Ra and local river sediments and waters. Peliminary studies were also done on the mobility of 226 Ra retained on solid matter or soil, induced by local waters. Above normal concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra and 210 Pb were found in local waters, sediments and plants collected on the imediate vicinity of the mine. 226 Ra distribution coefficients are on the order of 10 3 for the different samples assayed. It was concluded that, in the future, 226 Ra discharged into liquid environment should be only temporarily retained by sediments. Its transport by surface waters should be predominantly in the soluble form. 226 Ra should become the critical radionuclide in terms of internal radiation dose on the local population, due to its ingestion with water. 226 Ra retained on solid supports is mobilized by local waters and its solubilization is dependent on the volume of water passed through. (M.A.) [pt

  4. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 1. Fish and wildlife information needs in the federal surface mining permanent regulations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This is part 1 of three part series to assist government agencies and private citizens in determining fish and wildlife information needs for new coal mining operations pursuant to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Part 2 will document status of individual state surface mining regulations as of January 1980 in those states having significant strippable reserves and/or active strip mining operations. It will also provide documentation of fish and wildlife information needs identified in the state regulations of compliance to PL 95-87. Part 3 will be a discussion of the information needed to develop the Fish and Wildlife Plan identified in the Permanent Regulations. The objective of this three part series is to include consideration of fish and wildlife resources in the surface mining process.

  5. Character of mine water and its incidence on the environment in Godavari Valley coal belt, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat, D; Pavanguru, R

    1987-09-01

    The paper describes the regional geology and hydrology briefly. Both surface and underground mines are using more mechanization to meet the demand for more coal. This is resulting in considerable physical and chemical modifications to the natural waters. Fluorosis has been suspected by a few of the local doctors, and studies have been carried out to determine the fluorine content of ground and surface waters. The region is inhabited by a tribal people below the poverty line who have no approach to civic authorities and are unable to express their experiences resulting from the mining operations and the mine waters introduced into the surface drainage systems. Mysterious disorders have been reported by some of the people who use water influenced by the mine water at different localities.

  6. Assessment of soil pollution through trace element contamination in a coal mine environment of Jharia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Shrivastava, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Coal mining environment is associated with liberation of several trace elements. Soils in such regions particularly have been polluted with these trace elements from a wide range of sources. Trace elements such as lead, copper, iron, zinc, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, etc. have caused major human health problems in several parts of the world. Concern over such incidents has prompted numerous investigations into the metabolism and toxic effects of these elements. The trace element contamination of soils (e.g. roadside, overburden dump, residential area etc.) in a part of the Jharia coal field running through a large industrial zone was studied. Representative soil samples from several highly polluted spots of the mining areas were collected and analysed. Results of the investigation revealed that the soils are polluted with trace elements to an appreciable level. Pollution index for soil was developed on the basis of observed concentration levels of trace elements of the study area which may help in better understanding of pollution analysis in coal mining areas. (author)

  7. Reproduction of Trachemys callirostris callirostris (Emydidae) in environments created by mining in La Guajira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguizamo Pardo, Cindy; Bonilla Gomez, Maria Argenis

    2014-01-01

    The Colombian slider turtle (Trachemys callirostris callirostris) is a subspecies under a high level of exploitation in Colombia, of which nothing is known about its reproduction in highly disturbed areas with low hunting pressure. We studied some reproductive traits in three different aquatic environments created by coal mining in the Cerrejon Mine, La Guajira Department, during part of the reproductive season in 2011 (between March and June). We recorded hatching success (56.9 %) only in the stabilization ponds. In the mining reservoir, the 100 % predation rate was the factor limiting hatching success. The recommended option there is protect the nests from the main predator (Procyon cancrivorus) and the relocation of some of them for ex-situ incubation. The low level of nesting recorded in the rehabilitated area may have been the result of extraction of adult females, but also could be due to habitat limiting factors influencing the growth of individuals, or by demographic factors. Size variables measured for clutches, eggs, and hatchlings at the three study sites, showed the possibility that nesting females are larger than those of other populations subjected to hunting in Colombia. However, to determine the extent of geographic variation when compared to other populations it will be necessary to examine temporal variation in reproductive traits of the Cerrejon Population.

  8. Treating mine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlak, E S; Kochegarova, L V; Zaslavskaya, I Yu

    1980-10-01

    Taking into account the negative influence of mine waters with suspended matter on the natural environment on the surface, the maximum treatment of mine water underground, is proposed. It is noted that full treatment of mine water, using conventional filtration methods, would be rather expensive, but a limited treatment of mine water is possible. Such treated mine water can be used in dust suppression and fire fighting systems. Mine water treated underground should be free of any odor, with pH level ranging from 6 to 9.5, with suspended matter content not exceeding 50 mg/l and coli-titre not less than 300 cm$SUP$3. It is suggested that water treatment to produce water characterized by these parameters is possible and economical. Recommendations on construction of underground sedimentation tanks and channels, and a hydraulic system of cleaning sedimentation tanks are proposed. The settling would be stored underground in abandoned workings. (2 refs.) (In Russian)

  9. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  10. CSIR Division of Mining Technology annual review 1993/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Division of Mining Technology of the CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research) works in partnership with the mining industry to solve problems threatening the health, safety and well-being of the workforce, and the productivity of mining operations through the development and implementation of knowledge and technology. The annual review describes the Division's research projects in the following field: rock engineering (for gold, platinum and coal mining); mining environment; occupational hygiene; surface environment; and mining equipment and systems (systems and equipment, orebody information, coal mining and causes of accidents). Details are also given of the Division's publications, research and consultancy services and information centre.

  11. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  12. Suitability of dredged material for reclamation of surface-mined land. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Van Luik, A.

    1979-12-01

    Eroding ridges of acidic coal-mine spoil in La Salle County, Illinois, were leveled to form a gently-sloped raised plateau. Four test plots were constructed: a control plot and three treatment plots that received a 0.9-m-thick cover of dredged material obtained from the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago. Two treatment plots received lime applications and all plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses. Pressure-vacuum soil water samplers were installed, in duplicate, at two levels in the control plot and at three levels in each treatment plot. The three levels in the treatment plots coincided with dredged material, the dredged-material mine-spoil interface, and the underlying mine spoil. Surface water, soil water, and groundwater were monitored for 29 water-quality parameters for one year. Rainfall, air temperature, runoff, and water-level elevation data were collected also. Detailed analysis of the data indicates that the dredged material used in this study does not adversely affect water quality; it supports abundant plant growth, lessens groundwater contamination, and controls acid runoff. The dredged material is judged to be a suitable material for use in reclamation of surface-mined land.

  13. Development of near surface seismic methods for urban and mining applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Brodic, Bojan; Place, Joachim; Juhlin, Christopher; Bastani, Mehrdad

    2014-05-01

    There is a great need to improve our understanding of the geological conditions in the shallow subsurface. Direct observations of the subsurface are cumbersome and expensive, and sometimes impossible. Urban and mining areas are especially challenging due to various sources of noise such as from traffic, buildings, cars, city trains, trams, bridges and high-voltage power-lines. Access is also restricted both in time and space, which requires the equipment to be versatile, fast to set up and pack, and produces the least disruptions. However, if properly designed and implemented, geophysical methods are capable of imaging detailed subsurface structures and can successfully be used to provide crucial information for site characterizations, infrastructure planning, brown- and near-field exploration, and mine planning. To address some of these issues Uppsala University, in collaboration with a number of public authorities, research organizations and industry partners, has recently developed a prototype broadband (0-800 Hz based on digital sensors) multi-component seismic landstreamer system. The current configuration consists of three segments with twenty 3C-sensors each 2 m apart and an additional segment with twenty 3C-sensors each 4 m apart, giving a total streamer length of 200 m. These four segments can be towed in parallel or in series, which in combination with synchronized wireless and cabled sensors can address a variety of complex near surface problems. The system is especially geared for noisy environments and areas where high-resolution images of the subsurface are needed. The system has little sensitivity to electrical noise and measures sensor tilt, important in rough terrains, so it can immediately be corrected for during the acquisition. Thanks to the digital sensors, the system can also be used for waveform tomography and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Both these methods require low frequencies and these are often sacrificed in

  14. Assessment of Trace Metals in Soil, Vegetation and Rodents in Relation to Metal Mining Activities in an Arid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rodríguez, Lia C; Alvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul

    2016-07-01

    Areas where abandoned metal-extraction mines are located contain large quantities of mineral wastes derived from environmentally unsafe mining practices. These wastes contain many pollutants, such as heavy metals, which could be released to the environment through weathering and leaching, hence becoming an important source of environmental metal pollution. This study evaluates differences in the levels of lead, iron, nickel, manganese, copper and cadmium in rodents sharing the same type of diet under different microhabitat use in arid areas with past mining activities. Samples of soil, roots, branches and seeds of Palo Adán (Fouquieria diguetii) and specimens of two rodent species (Chaetodipus arenarius and C. spinatus) were collected in areas with impact from past metal mining activities as well as from areas with no mining impact. Both rodent species mirrored nickel and iron levels in soil and seeds, as well as lead levels in soil; however, C. arenarius accumulated higher levels of manganese, copper and cadmium.

  15. Geotoxic materials in the surface environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.J.; Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminesi, F.J.

    1981-12-07

    The toxicology and natural occurrence of several recognized geotoxic elements including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, selenium, uranium, and vanadium is reviewed. The behavior of these elements in the environment and in biological systems is examined. The properties of these eight toxic elements are summarized and presented in a toxicity matrix. The toxicity matrix identifies each of the elements in terms of average crustal abundance, average soil concentration, drinking water standards, irrigation water standards, daily human intake, aquatic toxicity, phytotoxicity, mammalian toxicity, human toxicity, and bioaccumulation factors for fish. Fish are the major aquatic environment contribution to the human diet and bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems has been demonstrated to be an important factor in the cycling of elements in aquatic ecosystems. The toxicity matrix is used as a first approximation to rank the geotoxicity of elements for the purpose of focusing future efforts. The ranking from highest to lowest toxicity with respect to the toxicity parameters being discussed is as follows: arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, chromium, vanadium, nickel, and uranium.

  16. Geotoxic materials in the surface environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koranda, J.J.; Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminesi, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicology and natural occurrence of several recognized geotoxic elements including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, selenium, uranium, and vanadium is reviewed. The behavior of these elements in the environment and in biological systems is examined. The properties of these eight toxic elements are summarized and presented in a toxicity matrix. The toxicity matrix identifies each of the elements in terms of average crustal abundance, average soil concentration, drinking water standards, irrigation water standards, daily human intake, aquatic toxicity, phytotoxicity, mammalian toxicity, human toxicity, and bioaccumulation factors for fish. Fish are the major aquatic environment contribution to the human diet and bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems has been demonstrated to be an important factor in the cycling of elements in aquatic ecosystems. The toxicity matrix is used as a first approximation to rank the geotoxicity of elements for the purpose of focusing future efforts. The ranking from highest to lowest toxicity with respect to the toxicity parameters being discussed is as follows: arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, chromium, vanadium, nickel, and uranium

  17. Effect of vegetation and surface amelioration on simulated landform evolution of the post-mining landscape at ERA Ranger mine, Northern Territory. Supervising Scientist report 134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.G.; Saynor, M.J.; House, T.; The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW; Willgoose, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of vegetation and surface ripping on evolution of the ERA Ranger Mine (ERARM) post-mining landform was assessed using the SIBERIA landform evolution model. Data were collected from four sites on the waste rock dump at ERARM-(1) the cap site which was unvegetated and unripped with a surface slope of 0.028 m/m; (2) the batter site, surface slope 0.207 rn/m, also unvegetated and unripped but with a covering of coarse rock material; (3) the soil site, surface slope 0.012 m/m, which had ∼90% vegetation cover of low shrubs and grasses and had been topsoiled and surface ripped; and (4) the fire site, surface slope 0.023 m/m, which was topsoiled and ripped and is presently vegetated with well established trees, grasses and shrubs. Natural rainfall events were monitored on the four sites to collect rainfall, runoff and soil loss data to parameterise the SIBERIA sediment discharge equation. The SIBERIA sediment discharge equation was calibrated using output from a sediment transport model of the form T=β 2 S n1 ∫ Q m1 dt, and the DISTFW rainfall-runoff model. Low frequency high intensity events resulted in the greatest soil loss. Therefore, it is important that sediment loss during high intensity events is predicted accurately. Storms with a range of intensities were selected to derive the sediment transport model. DISTFW hydrology model parameters were derived by fitting four monitored events simultaneously. SIBERIA simulations of post-mining rehabilitated landform evolution showed that for the unvegetated and unripped surface, the landform at 1000 y would be dissected by localised erosion valleys (maximum depth = 7 6 m) with deposited fans (maximum depth 14.8 m) at the outlet of the valleys. Simulated valley form has been recognised in nature which indicates that SIBERIA models natural processes efficiently. For the vegetated and ripped condition reduced valley development (maximum 1000 y depth = 2 4 m) and deposition (maximum 1000 y depth = 4.8 m) occurred

  18. Quantifying Surface Coal-Mining Patterns to Promote Regional Sustainability in Ordos, Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Zeng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ordos became the new “coal capital” of China within a few decades since the country’s economic reform in 1978, as large-scale surface coal mining dramatically propelled its per capita GDP from being one of the lowest to one of the highest in China, exceeding Hong Kong in 2009. Surface coal-mining areas (SCMAs have continued to expand in this region during recent decades, resulting in serious environmental and socioeconomic consequences. To understand these impacts and promote regional sustainability, quantifying the spatiotemporal patterns of SCMAs is urgently needed. Thus, the main objectives of this study were to quantify the spatiotemporal patterns of SCMAs in the Ordos region from 1990 to 2015, and to examine some of the major environmental and socioeconomic impacts in the study region. We extracted the SCMAs using remote-sensing data, and then quantified their spatiotemporal patterns using landscape metrics. The loss of natural habitat and several socioeconomic indicators were examined in relation to surface coal mining. Our results show that the area of SCMAs increased from 7.12 km2 to 355.95 km2, an increase of nearly 49 times from 1990 to 2015 in the Ordos region. The number of SCMAs in this region increased from 82 to 651, a nearly seven-fold increase. In particular, Zhungeer banner (an administrative division, Yijinhuoluo banner, Dongsheng District and Dalate banner in the north-eastern part of the Ordos region had higher growth rates of SCMAs. The income gap between urban and rural residents increased along with the growth in SCMAs, undermining social equity in the Ordos region. Moreover, the rapid increase in SCMAs resulted in natural habitat loss (including grasslands, forests, and deserts across this region. Thus, we suggest that regional sustainability in Ordos needs to emphasize effective measures to curb large-scale surface coal mining in order to reduce the urban–rural income gap, and to restore degraded natural

  19. Surface water contamination by uranium Mining/Milling activities in Northern guangdong province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin; Song, Gang; Chen, Yongheng; Zhu, Li [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Juan [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Li, Hongchun [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Xiao, Tangfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China); Qi, Jianying [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-12-15

    The northern region of Guangdong Province, China, has suffered from the extensive mining/milling of uranium for several decades. In this study, surface waters in the region were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the concentrations of uranium (U), thorium (Th), and non-radioactive metals (Fe, Mn, Mg, Li, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn). Results showed highly elevated concentrations of the studied radionuclides and metals in the discharged effluents and the tailing seepage of the U mining/milling sites. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations were also observed to be overall enhanced in the recipient stream that collected the discharged effluents from the industrial site, compared to the control streams, and rivers with no impacts from the U mining/milling sites. They displayed significant spatial variations and a general decrease downstream away from upper point-source discharges of the industrial site. In addition, obvious positive correlations were found between U and Th, Fe, Zn, Li, and Co (R{sup 2} > 0.93, n = 28) in the studied water samples, which suggest for an identical source and transport pathway of these elements. In combination with present surface water chemistry and chemical compositions of uraniferous minerals, the elevation of the analyzed elements in the recipient stream most likely arose from the liquid effluents, processing water, and acid drainage from the U mining/milling facilities. The dispersion of radionuclides and hazardous metals is actually limited to a small area at present, but some potential risk should not be negligible for local ecosystem. The results indicate that environmental remediation work is required to implement and future cleaner production technology should be oriented to avoid wide dispersion of radioactivity and non-radioactive hazards in U mining/milling sites. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Assessment of radiological environment around coal mining area of Dhanbad, Jharkhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, R.L.; Thakur, V.K.; Jha, V.N.; Sethy, N.K.; Srivastava, V.S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides present in the earth crust is a significant source of human exposure. Variation in natural background radiation is expected in different geological formations. Anthropogenic activities in geological formation of elevated radionuclide level may enhance the area background. In areas of coal mining industries investigation of radiological environment is required as the residues contains significant amount of uranium and thorium series radionuclides (Van Hook, 1 979, Balogun, 2003). Radon and its short-lived progeny present in the environment contributes maximum natural background radiation dose due to inhalation. Apart from this radionuclide content in key environmental matrices may also contribute to inhalation and ingestion exposure for members of public. Present investigation was carried out in coal mining areas of Dhanbad, Jharkhand to assess the existing radiological status. A detailed investigation is required to evaluate the environmental impact of coal handling activities in the area. The contribution of 222 Rn progeny towards outdoor inhalation dose compares with global average reported by UNSCEAR (2006)

  1. Triggered surface slips in the Salton Trough associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, M.J.; Boatwright, J.; Seekins, L.C.; Yule, J.D.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Surface fracturing occurred along the southern San Andreas, Superstition Hills, and Imperial faults in association with the 16 October 1999 (Mw 7.1) Hector Mine earthquake, making this at least the eighth time in the past 31 years that a regional earthquake has triggered slip along faults in the Salton Trough. Fractures associated with the event formed discontinuous breaks over a 39-km-long stretch of the San Andreas fault, from the Mecca Hills southeastward to Salt Creek and Durmid Hill, a distance from the epicenter of 107 to 139 km. Sense of slip was right lateral; only locally was there a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 13 mm. Maximum slip values in 1999 and earlier triggered slips are most common in the central Mecca Hills. Field evidence indicates a transient opening as the Hector Mine seismic waves passed the southern San Andreas fault. Comparison of nearby strong-motion records indicates several periods of relative opening with passage of the Hector Mine seismic wave-a similar process may have contributed to the field evidence of a transient opening. Slip on the Superstition Hills fault extended at least 9 km, at a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 188 to 196 km. This length of slip is a minimum value, because we saw fresh surface breakage extending farther northwest than our measurement sites. Sense of slip was right lateral; locally there was a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 18 mm, with the largest amounts found distributed (or skewed) away from the Hector Mine earthquake source. Slip triggered on the Superstition Hills fault commonly is skewed away from the earthquake source, most notably in 1968, 1979, and 1999. Surface slip on the Imperial fault and within the Imperial Valley extended about 22 km, representing a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 204 to 226 km. Sense of slip dominantly was right lateral; the right-lateral component of slip

  2. Effects on Buildings of Surface Curvature Caused by Underground Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground curvature caused by underground mining is one of the most obvious deformation quantities in buildings. To study the influence of surface curvature on buildings and predict the movement and deformation of buildings caused by ground curvature, a prediction model of the influence function on mining subsidence was used to establish the relationship between surface curvature and wall deformation. The prediction model of wall deformation was then established and the surface curvature was obtained from mining subsidence prediction software. Five prediction lines were set up in the wall from bottom to top and the predicted deformation of each line was used to calculate the crack positions in the wall. Thus, the crack prediction model was obtained. The model was verified by a case study from a coalmine in Shanxi, China. The results show that when the ground curvature is positive, the crack in the wall is shaped like a “V”; when the ground curvature is negative, the crack is shaped like a “∧”. The conclusion provides the basis for a damage evaluation method for buildings in coalmine areas.

  3. Geomorphic evaluation of erosional stability at reclaimed surface mines in northwestern Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The report identifies geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic conditions that are associated with erosion of reclaimed surface-mined lands in northwestern Colorado. The report also presents methods for determining the appropriate values of geomorphic variables that can be manipulated during reclamation to increase erosional stability. A section on geomorphic principles associated with erosion of reclaimed land surfaces is designed for use as a primer by mine personnel and reclamation planners. The areas of interest in the study were those that were reclaimed under jurisdiction of current (1988) SMCRA reclamation regulations, yet were still affected by relatively rapid erosion rates several years after reclamation activities were completed. Geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic data were collected onsite and from topographic maps. Data from reclaimed areas undergoing accelerated erosion were compared with data from reclaimed areas undergoing minimal erosion to identify conditions that controlled erosion on reclaimed surface-mined lands and to identify some postmining equilibrium landform characteristics. These data also were used to develop threshold relations

  4. What are Applications in Multi-Surface Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eagan, James R.; Lecolinet, Eric; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    Multi-surface environments, which may contain any combination of large, high-resolution display walls (powerwalls), interactive tabletops, xed computing infrastructure, laptops, tablets, and smartphones all linked together, oer a rich opportunity for new interactions and collaboration. Creating...

  5. Colloidal mobilization of arsenic from mining-affected soils by surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Voegelin, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Bolea, Eduardo; Laborda, Francisco; Garrido, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Scorodite-rich wastes left as a legacy of mining and smelting operations pose a threat to environmental health. Colloids formed by the weathering of processing wastes may control the release of arsenic (As) into surface waters. At a former mine site in Madrid (Spain), we investigated the mobilization of colloidal As by surface runoff from weathered processing wastes and from sediments in the bed of a draining creek and a downstream sedimentation-pond. Colloids mobilized by surface runoff during simulated rain events were characterized for their composition, structure and mode of As uptake using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively plasma mass spectrometry (AF4-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the As and Fe K-edges. Colloidal scorodite mobilized in surface runoff from the waste pile is acting as a mobile As carrier. In surface runoff from the river bed and the sedimentation pond, ferrihydrite was identified as the dominant As-bearing colloidal phase. The results from this study suggest that mobilization of As-bearing colloids by surface runoff may play an important role in the dispersion of As from metallurgical wastes deposited above ground and needs to be considered in risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Gillian A.; Carpenter, Julia G. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Rd, Yallambie, 3085, Victoria (Australia); Bollhoefer, Andreas [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, GPO Box 461, Darwin, 0801 Northern Territory (Australia); Johansen, Mathew P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental impact assessments conducted for Australian mine sites involving naturally occurring radioactive material require an assessment of radiation doses to wildlife. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo}) are pivotal in these assessments and previous reviews have identified a need for a more complete and consolidated database of Australian-specific CR{sub wo} that could be used. Concern had also been expressed by some stakeholders in Australia about the suitability of the default CR{sub wo} values provided in standard biota dose models (e.g., ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, ICRP framework) for Australian wildlife and environmental conditions. In order to address these concerns and support the implementation of best-practice standards in environmental radiological assessment, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), with support from the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET), undertook an evaluation of existing data relating to wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments. CR{sub wo} values were calculated using data from a range of original sources. These included scientific journal publications, technical reports from Australian government organisations, site-specific data from mining operators and data from baseline environmental surveys undertaken during the 1970's and 1980's. The Australian data previously included in the international Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD, www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org) were also reviewed and updated. This paper discusses the data analysis process and associated uncertainties. CR{sub wo} values are reported for uranium, thorium, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 for a range of endemic and introduced wildlife, with a focus on plants and animals from both terrestrial and freshwater environments where uranium mining has been proposed or undertaken. This has resulted in the calculation of more than 500 CR{sub wo} values for inclusion in the database

  7. Numerical modelling of surface subsidence arising from longwall mining of steeply inclined coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, M.A.; Reddish, D.J. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The paper presents results from and the methodology of a numerical modelling investigation into the surface ground movements above longwall mining of inclined and steep seams with varying panel configurations. A modelling approach was developed using a finite difference numercial model Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC). On the basis of this methodology, representative surface subsidence profiles were simulated and the results of simulations were validated against the UK data using the Subsidence Engineer`s Handbook (SEH) and influence function methods. Furthermore, the proposed methodology was applied to two UK case histories for validation purposes. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Study on dose assessment in surrounding environment of the Tono Mine associated with closure activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Eiji

    2012-07-01

    Dose assessment associated with closure activity of the Tono Mine has been performed. In this assessment, exposure dose has been calculated on groundwater and surface water migration of radionuclide from 1) waste rock in the waste rock dump facility, 2) mining waste in the mining waste facility, and 3) uranium ore and waste rock backfilled in the shafts and galleries. Direct and skyshine gamma rays and exposure of exhalated radon from the waste rock dump has also been evaluated. An evaluation tool developed for safety assessment for sub-surface disposal of radioactive waste is utilized for this assessment. Localities for dose evaluation are selected at the Higashihoragawa and Hiyoshigawa based on the topography around the Tono Mine and groundwater flow simulation. Evaluation scenarios are classified into 'Scenario for intake of agricultural product' as the base scenario, and 'Scenario for intake of groundwater' as the alternative scenario. Parameters for dose assessment are set-up based on the existing data. But the range and uncertainty of parameters are taken into account in the 'alternative cases'. As the result of dose assessment, maximum exposure dose of the base scenario is 0.08mSv/year, and 0.09mSv/year including direct and skyshine gamma rays and exposure of exhalatedradon at the Higashihoragawa. Maximum exposure dose of the alternative scenario is 0.08mSv/year (0.09mSv/year including direct and skyshine gamma rays and exposure of exhalated radon). On the alternative cases, exposure doses are calculated as 0.05-0.14mSv/year in both of the base and alternative scenarios. At the Hiyoshigawa, maximum exposure dose is less than 0.001mSv/year (1x10 -6 mSv/year) for the base scenario, and 0.001mSv/year for the alternative scenario. On the alternative cases, maximum exposure doses are less than 0.001mSv/year for all cases of the base scenario and 0.0006-0.002mSv/year for the alternative scenario. (author)

  9. Uranium and radium-226 in the environment of the post-uranium mining areas in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardas, M.; Suplinska, M.; Ciupek, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The work carried out under the project NCBiR - 'Technologies Supporting Development of Safe Nuclear Power Engineering'; Task 3: Meeting the Polish nuclear power engineering's demand for fuel - fundamental aspects. Depending on location, environmental components may have different concentration levels of radionuclides. Main source of uranium and radium in the natural environment is atmospheric precipitation of the material resulting weathering and erosion of older rocks, enhanced due to human activity by fertilizers used in agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. The waste heaps and dumps, especially derived from post-uranium mining and phosphate fertilizer industry are the another source of uranium and radium in the environment. Our studies include post-uranium mining areas (inactive mines and waste dumps) and those adjacent meadows and grassland at the area of the Giant Mountains (Karkonosze Mountains) in the south-west Poland. Samples of soil and mineral material from mine shafts, water samples from ponds, streams and small rivers and vegetation samples (grass, alfalfa, birch leaves) were analyzed. Also, similar samples from agricultural regions of Poland were examined as a reference level. Uranium isotopes were determined by radiochemical method (ion exchange and extraction) and activity measurement using alpha spectrometry. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra was determined radiochemically using emanation method. For the validation of the method, determinations of uranium isotopes and radium-226 in reference samples were performed. Depending on location, the different levels of activity concentration of analyzed radionuclides were detected. Samples from the mine shafts and dumps, both water and soil, were characterized by the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra even by several orders higher than outside of those areas. The concentrations of the radionuclides in the areas located in further distances from mine and dumps are similar to

  10. Correlating Microbial Diversity Patterns with Geochemistry in an Extreme and Heterogeneous Environment of Mine Tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Chen, Lin-Xing; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Li, Sheng-Jin; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Recent molecular surveys have advanced our understanding of the forces shaping the large-scale ecological distribution of microbes in Earth's extreme habitats, such as hot springs and acid mine drainage. However, few investigations have attempted dense spatial analyses of specific sites to resolve the local diversity of these extraordinary organisms and how communities are shaped by the harsh environmental conditions found there. We have applied a 16S rRNA gene-targeted 454 pyrosequencing approach to explore the phylogenetic differentiation among 90 microbial communities from a massive copper tailing impoundment generating acidic drainage and coupled these variations in community composition with geochemical parameters to reveal ecological interactions in this extreme environment. Our data showed that the overall microbial diversity estimates and relative abundances of most of the dominant lineages were significantly correlated with pH, with the simplest assemblages occurring under extremely acidic conditions and more diverse assemblages associated with neutral pHs. The consistent shifts in community composition along the pH gradient indicated that different taxa were involved in the different acidification stages of the mine tailings. Moreover, the effect of pH in shaping phylogenetic structure within specific lineages was also clearly evident, although the phylogenetic differentiations within the Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes were attributed to variations in ferric and ferrous iron concentrations. Application of the microbial assemblage prediction model further supported pH as the major factor driving community structure and demonstrated that several of the major lineages are readily predictable. Together, these results suggest that pH is primarily responsible for structuring whole communities in the extreme and heterogeneous mine tailings, although the diverse microbial taxa may respond differently to various environmental conditions

  11. A techno-economic model for optimum regeneration of surface mined land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Manas K.; Sinha, Indra N.

