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Sample records for surface methodology rsm

  1. Optimisation of process parameters on thin shell part using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, J. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study is carried out to focus on optimisation of process parameters by simulation using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) software. The process parameters are taken as the input in order to analyse the warpage value which is the output in this study. There are some significant parameters that have been used which are melt temperature, mould temperature, packing pressure, and cooling time. A plastic part made of Polypropylene (PP) has been selected as the study part. Optimisation of process parameters is applied in Design Expert software with the aim to minimise the obtained warpage value. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been applied in this study together with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in order to investigate the interactions between parameters that are significant to the warpage value. Thus, the optimised warpage value can be obtained using the model designed using RSM due to its minimum error value. This study comes out with the warpage value improved by using RSM.

  2. Warpage optimization on a mobile phone case using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, X. N.; Fathullah, M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.; Shazzuan, S.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic injection moulding is a popular manufacturing method not only it is reliable, but also efficient and cost saving. It able to produce plastic part with detailed features and complex geometry. However, defects in injection moulding process degrades the quality and aesthetic of the injection moulded product. The most common defect occur in the process is warpage. Inappropriate process parameter setting of injection moulding machine is one of the reason that leads to the occurrence of warpage. The aims of this study were to improve the quality of injection moulded part by investigating the optimal parameters in minimizing warpage using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Subsequent to this, the most significant parameter was identified and recommended parameters setting was compared with the optimized parameter setting using RSM. In this research, the mobile phone case was selected as case study. The mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time were selected as variables whereas warpage in y-direction was selected as responses in this research. The simulation was carried out by using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2012. In addition, the RSM was performed by using Design Expert 7.0. The warpage in y direction recommended by RSM were reduced by 70 %. RSM performed well in solving warpage issue.

  3. Numerical Optimization of Impeller for Backward-Curved Centrifugal Fan by Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Fannian Meng; Quanlin Dong; Yan Wang; Pengfei Wang; Chunxi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A numerical optimum study on three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow in a centrifugal fan with backward-curved blades was performed. The influence of the inlet angle, the outlet blade angle and blade number on aerodynamic performance of the centrifugal fan was analyzed concerning the whole impeller-volute configuration. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on a three-level, three -variable Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to evaluate the interactive effects of factors such as inlet blade...

  4. Analyzing parameters optimisation in minimising warpage on side arm using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayhana, N.; Fathullah, M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a systematic methodology to analyse the warpage of the side arm part using Autodesk Moldflow Insight software. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was proposed to optimise the processing parameters that will result in optimal solutions by efficiently minimising the warpage of the side arm part. The variable parameters considered in this study was based on most significant parameters affecting warpage stated by previous researchers, that is melt temperature, mould temperature and packing pressure while adding packing time and cooling time as these is the commonly used parameters by researchers. The results show that warpage was improved by 10.15% and the most significant parameters affecting warpage are packing pressure.

  5. Warpage analysis on thin shell part using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhasif, Z.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    The optimisation of moulding parameters appropriate to reduce warpage defects produce using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) 2012 software The product is injected by using Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) materials. This analysis has processing parameter that varies in melting temperature, mould temperature, packing pressure and packing time. Design of Experiments (DOE) has been integrated to obtain a polynomial model using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The Glowworm Swarm Optimisation (GSO) method is used to predict a best combination parameters to minimise warpage defect in order to produce high quality parts.

  6. Optimisation on processing parameters for minimising warpage on side arm using response surface methodology (RSM) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayhana, N.; Fathullah, M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.; Sazli, M.; Yahya, Z. R.

    2017-09-01

    This study presents the application of optimisation method to reduce the warpage of side arm part. Autodesk Moldflow Insight software was integrated into this study to analyse the warpage. The design of Experiment (DOE) for Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was constructed and by using the equation from RSM, Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) was applied. The optimisation method will result in optimised processing parameters with minimum warpage. Mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time was selected as the variable parameters. Parameters selection was based on most significant factor affecting warpage stated by previous researchers. The results show that warpage was improved by 28.16% for RSM and 28.17% for PSO. The warpage improvement in PSO from RSM is only by 0.01 %. Thus, the optimisation using RSM is already efficient to give the best combination parameters and optimum warpage value for side arm part. The most significant parameters affecting warpage are packing pressure.

  7. Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM for Optimization of Operating Parameters and Performance Evaluation of Cooling Tower Cold Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar RAMAKRISHNAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a cooling tower was analyzed with various operating parameters tofind the minimum cold water temperature. In this study, optimization of operating parameters wasinvestigated. An experimental design was carried out based on central composite design (CCD withresponse surface methodology (RSM. This paper presents optimum operating parameters and theminimum cold water temperature using the RSM method. The RSM was used to evaluate the effectsof operating variables and their interaction towards the attainment of their optimum conditions.Based on the analysis, air flow, hot water temperature and packing height were high significanteffect on cold water temperature. The optimum operating parameters were predicted using the RSMmethod and confirmed through experiment.

  8. Optimisation of warpage on plastic injection moulding part using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm method (GA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miza, A. T. N. A.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, Computer Aided Engineering was used for injection moulding simulation. The method of Design of experiment (DOE) was utilize according to the Latin Square orthogonal array. The relationship between the injection moulding parameters and warpage were identify based on the experimental data that used. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used as to validate the model accuracy. Then, the RSM and GA method were combine as to examine the optimum injection moulding process parameter. Therefore the optimisation of injection moulding is largely improve and the result shown an increasing accuracy and also reliability. The propose method by combining RSM and GA method also contribute in minimising the warpage from occur.

  9. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm in minimizing warpage on side arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimee, N. A.; Fathullah, M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    The plastic injection moulding process produces large numbers of parts of high quality with great accuracy and quickly. It has widely used for production of plastic part with various shapes and geometries. Side arm is one of the product using injection moulding to manufacture it. However, there are some difficulties in adjusting the parameter variables which are mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time as there are warpage happen at the tip part of side arm. Therefore, the work reported herein is about minimizing warpage on side arm product by optimizing the process parameter using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and with additional artificial intelligence (AI) method which is Genetic Algorithm (GA).

  10. Shrinkage Analysis on Thick Plate Part using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isafiq M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work reported herein is about an analysis on the quality (shrinkage on a thick plate part using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Previous researches showed that the most influential factor affecting the shrinkage on moulded parts are mould and melt temperature. Autodesk Moldflow Insight software was used for the analysis, while specifications of Nessei NEX 1000 injection moulding machine and P20 mould material were incorporated in this study on top of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS as a moulded thermoplastic material. Mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure and packing time were selected as variable parameters. The results show that the shrinkage have improved 42.48% and 14.41% in parallel and normal directions respectively after the optimisation process.

  11. Biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids from penicillium commune using response surface methodology (RSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M. G.; Cheema, T. A.; Baig, S.; Nadeem, M.; Nelofar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study employed the response surface methodology (RSM), a statistical technique, for the identification, screening and optimization of fermentation factors to produce ergot alkaloids under laboratory conditions by Penicillium commune. The static surface culture fermentation technique helped to enhance the production of ergot alkaloids. In the first step Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of ten factors, including nine ingredients of fermentation medium and one process parameter. It was found that sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O played the pivotal role in enhancing the yield of ergot alkaloids. In the second step, the effect of concentration levels of sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O was further optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) under the same fermentation conditions. The optimized concentrations of sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O were 41%, 39% and 0.11% respectively, which significantly enhanced the yield of ergot alkaloids. (author)

  12. Amoxicillin degradation from contaminated water by solar photocatalysis using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Tavakoli, Touraj

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the solar photocatalytic process in a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) was performed for amoxicillin (AMX) degradation, an antibiotic widely used in the world. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken statistical experiment design was used to optimize independent variables, namely TiO 2 dosage, antibiotic initial concentration, and initial pH. The results showed that AMX degradation efficiency affected by positive or negative effect of variables and their interactions. The TiO 2 dosage, pH, and interaction between AMX initial concentration and TiO 2 dosage exhibited a synergistic effect, while the linear and quadratic term of AMX initial concentration and pH showed antagonistic effect in the process response. Response surface and contour plots were used to perform process optimization. The optimum conditions found in this regard were TiO 2 dosage = 1.5 g/L, AMX initial concentration = 17 mg/L, and pH = 9.5 for AMX degradation under 240 min solar irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of AMX after 34.95 kJ UV /L accumulated UV energy per liter of solution was 84.12 % at the solar plant.

  13. Optimisation of process parameters on thin shell part using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, J. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study conducts the simulation on optimisation of injection moulding process parameters using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) software. This study has applied some process parameters which are melt temperature, mould temperature, packing pressure, and cooling time in order to analyse the warpage value of the part. Besides, a part has been selected to be studied which made of Polypropylene (PP). The combination of the process parameters is analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the optimised value is obtained using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The RSM as well as Genetic Algorithm are applied in Design Expert software in order to minimise the warpage value. The outcome of this study shows that the warpage value improved by using RSM and GA.

  14. Employing response surface methodology (RSM) to improve methane production from cotton stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Khalid, Habiba; Li, Wanwu; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Guangqing; Chen, Chang

    2018-03-01

    China is the largest cotton producer with the cotton output accounting for 25% of the total world's cotton production. A large quantity of cotton stalk (CS) waste is generated which is burned and causes environmental and ecological problems. This study investigated the anaerobic digestibility of CS by focusing on improving the methane yield by applying central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The purpose of this study was to determine the best level of factors to optimize the desired output of methane production from CS. Thus, it was necessary to describe the relationship of many individual variables with one or more response values for the effective utilization of CS. The influences of feed to inoculum (F/I) ratio and organic loading (OL) on methane production were investigated. Results showed that the experimental methane yield (EMY) and volatile solid (VS) removal were calculated to be 70.22 mL/gVS and 14.33% at F/I ratio of 0.79 and organic loading of 25.61 gVS/L, respectively. Characteristics of final effluent showed that the anaerobic system was stable. This research laid a foundation for future application of CS to alleviate the problems of waste pollution and energy output.

  15. Deploying response surface methodology (RSM) and glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) in optimizing warpage on a mobile phone cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, X. N.; Fathullah, M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.; Shazzuan, S.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic injection moulding is a popular manufacturing method not only it is reliable, but also efficient and cost saving. It able to produce plastic part with detailed features and complex geometry. However, defects in injection moulding process degrades the quality and aesthetic of the injection moulded product. The most common defect occur in the process is warpage. Inappropriate process parameter setting of injection moulding machine is one of the reason that leads to the occurrence of warpage. The aims of this study were to improve the quality of injection moulded part by investigating the optimal parameters in minimizing warpage using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO). Subsequent to this, the most significant parameter was identified and recommended parameters setting was compared with the optimized parameter setting using RSM and GSO. In this research, the mobile phone case was selected as case study. The mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time were selected as variables whereas warpage in y-direction was selected as responses in this research. The simulation was carried out by using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2012. In addition, the RSM was performed by using Design Expert 7.0 whereas the GSO was utilized by using MATLAB. The warpage in y direction recommended by RSM were reduced by 70 %. The warpages recommended by GSO were decreased by 61 % in y direction. The resulting warpages under optimal parameter setting by RSM and GSO were validated by simulation in AMI 2012. RSM performed better than GSO in solving warpage issue.

  16. Application of electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process for waste-activated sludge stabilization and system optimization using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholikandi, Gagik Badalians; Kazemirad, Khashayar

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the performance of the electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process for removing the volatile suspended solids (VSS) content of waste-activated sludge was evaluated. The Fe 2+ ions required by the process were obtained directly from iron electrodes in the system. The performance of the ECP process was investigated in various operational conditions employing a laboratory-scale pilot setup and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). According to the results, the ECP process showed its best performance when the pH value, current density, H 2 O 2 concentration and the retention time were 3, 3.2 mA/cm 2 , 1,535 mg/L and 240 min, respectively. In these conditions, the introduced Fe 2+ concentration was approximately 500 (mg/L) and the VSS removal efficiency about 74%. Moreover, the results of the microbial characteristics of the raw and the stabilized sludge demonstrated that the ECP process is able to remove close to 99.9% of the coliforms in the raw sludge during the stabilization process. The energy consumption evaluation showed that the required energy of the ECP reactor (about 1.8-2.5 kWh (kg VSS removed) -1 ) is considerably lower than for aerobic digestion, the conventional waste-activated sludge stabilization method (about 2-3 kWh (kg VSS removed) -1 ). The RSM optimization process showed that the best operational conditions of the ECP process comply with the experimental results, and the actual and the predicted results are in good conformity with each other. This feature makes it possible to predict the introduced Fe 2+ concentrations into the system and the VSS removal efficiency of the process precisely.

  17. Statistical optimization of the phytoremediation of arsenic by Ludwigia octovalvis- in a pilot reed bed using response surface methodology (RSM) versus an artificial neural network (ANN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titah, Harmin Sulistiyaning; Halmi, Mohd Izuan Effendi Bin; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Hasan, Hassimi Abu; Idris, Mushrifah; Anuar, Nurina

    2018-06-07

    In this study, the removal of arsenic (As) by plant, Ludwigia octovalvis, in a pilot reed bed was optimized. A Box-Behnken design was employed including a comparative analysis of both Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the prediction of maximum arsenic removal. The predicted optimum condition using the desirability function of both models was 39 mg kg -1 for the arsenic concentration in soil, an elapsed time of 42 days (the sampling day) and an aeration rate of 0.22 L/min, with the predicted values of arsenic removal by RSM and ANN being 72.6% and 71.4%, respectively. The validation of the predicted optimum point showed an actual arsenic removal of 70.6%. This was achieved with the deviation between the validation value and the predicted values being within 3.49% (RSM) and 1.87% (ANN). The performance evaluation of the RSM and ANN models showed that ANN performs better than RSM with a higher R 2 (0.97) close to 1.0 and very small Average Absolute Deviation (AAD) (0.02) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) (0.004) values close to zero. Both models were appropriate for the optimization of arsenic removal with ANN demonstrating significantly higher predictive and fitting ability than RSM.

  18. Optimization of Baker's Yeast Production on Date Extract Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Ali, Mounira; Outili, Nawel; Ait Kaki, Asma; Cherfia, Radia; Benhassine, Sara; Benaissa, Akila; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine

    2017-08-07

    This work aims to study the production of the biomass of S. cerevisiae on an optimized medium using date extract as the only carbon source in order to obtain a good yield of the biomass. The biomass production was carried out according to the central composite experimental design (CCD) as a response surface methodology using Minitab 16 software. Indeed, under optimal biomass production conditions, temperature (32.9 °C), pH (5.35) and the total reducing sugar extracted from dates (70.93 g/L), S. cerevisiae produced 40 g/L of their biomass in an Erlenmeyer after only 16 h of fermentation. The kinetic performance of the S. cerevisiae strain was investigated with three unstructured models i.e., Monod, Verhulst, and Tessier. The conformity of the experimental data fitted showed a good consistency with Monod and Tessier models with R² = 0.945 and 0.979, respectively. An excellent adequacy was noted in the case of the Verhulst model ( R² = 0.981). The values of kinetic parameters ( Ks , X m , μ m , p and q ) calculated by the Excel software, confirmed that Monod and Verhulst were suitable models, in contrast, the Tessier model was inappropriately fitted with the experimental data due to the illogical value of Ks (-9.434). The profiles prediction of the biomass production with the Verhulst model, and that of the substrate consumption using Leudeking Piret model over time, demonstrated a good agreement between the simulation models and the experimental data.

  19. Optimization of Baker’s Yeast Production on Date Extract Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Ali, Mounira; Outili, Nawel; Ait Kaki, Asma; Cherfia, Radia; Benhassine, Sara; Benaissa, Akila; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to study the production of the biomass of S. cerevisiae on an optimized medium using date extract as the only carbon source in order to obtain a good yield of the biomass. The biomass production was carried out according to the central composite experimental design (CCD) as a response surface methodology using Minitab 16 software. Indeed, under optimal biomass production conditions, temperature (32.9 °C), pH (5.35) and the total reducing sugar extracted from dates (70.93 g/L), S. cerevisiae produced 40 g/L of their biomass in an Erlenmeyer after only 16 h of fermentation. The kinetic performance of the S. cerevisiae strain was investigated with three unstructured models i.e., Monod, Verhulst, and Tessier. The conformity of the experimental data fitted showed a good consistency with Monod and Tessier models with R2 = 0.945 and 0.979, respectively. An excellent adequacy was noted in the case of the Verhulst model (R2 = 0.981). The values of kinetic parameters (Ks, Xm, μm, p and q) calculated by the Excel software, confirmed that Monod and Verhulst were suitable models, in contrast, the Tessier model was inappropriately fitted with the experimental data due to the illogical value of Ks (−9.434). The profiles prediction of the biomass production with the Verhulst model, and that of the substrate consumption using Leudeking Piret model over time, demonstrated a good agreement between the simulation models and the experimental data. PMID:28783118

  20. Optimization extraction conditions for improving phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwal, Tarun; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer Singh; Pande, Veena

    2016-09-15

    This study for the first time designed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM). Solvent selection was done based on the preliminary experiments and a five-factors-three-level, Central Composite Design (CCD). Extraction temperature (X1), sample to solvent ratio (X3) and solvent concentration (X5) significantly affect response variables. The quadratic model well fitted for all the responses. Under optimal extraction conditions, the dried fruit sample mixed with 80% methanol having 3.0 pH in a ratio of 1:50 and the mixture was heated at 80 °C for 30 min; the measured parameters was found in accordance with the predicted values. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis at optimized condition reveals 6 phenolic compounds. The results suggest that optimization of the extraction conditions is critical for accurate quantification of phenolics and antioxidants in Berberis asiatica fruits, which may further be utilized for industrial extraction procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 extraction of sardine (Sardinella lemuru Bleeker oil using response surface methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedi, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil was extracted from freeze-dried sardine (Sardinella lemur fillets using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and a few milliliters of ethanol were optimized with response surface methodology (RSM. The impact of extraction pressure (200–400 bars and temperature (40–70 °C were studied on the total extraction yields, ratios of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The results were compared with those of Soxhlet and modified Kinsella methods (MKM. The oils obtained using the SC-CO2 and MKM methods were significantly (P El aceite se extrae de filetes de sardinas (Sardinella lemur liofilizando, mediante dióxido de carbono supercrítico (SC-CO2 y unos mililitros de etanol, optimizándose mediante la metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM. Se ha estudiado la influencia de la presión de extracción (200–400 bars y la temperatura (40–70 °C sobre los rendimientos de extracción total, y sobre las relaciones de ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA y ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos mediante extracción con Soxhlet y el método de Kinsella modificado (MKM. Los aceites obtenidos mediante SC-CO2 y métodos MKM fueron significativamente (P < 0.05 superiores en rendimientos de aceite (8,04% y 6,83%, EPA (5,43% y 5,45% y DHA (18,76% y 18,54%, respectivamente, en comparación con rendimientos mediante Soxhlet (5,10%, EPA (2,17% y DHA (06,46%. De las dos variables independientes, la presión tuvo un efecto crítico sobre el rendimiento, mientras que los porcentajes de EPA y DHA estuvieron notablemente influenciados por la temperatura. Los valores óptimos fueron para una presión de 328 bar y una temperatura de 40 °C, y sus correspondientes respuestas fueron 7,20%, 5,68% y 20,09% para el rendimiento, EPA y DHA, respectivamente. Los valores experimentales de este estudio fueron los previstos y son comparables razonablemente con sus homólogos.

  2. Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for wastewater of hospital by using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdani; Jakfar; Ekawati, D.; Nadira, R.; Darmadi

    2018-04-01

    Hospital wastewater is a source of potential environmental contamination. Therefore, the waste water needs to be treated before it is discharged into the landfill. Various research methods have been used to treat hospital wastewater. However, some methods that have been implemented have not achieved the effluent standards for hospitals that have been set by the government. The experiment was conducted by an electrochemical method is electrolysis using aluminum electrodes with independent variable is the voltage, contact time and concentration of electrolytes. The response optimization using response surface with optimum conditions obtained by the contact time of 34.26 min, voltage 12 V, concentration electrolyte 0.38 M can decrease of COD 65.039%. The model recommended by the response surface for the three variables, namely quadratic response.

  3. Biodiesel Production from Non-Edible Beauty Leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum Oil: Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad I. Jahirul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the beauty leaf plant (Calophyllum Inophyllum is being considered as a potential 2nd generation biodiesel source due to high seed oil content, high fruit production rate, simple cultivation and ability to grow in a wide range of climate conditions. However, however, due to the high free fatty acid (FFA content in this oil, the potential of this biodiesel feedstock is still unrealized, and little research has been undertaken on it. In this study, transesterification of beauty leaf oil to produce biodiesel has been investigated. A two-step biodiesel conversion method consisting of acid catalysed pre-esterification and alkali catalysed transesterification has been utilized. The three main factors that drive the biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME conversion from vegetable oil (triglycerides were studied using response surface methodology (RSM based on a Box-Behnken experimental design. The factors considered in this study were catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature. Linear and full quadratic regression models were developed to predict FFA and FAME concentration and to optimize the reaction conditions. The significance of these factors and their interaction in both stages was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The reaction conditions for the largest reduction in FFA concentration for acid catalysed pre-esterification was 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 10% (w/w sulfuric acid catalyst loading and 75 °C reaction temperature. In the alkali catalysed transesterification process 7.5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1% (w/w sodium methoxide catalyst loading and 55 °C reaction temperature were found to result in the highest FAME conversion. The good agreement between model outputs and experimental results demonstrated that this methodology may be useful for industrial process optimization for biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and possibly other industrial processes as well.

  4. Statistical analysis of surface roughness in turning based on cutting parameters and tool vibrations with response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Soufiane; Mekhilef, Slimane

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental study to determine the effect of the cutting conditions and tool vibration on the surface roughness in finish turning of 32CrMoV12-28 steel, using carbide cutting tool YT15. For these purposes, a linear quadratic model in interaction of connecting surface roughness (Ra, Rz) with different combinations of cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool vibration, in radial and in tangential cutting force directions (Vy) and (Vz) is elaborated. In order to express the degree of interaction of cutting parameters and tool vibration, a multiple linear regression and response surface methodology are adopted. The application of this statistical technique for predicting the surface roughness shows that the feed rate is the most dominant factor followed by the cutting speed. However, the depth of the cut and tool vibrations have secondary effect. The presented models have some interest since they are used in the cutting process optimization.