    2006-07-01

    The recent global scenario in the mineral sector may be characterized by rising competitiveness, increasing production costs and a slump in market price. This has pushed the mineral sector in general and that in the developing countries in particular to a situation where the industry has a limited capacity to sustain unproductive costs. This, more often than not, results in a situation where the industry fails to ensure environmental safeguards during and after mineral extraction. The situation is conspicuous in the Indian coal mining industry where more than 73% production comes from surface operations. India has an ambitious power augmentation projection for the coming 10 years. A phenomenal increase in coal production is proposed from the power grade coalfields in India. One of the most likely fall-outs of land degradation due to mining in these areas would be significant reduction of agricultural and other important land-uses. Currently, backfilling costs are perceived as prohibitive and abandonment of land is the easy way out. This study attempts to provide mine planners with a mathematical model that distributes generated overburden at defined disposal options while ensuring maximization of backfilled land area at minimum direct and economic costs. Optimization has been accomplished by linear programming (LP) for optimum distribution of each year’s generated overburden. Previous year’s disposal quantity outputs are processed as one set of the inputs to the LP model for generation of current year’s disposal output. From various geo-mining inputs, site constants of the LP constraints are calculated. Arrived value of economic vectors, which guide the programming statement, decides the optimal overburden distribution in defined options. The case example (with model test run) indicates that overburden distribution is significantly sensitive to coal seam gradient. The model has universal applicability to cyclic system (shovel dumper combination) of opencast

  12. Spoil characteristics and vegetation development of an age series of mine spoils in a dry tropical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, A K; Singh, J S [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    1991-12-01

    A series of coal mine spoils (5,10,12,16 and 20-yr old) in a dry tropical environment was sampled to assess the changes with time in spoil characteristics, species composition and plant biomass. Coarse fragments ({gt} 2 mm) decreased with age of mine spoil while the proportion of 0.2-0.1 mm particles increased. Total soil N, mineral N, NaHCO{sub 3}-extractable P, and exchangeable K increased with age of mine spoil and these parameters were lower in mine spoils than native forest soil even after 20 years of succession. Exchangeable Na decreased with age of mine spoil and in 20-yr old spoil it was higher than native forest soil. Plant community composition changed with age. Only a few species participated in community formation. Species richness increased with age, while evenness and species diversity declined from 5-yr old to 16-yr old community with an increase in the 20-yr old community. A reverse trend occurred for concentration of dominance. Area-weighted shoot and root biomass of other species increased with the age of the mine spoil while that of Xanthium strumarium patches declined with age. Data collection on spoil features, microbial C, N and P,and shoot and root biomass when subjected to Discriminant Analysis indicated a continued profound effect of age. 10 and 12-yr old mine spoils were closer to each other and 5 and 20-yr old spoils were farthest apart.

  13. Spoil characteristics and vegetation development of an age series of mine spoils in a dry tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, A.K.; Singh, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    A series of coal mine spoils (5,10,12,16 and 20-yr old) in a dry tropical environment was sampled to assess the changes with time in spoil characteristics, species composition and plant biomass. Coarse fragments (> 2 mm) decreased with age of mine spoil while the proportion of 0.2-0.1 mm particles increased. Total soil N, mineral N, NaHCO 3 -extractable P, and exchangeable K increased with age of mine spoil and these parameters were lower in mine spoils than native forest soil even after 20 years of succession. Exchangeable Na decreased with age of mine spoil and in 20-yr old spoil it was higher than native forest soil. Plant community composition changed with age. Only a few species participated in community formation. Species richness increased with age, while evenness and species diversity declined from 5-yr old to 16-yr old community with an increase in the 20-yr old community. A reverse trend occurred for concentration of dominance. Area-weighted shoot and root biomass of other species increased with the age of the mine spoil while that of Xanthium strumarium patches declined with age. Data collection on spoil features, microbial C, N and P,and shoot and root biomass when subjected to Discriminant Analysis indicated a continued profound effect of age. 10 and 12-yr old mine spoils were closer to each other and 5 and 20-yr old spoils were farthest apart

  14. Responsible management for Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) in uranium mining and processing, starting from public support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2014-01-01

    Seeking, gaining and maintaining public support is inherent to mining and to responsible management in this sector. In particular, it holds special relevance for remote mining sites for which the buy in from the regional and local workforce and populations is a necessity all along the life span of a mining project from exploration to development, commissioning, operation, closure and restoration. This paper briefly highlights some key features to be accounted for nowadays for the successful development, shaping and implementation of mining projects with a view to improve public support. It is essential to address responsible management for health, safety and environment (HSE) in uranium mining and processing through key program elements such as policy; baseline; operational preparation for implementation; monitoring, reporting, review and continued improvements; as well as some insights on site closure and restoration. In particular, examples illustrate how these program elements are implemented in practice in uranium mining and processing. Some emphasis is put on radiation safety as responsible management for the other HSE dimensions tends to be analogous for all mines and mineral processing sites. (author)

  15. The Problem of Multiple Criteria Selection of the Surface Mining Haul Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodziony, Przemysław; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Sawicki, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Vehicle transport is a dominant type of technological processes in rock mines, and its profit ability is strictly dependent on overall cost of its exploitation, especially on diesel oil consumption. Thus, a rational design of transportation system based on haul trucks should result from thorough analysis of technical and economic issues, including both cost of purchase and its further exploitation, having a crucial impact on the cost of minerals extraction. Moreover, off-highway trucks should be selected with respect to all specific exploitation conditions and even the user's preferences and experience. In this paper a development of universal family of evaluation criteria as well as application of evaluation method for haul truck selection process for a specific exploitation conditions in surface mining have been carried out. The methodology presented in the paper is based on the principles of multiple criteria decision aiding (MCDA) using one of the ranking method, i.e. ELECTRE III. The applied methodology has been allowed for ranking of alternative solution (variants), on the considered set of haul trucks. The result of the research is a universal methodology, and it consequently may be applied in other surface mines with similar exploitation parametres.

  16. Possible use of wetlands in ecological restoration of surface mined lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, R.B.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining for coal has dramatically altered millions of hectares throughout the Appalachian region of eastern North America. Flat benches and vertical high walls have replaced well-drained slopes, and wetlands have developed 'accidentally' on abandoned benches. Surface mining is continuing in this region, but new regulations do not include specifications for wetland construction in the reclamation process. Recent research has suggested that many ecosystem services appropriate for the Appalachian landscape could be performed by constructed wetlands. Inclusion of wetland construction in a reclamation plan could lead to a net increase in wetland acreage locally, as well as offset the loss of natural and/or accidental wetlands that are constructed to enhance nontreatment goals in reclamation. Study sites included 14 emergent wetlands in Wise County, Virginia. Sampling in June and August detected a total of 94 species in 36 vascular plant facilities. Obligate wetlands species, species that occur in wetlands over 99% of the time, were found in all 14 sites and included 26 species. The presence of so many wetland species without intentional management efforts suggests that wetland establishment could become a common component of mine reclamation. 18 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Learners’ Evaluation Based on Data Mining in a Web Based Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdris GÖKSU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been done in order to determine the efficiency level in the extend of learners’ evaluation by means of comparing the Web Based Learning (WBL with traditional face to face learning. In this respect, the effect of WBL and traditional environment has been analyzed in the class of Visual Programming I, and the learners have been evaluated with the rule based data mining method in a WBL environment. The study has been conducted according to experimental design with pre-test and post-test groups. Experimental group has attended the class in WBL environment, and the control group in a traditional class environment. In accordance with the pre-test and post-test scores of experimental and control groups, both methods have been proved to be effective. According the average scores of post-test, the learners in experimental groups have been more successful than the ones in the control group. The guiding of WBL system prepared for the study has been found to be significant in terms of both underlining the points in which the learners are unsuccessful in a short time and having trust in the system technically.

  18. Mercury and Cyanide Contaminations in Gold Mine Environment and Possible Solution of Cleaning Up by Using Phytoextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination with heavy metals, mainly mercury and cyanide (CN due to small scale of public mines and large scale of industrial mines have been in concern to residents around the area. Surveys of heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments, such as rivers and paddy fields over two gold mine areas in West Jawa were conducted and possible solution of using indigenous plants for phytoremediation was studied. The results showed that most of the rivers and other aquatic environments were affected by gold mine activities. Rivers, ponds, and paddy fields around illegal public mines were mostly contaminated by mercury in considerably high levels, such as paddy fields in two locations (Nunggul and Leuwijamang, Pongkor were contaminated up to 22.68 and 7.73 ppm of Hg, respectively. Whereas rivers located around large scale industrial mines were contaminated by CN. Possible solution of cleaning up by using green technology of phytoremediation was examined. Some plant species grew in the contaminated sites showed high tolerance and potentially effective in accumulating cyanide or mercury in their roots and above ground portions. Lindernia crustacea (L. F.M., Digitaria radicosa (Presl Miq, Paspalum conjugatum, Cyperus kyllingia accumulated 89.13, 50.93, 1.78, and 0.77 ppm of Hg, respectively. Whereas, Paspalum conjugatum, Cyperus kyllingia accumulated 16.52 and 33. 16 ppm of CN respectively.

  19. Ra-226 collective dosimetry for surface waters in the uranium mining region of Pocos de Caldas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Graphs of the collective dose equivalent for the whole body, bone, gastro-intestinal tract (lower large intestine), kidneys, and liver, via the pathways of drinking water and ingestion of food grown in irrigated fields are presented as a function of the 226 Ra concentrations in the surface waters of the Pocos de Caldas region. The collective dose equivalent calculated from the 226 Ra concentrations measured in the baseline studies are compared with those collective dose equivalent estimated from the projected higher 226 Ra concentrations in the river waters. The 226 Ra concentrations in river waters of the region are expected to be enhanced due to 226 Ra releases from uranium mining and milling operations. The dose equivalent commitment for the exposed population for the referred pathways is also estimated for the contribution of the mine during its predicted time of operation. The assumptions for the dose calculations are presented and the results obtained are discussed. (H.K.)

  20. An assessment of microbial communities associated with surface mining-disturbed overburden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, Dominique M; Cavender, Nicole; Cutright, Teresa J; Senko, John M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the microbiological changes that occur during the maturation of overburden that has been disturbed by surface mining of coal, a surface mining-disturbed overburden unit in southeastern Ohio, USA was characterized. Overburden from the same unit that had been disturbed for 37 and 16 years were compared to undisturbed soil from the same region. Overburden and soil samples were collected as shallow subsurface cores from each subregion of the mined area (i.e., land 16 years and 37 years post-mining, and unmined land). Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of overburden samples were determined, as were microbial respiration rates. The composition of microbial communities associated with overburden and soil were determined using culture-independent, nucleic acid-based approaches. Chemical and mineralogical evaluation of overburden suggested that weathering of disturbed overburden gave rise to a setting with lower pH and more oxidized chemical constituents. Overburden-associated microbial biomass and respiration rates increased with time after overburden disturbance. Evaluation of 16S rRNA gene libraries that were produced by "next-generation" sequencing technology revealed that recently disturbed overburden contained an abundance of phylotypes attributable to sulfur-oxidizing Limnobacter spp., but with increasing time post-disturbance, overburden-associated microbial communities developed a structure similar to that of undisturbed soil, but retained characteristics of more recently disturbed overburden. Our results indicate that over time, the biogeochemical weathering of disturbed overburden leads to the development of geochemical conditions and microbial communities that approximate those of undisturbed soil, but that this transition is incomplete after 37 years of overburden maturation.

  1. An FMM-FFT Accelerated SIE Simulator for Analyzing EM Wave Propagation in Mine Environments Loaded with Conductors

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.

    2018-02-05

    A fast and memory efficient 3D full wave simulator for analyzing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in electrically large and realistic mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conductors is proposed. The simulator relies on Muller and combined field surface integral equations (SIEs) to account for scattering from mine walls and conductors, respectively. During the iterative solution of the system of SIEs, the simulator uses a fast multipole method - fast Fourier transform (FMM-FFT) scheme to reduce CPU and memory requirements. The memory requirement is further reduced by compressing large data structures via singular value and Tucker decompositions. The efficiency, accuracy, and real-world applicability of the simulator are demonstrated through characterization of EM wave propagation in electrically large mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conducting cables and mine carts.

  2. Bilingual encyclopedic dictionary English-Spanish in sciences: mining, chemistry, geology, metallurgic and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Maradona, M.; Bellini, R.; Busleiman, M.

    2007-01-01

    This dictionary has been designed to satisfy scientists, researchers, technicians, interpreters, translators and students needs in the areas of chemistry, geology, mining, metallurgy and environment if they find it necessary to have an English-Spanish encyclopedia for their sciences. It is a reliable book when looking for words that are normally not included in everyday dictionaries. It is now reaching the final revision stage with more than 15,000 entries. It includes scientific terms, chemical formulas of minerals and other elements, noticeable scientists biographies, tables, graphics, and images so as to help readers understanding. It is divided into three columns: the first one presents the English term and its area of concern; the second, the corresponding Spanish equivalent, and in the third, a suitable explanation In this work has been stablished a relation betwwen geological units and mineralizations related with the aim to understand the hydrochemistry in this area for future environmental impact

  3. Encyclopedic dictionary bilingual English-Spanish of sciences: mining, chemistry, geology, metallurgy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Maradona, M.; Bellini, M.; Busleiman, M.

    2007-01-01

    This dictionary has been designed to satisfy scientists, researchers, technicians, interpreters, translators and students' needs in the areas of chemistry, geology, mining, metallurgy and environment for they find it necessary to have an English- Spanish encyclopedia on their sciences. It is a reliable book when looking for words that are normally not included in everyday dictionaries. It is now reaching the final revision stage with more than 15,000 entries. It includes scientific terms, chemical formulas of minerals and other elements, noticeable scientists' biographies, tables, graphics, and images so as to help readers' understanding. It is divided into three columns: the first one presents the English term and its area of concern; the second, the corresponding Spanish equivalent, and in the third, a suitable explanation.(author)

  4. An integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines--Wireless Sensor Network subsystem with multi-parameter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-07-21

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected.

  5. Mars Surface Ionizing Radiation Environment: Need for Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Shinn, J. L.; Suggs, R.

    1999-01-01

    Protection against the hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation remains an unresolved issue in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise [1]. The major uncertainty is the lack of data on biological response to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures but even a full understanding of the physical interaction of GCR with shielding and body tissues is not yet available and has a potentially large impact on mission costs. "The general opinion is that the initial flights should be short-stay missions performed as fast as possible (so-called 'Sprint' missions) to minimize crew exposure to the zero-g and space radiation environment, to ease requirements on system reliability, and to enhance the probability of mission success." The short-stay missions tend to have long transit times and may not be the best option due to the relatively long exposure to zero-g and ionizing radiation. On the other hand the short-transit missions tend to have long stays on the surface requiring an adequate knowledge of the surface radiation environment to estimate risks and to design shield configurations. Our knowledge of the surface environment is theoretically based and suffers from an incomplete understanding of the physical interactions of GCR with the Martian atmosphere, Martian surface, and intervening shield materials. An important component of Mars surface robotic exploration is the opportunity to test our understanding of the Mars surface environment. The Mars surface environment is generated by the interaction of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPEs) with the Mars atmosphere and Mars surface materials. In these interactions, multiple charged ions are reduced in size and secondary particles are generated, including neutrons. Upon impact with the Martian surface, the character of the interactions changes as a result of the differing nuclear constituents of the surface materials. Among the surface environment are many neutrons diffusing from

  6. Comparison of braided-stream depositional environment and uranium deposits at Saint Anthony underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, C.W.; Martin, K.W.; Lowry, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    United Nuclear's Saint Anthony mine, located in the Laguna district, produces uranium ore from the Jackpile sandstone unit of the Morrison Formation. The Jackpile sediments were deposited in a fluvial environment characterized by aridity, gentle slope, distant source area, and limited flow volume. Resultant stratigraphy consists of an intricate assemblage of trough and tabular cross-stratification grading to near massive bedding at some locations. Interbedded with the Jackpile sands are green mudstones and siltstones that commonly display irregular thicknesses of less than 2 ft and that are laterally discontinuous. Major penecontemporaneous and postdepositional alteration of originally deposited sands, silts, and clays includes: 1) infiltration and filling of interstices by kaolinitic clays; 2) mobilization and relocation of organic carbonaceous material; and 3) geochemical alteration of mineral constituents and fixation of uranium ions in organic carbonaceous material. Mineralized zones of economic volume display a spatial relationship to bedding features indicative of loosely packed sand deposited in dune and trough foresets. This relationship indicates possible permeability control by initial stratigraphy upon the flow of mineralizing solutions. Additionally, the low-energy foreset environment facilitates the accumulation of low-specific-gravity carbonaceous material necessary for interaction with mineralizing solutions. Large volumes of loosely packed foreset sands accumulate in transverse bars in braided-stream environments. These structures have a great potential for conducting large volumes of mineralizing fluids and hosting economic quantities of uranium ore

  7. Hydrology and geochemistry of a surface coal mine in northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Clark, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrology and geochemistry of a reclaimed coal mine in northwestern Colorado were monitored during water years 1988 and 1989. Some data also were collected in water years 1987 and 1990. This report describes (1) the sources of hydrologic recharge to and discharge from reclaimed spoil, (2) the relative contributions of recharge to the reclaimed spoil aquifer from identified source waters and the rate of water movement from those sources to the reclaimed spoil, and (3) the geochemical reactions that control water quality in reclaimed spoil. The study area was at a dip-slope coal mine encompassing about 7 square miles with land slopes of varying aspect. The area was instrumented and monitored at five sites; two sites had unmined and reclaimed- spoil areas adjacent to each other and three sites were unmined. The mined areas had been reclaimed. Instrumentation at the study sites included 1 climate station, 3 rain gages, 19 soil-water access tubes, 2 lysimeters, 18 wells completed in bedrock, 7 wells completed in reclaimed spoil, and 2 surface- water gaging stations. The results of the study indicate that the reclaimed spoil is recharged from surface recharge and underburden aquifers. Discharge, as measured by lysimeters, was about 3 inches per year and occurred during and after snowmelt. Hydraulic-head measurements indicated a potential for ground-water movement from deeper to shallower aquifers. Water levels rose in the reclaimed-spoil aquifer and spring discharge at the toe of the spoil slopes increased rapidly in response to snowmelt. Water chemistry, stable isotopes, geochemical models, and mass-balance calculations indicate that surface recharge and the underburden aquifers each contribute about 50 percent of the water to the reclaimed-spoil aquifers. Geochemical information indicates that pyrite oxidation and dissolution of carbonate and efflorescent sulfate minerals control the water chemistry of the reclaimed-spoil aquifer.

  8. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  9. Prime farmland disturbance from coal surface mining in the corn belt, 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D.P.

    1979-09-01

    The five midwestern states that make up the Corn Belt farm production region - Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Ohio - contain about 110 billion tons of coal reserves (19% of which are surface mineable) and 110 million acres of arable land (69% of which are prime farmlands). In 1975, this region was the site of 21% of the nation's total coal production and 50% of the nation's corn and soybean harvest. Because corn and soybeans are key elements in US foreign trade and because nearly two-thirds of the regional coal production is from surface coal mines, it is important to understand the potential conflicts that may arise between the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt. This report presents background data on the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt states, along with the results of a quantitative analysis of the potential disruption of land and associated prime farmland due to future coal surface mining activity in the region. Estimates of potential land dusruptions indicate that 452,000 acres of land, including 127,000 acres of prime farmland, could be disturbed in the period 1980-2000. Additionally, the data indicate that certain counties in the Corn Belt states may experience impacts significantly greater than the regional average would suggest.

  10. Derived surface contamination limits for the uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, S.H.

    1984-10-01

    Derived Surface Contamination Limits (DSCL) are proposed for the control of surface contamination at the work place for the uranium mining and milling industry. They have been derived by a method incorporating recent ICRP recommendations and consideration of the radiation exposure pathways of ingestion, inhalation and external irradiation of the basal layer of skin. A generalized DSCL of 10 5 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is recommended for all contaminants likely to be found in uranium mine and mill workplaces except for fresh uranium concentrates. In the latter case, the DSCL is expressed in terms of alpha activity because the ratio of beta to alpha activities for fresh uranium concentrates is variable; the beta activity increases with the ingrowth of U-238 daughter products (Th-234 and Pa-234m) until secular equilibrium is re-established in about six months. A surface contamination limit of 10 4 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is proposed for the release of non-porous materials and equipment with no detectable loose contamination to the public domain

  11. Treatment and utilization of waste waters of surface mines in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khmel' , N S

    1981-01-01

    Waste water of brown coal surface mines in the Dnieper basin is characterized. The water's pH value is 7, alkalinity ranges from 5.1 to 5.9 mg equivalent/1, it has no odor, a low mineralization level ranging from 1000 to 1100 mg/l. Concentration of mechanical impurities (suspended matter) ranges from 90 to 900 mg/l, and its maximum level can reach 5000 mg/l. An improved design of tanks in which waste water from surface mines is treated, and mechanical impurities settle, is proposed. Conventional design of a water sedimentation tank consists of a long ditch in which suspended matter settles, and a rectangular water reservoir at its end. In the improved version the long ditch is enlarged in some places to create additional tanks and to reduce velocity of flowing waste water. This improvement increases the amount of suspended matter which settles in the ditch and in its enlarged zones. When water reaches the rectangular sedimentation tank at the end of the system its suspended matter content is reduced to 40-45 mg/l. Formulae used to calculate dimensions of water treatment system, gradient of the ditch and size of sedimentation tank are presented. Methods of discharging treated waste water to surface water, rivers and stagnant waters, are evaluated. (In Russian)

  12. Effect of coal mine dust and clay extracts on the biological activity of the quartz surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, V.; Jones, R.; Rollo, K.; Duffin, R.; Donaldson, K.; Brown, D.M. [Napier University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Science

    2004-04-01

    Modification of the quartz surface by aluminum salts and metallic iron have been shown to reduce the biological activity of quartz. This study aimed to investigate the ability of water soluble extracts of coal mine dust (CMD), low aluminum clays (hectorite and montmorillonite) and high aluminum clays (attapulgite and kaolin) to inhibit the reactivity of the quartz surface. DQ12 induced significant haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes in vitro and inflammation in vivo as indicated by increases in the total cell numbers, neutrophil cell numbers, MIP-2 protein and albumin content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Treatment of DQ12 with CMD extract prevented both haemolysis and inflammation. Extracts of the high aluminum clays (kaolin and attapulgite) prevented inhibition of DQ12 induced haemolysis, and the kaolin extract inhibited quartz driven inflammation. DQ12 induced haemolysis by coal mine dust and kaolin extract could be prevented by pre-treatment of the extracts with a cation chellator. Extracts of the low aluminum clays (montmorillonite and hectorite) did not prevent DQ12 induced haemolysis, although the hectorite extract did prevent inflammation. These results suggest that CMD, and clays both low and rich in aluminum, all contain soluble components (possibly cations) capable of masking the reactivity of the quartz surface.

  13. Arsenic Concentration in the Surface Water of a Former Mining Area: The La Junta Creek, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz Lamadrid, Miguel; Acosta Vargas, Baudilio

    2018-01-01

    The mining activity in the San Antonio-El Triunfo district, located in a mountainous region at 60 km southeast of La Paz, occured for more than 250 years and left behind severe contamination of soils and riverbed sediments which led to elevated concentrations of arsenic and other trace elements in the surface- and groundwater of the region. Although the main mining activity ended around 1911, contamination is still beeing distributed, especially from left behind tailings and mine waste piles. The contamination levels in the groundwater have been reported in several studies, but there is little information available on the surface water quality, and especially the temporal variation. In this study, we analyzed the surface water of the La Junta creek, in the southern part of the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining district. The working hypothesis was that by means of a spatial analysis of surface water and shallow groundwater, in combination with the temporal observation of the concentrations in runoff water, the effects of different sources of arsenic (natural geogene anomalies, due to historic mining activity, and hydrothermal related impact) in the La Junta creek can be recognized. This present study revealed that historic mining activity caused a mojor impact of arsenic but less contamination was observed than in the northern part of the district and elevated arsenic concentrations in stream water generally occurred during times of low streamflow. PMID:29498700

  14. Diagnostic measurements on the great machines conditions of lignite surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helebrant, F.; Jurman, J.; Fries, J. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis of loading and service dependability of a rail-mounted excavator used in surface lignite mining is described. Wheel power vibrations in electric motor bearings and electric motor input bearings to the gearbox were measured in situ, in horizontal, vertical, and axial directions. The data were analyzed using a mathematical relationship. The results are presented in a loading diagram that shows the deterioration and the acceptable lower bound of machine conditions over time. Work is continuing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Ground and surface water in New Mexico: are they protected against uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, K.K.