  5. Optimizing culture conditions for production of intra and extracellular inulinase and invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 by response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarvand, Mojdeh; Rezaee, Malahat; Foroughi, Majid

    The aim of this study was obtain a model that maximizes growth and production of inulinase and invertase by Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611, employing response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. Results showed that the experimental data could be appropriately fitted into a second-order polynomial model with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) more than 0.90 for all responses. This model adequately explained the data variation and represented the actual relationships between the parameters and responses. The pH and temperature value of the cultivation medium were the most significant variables and the effects of inoculum size and agitation speed were slightly lower. The intra-extracellular inulinase, invertase production and biomass content increased 10-32 fold in the optimized medium condition (pH 6.5, temperature 30°C, 6% (v/v), inoculum size and 150rpm agitation speed) by RSM compared with medium optimized through the one-factor-at-a-time method. The process development and intensification for simultaneous production of intra-extracellular inulinase (exo and endo inulinase) and invertase from A. niger could be used for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Response Surface Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter first summarizes Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which started with Box and Wilson’s article in 1951 on RSM for real, non-simulated systems. RSM is a stepwise heuristic that uses first-order polynomials to approximate the response surface locally. An estimated polynomial

  7. Warpage investigation on side arms using response surface methodology (RSM) and glow-worm swarm optimizations (GSO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, C. K.; Fathullah, M.; Nasir, S. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Shazzuan, S.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses on an analysis run via injection moulding process in determination of the optimum processing parameters used for manufacturing side arms of catheters in minimizing the warpage issues. The optimization method used was RSM. Moreover, in this research tries to find the most significant factor affecting the warpage. From the previous literature review,4 most significant parameters on warpage defect was selected. Those parameters were melt temperature, packing time, packing pressure, mould temperature and cooling time. At the beginning, side arm was drawn using software of CATIA V5. Then, software Mouldflow and Design Expert were employed to analyses on the popular warpage issues. After that, GSO artificial intelligence was apply using the mathematical model from Design Expert for more optimization on RSM result. Recommended parameter settings from the simulation work were then compared with the optimization work of RSM and GSO. The result show that the warpage on the side arm was improved by 3.27 %

  8. Investigation and optimization of the novel UASB-MFC integrated system for sulfate removal and bioelectricity generation using the response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baogang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Qi; Feng, Chuanping; Zhu, Yuling; Ye, Zhengfang; Ni, Jinren

    2012-11-01

    COD/sulfate ratio and hydraulic residence time (HRT), both of which influence sulfate loadings jointly, are recognized as the most two important affecting factors for sulfate removal and bioelectricity generation in the novel up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor-microbial fuel cell (UASB-MFC) integrated system. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for the optimization of this system and the optimum condition with COD/sulfate ratio of 2.3 and HRT of 54.3h was obtained with the target of maximizing the power output. In terms of maximizing the total sulfate removal efficiency, the obtained optimum condition was COD/sulfate ratio of 3.7 and HRT of 55.6h. Experimental results indicated the undistorted simulation and reliable optimized results. These demonstrated that RSM was effective to evaluate and optimize the UASB-MFC system for sulfate removal and energy recovery, providing a promising guide to further improvement of the system for potential applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of biostimulant for bioremediation of contaminated coastal sediment by response surface methodology (RSM) and evaluation of microbial diversity by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, Bakthavachallam; Song, Young Chae; Woo, Jung Hui

    2015-09-15

    The present study aims to optimize the slow release biostimulant ball (BSB) for bioremediation of contaminated coastal sediment using response surface methodology (RSM). Different bacterial communities were evaluated using a pyrosequencing-based approach in contaminated coastal sediments. The effects of BSB size (1-5cm), distance (1-10cm) and time (1-4months) on changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solid (VS) reduction were determined. Maximum reductions of COD and VS, 89.7% and 78.8%, respectively, were observed at a 3cm ball size, 5.5cm distance and 4months; these values are the optimum conditions for effective treatment of contaminated coastal sediment. Most of the variance in COD and VS (0.9291 and 0.9369, respectively) was explained in our chosen models. BSB is a promising method for COD and VS reduction and enhancement of SRB diversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of surface integrity in dry hard turning using RSM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates the effect of different cutting parameters (cutting ... with coated carbide tool under different settings of cutting parameters. ... procedure of response surface methodology (RSM) to determine optimal ..... The numerical opti- .... and analysis of experiments, New Delhi, A. K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private.

  11. Optimization of extraction parameters of PTP1β (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1β), inhibitory polyphenols, and anthocyanins from Zea mays L. using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kwon, Shin Hwa; Wang, Zhiqiang; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Lim, Soon Sung

    2016-08-26

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed in insulin-sensitive tissues (such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissue) has a key role in the regulation of insulin signaling and pathway activation, making protein tyrosine phosphatase a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity and response surface methodology (RSM) is an effective statistical technique for optimizing complex processes using a multi-variant approach. In this study, Zea mays L. (Purple corn kernel, PCK) and its constituents were investigated for protein tyrosine phosphatase 1β (PTP1β) inhibitory activity including enzyme kinetic study and to improve total yields of anthocyanins and polyphenols, four extraction parameters, including temperature, time, solid-liquid ratio, and solvent volume, were optimized by RSM. Isolation of seven polyphenols and five anthocyanins was achieved by PTP1β assay. Among them, cyanidin-3-(6"malonylglucoside) and 3'-methoxyhirsutrin showed the highest PTP1β inhibition with IC50 values of 54.06 and 64.04 μM, respectively and 4.52 mg gallic acid equivalent/g (GAE/g) of total polyphenol content (TPC) and 43.02 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/100 g (C3GE/100g) of total anthocyanin content (TAC) were extracted at 40 °C for 8 h with a 33 % solid-liquid ratio and a 1:15 solvent volume. Yields were similar to predictions of 4.58 mg GAE/g of TPC and 42.28 mg C3GE/100 g of TAC. These results indicated that PCK and 3'-methoxyhirsutrin and cyanidin-3-(6"malonylglucoside) might be active natural compounds and could be apply by optimizing of extraction process using response surface methodology.

  12. Assessment of Pb (II Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ascorbic Acid-stabilized Zero-valent Iron Nanoparticles Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddeseh Savasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing pollution of water resources and the limited availability of water supplies have led to a growing interest by researchers to develop novel methods of water remediation and reuse. One such method is the use of ascorbic acid-stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles (AAS-ZVIN for the removal of lead (Pb from aqueous solutions. Using zero-valent iron nanoparticles stabilized with acid ascorbic under aerobic conditions, the present study was conducted to assess the efficiency of Pb removal from aqueous solutions and its optimization by the response surface methodology (RSM. For this purpose, use was made of the central composite design and the response surface methodology with the four input variables of ASS- ZVIN dose (0.5, 1, and 2 g L-1, pH (2, 5, and 7, contact time (5, 20, and 60 min, and initial Pb concentration (5, 10, and 20 mg L-1 to determine the optimal conditions for the process. Numerical optimization revealed that the optimum conditions for Pb removal (97.93% included an ASS-ZVIN dose of 2 g L-1, an initial Pb (II concentration of 25 mg L-1, a contact time of 60 min, and an initial solution pH of 7. The results also imply that not only does ASS-ZVIN offer a good potential for the remediation of water bodies contaminated with Pb, given its high reactivity for Pb removal, but that  the RSM optimization process can be successfully employed for the optimization of the process in question.

  13. Cu2+ Montmorillonite K10 Clay Catalyst as a Green Catalyst for Production of Stearic Acid Methyl Ester: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Almadani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clay catalyst has received much attention to replace the homogeneous catalysts in the esterification reaction to produce fatty acid methyl ester as the source of biodiesel as it is low cost, easily available, as well as environmental friendly. However, the use of unmodified clay, in particular montmorillonite K10 (MMT K10, for the esterification of fatty acids showed that the acid conversion was less than 60% and this is not preferable to the production of biodiesel. In this study, synthesis of stearic acid methyl ester using Cu2+-MMT K10 (Cu-MMT K10 was successfully optimized via response surface methodo-logy (RSM based on 3-variable of Box-Behnken design (BB. The parameters were; reaction time (5-180 minutes, reaction temperature (80-120 oC and concentration of Cu2+ in MMT K10 (0.25-1 M. The use of RSM in optimizing the conversion of stearic acid was successfully developed as the actual experimental conversion of stearic acid was found similar to the actual values under the optimum conditions. The model equation predicted that the following conditions would generate the maximum conversion of stearic acid (87.05 %reaction time of 62 minutes, a reaction temperature of 80 oC and catalyst used is 1.0 M Cu-MMT K10. This finding can be considered as green catalytic process as it worked at moderate reaction temperature using low cost clay catalyst with a short reaction time. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 26th July 2017; Revised: 13rd January 2018; Accepted: 13rd January 2018; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Almadani, E.A., Harun, F.W., Radzi, S.M., Muhamad, S.K. (2018. Cu2+ Montmorillonite K10 Clay Catalyst as a Green Catalyst for Production of Stearic Acid Methyl Ester: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 187-195 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1397.187-195

  14. Optimisation of warpage on thin shell plastic part using response surface methodology (RSM) and glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyirah, B. N.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    In manufacturing a variety of parts, plastic injection moulding is widely use. The injection moulding process parameters have played important role that affects the product's quality and productivity. There are many approaches in minimising the warpage ans shrinkage such as artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, glowworm swarm optimisation and hybrid approaches are addressed. In this paper, a systematic methodology for determining a warpage and shrinkage in injection moulding process especially in thin shell plastic parts are presented. To identify the effects of the machining parameters on the warpage and shrinkage value, response surface methodology is applied. In thos study, a part of electronic night lamp are chosen as the model. Firstly, experimental design were used to determine the injection parameters on warpage for different thickness value. The software used to analyse the warpage is Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) 2012.

  15. Response surface methodology (RSM) modeling of microwave-assisted extraction of natural dye from Swietenia mahagony: A comparation between Box-Behnken and central composite design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Heri Septya; Sudrajat, Robby Ginanjar Margo; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Gala, Selfina; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand of non-toxic and environmentally friendly dyes, colorants that come from natural source have risen as an alternative of sintetic poisonous dyes. In this research natural dye from S. mahagony was extracted using microwave-assisted extraction method under different operating condition such as extraction time (10-30min), plant material to solvent ratio (0.03-0.05g/mL) and microwave power level (100-380 watt). Box-Behnken method and central composite design (CCD) method is widely used for modeling response surface methodology (RSM), both methods show good prediction performance. In this study response surface methodology was performed to optimize the process, both methods were performed by the help Statgraphics Centurion 16 to evaluate the effects of different operating parameters. Finally, both methods were statistically compared by root mean square error (RMSE) and absolute average deviation (AAD) based on validation data set. Further, result suggests that CCD has better performance as compared to Box-Behnken method. The maximum yield obtained for Box-Behnken is 3.7647% (380 watt, 0.0339g/mL, 28.8899min) and 3.7506% (379.986 watt, 0.0378g/mL, 30min) for central composite design method.

  16. Kinetic and isotherm analyses for thorium (IV) adsorptive removal from aqueous solutions by modified magnetite nanoparticle using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Mohammad, E-mail: m.karimi407@alumni.ut.ac.ir [School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Milani, Saeid Alamdar [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, P.O. Box: 14893-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abolgashemi, Hossein [School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the ability and the adsorption capacity of magnetite/aminopropyltriethoxysilane/glutaraldehyde (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/APTES/GA) adsorbent were evaluated for the adsorption of thorium (IV) ions from aqueous solutions. The influence of the several variables such as pH (1–5), Th (IV) initial concentration (50–300 mg L{sup −1}) and adsorbent concentration (1–5 g L{sup −1}) on the Th (IV) adsorption were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the highest absorption capacity (q) was 107.23 mg g{sup −1} with respect to pH = 4.5, initial concentration of 250 mg L{sup −1} and adsorbent concentration of 1 g L{sup −1} for 90 min. Modeling equilibrium sorption data with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich models pointed out that the results were in good agreement with Langmuir model. The experimental kinetic data were well fitted to pseudo-second-order equation with R{sup 2} = 0.9739. Also thermodynamic parameters (ΔG{sup o}, ΔH{sup o}, ΔS{sup o}) declared that the Th (IV) adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous. - Highlights: • Thorium ions were removed from aqueous solutions by modified magnetite nanoparticle. • The effects of process variables on adsorption capacity were investigated by RSM. • Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous. • The equilibrium data for the adsorption of Thorium followed the Langmuir isotherm. • The experimental kinetic data were described by the pseudo-second-order equation.

  17. Optimization of the production conditions of the lipase produced by Bacillus cereus from rice flour through Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiee, Alireza; Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Moradi, Samira

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the screening of lipase positive bacteria from rice flour was carried out by Rhodamin B agar plate method. Bacillus cereus was identified by 16S rDNA method. Screening of the appropriate variables and optimization of the lipase production was performed using Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Among the isolated bacteria, an aerobic Bacillus cereus strain was recognized as the best lipase-producing bacteria (177.3 ± 20 U/ml). Given the results, the optimal enzyme production conditions were achieved with coriander seed extract (CSE)/yeast extract ratio of 16.9 w/w, olive oil (OO) and MgCl 2 concentration of 2.37 g/L and 24.23 mM, respectively. In these conditions, the lipase activity (LA) was predicted 343 U/mL that was approximately close to the predicted value (324 U/mL), which was increased 1.83 fold LA compared with the non-optimized lipase. The kinetic parameters of V max and K m for the lipase were measured 0.367 μM/min.mL and 5.3 mM, respectively. The lipase producing Bacillus cereus was isolated and RSM was used for the optimization of enzyme production. The CSE/yeast extract ratio of 16.9 w/w, OO concentration of 2.37 g/L and MgCl 2 concentration of 24.23 mM, were found to be the optimal conditions of the enzyme production process. LA at optimal enzyme production conditions was observed 1.83 times more than the non-optimal conditions. Ultimately, it can be concluded that the isolated B. cereus from rice flour is a proper source of lipase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Green chemistry focus on optimization of silver nanoparticles using response surface methodology (RSM) and mosquitocidal activity: Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondari Nyakundi, Erick; Padmanabhan, M Nalini

    2015-01-01

    There is an exigent necessity for development of environmental friendly bio-control agent(s) for elimination of mosquito due to increased resistance resurgence against synthetic control agents. Mosquito control strategy will lay a strong foundation to malaria exclusion or it can be curbed to certain level especially in the developing nations. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Tridax procumbens leaf extract as a reducing agent. The reaction medium involved in the synthesis process was optimized by statistical experimental design using response surface methodology to obtain better yield, uniform size, shape and stability. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, PSA and SEM Subsequently, the bioefficacy of these particles were investigated on Anopheles stephensi for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Interestingly, time period of 90 min, temperature of 76±2 °C, pH 7.2±2, 2 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3), 3mM PEG and 2mM PVP showed excellent parameters for bioprocess design for large scale production of stabilized nanoparticles. A concentration of 5 ppm of PVP stabilized nanoparticles exhibited 100% mortality. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilized by PEG and PVP may have important function as stabilizers, dispersants as well as larvicides for mosquito control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process for germanium extraction from zinc oxide dust and its analysis by response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wankun; Wang, Fuchun; Lu, Fanghai

    2017-12-01

    Microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process was proposed to improve the germanium (Ge) extraction from zinc oxide (ZnO) dust. The effects of important parameters were investigated and the process conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The Ge extraction is consistent with the linear polynomial model type. Alkali-material ratio, microwave heating temperature and leaching temperature are the significant factors for this process. The optimized conditions are obtained as follows, alkali-material ratio of 0.9 kg/kg, aging time of 1.12 day, microwave heating at 658 K for 10 min, liquid-solid ratio of 4.31 L/kg, leaching temperature at 330 K, leaching time of 47 min with the Ge extraction about 99.38%. It is in consistence with the predictive value of 99.31%. Compared to the existed alkaline roasting process heated by electric furnace in literature, the alkaline roasting temperature and holding time. It shows a good prospect on leaching Ge from ZnO dust with microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process.

  20. The optimization study on the tool wear of carbide cutting tool during milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced (CFRP) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Khairusshima, M. K.; Hafiz Zakwan, B. Muhammad; Suhaily, M.; Sharifah, I. S. S.; Shaffiar, N. M.; Rashid, M. A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite has become one of famous materials in industry, such as automotive, aeronautics, aerospace and aircraft. CFRP is attractive due to its properties, which promising better strength and high specification of mechanical properties other than its high resistance to corrosion. Other than being abrasive material due to the carbon nature, CFRP is an anisotropic material, which the knowledge of machining metal and steel cannot be applied during machining CFRP. The improper technique and parameters used to machine CFRP may result in high tool wear. This paper is to study the tool wear of 8 mm diameter carbide cutting tool during milling CFRP. To predict the suitable cutting parameters within range of 3500-6220 (rev/min), 200-245 (mm/min), and 0.4-1.8 (mm) for cutting speed, speed, feed rate and depth of cut respectively, which produce optimized result (less tool wear), Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used. Based on the developed mathematical model, feed rate was identified as the primary significant item that influenced tool wear. The optimized cutting parameters are cutting speed, feed and depth of cut of 3500 rev/min, 200 mm/min and 0.5 mm, respectively, with tool wear of 0.0267 mm. It is also can be observed that as the cutting speed and feed rate increased the tool wear is increasing.

  1. Optimization of Culture Medium for the Growth of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp. as Starter Culture in Fermentation of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao) Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahazar, N H; Zakuan, Z; Norhayati, H; MeorHussin, A S; Rukayadi, Y

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation of starter culture in cocoa bean fermentation produces consistent, predictable and high quality of fermented cocoa beans. It is important to produce healthy inoculum in cocoa bean fermentation for better fermented products. Inoculum could minimize the length of the lag phase in fermentation. The purpose of this study was to optimize the component of culture medium for the maximum cultivation of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp. Molasses and yeast extract were chosen as medium composition and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was then employed to optimize the molasses and yeast extract. Maximum growth of Candida sp. (7.63 log CFU mL-1) and Blastobotrys sp. (8.30 log CFU mL-1) were obtained from the fermentation. Optimum culture media for the growth of Candida sp., consist of 10% (w/v) molasses and 2% (w/v) yeast extract, while for Blastobotrys sp., were 1.94% (w/v) molasses and 2% (w/v) yeast extract. This study shows that culture medium consists of molasses and yeast extract were able to produce maximum growth of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp., as a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.

  2. Investigation of the Process Conditions for Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Glycerol over Ni/Al₂O₃ Catalyst Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebshish, Ali; Yaakob, Zahira; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Bshish, Ahmed

    2014-03-19

    In this work; a response surface methodology (RSM) was implemented to investigate the process variables in a hydrogen production system. The effects of five independent variables; namely the temperature (X₁); the flow rate (X₂); the catalyst weight (X₃); the catalyst loading (X₄) and the glycerol-water molar ratio (X₅) on the H₂ yield (Y₁) and the conversion of glycerol to gaseous products (Y₂) were explored. Using multiple regression analysis; the experimental results of the H₂ yield and the glycerol conversion to gases were fit to quadratic polynomial models. The proposed mathematical models have correlated the dependent factors well within the limits that were being examined. The best values of the process variables were a temperature of approximately 600 °C; a feed flow rate of 0.05 mL/min; a catalyst weight of 0.2 g; a catalyst loading of 20% and a glycerol-water molar ratio of approximately 12; where the H₂ yield was predicted to be 57.6% and the conversion of glycerol was predicted to be 75%. To validate the proposed models; statistical analysis using a two-sample t -test was performed; and the results showed that the models could predict the responses satisfactorily within the limits of the variables that were studied.

  3. Optimizing of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Cattle Manure Fertilizers Application in Winter Wheat Production Using Response-Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. jahan

    2016-02-01

    low levels of manure were determined based on nutrient content and local recommendations. Response of measured variables (y to experimental factors (X was estimated by using second order polynomials with interaction (Equation 1: (1 Where 0 is constant and i, ij and ii are coefficients for linear, interaction and quadratic terms, respectively. After simulation, using statistical methods, the result is a second order polynomial which states the estimated of response (yield as a function of inputs variables. Finally, after optimizing of resulted function and eliminating of low effect terms, using statistical tests and criteria such as, F test, lack of fit test, coefficient of determination (R2, a final function to predict yield and other expected variables was calculated (Equation 2: (2 In this function, Y is a dependent variable, X is the independent variable of N fertilizer, X2 is independent variable of P fertilizer, X3 is independent variable of manure, and a0 to a9 are coefficients of function. The equation is functional only in the defined range of input variables and could not predict values out of the range. The optimized rates of N, P and manure, determined considering 3 scenarios including: economic, environmental and eco-environmental, which seed yield, N loss and NUE and N loss were the main determining factors, respectively. To obtain optimized levels, response-surface methodology was used. Finally, the fitted values compared to observed values then validity of regression models evaluated by RMSE test (Equation 3 and 1:1 regression line. (3 RMSE (% Results and Discussion Optimization of nitrogen, phosphorus and manure fertilization were done according to 3 scenarios of economic, environmental and eco-environmental. In economic scenario, wheat seed yield was considered as the main determining factor of optimized resource, thus the result showed by applying of 145.45 kg ha-1 N, 200 kg ha-1 P and 18.48 tones ha-1 manure, it would be attained the

  4. The effects of chemical coagulants on the decolorization of dyes by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick B.; Hung, Yung-Tse; Mulamba, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant dose. The addition of chemical coagulants did enhanced treatment efficiency.

  5. Response surface methodology (RSM) based multi-objective optimization of fusel oil -gasoline blends at different water content in SI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Omar I.; Mamat, R.; Ali, Obed M.; Azmi, W.H.; Kadirgama, K.; Yusri, I.M.; Leman, A.M.; Yusaf, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal ratio ratio of fusel oil–gasoline blended fuels is proposed. • The water content of fusel oil was reduced from 13.5% to 6.5%. • The heating value of fusel oil was improved by 13%. • FAWE 20 fuels were found to be optimal values with a high desirability of 0.707. • RSM was applied to optimize the engine performance and exhaust emissions. - Abstract: The main objective of this study is to determine the optimal blend ratio of fusel oil–gasoline before and after water extraction (FBWE10, FBWE20, FAWE10, and FAWE20) regarding the performance and emissions of spark ignition engine using response surface methodology (RSM). The multi-objective optimization is applied to maximize the brake power, brake thermal efficiency and minimize the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), NOx emission, HC emission and CO emission. The water content of fusel oil has been extracted by employing rotary extractor method. The experimental of this study has been carried out with different fusel oil–gasoline blends, different throttle valve opening position (15%, 30%, 45% and 60%) and different engine speed (1500, 2500, 3500 and 4500 rpm). All the developed models for responses were determined to be statistically significant at 95% confidence level. The study results reveal an improvement in heating value of fusel oil after water extraction with FAWE20 (80 vol% gasoline fuel, 20 vol% fusel oil after water extracted) as the optimally blended fuel. The best condition of engine parameters with FAWE20 were 55.4% of WOT for load and 4499 rpm engine speed. In additional of the optimal values with a high desirability of 0.707 were 62.511 kW, 241.139 g/kW h, 36%, 1895.913 ppm140.829 ppm and % for brake power, BSFC, BTE, NO x , HC and CO emissions respectively. The reduction of water content in fusel oil has a statistical significance influence to increases BTE, NO x emission and decreases the BSFC, HC and CO emissions.

  6. Warpage optimisation on the moulded part with straight-drilled and conformal cooling channels using response surface methodology (RSM) and glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazwan, M. H. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Sharif, S.; Nasir, S. M.; Zainal, N.

    2017-09-01

    In injection moulding process, quality and productivity are notably important and must be controlled for each product type produced. Quality is measured as the extent of warpage of moulded parts while productivity is measured as a duration of moulding cycle time. To control the quality, many researchers have introduced various of optimisation approaches which have been proven enhanced the quality of the moulded part produced. In order to improve the productivity of injection moulding process, some of researches have proposed the application of conformal cooling channels which have been proven reduced the duration of moulding cycle time. Therefore, this paper presents an application of alternative optimisation approach which is Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Glowworm Swarm Optimisation (GSO) on the moulded part with straight-drilled and conformal cooling channels mould. This study examined the warpage condition of the moulded parts before and after optimisation work applied for both cooling channels. A front panel housing have been selected as a specimen and the performance of proposed optimisation approach have been analysed on the conventional straight-drilled cooling channels compared to the Milled Groove Square Shape (MGSS) conformal cooling channels by simulation analysis using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) 2013. Based on the results, melt temperature is the most significant factor contribute to the warpage condition and warpage have optimised by 39.1% after optimisation for straight-drilled cooling channels and cooling time is the most significant factor contribute to the warpage condition and warpage have optimised by 38.7% after optimisation for MGSS conformal cooling channels. In addition, the finding shows that the application of optimisation work on the conformal cooling channels offers the better quality and productivity of the moulded part produced.

  7. Modeling the effects of ultrasound power and reactor dimension on the biodiesel production yield: Comparison of prediction abilities between response surface methodology (RSM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafaei, Mostafa; Javadikia, Hossein; Naderloo, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel is as an alternative petro-diesel fuel produced from the renewable resources. The use of novel technologies such as ultrasound technology for biodiesel production intensifies the reaction and reduces the process cost. The present study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prediction and simulating efficiency of the response surface methodology (RSM) and adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approaches for modeling the transesterification yield achieved in ultrasonic reactor. The influence of independent variables (reactor diameter, liquid height and ultrasound intensity) on the conversion of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was investigated by Box-Behnken design of RSM and two ANFIS approaches (hybrid and back-propagation optimization methods). All models were compared statistically based on the training and validation data set by the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squares error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean relative percent deviation (MRPD). The calculated R2 for RSM and two ANFIS models were 0.9669, 0.9812 and 0.9808, respectively. All models indicated good predictions, however, the ANFIS models were more precise compared to the RSM model, which proves that the ANFIS is a powerful tool for modeling and optimizing FAME production in ultrasound reactor. - Highlights: • The ultrasound assisted FAME conversion was modelled using RSM and ANFIS approaches. • The scatter diagrams indicate the models accurately predicted the reaction yield. • The ANFIS model (hybrid) has higher R"2 (0.9812) compared to the RSM model. • The predicted deviations and residual values are relatively small for ANFIS model. • ANFIS model was more accurate for predicting ultrasound assisted FAME conversion.

  8. Removal of Penicillin G by combination of sonolysis and Photocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic) process from aqueous solution: process optimization using RSM (Response Surface Methodology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Ali; Dargahi, Abdollah; Mohamadi, Mitra; Biglari, Hamed; Amirian, Farhad; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Penicillin G (PG) is used in a variety of infectious diseases, extensively. Generally, when antibiotics are introduced into the food chain, they pose a threat to the environment and can risk health outcomes. The aim of the present study was the removal of Penicillin G from an aqueous solution through an integrated system of UV/ZnO and UV/WO 3 with Ultrasound pretreatment. In this descriptive-analytical work dealing with the removal of Penicillin G from an aqueous solution, four significant variables, contact time (60-120 min), Penicillin G concentration (50-150 mg/L), ZnO dose (200-400 mg/L), and WO 3 dose (100-200 mg/L) were investigated. Experiments were performed in a Pyrex reactor (batch, 1 Lit) with an artificial UV 100-Watt medium pressure mercury lamp, coupled with ultrasound (100 W, 40 KHz) for PG pre-treatment. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was selected to follow the performance of the photo-catalytic process and sonolysis. The experiments were based on a Central Composite Design (CCD) and analyzed by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A mathematical model of the process was designed according to the proposed degradation scheme. The results showed that the maximum removal of PG occurred in ultrasonic/UV/WO 3 in the presence of 50 mg/L WO 3 and contact time of 120 minutes. In addition, an increase in the PG concentration caused a decrease in COD removal. As the initial concentration of the catalyst increased, the COD removal also increased. The maximum COD removal (91.3%) achieved by 200 mg/L WO 3 and 400 mg/l ZnO, a contact time of 120 minutes, and an antibiotic concentration of 50 mg/L. All of the variables in the process efficiency were found to be significant (p research data supported the conclusion that the combination of advanced oxidation process of sonolysis and photocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic) were applicable and environmentally friendly processes, which preferably can be applied extensively.

  9. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of total extract, stevioside and rebaudioside-A from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) leaves, using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Kashif; Bae, Seong-Woo; Jo, Yunhee; Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Ameer, Asif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-08-15

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) consists of stevioside and rebaudioside-A (Reb-A). We compared response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling for their estimation and predictive capabilities in building effective models with maximum responses. A 5-level 3-factor central composite design was used to optimize microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to obtain maximum yield of target responses as a function of extraction time (X 1 : 1-5min), ethanol concentration, (X 2 : 0-100%) and microwave power (X 3 : 40-200W). Maximum values of the three output parameters: 7.67% total extract yield, 19.58mg/g stevioside yield, and 15.3mg/g Reb-A yield, were obtained under optimum extraction conditions of 4min X 1 , 75% X 2 , and 160W X 3 . The ANN model demonstrated higher efficiency than did the RSM model. Hence, RSM can demonstrate interaction effects of inherent MAE parameters on target responses, whereas ANN can reliably model the MAE process with better predictive and estimation capabilities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. OPTIMASI PROSES MESIN STRETCH BLOW MOULDING PADA BOTOL 600 ML DENGAN METODE RSM (RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY STUDI KASUS DI PT. UNIPLASTINDO INTERBUANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Mas'ud

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pada proses produksi Aqua botol plastik 600 ml menggunakan mesin stretch blow moulding dengan sistem pneumatik, Pembuatan produk dengan menggunakan mesin ini memiliki faktor-faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi kualitas botol yang dihasilkan . Penyimpangan ukuran (pemerataan tebal botol dan kemiringan botol tidak sesuai dengan spesifikasi mengakibatkan botol dibagian pundak putih dan bergelang (shrinkage. Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu mengoptimalkan setting parameter mesin stretch blow moulding agar menghasilkan kualitas baik pada produk botol plastik 600 ml. Adapun variable(prediktor yang di pilih yaitu preblow (bar, preform temperature (, dan P1 point (mm, sedangkan respon yang dicari yaitu kemiringan minimal dan tebal maksimal. Metode yang di gunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu menggunakan Response Surface Metodhology (RSM yang mana dalam perhitungannya menggunakan software minitab 16. Dengan menggunakan Box Behnken Design dan 3 level factorial di hasilkan run 15 percobaan. Berdasarkan hasil kondisi yang optimal parameter yaitu preblow sebesar 6,5 bar, preform temperature sebesar 114 , dan P1 Point sebesar 25 mm. Dengan setting sebesar tersebut akan menghasilkan respon tebal botol sebesar 0,1446 dan kemiringan botol sebesar 0,1875.

  11. Adsorption of trace thorium(IV) from aqueous solution by mono-modified β-cyclodextrin polyrotaxane using response surface methodology (RSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijun Liu; Caixia Qi; Zhiyuan Feng; Lanlin Lei; Shanxia Deng

    2017-01-01

    The adsorption of thorium(IV) was studied using a novel supramolecular polyrotaxane based on β-cyclodextrin derivatives. The effects of pH, contact time, Th(IV) initial concentration and adsorbents dosage on the adsorption of thorium(IV) by polyrotaxane were optimized using Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. Analysis of variance and correlation coefficients showed that the predicted model was consistent with the experimental data well. The adsorption best fitted to the Langmuir model indicated that the adsorption process happened on homogeneous surface. The thermodynamic parameters (∆G 0 < 0, ∆H 0 > 0, ∆S 0 > 0) demonstrated that the adsorption of Th(IV) ions onto polyrotaxane was spontaneous and endothermic. (author)

  12. Preparation, characterization, uranium (VI) biosorption models, and conditions optimization by response surface methodology (RSM) for amidoxime-functionalized marine fungus materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuechun; Gao, Yang; Jiang, Min; He, Dianxiong; Liao, Sen; Hou, Dan; Yan, Xueming; Long, Wei; Wu, Yaxin; Tan, Ni [Univ. of South China, Hengyang (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2017-08-01

    Amidoxime-functionalized marine fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 (ZGDA) was synthesized and studied to adsorb uranium (VI) from the aqueous solution. Different instrumental techniques such as FTIR, SEM, and TGA were employed for the characterization of the manufactured materials, and theirs ability of removal uranium (VI) was optimized using RSM. The experimental results showed the maximum adsorption capacity for the synthesized materials was 230.78 mg g{sup -1} at the following optimization conditions: S-L ratio 150 mg L{sup -1}, pH 5.13, uranium (VI) initial concentration 40 mg L{sup -1}, and equilibrium time 122.40 min. More than 85% of the absorbed uranium (VI) could be desorbed by 0.5 or 1.0 mol L{sup -1} HCl, and the modified mycelium could be reused at least five times. The thermodynamic experimental data of adsorption uranium (VI) could fit better with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models, and the pseudo-second-order model was better to interpret the kinetics process. The modified fungus materials exhibited the better sorption capacity for uranium (VI) in comparison with raw biomass should be attributed to the strong chelation of amidoxime to uranium (VI) ions.

  13. Generalized Response Surface Methodology : A New Metaheuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Generalized Response Surface Methodology (GRSM) is a novel general-purpose metaheuristic based on Box and Wilson.s Response Surface Methodology (RSM).Both GRSM and RSM estimate local gradients to search for the optimal solution.These gradients use local first-order polynomials.GRSM, however, uses

  14. Removal of pollutants with determination of power consumption from landfill leachate wastewater using an electrocoagulation process: optimization using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Perumal; Beyene, Dejene; Aziz, Abdul Raman Abdul; Alemayehu, Esayas

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of landfill leachate wastewater by electrocoagulation process using an aluminium electrode was investigated in a batch electrochemical cell reactor. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize the operating parameters for the removal of % color and % total organic carbon (TOC) together with power consumption from landfill leachate. Effects of three important independent parameters such as current density ( X 1), inter-electrode distance ( X 2) and solution pH ( X 3) of the landfill leachate sample on the % color and % TOC removal with power consumption were investigated. A quadratic model was used to predict the % color and % TOC removal with power consumption in different experimental conditions. The significance of each independent variable was calculated by analysis of variance. In order to achieve the maximum % color and % TOC removal with minimum of power consumption, the optimum conditions were about current density ( X 1)—5.25 A/dm2, inter-electrode distance ( X 2)—1 cm and initial solution of effluent pH ( X 3)—7.83, with the yield of color removal of 74.57%, and TOC removal of 51.75% with the power consumption of 14.80 kWh/m3. Electrocoagulation process could be applied to remove pollutants from industrial effluents and wastewater.

  15. A novel natural source Vicia faba L. membranes as colourant: development and optimisation of the extraction process using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouatay, Feriel; Baaka, Noureddine; Shahid, Adeel; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk

    2018-02-02

    In this research paper, an eco-friendly extraction process of dyes from Vicia faba L. membranes was developed. In this regard, the influence of independent process factors like the weight of material, the extraction time, the temperature and the sodium hydroxide concentration on the natural dye extraction from Vicia faba membranes was investigated. The optimisation of the extraction conditions and the effect evaluation of the different operating parameters were carried out using a Box-Behnken design under response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were found to be 66 °C, 90 min, 5 g and 0.1628 mol·L -1 for extraction temperature, time, mass of the material and sodium hydroxide concentration, respectively. The efficiency of this extraction process under these optimum conditions was evaluated by measuring the total phenolic content (TPC), the total flavonoid content and the relative colour yield (K/S). In these operating conditions, good fastness ratios were observed for the dyed fabrics.

  16. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for optimisation of COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal from recycled paper wastewater in a pilot-scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman, Rakmi; Hasan Kadhum, Abdul Amir

    2013-05-30

    In this study, the potential of a pilot-scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR) for removing chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from recycled paper wastewater was assessed. For this purpose, the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed, using a central composite face-centred design (CCFD), to optimise three of the most important operating variables, i.e., hydraulic retention time (HRT), aeration rate (AR) and influent feed concentration (IFC), in the pilot-scale GAC-SBBR process for recycled paper wastewater treatment. Quadratic models were developed for the response variables, i.e., COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal, based on the high value (>0.9) of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) obtained from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimal conditions were established at 750 mg COD/L IFC, 3.2 m(3)/min AR and 1 day HRT, corresponding to predicted COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal percentages of 94.8, 100 and 80.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing Oil Extraction Yield From ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... from tropical almond seed by the use of response surface methodology (RSM).

  18. Response Surface Methodology's Steepest Ascent and Step Size Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; den Hertog, D.; Angun, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Response Surface Methodology (RSM) searches for the input combination maximizing the output of a real system or its simulation.RSM is a heuristic that locally fits first-order polynomials, and estimates the corresponding steepest ascent (SA) paths.However, SA is scale-dependent; and its step size is

  19. Bioaccumulation of the synthetic dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals in single and binary systems by Candida tropicalis grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium: Modelling optimal conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) and inhibition kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Devlina; Charumathi, D.; Das, Nilanjana

    2011-01-01

    Single and binary effects of dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals, 'namely', Pb(II) and Cd(II), were investigated for their role in dye and heavy metal bioaccumulation by Candida tropicalis that was grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium containing 8 g/L, 16 g/L or 24 g/L of sugar. The optimum pH was found to be 4.0 in the single system and 5.0 in the binary system. A central composite design was successfully used to analyse the experimental results. Four numerical correlations that were fitted to a second order quadratic equation were used to estimate optimum combinations predicted by response surface methodology. In the dye-Pb(II) binary system, C. tropicalis was capable of bioaccumulating 49.5% of the dye and 49.6% of the Pb(II), in comparison to 15.9% of the dye and 55.5% of the Cd(II) in the dye-Cd(II) binary system. In these two systems, the pollutants were dispersed at minimum working concentration levels. Competitive inhibition was observed in both the single and binary systems, which was suggested by an increase in the saturation constant, K s , and a simultaneous decrease in the specific growth rate that was calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Atomic force microscopy images demonstrated changes in yeast cell morphology by exposure to these contaminants in the dye-Pb(II) binary system grown in a bioaccumulation medium.

  20. Removal of Methyl Red from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Treated Banana Pseudo stem Fibers Using Response Surface Method (RSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaida Rahayu Yet; Mohd Zulkhairi Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The effect of adsorbent dose, pH and contact times on the removal of Methyl Red (MR) from aqueous solution by using agriculture waste (NaOH treated banana pseudo stem fibers) were studied. The influence of these parameters on the removal of Methyl Red was examined by using a response surface method (RSM). The experiment was conducted by combining three parameters: adsorbent dose (500-1500 mg/L), pH (2-8) dan contact time (5-75 minutes ). The Box-Behnken Design (BBD) in Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by Design Expert Version 8.0.4 (Stat Ease, USA) was used for designing the experiments. Results showed that the optimum conditions for removal of Methyl Red from an aqueous solution (100 mg/L) were as follows: adsorbent dose (1417.70 mg/L), pH (2.08) and contact time (42.94 minutes) with the value of a coefficient of determination, R2 is 98.98 %. Meanwhile, the second-order polynomial equation indicates that pH and contact times mostly affect the removal of Methyl Red. (author)

  1. A comparison RSM and ANN surface roughness models in thin-wall machining of Ti6Al4V using vegetable oils under MQL-condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohruni, Amrifan Saladin; Yanis, Muhammad; Sharif, Safian; Yani, Irsyadi; Yuliwati, Erna; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Shayfull, Zamree

    2017-09-01

    Thin-wall components as usually applied in the structural parts of aeronautical industry require significant challenges in machining. Unacceptable surface roughness can occur during machining of thin-wall. Titanium product such Ti6Al4V is mostly applied to get the appropriate surface texture in thin wall designed requirements. In this study, the comparison of the accuracy between Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in the prediction of surface roughness was conducted. Furthermore, the machining tests were carried out under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) using AlCrN-coated carbide tools. The use of Coconut oil as cutting fluids was also chosen in order to evaluate its performance when involved in end milling. This selection of cutting fluids is based on the better performance of oxidative stability than that of other vegetable based cutting fluids. The cutting speed, feed rate, radial and axial depth of cut were used as independent variables, while surface roughness is evaluated as the dependent variable or output. The results showed that the feed rate is the most significant factors in increasing the surface roughness value followed by the radial depth of cut and lastly the axial depth of cut. In contrary, the surface becomes smoother with increasing the cutting speed. From a comparison of both methods, the ANN model delivered a better accuracy than the RSM model.

  2. Optimization of Coolant Technique Conditions for Machining A319 Aluminium Alloy Using Response Surface Method (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Ariffin, S.; Razlan, A.; Ali, M. Mohd; Efendee, A. M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Background/Objectives: The paper discusses about the optimum cutting parameters with coolant techniques condition (1.0 mm nozzle orifice, wet and dry) to optimize surface roughness, temperature and tool wear in the machining process based on the selected setting parameters. The selected cutting parameters for this study were the cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and coolant techniques condition. Methods/Statistical Analysis Experiments were conducted and investigated based on Design of Experiment (DOE) with Response Surface Method. The research of the aggressive machining process on aluminum alloy (A319) for automotive applications is an effort to understand the machining concept, which widely used in a variety of manufacturing industries especially in the automotive industry. Findings: The results show that the dominant failure mode is the surface roughness, temperature and tool wear when using 1.0 mm nozzle orifice, increases during machining and also can be alternative minimize built up edge of the A319. The exploration for surface roughness, productivity and the optimization of cutting speed in the technical and commercial aspects of the manufacturing processes of A319 are discussed in automotive components industries for further work Applications/Improvements: The research result also beneficial in minimizing the costs incurred and improving productivity of manufacturing firms. According to the mathematical model and equations, generated by CCD based RSM, experiments were performed and cutting coolant condition technique using size nozzle can reduces tool wear, surface roughness and temperature was obtained. Results have been analyzed and optimization has been carried out for selecting cutting parameters, shows that the effectiveness and efficiency of the system can be identified and helps to solve potential problems.

  3. [Optimization of calcium alginate floating microspheres loading aspirin by artificial neural networks and response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-yang; Fan, Tian-yuan

    2010-04-18

    To investigate the preparation and optimization of calcium alginate floating microspheres loading aspirin. A model was used to predict the in vitro release of aspirin and optimize the formulation by artificial neural networks (ANNs) and response surface methodology (RSM). The amounts of the material in the formulation were used as inputs, while the release and floating rate of the microspheres were used as outputs. The performances of ANNs and RSM were compared. ANNs were more accurate in prediction. There was no significant difference between ANNs and RSM in optimization. Approximately 90% of the optimized microspheres could float on the artificial gastric juice over 4 hours. 42.12% of aspirin was released in 60 min, 60.97% in 120 min and 78.56% in 240 min. The release of the drug from the microspheres complied with Higuchi equation. The aspirin floating microspheres with satisfying in vitro release were prepared successfully by the methods of ANNs and RSM.

  4. Isolation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch – A response surface methodology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yee Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work studied the extraction of Nano Crystalline Cellulose (NCC from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB, with aid of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Particle size analysis using Malvern Zetasizer had confirmed the extracted NCC fall within the desired nano scaled range. The impact of three input parameters, namely concentration of NaOH solution during alkaline treatment, concentration of H2SO4 solution during acid hydrolysis, and duration for acid hydrolysis on NCC particle were investigated. From ANOVA study, it had suggested that the current RSM model is significant to interpret the interaction among the all three input parameters.

  5. Radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventory ampersand tracking system and prototype RSM field survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.R.

    1994-09-01

    Based on very preliminary information, it has been estimated that the radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventories at DOE facilities amount to about 1.5 million tons and a much larger amount will be generated from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus DOE facilities. To implement a national DOE program for beneficial reuse of RSM, it will be necessary to known the location and characteristics of RSM inventories that are available and will be generated to match them with product demands. It is the intent of this task to provide a standardized methodology via a RSM database for recording, tracking, and reporting data on RSM inventories. A multiple relational database in dBASE IV was designed and a PC-based code was written in Clipper 5.0 syntax to expedite entry, editing, querying, and reporting of RSM survey data. The PC based-code, the multiple relational database files, and other external files used by the code to generate reports and queries constitute a customized software application called the RSM Inventory ampersand Tracking System (RSM I ampersand TS). A prototype RSM field survey was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to demonstrate the field use of the RSM I ampersand TS and logistics of conducting the survey. During the demonstration, about 50 tons of RSM were sized, characterized, sorted, and packaged in transport containers

  6. Otimização de propriedades mecânicas de misturas ternárias de polipropileno (PP/borracha de etileno-propileno-dieno (EPDM/pó de pneus (SRT sob tração e impacto usando a metodologia da superfície de resposta (MSR Optimization of mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber (EPDM/scrap rubber tire (SRT ternary mixtures under tensile and impact using the response surface methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helson M. da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A metodologia da superfície de resposta (MSR é uma coleção de técnicas estatísticas e matemáticas para desenvolver, melhorar e otimizar processos. Neste estudo, a técnica MSR foi aplicada na investigação do comportamento mecânico de diferentes misturas ternárias de PP/EPDM/SRT. Após a mistura apropriada em uma extrusora de dupla rosca co-rotante e a moldagem por injeção, as propriedades mecânicas (resistência à tração e a resistência ao impacto foram determinadas e usadas como variáveis de resposta. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV foi usada para investigar a morfologia das diferentes misturas e interpretar os resultados. Com ferramentas estatísticas específicas, um número mínimo de experimentos permitiu o desenvolvimento de um modelo de superfície de resposta e a otimização das concentrações dos componentes de acordo com o desempenho mecânico. Valores elevados de resistência ao impacto são alcançados (>80 J.m-1 quando, de acordo com as condições experimentais estudadas, a mistura física de PP/EPDM/SRT mantém as proporções de EPDM e SRT em torno de 25%.The response surface methodology (RSM is a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques for developing, improving and optimizing processes. In this study, RSM technique was applied to the investigation of the mechanical behavior of different PP/EPDM/SRT ternary mixtures. After appropriate processing in a co-rotating twin extruder and injection molding, the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and impact strength, were determined and used as response variables. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for investigating the morphology of the different blends and to interpret the results. With specific statistical tools, a minimum number of experiments allowed the response surface model to be developed and the concentrations of the components to be optimized according to the mechanical performance. High values of impact

  7. Optimization of ultrasonic assisted extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jixiang; Xin, Can; Zhao, Ya; Feng, Bing; He, Congfen; Dong, Yinmao; Fang, Yun; Wei, Shaomin

    2013-01-16

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts. Three influencing factors: liquid-solid ratio, period of ultrasonic assisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. Then Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the antioxidants with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum radical-scavenging capacity were established to be liquid-solid ratio of 29.19:1, extraction time of 32.13 min, and extraction temperature of 30 °C. Under these conditions, 67.60% of DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 66.36%.

  8. Optimization of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exopolysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Xu, X.; Zhu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of fermentation medium on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exopolysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus by response surface methodology (RSM). A two-level fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of different

  9. Mathematical Modelling and Optimization of Cutting Force, Tool Wear and Surface Roughness by Using Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology in Milling of Ti-6242S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Kilickap

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of different cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear in the milling of Ti-6242S alloy using the cemented carbide (WC end mills with a 10 mm diameter. Data obtained from experiments were defined both Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Response Surface Methodology (RSM. ANN trained network using Levenberg-Marquardt (LM and weights were trained. On the other hand, the mathematical models in RSM were created applying Box Behnken design. Values obtained from the ANN and the RSM was found to be very close to the data obtained from experimental studies. The lowest cutting force and surface roughness were obtained at high cutting speeds and low feed rate and depth of cut. The minimum tool wear was obtained at low cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut.