    1978-01-01

    Inadequate funds to allow New Mexico to collect data on the effects of uranium mining and milling on ground and surface water resources and vigorous opposition by the uranium companies have made the Environmental Protection Agency reluctant to adopt the state's request for control of discharges. The state is unable to monitor for the presence of toxic materials and questions have been raised over EPA's jurisdiction over groundwater. Federal and state water pollution regulations are reviewed and weaknesses noted, particularly the effect of terrain and the limitations on regulation of navigable waters

  16. Failure rate and reliability of the KOMATSU hydraulic excavator in surface limestone mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish Kumar N., S.; Choudhary, R. P.; Murthy, Ch. S. N.

    2018-04-01

    The model with failure rate function of bathtub-shaped is helpful in reliability analysis of any system and particularly in reliability associated privative maintenance. The usual Weibull distribution is, however, not capable to model the complete lifecycle of the any with a bathtub-shaped failure rate function. In this paper, failure rate and reliability analysis of the KOMATSU hydraulic excavator/shovel in surface mine is presented and also to improve the reliability and decrease the failure rate of each subsystem of the shovel based on the preventive maintenance. The model of the bathtub-shaped for shovel can also be seen as a simplification of the Weibull distribution.

  17. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiakakis Chrysanthos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions.

  18. Distribution of {sup 129}I in terrestrial surface water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuegao [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Meng [College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Yi, Peng, E-mail: pengyi1915@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Aldahan, Ala [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Yu, Zhongbo [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Possnert, Göran [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Chen, Li [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-15

    The global distribution of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 in surface waters (lakes and rivers) is presented here and compared with the atmospheric deposition and distribution in surface marine waters. The results indicate relatively high concentrations in surface water systems in close vicinity of the anthropogenic release sources as well as in parts of Western Europe, North America and Central Asia. {sup 129}I level is generally higher in the terrestrial surface water of the Northern hemisphere compared to the southern hemisphere. The highest values of {sup 129}I appear around 50°N and 40°S in the northern and southern hemisphere, separately. Direct gaseous and marine atmospheric emissions are the most likely avenues for the transport of {sup 129}I from the sources to the terrestrial surface waters. To apply iodine-129 as process tracer in terrestrial surface water environment, more data are needed on {sup 129}I distribution patterns both locally and globally.

  19. Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine waters are rapidly colonized by microorganisms. Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to these organisms and support critical ecological and biogeochemical functions in the changing marine environment. Microbial surface association also contributes to deleterious effects such as biofouling, biocorrosion, and the persistence and transmission of harmful or pathogenic microorganisms and their genetic determinants. The processes and mechanisms of colonization as well as key players among the surface-associated microbiota have been studied for several decades. Accumulating evidence indicates that specific cell-surface, cell-cell, and interpopulation interactions shape the composition, structure, spatiotemporal dynamics, and functions of surface-associated microbial communities. Several key microbial processes and mechanisms, including (i) surface, population, and community sensing and signaling, (ii) intraspecies and interspecies communication and interaction, and (iii) the regulatory balance between cooperation and competition, have been identified as critical for the microbial surface association lifestyle. In this review, recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed. Major gaps in our knowledge remain. We pose questions for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features, answers to which would advance our understanding of surface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities at levels from molecular mechanistic details through systems biological integration. PMID:26700108

  20. Information from geology: Implications for soil formation and rehabilitation in the post coal mining environment, Bowen Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, A.V.; Esterle, J.; McLennan, T.P.T.

    1995-01-01

    The coal mining industry is likely to disturb as much as 60,000 ha of the Bowen Basin up to the year 2000. While comprising only a small proportion of the approximately 32,000 km 2 of the Bowen Basin, this considerable area will eventually need to be rehabilitated by creating appropriate land forms with a stabilizing and self-sustaining cover of vegetation. The job of restoring the disturbed area will fall to the practitioners of rehabilitation science. This paper briefly outlines the actual and potential significance of geological information to rehabilitation practice in the open-cut coal mining industry of the Bowen Basin. It focuses particularly on the problems of soil formation and the consequent limitations to ecosystem development due to the nature of the overburden materials and the environment. Lastly, it describes some of the distinctive features of the mine-soils of the area. Geological information can assist in the identification, classification, description and behaviour of post-mining materials. Potential inputs are not restricted to these and there is scope for wider inputs to management of the mining environment although the interface with biology requires further development. (author). 4 figs., 31 refs

  1. Feasibility of a continuous surface mining machine using impact breakers. First quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report on the efforts to evaluate the feasibility of excavating coal and overburden from surface mines using impact breakers. The initial stages of the project are devoted to a literature search, equipment selection, test site selection, and conceptual test system design. Hence, this report details the progress made in these areas; the next quarter will see the finalization of Phase I. Included as appendices to this report are FMA internal reports on the individual mines visited. These reports are the basis of the test site selection, and have been censored here to remove data the mine operators deemed as confidential.

  2. Soil-characterization and soil-amendment use on coal surface mine lands: An annotated bibliography. Information Circular/1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norland, M.R.; Veith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines Report on United States and Canadian Literature pertaining to soil characterization and the use of soil amendments as a part of the reclamation process of coal surface-mined lands contains 1,280 references. The references were published during the 1977 to 1988 period. Each reference is evaluated by keywords, providing the reader with a means of rapidly sorting through the references to locate those articles with the coal mining regions and subjects of interest. All references are annotated

  3. Arsenic transport in groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone of a mine-influenced stream-aquifer system

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Brendan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the transport of dissolved arsenic in groundwater, surface water and the hyporheic zone in a stream-aquifer system influenced by an abandoned arsenopyrite mine. Mine tailing piles consisting of a host of arsenic-bearing minerals including arsenopyrite and scorodite remain adjacent to the stream and represent a continuous source of arsenic. Arsenic loads from the stream, springs, and groundwater were quantified at the study reach on nine dates from January to August 2005 and ...

  4. P-ANFO: new era in surface coal mining; P-ANFO: acik ocak komur isletmeciliginde yeni bir cag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tek, A. [Atlas Ltd., Istanbul (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    ANFO, an effective and inexpensive explosive, is widely used in rock blasting operations. However, for weak strata, ANFO often produces too much shock energy and leads to inefficiencies in the mining operation. Especially in Turkish surface coal mines where ANFO is used with the decking system, it is desirable to develop a low shock energy but a high heave energy ammonium nitrate based explosive. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Thirteen-year hardwood tree performance on a Midwest surface mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, W.C.; Kolar, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa Michx.), and pin oak (Q. palustris Muenchh.) seedlings were planted both fall 1980 and spring 1981 on mixed overburden strip-mining banks (ungraded), mixed overburden graded to approximate original contour (AOC) (graded), mixed overburden graded to AOC wit h 60 cm of replaced pre-mining surface soil materials (topsoil), and on old fields near the strip-mine (unmined). Black walnut and pin oak were also planted as seed, with a total of 6000 seedlings/seed spots in the study. Initial species field viability ranged from 86 to 100%. With one exception, after 3 growing seasons oak seedlings had 50% or greater survival. Survival was mostly lower after 3 years with some additional mortality by years 8 and 13. Height and diameter breast height were measured after 13 years. Survival and growth of trees planted fall or spring was similar overall with variable performance by species. Seedlings of several species on the ungraded site had over 50% survival after 13 years, with fewer trees where planted as seed. Mean height of all species combined was significantly greater on the ungraded than on any other site and was lowest on the topsoil site. The unmined sites had high variability in species survival and height. Better reclamation with trees resulted from a deep, well-drained rooting medium with minimal compaction and a mineral-rich surface soil including coarse fragments over 2 mm in size for long-term productivity

  6. Assessment of mercury erosion by surface water in Wanshan mercury mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, ZhiHui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-08-01

    Soil erosion is a main cause of land degradation, and in its accelerated form is also one of the most serious ecological environmental problems. Moreover, there are few studies on migration of mercury (Hg) induced by soil erosion in seriously Hg-polluted districts. This paper selected Wanshan Hg mining area, SW China as the study area. Revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and Geographic information system (GIS) methods were applied to calculate soil and Hg erosion and to classify soil erosion intensity. Our results show that the soil erosion rate can reach up to 600,884tkm(-2)yr(-1). Surfaces associated with very slight and extremely severe erosion include 76.6% of the entire land in Wanshan. Furthermore, the cumulative erosion rates in the area impacted by extremely severe erosion make up 90.5% of the total. On an annual basis, Hg surface erosion load was predicted to be 505kgyr(-1) and the corresponding mean migration flux of Hg was estimated to be 3.02kgkm(-2)yr(-1). The erosion loads of Hg resulting from farmland and meadow soil were 175 and 319kgyr(-1) respectively, which were enhanced compared to other landscape types due to the fact that they are generally located in the steep zones associated with significant reclamation. Contributing to establish a mass balance of Hg in Wanshan Hg mining area, this study supplies a dependable scientific basis for controlling soil and water erosion in the local ecosystems. Land use change is the most effective way for reducing Hg erosion load in Wanshan mining area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  8. 30 CFR 942.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 942.780 Section 942.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  9. 30 CFR 912.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 912.780 Section 912.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  10. 30 CFR 921.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 921.780 Section 921.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  11. 30 CFR 939.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operations plan. 939.780 Section 939.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operations plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  12. 30 CFR 905.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 905.780 Section 905.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  13. 30 CFR 947.780 - Surface mining permit application-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 947.780 Section 947.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Application—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  14. 30 CFR 933.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 933.780 Section 933.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  15. 30 CFR 910.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 910.780 Section 910.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirement for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  16. 30 CFR 922.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 922.780 Section 922.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  17. 30 CFR 903.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 903.780 Section 903.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, applies to any person who submits an application to conduct...

  18. 30 CFR 937.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 937.780 Section 937.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirement for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  19. 30 CFR 941.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 941.780 Section 941.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  20. “Smart Service” as an innovative system of service for mining companies in Kuzbass

    OpenAIRE

    Samorodova Lyudmila; Shut’ko Larisa; Yakunina Yulia; Lyubimov Oleg

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the issues related to the introduction of “smart service” as an innovative system of equipment service in the business system and “Life-Cycle Management” (LCM) by mining equipment manufacturers. Based on the analysis of the competitive environment an overview description of the competitive environment in the field of equipment sales for surface and underground mining as well as for maintenance and repair of mining machinery for surface mining is presented. The article d...

  1. VIGO: Instrumental Interaction in Multi-Surface Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses interaction in multi-surface environments and questions whether the current application-centric approaches to user interfaces are adequate in this context, and presents an alternative approach based on instrumental interaction. The paper presents the VIGO (Views, Instruments...

  2. From supercontinents to surface environment: Geological records from Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaji, E.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Yang, Qiong-Yan

    2018-05-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Asian Earth Sciences stems from the 2016 Annual Convention of the International Association for Gondwana Research (IAGR) and 13th international conference presentations on Gondwana to Asia held at Trivandrum, India during 18-22 November 2016, covering a wide range of topics from supercontinents to life and surface environment with the Asian region in focus.

  3. Exploration of Venus' Deep Atmosphere and Surface Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, L. S.; Amato, M.; Garvin, J. B.; Johnson, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Venus formed in the same part of our solar system as Earth, apparently from similar materials. Although both planets are about the same size, their differences are profound. Venus and Earth experienced vastly different evolutionary pathways resulting in unexplained differences in atmospheric composition and dynamics, as well as in geophysical processes of the planetary surfaces and interiors. Understanding when and why the evolutionary pathways of Venus and Earth diverged is key to understanding how terrestrial planets form and how their atmospheres and surfaces evolve. Measurements made in situ, within the near-surface or surface environment, are critical to addressing unanswered questions. We have made substantial progress modernizing and maturing pressure vessel technologies to enable science operations in the high temperature and pressure near-surface/surfaceenvironment of Venus.

  4. Influence of surface mining on ground water (effects and possibilities of prevention)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libicki, J

    1977-01-01

    This article analyzes the negative impact of surface mining on ground water. The effects of water depression on water supply for households and industry, and for vegetation and agriculture are evaluated. The negative impact of lowering the ground water level under various water conditions are analyzed: (1) vegetation is supplied with water only by rainfall, (2) vegetation is supplied with water in some seasons by rainfall and in some by ground water, and (3) vegetation uses ground water only. The impact of deteriorating water supply on forests is discussed. Problems connected with storage of waste materials in abandoned surface mines are also discussed. The influence of black coal ash and waste material from coal preparation plants on ground water is analyzed: penetration of some elements and chemical compounds to the ground water and its pollution. Some preventive measures are proposed: injection of grout in the bottom and walls of storage areas to reduce their permeability (organic resins can also be used but they are more expensive). The distance between injection boreholes should be 15 to 20 m. Covering the bottom of the storage area with plastic sheets can also be applied.

  5. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  6. Remote sensing for investigations of woodlands impacted by lignite open surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarski, M. [ILV-Fernerkundung GmbH, Teltow (Germany); Lohstraeter, O. [Abteilung Markscheidewesen, MIBRAG mbH, Theissen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    The development of a long term monitoring concept for post-mining landscapes and mine surroundings as ordered by the company MIBRAG requires different preliminary studies. Objectives of these methodologically oriented analyses presented were the recording of ecologically relevant parameters, their changes and of possible effects caused by the mining activities in the flood plains of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder' situated between the open surface lignite mines 'Vereinigtes Schleenhain' and 'Profen' south of Leipzig. Besides other information, repeatedly generated satellite data of the SPOT system was prepared for research of various vegetation types, selected by certain criteria for a long term monitoring. The satellite data analysis methodology and research findings are presented. The generation of radiometrical and comparable data records using the atmosphere correction software 'ATCOR' as part of the image processing system 'ERDAS IMAGINE' and the evaluation of the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index NDVI are important parts of the analysis. Based on deciduous woodland maps near the rivers of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder', which were categorised as ecologically valuable, statistical analyses were made using the vegetation status evaluated by remote sensing. As a result, tendencies of vegetation change are demonstrated. To obtain more details about special relations between vegetation development and remote sensing data, further research is necessary involving spectral features of deciduous plant canopy and their causalities. Future gathering of high-precision geometric and radiometric (digital airborne) data is one way of reaching more detailed information of the objects in question. The high geometric accuracy of digital camera data (by DMC) and the color bands are benefits for the mining company which can now replace regular air-borne surveying made with analogous technology

  7. Mining soil phosphorus by zero P-application: an effective method to reduce the risk of P loading to surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Chardon, W.J.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to find field evidence for the effectiveness of P-mining to reduce the risk of P leaching to surface water. In 2002, a P-mining was conducted on four grassland sites in the Netherlands on sand (two sites), peat and clay soils. The mining plots received no P and an annual N surplus of

  8. Reclamation Strategies and Geomorphic Outcomes in Coal Surface Mines of Eastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M.; Jaeger, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Coal surface mining is a significant landscape disturbance in the United States. Since 1977, the reclamation of mined lands has been regulated by the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). Prior to the act, many coalfields were left un-reclaimed or partially reclaimed, with highly irregular topology and drainage networks. Under the act, the reverse is often true; adherence to SMCRA often leads to the homogenization of surfaces and channel networks. While both pre and post-SMCRA landscapes are highly altered, they exhibit strongly dissimilar characteristics. We examine pre-SMCRA, post-SMCRA and unmined watersheds at 3 spatial scales in order to compare the geomorphic differences between reclamation strategies. In particular, we attempt to separate anthropogenic factors from pre-existing, natural factors via comparisons to unmined watersheds. Our study design incorporates a 3 scale top-down analysis of 21 independent watersheds (7 of each treatment type). Each watershed has an area of approximately 1km2. All watersheds share similar geography, climate and geology. At the landscape scale, characteristics are derived from 0.762m (2.5ft) resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). At the channel network scale, DEMs, as well as remote sensing data (including the National Wetlands Inventory database) are used. Finally, the reach scale incorporates longitudinal and cross-section surveys (using a total station) as well as a particle size distribution. At each scale, attributes are parameterized for statistical comparison. Post-SMCRA sites are characterized by a general reduction of watershed surface slopes (11.9% median) compared to pre-SMCRA (19.3%) and unmined (19.8%) sites. Both pre and post-SMCRA channel networks are characterized by significant surface impoundments (in the form of remnant headwall trenches on pre-SMCRA sites and engineered retention basins on post-SMCRA sites). Pre-SMCRA outlet reaches have significantly steeper bed slopes (2.79% mean) than

  9. Local community opinions regarding the socio-environmental aspects of lignite surface mining: Experiences from central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badera, Jarosław; Kocoń, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Surface lignite mining covers large areas and usually generates social conflicts which pose one of several energy security threats to certain states. Therefore, defining the social conditions determines the success of a mining project. Two communes were chosen for a public opinion study: Kleszczów, where the Bełchatów mine is located, and Złoczew, where a lignite deposit will soon be developed. The analysis shows, as opposed to other areas in Poland that have been projected for development, that both local communities are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. In both cases, awareness about the profits was stronger than anxiety about the investment's negative effects. However, most inhabitants could not assess the mining company's diligence concerning its responsibility for mining damages as well as the diligence of external experts assessing the environmental impacts of excavation. Most respondents also could not assess if the legal regulations of public participation in the decision process were sufficient, but the negative opinions outweighed the positive ones. From the perspective of the energy policy, dialogue-type social communication is needed for every case of a new energy-mining project. Research on local public opinion should be the first step to opening up a social debate. - Highlights: • Lignite mining can generate social conflicts, which may threaten energy security. • Examined communes are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. • Inhabitants cannot assess if the legal regulations of mining activity are sufficient. • From the perspective of the energy policy, broader social communication is needed. • Research on the public opinion should be the first step to open up a social debate

  10. Debilitating lung disease among surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Reed, William R; Joy, Gerald J; Colinet, Jay F; Rider, James P; Petsonk, Edward L; Abraham, Jerrold L; Wolfe, Anita L; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner's lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor.

  11. Assessment of uranium release to the environment from a disabled uranium mine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Kelecom, Alphonse Germaine Albert Charles; da Silva, Ademir Xavier; do Carmo, Alessander Sá; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azavedo

    2018-08-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (in Portuguese Unidade de Tratamento de Minérios - UTM) located in Caldas, MG, Brazil is a disabled uranium mine. Environmental conditions generate acid drainage leaching metals and radionuclides from the waste rock pile. This drainage is treated to remove the heavy metals and radionuclides, before allowing the release of the effluent to the environment. To validate the treatment, samples of the released effluents were collected at the interface of the installation with the environment. Sampling was carried out from 2010 to 2015, and the activity concentration (AC, in Bq·l -1 ) of uranium in the liquid effluent was analyzed by arzenazo UV-Vis spectrophotometry of the soluble and particulate fractions, and of the sum of both fractions. Descriptive statistics, Z test and Pearson R 2 correlation among the fractions were performed. Then, the data were organized by year and both ANOVA and Tukey test were carried out to group the means by magnitude of AC. The annual mean ranged from 0.02 Bq·l -1 in 2015 to 0.11 Bq·l -1 in 2010. The soluble fraction showed a higher AC mean when compared to the mean of the particulate fraction and no correlation of the data could be observed. Concerning the magnitude of the release, the ANOVA associated with the Tukey test, identified three groups of annual means (AC 2010 > AC 2011  = AC 2012  = AC 2013  = AC 2014  > AC 2015 ). The mean values of uranium release at the interface installation-environment checking point (point 014) were within the Authorized Annual Limit (AAL) set by the regulator (0.2 Bq·l -1 ) indicating compliance of treatment with the licensing established for the unit. Finally, the data showed a decreasing tendency of U release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of mercury in the small mining and the implications for the environment and the health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, Walther

    2004-01-01

    In the auriferous small and handmade mining, the use of mercury for the amalgamation of minerals and concentrated auriferous it is universally extended. This is attributed to the supposedly easy handling that doesn't require of special technical knowledge, at the relatively low cost of the mercury with relationship to the mineral value and the readiness of included mercury in the most remote regions. Of those more than 3.000 annual t of mercury that arrive of the most diverse sources (E.g. 1.500 t of central thermal of coal and incinerator plants of garbage) to the environment, single 500 t approximately corresponds the auriferous mining, but in form of high local concentrations. Exams carried out in 72 companies of gold mining and silver they checked in around 15% of the employees an excessive exhibition of mercury, in some cases with values 50 times that the allowed. The main roads for which the mercury used in the gold extraction, arrives to the environment, are relicts of mineral preparation and mercury vapors that arise in the distillation open of amalgam without retort. The consumption of mercury, that is to say the losses to the environment, depending on the mineral type and of the applied preparation methods, they reach of some little grams for ton of mineral treaty up to 2 kg Hg / mineral t. Be which is the way for which the mercury arrives to the environment, it is absorbed by the plants and animals and it is integrated in the foods chain. Animals that are at the end of the foods chain, for E j fish, demonstrate the highest concentrations. The mercury possesses a high neurotoxic potential, it concentrates on the neurons and it blocks the transport of signs there and nutritious. Polluted people with mercury assimilate with more easiness another toxic environmental matter, since the mercury impedes to the cell of defending in front of her, allowing this way that heavy metals, pesticides and formaldehydes penetrate the cell. In their vaporous physical state

  13. Participatory Communication and Sustainability Development: Case Study of Coal Mining Environment in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda Fitryarini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to analyze about participatory communication, especially those currently practiced in coal mining communities in Samarinda, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. In addition, specific practices to facilitate participatory communication are identified and discussed. This essay is based on the author's research on environmental conflicts in coal mining areas. The conclusion of this essay is that community participatory communication in coal mining industry area is still at a pseudo participatory stage.

  14. Water treatment strategy for underground and surface waters in order to reduce the hydro-network contamination due to close out of a uranium mining area in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, D.; Radulescu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the present circumstances, in correlation with the national nuclear program and strategy, it is foreseen to stop the exploitation activities in two important uranium mining areas from Romania. This close-out action is involving a number of technical decisions for environmental restoration. Reduction of waters radioactive contamination in these zones, both during the operating period and after the closeout period, is one of the main components of the environment rehabilitation strategy. In this paper there are presented the today situation and the program foreseen for ground and surface water treatment at an uranium mining unit situated in the SW side of Romania, program based on the results of our own research carried out to decrease the content of pollutant radioactive elements. (author)

  15. Exposure to different toxic chemicals: a threat to environment and human health in mining sites in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magduala, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The mining activities in Tanzania have been existed since time immemorial whereby traditional mining was practiced. However until now the country is still endowed with abundant mineral resources including gold, tanzanite diamonds, iron ore, salt, gypsum, gemstones, natural gas, phosphate, coal, cobalt and nickel. The country's major gold fields are located in Geita, Musoma, Tarime, Chunya and Mpanda. During the last decade, local and foreign investors intensified their mining activities in Tanzania. This resulted in increased use of hazardous chemicals like mercury and cyanide which are harmful and toxic. In this report, the extent and impact to long term exposure of such chemicals to both natural environment and animals including human beings will be discussed. Recommendations to local and international investors and policy markers regarding the safe and sustainable use of harmful chemicals will also be discussed.(author)

  16. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  17. Evaluation of surface water quality in aquatic bodies under the influence of uranium mining (MG, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgher, Suzelei; de Azevedo, Heliana; Ferrari, Carla Rolim; Roque, Cláudio Vítor; Ronqui, Leilane Barbosa; de Campos, Michelle Burato; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes

    2013-03-01

    The quality of the water in a uranium-ore-mining area located in Caldas (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and in a reservoir (Antas reservoir) that receives the neutralized acid solution leaching from the waste heaps generated by uranium mining was investigated. The samples were collected during four periods (October 2008, January, April and July 2009) from six sampling stations. Physical and chemical analyses were performed on the water samples, and the data obtained were compared with those of the Brazilian Environmental Standards and WHO standard. The water samples obtained from waste rock piles showed high uranium concentrations (5.62 mg L(-1)), high manganese values (75 mg L(-1)) and low average pH values (3.4). The evaluation of the water quality at the point considered the limit between the Ore Treatment Unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries and the environment (Consulta Creek) indicated contamination by fluoride, manganese, uranium and zinc. The Antas reservoir showed seasonal variations in water quality, with mean concentrations for fluoride (0.50 mg L(-1)), sulfate (16 mg L(-1)) and hardness (20 mg L(-1)) which were low in January, evidencing the effect of rainwater flowing into the system. The concentrations for fluoride, sulfate and manganese were close or above to the limits established by current legislation at the point where the treated mining effluent was discharged and downstream from this point. This study demonstrated that the effluent discharged by the UTM affected the quality of the water in the Antas reservoir, and thus the treatments currently used for effluent need to be reviewed.

  18. Vertical Displacement of the Surface Area over the Leakage to the Transverse salt Mine in 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipecki, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    The leakage of water in the salt mine caused considerable deformation of the surface. This article shows the vertical displacement in the area of leakage to the mine excavation, measured by precision leveling, carried out from the first days of leakage in 1992 until 2012. The geological and hydrogeological conditions of the mine, as well as the associated water hazards were described, which in conjunction with the inconvenient location of the excavation site in the northern frontage of the Carpathians and also inadequately conducted mining operations, contributed to the risk of flooding mine. The analysis of the vertical movements of the surface - subsidence and uplift - were present as well as the process of formation of the depression trough in the form of maps and graphs. The analyzes were based on 49 measurement series, starting from the first days of the disaster within the next 20 years. The course of development of the depression trough and the condition of the surface after stopping the water from the rock mass has been shown, which caused the surface to uplift.