  10. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Lee, Namhyouck; Kim, Young; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sang; Jeon, Yeo-Won; Kim, Young-Eon

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio ...

  11. Modeling and optimization of ethanol fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Response surface methodology and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfahanian Mehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the capabilities of response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural networks (ANN for modeling and optimization of ethanol production from glucoseusing Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch fermentation process were investigated. Effect of three independent variables in a defined range of pH (4.2-5.8, temperature (20-40ºC and glucose concentration (20-60 g/l on the cell growth and ethanol production was evaluated. Results showed that prediction accuracy of ANN was apparently similar to RSM. At optimum condition of temperature (32°C, pH (5.2 and glucose concentration (50 g/l suggested by the statistical methods, the maximum cell dry weight and ethanol concentration obtained from RSM were 12.06 and 16.2 g/l whereas experimental values were 12.09 and 16.53 g/l, respectively. The present study showed that using ANN as fitness function, the maximum cell dry weight and ethanol concentration were 12.05 and 16.16 g/l, respectively. Also, the coefficients of determination for biomass and ethanol concentration obtained from RSM were 0.9965 and 0.9853 and from ANN were 0.9975 and 0.9936, respectively. The process parameters optimization was successfully conducted using RSM and ANN; however prediction by ANN was slightly more precise than RSM. Based on experimental data maximum yield of ethanol production of 0.5 g ethanol/g substrate (97 % of theoretical yield was obtained.

  12. Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Magnetic Abrasive Finishing on Concave Freeform Surface of Al Alloy via RSM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Vahdati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts of researchers in industries to obtain accurate and high quality surfaces led to the invention of new methods of finishing. Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF is a relatively new type of finishing in which the magnetic field is used to control the abrasive tools. Applications such as the surface of molds are ones of the parts which require very high surface smoothness. Usually this type of parts has freeform surface. In this study, the effect of magnetic abrasive process parameters on freeform surfaces of parts made of aluminum is examined. This method is obtained through combination of magnetic abrasive process and Control Numerical Computer (CNC. The use of simple hemisphere for installation on the flat area of the magnets as well as magnets’ spark in curve form is a measure done during testing the experiments. The design of experiments is based on response surface methodology. The gap, the rotational speed of the spindle, and the feed rate are found influential and regression equations governing the process are also determined. The impact of intensity of the magnetic field is obtained using the finite element software of Maxwell. Results show that in concave areas of the surface, generally speaking, the surface roughness decreases to 0.2 μm from its initial 1.3 μm roughness. However, in some points the lowest surface roughness of 0.08 μm was measured.

  13. Optimization of hybrid laser - TIG welding of 316LN steel using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavendran, M.; Chandrasekhar, N.; Ravikumar, R.; Saxena, Rajesh; Vasudevan, M.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, the hybrid laser - TIG welding parameters for welding of 316LN austenitic stainless steel have been investigated by combining a pulsed laser beam with a TIG welding heat source at the weld pool. Laser power, pulse frequency, pulse duration, TIG current were presumed as the welding process parameters whereas weld bead width, weld cross-sectional area and depth of penetration (DOP) were considered as the process responses. Central composite design was used to complete the design matrix and welding experiments were conducted based on the design matrix. Weld bead measurements were then carried out to generate the dataset. Multiple regression models correlating the process parameters with the responses have been developed. The accuracy of the models were found to be good. Then, the desirability approach optimization technique was employed for determining the optimum process parameters to obtain the desired weld bead profile. Validation experiments were then carried out from the determined optimum process parameters. There was good agreement between the predicted and measured values.

  14. Optimization of vibratory welding process parameters using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pravin Kumar; Kumar, S. Deepak; Patel, D.; Prasad, S. B. [National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand (India)

    2017-05-15

    The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of vibratory welding technique on mechanical properties of 6 mm thick butt welded mild steel plates. A new concept of vibratory welding technique has been designed and developed which is capable to transfer vibrations, having resonance frequency of 300 Hz, into the molten weld pool before it solidifies during the Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process. The important process parameters of vibratory welding technique namely welding current, welding speed and frequency of the vibrations induced in molten weld pool were optimized using Taguchi’s analysis and Response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of process parameters on tensile strength and hardness were evaluated using optimization techniques. Applying RSM, the effect of vibratory welding parameters on tensile strength and hardness were obtained through two separate regression equations. Results showed that, the most influencing factor for the desired tensile strength and hardness is frequency at its resonance value, i.e. 300 Hz. The micro-hardness and microstructures of the vibratory welded joints were studied in detail and compared with those of conventional SMAW joints. Comparatively, uniform and fine grain structure has been found in vibratory welded joints.

  15. Modeling and optimization of fermentation variables for enhanced production of lactase by isolated Bacillus subtilis strain VUVD001 using artificial neural networking and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarulu, T C; Prabhakar, K Vidya; Kumar, R Bharath; Krupanidhi, S

    2017-07-01

    Modeling and optimization were performed to enhance production of lactase through submerged fermentation by Bacillus subtilis VUVD001 using artificial neural networks (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of process parameters namely temperature (°C), pH, and incubation time (h) and their combinational interactions on production was studied in shake flask culture by Box-Behnken design. The model was validated by conducting an experiment at optimized process variables which gave the maximum lactase activity of 91.32 U/ml. Compared to traditional activity, 3.48-folds improved production was obtained after RSM optimization. This study clearly shows that both RSM and ANN models provided desired predictions. However, compared with RSM (R 2  = 0.9496), the ANN model (R 2  = 0.99456) gave a better prediction for the production of lactase.

  16. Parametric optimization for floating drum anaerobic bio-digester using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sathish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study to increase the optimal conditions for biogas yield from anaerobic digestion of agricultural waste (Rice Straw using Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Artificial Neural Network (ANN. In the development of predictive models temperature, pH, substrate concentration and agitation time are conceived as model variables. The experimental results show that the liner model terms of temperature, substrate concentration and pH, agitation time have significance of interactive effects (p < 0.05. The results manifest that the optimum process parameters affected on biogas yield increase from the ANN model when compared to RSM model. The ANN model indicates that it is much more accurate and reckons the values of maximum biogas yield when compared to RSM model.

  17. Optimization of microwave-assisted drying of Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L. by response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KARACABEY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate microwave-assisted drying of Jerusalem artichoke tubers to determine the effects of the processing conditions. Drying time (DT and effectivemoisture diffusivity (EMD were determined to evaluate the drying process in terms of dehydration performance, whereas the rehydration ratio (RhR was considered as a significant quality index. A pretreatment of soaking in a NaCl solution was applied before all trials. The output power of the microwave oven, slice thickness and NaCl concentration of the pretreatment solution werethe three investigated parameters. The drying process was accelerated by altering the conditions while obtaining a higher quality product. For optimization of the drying process, response surface methodology (RSM and genetic algorithms (GA were used. Model adequacy was evaluated for each corresponding mathematical expression developed for interested responses by RSM. The residual of the model obtained by GA was compared to that of the RSM model. The GA was successful in high-performance prediction and produced results similar to those of RSM. The analysis and results of the present study show that both RSM and GA models can be used in cohesion to gain insight into the bioprocessing system.

  18. Application of response surface methodology for optimizing transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil: Biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Yusup, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Biodiesel production from Moringa oil (MO) has been optimized for the first time using RSM. → RSM-optimized reaction conditions gave a high Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs) yield (94.3%). → Fuel properties of MOMEs yielded satisfied the ASTM D 6751 and EU 14214 specifications. → Present RSM-model can be useful for predicting optimum biodiesel yield from other oils. - Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM), with central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to explore optimum conditions for the transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil. Effects of four variables, reaction temperature (25-65 deg. C), reaction time (20-90 min), methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-12:1) and catalyst concentration (0.25-1.25 wt.% KOH) were appraised. The quadratic term of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time while the interaction terms of methanol/oil molar ratio with reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, reaction time with catalyst concentration exhibited significant effects on the yield of Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs)/biodiesel, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively. Transesterification under the optimum conditions ascertained presently by RSM: 6.4:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 0.80% catalyst concentration, 55 deg. C reaction temperature and 71.08 min reaction time offered 94.30% MOMEs yield. The observed and predicted values of MOMEs yield showed a linear relationship. GLC analysis of MOMEs revealed oleic acid methyl ester, with contribution of 73.22%, as the principal component. Other methyl esters detected were of palmitic, stearic, behenic and arachidic acids. Thermal stability of MOMEs produced was evaluated by thermogravimetric curve. The fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, oxidative stability, higher heating value, cetane number and cloud point etc., of MOMEs were found to be within the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards.

  19. Application of response surface methodology for optimizing transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil: Biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Umer, E-mail: umer.rashid@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Anwar, Farooq, E-mail: fqanwar@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad, E-mail: ashrafbot@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Botany and Microbiology, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Saleem, Muhammad [Department of Statistics, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Yusup, Suzana, E-mail: drsuzana_yusuf@petronas.com.my [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Biodiesel production from Moringa oil (MO) has been optimized for the first time using RSM. {yields} RSM-optimized reaction conditions gave a high Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs) yield (94.3%). {yields} Fuel properties of MOMEs yielded satisfied the ASTM D 6751 and EU 14214 specifications. {yields} Present RSM-model can be useful for predicting optimum biodiesel yield from other oils. - Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM), with central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to explore optimum conditions for the transesterification of Moringa oleifera oil. Effects of four variables, reaction temperature (25-65 deg. C), reaction time (20-90 min), methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-12:1) and catalyst concentration (0.25-1.25 wt.% KOH) were appraised. The quadratic term of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time while the interaction terms of methanol/oil molar ratio with reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, reaction time with catalyst concentration exhibited significant effects on the yield of Moringa oil methyl esters (MOMEs)/biodiesel, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively. Transesterification under the optimum conditions ascertained presently by RSM: 6.4:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 0.80% catalyst concentration, 55 deg. C reaction temperature and 71.08 min reaction time offered 94.30% MOMEs yield. The observed and predicted values of MOMEs yield showed a linear relationship. GLC analysis of MOMEs revealed oleic acid methyl ester, with contribution of 73.22%, as the principal component. Other methyl esters detected were of palmitic, stearic, behenic and arachidic acids. Thermal stability of MOMEs produced was evaluated by thermogravimetric curve. The fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, oxidative stability, higher heating value, cetane number and cloud point etc., of MOMEs were found to be within the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards.

  20. Optimizing Oily Wastewater Treatment Via Wet Peroxide Oxidation Using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Xiuqing; Wang, Xiaoyin

    2014-01-01

    The process of petroleum involves in a large amount of oily wastewater that contains high levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and toxic compounds. So they must be treated before their discharge into the receptor medium. In this paper, wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) was adopted to treat the oily wastewater. Central composite design, an experimental design for response surface methodology (RSM), was used to create a set of 31 experimental runs needed for optimizing of the operating conditions. Quadratic regression models with estimated coefficients were developed to describe the COD removals. The experimental results show that WPO could effectively reduce COD by 96.8% at the optimum conditions of temperature 290 .deg. C, H 2 O 2 excess (HE) 0.8, the initial concentration of oily wastewater 3855 mg/L and reaction time 9 min. RSM could be effectively adopted to optimize the operating multifactors in complex WPO process

  1. Biodiesel production from crude cottonseed oil: an optimization process using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xiaohu; Wang, Xi; Chen, Feng

    2011-07-01

    As the depletion of fossil resources continues, the demand for environmentally friendly sources of energy as biodiesel is increasing. Biodiesel is the resulting fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from an esterification reaction. The use of cottonseed oil to produce biodiesel has been investigated in recent years, but it is difficult to find the optimal conditions of this process since multiple factors are involved. The aim of this study was to optimize the transesterification of cottonseed oil with methanol to produce biodiesel. A response surface methodology (RSM), an experimental method to seek optimal conditions for a multivariable system and reverse phase HPLC was used to analyze the conversion of triglyceride into biodiesel. RSM was successfully applied and the optimal condition was found with a 97% yield.

  2. Optimization of gelatine extraction from grass carp (Catenopharyngodon idella) fish skin by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xue, Yan; Weilong, Yao; Hong, Sun D; He, Qian

    2007-12-01

    To establish the optimum gelatine extraction conditions from grass carp fish skin, response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted in this study. The effects of concentration of HCl (%, A), pre-treatment time (h, B), extraction temperature ( degrees C, C) and extraction time (h, D) were studied. The responses were yield (%) and gel strength (g). A=1.19%, B=24 h, C=52.61 degrees C and D=5.12h were determined as the optimum conditions while the predicted responses were 19.83% yield and 267 g gel strength. Gelling and melting points were 19.5 degrees C and 26.8 degrees C, respectively. Moreover, grass carp gelatine showed high contents of imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline) 19.47%. RSM provided a powerful tool to optimize the extraction parameters and the results may be adapted for industrial extraction of gelatine from grass carp fish skins.

  3. Optimization of Nanocomposite Modified Asphalt Mixtures Fatigue Life using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, N.; Napiah, M.; Kamaruddin, I.; Danlami, N.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, modelling and optimization of materials polyethylene, polypropylene and nanosilica for nanocomposite modified asphalt mixtures has been examined to obtain optimum quantities for higher fatique life. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for the optimization based on Box Behnken design (BBD). Interaction effects of independent variables polymers and nanosilica on fatique life were evaluated. The result indicates that the individual effects of polymers and nanosilica content are both important. However, the content of nanosilica used has more significant effect on fatique life resistance. Also, the mean error obtained from optimization results is less than 5% for all the responses, this indicates that predicted values are in agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, it was concluded that asphalt mixture design with high performance properties, optimization using RSM is a very effective approach.

  4. Optimization of Nd: YAG Laser Marking of Alumina Ceramic Using RSM And ANN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Josephine; Doloi, B.; Bhattacharyya, B.

    2011-01-01

    The present research papers deals with the artificial neural network (ANN) and the response surface methodology (RSM) based mathematical modeling and also an optimization analysis on marking characteristics on alumina ceramic. The experiments have been planned and carried out based on Design of Experiment (DOE). It also analyses the influence of the major laser marking process parameters and the optimal combination of laser marking process parametric setting has been obtained. The output of the RSM optimal data is validated through experimentation and ANN predictive model. A good agreement is observed between the results based on ANN predictive model and actual experimental observations.

  5. Comparison of response surface methodology and artificial neural network to enhance the release of reducing sugars from non-edible seed cake by autoclave assisted HCl hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Vinayaka B; Palan, Anusha M; Rao, Shama U; Varun, C; Aishwarya, Uday; Raja, Selvaraj; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Vaman Rao, C; Ujwal, P

    2018-02-01

    In the current investigation, statistical approaches were adopted to hydrolyse non-edible seed cake (NESC) of Pongamia and optimize the hydrolysis process by response surface methodology (RSM). Through the RSM approach, the optimized conditions were found to be 1.17%v/v of HCl concentration at 54.12 min for hydrolysis. Under optimized conditions, the release of reducing sugars was found to be 53.03 g/L. The RSM data were used to train the artificial neural network (ANN) and the predictive ability of both models was compared by calculating various statistical parameters. A three-layered ANN model consisting of 2:12:1 topology was developed; the response of the ANN model indicates that it is precise when compared with the RSM model. The fit of the models was expressed with the regression coefficient R 2 , which was found to be 0.975 and 0.888, respectively, for the ANN and RSM models. This further demonstrated that the performance of ANN was better than that of RSM.

  6. Antiproliferative activity of Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton extract using ultrasonic assistance and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Ying; Hu, Daode

    2017-01-02

    The objective of the study was to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of curdione, furanodienone, curcumol, and germacrone from Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton (Val.) and investigate the antiproliferative activity of the extract. Under the suitable high-performance liquid chromatography condition, the calibration curves for these four tested compounds showed high levels of linearity and the recoveries of these four compounds were between 97.9 and 104.3%. Response surface methodology (RSM) combining central composite design and desirability function (DF) was used to define optimal extraction parameters. The results of RSM and DF revealed that the optimum conditions were obtained as 8 mL g -1 for liquid-solid ratio, 70% ethanol concentration, and 20 min of ultrasonic time. It was found that the surface structures of the sonicated herbal materials were fluffy and irregular. The C. phaeocaulis Val. extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of RKO and HT-29 cells in vitro. The results reveal that the RSM can be effectively used for optimizing the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of bioactive components from C. phaeocaulis Val. for antiproliferative activity.

  7. Application of Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology in Modeling of Surface Roughness in WS2 Solid Lubricant Assisted MQL Turning of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwera Reddy Paturi, Uma; Devarasetti, Harish; Abimbola Fadare, David; Reddy Narala, Suresh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, the artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) are used in modeling of surface roughness in WS2 (tungsten disulphide) solid lubricant assisted minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) machining. The real time MQL turning of Inconel 718 experimental data considered in this paper was available in the literature [1]. In ANN modeling, performance parameters such as mean square error (MSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and average error in prediction (AEP) for the experimental data were determined based on Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) feed forward back propagation training algorithm with tansig as transfer function. The MATLAB tool box has been utilized in training and testing of neural network model. Neural network model with three input neurons, one hidden layer with five neurons and one output neuron (3-5-1 architecture) is found to be most confidence and optimal. The coefficient of determination (R2) for both the ANN and RSM model were seen to be 0.998 and 0.982 respectively. The surface roughness predictions from ANN and RSM model were related with experimentally measured values and found to be in good agreement with each other. However, the prediction efficacy of ANN model is relatively high when compared with RSM model predictions.

  8. Ultrasonic Extraction of Antioxidants from Chinese Sumac (Rhus typhina L.) Fruit Using Response Surface Methodology and Their Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Jixiang; Wang, Huifang; Wang, Donghui; Fang, Fang; Wang, Fengzhong; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influen...

  9. Response Surface Methodology for Biodiesel Production Using Calcium Methoxide Catalyst Assisted with Tetrahydrofuran as Cosolvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichaonn Chumuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to optimize a heterogeneous calcium methoxide (Ca(OCH32 catalyzed transesterification process assisted with tetrahydrofuran (THF as a cosolvent for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Response surface methodology (RSM with a 5-level-4-factor central composite design was applied to investigate the effect of experimental factors on the percentage of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME conversion. A quadratic model with an analysis of variance obtained from the RSM is suggested for the prediction of FAME conversion and reveals that 99.43% of the observed variation is explained by the model. The optimum conditions obtained from the RSM were 2.83 wt% of catalyst concentration, 11.6 : 1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 100.14 min of reaction time, and 8.65% v/v of THF in methanol concentration. Under these conditions, the properties of the produced biodiesel satisfied the standard requirement. THF as cosolvent successfully decreased the catalyst concentration, methanol-to-oil molar ratio, and reaction time when compared with biodiesel production without cosolvent. The results are encouraging for the application of Ca(OCH32 assisted with THF as a cosolvent for environmentally friendly and sustainable biodiesel production.

  10. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed enantioselective production of 1-phenyl 1-propanol using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Asli; Bayraktar, Emine; Mehmetoglu, Ulku

    2010-01-01

    Optically active 1-phenyl 1-propanol is used as a chiral building block and synthetic intermediate in the pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the enantioselective production of 1-phenyl 1-propanol was investigated systematically using response surface methodology (RSM). Before RSM was applied, the effects of the enzyme source, the type of acyl donor, and the type of solvent on the kinetic resolution of 1-phenyl 1-propanol were studied. The best results were obtained with Candida antartica lipase (commercially available as Novozym 435), vinyl laurate as the acyl donor, and isooctane as the solvent. In the RSM, substrate concentration, molar ratio of acyl donor to the substrate, amount of enzyme, temperature, and stirring rate were chosen as independent variables. The predicted optimum conditions for a higher enantiomeric excess (ee) were as follows: substrate concentration, 233 mM; molar ratio of acyl donor to substrate, 1.5; enzyme amount, 116 mg; temperature, 47 °C; and stirring rate, 161 rpm. A verification experiment conducted at these optimized conditions for maximum ee yielded 91% for 3 hr, which is higher than the predicted value of 83%. The effect of microwave on the ee was also investigated and ee reached 87% at only 5 min.

  11. Improvement of Folate Biosynthesis by Lactic Acid Bacteria Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfarina Muhamad Nor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis NZ9000, Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Lactobacillus plantarum I-UL4 and Lactobacillus johnsonii DSM 20553 have been screened for their ability to produce folate intracellularly and/or extracellularly. L. plantarum I-UL4 was shown to be superior producer of folate compared to other strains. Statistically based experimental designs were used to optimize the medium formulation for the growth of L. plantarum I-UL4 and folate biosynthesis. The optimal values of important factors were determined by response surface methodology (RSM. The effects of carbon sources, nitrogen sources and para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA concentrations on folate biosynthesis were determined prior to RSM study. The biosynthesis of folate by L. plantarum I-UL4 increased from 36.36 to 60.39 µg/L using the optimized medium formulation compared to the selective Man de Rogosa Sharpe (MRS medium. Conditions for the optimal growth of L. plantarum I-UL4 and folate biosynthesis as suggested by RSM were as follows: lactose 20 g/L, meat extract 16.57 g/L and PABA 10 µM.

  12. Optimization of cyanide extraction from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane system by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Juan Qin; Liu, Ni Na; Li, Guo Ping; Dang, Long Tao

    To solve the disposal problem of cyanide wastewater, removal of cyanide from wastewater using a water-in-oil emulsion type of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was studied in this work. Specifically, the effects of surfactant Span-80, carrier trioctylamine (TOA), stripping agent NaOH solution and the emulsion-to-external-phase-volume ratio on removal of cyanide were investigated. Removal of total cyanide was determined using the silver nitrate titration method. Regression analysis and optimization of the conditions were conducted using the Design-Expert software and response surface methodology (RSM). The actual cyanide removals and the removals predicted using RSM analysis were in close agreement, and the optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: the volume fraction of Span-80, 4% (v/v); the volume fraction of TOA, 4% (v/v); the concentration of NaOH, 1% (w/v); and the emulsion-to-external-phase volume ratio, 1:7. Under the optimum conditions, the removal of total cyanide was 95.07%, and the RSM predicted removal was 94.90%, with a small exception. The treatment of cyanide wastewater using an ELM is an effective technique for application in industry.

  13. Finite Element Based Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Segmental Tunnel Lining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rastbood

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to optimize the geometrical and engineering characteristics of concrete segments of tunnel lining using Finite Element (FE based Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Input data for RSM statistical analysis were obtained using FEM. In RSM analysis, thickness (t and elasticity modulus of concrete segments (E, tunnel height (H, horizontal to vertical stress ratio (K and position of key segment in tunnel lining ring (θ were considered as input independent variables. Maximum values of Mises and Tresca stresses and tunnel ring displacement (UMAX were set as responses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was carried out to investigate the influence of each input variable on the responses. Second-order polynomial equations in terms of influencing input variables were obtained for each response. It was found that elasticity modulus and key segment position variables were not included in yield stresses and ring displacement equations, and only tunnel height and stress ratio variables were included in ring displacement equation. Finally optimization analysis of tunnel lining ring was performed. Due to absence of elasticity modulus and key segment position variables in equations, their values were kept to average level and other variables were floated in related ranges. Response parameters were set to minimum. It was concluded that to obtain optimum values for responses, ring thickness and tunnel height must be near to their maximum and minimum values, respectively and ground state must be similar to hydrostatic conditions.

  14. [Optimization of riboflavin sodium phosphate loading to calcium alginate floating microspheres by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-yang; Fan, Tian-yuan

    2009-12-18

    To investigate the preparation, optimization and in vitro properties of riboflavin sodium phosphate floating microspheres. The floating microspheres composed of riboflavin sodium phosphate and calcium alginate were prepared using ion gelatin-oven drying method. The properties of the microspheres were investigated, including the buoyancy, release, appearance and entrapment efficiency. The formulation was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized microspheres were round. The entrapment efficiency was 57.49%. All the microspheres could float on the artificial gastric juice over 8 hours. The release of the drug from the microspheres complied with Fick's diffusion.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF RED PIGMENT PRODUCTION BY MONASCUS PURPUREUS FTC 5356 USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan M. Said

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as environmental conditions and nutrients are significant for successful growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Manipulations of the factors are the most effective way to stimulate the growth of the microorganism, which can be used to optimize the yield of a product. In this study, Central Composite Design (CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to optimize the production of red pigment by Monascus purpureus FTC 5356 using the petioles of oil palm fronds (OPF as a substrate in solid state fermentation (SSF. The data was analyzed using Design Expert Software. The optimum combination predicted via RSM was confirmed through experimental work. The interactions between three variables such as initial moisture content (%, initial pH value (pH, and peptone concentration (% were studied and modelled. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the optimal conditions for red pigment production 47 AU/g with the biomass of 425.1 mg/g was at 55% initial moisture content, 3% of peptone, and at pH 3.  The RSM results showed that the initial pH value had a significant effect on red pigment production (P-value <0.05. The validation of these results was also conducted by fermentation with predicted conditions and it was found that there was a discrepancy of 0.39% between the values of the experimental result and those of the predicted values. ABSTRAK: Keadaan persekitaran dan nutrien merupakan faktor-faktor penting dalam pertumbuhan mikroorganisma. Manipulasi faktor-faktor tersebut adalah kaedah terbaik bagi meningkatkan pertumbuhan mikroorganisma dan mengoptimumkan penghasilan produk. Kajian ini mengguna pakai Rekaan Gabungan Pusat (CCD melalui Kaedah Tindak balas Permukaan (RSM bagi penghasilan pigmen merah optimum oleh Monascus purpureus FTC 5356 menggunakan batang pelepah kelapa sawit (OPF sebagai perumah dalam proses penapaian pepejal (SSF. Data telah dianalisis menggunakan perisian Design Expert. Gabungan parameter

  16. Optimization of Extraction Process for Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Kursi Wufarikun Ziyabit Using Response Surface Methodology and Quantitative Analysis of Main Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirs, Salamet; Turak, Ablajan; Numonov, Sodik; Xin, Xuelei; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2017-01-01

    By using extraction yield, total polyphenolic content, antidiabetic activities (PTP-1B and α -glycosidase), and antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH) as indicated markers, the extraction conditions of the prescription Kursi Wufarikun Ziyabit (KWZ) were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Independent variables were ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, solid-to-solvent ratio, and extraction time. The result of RSM analysis showed that the four variables investigated have a significant effect ( p analysis of effective part of KWZ was characterized via UPLC method, 12 main components were identified by standard compounds, and all of them have shown good regression within the test ranges and the total content of them was 11.18%.

  17. Artificial neural network and response surface methodology modeling in mass transfer parameters predictions during osmotic dehydration of Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Prakash Maran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparative approach was made between artificial neural network (ANN and response surface methodology (RSM to predict the mass transfer parameters of osmotic dehydration of papaya. The effects of process variables such as temperature, osmotic solution concentration and agitation speed on water loss, weight reduction, and solid gain during osmotic dehydration were investigated using a three-level three-factor Box-Behnken experimental design. Same design was utilized to train a feed-forward multilayered perceptron (MLP ANN with back-propagation algorithm. The predictive capabilities of the two methodologies were compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute error (MAE, standard error of prediction (SEP, model predictive error (MPE, chi square statistic (χ2, and coefficient of determination (R2 based on the validation data set. The results showed that properly trained ANN model is found to be more accurate in prediction as compared to RSM model.

  18. Evaluation of Degradation Kinetic of Tomato Paste Color in Heat Processing and Modeling of These Changes by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganjeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is an important qualitative factor in tomato products such as tomato paste which is affected by heat processing. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the degradation kinetics of tomato paste color during heat processing by Arrhenius equation and modeling of these changes by response surface methodology (RSM. Considering this purpose, tomato paste was processed at three temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 °C for 25-100 minutes and by three main color indices including L, a and b, a/b ratio, total color difference (TCD, Saturation index (SI and hue angle (HU was analyzed. Degradation kinetics of these parameters was evaluated by Arrhenius equation and their changing trends were modeled by RSM. All parameters except TCA (zero order followed a first order reaction. The b index by highest and TCA and a/b by least activation energies had the maximum and minimum sensitivity to the temperature changes, respectively. Also, TCD and b had the maximum and minimum changing rates, respectively. All responses were influenced by independent parameters (the influence of temperature was more than time and RSM was capable of modeling and predicting these responses. In general, Arrhenius equation was appropriate to evaluate degradation kinetics of tomato paste color changes and RSM was able to estimate independent and interaction effects of time and temperature so that quadratic models were capable to predict these changes by a high accuracy (R2 > 0.95.

  19. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants and rosmarinic acid from perilla leaves using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Zhen LI

    Full Text Available Abstract Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of functional components from perilla leaves. The factors investigated were ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The results revealed that ethanol concentration had significant effects on all extraction parameters. Based on the RSM results, the optimal conditions were an ethanol concentration of 56%, a UAE temperature of 54 °C, and a UAE time of 55 min. Under these conditions, the experimental TPC (total phenolic content, RA (rosmarinic acid, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values were 48.85 mg GAE/g DW (mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dry weight, 31.02 mg/g DW, 85.55 μmol Fe2+/g DW and 73.35%, respectively. The experimental values were in agreement with those predicted by RSM models, confirming suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM for optimization of the extraction conditions.

  20. Optimization of galacto-oligosacharides synthesis using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carević Milica B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS are important lactose-derived compounds, considered to be a prebiotics, based on abundant scientific evidence about their unique physical properties and physiological effects. This consequently allows their widespread application as supplement in food and feed industry. They are preferably produced by the enzymatic transgalactosylation action of β-galactosidase. However, this enzyme simultaneously performs its primary biological function of lactose hydrolysis, and it is of crucial importance to gain an insight into the influence of different reaction conditions, and provide favorization of transgalactosylation, particularly GOS synthesis reaction. In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM was applied in terms of individual experimental factors effect estimation, their mutual interaction identification and finally, the determination of optimum conditions for highest GOS yield achievement. Having said that, it can be observed that the temperature and pH have no significant impact on the GOS yield, while on the other hand, the lactose concentration of 400 g/l, enzyme concentration of 13.5 g/l and reaction time of 13 min represent the optimum conditions for achieving the highest GOS yields.

  1. Stainless Steel RSM Beneficial Reuse technical feasibility to business reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettinger, W.L.; Mishra, G.

    1997-08-01

    The Stainless Steel Beneficial Reuse Program began in 1994 as a demonstration funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. The purpose was to assess the practicality of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle. Technical feasibility has been demonstrated through the production of a number of products made from recycled RSM. A solid business foundation is yet to be achieved. However, a business environment is beginning to develop as multiple markets and applications for RSM are surfacing around the Complex. The criteria for a successful business reality includes: - affordable programs, - a continuing production base from which to expand, - real products needs, -adequate RSM supply, and - a multi-year program This program currently sponsored by SRS and DOE-ORO to fabricate Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters from RSM provides an activity that satisfies these criteria. The program status is discussed. A comparison of the cost of DWPF canisters fabricated from recycled RSM and virgin metal is presented. The comparison is a function of several factors: disposal costs, the fabrication cost of virgin metal canisters, the fabrication cost of recycled RSM canisters, free release decontamination costs, and the cost to accumulate the RSM. These variables are analyzed and the relationship established to show the break-even point for various values of each parameter

  2. Application of response surface methodology to optimize uranium biological leaching at high pulp density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi, Faezeh; Arabieh, Masoud; Jahani, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out uranium bioleaching via optimization of the leaching process using response surface methodology. For this purpose, the native Acidithiobacillus sp. was adapted to different pulp densities following optimization process carried out at a high pulp density. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the uranium bioleaching. The effects of six key parameters on the bioleaching efficiency were investigated. The process was modeled with mathematical equation, including not only first and second order terms, but also with probable interaction effects between each pair of factors.The results showed that the extraction efficiency of uranium dropped from 100% at pulp densities of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% to 68% at 12.5% of pulp density. Using RSM, the optimum conditions for uranium bioleaching (12.5% (w/v)) were identified as pH = 1.96, temperature = 30.90 C, stirring speed = 158 rpm, 15.7% inoculum, FeSO 4 . 7H 2 O concentration at 13.83 g/L and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 concentration at 3.22 g/L which achieved 83% of uranium extraction efficiency. The results of uranium bioleaching experiment using optimized parameter showed 81% uranium extraction during 15 d. The obtained results reveal that using RSM is reliable and appropriate for optimization of parameters involved in the uranium bioleaching process.

  3. Application of response surface methodology to optimize uranium biological leaching at high pulp density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi, Faezeh; Arabieh, Masoud; Jahani, Samaneh [NSTRI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out uranium bioleaching via optimization of the leaching process using response surface methodology. For this purpose, the native Acidithiobacillus sp. was adapted to different pulp densities following optimization process carried out at a high pulp density. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the uranium bioleaching. The effects of six key parameters on the bioleaching efficiency were investigated. The process was modeled with mathematical equation, including not only first and second order terms, but also with probable interaction effects between each pair of factors.The results showed that the extraction efficiency of uranium dropped from 100% at pulp densities of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% to 68% at 12.5% of pulp density. Using RSM, the optimum conditions for uranium bioleaching (12.5% (w/v)) were identified as pH = 1.96, temperature = 30.90 C, stirring speed = 158 rpm, 15.7% inoculum, FeSO{sub 4} . 7H{sub 2}O concentration at 13.83 g/L and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration at 3.22 g/L which achieved 83% of uranium extraction efficiency. The results of uranium bioleaching experiment using optimized parameter showed 81% uranium extraction during 15 d. The obtained results reveal that using RSM is reliable and appropriate for optimization of parameters involved in the uranium bioleaching process.

  4. Optimization of petroleum refinery effluent treatment in a UASB reactor using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegar, S.O.; Mousavi, S.M.; Shojaosadati, S.A.; Sheibani, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► A UASB was successfully used for treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. ► Response surface methodology was applied to design and analysis of experiments. ► System was modeled between efficient factors include HRT, influent COD and V up . ► UASB was able to remove about 76.3% influent COD at optimum conditions. - Abstract: An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor was successfully used for the treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. Before optimization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 81% at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.4 kg/m 3 d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h. The rate of biogas production was 559 mL/h at an HRT of 40 h and an influent COD of 1000 mg/L. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict the behaviors of influent COD, upflow velocity (V up ) and HRT in the bioreactor. RSM showed that the best models for COD removal and biogas production rate were the reduced quadratic and cubic models, respectively. The optimum region, identified based on two critical responses, was an influent COD of 630 mg/L, a V up of 0.27 m/h, and an HRT of 21.4 h. This resulted in a 76.3% COD removal efficiency and a 0.25 L biogas/L feed d biogas production rate.

  5. RSM Outlook Autumn 2005 : Branding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kemp (Gail); R. Morris (Rebecca)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Contents The inaugural issue of RSM Outlook from autumn 2005 includes the opening of the new T-building, and how RSM celebrated its 35th birthday with a wine-tasting session. There are also articles on Professor Cees van Riel and reputation management, the re-branding of the

  6. Nutrients interaction investigation to improve Monascus purpureus FTC5391 growth rate using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Two vital factors, certain environmental conditions and nutrients as a source of energy are entailed for successful growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Manipulation of nutritional requirement is the simplest and most effectual strategy to stimulate and enhance the activity of microorganisms. Methodology and Results: In this study, response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN were employed to optimize the carbon and nitrogen sources in order to improve growth rate of Monascus purpureus FTC5391,a new local isolate. The best models for optimization of growth rate were a multilayer full feed-forward incremental back propagation network, and a modified response surface model using backward elimination. The optimum condition for cell mass production was: sucrose 2.5%, yeast extract 0.045%, casamino acid 0.275%, sodium nitrate 0.48%, potato starch 0.045%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.57%. The experimental cell mass production using this optimal condition was 21 mg/plate/12days, which was 2.2-fold higher than the standard condition (sucrose 5%, yeast extract 0.15%, casamino acid 0.25%, sodium nitrate 0.3%, potato starch 0.2%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.3%. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results of RSM and ANN showed that all carbon and nitrogen sources tested had significant effect on growth rate (P-value < 0.05. In addition the use of RSM and ANN alongside each other provided a proper growth prediction model.

  7. The Use of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Five Anthraquinones from Rheum palmatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Xia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE was applied to the extraction of anthraquinones (aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion from Rheum palmatum L. The five anthraquinones were quantified and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV. The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and extraction time parameters, the three main factors for UAE, were optimized with response surface methodology (RSM to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of 84% methanol as solvent, an extraction time of 33 min and an extraction temperature of 67 °C. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance indicated a high goodness of model fit and the success of RSM method for optimizing anthraquinones extraction in Rheum palmatum L.

  8. Modeling and optimization of ammonia treatment by acidic biochar using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narong Chaisongkroh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emission of ammonia (NH3 contaminated waste air to the atmosphere without treatment has affected humans andenvironment. Eliminating NH3 in waste air emitted from industries is considered an environmental requisite. In this study,optimization of NH3 adsorption time using acidic rubber wood biochar (RWBs impregnated with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 wasinvestigated. The central composite design (CCD in response surface methodology (RSM by the Design Expert softwarewas used for designing the experiments as well as the full response surface estimation. The RSM was used to evaluate theeffect of adsorption parameters in continuous mode of fixed bed column including waste air flow rate, inlet NH3 concentration in waste air stream, and H2SO4 concentration for adsorbent surface modification. Based on statistical analysis, the NH3symmetric adsorption time (at 50% NH3 removal efficiency model proved to be very highly significant (p<0.0001. The optimum conditions obtained were 300 ppmv inlet NH3 concentration, 72% H2SO4, and 2.1 l/min waste air flow rate. This resultedin 219 minutes of NH3 adsorption time as obtained from the predicted model, which fitted well with the laboratory verification result. This was supported by the high value of coefficient of determination (R2=0.9137. (NH42SO4, a nitrogen fertilizerfor planting, was the by-product from chemical adsorption between NH3 and H2SO4.

  9. Enhanced cell disruption strategy in the release of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen from Pichia pastoris using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell disruption strategies by high pressure homogenizer for the release of recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from Pichia pastoris expression cells were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on the central composite design (CCD). The factors studied include number of passes, biomass concentration and pulse pressure. Polynomial models were used to correlate the above mentioned factors to project the cell disruption capability and specific protein release of HBsAg from P. pastoris cells. Results The proposed cell disruption strategy consisted of a number of passes set at 20 times, biomass concentration of 7.70 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW) and pulse pressure at 1,029 bar. The optimized cell disruption strategy was shown to increase cell disruption efficiency by 2-fold and 4-fold for specific protein release of HBsAg when compared to glass bead method yielding 75.68% cell disruption rate (CDR) and HBsAg concentration of 29.20 mg/L respectively. Conclusions The model equation generated from RSM on cell disruption of P. pastoris was found adequate to determine the significant factors and its interactions among the process variables and the optimum conditions in releasing HBsAg when validated against a glass bead cell disruption method. The findings from the study can open up a promising strategy for better recovery of HBsAg recombinant protein during downstream processing. PMID:23039947

  10. Enhanced Production of Xylitol from Corncob by Pachysolen tannophilus Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the culture medium and process variables for xylitol production using corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate by Pachysolen tannophilus (MTTC 1077 was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on xylitol production was achieved using a Plackett-Burman design. Peptone, xylose, MgSO4·7H2O, and yeast extract were selected based on their positive influence on xylitol production. The selected components were optimized with Box-Behnken design using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimum levels (g/L were peptone: 6.03, xylose: 10.62, MgSO4·7H2O: 1.39, yeast extract: 4.66. The influence of various process variables on the xylitol production was evaluated. The optimal levels of these variables were quantified by the central composite design using RSM, for establishment of a significant mathematical model with a coefficient determination of . The validation experimental was consistent with the prediction model. The optimum levels of process variables were temperature (36.56°C, pH (7.27, substrate concentration (3.55 g/L, inoculum size (3.69 mL, and agitation speed (194.44 rpm. These conditions were validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced xylitol yield of 0.80 g/g.

  11. Implied Volatility Surface: Construction Methodologies and Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Homescu

    2011-01-01

    The implied volatility surface (IVS) is a fundamental building block in computational finance. We provide a survey of methodologies for constructing such surfaces. We also discuss various topics which can influence the successful construction of IVS in practice: arbitrage-free conditions in both strike and time, how to perform extrapolation outside the core region, choice of calibrating functional and selection of numerical optimization algorithms, volatility surface dynamics and asymptotics.

  12. ANN and RSM modelling of antioxidant characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages with peppermint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Vitas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity to stable DPPH radical (AADPPH and unstable hydroxyl radicals (AA.OH and nutraceuticals (monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and ascorbic acid content of kombucha fermented milks with peppermint (KFM-P were modelled and optimised. Beverages were produced by the addition of 10 % of kombucha peppermint inoculum to the milk containing 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8 % milk fat at 37, 40 and 43 °C. Response surface methodology (RSM indicated opposite response surfaces for AADPPH and AA.OH PUFAs and ascorbic acid, as most significant and influential factors, were included in graphical optimization and gave the working region for obtaining products of highest antioxidant quality: lower temperatures and milk fat up to 1.8 %; higher temperatures and milk fat of maximum 1.6 %. ANN modelling of antioxidant characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages with peppermint was, as expected, more accurate than RSM.

  13. Response surface methodology to evaluation the recovery of amylases by hollow fiber membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista Severo Júnior

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the pH and the transmembrane pressure effects during the recovery of alpha and beta amylases enzymes from corn malt (Zea mays by hollow fiber membrane. The optimal condition was obtained for a statistical model, established by response surface methodology (RSM. The response surface analysis showed that the best operation condition for amylolitics enzymes recovery by hollow fiber membrane was 0.05 bar and pH 5.00, while the enzymes were purified about of 26 times.Este trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito do pH e da pressão trans-membrana durante a recuperação das enzimas alfa e beta amilases do malte de milho (Zea mays por membranas de fibras ocas, a obtenção das condições ótimas foi feita por um modelo estatístico, estabelecido pela metodologia de superfície de resposta (RSM. A análise da superfície de resposta mostrou que as melhores condições operacionais para a recuperação das enzimas amiloliticas por membranas de fibras ocas foi 0,05 bar e pH 5,00; onde as enzimas foram purificadas cerca de 26 vezes.

  14. Optimization of enzymatic clarification of green asparagus juice using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuehong; Xu, Feng; Qin, Weidong; Ma, Lihua; Zheng, Yonghua

    2012-06-01

    Enzymatic clarification conditions for green asparagus juice were optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). The asparagus juice was treated with pectinase at different temperatures (35 °C-45 °C), pH values (4.00-5.00), and enzyme concentrations (0.6-1.8 v/v%). The effects of enzymatic treatment on juice clarity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity were investigated by employing a 3-factor central composite design coupled with RSM. According to response surface analysis, the optimal enzymatic treatment condition was pectinase concentration of 1.45%, incubation temperature of 40.56 °C and pH of 4.43. The clarity, juice yield, and soluble solid contents in asparagus juice were significantly increased by enzymatic treatment at the optimal conditions. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was maintained at the level close to that of raw asparagus juice. These results indicated that enzymatic treatment could be a useful technique for producing green asparagus juice with high clarity and high-antioxidant activity. Treatment with 1.45% pectinase at 40.56 ° C, pH 4.43, significantly increased the clarity and yield of asparagus juice. In addition, enzymatic treatment maintained antioxidant activity. Thus, enzymatic treatment has the potential for industrial asparagus juice clarification. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Optimization of sustained release aceclofenac microspheres using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Rameshwar K.; Naik, Jitendra B., E-mail: jitunaik@gmail.com

    2015-03-01

    Polymeric microspheres containing aceclofenac were prepared by single emulsion (oil-in-water) solvent evaporation method using response surface methodology (RSM). Microspheres were prepared by changing formulation variables such as the amount of Eudragit® RS100 and the amount of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by statistical experimental design in order to enhance the encapsulation efficiency (E.E.) of the microspheres. The resultant microspheres were evaluated for their size, morphology, E.E., and in vitro drug release. The amount of Eudragit® RS100 and the amount of PVA were found to be significant factors respectively for determining the E.E. of the microspheres. A linear mathematical model equation fitted to the data was used to predict the E.E. in the optimal region. Optimized formulation of microspheres was prepared using optimal process variables setting in order to evaluate the optimization capability of the models generated according to IV-optimal design. The microspheres showed high E.E. (74.14 ± 0.015% to 85.34 ± 0.011%) and suitably sustained drug release (minimum; 40% to 60%; maximum) over a period of 12 h. The optimized microspheres formulation showed E.E. of 84.87 ± 0.005 with small error value (1.39). The low magnitudes of error and the significant value of R{sup 2} in the present investigation prove the high prognostic ability of the design. The absence of interactions between drug and polymers was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) revealed the dispersion of drug within microspheres formulation. The microspheres were found to be discrete, spherical with smooth surface. The results demonstrate that these microspheres could be promising delivery system to sustain the drug release and improve the E.E. thus prolong drug action and achieve the highest healing effect with minimal gastrointestinal side effects. - Highlights: • Aceclofenac microspheres

  16. Model development and optimization of operating conditions to maximize PEMFC performance by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanani, Homayoon; Shams, Mehrzad; Hasheminasab, Mohammadreza; Bozorgnezhad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization of the operating parameters in a serpentine PEMFC is done using RSM. • The RSM model can predict the cell power over the wide range of operating conditions. • St-An, St-Ca and RH-Ca have an optimum value to obtain the best performance. • The interactions of the operating conditions affect the output power significantly. • The cathode and anode stoichiometry are the most effective parameters on the power. - Abstract: Optimization of operating conditions to obtain maximum power in PEMFCs could have a significant role to reduce the costs of this emerging technology. In the present experimental study, a single serpentine PEMFC is used to investigate the effects of operating conditions on the electrical power production of the cell. Four significant parameters including cathode stoichiometry, anode stoichiometry, gases inlet temperature, and cathode relative humidity are studied using Design of Experiment (DOE) to obtain an optimal power. Central composite second order Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to model the relationship between goal function (power) and considered input parameters (operating conditions). Using this statistical–mathematical method leads to obtain a second-order equation for the cell power. This model considers interactions and quadratic effects of different operating conditions and predicts the maximum or minimum power production over the entire working range of the parameters. In this range, high stoichiometry of cathode and low stoichiometry of anode results in the minimum cell power and contrary the medium range of fuel and oxidant stoichiometry leads to the maximum power. Results show that there is an optimum value for the anode stoichiometry, cathode stoichiometry and relative humidity to reach the best performance. The predictions of the model are evaluated by experimental tests and they are in a good agreement for different ranges of the parameters

  17. Optimization of acidified oil esterification catalyzed by sulfonated cation exchange resin using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lingling; Han, Ying; Sun, Kaian; Lu, Jie; Ding, Jincheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • As lipid source, acidified oil are from industrial wastes for renewable energy. • The predicted conversion rate of FFAs was 75.24% under the RSM optimized conditions. • The adsorption system was employed to remove the water produced to shift the equilibrium toward ethyl ester production. • Maximum conversion rate of 98.32% was obtained using adsorption system at optimum process parameters. • Compared with tradition methods, molecular sieve dehydration method improved the conversion rate by 23.08%. - Abstract: The esterification of acidified oil with ethanol catalyzed by sulfonated cation exchange resins (SCER) was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of the molar ratio of ethanol to acidified oil, reaction time and catalyst loading on the conversion rate of free fatty acids (FFAs) were investigated at the temperature of the boiling point of ethanol. Results showed that the highest conversion rate of 75.24% was obtained at the molar ratio of ethanol to acidified oil of 23.2, reaction time of 8.0 h and catalyst loading of 35.0 wt.%. Moreover, the conversion rate of FFAs was increased to 98.32% by using a water adsorption apparatus under the RSM optimized conditions. Scanning electronic microscopic–energy dispersive spectrometric (SEM–EDS), X-ray diffractometric (XRD) and thermogravimetric–derivative thermogravimetric (TG–DTG) analyses confirmed that the morphology of catalysts did not change much and the mechanical and thermal stabilities were still good after the reaction. Furthermore, SCER exhibited a high catalytic activity and stability after being reused for five successive times. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were comparable to that of ASTM, EN and GB biodiesel standard

  18. Ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse through process optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavudi, Saida; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu

    2017-08-01

    In this study, comparative evaluation of acid- and alkali pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was carried out for sugar production after enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated SSB resulted in higher production of glucose, xylose and arabinose, compared to the other alkali concentrations and also acid-pretreated biomass. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was, therefore, used to optimize parameters, such as alkali concentration, temperature and time of pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to maximize the production of sugars. The independent variables used during RSM included alkali concentration (1.5-4%), pretreatment temperature (125-140 °C) and pretreatment time (10-30 min) were investigated. Process optimization resulted in glucose and xylose concentration of 57.24 and 10.14 g/L, respectively. Subsequently, second stage optimization was conducted using RSM for optimizing parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis, which included substrate concentration (10-15%), incubation time (24-60 h), incubation temperature (40-60 °C) and Celluclast concentration (10-20 IU/g-dwt). Substrate concentration 15%, (w/v) temperature of 60 °C, Celluclast concentration of 20 IU/g-dwt and incubation time of 58 h led to a glucose concentration of 68.58 g/l. Finally, simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) as well as separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) was evaluated using Pichia kudriavzevii HOP-1 for production of ethanol. Significant difference in ethanol concentration was not found using either SSF or SHF; however, ethanol productivity was higher in case of SSF, compared to SHF. This study has established a platform for conducting scale-up studies using the optimized process parameters.