  19. Vertical Displacement of the Surface Area over the Leakage to the Transverse salt Mine in 1992–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipecki Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The leakage of water in the salt mine caused considerable deformation of the surface. This article shows the vertical displacement in the area of leakage to the mine excavation, measured by precision leveling, carried out from the first days of leakage in 1992 until 2012. The geological and hydrogeological conditions of the mine, as well as the associated water hazards were described, which in conjunction with the inconvenient location of the excavation site in the northern frontage of the Carpathians and also inadequately conducted mining operations, contributed to the risk of flooding mine. The analysis of the vertical movements of the surface – subsidence and uplift – were present as well as the process of formation of the depression trough in the form of maps and graphs. The analyzes were based on 49 measurement series, starting from the first days of the disaster within the next 20 years. The course of development of the depression trough and the condition of the surface after stopping the water from the rock mass has been shown, which caused the surface to uplift.

  20. Decommissioning nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities at the Mining and Chemical Combine: International cooperation in assessment of impact on the environment and population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.; Revenko, Y.A.; Zhidkov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The discharge of radionuclides to the Yenisei River has substantially reduced after shutdown of direct cycle reactors at the Mining and Chemical Combine; currently exposure dose rate above water surface and radionuclide concentration in sewage water flows do not exceed the levels set by existing sanitary rules. The results of other protection measures connected with decommissioning of nuclear- and radiation-dangerous facilities and environment restoration activity are considered in the paper. Recently, the workers of the Mining and Chemical Combine, together with specialists from other Russian institutions and with international participation, made significant progress in investigation and monitoring of the radiological impact, primarily in the Yenisei River floodplain and around the 'Severnyi' radwaste disposal site. The inventory of man-made radionuclides in flood-plain deposits of the Yenisei River was assessed and long-term radionuclide transport into the Kara Sea forecasted. New local information on radionuclide pathways to man and environment was the basis for the development of an original dosimetric model. The models of radionuclide migration in the underground liquid radwaste disposal sites have been created and associated human doses predicted. A GIS project has been developed for Yenisei River floodplain contamination. Future work will include development of M and CC ecological geoinformation cadastre and assessments of the impact of radionuclide exposure on the environment, agriculture, fishing, and water quality, as well as identification of necessary rehabilitation measures. (author)

  1. Virtual environment assessment for laser-based vision surface profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSoussi, Adnane; Al Alami, Abed ElRahman; Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.

    2015-03-01

    Oil and gas businesses have been raising the demand from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to implement a reliable metrology method in assessing surface profiles of welds before and after grinding. This certainly mandates the deviation from the commonly used surface measurement gauges, which are not only operator dependent, but also limited to discrete measurements along the weld. Due to its potential accuracy and speed, the use of laser-based vision surface profiling systems have been progressively rising as part of manufacturing quality control. This effort presents a virtual environment that lends itself for developing and evaluating existing laser vision sensor (LVS) calibration and measurement techniques. A combination of two known calibration techniques is implemented to deliver a calibrated LVS system. System calibration is implemented virtually and experimentally to scan simulated and 3D printed features of known profiles, respectively. Scanned data is inverted and compared with the input profiles to validate the virtual environment capability for LVS surface profiling and preliminary assess the measurement technique for weld profiling applications. Moreover, this effort brings 3D scanning capability a step closer towards robust quality control applications in a manufacturing environment.

  2. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  3. OECD global forum on international investment. Foreign direct investment and the environment: lessons from the mining sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is one of the forces fostering closer economic interdependence among countries. The rapid increase in FDI flows has generated considerable debate about its environmental and social implications in host countries. While much of the debate on these issues has been general in nature, this volume deepens the analysis by examining the FDI-environment relationship in a specific sector and identifies emerging best practices. Empirical evidence from the mining sector is presented, and the key elements of the policy and institutional frameworks that guide investors' environmental behaviour are discussed. In addition, the emerging role of voluntary commitments by enterprises to safeguard the environment is examined. The publication is an edited selection of conference papers. Coal mining is included in 5 of the 11 papers included: a paper on sub-Sarahan Africa (with reference to South Africa, Zambia and Tanzania), a paper on Latin America (reference to Chile), a paper on the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, a paper entitled: an asset for competitiveness: sound environmental management in mining countries, and a paper on FDI in mining: discrimination and non-discrimination. 10 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Impact of Mining Activity upon Environment in Roşia Montană

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIGISMUND DUMA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Roşia Montană is the greatest gold ore in Romania and one of the greatest in Europe, and its exploitation has been carried out since Antiquity up to nowadays. If the traditional extraction and processing technologies had a minimal impact upon environment, the ones adopted in modern times have affected all the components of the natural environment. In the perspective of capitalizing the gold ore through the programme elaborated by the Canadian company, Gold Corporation, the zonal geographical space will be degraded up to the level of industrial dessert over an area of 100 km2 and in case of damage, the affected area can extend enormously. The environmental problems are related both to the specific nature of such an industrial activity and, especially, to the use of enormous quantities of sodium cyanide directly on the preparation flux from the industrial plant. Few such cases are known worldwide, in several economically less developed countries. Usually, cyanides are used for treating the gold concentrations, operation done in conditions of maximum security, in closed spaces, situated in isolated zones and the neutralization (detoxification of cyanides is done in situ. The treatment of cyanides in open spaces has always generated environmental problems. Moreover, none of the cyanide treatment technologies eliminates entirely their toxic effect (less toxic chemical products are obtained. In order to avoid the production of an environmental disaster and to preserve the local patrimony values (in this place there lies the richest mining archeological site in Europe, we elaborated several recommendations we consider feasible as they allow both the capitalization of ore, which is a socio-economic necessity of the area, and the ecological reconstruction of the affected geographical space.

  5. The Phosphoria Formation at the Hot Springs Mine in Southeast Idaho; a source of selenium and other trace elements to surface water, ground water, vegetation, and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David Z.; Skorupa, J.P.; Presser, T.S.; Hardy, M.A.; Hamilton, S.J.; Huebner, M.; Gulbrandsen, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Major-element oxides and trace elements in the Phosphoria Formation at the Hot Springs Mine, Idaho were determined by a series of techniques. In this report, we examine the distribution of trace elements between the different solid components aluminosilicates, apatite, organic matter, opal, calcite, and dolomite that largely make up the rocks. High concentrations of several trace elements throughout the deposit, for example, As, Cd, Se, Tl, and U, at this and previously examined sites have raised concern about their introduction into the environment via weathering and the degree to which mining and the disposal of mined waste rock from this deposit might be accelerating that process. The question addressed here is how might the partitioning of trace elements between these solid host components influence the introduction of trace elements into ground water, surface water, and eventually biota, via weathering? In the case of Se, it is partitioned into components that are quite labile under the oxidizing conditions of subaerial weathering. As a result, it is widely distributed throughout the environment. Its concentration exceeds the level of concern for protection of wildlife at virtually every trophic level.

  6. Real-time resource model updating in continuous mining environment utilizing online sensor data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yüksel, C.

    2017-01-01

    In mining, modelling of the deposit geology is the basis for many actions to be taken in the future, such as predictions of quality attributes, mineral resources and ore reserves, as well as mine design and long-term production planning. The essential knowledge about the raw materialproduct is based

  7. Status, Distribution, and Diversity of Birds in Mining Environment of Kachchh, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj B. Gajera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opencast mining is one of the major reasons for the destruction of natural habitats for many wildlife including birds. The Kachchh region belongs to the arid part of India and is one of the rich areas of mineral resources in the country. In the recent time and after the 2001 earthquake, mining and other developmental activities are increased, and as a result, the natural habitats of birds are disturbed and fragmented. So, this study was conducted to assess the impact of mining and associated activities on the diversity and distribution of birds. Birds were studied by surveying 180 transects along 9 zones around three selected major mines, and each zone is made in every 2 km radius from the mine. Based on the record, it was found that the density and diversity of birds are highest in zone 5 and lowest in zone 1 and zone 2, respectively. The result indicates that the diversity and abundance of birds were less in zones which are located close to the mines in comparison to the zones far from the mines. In conclusion, mining and its associated activities have some impacts on the diversity and distribution of birds in Kachchh region in India.

  8. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  9. Mycogenic Mn(II) oxidation promotes remediation of acid mine drainage and other anthropogenically impacted environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, C. M.; Chaput, D.; Hansel, C. M.; Burgos, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Manganese is a pollutant in worldwide environments contaminated with metals and organics, such as acid mine drainage (AMD), freshwater ponds, and agricultural waste storage sites. Microorganisms contribute to the removal of dissolved Mn compounds in the environment by promoting Mn(II) oxidation reactions. The oxidation of Mn(II) results in the precipitation of sparingly soluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, effectively removing the metal from the aqueous milieu (e.g., groundwater or wastewater streams). In recent years, our research has identified a diversity of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi inhabiting these polluted environments, however their overall contribution to the remediation process in situ remains poorly understood. Here we present results of culture-based and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) studies in AMD treatment systems actively remediating Mn and other metals where we profile the bacterial, fungal, algal and archaeal communities to determine the overall community diversity and to establish the relative abundance of known Mn(II) oxidizers. A variety of treatment systems with varying Mn-removal efficiencies were sampled to understand the relationship between remediation efficiency and microbial community composition and activity. Targeted-amplicon sequencing of DNA and RNA of the 16S rRNA genes (bacteria and archaea), 23S rRNA genes (algae) and ITS region (fungi) was performed using both 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina platforms. Results showed that only the fungal taxonomic profiles significantly differed between sites that removed the majority of influent Mn and those that did not. Specifically, Ascomycota (which include known Mn(II) oxidizers isolated from these treatment systems) dominated greater efficiency systems whereas less efficient systems were dominated by Basidiomycota. Furthermore, known Mn(II) oxidizers accounted for only a minor proportion of bacterial sequences but a far greater proportion of fungal sequences. These culture-independent studies lend

  10. Being a Child in an Industrial Contemporaneous Environment. Examples from the Mining Mountains of Cartagena-La Unión (Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar González Vergara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss various aspects of childhood in an industrial environment, focusing particularly the phenomenon of child labor. We will draw examples from one of the most important industrial mining complex of contemporary Spain, the mining area in Cartagena-La Union, where child labor was widespread. We will complete this vision of childhood with the examples available in the mining songs, which reflect many aspects of childhood.

  11. An introduction to the integrated design of surface mine haul roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.J.; Visser, A.T. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The world-wide expansion of surface mining has led to the development of very large off-highway trucks currently capable of hauling layloads in excess of 160 t. Typical axle loads ranging from 110 t to 170 t are applied to haul roads that have been, at best, empirically designed on the premise of `satisfactory` or `failed`, both in terms of structure and function of the road. The use of these empirical pavement design techniques will prove inadequate when high axle loads are encountered. Not only will the maintenance costs of existing haul roads of inadequate thickness increase, but vehicle operating and maintenance costs will also increase prohibitively. Under these conditions there is thus a clearly defined need for improved construction and management techniques for flexible mine haulage roads, appropriate for the wheel loads of vehicles now in use. The aim of this paper is to introduce developments in haul road structural, functional and maintenance design and management which overcome the limitations associated with the previously empirical design techniques and to show how these developments are combined into an integrated design strategy combining construction techniques, available material and road maintenance equipment with hauler choice to realise a reduction in haulage and road maintenance costs. Future contributions will enumerate on the fundamental haul road structural, functional and maintenance design and management research from which these developments originated. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Role of soil health in maintaining environmental sustainability of surface coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Peter M; Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott; Jones, Alice L; Rowe, Harold; Martin, Darren; Bryson, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) in the Southern Appalachian forest region greatly impacts both soil and aquatic ecosystems. Policy and practice currently in place emphasize water quality and soil stability but do not consider upland soil health. Here we report soil organic carbon (SOC) measurements and other soil quality indicators for reclaimed soils in the Southern Appalachian forest region to quantify the health of the soil ecosystem. The SOC sequestration rate of the MCM soils was 1.3 MgC ha(-1) yr(-1) and stocks ranged from 1.3 ± 0.9 to 20.9 ± 5.9 Mg ha(-1) and contained only 11% of the SOC of surrounding forest soils. Comparable reclaimed mining soils reported in the literature that are supportive of soil ecosystem health had SOC stocks 2.5-5 times greater than the MCM soils and sequestration rates were also 1.6-3 times greater. The high compaction associated with reclamation in this region greatly reduces both the vegetative rooting depth and infiltration of the soil and increases surface runoff, thus bypassing the ability of soil to naturally filter groundwater. In the context of environmental sustainability of MCM, it is proposed that the entire watershed ecosystem be assessed and that a revision of current policy be conducted to reflect the health of both water and soil.

  13. Hybrid Type II fuzzy system & data mining approach for surface finish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Liang (Bill Tseng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new methodology in predicting a system output has been investigated by applying a data mining technique and a hybrid type II fuzzy system in CNC turning operations. The purpose was to generate a supplemental control function under the dynamic machining environment, where unforeseeable changes may occur frequently. Two different types of membership functions were developed for the fuzzy logic systems and also by combining the two types, a hybrid system was generated. Genetic algorithm was used for fuzzy adaptation in the control system. Fuzzy rules are automatically modified in the process of genetic algorithm training. The computational results showed that the hybrid system with a genetic adaptation generated a far better accuracy. The hybrid fuzzy system with genetic algorithm training demonstrated more effective prediction capability and a strong potential for the implementation into existing control functions.

  14. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Surface Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Attributes include mine...

  15. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  16. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  17. Effects of coal mining on ground and surface water quality, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R G

    1977-07-01

    Water quality data are compared. Areas disturbed extensively either by surface or underground mining for bituminous coal in Monongalia County, West Virginia yield water of poorer quality than similar terrain which is not so disturbed. Specifically, the disturbed areas yield hard water of the calcium-sulfate or calcium-magnesium-sulfate type which is low in pH, high in iron and aluminum, and which contains trace elements one or more orders of magnitude greater than water from undisturbed terrain. These hard waters differ from the more common type of hard waters in that sulfate rather than bicarbonate is the dominant anion. As such they may provide further insight into factors affecting the relationship between water hardness and cardiovascular disease rates. The necessary additional data are being collected.

  18. The effect of coal surface mine reclamation on lepidopteran populations in Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, K.D.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The goals of this research are to determine whether lepidopteran communities of reclaimed coal surface mines approximate those of the surrounding, unmined hardwood forests and which habitat variables are influencing lepidopteran communities on these sites. Surveys of 19 reclaimed and hardwood sites during the 1992 field season indicate that the lepidopteran fauna of reclaimed sites does not resemble that of the surrounding hardwoods. While plant species richness is not significantly correlated with lepidopteran species richness, multivariate analysis suggests that vegetative community composition has a strong influence on lepidopteran community composition. Nectar abundance is important in explaining butterfly species richness. While the number of species in reclaimed sites is similar to the number in the surrounding hardwoods, reclaimed sites tend to host widespread, r-selected species, which raises questions on the value of reclaimed sites in conserving less common

  19. Relocation of belt conveyors along the final slope of the Belacevac surface coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, N; Rosic, Z

    1987-07-01

    Describes how following a landslide on the northern wing of the Belacevac surface coal mine the belt conveyor lines had to be relocated in order to assure a reliable coal supply to the Kosovo A and Kosovo B thermal power stations. The relocation was achieved in three phases with new approach cuts being made, necessitating the removal of 280,000 m/sup 3/ of overburden in the first phase and 870,000 m/sup 3/ in the second phase of the reconstruction. Illustrates the relocation of the conveyor system by means of site plans and notes that the production of coal and the removal of overburden were not interrupted during the relocation exercise. 2 refs.

  20. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Greve

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.

  1. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: d.phillips@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  2. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and Multispectral Scanner (MSS Studies Examine Coastal Environments Influenced by Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Charles Kerfoot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous examples of past and present mine disposal into freshwater and marine coastal bays and riverine environments. Due to its high spatial resolution and extended water penetration, coastal light detection and ranging (LiDAR, coupled with multispectral scanning (MSS, has great promise for resolving disturbed shoreline features in low turbidity environments. Migrating mine tailings present serious issues for Lake Superior and coastal marine environments. Previous investigations in Lake Superior uncovered a metal-rich “halo” around the Keweenaw Peninsula, related to past copper mining practices. For over a century, waste rock migrating from shoreline tailing piles has moved along extensive stretches of coastline, compromising critical fish breeding grounds, damming stream outlets, transgressing into wetlands and along recreational beaches and suppressing benthic invertebrate communities. In Grand (Big Traverse Bay, Buffalo Reef is an important spawning area for lake trout and whitefish threatened by drifting tailings. The movement of tailings into Buffalo Reef cobble fields may interfere with the hatching of fish eggs and fry survival, either by filling in crevices where eggs are deposited or by toxic effects on eggs, newly hatched larvae or benthic communities. Here, we show that the coastal tailing migration is not “out of sight, out of mind”, but clearly revealed by using a combination of LiDAR and MSS techniques.

  3. Simulated effects of surface coal mining and agriculture on dissolved solids in the Redwater River, east-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved solids concentrations in five reaches of the Redwater River in east-central Montana were simulated to evaluate the effects of surface coal mining and agriculture. A mass-balance model of streamflow and dissolved solids load developed for the Tongue River in southeastern Montana was modified and applied to the Redwater River. Mined acreages, dissolved solids concentrations in mined spoils, and irrigated acreage can be varied in the model to study relative changes in the dissolved solids concentration in consecutive reaches of the river. Because of extreme variability and a limited amount of data, the model was not consecutively validated. Simulated mean and median monthly mean streamflows and consistently larger than those calculated from streamflow records. Simulated mean and median monthly mean dissolved solids loads also are consistently larger than regression-derived values. These discrepancies probably result from extremely variable streamflow, overestimates of streamflow from ungaged tributaries, and weak correlations between streamflow and dissolved solids concentrations. The largest increases in simulated dissolved solids concentrations from mining and agriculture occur from September through January because of smaller streamflows and dissolved solids loads. Different combinations of agriculture and mining under mean flow conditions resulted in cumulative percentage increases of dissolved solids concentrations of less than 5% for mining and less than 2% for agriculture. (USGS)

  4. The impact of small-scale mining activities on the levels of mercury in the environment. The case of Prestea and its environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.; Adotey, D.K.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Adomako, D.

    2004-01-01

    To obtain the baseline information of mercury pollution due to gold mining activities in Prestea and its environs total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were measured in water and stream sediment. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). They were irradiated and counted without any preconcentration. Higher levels of T-Hg concentration were found in samples at the sites with extensive small-scale 'galamsey' gold mining activities than at the sites with low small-scale 'galamsey' activities. Concentrations varied between 6.80-19.82 mg/l for water and 28.90-84.30 mg/kg in sediment at sites with extensive small-scale mining activities. At low small-scale mining sites concentration levels for T-Hg varied between 0.50-9.10 mg/l and 1.20-22.75 mg/kg in water and sediment, respectively. The concentration levels of T-Hg in water from all the sampling sites are in excess of the WHO tolerable limit of 0.001 mg/l for drinking water. (author)

  5. Radiological assessment of surface water quality around proposed uranium mining site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Lenka, P; Gothankar, S; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D; Khating, D T

    2009-06-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activities were estimated for radiological assessment of surface water quality around the proposed uranium mining site Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya situated in a high rainfall area (12,000mm) in India. 189 Surface water samples were collected over different seasons of the year from nine different locations covering around 100km(2). Gross beta activities were found to vary from 144 to 361mBq/L which is much below the prescribed WHO limit of 1000mBq/L for drinking water. Gross alpha activities varied from 61 to 127mBq/L. These values are much below the reported gross alpha values by other countries. In about 7% of the samples the alpha activities remain exceeded the WHO guideline limit of 100mBq/L. Surface water samples collected during the summer season of the year show higher activity whereas low activity was found from samples collected during monsoon season. Results show that all water sources are acceptable as drinking water for human consumption from the radiological point of view, the higher gross alpha concentrations in a few locations remains so only for short duration during the summer season.

  6. Radiological assessment of surface water quality around proposed uranium mining site in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Lenka, P.; Gothankar, S.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.; Khating, D.T.

    2009-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activities were estimated for radiological assessment of surface water quality around the proposed uranium mining site Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya situated in a high rainfall area (12,000 mm) in India. 189 Surface water samples were collected over different seasons of the year from nine different locations covering around 100 km 2 . Gross beta activities were found to vary from 144 to 361 mBq/L which is much below the prescribed WHO limit of 1000 mBq/L for drinking water. Gross alpha activities varied from 61 to 127 mBq/L. These values are much below the reported gross alpha values by other countries. In about 7% of the samples the alpha activities remain exceeded the WHO guideline limit of 100 mBq/L. Surface water samples collected during the summer season of the year show higher activity whereas low activity was found from samples collected during monsoon season. Results show that all water sources are acceptable as drinking water for human consumption from the radiological point of view, the higher gross alpha concentrations in a few locations remains so only for short duration during the summer season.

  7. Degradation of Silicon Carbide Reflective Surfaces in the LEO Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, Sandro; Coluzzi, Plinio; Marchetti, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Space mirrors in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) encounter a degradation problem caused by the impact of atomic oxygen (ATOX) in the space environment. This paper presents an experiment of the atomic oxygen impact degradation and UV synergic effects on ground simulation. The experiment was carried out in a dedicated ATOX simulation vacuum chamber. As target materials, a polished CVD Beta-silicon carbide (SiC) coating was investigated. The selection of silicon carbide is due to its high potential candidate as a mirror layer substrate material for its good reflectance at UV wavelengths and excellent thermal diffusivity. It has highly desirable mechanical and thermal properties and can achieve an excellent surface finish. The deposition of the coatings were on carbon-based material substrate; i.e., silicon impregnated carbon fiber composite (C/SiC). Mechanical and thermal properties of the coatings such as hardness and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) were achieved. Several atomic oxygen impact angles were studied tilting the target samples respect to the flux direction. The various impact angles permitted to analyze the different erosion rates and typologies which the mirrors would encounter in LEO environment. The degradation was analyzed in various aspects. Macroscopic mass loss per unit area, surface roughness and morphology change were basically analyzed. The exposed surfaces of the materials were observed through a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Secondly, optical diagnostic of the surfaces were performed in order to investigate their variation in optical properties as the evaluation of reflectance degradation. The presence of micro-cracks caused by shrinkage, grinding, polishing or thermal cycling and the porosity in the coatings, could have led to the undercutting phenomenon. Observation of uprising of undercutting was also conducted. Remarks are given regarding capabilities in short-term mission exposures to the LEO environment of this coating.

  8. Measuring and controlling the mining environment for worker health and safety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting the health and safety of Mine Workers Stress Physical Strain Fatigue Ergono- mics Silica/ Dust NIHL Heat Accidents Planisa 1. HFACS: Accident Analysis ? CSIR 2012 Slide 4 Swiss-Cheese Model illustrates how accidents...

  9. Radioactive wastes of uranium mining and milling: Radiological consequences for human population and natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazykina, T.G.; Kryshev, I.I.

    2002-01-01

    The sources of wastes and levels of radioactive contamination are considered in the areas of uranium ore mining and milling. Assessments of doses to the population are made using the methodology of multiple sources and pathways of exposure, including calculations of inhalation dose and doses from consumption of contaminated agricultural and natural products, as well as external exposure from the radioactive cloud and soil. On the local (0-100 km) spatial scale, the dose from uranium mining and processing is, on average, about 0.7 man Sv (GWa) -1 . The most significant pathway of the population exposure is inhalation of radon. The impact of uranium ore mining and processing on natural flora and fauna is determined by specific characteristics of the production at uranium mining enterprises and has both radiation and non-radiation components. The estimates of external and internal exposures to the natural biota in the vicinity of hydro-metallurgical works and tailing dumps are presented. (author)

  10. Characteristics of attached radon-222 daughters under both laboratory and underground uranium-mine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.O.; Cooper, J.A.; Langford, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.

    1981-09-01

    The organic, inorganic, and radiological characteristics of airborne aerosols have been measured as a function of particle size in controlled atmosphere test chambers and operating uranium mines. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in two mines ranged from 26 to 57 ng/m 3 of air. The carbon chain length of adsorbed n-alkanes was correlated with particle size. Normal mining activities produced an ore dust aerosol with mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) greater than 2 μm. The elements Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, and U exhibited elemental ratios similar to bulk ore and had comparable MMAD's. The S, Zn, and Pb were higher in aerosols than bulk ore and were associated with smaller MMAD particulates. Radon daughter particle size distributions were influenced by the kinds of particulates generated in mining activity

  11. Natural Contamination and Surface Flashover on Silicone Rubber Surface under Haze–Fog Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Ren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-pollution flashover of insulator is important for power systems. In recent years, haze-fog weather occurs frequently, which makes discharge occurs easily on the insulator surface and accelerates insulation aging of insulator. In order to study the influence of haze-fog on the surface discharge of room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber, an artificial haze-fog lab was established. Based on four consecutive years of insulator contamination accumulation and atmospheric sampling in haze-fog environment, the contamination configuration appropriate for RTV-coated surface discharge test under simulation environment of haze-fog was put forward. ANSYS Maxwell was used to analyze the influence of room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface attachments on electric field distribution. The changes of droplet on the polluted room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface and the corresponding surface flashover voltage under alternating current (AC, direct current (DC positive polar (+, and DC negative polar (− power source were recorded by a high speed camera. The results are as follows: The main ion components from haze-fog atmospheric particles are NO3−, SO42−, NH4+, and Ca2+. In haze-fog environment, both the equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD and non-soluble deposit density (NSDD of insulators are higher than that under general environment. The amount of large particles on the AC transmission line is greater than that of the DC transmission line. The influence of DC polarity power source on the distribution of contamination particle size is not significant. After the deposition of haze-fog, the local conductivity of the room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface increased, which caused the flashover voltage reduce. Discharge is liable to occur at the triple junction point of droplet, air, and room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber surface. After the deformation or movement of droplets, a new triple junction

  12. Interesting association rule mining with consistent and inconsistent rule detection from big sales data in distributed environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh J. Prajapati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing demand in mining interesting patterns from the big data. The process of analyzing such a huge amount of data is really computationally complex task when using traditional methods. The overall purpose of this paper is in twofold. First, this paper presents a novel approach to identify consistent and inconsistent association rules from sales data located in distributed environment. Secondly, the paper also overcomes the main memory bottleneck and computing time overhead of single computing system by applying computations to multi node cluster. The proposed method initially extracts frequent itemsets for each zone using existing distributed frequent pattern mining algorithms. The paper also compares the time efficiency of Mapreduce based frequent pattern mining algorithm with Count Distribution Algorithm (CDA and Fast Distributed Mining (FDM algorithms. The association generated from frequent itemsets are too large that it becomes complex to analyze it. Thus, Mapreduce based consistent and inconsistent rule detection (MR-CIRD algorithm is proposed to detect the consistent and inconsistent rules from big data and provide useful and actionable knowledge to the domain experts. These pruned interesting rules also give useful knowledge for better marketing strategy as well. The extracted consistent and inconsistent rules are evaluated and compared based on different interestingness measures presented together with experimental results that lead to the final conclusions.