  19. Optimization of surface roughness in CNC end milling using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... In this study, minimization of surface roughness has been investigated by integrating design of experiment method, Response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm ...

  20. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of parameters for microwave heating of rare earth carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shaohua; Lin, Guo; Li, Shiwei; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-09-01

    Microwave heating has been applied in the field of drying rare earth carbonates to improve drying efficiency and reduce energy consumption. The effects of power density, material thickness and drying time on the weight reduction (WR) are studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The results show that RSM is feasible to describe the relationship between the independent variables and weight reduction. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the model is in accordance with the experimental data. The optimum experiment conditions are power density 6 w/g, material thickness 15 mm and drying time 15 min, resulting in an experimental weight reduction of 73%. Comparative experiments show that microwave drying has the advantages of rapid dehydration and energy conservation. Particle analysis shows that the size distribution of rare earth carbonates after microwave drying is more even than those in an oven. Based on these findings, microwave heating technology has an important meaning to energy-saving and improvement of production efficiency for rare earth smelting enterprises and is a green heating process.

  1. Response surface methodology to simplify calculation of wood energy potency from tropical short rotation coppice species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqiqi, M. T.; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.

    2018-04-01

    Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) system is an option to provide renewable and sustainable feedstock in generating electricity for rural area. Here in this study, we focussed on application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to simplify calculation protocols to point out wood chip production and energy potency from some tropical SRC species identified as Bauhinia purpurea, Bridelia tomentosa, Calliandra calothyrsus, Fagraea racemosa, Gliricidia sepium, Melastoma malabathricum, Piper aduncum, Vernonia amygdalina, Vernonia arborea and Vitex pinnata. The result showed that the highest calorific value was obtained from V. pinnata wood (19.97 MJ kg-1) due to its high lignin content (29.84 %, w/w). Our findings also indicated that the use of RSM for estimating energy-electricity of SRC wood had significant term regarding to the quadratic model (R2 = 0.953), whereas the solid-chip ratio prediction was accurate (R2 = 1.000). In the near future, the simple formula will be promising to calculate energy production easily from woody biomass, especially from SRC species.

  2. Optimization of Saccharomyces boulardii production in solid-state fermentation with response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliang Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii preparations are promising probiotics and clinical agents for animals and humans. This work focused on optimizing the nutritional conditions for the production of S. boulardii in solid-state fermentation by using classical and statistical methods. In single-factor experiments, the S. boulardii production was significantly increased by the addition of glucoamylase and the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were found to be soluble starch and NH4Cl, respectively. The effects of the glucoamylase, soluble starch and NH4Cl on S. boulardii production were evaluated by a three-level three-factor Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM. The maximal yeast count (4.50 ×109CFU/g was obtained under the optimized conditions (198 U/g glucoamylase, 2.37% soluble starch and 0.9% NH4Cl, which was in a good agreement with the predicted value of the model. This study has provided useful information on how to improve the accumulation of yeast cells by RSM.

  3. Response surface methodological approach for the decolorization of simulated dye effluent using Aspergillus fumigatus fresenius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen; Singh, Lakhvinder; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2009-01-30

    The aim of our research was to study, effect of temperature, pH and initial dye concentration on decolorization of diazo dye Acid Red 151 (AR 151) from simulated dye solution using a fungal isolate Aspergillus fumigatus fresenius have been investigated. The central composite design matrix and response surface methodology (RSM) have been applied to design the experiments to evaluate the interactive effects of three most important operating variables: temperature (25-35 degrees C), pH (4.0-7.0), and initial dye concentration (100-200 mg/L) on the biodegradation of AR 151. The total 20 experiments were conducted in the present study towards the construction of a quadratic model. Very high regression coefficient between the variables and the response (R(2)=0.9934) indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data by second-order polynomial regression model. The RSM indicated that initial dye concentration of 150 mg/L, pH 5.5 and a temperature of 30 degrees C were optimal for maximum % decolorization of AR 151 in simulated dye solution, and 84.8% decolorization of AR 151 was observed at optimum growth conditions.

  4. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 esters using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Lee, Jeung-Hee; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Shin, Jung-Ah; Adhikari, Prakash; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2008-11-26

    In the lipase (Novozyme 435)-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 esters, different acyl donors were found to affect not only the degree of conversion but also the regioselectivity. The reaction of acyl donors with short carbon chain was more effective, showing higher conversion than those with long carbon chain. Among the three solvent systems, the reaction in tert-amyl alcohol showed the highest conversion rate, while the reaction in the mixed solvent of t-BuOH and pyridine (1:1) had the lowest conversion rate. To allow the increase of GRb1 lipophilicity, we decided to further study the optimal condition of synthesis of GRb1 with vinyl decanoate with 10 carbon chain fatty acids in tert-amyl alcohol. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the synthesis condition. From the ridge analysis with maximum responses, the maximum GRb1 conversion was predicted to be 61.51% in a combination of factors (40.2 h, 52.95 degrees C, substrate mole ratio 275.57, and enzyme amount 39.81 mg/mL). Further, the adequacy of the predicted model was examined by additional independent experiments at the predicted maximum synthesis conditions. Results showed that the RSM was effective to optimize a combination of factors for lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 with vinyl decanoate.

  5. Optimization of a novel improver gel formulation for Barbari flat bread using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourfarzad, Amir; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein; Karimi, Mehdi; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, the use of bread improvers has become an essential part of improving the production methods and quality of bakery products. In the present study, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum improver gel formulation which gave the best quality, shelf life, sensory and image properties for Barbari flat bread. Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglyceride (DATEM) and propylene glycol (PG) were constituents of the gel and considered in this study. A second-order polynomial model was fitted to each response and the regression coefficients were determined using least square method. The optimum gel formulation was found to be 0.49 % of SSL, 0.36 % of DATEM and 0.5 % of PG when desirability function method was applied. There was a good agreement between the experimental data and their predicted counterparts. Results showed that the RSM, image processing and texture analysis are useful tools to investigate, approximate and predict a large number of bread properties.

  6. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of natural antioxidants from rice bran using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaraki, Reza; Nateghi, Ashraf

    2011-11-01

    Ultrasonic technology was applied for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidants from the rice bran using ethanol as a food grade solvent. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize experimental conditions for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidants. Three independent variables such as solvent percentage (%), temperature (°C) and time (min) were studied. Effect of ethanol concentration was found to be significant on all responses. Total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 2.37 to 6.35mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry sample. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. FRAP and DPPH values varied from 31.74 to 57.23μmol Fe(2+)/g of dry sample and 16.88% to 55.61% inhibition, respectively. Extraction yields ranged from 11 to 20.2%. Optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions were identified as 65-67% ethanol, 51-54°C, 40-45min. The experimental values agreed with those predicted by SRM models, thus indicating suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil.

  8. Extraction of triterpenoids and phenolic compounds from Ganoderma lucidum: optimization study using the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oludemi, Taofiq; Barros, Lillian; Prieto, M A; Heleno, Sandrina A; Barreiro, Maria F; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-01-24

    The extraction of triterpenoids and phenolic compounds from Ganoderma lucidum was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM), using heat and ultrasound assisted extraction techniques (HAE and UAE). The obtained results were compared with that of the standard Soxhlet procedure. RSM was applied using a circumscribed central composite design with three variables (time, ethanol content, and temperature or ultrasonic power) and five levels. The conditions that maximize the responses (extraction yield, triterpenoids and total phenolics) were: 78.9 min, 90.0 °C and 62.5% ethanol and 40 min, 100.0 W and 89.5% ethanol for HAE and UAE, respectively. The latter was the most effective, resulting in an extraction yield of 4.9 ± 0.6% comprising a content of 435.6 ± 21.1 mg g -1 of triterpenes and 106.6 ± 16.2 mg g -1 of total phenolics. The optimized extracts were fully characterized in terms of individual phenolic compounds and triterpenoids by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The recovery of the above-mentioned bioactive compounds was markedly enhanced using the UAE technique.

  9. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of charantin from Momordica charantia fruits using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ahamad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae fruits are well known for their beneficial effects in diabetes that are often attributed to its bioactive component charantin. Objective: The aim of the present study is to develop and optimize an efficient protocol for the extraction of charantin from M. charantia fruits. Materials and Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM was used for the optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE conditions. RSM was based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD, and the studied variables included solid to solvent ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time. Results: The optimal conditions predicted by the BBD were: UAE with methanol: Water (80:20, v/v at 46°C for 120 min with solid to solvent ratio of 1:26 w/v, under which the yield of charantin was 3.18 mg/g. Confirmation trials under slightly adjusted conditions yielded 3.12 ± 0.14 mg/g of charantin on dry weight basis of fruits. The result of UAE was also compared with Soxhlet extraction method and UAE was found 2.74-fold more efficient than the Soxhlet extraction for extracting charantin. Conclusions:A facile UAE protocol for a high extraction yield of charantin was developed and validated.

  10. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of charantin from Momordica charantia fruits using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Javed; Amin, Saima; Mir, Showkat R

    2015-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are well known for their beneficial effects in diabetes that are often attributed to its bioactive component charantin. The aim of the present study is to develop and optimize an efficient protocol for the extraction of charantin from M. charantia fruits. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions. RSM was based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD), and the studied variables included solid to solvent ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The optimal conditions predicted by the BBD were: UAE with methanol: Water (80:20, v/v) at 46°C for 120 min with solid to solvent ratio of 1:26 w/v, under which the yield of charantin was 3.18 mg/g. Confirmation trials under slightly adjusted conditions yielded 3.12 ± 0.14 mg/g of charantin on dry weight basis of fruits. The result of UAE was also compared with Soxhlet extraction method and UAE was found 2.74-fold more efficient than the Soxhlet extraction for extracting charantin. A facile UAE protocol for a high extraction yield of charantin was developed and validated.

  11. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of losartan potassium by using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Md.; Gilhotra, Neeraj; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken with an aim to systematically design a model of factors that would yield an optimized sustained release dosage form of an anti-hypertensive agent, losartan potassium, using response surface methodology (RSM) by employing 32 full factorial design. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared using different grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (K4M and K100M) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 by solvent casting method. The amount of the release retardant polymers – HPMC K4M (X1) and HPMC K100M (X2) was taken as an independent variable. The dependent variables were the burst release in 30 min (Y1), cumulative percentage release of drug after 8 h (Y2) and swelling index (Y3) of the patches. In vitro release and swelling studies were carried out and the data were fitted to kinetic equations. Results: The physicochemical, bioadhesive, and swelling properties of patches were found to vary significantly depending on the viscosity of the polymers and their combination. Patches showed an initial burst release preceding a more gradual sustained release phase following a nonfickian diffusion process. Discussion: The results indicate that suitable bioadhesive buccal patches with desired permeability could be prepared, facilitated with the RSM. PMID:26682205

  12. Response surface methodology applied to the study of the microwave-assisted synthesis of quaternized chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Danilo Martins; Bukzem, Andrea de Lacerda; Campana-Filho, Sérgio Paulo

    2016-03-15

    A quaternized derivative of chitosan, namely N-(2-hydroxy)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (QCh), was synthesized by reacting glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) and chitosan (Ch) in acid medium under microwave irradiation. Full-factorial 2(3) central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to evaluate the effects of molar ratio GTMAC/Ch, reaction time and temperature on the reaction yield, average degree of quaternization (DQ) and intrinsic viscosity ([η]) of QCh. The molar ratio GTMAC/Ch was the most important factor affecting the response variables and RSM results showed that highly substituted QCh (DQ = 71.1%) was produced at high yield (164%) when the reaction was carried out for 30min. at 85°C by using molar ratio GTMAC/Ch 6/1. Results showed that microwave-assisted synthesis is much faster (≤30min.) as compared to conventional reaction procedures (>4h) carried out in similar conditions except for the use of microwave irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of operating parameters in polysilicon chemical vapor deposition reactor with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Li-sha; Liu, Chun-jiao; Liu, Ying-wen

    2018-05-01

    In the polysilicon chemical vapor deposition reactor, the operating parameters are complex to affect the polysilicon's output. Therefore, it is very important to address the coupling problem of multiple parameters and solve the optimization in a computationally efficient manner. Here, we adopted Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to analyze the complex coupling effects of different operating parameters on silicon deposition rate (R) and further achieve effective optimization of the silicon CVD system. Based on finite numerical experiments, an accurate RSM regression model is obtained and applied to predict the R with different operating parameters, including temperature (T), pressure (P), inlet velocity (V), and inlet mole fraction of H2 (M). The analysis of variance is conducted to describe the rationality of regression model and examine the statistical significance of each factor. Consequently, the optimum combination of operating parameters for the silicon CVD reactor is: T = 1400 K, P = 3.82 atm, V = 3.41 m/s, M = 0.91. The validation tests and optimum solution show that the results are in good agreement with those from CFD model and the deviations of the predicted values are less than 4.19%. This work provides a theoretical guidance to operate the polysilicon CVD process.

  14. Determination of Optimum Condition of Leucine Content in Beef Protein Hydrolysate using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Roha Ab Mutalib; Zainal Samicho; Noriham Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimum condition of leucine content in beef hydrolysate. Beef hydrolysate was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain enzyme produced from pineapple peel. Parameter conditions such as concentration of bromelain, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time were assessed to obtain the optimum leucine content of beef hydrolysate according to experimental design which was recommended by response surface methodology (RSM). Leucine content in beef hydrolysate was determined using AccQ. Tag amino acid analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The condition of optimum leucine content was at bromelain concentration of 1.38 %, hydrolysis temperature of 42.5 degree Celcius and hydrolysis time of 31.59 hours with the predicted leucine content of 26.57 %. The optimum condition was verified with the leucine value obtained was 26.25 %. Since there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the predicted and verified leucine values, thus it indicates that the predicted optimum condition by RSM can be accepted to predict the optimum leucine content in beef hydrolysate. (author)

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF REACTIVE BLUE 19 DECOLORIZATION BY GANODERMA SP. USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1M. Mohammadian Fazli, *1A. R. Mesdaghinia, 1K. Naddafi, 1S. Nasseri , 1M. Yunesian, 2M. Mazaheri Assadi, 3S. Rezaie, 4H. Hamzehei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are extensively used in different industries. Dyes have adverse impacts such as visual effects, chemical oxygen demand, toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. White rot fungi, due to extracellular enzyme system, are capable to degrade dyes and various xenobiotics. The aim of this study was to optimize decolorization of reactive blue 19 (RB19 dye using Ganoderma sp. fungus. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to study the effect of independent variables, namely glycerol concentration (15, 20 and 25 g/L, temperature (27, 30 and 33 oC and pH (5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 on color removal efficiency in aqueous solution. From RSM-generated model, the optimum conditions for RB19 decolorization were identified to be at temperature of 27oC, glycerol concentration of 19.14 mg/L and pH=6.3. At the optimum conditions, predicted decolorization was 95.3 percent. The confirmatory experiments were conducted and confirmed the results by 94.89% color removal. Thus, this statistical approach enabled to improve reactive blue 19 decolorization process by Ganoderma sp. up to 1.27 times higher than non-optimized conditions.

  16. Study of decolorisation of binary dye mixture by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamparia, Shraddha; Jaspal, Dipika

    2017-10-01

    Decolorisation of a complex mixture of two different classes of textile dyes Direct Red 81 (DR81) and Rhodamine B (RHB), simulating one of the most important condition in real textile effluent was investigated onto deoiled Argemone Mexicana seeds (A. Mexicana). The adsorption behaviour of DR81 and RHB dyes was simultaneously analyzed in the mixture using derivative spectrophotometric method. Central composite design (CCD) was employed for designing the experiments for this complex binary mixture where significance of important parameters and possible interactions were analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum adsorption of DR81 and RHB by A. Mexicana was obtained at 53 °C after 63.33 min with 0.1 g of adsorbent and 8 × 10 -6  M DR81, 12 × 10 -6  M RHB with composite desirability of 0.99. The predicted values for percentage removal of dyes from the mixture were in good agreement with the experimental values with R 2 > 96% for both the dyes. CCD superimposed RSM confirmed that presence of different dyes in a solution created a competition for the adsorbent sites and hence interaction of dyes was one of the most important factor to be studied to simulate the real effluent. The adsorbent showed remarkable adsorption capacities for both the dyes in the mixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Response surface methodology optimization of lipase catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingxia; Wang, Yun; Guan, Xiu Li; Yu, Dong Dong

    2013-01-01

    The immobilized lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil and methanol for biodiesel production in tert-butanol was investigated. The effects of different tert-butanol volume, methanol molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and immobilized lipase amount on the total conversion were systematically analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The optimal conditions for the transesterification were a reaction time of 17.355 h, a reaction temperature of 34.868 °C, an immobilized lipase amount of 12.435 %, a methanol molar ratio of 5.282:1, a tert-butanol volume ratio of 0.577:1. The optimal predicted yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was 88.5 % and the actual value was 88.1 %. The predicted yield of fatty acid esters and the real one was very close, indicating that the RSM based on central composite design (CCD) was adaptable for a FAME study for the present transesterification system. Moreover, the infrared spectrum of biodiesel showed the characteristic bands of C=O, O–C–O, C=C and –(CH_2)n–. Furthermore, GC-linked mass spectrometry showed that biodiesel was mainly composed of the methyl esters of hexadecanoic, 9,12-octadecadienoic and 9-octadecadienoic acid

  18. Utilization of wheat bran for enhanced production of exo-polygalacturonase by penicillium notatum using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, F.A.; Bhatti, I.A.; Asgher, M.

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been one of the most commonly used optimization method in the recent years. Especially this technique is frequently used in the enzyme biotechnology. In this context Penicillium notatum was evaluated for enhanced biosynthesis of exo-polygalacturonse using statistical approach under solid state fermentation (SSF). Nine parameters were assessed for maximum biosynthesis of the enzyme using classical method (data not shown). Four factors (3 numerical and 1 categorical factor) were evaluated as the best having the influential effect on enzyme yield. These factors were incubation time (days), temperature (degree C), pH, and nitrogen sources. Nitrogen sources like glycine and ammonium chloride, were selected in RSM optimization as they were found to be the most promising in multiplying the exo-polygalacturonse activity during the classical approach. Maximum activity of the enzyme achieved was 1129.62 U/gds with incubation period 3 days, pH 1.318, temperature 30 degree C and using ammonium chloride as nitrogen source. All the experiments were performed at 40 % (V/W) moisture level using 10 g of wheat bran as substrate. An increase of 5.5 folds of activity was observed using this technique as compared to classical method. The results indicated that RSM could be used to get enhanced activities of exo-polygalacturonse under SSF. (author)

  19. Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Enzymatic Preparation of Deapio-Platycodin D and Platycodin D from Radix Platycodi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we reported the enzymatic preparation of deapio-platycodin D (dPD and platycodin D (PD optimized by response surface methodology (RSM from Radix Platycodi. During investigation of the hydrolysis of crude platycosides by various glycoside hydrolases, snailase showed a strong ability to transform deapio-platycoside E (dPE and platycoside E (PE into dPD and PD with 100% conversion. RSM was used to optimize the effects of the reaction temperature (35–45 °C, enzyme load (5–20%, and reaction time (4–24 h on the conversion process. Validation of the RSM model was verified by the good agreement between the experimental and the predicted values of dPD and PD conversion yield. The optimum preparation conditions were as follows: temperature, 43 °C; enzyme load, 15%; reaction time, 22 h. The biotransformation pathways were dPE→dPD3→dPD and PE→PD3→PD, respectively. The determined method may be highly applicable for the enzymatic preparation of dPD and PD for medicinal purposes and also for commercial use.