  13. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  14. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ..., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202... recognizes the importance of this guidance to its Federal and state partners, to the regulated community, and... of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental...

  15. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floor exists if it finds that— (i) Unconsolidated streamlaid deposits holding streams are... on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial valley floors in the arid and semiarid areas west of....19 Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

  16. Nesting success of grassland and savanna birds on reclaimed surface coal mines of the midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galligan, E.W.; DeVault, T.L.; Lima, S.L. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Reclaimed surface coal mines in southwestern Indiana support many grassland and shrub/savanna bird species of conservation concern. We examined the nesting success of birds on these reclaimed mines to assess whether such 'unnatural' places represent productive breeding habitats for such species. We established eight study sites on two large, grassland-dominated mines in southwestern Indiana and classified them into three categories (open grassland, shrub/savanna, and a mixture of grassland and shrub/savanna) based on broad vegetation and landscape characteristics. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons, we found and monitored 911 nests of 31 species. Daily nest survival for the most commonly monitored grassland species ranged from 0.903 (Dickcissel, Spiza americana) to 0.961 (Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum). Daily survival estimates for the dominant shrub/savanna nesting species ranged from 0.932 (Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum) to 0.982 (Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii). Vegetation and landscape effects on nesting success were minimal, and only Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) showed a clear time-of-season effect, with greater nesting success in the first half of the breeding season. Rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were only 2.1% for grassland species and 12.0% for shrub/savanna species. The nesting success of birds on reclaimed mine sites was comparable to that in other habitats, indicating that reclaimed habitats on surface mines do not necessarily represent reproductive traps for birds.

  17. Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semi-arid weathering environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Sarah M.; O’Day, Peggy A.; Webb, Sam M.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semi-arid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the...

  18. The psychological impact of the risks of mines caving-in: anxiety, perception of the environment and access to information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodeler, V.; Tarquinio, C.

    2004-01-01

    Research has been conducted to assess the extent to which the risk of losing one's home or seeing it damaged due to a mine cave-in influences an individual's state of health and, in particular, of anxiety. According to the results, persons living in such risky situations have higher anxiety scores than members of a control group. Furthermore, their perception of the environment apparently affects their anxiety: the individuals most affected have a deteriorated perception of their environment. This study draws attention to the key role played by networks of associations, where inhabitants feel they can obtain reliable information. (authors)

  19. Providing radiation safety for the environment and people at uranium ore mining and primary processing operations and treatment of radioactive wastes in the Navoi mining and metallurgy combinat, Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchersky, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    The rise of the uranium industry in the Republic of Uzbekistan is closely connected with the discovery of a number of significant uranium deposits of sheet sandstone type in the Kyzylkum desert area, between the Amu-Darya and Syr-Darya rivers. Based on these deposits, in 1958 the construction of Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combinat (NMMC) commenced. In 1965 the Hydrometallurgical Plant No. 1 (HMP-1), located in the industrial zone near the Navoi town, started producing the uranium protoxide-oxide (yellow cake). The structure of the NMMC uranium production operations includes HMP-1 and three mining facilities. Conventional open-pit and underground uranium mining were shut down here in 1994 and at present all the uranium is extracted by in situ leaching (ISL). The radiation and hygiene sanitary monitoring aimed at collecting information on the radiation conditions at the working places and in the environment, on the current and expected irradiation doses taken by the personnel and various population groups inhabiting the area involved in the activities of the existing, liquidated or temporarily closed NMMC facilities constitutes an integral part of the radiation safety providing system. No radioactive contamination of any environmental objects has been detected outside the sanitary zones and production sites. The radionuclides content in the atmosphere, on the ground surface, in the underground water was found to be at the background level. Current annual average exposure doses of the limited critical population groups were detected to be essentially lower than the current international standards and were about 1 mSv per year

  20. Examining microbial community response to a strong chemical gradient: the effects of surface coal mining on stream bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, R.; Lindberg, T. T.; Wang, S.; Ellis, J. C.; Di Giulio, R. T.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Surface coal mining is the dominant form of land cover change in northern and central Appalachia. In this process, shallow coal seams are exposed by removing overlying rock with explosives. The resulting fragmented carbonate rock and coal residues are disposed of in stream valleys. These valley fills generate alkaline mine drainage (AlkMD), dramatically increasing alkalinity, ionic strength, substrate supply (esp. SO42-), and trace element (Mn, Li, Se, U) concentrations in downstream rivers as well as significant losses of sensitive fish and macroinvertebrate species. In prior work within the Mud River, which drains the largest surface mine complex in Appalachia, we found that concentrations of AlkMD increase proportionally with the extent of upstream mining. Here we ask "How do stream microbial communities change along this strong chemical gradient?" We collected surface water and benthic biofilms from 25 stream reaches throughout the Mud River spanning the full range of surface mining impacts, with 0-96% of the contributing watershed area converted to surface coal mines. Microbial communities were collected from biofilms grown on a common substrate (red maple veneers) that were incubated in each stream reach for four months prior to collection in April, 2011. 16S rRNA genes from microbial communities at each study site were examined using 454 sequencing and compared with a generalized UniFrac distance matrix (674 sequence eveness) that was used in statistical analyses. Water chemistry at the sites was sampled monthly from July 2010 to December 2010 and again in April 2011. In April, surface water concentrations of SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Se2- increased linearly with the extent of upstream mining (all regressions R2 >0.43; pPERMANOVA; p=0.029). Bacterial diversity (OTU richness defined at 3% sequence difference) peaked at intermediate conductivities (600 μS cm-1). Environmental data that correlated significantly with the ordination axes were a variety of surface

  1. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    OpenAIRE

    Gardić Vojka R.; Petrović Jelena V.; Đurđevac-Ignjatović Lidija V.; Kolaković Srđan R.; Vujović Svetlana R.

    2015-01-01

    Mining and copper production in Bor, in the past hundred years, had a huge impact on the environment of town, but also in a wide region. In the area of Bor, in the zone of Mining and Smelting Company (RTB) activity, over 29,000 ha of land under forests and fields is degraded. The area of degraded agricultural land in the Bor municipality is over 60% of total agricultural land. Wastewater, generated in the sites of RTB Bor, pollute the Bor River and Krivelj ...

  2. Modes of occurrence of fluorine in the Late Paleozoic No. 6 coal from the Haerwusu Surface Mine, Inner Mongolia, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xibo Wang; Shifeng Dai; Yingying Sun; Dan Li; Weiguo Zhang; Yong Zhang; Yangbing Luo [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining

    2011-01-15

    The No. 6 coal from the Haerwusu Surface Mine, Inner Mongolia, China, is enriched in Al and Ga, which are valuable metal resources that could be extracted from fly ash. However, fluorine in the coal is unusually high (mean 286 {mu}g/g) and potentially toxic to the environment in the extraction process. In this paper, a sequential extraction/density separation procedure (SE/DS) was designed to examine the modes of occurrence of fluorine in the coal. The results show that fluorine extracted in distilled water, NH{sub 4}Ac (1 mol/l), and HCl (0.5%) leachates is low, and that in sulfide fraction is below the detection limit. The organic and silicate associations are inferred to account for more than 90% of the total fluorine in the coal. Boehmite and kaolinite are prime carriers of fluorine (the fluorine content in silicate fraction of the boehmite-enriched sample H-14 is up to 1906 {mu}g/g, and that of the kaolinite-enriched sample H-29 is 384 {mu}g/g). In bench samples H-2 and H-3, a minor amount of fluorine is related to goyazite. The relationship between fluorine and boehmite indicates that they were probably derived from the sediment source region, the weathered bauxite of the uplifted Benxi formation. 29 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. RESEARCH PAPERS : Ionospheric signature of surface mine blasts from Global Positioning System measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calais, Eric; Bernard Minster, J.; Hofton, Michelle; Hedlin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Sources such as atmospheric or buried explosions and shallow earthquakes are known to produce infrasonic pressure waves in the atmosphere Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these acoustic and gravity waves induce variations of the ionospheric electron density. The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides a way of directly measuring the total electron content in the ionosphere and, therefore, of detecting such perturbations in the upper atmosphere. In July and August 1996, three large surface mine blasts (1.5 Kt each) were detonated at the Black Thunder coal mine in eastern Wyoming. As part of a seismic and acoustic monitoring experiment, we deployed five dual-frequency GPS receivers at distances ranging from 50 to 200 km from the mine and were able to detect the ionospheric perturbation caused by the blasts. The perturbation starts 10 to 15 min after the blast, lasts for about 30 min, and propagates with an apparent horizontal velocity of 1200 m s- 1. Its amplitude reaches 3 × 1014 el m- 2 in the 7-3 min period band, a value close to the ionospheric perturbation caused by the M=6.7 Northridge earthquake (Calais & Minster 1995). The small signal-to-noise ratio of the perturbation can be improved by slant-stacking the electron content time-series recorded by the different GPS receivers taking into account the horizontal propagation of the perturbation. The energy of the perturbation is concentrated in the 200 to 300 s period band, a result consistent with previous observations and numerical model predictions. The 300 s band probably corresponds to gravity modes and shorter periods to acoustic modes, respectively. Using a 1-D stratified velocity model of the atmosphere we show that linear acoustic ray tracing fits arrival times at all GPS receivers. We interpret the perturbation as a direct acoustic wave caused by the explosion itself. This study shows that even relatively small subsurface events can produce

  4. Yield and nutritive quality of forage legumes on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditsch, D.C.; Collins, M.

    1998-01-01

    Legumes are important in the long-term nitrogen economy of surface mined lands and for establishing and maintaining quality livestock forage. Little information is available to reclamation specialists for use in selection of forage legume species based on productivity potential, persistence and nutritive quality for livestock. A study was initiated at two sites in the Appalachian coal fields of Kentucky to evaluate monocultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) under management regimes suitable for livestock production. Legumes were harvested at the early bloom stage throughout the growing season for dry matter (DM) yield determination. Forage quality was determined by measuring crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose (CEL) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). High DM yields were produced by all species during the first production season (range 6.2-9.2 Mg ha -1 ) but yields of all species declined rapidly by year three. Birdsfoot trefoil demonstrated slightly greater drought tolerance during mid-season (July/August) than alfalfa and red clover. With the exception of site number-sign 1 in 1992 (4 harvests), no more than 3 harvests were made during a single growing season. Crude protein concentration of these forage legumes was found to be within the range commonly measured on undisturbed lands. However, high NDF and ADF values were observed above those reported by others for the same species. These results indicate that it may be difficult to maintain a high level of productivity throughout the five-year bonding period under hay management. Management practices such as summer stockpiling may be necessary to compensate for the rapid and wide fluctuations in DM yield and quality due to low water-holding capacity of mine spoils. 15 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Derived limits for occupational exposure to uranium mine and mill dusts in the air and on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Limits are derived for the concentration of uranium mine and mill dusts in the air based on ICRP30 and assumptions regarding the isotopic make up of the dusts. From these limits using a resuspension factor, limits for surface contamination are derived. Calculations are presented of the dose to the basal layer of the skin from mine and mill dusts on the skin. From these calculations limits for skin contamination are derived. A calculation of a limit based on direct ingestion is also presented. Exposure limits for the public are not considered

  6. Weathering behaviour of overburden-coal ash blending in relation to overburden management for acid mine drainage prevention in coal surface mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautama, R.S.; Kusuma, G.J.; Lestari, I.; Anggana, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Potentially acid forming (PAF) materials are encapsulated with non-acid forming materials (NAF) in order to prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) in surface coal mines. NAF compaction techniques with fly and bottom ashes from coal-fired power plants are used in mines with limited amounts of NAF materials. This study investigated the weathering behaviour of blended overburden and coal combustion ash in laboratory conditions. Free draining column leach tests were conducted on different blending schemes. The weathering process was simulated by spraying the samples with de-ionized water once per day. The leachates were then analyzed using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analyses in order to identify the mineral composition of the samples over a 14 week period. Results of the study indicated that the weathering process plays a significant role in controlling infiltration rates, and may increase the capability of capping materials to prevent infiltration into PAF materials. Fly- and bottom-ash additions improved the performance of the encapsulation materials. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. A fast-multipole domain decomposition integral equation solver for characterizing electromagnetic wave propagation in mine environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2013-07-01

    Reliable and effective wireless communication and tracking systems in mine environments are key to ensure miners\\' productivity and safety during routine operations and catastrophic events. The design of such systems greatly benefits from simulation tools capable of analyzing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in long mine tunnels and large mine galleries. Existing simulation tools for analyzing EM wave propagation in such environments employ modal decompositions (Emslie et. al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 23, 192-205, 1975), ray-tracing techniques (Zhang, IEEE Tran. Vehic. Tech., 5, 1308-1314, 2003), and full wave methods. Modal approaches and ray-tracing techniques cannot accurately account for the presence of miners and their equipments, as well as wall roughness (especially when the latter is comparable to the wavelength). Full-wave methods do not suffer from such restrictions but require prohibitively large computational resources. To partially alleviate this computational burden, a 2D integral equation-based domain decomposition technique has recently been proposed (Bakir et. al., in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. APS, 1-2, 8-14 July 2012). © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Climate and surface water hydrology baseline data for Aurora Mine EIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A climate and hydrology database was assembled to describe the existing climatic and surface water hydrological characteristics of the proposed Aurora Mine area in Leases 10, 12, 13, 31, and 34 east of the Athabasca River near Fort McKay. The study was based upon data available from the regional hydrometeorological monitoring network operated by the Governments of Canada and Alberta. The study also included the installation and monitoring of one climate station and five streamflow gauging stations on small watersheds in the area. The representative climatic and hydrologic characteristics of the area, including precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, temperature and wind, were determined. Streamflow characteristics such as flood frequencies, low flow frequencies, water yield and flow durations representative of large gauged watersheds within the study area were also determined. The results offer a good basis for preliminary design of surface water management systems. It was recommended that the monitoring program should be continued to monitor potential environmental impacts of proposed development activities. 9 refs., 29 tabs., 32 figs.

  9. Work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety outcomes within the iron ore mining environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas W.H. Smit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study of work stressors, job insecurity and union support creates opportunity for iron ore mining organisations to manage job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour more effectively. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour of a sample of iron ore mine workers in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The mining industry in general is often faced with hazardous and physically demanding working environments, where employees work under constant pressure. Work stressors, job insecurity, union support and job satisfaction are considered key variables when investigating effective means of managing safety. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was utilised to collect the data. A convenience sample of employees in the iron ore mining industry of South Africa (N = 260 were included. Structural equation modelling and bootstrapping resampling analysis were used to analyse the data. Main findings: Work stressors and job insecurity were found to be negatively associated with job satisfaction. Conversely, perceived union support was positively associated with job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour. Furthermore, job satisfaction mediated the relationship between union support and safety motivation and behaviour. Practical/managerial implications: Mining organisations can, by placing the focus on reducing work stressors, and promoting job security and union support, achieve higher levels of safety motivation and behaviour through job satisfaction. Contribution/value-add: A great deal of independent research on work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction as well as safety motivation and behaviour has already been done. To date, very little empirical research exists that simultaneously considers all these constructs. This

  10. Breakage mechanics for granular materials in surface-reactive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yida; Buscarnera, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    It is known that the crushing behaviour of granular materials is sensitive to the state of the fluids occupying the pore space. Here, a thermomechanical theory is developed to link such macroscopic observations with the physico-chemical processes operating at the microcracks of individual grains. The theory relies on the hypothesis that subcritical fracture propagation at intra-particle scale is the controlling mechanism for the rate-dependent, water-sensitive compression of granular specimens. First, the fracture of uniaxially compressed particles in surface-reactive environments is studied in light of irreversible thermodynamics. Such analysis recovers the Gibbs adsorption isotherm as a central component linking the reduction of the fracture toughness of a solid to the increase of vapour concentration. The same methodology is then extended to assemblies immersed in wet air, for which solid-fluid interfaces have been treated as a separate phase. It is shown that this choice brings the solid surface energy into the dissipation equations of the granular matrix, thus providing a pathway to (i) integrate the Gibbs isotherm with the continuum description of particle assemblies and (ii) reproduce the reduction of their yield strength in presence of high relative humidity. The rate-effects involved in the propagation of cracks and the evolution of breakage have been recovered by considering non-homogenous dissipation potentials associated with the creation of surface area at both scales. It is shown that the proposed model captures satisfactorily the compression response of different types of granular materials subjected to varying relative humidity. This result was achieved simply by using parameters based on the actual adsorption characteristics of the constituting minerals. The theory therefore provides a physically sound and thermodynamically consistent framework to study the behaviour of granular solids in surface-reactive environments.

  11. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhicao; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Wu, Dun; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Chuncai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  12. INFRASTRUCTURE FOR INTEGRATED DATA ENVIRONMENTS AND ANALYSIS (IIDEA) FOR MINING AND PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, Sean

    2007-06-29

    Almost all the high-production businesses face a problem of having terabytes of data but very little information is extracted from them. Efforts are being made continuously to bring the raw data into a usable format so that the meaningful information can be inferred. Once the knowledge discovery is done, proper action can be taken accordingly. The data mining and process modeling approach are used in many business sectors to better understand the process interactions within production chains by analyzing huge data repositories. A decade of intense investment in information technology by mining companies as resulted in vast quantities of underutilized data. Other industries have undergone fundamental changes through the innovative application of IT and business intelligence. This project was to undertake the investigation of the tools and techniques that would bring such data mining and requisite business processes to the mining industry. Phase I of this project was to establish the research infrastructure for Phase II and to pilot the tools and techniques through the development of an Energy Consumption Model (ECM) to predict the energy consumption in the material handling processes based on the key input variables like distance, elevation, tons hauled etc. Data mining techniques that can extract meaningful information from a raw data is available. The model developed as part of this research is an example of how energy consumption can be estimated from fundamental data.

  13. Optimising post-mining soil conditions to maximise restoration success in a biodiverse semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2014-05-01

    The original topsoil of mine degraded areas is frequently lost or damaged, which together with the absence of soil forming materials is a major constraint for seed germination and establishment in post-mining restoration. Thus, management of the available topsoil and the use of alternative growth media are critical to improve restoration areas disturbed through mining. Here we are developing laboratory and field trials to define the optimal range for physical and chemical properties of potentially suitable natural and 're-made' soil substrates and growth medium for 20 selected native plant species from the mining intensive Pilbara region of Western Australia. In this semiarid area, water is a limiting factor for seedling establishment, which is compounded by the lack of organic matter of post-disturbance soils. Therefore, particular attention is given to indicators of soil biological activity such as soil respiration, and hydrological soil properties such as water holding capacity, infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and soil water repellence. This research is part of a broader multi-study approach, the Restoration Seedbank Initiative project, a partnership between The University of Western Australia, BHP Billiton Iron Ore, and Kings Park and Botanic Garden to develop the science and underpinning knowledge to achieve biodiverse restoration in the Pilbara region, where land areas disturbed by mining exceed 40,000 ha. Achieving restoration success is critical as the Pilbara region is an ancient landscape with diverse geology and high levels of regional and local endemism in plants and animals.

  14. Lignite industry in Greece within a world context: Mining, energy supply and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouridis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Today coal covers 38% of global production and roughly 30% of the EU-25 power output. In 2005 domestic lignite with a share of 60.5% in power generation and accounting about 30% of primary energy consumption is currently the most important indigenous fuel of Greece. Greece, mining 70 Mt annually, is the second lignite producer in the EU and fourth in the world. Approximately 97% of the lignite used to supply the existing lignite-fired power plants of Greece is mined by Public Power Corporation S.A. (PPC). Lignite as the base load fuel gives a competitive strength in PPC's and Greece's fuel mix. Due to lignite consumer prices in Greece are significantly below those in other comparable markets in EU-15. Extraction of lignite has a very long tradition. Significant achievements and large experience which has been gained during many years of mining operations place Greek lignite-mining industry in the leading position in Europe. The paper presents current state of Greek lignite industry, including operating mines, volume of production and other important production indicators as well as improvements in labor productivity and good results in industrial safety. The future of coal and specifically of Greek lignite will be crucially determined by environmentally compatible, i.e. low-CO 2 generation of electricity. Investment in modernization and renewal of the power plant fleet are the key to securing electricity supply and progress in preventing climate change

  15. Design and Testing of the Strain Transducer for Measuring Deformations of Pipelines Operating in the Mining-deformable Ground Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawedzki Waclaw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.

  16. A citation analysis of the research reports of the Central Mining Institute. Mining and Environment using the Web of Science, Scopus, BazTech, and Google Scholar: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Bemke-Switilnik; Aneta Drabek

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of a Polish mining sciences journal (Prace Naukowe GIG. Górnictwo i Środowisko; title in English: Research Reports of the Central Mining Institute. Mining and Environment; acronym in English [RRCMIME]). The analysis is based on data from the following sources: the Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, BazTech (a bibliographic database containing citations from Polish Technical Journals), and Google Scholar (GS). The data from the WoS and Scopus were collected manually...

  17. Erodibility of surface-mine spoil banks in southeastern Ohio : an approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, C D; Studlick, J R.J.

    1979-07-01

    Measurements of accumulated sediment in inter-bank basins of unreclaimed strip mines determined the average annual site loss from unvegetated, 18-year-old spoil banks. Assuming that the universal soil loss equation (USLE) can be used to estimate sediment yield from strip mine slopes, the topographic factor in the USLE was determined in 2 ways, and values for erodibility well calculated. The technique is applicable to unreclaimed mines where inter-bank basins trap all slope-derived sediment.

  18. Long-term effects of surface coal mining on ground-water levels and quality in two small watersheds in eastern Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two small eastern Ohio watersheds surface mined for coal and reclaimed were studied during 1986-89. Water level and water quality data were compared with data from investigations conducted during 1976-83 to determine long-term effects of surface mining on the hydrologic system. Before mining, the watersheds were characterized by flatlying sedimentary rocks above clay beds underlying two major coal seams. Two aquifers overlay each under clay. Surface mining removed the upper aquifer, stripped the coal seam, and replaced the spoil, creating a new aquifer with hydraulic and chemical characteristics different from those of the original upper aquifer. Water levels were measured continuously in one well in each aquifer and every 2 months in other wells. Water levels in upper aquifers reached hydraulic equilibrium from 2 to 5 years after mining and, in middle aquifers, water levels increased more than 5 ft during mining; equilibrium occurred almost immediately thereafter. Water samples were collected from three upper aquifer wells, one middle-aquifer well, a seep from the upper aquifer, and the stream in each watershed. Samples were collected in 1986, 1987, 1988, and 1989. In both watersheds, sulfate replaced bicarbonate as the dominant anion in the upper aquifer after mining. In general, significant increases in concentrations of dissolved constituents in groundwater resulted from surface mining. The continued decrease in pH indicates that groundwater had not reached complete geochemical equilibrium in either watershed more than 8 years after mining ended

  19. Effects of environment pollution on the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se Ji; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Tong, Louis

    2018-04-01

    The twenty-first century is fraught with dangers like climate change and pollution, which impacts human health and mortality. As levels of pollution increase, respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular ailments become more prevalent. Less understood are the eye-related complaints, which are commonly associated with increasing pollution. Affected people may complain of irritation, redness, foreign body sensation, tearing, and blurring of vision. Sources of pollution are varied, ranging from gases (such as ozone and NO 2 ) and particulate matter produced from traffic, to some other hazards associated with indoor environments. Mechanisms causing ocular surface disease involve toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Homeostatic mechanisms of the ocular surface may adapt to certain chronic changes in the environment, so affected people may not always be symptomatic. However there are many challenges associated with assessing effects of air pollution on eyes, as pollution is large scale and difficult to control. Persons with chronic allergic or atopic tendencies may have a pre-existing state of heightened mucosal immune response, hence they may have less tolerance for further environmental antigenic stimulation. It is beneficial to identify vulnerable people whose quality of life will be significantly impaired by environmental changes and provide counter measures in the form of protection or treatment. Better technologies in monitoring of pollutants and assessment of the eye will facilitate progress in this field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Thermodynamics of Selenium Minerals in Near-Surface Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Krivovichev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium compounds are relatively rare as minerals; there are presently only 118 known mineral species. This work is intended to codify and systematize the data of mineral systems and the thermodynamics of selenium minerals, which are unstable (selenides or formed in near-surface environments (selenites, where the behavior of selenium is controlled by variations of the redox potential and the acidity of solutions at low temperatures and pressures. These parameters determine the migration of selenium and its precipitation as various solid phases. All selenium minerals are divided into four groups—native selenium, oxide, selenides, and oxysalts—anhydrous selenites (I and hydrous selenites and selenates (II. Within each of the groups, minerals are codified according to the minimum number of independent elements necessary to define the composition of the mineral system. Eh–pH diagrams were calculated and plotted using the Geochemist’s Workbench (GMB 9.0 software package. The Eh–pH diagrams of the Me–Se–H2O systems (where Me = Co, Ni, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, Ag, Bi, As, Sb, Al and Ca were plotted for the average contents of these elements in acidic waters in the oxidation zones of sulfide deposits. The possibility of the formation of Zn, Cd, Ag and Hg selenites under natural oxidation conditions in near surface environments is discussed.

  1. 3D modeling of surface quarries and deposits of mined materials and the monitoring of slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maňas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of computer technology by simulating opencast mining and deposits of raw materials. The mathematic principles of three-dimensional probabilistic models of raw materials deposits and a familiarization with the user interface software GEOLOGICKY MODEL. The principles of the simulation of opencast mines, generation intersections with models of raw materials deposits, computation of mining materials with the quality scaling,and the design of advanced mining with the software BANSKY MODEL.The monitoring the potential of dynamic movements’ of unstable slopes with the automatic total station and a following interpretation in general time intervals by means of the software MONITORING.

  2. Research on the surface water quality in mining influenced area in north-western part of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smical Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the current situation of the quality of surface water in the areas influenced by mining activities in the north-western part of Romania. In this respect a series of investigations have been conducted regarding the contamination with heavy metals of the water of the Someş and Tisa hydro- graphic Basins, which cover the northern part of Maramures County and the south-western area of Maramures County, respectively. The results of the comparative research refer to the period between 1999 and 2011 and reveal the specific heavy metal ions of mining activity: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb Cd and Ni, as well as the water pH. The presented values as annual average values reveal an increase in several heavy metals after the closure of mines, which is due to the lack of effectiveness of the closure and of the conservation of the mine galleries, as well as of the impaired functioning of the mining wastewater treatment plants.

  3. Geochemical evolution of acidic ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved sulfate and acidity in ground water increase downflow in mine spoil and underlying bedrock at a reclaimed surface coal mine in the bituminous field of western Pennsylvania. Elevated dissolved sulfate and negligible oxygen in ground water from bedrock about 100 feet below the water table suggest that pyritic sulfur is oxidized below the water table, in a system closed to oxygen. Geochemical models for the oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) and production of sulfate (SO42-) and acid (H+) are presented to explain the potential role of oxygen (O2) and ferric iron (Fe3+) as oxidants. Oxidation of pyrite by O2 and Fe3+ can occur under oxic conditions above the water table, whereas oxidation by Fe3+ also can occur under anoxic conditions below the water table. The hydrated ferric-sulfate minerals roemerite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)4·14H2O], copiapite [Fe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2·20H20], and coquimbite [Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O] were identified with FeS2 in coal samples, and form on the oxidizing surface of pyrite in an oxic system above the water table. These soluble ferric-sulfate 11 salts11 can dissolve with recharge waters or a rising water table releasing Fe3+, SO42-. and H+, which can be transported along closed-system ground-water flow paths to pyrite reaction sites where O2 may be absent. The Fe3+ transported to these sites can oxidize pyritic sulfur. The computer programs WATEQ4F and NEWBAL were used to compute chemical speciation and mass transfer, respectively, considering mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions plus mixing of waters from different upflow zones. Alternative mass-balance models indicate that (a) extremely large quantities of O2, over 100 times its aqueous solubility, can generate the observed concentrations of dissolved SO42- from FeS2, or (b) under anoxic conditions, Fe3+ from dissolved ferric-sulfate minerals can oxidize FeS2 along closed-system ground-water flow paths. In a system open to O2, such as in the unsaturated zone, the aqueous

  4. A Survey on Accessing Data over Cloud Environment using Data mining Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    B.Prasanalakshmi; A.Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    In today's world to access the large set of data is more complex, because the data may be structured and unstructured like in the form of text, images, videos, etc., it cannot be controlled from the internet users this is known as Big data. Useful data can be accessed through extracting from big data with the help of data mining algorithms. Data mining is a technique for determine the patterns; classify the data, clustering from the large set of data. In this paper we will discuss how large s...

  5. Post-mining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This plentifully illustrated book aims at showing how new equilibria are building up during the transition between mining activity and post-mining, and at stressing on the necessity to keep up the cultural elements, the competencies and knowledge of mining works. The first chapter - mine and men - shows the importance of mineral substances in the objects of the everyday life, illustrates the importance of the mining tradition in France and describes the technical and administrative organisation of the end of the mining activity (works, rehabilitation, regulation, monitoring..). Chapter two - exploitation methods - presents the surface and underground facilities and their impact on the environment (extraction machines, workshops, ore processing plants, decantation ponds..). The third chapter deals with the rehabilitation and monitoring aspects: impact of mining activity stoppage on underground and surface waters, land stability, soils cleansing.. The last chapter summarizes the history of French mining region by region: Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Lorraine-Alsace, Massif central, Bretagne-Normandie, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur and Pyrenees

  6. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardić Vojka R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining and copper production in Bor, in the past hundred years, had a huge impact on the environment of town, but also in a wide region. In the area of Bor, in the zone of Mining and Smelting Company (RTB activity, over 29,000 ha of land under forests and fields is degraded. The area of degraded agricultural land in the Bor municipality is over 60% of total agricultural land. Wastewater, generated in the sites of RTB Bor, pollute the Bor River and Krivelj River, which still flow into the Timok River and Danube River. These pollutions are often presented by low pH value, increased content of heavy metal ions, suspended particles and fine particles of flotation tailings, which is deposited in the valleys of these rivers on the area of over 2000 hectares. During the decades of exploitation of ore from the open pit Bor at different locations ("Visoki Planir" - also called “Oštreljski planir”, "Severni planir" dump of ore body "H" (RTH gangue and tailings were delayed. The largest amount of tailings, about 150 million tons, was postponed on location Visoki planir. The effect of the mining waste and the impact of the whole process of processing copper ore to the final products on the environment, was conducted during the 4th study period of the project "Management of mining waste-tailing dump in the Bor region," supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion Science (Eng. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Japan international cooperation Agency and the Ministry of environment, Mining and Spatial planning of the Republic of Serbia. Influence of season on the level of pollutants in soil and water, the impact on water quality in the river Timok and the River Danube, was conducted during first three periods of project. This paper presents the results of the third study period. The third period of research, which was conducted over a period of 17. 10. 2012 to 17. 01.2013 year, included a review of pollution sources and define their

  7. Occurrence of Surface Active Agents in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Olkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific structure of surfactants molecules they are applied in different areas of human activity (industry, household. After using and discharging from wastewater treatment plants as effluent stream, surface active agents (SAAs are emitted to various elements of the environment (atmosphere, waters, and solid phases, where they can undergo numerous physic-chemical processes (e.g., sorption, degradation and freely migrate. Additionally, SAAs present in the environment can be accumulated in living organisms (bioaccumulation, what can have a negative effect on biotic elements of ecosystems (e.g., toxicity, disturbance of endocrine equilibrium. They also cause increaseing solubility of organic pollutants in aqueous phase, their migration, and accumulation in different environmental compartments. Moreover, surfactants found in aerosols can affect formation and development of clouds, which is associated with cooling effect in the atmosphere and climate changes. The environmental fate of SAAs is still unknown and recognition of this problem will contribute to protection of living organisms as well as preservation of quality and balance of various ecosystems. This work contains basic information about surfactants and overview of pollution of different ecosystems caused by them (their classification and properties, areas of use, their presence, and behavior in the environment.

  8. Surface-water and groundwater interactions in an extensively mined watershed, upper Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Bartles, Michael D.; Risser, Dennis W.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Streams crossing underground coal mines may lose flow, while abandoned mine drainage (AMD) restores flow downstream. During 2005-12, discharge from the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel, the largest AMD source in the upper Schuylkill River Basin, had near-neutral pH and elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate. Discharge from the tunnel responded rapidly to recharge but exhibited a prolonged recession compared to nearby streams, consistent with rapid infiltration and slow release of groundwater from the mine. Downstream of the AMD, dissolved iron was attenuated by oxidation and precipitation while dissolved CO2 degassed and pH increased. During high-flow conditions, the AMD and downstream waters exhibited decreased pH, iron, and sulfate with increased acidity that were modeled by mixing net-alkaline AMD with recharge or runoff having low ionic strength and low pH. Attenuation of dissolved iron within the river was least effective during high-flow conditions because of decreased transport time coupled with inhibitory effects of low pH on oxidation kinetics. A numerical model of groundwater flow was calibrated using groundwater levels in the Pine Knot Mine and discharge data for the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel and the West Branch Schuylkill River during a snowmelt event in January 2012. Although the calibrated model indicated substantial recharge to the mine complex took place away from streams, simulation of rapid changes in mine pool level and tunnel discharge during a high flow event in May 2012 required a source of direct recharge to the Pine Knot Mine. Such recharge produced small changes in mine pool level and rapid changes in tunnel flow rate because of extensive unsaturated storage capacity and high transmissivity within the mine complex. Thus, elimination of stream leakage could have a small effect on the annual discharge from the tunnel, but a large effect on peak discharge and associated water quality in streams.

  9. Laboratory investigations: Low Earth orbit environment chemistry with spacecraft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jon B.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS2 are also oxidized and that thin protective coatings such as Al2O3 can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO2 from oxidation of MoS2 and CO and CO2 from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity.

  10. Engineering design constraints of the lunar surface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Living and working on the lunar surface will be difficult. Design of habitats, machines, tools, and operational scenarios in order to allow maximum flexibility in human activity will require paying attention to certain constraints imposed by conditions at the surface and the characteristics of lunar material. Primary design drivers for habitat, crew health and safety, and crew equipment are: ionizing radiation, the meteoroid flux, and the thermal environment. Secondary constraints for engineering derive from: the physical and chemical properties of lunar surface materials, rock distributions and regolith thicknesses, topography, electromagnetic properties, and seismicity. Protection from ionizing radiation is essential for crew health and safety. The total dose acquired by a crew member will be the sum of the dose acquired during EVA time (when shielding will be least) plus the dose acquired during time spent in the habitat (when shielding will be maximum). Minimizing the dose acquired in the habitat extends the time allowable for EVA's before a dose limit is reached. Habitat shielding is enabling, and higher precision in predicting secondary fluxes produced in shielding material would be desirable. Means for minimizing dose during a solar flare event while on extended EVA will be essential. Early warning of the onset of flare activity (at least a half-hour is feasible) will dictate the time available to take mitigating steps. Warning capability affects design of rovers (or rover tools) and site layout. Uncertainty in solar flare timing is a design constraint that points to the need for quickly accessible or constructible safe havens.

  11. Influence of the Trojan Nickel Mine on surface water quality, Mazowe valley, Zimbabwe: Runoff chemistry and acid generation potential of waste rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupankwa, Keretia; Love, David; Mapani, Benjamin; Mseka, Stephen; Meck, Maideyi

    The impacts of mining on the environment depend on the nature of the ore body, the type of mining and the size of operation. The focus of this study is on Trojan Nickel Mine which is located 90 km north of Harare, Zimbabwe. It produces nickel from iron, iron-nickel and copper-nickel sulphides and disposes of waste rock in a rock dump. Surface water samples were taken at 11 points selected from a stream which drains the rock dump, a stream carrying underground water and the river into which these streams discharge. Samples were analysed for metals using atomic absorption spectrometry, for sulphates by gravitation and for carbonates and bicarbonates by back titration. Ninteen rock samples were collected from the dump and static tests were performed using the Sobek acid base accounting method. The results show that near neutral runoff (pH 7.0-8.5) with high concentrations of sulphate (over 100 mg/L) and some metals (Pb > 1.0 mg/L and Ni > 0.2 mg/L) emanates from the dump. This suggests that acid mine drainage is buffered in the dump (probably by carbonates). This is supported by the static tests, which show that the fine fraction of dump material neutralises acid. Runoff from the dump flows into a pond. Concentrations of sulphates and metals decrease after the dump runoff enters the pond, but sufficient remains to increase levels of calcium, sulphate, bicarbonate, iron and lead in the Pote River. The drop in concentrations at the pond indicates that the settling process has a positive effect on water quality. This could be enhanced by treating the pond water to raise pH, thus precipitating out metals and decreasing their concentrations in water draining from the pond.

  12. Thermal infrared remote sensing in assessing groundwater and surface-water resources related to Hannukainen mining development site, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Anne B.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti I.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Mining development sites occasionally host complicated aquifer systems with notable connections to natural surface water (SW) bodies. A low-altitude thermal infrared (TIR) imaging survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along the subarctic rivers in the proximity of the Hannukainen mining development area, northern Finland. In addition to TIR data, stable isotopic compositions ( δ 18O, δD) and dissolved silica concentrations were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater (GW) discharge into the river system. Based on the TIR survey, notable GW discharge into the main river channel and its tributaries (61 km altogether) was observed and over 500 GW discharge sites were located. On the basis of the survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers were found to be highly variable. Hydrological and hydrogeological information is crucial in planning and siting essential mining operations, such as tailing areas, in order to prevent any undesirable environmental impacts. The observed notable GW discharge was taken into consideration in the planning of the Hannukainen mining development area. The results of this study support the use of TIR imagery in GW-SW interaction and environmental studies in extensive and remote areas with special concerns for water-related issues but lacking the baseline research.

  13. The effects of peat mining on fluvial fish and their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, A.; Sutela, T.; Heikkinen, K.; Karvonen, K.; Huhta, A.; Mutka, T.; Lappalainen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of peat mining on the quality of the stream bed, benthic fauna and fluvial fish were studied at rifles of the Rivers Iijoki and Kiiminkijoki in 1991-94. The amount of organic matter that accumulated on the bottom increased below peat mining areas. Some shifts were seen also in the composition and density of the benthic fauna. In spite of the increase in the total density of the benthic fauna, the growth of the young salmonids was weaker in the riffles that were affected by peat production. Especially large-sized caddish fly larvae were eaten less and also the stomachs of one- year-old salmon were on the average less full there than in the reference areas. Fish densities varied a lot, and no statistical differences were observed between the loaded and the reference areas. The survival of the stocked 0+ salmon fry, however, decreased along with increasing load from peat mining areas. Below the peat mining areas, also the mortality of the incubated brown trout roe was higher than in the reference areas, most probably because of the siltage of the river bottom

  14. Fault Diagnosis Method for a Mine Hoist in the Internet of Things Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juanli; Xie, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhaojian; Li, Junjie

    2018-06-13

    To reduce the difficulty of acquiring and transmitting data in mining hoist fault diagnosis systems and to mitigate the low efficiency and unreasonable reasoning process problems, a fault diagnosis method for mine hoisting equipment based on the Internet of Things (IoT) is proposed in this study. The IoT requires three basic architectural layers: a perception layer, network layer, and application layer. In the perception layer, we designed a collaborative acquisition system based on the ZigBee short distance wireless communication technology for key components of the mine hoisting equipment. Real-time data acquisition was achieved, and a network layer was created by using long-distance wireless General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) transmission. The transmission and reception platforms for remote data transmission were able to transmit data in real time. A fault diagnosis reasoning method is proposed based on the improved Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) evidence theory, and fault diagnosis reasoning is performed. Based on interactive technology, a humanized and visualized fault diagnosis platform is created in the application layer. The method is then verified. A fault diagnosis test of the mine hoisting mechanism shows that the proposed diagnosis method obtains complete diagnostic data, and the diagnosis results have high accuracy and reliability.

  15. Surface Warfare. Mainstreaming, Mine Warfare. May/June 1998, Vol. 23, No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    grappling with a paper tiger. Nor is it a fleeting thought process — some- thing heard in briefings and filed away in the warrior’s subconscious ...tecting device designed to work with the Quickstrike series of bottom mines. This new TDD can be reprogrammed to enable the Quickstrike mines to

  16. Effects of Small-Scale Gold Mining on Surface and Ground Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    / Prestea mining area in the Western Region of Ghana were conducted with the aim of assessing the possible effects of mining on water quality. Water samples were collected for 6 consecutive months at ten sampling sites within the study area ...

  17. Impact of seismicity on surface in mining affected areas: general description

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2004), s. 35-39 ISSN 1211-1910. [Mining and Environmental geophysics/29./. Sedmihorky, 00.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/03/0078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : seismicity * mining affected areas Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  18. 'It's off to work we go!' Person-environment fit and turnover intentions in managerial and administrative mining personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Rachel; Brough, Paula

    2017-12-14

    Person-environment fit asserts that incompatibility between an employee and aspects of their work environment is more likely to lead to occupational stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact that varying levels of person-environment fit had on key criterion outcomes including work engagement, work-related wellbeing and turnover intentions in a unique sample of managerial and administrative mining personnel. An online self-report survey was distributed to an Australian mining organization by the company's Chief Executive Officer. Anonymous survey links were sent to staff, of which 118 participants responded. The survey consisted of previously validated measures. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed significant relationships between abilities-demand fit, needs-supply fit and work engagement. Additionally, work-related wellbeing was significantly associated with increased person-organization fit and needs-supply fit. However, only needs-supply fit had a significant negative relationship with turnover intentions. Needs-supply fit significantly predicted all criterion variables. This study found that personal need fulfilment through work-related activities had the most significant impact on work-related wellbeing and work engagement. Personal need fulfilment through work also produced the most significant negative relationship with turnover intentions.

  19. Investigating the Relation Between Prevalence of Asthmatic Allergy with the Characteristics of the Environment Using Association Rule Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani Sadat, Y.; Karimipour, F.; Kanani Sadat, A.

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has highly increased in recent decades due to contamination of the environment with the allergy stimuli. A common treat is identifying the allergy stimulus and, then, avoiding the patient to be exposed with it. There are, however, many unknown allergic diseases stimuli that are related to the characteristics of the living environment. In this paper, we focus on the effect of air pollution on asthmatic allergies and investigate the association between prevalence of such allergies with those characteristics of the environment that may affect the air pollution. For this, spatial association rule mining has been deployed to mine the association between spatial distribution of allergy prevalence and the air pollution parameters such as CO, SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 (compiled by the air pollution monitoring stations) as well as living distance to parks and roads. The results for the case study (i.e., Tehran metropolitan area) indicates that distance to parks and roads as well as CO, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 is related to the allergy prevalence in December (the most polluted month of the year in Tehran), while SO2 and O3 have no effect on that.

  20. The influence of subsidence attributable to coal mining on the environment, development and restoration: some examples from western Europe and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, F.G.; Genske, D.D. [University of Natal, Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Geology & Applied Geology

    2001-02-01

    One of the consequences of coal mining is subsidence, and it is associated with past and present mine workings. Indeed, old abandoned coal mines worked by the room-and-pillar method, which occur at shallow depth, often present a potential hazard as pillars collapse or voids migrate to the surface. Frequently, the situation is compounded by the fact that such workings are unrecorded. Subsidence prediction in such cases is impossible. In longwall mining, the total extraction of panels takes place, the working face being supported, while support is removed from behind the working face allowing the roof to collapse. Subsidence consequent on longwall mining can be regarded as more or less contemporaneous with mining and is normally predictable. This means that it is possible to develop an area after subsidence due to longwall mining has occurred or to incorporate features into the design of buildings and structures that will accommodate ground movements generated by subsidence. The nature of subsidence can be affected by discontinuities in the surface strata or the presence of superficial deposits. Of course, subsidence can adversely affect existing buildings and structures which do not incorporate special design features. In severe cases of subsidence damage, buildings may have to be demolished. Important buildings may be restored. Another problem associated with subsidence is flooding due to notable lowering of the ground surface. Examples of such problems and solutions are highlighted by the examples given.

  1. Adaptive optimization as a design and management methodology for coal-mining enterprise in uncertain and volatile market environment - the conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhalchenko, V. V.; Rubanik, Yu T.

    2016-10-01

    The work is devoted to the problem of cost-effective adaptation of coal mines to the volatile and uncertain market conditions. Conceptually it can be achieved through alignment of the dynamic characteristics of the coal mining system and power spectrum of market demand for coal product. In practical terms, this ensures the viability and competitiveness of coal mines. Transformation of dynamic characteristics is to be done by changing the structure of production system as well as corporate, logistics and management processes. The proposed methods and algorithms of control are aimed at the development of the theoretical foundations of adaptive optimization as basic methodology for coal mine enterprise management in conditions of high variability and uncertainty of economic and natural environment. Implementation of the proposed methodology requires a revision of the basic principles of open coal mining enterprises design.

  2. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David G.

    2015-01-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  3. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  4. Min(d)ing the land: The relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining and surface land arrangements in the southern Philippines, eastern DRC and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Cuvelier, J.; Bockstael, S. van

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and surface land tenure arrangements, through a comparison of mining areas in the southern Philippines, the eastern DRC and Liberia. In all three cases, ASM takes place in peripheral regions outside central state

  5. Restoration of intact ground waters and surface waters in the post-mining landscape; Wiederherstellung intakter Grund- und Oberflaechengewaesser nach dem Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Broder; Schipek, Mandy [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Scholz, Guenter; Rabe, Wolfgang; Clauss, Denny [MOVAB-D GmbH, Lauta (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The restoration of the territories of former brown coal mining increasingly requires special efforts for the protection of affected ground waters and surface waters. With newly developed methods (the so-called inlake technology), recently various solutions to neutralize acidic mining lakes could be created. Simultaneously, this improves the water quality of adjacent aquifers at reasonable financial cost.

  6. Stability of metallic copper in the near surface environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amcoff, Oe.; Holenyi, K.

    1992-03-01

    The present study was initiated by the National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN). It may be regarded as a review of the state of the art of copper stability - copper mobility in a low temperature - near surface environment. In the discussion, we have emphasized geological - geochemical milieus that have a direct bearing on the problem of final storage of spent nuclear fuel in copper canisters. The literature review has concentrated on copper in connection with: a. low-temperature environments, and b. Stability-mobility, with particular emphasis on a chloride-rich, sulphur-rich milieu. The possible influence on the present processes of radiolysis and engineered barriers besides copper is not discussed in this report. In order to faciliate the discussion, a number of examples on copper mineral stabilities and copper solubility etc. are given below, based on thermodynamic calculations. These calculations are simplified to a certain degree and the discussion is based on differences in orders of magnitude rather than on exact figures. The thermodynamic foundation for the calculations is given in an appendix. Conclusions and recommendations are outlined in general terms in a separate report. (59 refs.) (au)

  7. Groundwater management for pollution control: a case study for oil shale mining in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erg, K.; Raukas, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Estonia oil shale is produced by underground and surface mining. The excavation methods used cause serious damage to the environment, especially to the topography, which hampers the further use of the mined-out areas. The oil shale mining has a serious impact on the environment also due to the pollution of surface and groundwater by polluted mine drainage waters, lowering of groundwater level, changing of soil properties and high air pollution rate. Decline in mining activities and the introduction of new technologies together with economic measures has improved the situation but much should be done during coming years. (author)

  8. Geoscience of the Built Environment: Pollutants and Materials Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sanjurjo-Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of issues with environmental relevance that arise from the interaction between pollutants and surfaces of the built environment is presented in this paper. Two broad perspectives are considered: decay of materials and recording of pollution characteristics. In relation to the former, we consider the possible implications on human activities restrictions, materials and morphological options, consumption of resources and release of pollutants resulting from the alteration of materials, conservation and restoration procedures. In terms of pollution recording, the interest of the stony materials as passive monitors of pollution, the question of heterogeneous conditions on buildings and the interest of qualitative and quantitative studies are highlighted. The importance of longitudinal studies on new and cleaned surfaces is considered, both for the understanding of materials decay and for the assessment of pollution conditions. The use of tracers to record the characteristics of pollution sources, interaction with materials and pathways of pollutants is also discussed. Finally, some recommendations are presented, based on the issues discussed on this paper that might be relevant for environmental management programs, including environmental education.

  9. Knight Mine reclamation: a study of revegetation difficulties in a semi-arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNearny, R.L.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the difficulties associated with the re-establishment of reclamation vegetation on a dry underground coal mine site in southern Utah, USA, is presented. Precipitation amounts, seed mix, seed bed preparation techniques, and soil properties all appeared to be adequate for vegetation establishment at the site. However, failure of repeated revegetation efforts in a redisturbed area of the mine site may have been due to higher soil salinity levels in the area, which may have given 'Kochia scoparia' an initial competitive advantage. Lack of soil moisture and allelopathic effects due to the dense carpet of 'Kochi' may have also contributed to the continued lack of revegation success. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  10. [Environment spatial distribution of mercury pollution in Songhua River upstream gold mining areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Dan-Dan

    2010-09-01

    Using Zeeman mercury spectrometer RA915+ monitoring the total gaseous mercury concentration were collected from gold mining area in Huadian, in the upper reaches of the Songhua River, during summer and autumn of 2008, where we simultaneously collected samples of air, water, sediment and soil. The research is focused on analyzing of the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of atmospheric mercury pollution and the correlation with other environmental factors. The results show that: the concentration of atmospheric mercury in summer is higher than that in autumn and in the evening is higher than at noon, and it present a gradual decay with the distance to the gold mining area as the center point increasing. The distribution rule of mercury pollution of environmental factors in the gold mining area is: in sediment > in soil > in plant > in water, the characteristics of mercury pollution distribution in plant is: root > stem and leaf, and the content of mercury in plant in autumn is commonly higher than that in summer. This is thought due to the accumulation of pollutant element from soil during the growth of plant. The atmospheric mercury has a significant correlation with the root of plant, respectively 0.83 in summer and 0.97 in autumn.

  11. Description of the physical environment and coal-mining history of west-central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.D.; Crawford, C.G.; Duwelius, R.F.; Renn, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    West-central Indiana is underlain by coal-bearing Pennsylvanian rocks. Nearly all of the area has been glaciated at least once and is characterized by wide flood plains and broad, flat uplands. The most productive aquifers are confined or unconfined outwash aquifers located along the major rivers. Bedrock aquifers are regionally insignificant but are the sole source of groundwater for areas that lack outwash, alluvium, or sand and gravel lenses in till. Indiana has > 17 billion short tons of recoverable coal reserves; about 11% can be mined by surface methods. More than 50,000 acres in west-central Indiana were disturbed by surface coal mining from 1941 through 1980. Ridges of mine spoil have been graded to a gently rolling topography. Soils are well drained and consist of 6 to 12 inches of silt-loam topsoil that was stockpiled and then replaced over shale and sandstone fragments of the graded mine spoil. Grasses and legumes form the vegetative cover in each watershed. Pond Creek and the unnamed tributary to Big Branch are streams that drain mined and unreclaimed watersheds. Approximately one-half of the Pond Creek watershed is unmined,agricultural land. Soils are very well drained shaly silty loams that have formed on steeply sloping spoil banks. Both watersheds contain numerous impoundments of water and have enclosed areas that do not contribute surface runoff to streamflow. The ridges of mine spoil are covered with pine trees, but much of the soil surface is devoid of vegetation

  12. Proactive mining system in potosi silver mines : new information from re-evaluation of historical materials regarding the fifth viceroy toledo’s various policies on environment

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Emako; Anezaki, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the proactive mining system introduced by the fifth viceroy, Francisco de Toledo (1569–1581) to the Potosi Silver Mine is clarified on the facts found in the historical documents. Main policies in Toledo’s mining business are followings, the application of mercury-amalgamation to extract silver from ores, the construction of the hydraulic-powered system for silver-ore crashing with cascading uses, the recycle system included the extraction of silver from waste ores and collecti...