  20. Optimization for decolorization of azo dye acid green 20 by ultrasound and H2O2 using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanmei; Zheng Huaili

    2009-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design was successfully applied to the optimization of the operating conditions in decolorization of acid green 20 (AG 20) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of H 2 O 2 . The effects of three operating variables, ultrasonic power density, initial pH value of dye solution and H 2 O 2 concentration on the decolorization efficiency of AG 20 were evaluated. A quadratic model for AG 20 decolorization was proposed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the proposed quadratic model could be used to navigate the design space. The proposed model was approximately in accordance with the experimental case with correlation coefficients R 2 and R adj 2 of 0.9995 and 0.9984, respectively. The optimum operating conditions for AG 20 decolorization were found to be 1.08 W/mL of ultrasonic power density, 4.85 of initial pH and 1.94 mM of H 2 O 2 concentration, respectively. The predicted decolorization rate under the optimum conditions determined by RSM was 96.8%. Confirmatory tests were carried out under the optimum conditions and the decolorization rate of 96.3% was observed, which closely agreed with the predicted value. The results confirmed that RSM based on Box-Behnken design was an accurate and reliable method to optimize the operating conditions of AG 20 decolorization.

  1. Optimization of Vehicle Suspension Parameters for Ride Comfort Based on RSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A. C.; Patil, M. V.; Banerjee, N.

    2015-04-01

    Vehicle suspension design requires an investigation to determine the spring and damper settings that assure optimal ride comfort (RC) of vehicle. In the present work response surface methodology (RSM), one of the methods of design of experiment has been successfully implemented for the purpose of finding optimal setting. Design of experiment sometimes requires accurate representation of the independent variables which are usually difficult to measure or else unavailable for experimentation. This paper proposes a simulation model to analyze the ride comfort with accurate independent variables as per Box-Behnken design of RSM. A prediction model of response variable, RC is developed using regression analysis which leads to a good agreement with simulated model ( R 2 = 99.74 %). The fitted model can be effectively used to evaluate optimal setting of spring stiffness and damping coefficient with the help of response optimization of a high desirability value.

  2. [Optimization of ethylene production from ethanol dehydration using Zn-Mn-Co/HZSM-5 by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cheng, Keke; Xue, Jianwei; Zhang, Jian'an

    2011-03-01

    The effects of reaction temperature, ethanol concentration and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) on the ethylene production from ethanol dehydration using zinc, manganese and cobalt modified HZSM-5 catalyst were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the most significant effect among factors was reaction temperature and the factors had interaction. The optimum conditions were found as 34.4% ethanol concentration, 261.3 0 degrees C of reaction temperature and 1.18 h(-1) of WHSV, under these conditions the yield of ethylene achieved 98.69%.

  3. Combining a 2-D multiphase CFD model with a Response Surface Methodology to optimize the gasification of Portuguese biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Valter; Rouboa, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A multiphase CFD model was combined with RSM. • Gasification optimal operating conditions were found in a pilot scale reactor. • Syngas quality indices were optimized in a biomass gasification process. • Propagation of error methodology was combined with a CFD model and RSM. - Abstract: This paper presents a study to evaluate the potential of Portuguese biomasses (coffee husks, forest residues and vine pruning residues) to produce syngas for different applications. By using a 2-D Eulerian–Eulerian approach within the CFD framework, a design of several computer experiments was developed and were used as analysis tools the response surface method (RSM) and the propagation of error (POE) approach. The CFD model was validated under experimental results collected at a semi-industrial reactor. For design purposes, temperature, steam to biomass ratio (SBR) and the type of biomass were selected as input factors. The responses were the H 2 generation, the H 2 /CO ratio, the CH 4 /H 2 ratio, the carbon conversion and the cold gas efficiency. It was concluded that after an optimization procedure to determine the operating conditions, vine pruning residues could show very promising results considering some of the typical syngas indice standards for commercial purposes. From the optimization procedure, it was also concluded that forest residues are preferable for domestic natural gas applications and vine pruning residues for fuel cells and integrated gasification systems application. By using the RSM combined with POE, it was verified that the operating conditions to get higher performances do not always coincide with those necessary to obtain a stable syngas composition

  4. Optimization of biodiesel production from Thevetia peruviana seed oil by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system coupled with genetic algorithm and response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogaga Ighose, Benjamin; Adeleke, Ibrahim A.; Damos, Mueuji; Adeola Junaid, Hamidat; Ernest Okpalaeke, Kelechi; Betiku, Eriola

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil was extracted from Thevetia peruviana seeds and converted to FAME. • The FFA of the oil was first reduced to <1% by esterification process. • The conversion of the esterified oil to FAME was modeled using ANFIS and RSM. • The developed models by ANFIS and RSM for transesterification process had R"2 ≈ 1. • GA and RSM gave the maximum FAME yield of 99.8 wt.% and 98.8 wt.%, respectively. - Abstract: This work focused on the application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and response surface methodology (RSM) as predictive tools for production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seed oil. Two-step transesterification method was adopted, in the first step, the high free fatty acid (FFA) content of the oil was reduced to <1% by treating it with ferric sulfate in the presence of methanol. While in the second step, the pretreated oil was converted to FAME by reacting it with methanol using sodium methoxide as catalyst. To model the second step, central composite design was employed to study the effect of catalyst loading (1–2 wt.%), methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1–12:1) and time (20–60 min) on the T. peruviana methyl esters (TPME) yield. The reduction of FFA of the oil to 0.65 ± 0.05 wt.% was realized using ferric sulfate of 3 wt.%, methanol/FFA molar ratio of 9:1 and reaction time of 40 min. The model developed for the transesterification process by ANFIS (coefficient of determination, R"2 = 0.9999, standard error of prediction, SEP = 0.07 and mean absolute percentage deviation, MAPD = 0.05%) was significantly better than that of RSM (R"2 = 0.9670, SEP = 1.55 and MAPD = 0.84%) in terms of accuracy of the predicted TPME yield. For maximum TPME yield, the transesterification process input variables were optimized using genetic algorithm (GA) coupled with the ANFIS model and RSM optimization tool. TPME yield of 99.8 wt.% could be obtained with the combination of 0.79 w/v catalyst

  5. Response Surface Methodology: 1966-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    male broilers to examine quantitatively the protein levels in starter and Gnisher rations and the time of ration change to optimize body weight, carcass...1983). ’Akn Investigation of Protein Levels for Broiler Starter and Finisher Rations and the Time of Ration Change by Response Surface Methodology...when Responses Within a Litter are Correlated,’ Biometrics, 37, 153-156. Shek, E., Ghani, M. and Jones, R.E. (1980). "Simplex Search in Optimization

  6. Hardness optimization of boride diffusion layer on Astm F-75 alloy using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguelles O, J. L.; Corona R, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de Materiales, San Luis Potosi 78000, SLP (Mexico); Marquez H, A.; Saldana R, A. L.; Saldana R, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Ingenieria Mecanica Agricola DICIVA, Irapuato, Guanajuato 36500 (Mexico); Moreno P, J., E-mail: amarquez@ugto.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Minas, Metalurgia y Geologia, Ex-Hacienda San Matias s/n, Guanajuato, Guanajuato 36020 (Mexico)

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the Response Surface Methodology (Rsm) and Central Composite Design (Ccd) were used to optimize the hardness of boride diffusion layer on Astm F-75 alloy (also called Haynes alloy). A boronizing thermochemical treatment was carried out at different temperatures and for different time periods. Hardness tests were conducted. The boride diffusion layer was verified by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicating the formation of Co B, Co{sub 2}B, Cr B and Mo{sub 2}B phases. An optimal hardness of 3139.7 Hv was obtained for the samples subjected to the boriding process for a duration of 6.86 h at 802.4 degrees Celsius. (Author)

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L. (ROSELLE ANTHOCYANIN AQUEOUS-ETHANOL EXTRACTION PARAMETERS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANILÚ MIRANDA-MEDINA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins along with protocatechuic acid and quercetin have been recognized as bioactive compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa L. aqueous extracts. Characteristic anthocyanin absorption in the visible region makes their quantification possible without the interference of the other two compounds, and also can favor its potential application as an alternative to organic-based dye sensitized solar cell, in various forms. In order to optimize measurable factors linked to the extraction of these flavonoids, an optimization was performed using a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. Three levels of ethanol concentration, temperature and solid-solvent ratio (SSR were investigated. The optimization model showed that with 96 % EtOH, 65 °C, and 1:50 SSR, the highest anthocyanin concentration of 150 mg/100 g was obtained.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF PRETREATMENT CONDITIONS OF CARROTS TO MAXIMIZE JUICE RECOVERY BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. SHARMA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Carrot juice was expressed in a hydraulic press using a wooden set up. Carrot samples pretreated at different designed combinations, using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD, Response Surface Methodology (RSM, of pH, temperature and time were expressed and juice so obtained was characterized for various physico-chemical parameters which involved yield, TSS and water content, reducing sugars, total sugars and color (absorbance. The study indicated that carrots exposed to the different pretreatment conditions resulted in increased amount of yield than that of the control. The responses were optimized by numerical method and were found to be 78.23% yield, 0.93% color (abs, 3.41% reducing sugars, 5.53% total sugars, 6.69obrix, and 90.50% water content. All the derived mathematical models for the various responses were found to be fit significantly to predict the data.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR TANNASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER VAN TIEGHEM USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Abou-Bakr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the production of tannase by a newly isolate of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem using rotatable central composite design (RCCD. This statistical optimization process was carried out involving four of quantitative growth parameters (variables, namely tannic acid concentration, nitrogen source concentration, initial pH of the medium and inoculum size. A mathematical model expressing the production process of tannase by submerged fermentation (SmF technique was generated statistically in the form of a second order polynomial equation. The model indicated the presence of significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects of the studied variables on tannase production by the fungal isolate. The results showed maximum tannase production (580 U/50 ml medium at 2% tannic acid, 4 g/l sodium nitrate, pH 4 and inoculum size of 5×107 spores/50 ml medium, which was also verified by experimental data.

  10. ESTABLISHING EMPIRICAL RELATION TO PREDICT TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF VORTEX TUBE USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABAKARAN J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vortex tube is a device that produces cold and hot air simultaneously from the source of compressed air. In this work an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of three controllable input variables namely diameter of the orifices, diameter of the nozzles and inlet pressure over the temperature difference in the cold side as output using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Experiments are conducted using central composite design with three factors at three levels. The influence of vital parameters and interaction among these are investigated using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The proposed mathematical model in this study has proven to fit and in line with experimental values with a 95% confidence interval. It is found that the inlet pressure and diameter of nozzle are significant factors that affect the performance of vortex tube.

  11. Bioethanol Production from Raw Juice as Intermediate of Sugar Beet Processing: A Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Popov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used for selecting optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction in cultivation media based on raw juice from sugar beet in order to produce ethanol. Optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction for ethanol production in batch fermentation by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells under anaerobic conditions at the temperature of 30 °C and agitation rate of 200 rpm were estimated to be 38 h and 12.30 % by mass, respectively. For selecting optimal conditions for industrial application, further techno-economic analysis should be performed by using the obtained mathematical representation of the process (second degree polynomial model. The overall fermentation productivity of five different types of yeast was examined and there is no significant statistical difference between them.

  12. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of phenolic antioxidants from green tea using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Lee, Namhyouck; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sang Pil; Jeon, Yeo-Won; Kim, Young-Eon

    2013-10-31

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 ° C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio of (EGCg + ECg)/EGC was identified a major factor contributing to the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. In this study, ultrasonic extraction showed that the ethanol concentration and extraction time used for antioxidant extraction could be remarkably reduced without a decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the conventional extraction conditions.

  13. Enzymatic Transesterification of Ethyl Ferulate with Fish Oil and Its Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Glasius, Marianne; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    formation of feruloyl fish oil products as well when appropriate amount of glycerol was present in the reaction. Therefore, the addition of equivalent molar amount of glycerol to EF was decided for the practical optimization of the system. The mutual effects of temperature (40 to 70 oC), reaction time (1......The enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with cod liver fish oil was investigated with Novozym 435 as catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the synthesis system for production of feruloyl fish oil in industry. The modified HPLC method...... to 5 days), enzyme load (2 to 20 %) and substrate amount ratio of fish oil/EF (1 to 5) were thus studied with assistance of response surface methodology (RSM) for the purpose of maximizing the formation towards feruloyl fish oil. The models were well fitted and verified. The optimized conditions were...

  14. Optimization of Progressive Freeze Concentration on Apple Juice via Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsuri, S.; Amran, N. A.; Jusoh, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a progressive freeze concentration (PFC) system was developed to concentrate apple juice and was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of various operating conditions such as coolant temperature, circulation flowrate, circulation time and shaking speed to effective partition constant (K) were investigated. Five different level of central composite design (CCD) was employed to search for optimal concentration of concentrated apple juice. A full quadratic model for K was established by using method of least squares. A coefficient of determination (R2) of this model was found to be 0.7792. The optimum conditions were found to be coolant temperature = -10.59 °C, circulation flowrate = 3030.23 mL/min, circulation time = 67.35 minutes and shaking speed = 30.96 ohm. A validation experiment was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimization procedure and the best K value of 0.17 was achieved under the optimized conditions.

  15. Optimization of Gluten-Free Tulumba Dessert Formulation Including Corn Flour: Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Önder

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tulumba dessert is widely preferred in Turkey; however, it cannot be consumed by celiac patients because it includes gluten. The diversity of gluten-free products should be expanded so that celiac patients may meet their daily needs regularly. In this study, corn flour (CF / potato starch (PS blend to be used in the gluten-free tulumba dessert formulation was optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Increasing ratio of PS in the CF-PS led to a decrease in hardness of the dessert and to an increase in expansion, viscosity, adhesiveness, yield of dessert both with and without syrup (P0.05, additionally these desserts had a much higher sensory score compared to the control sample in terms of the overall quality and pore structure (P<0.05.

  16. Optimizing removal of cod from water by catalytic ozonation of cephalexin using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.; Amin, N.S.; Zahoor, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the effect of circulation rates, ozone supply, cephalexin (CEX) concentration, and granular activated carbon (GAC) dose on removal of COD from solution. According to statistical analysis, all of the input variables exerted significant influence on COD removal, however, the effect of interaction variables was not found to be significant on comparative basis. Further, the developed quadratic regression model based on obtained results emphasized the significance of individual terms and little of interaction terms. The values of r/sup 2/ (0.959), adjusted r/sup 2/ (0.902) obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates the significance of quadratic model in predicting desired response. The maximum of 70% of COD was removed in these experiments and optimized value according to main effect of variables was 60%. (author)

  17. Power Prediction Model for Turning EN-31 Steel Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hameedullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption in turning EN-31 steel (a material that is most extensively used in automotive industry with tungstencarbide tool under different cutting conditions was experimentally investigated. The experimental runs were planned accordingto 24+8 added centre point factorial design of experiments, replicated thrice. The data collected was statisticallyanalyzed using Analysis of Variance technique and first order and second order power consumption prediction models weredeveloped by using response surface methodology (RSM. It is concluded that second-order model is more accurate than thefirst-order model and fit well with the experimental data. The model can be used in the automotive industries for decidingthe cutting parameters for minimum power consumption and hence maximum productivity

  18. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio of (EGCg + ECg/EGC was identified a major factor contributing to the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. In this study, ultrasonic extraction showed that the ethanol concentration and extraction time used for antioxidant extraction could be remarkably reduced without a decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the conventional extraction conditions.

  19. Optimization of Total Flavonoids Extraction from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu, X. F.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to predict optimum conditions for extraction of flavonoid from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. A central composite design (CCD was used to monitor the effect of extraction temperature, extraction time, and water-to-material ratio on yield of total flavonoids. The optimal extraction conditions were obtained as water-to-material ratio of 55 ml g−1, extraction temperature of 80 °C and extraction time of 70 minutes. Under these conditions, the average total flavonoids yield, according to the mass of raw material, was 9.0 ± 0.6 %, which corresponds to the predicted value of 8.9 %. Thus, the extraction method was applied successfully to extract total flavonoids from C. tinctoria.

  20. Response surface methodology: A non-conventional statistical tool to maximize the throughput of Streptomyces species biomass and their bioactive metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Selvanathan; Sivaranjani, Govindhan; Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai

    2017-09-01

    Among diverse actinobacteria, Streptomyces is a renowned ongoing source for the production of a large number of secondary metabolites, furnishing immeasurable pharmacological and biological activities. Hence, to meet the demand of new lead compounds for human and animal use, research is constantly targeting the bioprospecting of Streptomyces. Optimization of media components and physicochemical parameters is a plausible approach for the exploration of intensified production of novel as well as existing bioactive metabolites from various microbes, which is usually achieved by a range of classical techniques including one factor at a time (OFAT). However, the major drawbacks of conventional optimization methods have directed the use of statistical optimization approaches in fermentation process development. Response surface methodology (RSM) is one of the empirical techniques extensively used for modeling, optimization and analysis of fermentation processes. To date, several researchers have implemented RSM in different bioprocess optimization accountable for the production of assorted natural substances from Streptomyces in which the results are very promising. This review summarizes some of the recent RSM adopted studies for the enhanced production of antibiotics, enzymes and probiotics using Streptomyces with the intention to highlight the significance of Streptomyces as well as RSM to the research community and industries.

  1. Optimization of petroleum refinery effluent treatment in a UASB reactor using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastegar, S.O. [Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S.M., E-mail: mousavi_m@modares.ac.ir [Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojaosadati, S.A. [Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheibani, S. [R and T Management Department, National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A UASB was successfully used for treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Response surface methodology was applied to design and analysis of experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System was modeled between efficient factors include HRT, influent COD and V{sub up}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UASB was able to remove about 76.3% influent COD at optimum conditions. - Abstract: An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor was successfully used for the treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. Before optimization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 81% at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.4 kg/m{sup 3} d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h. The rate of biogas production was 559 mL/h at an HRT of 40 h and an influent COD of 1000 mg/L. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict the behaviors of influent COD, upflow velocity (V{sub up}) and HRT in the bioreactor. RSM showed that the best models for COD removal and biogas production rate were the reduced quadratic and cubic models, respectively. The optimum region, identified based on two critical responses, was an influent COD of 630 mg/L, a V{sub up} of 0.27 m/h, and an HRT of 21.4 h. This resulted in a 76.3% COD removal efficiency and a 0.25 L biogas/L feed d biogas production rate.

  2. On the application of response surface methodology for predicting and optimizing surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning by PVD coated insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessainia Zahia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the exploitation of the response surface methodology (RSM to determine optimum cutting conditions leading to minimum surface roughness and cutting force components. The technique of RSM helps to create an efficient statistical model for studying the evolution of surface roughness and cutting forces according to cutting parameters: cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. For this purpose, turning tests of hardened steel alloy (AISI 4140 (56 HRC were carried out using PVD – coated ceramic insert under different cutting conditions. The equations of surface roughness and cutting forces were achieved by using the experimental data and the technique of the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The obtained results are presented in terms of mean values and confidence levels. It is shown that feed rate and depth of cut are the most influential factors on surface roughness and cutting forces, respectively. In addition, it is underlined that the surface roughness is mainly related to the cutting speed, whereas depth of cut has the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting forces. The optimal machining parameters obtained in this study represent reductions about 6.88%, 3.65%, 19.05% in cutting force components (Fa, Fr, Ft, respectively. The latters are compared with the results of initial cutting parameters for machining AISI 4140 steel in the hard turning process.

  3. Optimization of GMAW process of AA 6063-T5 aluminum alloy butt joints based on the response surface methodology and on the bead geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, V.; Martinez-Conesa, E. J.; Segura, F.; Manjabacas, M. C.; Abellan, E.

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of the weld beads is characterized by the overhead, the width and the penetration. These values are indices of the behavior of the welded joint and therefore, they can be considered as factors that control the process. This work is performed to optimize the GMAW process of the aluminum alloy AA 6063-T5 by means of the response surface methodology (RSM). The variables herein considered are the arc voltage, the welding speed, the wire feed speed and the separation between surfaces in butt joints. The response functions that are herein studied are the overhead, the width, the penetration and the angle of the bead. The obtained results by RSM show high grade of agreement with the experimental values. The procedure is experimentally validated by welding for the theoretically obtained optimized technological conditions and a wide agreement between theoretical and experimental values is found. (Author) 16 refs.

  4. Applying Central Composite Design and Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Growth and Biomass Production of Haemophilus influenzae Type b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Seyed Bahman; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Akbari, Neda; Ranjbar, Bijan; Khajeh, Khosro

    2016-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, cellulitis, bacteremia, and septic arthritis in infants and young children. The Hib capsule contains the major virulence factor, and is composed of polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) that can induce immune system response. Vaccines consisting of Hib capsular polysaccharide (PRP) conjugated to a carrier protein are effective in the prevention of the infections. However, due to costly processes in PRP production, these vaccines are too expensive. To enhance biomass, in this research we focused on optimizing Hib growth with respect to physical factors such as pH, temperature, and agitation by using a response surface methodology (RSM). We employed a central composite design (CCD) and a response surface methodology to determine the optimum cultivation conditions for growth and biomass production of H. influenzae type b. The treatment factors investigated were initial pH, agitation, and temperature, using shaking flasks. After Hib cultivation and determination of dry biomass, analysis of experimental data was performed by the RSM-CCD. The model showed that temperature and pH had an interactive effect on Hib biomass production. The dry biomass produced in shaking flasks was about 5470 mg/L, which was under an initial pH of 8.5, at 250 rpm and 35° C. We found CCD and RSM very effective in optimizing Hib culture conditions, and Hib biomass production was greatly influenced by pH and incubation temperature. Therefore, optimization of the growth factors to maximize Hib production can lead to 1) an increase in bacterial biomass and PRP productions, 2) lower vaccine prices, 3) vaccination of more susceptible populations, and 4) lower risk of Hib infections.

  5. Comparative study on the predictability of statistical models (RSM and ANN) on the behavior of optimized buccoadhesive wafers containing Loratadine and their in vivo assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Prithviraj; Parcha, Versha; Chakraborty, Debarupa D; Ghosh, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    Buccoadhesive wafer dosage form containing Loratadine is formulated utilizing Formulation by Design (FbD) approach incorporating sodium alginate and lactose monohydrate as independent variable employing solvent casting method. The wafers were statistically optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network algorithm (ANN) for predicting physicochemical and physico-mechanical properties of the wafers as responses. Morphologically wafers were tested using SEM. Quick disintegration of the samples was examined employing Optical Contact Angle (OCA). The comparison of the predictability of RSM and ANN showed a high prognostic capacity of RSM model over ANN model in forecasting mechanical and physicochemical properties of the wafers. The in vivo assessment of the optimized buccoadhesive wafer exhibits marked increase in bioavailability justifying the administration of Loratadine through buccal route, bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism.

  6. Multi-objective parametric optimization of Inertance type pulse tube refrigerator using response surface methodology and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Sachindra K.; Choudhury, Balaji K.; Sahoo, Ranjit K.; Sarangi, Sunil K.

    2014-07-01

    The modeling and optimization of a Pulse Tube Refrigerator is a complicated task, due to its complexity of geometry and nature. The aim of the present work is to optimize the dimensions of pulse tube and regenerator for an Inertance-Type Pulse Tube Refrigerator (ITPTR) by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Non-Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II). The Box-Behnken design of the response surface methodology is used in an experimental matrix, with four factors and two levels. The diameter and length of the pulse tube and regenerator are chosen as the design variables where the rest of the dimensions and operating conditions of the ITPTR are constant. The required output responses are the cold head temperature (Tcold) and compressor input power (Wcomp). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to model and solve the ITPTR. The CFD results agreed well with those of the previously published paper. Also using the results from the 1-D simulation, RSM is conducted to analyse the effect of the independent variables on the responses. To check the accuracy of the model, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method has been used. Based on the proposed mathematical RSM models a multi-objective optimization study, using the Non-sorted genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) has been performed to optimize the responses.