  13. Integrated method of RS and GPR for monitoring the changes in the soil moisture and groundwater environment due to underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhengfu; Lei, Shaogang; Inyang, Hilary I.; Chang, Luqun; Zhang, Richen; Zhou, Chengjun; He, Xiao

    2009-03-01

    Mining affects the environment in different ways depending on the physical context in which the mining occurs. In mining areas with an arid environment, mining affects plants’ growth by changing the amount of available water. This paper discusses the effects of mining on two important determinants of plant growth—soil moisture and groundwater table (GWT)—which were investigated using an integrated approach involving a field sampling investigation with remote sensing (RS) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). To calculate and map the distribution of soil moisture for a target area, we initially analyzed four models for regression analysis between soil moisture and apparent thermal inertia and finally selected a linear model for modeling the soil moisture at a depth 10 cm; the relative error of the modeled soil moisture was about 6.3% and correlation coefficient 0.7794. A comparison of mined and unmined areas based on the results of limited field sampling tests or RS monitoring of Landsat 5-thermatic mapping (TM) data indicated that soil moisture did not undergo remarkable changes following mining. This result indicates that mining does not have an effect on soil moisture in the Shendong coal mining area. The coverage of vegetation in 2005 was compared with that in 1995 by means of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) deduced from TM data, and the results showed that the coverage of vegetation in Shendong coal mining area has improved greatly since 1995 because of policy input RMB¥0.4 per ton coal production by Shendong Coal Mining Company. The factor most affected by coal mining was GWT, which dropped from a depth of 35.41 m before mining to a depth of 43.38 m after mining at the Bulianta Coal Mine based on water well measurements. Ground-penetrating radar at frequencies of 25 and 50 MHz revealed that the deepest GWT was at about 43.4 m. There was a weak water linkage between the unsaturated zone and groundwater, and the decline of water table

  14. AfricaArray International Geophysics Field School: Applications of Near Surface Geophysics to challenges encountered in mine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S. J.; Jones, M. Q.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.; Snyman, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Hard rock exploration and mining presents many opportunities for the effective use of near surface geophysics. For over 10 years the AfricaArray international geophysics field school has been hosted at a variety of mines in South Africa. While the main objective of the field school is practical training for the next generation of geophysicists, being hosted at a mine has allowed us to investigate applications of near surface geophysics in the early stages of mine planning and development as geophysics is often cheaper and faster than drilling. Several applications include: detailed delineation of dykes and stringer dykes, physical property measurements on drill core for modeling and marker horizons, determination of overburden thickness, locations of water and faults. Dolerite dykes are usually magnetic and are associated with loss of ground (i.e. where the dyke replaces the ore and thus reduces the amount of ore available) and safety/stability concerns. Thus the accurate mapping of dykes and narrow stringers that are associated with them are crucial to the safe planning of a mine. We have acquired several case studies where ground magnetic surveys have greatly improved on the resolution and detail of airborne magnetic surveys in regions of complicated dyke swarms. In many cases, thin stringer dykes of less than 5 cm have been detected. Physical property measurements of these dykes can be used to distinguish between different ages of dykes. It is important to accurately determine overburden thickness when planning an open pit mine as this directly affects the cost of development. Depending on the nature of the overburden, both refraction seismic and or DC resistivity can provide continuous profiling in the area of interest that fills in gaps between boreholes. DC resistivity is also effective for determining water associated with dykes and structures that may affect mine planning. The field school mainly addresses the training of a variety of students. The core

  15. Longwall mining and surface deformation – lessons learned from dInSAR measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, Jeanine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available including 1) subsidence related to mining and groundwater abstraction, 2) deformation following earthquake events, 3) monitoring of landslides and slope stability, 4) monitoring the stability of infrastructure and large engineering works, and 5) monitoring...

  16. Behavior of Ra-226 and Pb-210 in the aquatical environment of the first Brazilian uranium mine and mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.P.; Amaval, E.C.S.; Stoffel, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The first Brazilian uranium mine and mill will start operation in 1981, on the Pocos de Caldas plateau, in the central state of Minas Gerais. The pre-operational environmental survey indicated that the critical radionuclides in the region will be: 226 Ra due to the tailing pond liquid effluent and 21 Pb produced via 222 Rn dispersion, natural fall-out and accumulation on the ground. Sorption and desorption studies of 226 Ra and 210 Pb on their interaction with local water, suspended matter and sediments have been carried out in the laboratory to understand their behavior in the regional aquatic environment. The laboratory experiments gave indications that, in the aquatic environment of Pocos de Caldas, 210 Pb should remain mostly sorbed on bottom sediments. Its transport should occur essentially bound to suspended matter. By contrast, 226 Ra should be transported mostly in the soluble form

  17. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist

  18. Health Risks to Children and Adults Residing in Riverine Environments where Surficial Sediments Contain Metals Generated by Active Gold Mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Frederick Ato; Gyeabour, Elvis Kyere

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of metal pollution in the sediment from rivers, lakes, and streams in active gold mining districts in Ghana. Two hundred and fifty surface sediment samples from 99 locations were collected and analyzed for concentrations of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Mn using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations were then used to assess the human health risks to resident children and adults in central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) scenarios. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As were almost twice the threshold values established by the Hong Kong Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG). Hg, Cu, and Cr concentrations in sediment were 14, 20, and 26 times higher than the Canadian Freshwater Sediment Guidelines for these elements. Also, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, and Hg were 3, 11, 12, and 16 times more than the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) sediment guideline values. The results of the human health risk assessment indicate that for ingestion of sediment under the central tendency exposure (CTE) scenario, the cancer risks for child and adult residents from exposure to As were 4.18 × 10(-6) and 1.84 × 10(-7), respectively. This suggests that up to 4 children out of one million equally exposed children would contract cancer if exposed continuously to As over 70 years (the assumed lifetime). The hazard index for child residents following exposure to Cr(VI) in the RME scenario was 4.2. This is greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold of 1, indicating that adverse health effects to children from exposure to Cr(VI) are possible. This study demonstrates the urgent need to control industrial emissions and the severe heavy metal pollution in gold mining environments.

  19. Proceedings of the 15. annual national meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation. Mining -- Gateway to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throgmorton, D.; Nawrot, J.; Mead, J.; Galetovic, J.; Joseph, W.

    1998-01-01

    The 124 papers of these proceedings are arranged under the following topical sections: Minerals education; Hydrology--Characterization and monitoring; Tailings--Reclamation; Reforestation; Mine drainage--Biogeochemical processes; Mine drainage--Treatment, general; Mine drainage--Passive treatment, wetlands; Mine drainage--Prediction and monitoring; Acid soils--Reclamation practices; Wildlife and fisheries habitat; Subsidence--Engineering practices and environmental effects; OSM acid forming materials mini workshops; RUSLE--Erosion prediction techniques on mined construction and reclaimed lands; IDNR wetlands technology transfer program; Mine planning and postmining land use; Vegetation establishment--Principles and practices; Vegetation establishment--Warm season grasses; Coal combustion by-products--General; Coal combustion by-products--Mine drainage treatment; and Prime farmland reclamation and mine soils management. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  20. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: An explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Balboa, C.; Baselga-Cervera, B. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Sanchez, A.; Igual, J.M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), PO Box 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Lopez-Rodas, V. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, E., E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Some microalgae species survive to extreme environments in ponds of residual waters from uranium mining. •Adaptation of microalgae to U arose very fast. •Spontaneous mutations that confer large adaptive value were able to produce the adaptation to residual waters of U mining. •Adaptation to more extreme waters of U mining is only possible after the recombination subsequent to sexual mating. •Resistant microalgae bio-adsorbs uranium to the cell wall and internalises uranium inside the cytoplasm. -- Abstract: Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These “lucky mutants” could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change.

  1. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: An explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Balboa, C.; Baselga-Cervera, B.; García-Sanchez, A.; Igual, J.M.; Lopez-Rodas, V.; Costas, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Some microalgae species survive to extreme environments in ponds of residual waters from uranium mining. •Adaptation of microalgae to U arose very fast. •Spontaneous mutations that confer large adaptive value were able to produce the adaptation to residual waters of U mining. •Adaptation to more extreme waters of U mining is only possible after the recombination subsequent to sexual mating. •Resistant microalgae bio-adsorbs uranium to the cell wall and internalises uranium inside the cytoplasm. -- Abstract: Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These “lucky mutants” could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change

  2. Mine water pollution - acid mine decant, effluent and treatment: a consideration of key emerging issues that may impact the State of the Environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available into the implications of extending coal mining in that region. 1 0 ? On 6 December 2006 the NSW Govern ment established an independent inquiry into underground coal mining in the Southern Coalfield. 1 1 ? On 5 Febr uary 2007 the NSW Gover nme nt appointed...

  3. The influence of deep mining damping on the processes in lithosphere and environment. Příbram uranium deposit after termination of mining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinec, Petr; Brož, Milan; Rudajev, Vladimír; Číž, Radim; Vencovský, Miloš; Živor, Roman

    -, č. 14 (2005), s. 43-49 ISSN 1214-9691 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS3086005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : uranium industry * underground exploitation Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  4. Absenteeism and accidents in a dangerous environment: empirical analysis of underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, P.S.; Garber, S.

    1988-02-01

    The study examined the effects or consequences of absenteeism on accidents. Data were gathered from production crews in five underground coal mines. A unique data set was created that traced on a daily basis the absence event, the company's policy on replacement, and the occurrence of an accident. The concept of familiarity was introduced to explain the impact of absenteeism on accidents. The basic data showed that absenteeism increased the chances for accidents in certain categories of unfamiliarity. Implications for manpower policy and absentee research are discussed. 4 tabs., 6 refs.

  5. Application of borehole radar to South Africa’s Ultra-Deep gold mining environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trickett, JC

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available ), the collar of which is located at a depth of 3.3 km below datum1. LIB boreholes are used to probe totally undeveloped blocks of ground and, being semi-parallel to reef, are ideal for the application of Borehole Radar. By applying Borehole Radar from... the target reef; viz. 1 For the Witwatersrand Basin Gold Mines, the datum is ? 1829 m above sea level. Ventersdorp Contact Reef (VCR), twice. It was drilled at 45? downwards into the hangingwall...

  6. Determination of Seismic Safety Zones during the Surface Mining Operation Development in the Case of the “Buvač” Open Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Malbasic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the blasting safety area is a very important step in the process of drilling and blasting works, and the preparation of solid rock materials for loading. Through monitoring and analysis of the negative seismic effects to the objects and infrastructures around and at the mine area, we were able to adapt the drilling and blasting parameters and organization of drilling and blasting operation according to the mining progress so that the affected infrastructures could be protected. This paper analyses the safety distances and model safety zones of drilling and blasting for the period 2013–2018 at the open pit at “Buvač”, Omarska. This mathematical calculation procedure can be used during the whole life of the mine. By monitoring of the blasting seismic influence in first years of the mine's work, as well as by using recorded vibration velocities, mathematical dependence of the important parameters can be defined. Additionally, the level and laws of distribution and intensity of the seismic activity can be defined. On one hand, those are known quantities of the explosive and the distances between blasting location and endangered objects. On the other hand, those are coefficients of the manner of blasting and the environment where blasting is done, K, as well as the coefficient of the weakening of seismic waves as they spread, n. With the usage of the allowed vibration velocities, based on certain safety criteria and mathematical formulas of laws of spreading and intensity of seismic influence for a concrete case, it is possible to calculate explosive quantities and distances, with numerically-defined values of parameter K and n. Minimum distances are calculated based on defined or projected explosive quantities. Additionally, we calculate the maximum allowed explosive quantities based on known distances which can be used based on projected drilling-blasting parameters. For the purpose of the planning of drilling and blasting

  7. Evaluating the Use of Tree Shelters for Direct Seeding of Castanea on a Surface Mine in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available American chestnut (Castanea dentata, once a primary constituent of the eastern hardwood forest ecosystem, was nearly extirpated from the forest canopy by the accidental introduction of chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica. An intensive breeding program has sought to breed blight resistance from Chinese chestnut into American chestnuts, while maintaining as much of the desirable American chestnut phenotypes as possible. Previous studies suggest that these blight resistant American chestnuts, termed “restoration chestnuts”, are capable of thriving on reclaimed surface mines. We direct seeded pure Chinese, pure American, and three backcross lines into brown sandstone minesoil on a mine site in Pike County, KY. To investigate the effects of tree sheltering on survival and growth, we installed tree shelters on half the plots, and left the rest of the plots unsheltered. Results indicated that shelters were highly effective at reducing initial mortality. In addition, while pure Chinese chestnut survival was highest, the three backcross lines have also survived well on this site. Our study demonstrates that American, Chinese, and backcrossed chestnuts can survive through five growing seasons on reclaimed surface mines with the use of tree shelters.

  8. Droplet Impact on a Heated Surface under a Depressurized Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    Behavior of a water droplet of the diameter 1-3mm impacting on a heated surface under depressurized environment (100kPa -1kPa) has been studied. A syringe pump for droplet generation and a heated plate are set into a transparent acrylic vacuum chamber. The internal pressure of the chamber is automatically controlled at a target pressure with a rotary pump, a pressure transducer, and an electrical valve. A silicon wafer of the thickness 0.28 mm is mounted on the heater plate, whose temperature is directly measured by attaching a thermocouple on the backside. The droplet behavior is captured using a high-speed camera in a direction perpendicular to droplet velocity. Some unique behaviors of droplet are observed by decreasing the environmental pressure, which are considered to be due to two basic elements: Enhancement of evaporation due to the lowered saturation temperature, and shortage of pneumatic spring effect between the droplet and heated wall due to the lowered pressure of the air.

  9. Acidophilic algae isolated from mine-impacted environments and their roles in sustaining heterotrophic acidophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barrie Johnson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two acidophilic algae, identified as strains of Chlorella protothecoides var. acidicola and Euglena mutabilis, were isolated in pure culture from abandoned copper mines in Spain and Wales and grown in pH- and temperature-controlled bioreactors. The Chlorella isolate grew optimally at pH 2.5 and 30 ˚C, with a corresponding culture doubling time of 9 hours. The isolates displayed similar tolerance (10-50 mM to four transition metals tested. Growth of the algae in liquid media was paralleled with increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Glycolic acid was identified as a significant component (12- 14% of total DOC. Protracted incubation resulted in concentrations of glycolic acid declining in both cases, and glycolic acid added to a culture of Chlorella incubated in the dark was taken up by the alga (~100% within three days. Two monosaccharides were identified in cell-free liquors of each algal isolate: fructose and glucose (Chlorella, and mannitol and glucose (Euglena. These were rapidly metabolised by acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria (Acidiphilium and Acidobacterium spp. though only fructose was utilised by the more fastidious heterotroph Acidocella aromatica. The significance of algae in promoting the growth of iron- (and sulfate- reducing heterotrophic acidophiles that are important in remediating mine-impacted waters is discussed.

  10. Investigation of the connection between surface water and underground water from mine Cacova-Ierii, using activable tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinescu, L.; Domocos, V.; Craciun, St.

    1985-01-01

    Two tracers, indium in the form of In-EDTA complex and 82 Br were simultaneously used in mining hydrology studies. The water samples were passed through an ion exchange column retaining the other disturbing elements, such as Mn, Cl, Na, K etc. Indium was coprecipitated with bismuth hydroxide and determined by NAA. Ten samples of precipitate in plastic bags, wrapped in Al foil, and the standard were irradiated simultaneously for 20 minutes by 10 13 n/cm 2 s neutron flux in the VVR-S reactor, and measured immeadiately after irradiation. Measurements were performed with a Ge(Li) detector and ND-6620 data acquisition and processing system. Measuring time was 200 s. The desintegration correction was taken into account for concentration calculations. Bromine 82 was determined by ''in situ'' measurements with scintillation probe. The connection between surface water and underground Cacova-Ierii mine water was proved, and data regarding the velocity and circulation were obtained

  11. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ping

    Full Text Available Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  12. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jianhua; Yan, Shiyan; Gu, Pan; Wu, Zening; Hu, Caihong

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  13. Installation of a permeable reactive barrier at the mining complex facility in Los Gigantes - Cordoba : Monitoring plan of surface and underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande Cobian, Juan D.; Sanchez Proano, Paula; Cicerone, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission declares under its Environmental policy the commitment to restore those sites where activities concerning Uranium mining were developed. It makes it beyond the scope of the Project of Environmental Restitution of the Uranium Mining (PRAMU from its Spanish abbreviation). The Chemistry of Water and Soil Division at the Environmental Chemistry and Energy Generation Department belonging to the Chemistry Management Office assist the PRAMU on the installation of an hydroxyapatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) inside the Mining Complex facility placed at Los Gigantes in the Argentine province of Cordoba (in advance named the site). Among the preliminary assessment activities that are being carried out before the installation of the PRB, it has been prepared a monitoring program of surface water and groundwater useful to develop an environmental baseline suitable for the efficiency assessment of the corrective action to be applied. An exploratory campaign was conducted in the site with the aim of establishing a monitoring net of meteorological and hydrological, as well as physical, chemical and biological parameters in matrixes of sediments, water and suspended particulate matter collected on a regular time basis from its surface water and groundwater bodies. The processed results turn into useful environmental information to: a) determine the status of the environmental baseline of the site, b) establish a water quality index (WQI) to manage the natural resource quality according to a rational basis, c) plan experiments related to the design process of a biogenic hydroxyapatite PRB and d) apply chemometric and mechanistic models to forecast the contaminants mobilization through different scenarios and improve the engineering design of the PRB. Once achieved the hydrogeological characterisation of the site and taking into account the originality of the system the following results have been reached: 1) The boundaries of

  14. Effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Otter Creek and in the Otter Creek alluvial aquifer, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Otter Creek drains an area of 709 square miles in the coal-rich Powder River structural basin of southeastern Montana. The Knobloch coal beds in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is a shallow aquifer and a target for future surface mining in the downstream part of the Otter Creek basin. A mass-balance model was used to estimate the effects of potential mining on the dissolved solids concentration in Otter Creek and in the alluvial aquifer in the Otter Creek valley. With extensive mining of the Knobloch coal beds, the annual load of dissolved solids to Otter Creek at Ashland at median streamflow could increase by 2,873 tons, or a 32-percent increase compared to the annual pre-mining load. Increased monthly loads of Otter Creek, at the median streamflow, could range from 15 percent in February to 208 percent in August. The post-mining dissolved solids load to the subirrigated part of the alluvial valley could increase by 71 percent. The median dissolved solids concentration in the subirrigated part of the valley could be 4,430 milligrams per liter, compared to the pre-mining median concentration of 2,590 milligrams per liter. Post-mining loads from the potentially mined landscape were calculated using saturated-paste-extract data from 506 overburdened samples collected from 26 wells and test holes. Post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley likely would continue at increased rates for hundreds of years after mining. If the actual area of Knobloch coal disturbed by mining were less than that used in the model, post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley would be proportionally smaller. (USGS)

  15. The effect of mining on landscape ecological systems and land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stys, S.

    1991-01-01

    Coal mining causes serious disturbance of the environment. Basic principles for the reclamation of affected territories are discussed. The effects of mining on the socio-ecological landscape system, the agricultural and forestry aspects of reclamation technologies after surface mining and the factors affecting the way of reclamation are shown in a diagrammatic form. The attached photographs document the effect of mining on landscape devastation. (M.D.). 17 figs

  16. Effects of uranium mining and milling on surface water in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandvold, L.L.; Brandvold, D.K.; Popp, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Currently, there are 35 active mines, 5 mills and 4 ion exchange plants in the Grants area. There was a general increase in uranium and vanadium with time over the San Jose and Puerco System. This doesn't appear to be related to any individual discharge but most likely reflects the general increase in activity in the area. As mining continues, this increase is expected to continue. The project reported here involved determining physical and chemical parameters of the water in the San Jose-Puerco system in New Mexico between March 1978 and September 1980. 14 refs

  17. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within 1,000...

  18. Economics of mine water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáček, Jaroslav; Vidlář, Jiří; Štěrba, Jiří; Heviánková, Silvie; Vaněk, Michal; Barták, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Mine water poses a significant problem in lignite coal mining. The drainage of mine water is the fundamental prerequisite of mining operations. Under the legislation of the Czech Republic, mine water that discharges into surface watercourse is subject to the permission of the state administration body in the water management sector. The permission also stipulates the limits for mine water pollution. Therefore, mine water has to be purified prior to discharge. Although all...

  19. Iron oxides in acid mine drainage environments and their association with bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, F G; Tazaki, K; Fyfe, W S

    1989-01-20

    A variety of iron oxides were identified by X-ray diffraction in sediments receiving acid drainage from mine tailing and coal refuse impoundments. Small amounts of goethite and hematite were found in the sediment samples. However, the major iron oxide species was ferrihydrite which gave diffuse diffraction bands at angles corresponding to d2.5, 2.2 and 1.5 Angstrom. Main core line binding energies in Fe (2p) and O (1s) X-ray photoelectron spectra were consistent with the hydrous nature and predominance of ferrihydrite. Electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also showed that individual bacterial cells promoted the development of iron oxide mineralization. The bacterial associated iron oxides were similar to those in the bulk sediment samples, and exhibited structures conforming to the presence of chemisorbed sulfate or silicate anions. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Metal-containing residues from industry and in the environment: geobiotechnological urban mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glombitza, Franz; Reichel, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explains the manifold geobiotechnological possibilities to separate industrial valuable metals from various industrial residues and stored waste products of the past. In addition to an overview of the different microbially catalyzed chemical reactions applicable for a separation of metals and details of published studies, results of many individual investigations from various research projects are described. These concern the separation of rare earth elements from phosphorous production slags, the attempts of tin leaching from mining flotation residues, the separation of metals from spent catalysts, or the treatment of ashes as valuable metal-containing material. The residues of environmental technologies are integrated into this overview as well. The description of the different known microbial processes offers starting points for suitable and new technologies. In addition to the application of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms the use of heterotrophic microorganisms is explained.

  1. Advanced Connectivity Analysis (ACA): a Large Scale Functional Connectivity Data Mining Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Nixon, Erika; Herskovits, Edward

    2016-04-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to study functional connectivity is of great importance to understand normal development and function as well as a host of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Seed-based analysis is one of the most widely used rs-fMRI analysis methods. Here we describe a freely available large scale functional connectivity data mining software package called Advanced Connectivity Analysis (ACA). ACA enables large-scale seed-based analysis and brain-behavior analysis. It can seamlessly examine a large number of seed regions with minimal user input. ACA has a brain-behavior analysis component to delineate associations among imaging biomarkers and one or more behavioral variables. We demonstrate applications of ACA to rs-fMRI data sets from a study of autism.

  2. Mining and environment: a case study of the Lish-Gish basins of the eastern Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.R.; Ghatowar, Likhaneswar

    1990-01-01

    This paper calls for attention to the effects of the unscientific quarrying operations in the coal-fields of the Lish-Gish Basin which have continued intermittently since 1896. The sudden abandonment of the mining operation in 1965, taking least concern of the scars formed due to the extraction of coal have disturbed the natural equilibrium in slopes. This has already taken its toll in the form of disastrous landslips. All these, in turn, incapacitate the rivers pouring in too much detritus which raise the river-beds alarmingly (50 cm. per year) and aggravate the flood situation in times of high rainfall. Immediate steps should therefore, be taken to prevent such unhealthy and destructive processes and specially, in view of the recent attempt by the government of West Bengal, to restart the quarry operations in near future, in order to cope with the longstanding fuel demand of the local inhabitants. (author). 7 refs

  3. Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semi-arid weathering environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah M.; O’Day, Peggy A.; Webb, Sam M.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semi-arid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6,000 to 450 mg kg−1) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg−1) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and micro-focused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn0.8talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (ZnadsFeOx), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly-crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Micro-scale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn2O4), hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2·H2O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and micro-focused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multi-method approach to interrogate complex tailings systems. PMID:21761897

  4. Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semiarid weathering environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah M; O'Day, Peggy A; Webb, Sam M; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon

    2011-09-01

    High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semiarid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6000 to 450 mg kg(-1)) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg(-1)) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and microfocused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn(0.8)talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (Zn(adsFeOx)), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4) · 7H(2)O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Microscale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn(2)O(4)), hemimorphite (Zn(4)Si(2)O(7)(OH)(2) · H(2)O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and microfocused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multimethod approach to interrogate complex tailings systems.

  5. Mechanisms of interfacial reactivity in near surface and extreme environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Balaska, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weare, John [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Fulton, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bogatko, Stuart [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Balasubramanian, Mahalingam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cauet, Emilie [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Kerisit, Sebastien [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Felmy, Andrew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schenter, Gregory [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weare, Jonathan [U of Chicago

    2017-01-09

    +, Co2+, Mn2+, Fe3+, Cr3+. Calculations on these systems are demanding because of their open electronic shells, and high ionic charge. Principal Investigator: Professor John Weare (University of California, San Diego) The prediction of the interactions of geochemical fluids with minerals, nanoparticles, and colloids under extreme near surface conditions of temperature (T) and pressure (P) is a grand challenge research need in geosciences (U.S. DOE 2007, Basic Research Needs for Geosciences: Facilitating the 21st Energy Systems.). To evaluate the impact of these processes on energy production and management strategies it is necessary to have a high level of understanding of the interaction between complex natural fluids and mineral formations. This program emphasizes 1st principle parameter free simulations of complex chemical processes in solutions, in the mineral phase, and in the interfaces between these phases The development of new computational tools (with emphasis on oxide materials and reaction dynamics) tailored to treat wide range of conditions and time scales experienced in such geochemical applications is has been developed. Because of the sensitivity of the interaction in these systems to electronic structure and local bonding environments, and of the need to describe bond breaking/formation, our simulations are based on interactions calculated at the electronic structure level (ab-initio molecular dynamics, AIMD). The progress in the computational aspects of program may be summarized in terms of the following themes (objectives); Development of efficient parameter free dynamical simulation technology based on 1st principles force and energy calculations especially adapted for geochemical applications (e.g., mineral, interfaces and aqueous solutions) (continuing program); Calculation of the dynamics of water structure of in the surface-water interface of transition metal oxides and oxihydroxides; and

  6. Ostreococcus tauri Luminescent Reporter Lines as Biosensors for Detecting Pollution From Copper-Mine Tailing Effluents in Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henríquez-Castillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton cells are excellent biosensors for environmental monitoring and toxicity assessments in different natural systems. Green algae, in particular, appear to be more responsive to copper (Cu disturbances. This is interesting considering that Cu pollution in coastal environments has increased over the last century, with enormous repercussions to marine ecosystems. Unfortunately, no high-throughput method exists for the environmental monitoring of Cu toxicity in seawater. To assess potential uses as biosensors of Cu pollution, high-throughput screening was performed on five luminescence reporter lines constructed in the green algae Ostreococcus tauri RCC745. The reporter line expressing the iron storage ferritin protein fused to luciferase (Fer-Luc was the most sensitive, responding to Cu concentrations in the μM range. Fer-Luc was also the most sensitive reporter line for detecting toxicity in mining-derived polluted seawater predominantly contaminated by soluble Cu. Nevertheless, the Cyclin-Dependent-Kinase A (CDKA reporter was most suitable for detecting the toxicity of copper-mine tailing effluents containing other metals (e.g., iron. These results highlight that Ostreococcus biosensors can serve as a reliable, inexpensive, and automated, high-throughput laboratory approach for performing seawater analyses of coastal areas subjected to metal disturbances. When challenged with Cu, O. tauri not only evidenced a rapid, transcriptional response for the tested genes, but also showed changes in a broad range of genes, especially as related to the stress response. Overall, the obtained results reinforce that a single biosensor is insufficient when dealing with complex mixtures of toxic compounds in natural environments.

  7. Optimizing Transport in Surface Mines, Taking into Account the Quality of Extracted Raw Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Šofranko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This articles concerns problemacy of appropriate separation of transporting mechanisms for mining minerals from individulalteritories. In the following sections of the article a model solution is presented with the use of newly created program for optimizationof transport, taking into account the required quality of extracted raw ore. This process is being done through computing analysisand programming language Borland C++ Builder

  8. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS FOR SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF MINING § 785.11... following standards apply to applications for and issuance of permits: (1) In lieu of the requirements of 30... 3, 1977, is amended with respect to environmental protection performance standards, the Secretary...

  9. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  10. Elliot Lake study: factors affecting the uranium mine working environment prior to the introduction of current ventilation practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    A study was carried out to assist in the retrospective assessment of the underground environment that existed in the Elliot Lake uranium mines in the late 1950's and early 1960's. The environmental conditions and work practices of the late 1950's were established by a combination of literature review and interviews with veteran miners. The practices of the 1950's were imitated in a pilot raise, and extensive measurements of the radiation environment were made. Realistic values of radon and thoron daughter production and removal rates were obtained. The computer model demonstrated that it could reproduce all the observed features of the radiation environment given realistic input parameters. A realistic time and space dependent computer model was used to calculate and compare the average expsoure of the miner in the 1950's with the exposure that would be expected from contemporary measurements, and with that of the miner today. The calculated exposure is about half of that expected from contemporary measurements, which gives assurance that previous exposures for pilot raise miners were not underestimated. Relative to today's miner, the average exposure of the typical raise miner of the 1950's is estimated as three times higher for radon daughters, equal for thoron daughters, equal for exposure to gamma radiation, but much higher for uranium and quartz dust

  11. Formation of hydroxyl radical (sm-bulletOH) in illuminated surface waters contaminated with acidic mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.M.; Lucas, S.; Allen, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    Formation rates and steady-state concentrations of hydroxyl radical ( sm-bullet OH) in illuminated surface water samples collected in west-central Indiana that receive acidic mine drainage runoff are reported. Formation rates for sm-bullet OH in samples were measured by the addition of 1 x 10 -3 M benzene prior to illuminate in order to effectively scavenge all of the sm-bullet OH formed, thereby yielding phenol. The sm-bullet OH formation rates were calculated from the measured phenol formation rates. Steady-state concentrations of sm-bullet OH were measured by the addition of 5 x 10 -7 M nitrobenzene to the samples prior to illumination. Estimated sunlight sm-bullet OH formation rates range from 16 microM h -1 to 265 microM h -1 . Estimated sunlight steady-state sm-bullet OH concentrations range from 6.7 x 10 -15 to 4.0 x 10 -12 M. Both the formation rates and steady-state concentrations for sm-bullet OH are thus two to three orders of magnitude higher than values reported in the literature for other sunlit surface water samples. Due to the very high rates of formation and steady-state concentrations for sm-bullet OH in these samples, the authors conclude that aqueous-phase reactions involving sm-bullet OH represent a significant pathway by which organic pollutants in illuminated surface waters receiving acidic mine drainage runoff may be consumed

  12. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. I t is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

  13. Determination of granite rock massif weathering and cracking of surface layers in the oldest parts of medieval mine depending on used mining method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 381-395 ISSN 0860-7001 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Jeroným Mine * non-destructive testing * granite Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2016 http://archiwum.img-pan.krakow.pl/index.php/AMS/article/view/785/692

  14. Sampling and sample handling procedures for priority pollutants in surface coal mining wastewaters. [Detailed list to be analyzed for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, R. S.; Johnson, D. O.; Henricks, J. D.

    1979-03-01

    The report describes the procedures used by Argonne National Laboratory to sample surface coal mine effluents in order to obtain field and laboratory data on 110 organic compounds or classes of compounds and 14 metals and minerals that are known as priority pollutants, plus 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/), total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS). Included are directions for preparation of sampling containers and equipment, methods of sampling and sample preservation, and field and laboratory protocols, including chain-of-custody procedures. Actual analytical procedures are not described, but their sources are referenced.

  15. Considerations for modeling small-particulate impacts from surface coal-mining operations based on wind-tunnel simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, S.G.; Petersen, W.B. [Air Resources Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Thompson, R.S. [Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 provide for a reexamination of the current Environmental Protection Agency`s (USEPA) methods for modeling fugitive particulate (PM10) from open-pit, surface coal mines. The Industrial Source Complex Model (ISCST2) is specifically named as the method that needs further study. Title II, Part B, Section 234 of the Amendments states that {open_quotes}...the Administrator shall analyze the accuracy of such model and emission factors and make revisions as may be necessary to eliminate any significant over-predictions of air quality effect of fugitive particulate emissions from such sources.{close_quotes}

  16. Description of the physical environment and coal-mining history of west-central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Crawford, Charles G.; Duwelius, R.F.; Renn, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Information on the geology, geomorphology, soils, climate, hydrology, water use, land use, population, and coal mining history of Clay, Owen, Sullivan, and Vigo Counties in Indiana is summarized. Site-specific information is given on the morphology , geology, soils, land use, coal mining history, and hydrologic instrumentation of the six watersheds which are each less than 3 sq mi in area. The Wabash, White, and Eel Rivers are the major drainages in west-central Indiana. Average annual precipitation is about 39.5 in/yr and average annual runoff is about 13 in/yr. The most productive aquifers are confined or unconfined outwash aquifers located along the major rivers. Bedrock aquifers are regionally insignificant but are the sole source of groundwater for areas that lack outwash, alluvium, or sand and gravel lenses in till. Indiana has more than 17 billion short tons of recoverable coal reserves; about 11% can be mined by surface methods. Almost half of Indiana 's surface reserves are in Clay, Owen, Sullivan, and Vigo Counties. More than 50,000 acres in west-central Indiana have been disturbed by surface coal mining from 1941 through 1980. Big Slough and Hooker Creek are streams that drain unmined, agricultural watersheds. Row-crop corn and soybeans are the principal crops. Soils are moderately well drained silt loams, and the watersheds well developed dendritic drainage systems. Unnamed tributaries drain mined and reclaimed watersheds. Ridges of mine spoil have been graded to a gently rolling topography. Soils are well drained and consist of 6 to 12 inches of silt-loam topsoil that was stockpiled and then replaced over shale and sandstone fragments of the graded mine spoil. Grasses and legumes form the vegetative cover in each watershed. Pond Creek and an unnamed tributary to Big Branch are streams that drain mined and unreclaimed watersheds. Soils are very well drained shaly silty loams that have formed on steeply sloping banks. Both watersheds contain numerous

  17. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  18. Surface complexation models for uranium adsorption in the sub-surface environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Adsorption experiments with soil component minerals under a range of conditions are being used to develop models of uranium(VI) uptake in the sub-surface environment. The results show that adsorption of U on iron oxides and clay minerals is influenced by chemical factors including the pH, partial pressure of CO 2 , and the presence of ligands such as phosphate. Surface complexation models (SCMs) can be used to simulate U adsorption on these minerals. The SCMs are based on plausible mechanistic assumptions and describe the experimental data more adequately than Kd values or sorption isotherms. It is conceptually possible to simulate U sorption data on complex natural samples by combining SCMs for individual component minerals. This approach was used to develop a SCM for U adsorption to mineral assemblages from Koongarra (Australia), and produced a reasonable description of U uptake. In order to assess the applicability of experimental data to the field situation, in-situ measurements of U distributions between solid and liquid phases were undertaken at the Koongarra U deposit. This field partitioning data showed a satisfactory agreement with laboratory sorption data obtained under comparable conditions. (author)

  19. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: an explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Balboa, C; Baselga-Cervera, B; García-Sanchez, A; Igual, J M; Lopez-Rodas, V; Costas, E

    2013-11-15

    Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These "lucky mutants" could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation Study of the Monitoring Result for River Water Environment Component Around U Mining Research Area at, Kalan West Kalimantan from 1997/1998 up to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad-Sorot-Soediro

    2004-01-01

    The Uranium research which have been carrying out since 1980/1981 up to now and uranium processing activities which was carried out since 1981/1982 to 1996/1997 have probably decreased environment quality. Therefore the environment component would be monitored through Kalan river water every year. From 1997/1998 up to 2002 the environment quality decreased. So, the environment quality is necessarily to be evaluated doing those period. Aim of study is to recover development information of environmental quality at river water component up to 5 years. Evaluation has been done by comparing research the yearly data obtained and construct the correlation with U mining and processing activities on that year. BOD, COD, As, Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Mo and radioactivity of U, Th and Ra content with in Kalan water river tends to become lower in accordance with the decreasing of U mining and processing research activities. (author)

  1. Surface-environment effects in spin crossover solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudyma, Iu., E-mail: yugudyma@gmail.com; Maksymov, A.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The spin-crossover nanocrystals were described by modified Ising-like model. • The ligand field on the surface is a function of external fluctuations. • The thermal hysteresis with surface and bulk interactions of the lattice was studied. • The system behavior with fluctuating ligand field on the surface was examined. • The fluctuations enlarge the hysteresis, but smaller surface interaction narrows it. - Abstract: The impact of surface effects on thermal induced spin crossover phenomenon is a subject of a broad and current interest. Using the modified Ising-like model of spin crossover solids with the ligand field as function of the molecule’ positions and random component on surface by means of Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm the thermal spin transition curves were calculated. The analysis of spin configuration during transition gives a general idea about contribution of molecules from the surface and inside the lattice into resulting magnetization of the systems. The behavior of hysteresis loop for various surface coupling and fluctuations strength has been described.

  2. The influence of the fault zone width on land surface vibrations after the high-energy tremor in the "Rydułtowy-Anna" hard coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecka, Elżbieta; Szwarkowski, Dariusz

    2018-04-01

    In the article, a numerical analysis of the impact of the width of the fault zone on land surface tremors on the area of the "Rydułtowy - Anna" hard coal mine was performed. The analysis covered the dynamic impact of the actual seismic wave after the high-energy tremor of 7 June 2013. Vibrations on the land surface are a measure of the mining damage risk. It is particularly the horizontal components of land vibrations that are dangerous to buildings which is reflected in the Mining Scales of Intensity (GSI) of vibrations. The run of a seismic wave in the rock mass from the hypocenter to the area's surface depends on the lithology of the area and the presence of fault zones. The rock mass network cut by faults of various widths influences the amplitude of tremor reaching the area's surface. The analysis of the impact of the width of the fault zone was done for three alternatives.

  3. Assessment of Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Bao, Shanhu; Sai, Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Yuhong

    2017-03-14

    The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs were 25.81 ± 9.58, 24.85 ± 2.77, 29.40 ± 3.14, 923.0 ± 47.2, and 5.64 ± 4.56 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were 76.7 ± 3.1 nGy/h and 83.1 ± 3.8 μ Sv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, and internal hazard index were also calculated, and their mean values were within the acceptable limits. The estimated lifetime cancer risk was 3.2 × 10 -4 /Sv. The heavy metal contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb from the surface soil samples were measured and their health risks were then assessed. The concentrations of all heavy metals were much lower than the average backgrounds in China except for lead which was about three times higher than that of China's mean. The non-cancer and cancer risks from the heavy metals were estimated, which are all within the acceptable ranges. In addition, the correlations between the radionuclides and the heavy metals in surface soil samples were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Strong positive correlations between radionuclides and the heavy metals at the 0.01 significance level were found. In conclusion, the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area are at a normal level.

  4. Use of isotope ratios to assess sources of Pb and Zn dispersed in the environment during mining and ore processing within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site (Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgopolova, A.; Weiss, D.J.; Seltmann, R.; Kober, B.; Mason, T.F.D.; Coles, B.; Stanley, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    Element concentrations, element ratios and Pb and Zn isotope data are reported for different geologic samples (barren and ore-bearing granites and host rocks), technogenic products (ore concentrates and tailings) and biologic samples (lichens and birch leaves) from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining district, Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia, with the aim to trace the sources of Pb and Zn at a local level within the mining site. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptors of contamination within the mining site. Pb/Zr and Zn/Zr values indicated Pb and Zn enrichment relative to host rocks. Zn isotope data of 15 geologic and 11 lichen samples showed different Zn isotopic signatures with the total range for the geologic suite of -0.4 per mille to +1.2 per mille and for lichens of +0.4 per mille to +1.4 per mille in δ 66 Zn relative to Lyon JMC Zn standard. The source of isotopically heavy Zn within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site could be potentially associated with long-range atmospheric aerosols that also contributed Pb to the studied mining site. Our results demonstrated that Zn isotopes might be used as new tools for Zn source assessment

  5. Adhesion characterization of tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder. Influence of OPC concrete substance surface treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten mine waste mud (TMWM) was investigated for its potential use as repair material of ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete. Bond strength between OPC concrete substrate and three repair materials was analysed. TMWM geopolymeric binder and two commercial repair products were used as repair materials. Bond strength behaviour was assessed from slant shear tests. A total of 128 slant shear specimens were made in order to evaluate bond strength at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days curing. Four ki...

  6. Contamination of surface and underground waters owing to the disaster of the Sasa mine tailing pond

    OpenAIRE

    Mircovski, Vojo; Spasovski, Orce

    2003-01-01

    The uncontrolled run off of flotation waste from the Sasa Mine causes contamination of the flows of the Rivers Kamenicka and Bregalnica as well as the water of Kalimanci Lake and further afield. Boundary, fracture and karst type of aquifers formed depending on the structural type of porosity along the marginal parts of the terrain. The aquifers are recharged mostly by the above mentioned rivers that results in contamination of their waters. Contamination of underground waters is particularly ...

  7. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  8. Mining and mining authorities in Saarland 2016. Mining economy, mining technology, occupational safety, environmental protection, statistics, mining authority activities. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The annual report of the Saarland Upper Mining Authority provides an insight into the activities of mining authorities. Especially, the development of the black coal mining, safety and technology of mining as well as the correlation between mining and environment are stressed.

  9. Indian deep-sea environment experiment (INDEX): Monitoring the restoration of marine enviroment after artificial disturbance to simulate deep-sea mining in central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    the restoration of marine environment after artificial disturbance to simulate deep-sea mining in Central Indian Basin Guest Editor Rahul Sharma Note from guest editor A special issue on Indian Deep-sea Environment Experiment (INDEX) conducted by the scientists... in Geochemical Associations in Artificially Disturbed Deep-Sea Sediments B. Nagender Nath, G. Parthiban, S. Banaulikar, and Subhadeep Sarkar Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, 24:61–62, 2006 Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1064-119X print/1521...

  10. Sorption study of 226Ra(II) et 238U(VI) on to peat organic matter, in mining environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordelet, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    The environmental footprint of former uranium mining sites is a major concern for society. In order to guarantee the protection of ecosystems and thus a minimal radiological impact on the biosphere, it is important to understand and to be able to model the phenomena controlling the migration of uranium and its decay products, specially radium ( 226 Ra) (AREVA's Envir-at-Mines project). In the environment, among solid phases which can retain 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II), peat is known to have relevant affinity for U(VI). Because peat is usually composed at 90% dry weight of organic matter, the aim of this study was to qualify and quantify peat organic matter affinity for 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II). Peat samples extracted from Les Sagnes (close to a former uranium mining site in Limousin area, France) was characterised and batch adsorption/desorption experiments were conducted. The results indicate that 226 Ra(II) adsorption onto that peat is higher than 97% for pH ≥ 4-6 (depending on the organic/mineral ratio in dry peat) corresponding to K d values about 4500 ± 500 mL/g and 238 U(VI) adsorption is higher than 80% at pH ≥ 3 with K d maximal values reaching 11000 mL/g around pH 4.5. Only a little desorption was measured after one month. An ion exchange modelling for radium adsorption onto one type of organic matter sorption site was enough to fit the experimental adsorption K d for the peat over the whole range of pH. However, uranium sorption on peat can be modelled on that organic sorption site only from pH 1 to 5. From pH 5 to 10, to explain the experimental uranium adsorption K d values (close to 1500 mL/g), uranium sorption onto mineral phases (such as smectite and iron oxide in this study) has to be considered. An operational data set is given for both 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II) sorption onto Les Sagnes peat. Unlike usual peat, peat from Les Sagnes contains more than 10% dry weight of mineral matter. That is why it is necessary to model sorption of those two

  11. Geochemistry and mercury contamination in receiving environments of artisanal mining wastes and identified concerns for food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J., E-mail: amanda.reichelt-brushett@scu.edu.au [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Stone, Jane [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Howe, Pelli [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Thomas, Bernard [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Clark, Malcolm [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Male, Yusthinus [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Pattimura University, Ambon (Indonesia); Nanlohy, Albert [Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Pattimura University, Ambon (Indonesia); Butcher, Paul [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, National Marine Science Centre, PO Box 4321, Coffs Harbour, NSW (Australia)

    2017-01-15

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation has been occurring on Buru Island, Indonesia since early 2012, and has caused rapid accumulation of high Hg concentrations in river, estuary and marine sediments. In this study, sediment samples were collected from several sites downstream of the Mount Botak ASGM site, as well as in the vicinity of the more recently established site at Gogrea where no sampling had previously been completed. All sediment samples had total Hg (THg) concentrations exceeding Indonesian sediment quality guidelines and were up to 82 times this limit at one estuary site. The geochemistry of sediments in receiving environments indicates the potential for Hg-methylation to form highly bioavailable Hg species. To assess the current contamination threat from consumption of local seafood, samples of fish, molluscs and crustaceans were collected from the Namlea fish market and analysed for THg concentrations. The majority of edible tissue samples had elevated THg concentrations, which raises concerns for food safety. This study shows that river, estuary and marine ecosystems downstream of ASGM operations on Buru Island are exposed to dangerously high Hg concentrations, which are impacting aquatic food chains, and fisheries resources. Considering the high dietary dependence on marine protein in the associated community and across the Mollucas Province, and the short time period since ASGM operations commenced in this region, the results warrant urgent further investigation, risk mitigation, and community education. - Highlights: • Mercury contamination of sediments and seafood due to artisanal gold mining. • Considerable risks to human and ecosystem health are identified. • Results emphasise the urgent need for risk mitigation and community education.

  12. Geochemistry and mercury contamination in receiving environments of artisanal mining wastes and identified concerns for food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J.; Stone, Jane; Howe, Pelli; Thomas, Bernard; Clark, Malcolm; Male, Yusthinus; Nanlohy, Albert; Butcher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation has been occurring on Buru Island, Indonesia since early 2012, and has caused rapid accumulation of high Hg concentrations in river, estuary and marine sediments. In this study, sediment samples were collected from several sites downstream of the Mount Botak ASGM site, as well as in the vicinity of the more recently established site at Gogrea where no sampling had previously been completed. All sediment samples had total Hg (THg) concentrations exceeding Indonesian sediment quality guidelines and were up to 82 times this limit at one estuary site. The geochemistry of sediments in receiving environments indicates the potential for Hg-methylation to form highly bioavailable Hg species. To assess the current contamination threat from consumption of local seafood, samples of fish, molluscs and crustaceans were collected from the Namlea fish market and analysed for THg concentrations. The majority of edible tissue samples had elevated THg concentrations, which raises concerns for food safety. This study shows that river, estuary and marine ecosystems downstream of ASGM operations on Buru Island are exposed to dangerously high Hg concentrations, which are impacting aquatic food chains, and fisheries resources. Considering the high dietary dependence on marine protein in the associated community and across the Mollucas Province, and the short time period since ASGM operations commenced in this region, the results warrant urgent further investigation, risk mitigation, and community education. - Highlights: • Mercury contamination of sediments and seafood due to artisanal gold mining. • Considerable risks to human and ecosystem health are identified. • Results emphasise the urgent need for risk mitigation and community education.

  13. First-Year Vitality of Reforestation Plantings in Response to Herbivore Exclusion on Reclaimed Appalachian Surface-Mined Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J. Hackworth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Appalachian surface-mine reclamation techniques repress natural forest regeneration, and tree plantings are often necessary for reforestation. Reclaimed Appalachian surface mines harbor a suite of mammal herbivores that forage on recently planted seedlings. Anecdotal reports across Appalachia have implicated herbivory in the hindrance and failure of reforestation efforts, yet empirical evaluation of herbivory impacts on planted seedling vitality in this region remains relatively uninitiated. First growing-season survival, height growth, and mammal herbivory damage of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L., shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill., and white oak (Quercus alba L. are presented in response to varying intensities of herbivore exclusion. Seedling survival was generally high, and height growth was positive for all species. The highest herbivory incidence of all tree species was observed in treatments offering no herbivore exclusion. While seedling protectors lowered herbivory incidence compared with no exclusion, full exclusion treatments resulted in the greatest reduction of herbivore damage. Although herbivory from rabbits, small mammals, and domestic animals was observed, cervids (deer and elk were responsible for 95.8% of all damaged seedlings. This study indicates that cervids forage heavily on planted seedlings during the first growing-season, but exclusion is effective at reducing herbivory.

  14. Inference-Based Surface Reconstruction of Cluttered Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, K.

    2012-08-01

    We present an inference-based surface reconstruction algorithm that is capable of identifying objects of interest among a cluttered scene, and reconstructing solid model representations even in the presence of occluded surfaces. Our proposed approach incorporates a predictive modeling framework that uses a set of user-provided models for prior knowledge, and applies this knowledge to the iterative identification and construction process. Our approach uses a local to global construction process guided by rules for fitting high-quality surface patches obtained from these prior models. We demonstrate the application of this algorithm on several example data sets containing heavy clutter and occlusion. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. WNA's Policy Document : sustaining global best practices in uranium, mining and processing, principles for managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; Waste Management and Decommissioning Working Group-WM and DW

    2008-01-01

    The worldwide community of uranium mining and processing recognizes that managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment is paramount. Such responsible management applies at all stages of planning and activities. Today we are acting to ensure that all parties directly involved in uranium mining and processing strive to achieve the highest levels of excellence in these fields. We are doing so by sustaining a strong safety culture based on a commitment to common, internationally shared principles. This paper sets out principles for the management of radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment applicable to sites throughout the world. In national and regional settings where nuclear fuel cycle activities are well developed, these principles already serve as the underpinning for 'Codes of Practice' that govern uranium mining and processing. In any given setting, a Code of Practice is needed to guide practical implementation of these principles according to the regional, national or site-specific context. These principles are published in the belief that they hold special relevance for emerging uranium producing countries that do not yet have fully developed regulations for the control of radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment associated with uranium mining and processing. The principles are equally relevant for operators, contractors, and regulators newly engaged in uranium mining and processing. Once national regulations are fully developed, they can be expected to embody these principles. Each principle affirmed here will not apply to the same extent for each party. Ultimately, the precise allocation of responsibilities must be set at the national and local levels. This document holds the status of a policy and ethical declaration by the full WNA membership, which the global nuclear industry. The principles affirmed here are supported by key relevant international organizations, including the IAEA and the global mining

  16. Water-quality data for two surface coal mines reclaimed with alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge, Clarion County, Pennsylvania, May 1983 through November 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, D.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Saad, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Water-quality and other hydrologic data for two surface coal mines in Clarion County, Pa., were collected during 1983-89 as part of studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. Water samples were collected from streams, seeps, monitor wells, and lysimeters on a monthly basis to evaluate changes in water quality resulting from the addition of alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge to the reclaimed mine-spoil surface. The mines are about 3.5 miles apart and were mined for bituminous coal of the upper and lower Clarion seams of the Allegheny Group of Pennsylvanian age. The coal had high sulfur (greater than 2 weight percent) concentrations. Acidic mine drainage is present at both mines. At one mine, about 8 years after mining was completed, large quantities (greater than 400 tons per acre) of alkaline waste consisting of limestone and lime-kiln flue dust were applied on two 2.5-acre plots within the 65-acre mine area. Water-quality data for the alkaline-addition plots and surrounding area were collected for 1 year before and 3 years after application of the alkaline additives (May 1983-July 1987). Data collected for the alkaline-addition study include ground-water level, surface-water discharge rate, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and concentrations of alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, iron (total and ferrous), manganese, aluminum, calcium, and magnesium. At the other mine, about 3.5 years after mining was completed, urban sewage sludge was applied over 60 acres within the 150-acre mine area. Waterquality data for the sludge-addition study were collected for 3.5 years after the application of the sludge (June 1986-December 1989). Data collected for the sludge-addition study include the above constituents plus dissolved oxygen, redox potential (Eh), and concentrations of dissolved solids, phosphorus, nitrogen species, sulfide, chloride, silica, sodium, potassium, cyanide, arsenic, barium

  17. Responsible Mining: A Human Resources Strategy for Mine Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar, Sriram (Ram)

    2012-01-01

    Mining is a global industry. Most mining companies operate internationally, often in remote, challenging environments and consequently frequently have respond to unusual and demanding Human Resource (HR) requirements. It is my opinion that the strategic imperative behind success in mining industry is responsible mining. The purpose of this paper is to examine how an effective HR strategy can be a competitive advantage that contributes to the success of a mining project in the global mining in...

  18. Coexistence of surface and cave amphipods in an ecotone environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luštrik, R.; Turjak, M.; Kralj-Fišer, S.; Fišer, C.

    2011-01-01

    Interspecific interactions between surface and subterranean species may be a key determinant for species distributions. Until now, the existence of competition (including predation) between these groups has not been tested. To assess the coexistence and potential role of interspecific interactions

  19. Inference-Based Surface Reconstruction of Cluttered Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, K.; Keyser, J.

    2012-01-01

    guided by rules for fitting high-quality surface patches obtained from these prior models. We demonstrate the application of this algorithm on several example data sets containing heavy clutter and occlusion. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. An evaluation of health and environment in the mining community of Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russia; En bedoemning av haelso- och miljoesituationen i gruvsamhaellet Krasnokamensk, oestra Sibirien, Ryssland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehdwall, H; Rising, A; Hjalmar, A; Lindholm, I; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H

    1995-10-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the Uranium activities as such has not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor Radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 20 tabs.