  7. Application of response surface methodology in optimization of performance and exhaust emissions of secondary butyl alcohol-gasoline blends in SI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusri, I.M.; Mamat, R.; Azmi, W.H.; Omar, A.I.; Obed, M.A.; Shaiful, A.I.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Adding 2-butanol in gasoline fuel can improve engine performance. • 2-Butanol addition reduced NO x , CO, and HC but produced higher CO 2 . • RSM was applied to optimize the engine performance and exhaust emissions. - Abstract: Producing an optimal balance between engine performance and exhaust emissions has always been one of the main challenges in automotive technology. This paper examines the use of RSM (response surface methodology) to optimize the engine performance, and exhaust emissions of a spark-ignition (SI) engine which operates with 2-butanol–gasoline blends of 5%, 10%, and 15% called GBu5, GBu10, and GBu15. In the experiments, the engine ran at various speeds for each test fuel and 13 different conditions were constructed. The optimization of the independent variables was performed by means of a statistical tool known as DoE (design of experiments). The desirability approach by RSM was employed with the aim of minimizing emissions and maximizing of performance parameters. Based on the RSM model, performance characteristics revealed that increments of 2-butanol in the blended fuels lead to increasing trends of brake power, brake mean effective pressure and brake thermal efficiency. Nonetheless, marginal higher brake specific fuel consumption was observed. Furthermore, the RSM model suggests that the presence of 2-butanol exhibits a decreasing trend of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, and unburnt hydrocarbon, however, a higher trend was observed for carbon dioxides exhaust emissions. It was established from the study that the GBu15 blend with an engine speed of 3205 rpm was found to be optimal to provide the best performance and emissions characteristics as compared to the other tested blends.

  8. Modelling and analysis of tool wear and surface roughness in hard turning of AISI D2 steel using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Junaid Mir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with some machinability studies on tool wear and surface roughness, in finish hard turning of AISI D2 steel using PCBN, Mixed ceramic and coated carbide inserts. The machining experiments are conducted based on the response surface methodology (RSM. Combined effects of three cutting parameters viz., cutting speed, cutting time and tool hardness on the two performance outputs (i.e. VB and Ra, are explored employing the analysis of variance (ANOVA.The relationship(s between input variables and the response parameters are determined using a quadratic regression model. The results show that the tool wear was influenced principally by the cutting time and in the second level by the cutting tool hardness. On the other hand, cutting time was the dominant factor affecting workpiece surface roughness followed by cutting speed. Finally, the multiple response optimizations of tool wear and surface roughness were carried out using the desirability function approach (DFA.

  9. Response Surface Methodology and Aspen Plus Integration for the Simulation of the Catalytic Steam Reforming of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernay Cifuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steam reforming of ethanol (SRE on a bimetallic RhPt/CeO2 catalyst was evaluated by the integration of Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Aspen Plus (version 9.0, Aspen Tech, Burlington, MA, USA, 2016. First, the effect of the Rh–Pt weight ratio (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1 on the performance of SRE on RhPt/CeO2 was assessed between 400 to 700 °C with a stoichiometric steam/ethanol molar ratio of 3. RSM enabled modeling of the system and identification of a maximum of 4.2 mol H2/mol EtOH (700 °C with the Rh0.4Pt0.4/CeO2 catalyst. The mathematical models were integrated into Aspen Plus through Excel in order to simulate a process involving SRE, H2 purification, and electricity production in a fuel cell (FC. An energy sensitivity analysis of the process was performed in Aspen Plus, and the information obtained was used to generate new response surfaces. The response surfaces demonstrated that an increase in H2 production requires more energy consumption in the steam reforming of ethanol. However, increasing H2 production rebounds in more energy production in the fuel cell, which increases the overall efficiency of the system. The minimum H2 yield needed to make the system energetically sustainable was identified as 1.2 mol H2/mol EtOH. According to the results of the integration of RSM models into Aspen Plus, the system using Rh0.4Pt0.4/CeO2 can produce a maximum net energy of 742 kJ/mol H2, of which 40% could be converted into electricity in the FC (297 kJ/mol H2 produced. The remaining energy can be recovered as heat.

  10. [Optimization of Formulation and Process of Paclitaxel PEGylated Liposomes by Box-Behnken Response Surface Methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-jun; Zhang, Xiao-feil; Guo, Qiu-ting

    2015-12-01

    To develop a procedure for preparing paclitaxel encapsulated PEGylated liposomes. The membrane hydration followed extraction method was used to prepare PEGylated liposomes. The process and formulation variables were optimized by "Box-Behnken Design (BBD)" of response surface methodology (RSM) with the amount of Soya phosphotidylcholine (SPC) and PEG2000-DSPE as well as the rate of SPC to drug as independent variables and entrapment efficiency as dependent variables for optimization of formulation variables while temperature, pressure and cycle times as independent variables and particle size and polydispersion index as dependent variables for process variables. The optimized liposomal formulation was characterized for particle size, Zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release. For entrapment efficiency, particle size, polydispersion index, Zeta potential, and in vitro drug release of PEGylated liposomes was found to be 80.3%, (97.15 ± 14.9) nm, 0.117 ± 0.019, (-30.3 ± 3.7) mV, and 37.4% in 24 h, respectively. The liposomes were found to be small, unilamellar and spherical with smooth surface as seen in transmission electron microscopy. The Box-Behnken response surface methodology facilitates the formulation and optimization of paclitaxel PEGylated liposomes.

  11. Techno-economical optimization of Reactive Blue 19 removal by combined electrocoagulation/coagulation process through MOPSO using RSM and ANFIS models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, M; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Arami, M

    2013-10-15

    In this research, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) models were applied for optimization of Reactive Blue 19 removal using combined electrocoagulation/coagulation process through Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO). By applying RSM, the effects of five independent parameters including applied current, reaction time, initial dye concentration, initial pH and dosage of Poly Aluminum Chloride were studied. According to the RSM results, all the independent parameters are equally important in dye removal efficiency. In addition, ANFIS was applied for dye removal efficiency and operating costs modeling. High R(2) values (≥85%) indicate that the predictions of RSM and ANFIS models are acceptable for both responses. ANFIS was also used in MOPSO for finding the best techno-economical Reactive Blue 19 elimination conditions according to RSM design. Through MOPSO and the selected ANFIS model, Minimum and maximum values of 58.27% and 99.67% dye removal efficiencies were obtained, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parametric and energy consumption optimization of Basic Red 2 removal by electrocoagulation/egg shell adsorption coupling using response surface methodology in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Helder Pereira; Huang, Jiguo; Zhao, Meixia; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xinyu; Dong, Lili; Liu, Xingjuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) model was applied for optimization of Basic Red 2 (BR2) removal using electrocoagulation/eggshell (ES) coupling process in a batch system. Central composite design was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of process parameters including current density, reaction time, initial pH and ES dosage on the BR2 removal efficiency and energy consumption. The analysis of variance revealed high R(2) values (≥85%) indicating that the predictions of RSM models are adequately applicable for both responses. The optimum conditions when the dye removal efficiency of 93.18% and energy consumption of 0.840 kWh/kg were observed were 11.40 mA/cm(2) current density, 5 min and 3 s reaction time, 6.5 initial pH and 10.91 g/L ES dosage.

  13. Optimization of volatile fatty acid production with co-substrate of food wastes and dewatered excess sludge using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chen; Haiyun, Wu

    2010-07-01

    Central-composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the parameters of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from food wastes and dewatered excess sludge in a semi-continuous process. The effects of four variables (food wastes composition in the co-substrate of food wastes and excess sludge, hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR), and pH) on acidogenesis were evaluated individually and interactively. The optimum condition derived via RSM was food wastes composition, 88.03%; HRT, 8.92 days; OLR, 8.31 g VSS/ld; and pH 6.99. The experimental VFA concentration was 29,099 mg/l under this optimum condition, which was well in agreement with the predicted value of 28,000 mg/l. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovery of Vanadium from Magnetite Ore Using Direct Acid Leaching: Optimization of Parameters by Plackett-Burman and Response Surface Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Davood Ghoddocy; Khanchi, Ali Reza; Taghizadeh, Majid

    2018-06-01

    Recovery of vanadium from magnetite ore by direct acid leaching is discussed. The proposed process, which employs a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids, avoids pyrometallurgical treatments since such treatment consumes a high amount of energy. To determine the optimum conditions of vanadium recovery, the leaching process is optimized through Plackett-Burman (P-B) design and response surface methodology (RSM). In this respect, temperature (80-95°C), liquid to solid ratio (L/S) (3-10 mL g-1), sulfuric acid concentration (3-6 M), nitric acid concentration (5-10 vol.%) and time (4-8 h) are considered as the independent variables. According to the P-B approach, temperature and acid concentrations are, respectively, the most effective parameters in the leaching process. These parameters are optimized using RSM to maximize recovery of vanadium by direct acid leaching. In this way, 86.7% of vanadium can be extracted from magnetic ore.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of yellow konjac flour-κ-carrageenan mixed gels and red koji rice extracts on the properties of restructured meat using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjanarko, Simon Bambang; Amalia, Qory; Hermanto, Mochamad Bagus; Mubarok, Ahmad Zaki

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of two independent variables, yellow konjac flour-κ-carrageenan (KFC) mixed gels and red koji rice (RKR) extracts for the development of restructured meat product, was investigated using central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The assessed physical characteristics were hardness, water holding capacity (WHC), and color (° hue ) of the restructured meat products. The second order regression models with high R 2 value were significantly fitted to predict the changes in hardness, WHC and color. The results showed that the predicted optimum formula of restructured meat were the addition of KFC mixed gels at 10.21% and RKR extracts at 6.11%. The experiments results validate these optimum formula and found to be not statistically different at 5% level. Thus, the RSM was successfully employed and can be used to optimize the formulation of restructured meat.

  16. Development, Characterization, and Optimization of Protein Level in Date Bars Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Muhammad Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to produce a nourishing date bar with commercial value especially for school going children to meet their body development requirements. Protein level of date bars was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. Economical and underutilized sources, that is, whey protein concentrate and vetch protein isolates, were explored for protein supplementation. Fourteen date bar treatments were produced using a central composite design (CCD with 2 variables and 3 levels for each variable. Date bars were then analyzed for nutritional profile. Proximate composition revealed that addition of whey protein concentrate and vetch protein isolates improved the nutritional profile of date bars. Protein level, texture, and taste were considerably improved by incorporating 6.05% whey protein concentrate and 4.35% vetch protein isolates in date bar without affecting any sensory characteristics during storage. Response surface methodology was observed as an economical and effective tool to optimize the ingredient level and to discriminate the interactive effects of independent variables.

  17. Adsorptive removal of residual catalyst from palm biodiesel: Application of response surface methodology

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    Mjalli Sabri Farouq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the residual potassium hydroxide catalyst was removed from palm oil-based methyl esters using an adsorption technique. The produced biodiesel was initially purified through a water washing process. To produce a biodiesel with a better quality and also to meet standard specifications (EN 14214 and ASTM D6751, batch adsorption on palm shell activated carbon was used for further catalyst removal. The Central Composite Design (CCD of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to study the influence of adsorbent amount, time and temperature on the adsorption of potassium species. The maximum catalyst removal was achieved at 40°C using 0.9 g activated carbon for 20 h adsorption time. The results from the Response Surface Methodology are in a good agreement with the measured values. The absolute error in prediction at the optimum condition was 3.7%, which is reasonably accurate. This study proves that adsorption post-treatment techniques can be successfully employed to improve the quality of biodiesel fuel for its effective use on diesel engines and to minimize the usage of water.

  18. Optimization of deposition conditions of CdS thin films using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, Ersin, E-mail: dr.ersinyucel@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Güler, Nuray [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Yücel, Yasin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Statistical methods used for optimization of CdS deposition parameters. • The morphology of the films was smooth, homogeneous and continuous. • Optimal conditions found as pH 11, stirring speed:361 rpm and deposition time: 55 min. • CdS thin film band gap value was 2.72 eV under the optimum conditions. -- Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique under different pH, stirring speed and deposition time. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Central Composite Design (CCD) were used to optimization of deposition parameters of the CdS thin films. RSM and CCD were also used to understand the significance and interaction of the factors affecting the film quality. Variables were determined as pH, stirring speed and deposition time. The band gap was chosen as response in the study. Influences of the variables on the band gap and the film quality were investigated. 5-level-3-factor central composite design was employed to evaluate the effects of the deposition conditions parameters such as pH (10.2–11.8), stirring speed (132–468 rpm) and deposition time (33–67 min) on the band gap of the films. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) measurements. The optimal conditions for the deposition parameters of the CdS thin films have been found to be: pH 11, 361 of stirring speed and 55 min of deposition time. Under the optimal conditions theoretical (predicted) band gap of CdS (2.66 eV) was calculated using optimal coded values from the model and the theoretical value is good agreement with the value (2.72 eV) obtained by verification experiment.

  19. Optimization for the Production of Deoxynivalenoland Zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum UsingResponse Surface Methodology

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    Li Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN are the most common contaminants in cereals worldwide, causing a wide range of adverse health effects on animals and humans. Many environmental factors can affect the production of these mycotoxins. Here, we have used response surface methodology (RSM to optimize the Fusarium graminearum strain 29 culture conditions for maximal toxin production. Three factors, medium pH, incubation temperature and time, were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD. The optimized conditions for DON production were pH 4.91 and an incubation temperature of 23.75 °C for 28 days, while maximal ZEN production required pH 9.00 and an incubation temperature of 15.05 °C for 28 days. The maximum levels of DON and ZEN production were 2811.17 ng/mL and 23789.70 ng/mL, respectively. Considering the total level of DON and ZEN, desirable yields of the mycotoxins were still obtained with medium pH of 6.86, an incubation temperature of 17.76 °C and a time of 28 days. The corresponding experimental values, from the validation experiments, fitted well with these predictions. This suggests that RSM could be used to optimize Fusarium mycotoxin levels, which are further purified for use as potential mycotoxin standards. Furthermore, it shows that acidic pH is a determinant for DON production, while an alkaline environment and lower temperature (approximately 15 °C are favorable for ZEN accumulation. After extraction, separation and purification processes, the isolated mycotoxins were obtained through a simple purification process, with desirable yields, and acceptable purity. The mycotoxins could be used as potential analytical standards or chemical reagents for routine analysis.

  20. Optimization of Solid-Liquid Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Mulberry Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

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    Zoran Zeković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of solvent concentration (ethanol/water 40–80 %, by volume, temperature (40–80 °C and solvent/raw material ratio (10–30 mL/g on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity from black mulberry (Morus nigra L. leaves. Experimental values of total phenolic content were in the range from 18.6 to 48.7 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents per g of dried leaves and total flavonoids in the range from 6.0 to 21.4 mg of rutin eqivalents per g of dried leaves. Antioxidant activity expressed as the inhibition concentration at 50 % (IC50 value was in the range from 0.019 to 0.078 mg of mulberry extract per mL. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions and to investigate the effect of different variables on the observed properties of mulberry leaf extracts. The results show a good fit to the proposed model (R˄2>0.90. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of phenolics and flavonoids were within the experimental range. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the used model and the success of RSM in optimizing the investigated extraction conditions.

  1. Optimization of a two stage process for biodiesel production from shea butter using response surface methodology

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    E.O. Ajala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of biodiesel production from high free fatty acid (FFA shea butter (SB necessitated this study. The reduction of %FFA of SB by esterification and its subsequent utilization by transesterification for biodiesel production in a two stage process for optimization studies was investigated using response surface methodology based on a central composite design (CCD. Four operating conditions were investigated to reduce the %FFA of SB and increase the %yield of shea biodiesel (SBD. The operating conditions were temperature (40–60°C, agitation speed (200–1400 rpm, methanol (MeOH: oil mole ratio: 2:1–6:1 (w/w for esterification and 4:1–8:1 (w/w for transesterification and catalyst loading: 1–2% (H2SO4, (v/v for esterification and KOH, (w/w for transesterification. The significance of the parameters obtained in linear and non-linear form from the models were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The optimal operating conditions that gave minimum FFA of 0.26% were 52.19°C, 200 rpm, 2:1 (w/w and 1.5% (v/v, while those that gave maximum yield of 92.16% SBD were 40°C, 800 rpm, 7:1 (w/w and 1% (w/w. The p-value of <0.0001 for each of the stages showed that the models were significant with R2 of 0.96 each. These results indicate the reproducibility of the models and showed that the RSM is suitable to optimize the esterification and transesterification of SB for SBD production. Therefore, RSM is a useful tool that can be employed in industrial scale production of SBD from high FFA SB.

  2. Optimization of Chlorination Process for Mature Leachate Disinfection Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Hamzeh Ali Jamali1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: leachate from landfill contains high level of microbial pathogens which is considered as one of the most important threats for the environment. One of the common and simple methods for water and wastewater disinfection is chlorination, but it rarely has been used for leachate disinfection. The objective of this study was evaluating the efficiency of chlorine for leachate disinfection and optimization of the effect of concentration and contact time on the death of total and fecal coliforms, as a microbial contamination index. Methods: In this descriptive-analysis study, microbial indices monitoring in leachates initiated from landfill of Qazvin city were conducted for one year. After pre-tests, the range of chlorine concentration and contact time on the inactivation of microbial indices were determined. Central composite design (CCD and response surface methodology (RSM were applied to optimize chlorine concentration and contact time parameters effect on microbial inactivation. 13 runs of tests were performed on samples. Tests were included BOD, COD, total and fecal coliforms. All analytical experiments were according to the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Results: Results of the study showed that microbial indices had relatively high sensitivity to inactivation by chlorination, which in the chlorine concentration of 2 mg/L and contact time of 9 min, and chlorine concentration of 0.5 mg/L and contact time of 12 min, 100% of total and fecal coliforms inactivated, respectively. The RSM method was used for analysis of bacterial inactivation. Analyses showed that in contact time of 9.4 min and chlorine concentration of 2.99 mg/L, the inactivation efficiency of total and fecal coliforms were 89.16% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Chlorine could be used for leachate disinfection. However, in high concentrations of organic matter in leachates, due to production potential of chlorination by-products, health

  3. Modeling and process optimization of electrospinning of chitosan-collagen nanofiber by response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Nafise; Moradi, Ali; Abolghasem Sajjadi Tabasi, Sayyed; Movaffagh, Jebrail

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan-collagen composite nanofiber is of a great interest to researchers in biomedical fields. Since the electrospinning is the most popular method for nanofiber production, having a comprehensive knowledge of the electrospinning process is beneficial. Modeling techniques are precious tools for managing variables in the electrospinning process, prior to the more time- consuming and expensive experimental techniques. In this study, a central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to develop a statistical model as well as to define the optimum condition for fabrication of chitosan-collagen nanofiber with minimum diameter. The individual and the interaction effects of applied voltage (10–25 kV), flow rate (0.5–1.5 mL h‑1), and needle to collector distance (15–25 cm) on the fiber diameter were investigated. ATR- FTIR and cell study were done to evaluate the optimized nanofibers. According to the RSM, a two-factor interaction (2FI) model was the most suitable model. The high regression coefficient value (R 2 ≥ 0.9666) of the fitted regression model and insignificant lack of fit (P = 0.0715) indicated that the model was highly adequate in predicting chitosan-collagen nanofiber diameter. The optimization process showed that the chitosan-collagen nanofiber diameter of 156.05 nm could be obtained in 9 kV, 0.2 ml h‑1, and 25 cm which was confirmed by experiment (155.92 ± 18.95 nm). The ATR-FTIR and cell study confirmed the structure and biocompatibility of the optimized membrane. The represented model could assist researchers in fabricating chitosan-collagen electrospun scaffolds with a predictable fiber diameter, and optimized chitosan-collagen nanofibrous mat could be a potential candidate for wound healing and tissue engineering.

  4. Optimization of Alkaline and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Agave Bagasse by Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Lara, Abimael I.; Camberos-Flores, Jesus N.; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A.; Messina-Fernández, Sarah R.; Saldaña-Duran, Claudia E.; Jimenez-Ruiz, Edgar I.; Sánchez-Herrera, Leticia M.; Pérez-Pimienta, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA) and alkaline (AL) catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass, such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15%) since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification), which will be reflected in lower capital costs; however, this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables, such as catalyst loading, retention time, and solids loading, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial central composite design of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w) to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. Pretreated biomass was characterized by wet-chemistry techniques and selected samples were analyzed by calorimetric techniques, and scanning electron/confocal fluorescent microscopy. RSM was also used to optimize the pretreatment conditions for maximum TRS yield. The optimum conditions were determined for AL pretreatment: 1.87% NaOH concentration, 50.3 min and 13.1% solids loading, whereas DA pretreatment: 2.1% acid concentration, 33.8 min and 8.5% solids loading. PMID:26442260

  5. 1-Hexene Polymerization Using Ziegler-Natta Catalytic System with Response Surface Methodology

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    Maliheh Mazaheriyan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of process conditions and their interactions on the catalyst activity in 1-hexene polymerization were studied with design of experiments by response surface methodology (RSM using a commercial Ziegler-Natta (ZN catalyst in the form of TiCl4/MgCl2/Di-n-butyl phthalate. The effect of different operational variables on the catalyst activity was examined by performing the primary experiments of 1-hexene polymerization.  Among different operational variables, three variables including monomer concentration, polymerization temperature and cocatalyst/catalyst molar ratio (Al/Ti were considered as the main parameters which affected the catalyst activity in the 1-hexene polymerization. The Box-Behnken model with three main parameters in three level responses for each factor was applied to analyze the parameter relationships. After demonstrating the reproducibility of the experimental results, the statistical analysis of experimental data showed that the monomer concentration and Al/Ti molar ratio affected the catalyst activity significantly. It was found that, at room temperature, by increasing the monomer concentration from 80.0 mmol to 239.9 mmol, the activity of the studied ZN catalyst increased from 75.2 to 265.1 gpoly(1-hexene/gcat. In addition, by changing the Al/Ti ratio from 45.9 to 136.8, the catalyst activity increased from 145.2 to 265.1 gpoly(1-hexene/gcat. The maximum activity of catalyst was obtained at the polymerization temperature around 25°C, and by increasing the temperature the activity of studied catalyst decreased. Based on the RSM, the best polymerization condition was obtained at a polymerization temperature of about 35°C, Al/Ti ratio of 136.8, and monomer concentration of 239.9 mmol, which resulted in maximum productivity of the catalyst.

  6. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

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    Thangam Chinnadurai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip, Pulse on time (Ton, Pulse off time (Toff, Water pressure (Wp, Wire feed rate (Wf, Wire tension (Wt, Servo voltage (Sv and Servo feed setting (Sfs, on the Material Removal Rate (MRR and Surface Roughness (SR for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used.

  7. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  8. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  9. Investigation of equilibrium and kinetics of Cr(VI) adsorption by dried Bacillus cereus using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three-variable-five-level central composite rotatable design was used to analyze the effects of combined and individual operating parameters (biomass dose, initial concentration of Cr(VI) and pH) on the Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of dried Bacillus cereus. A quadratic polynomial equation was obtained to predict the adsorbed Cr(VI) amount. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of biomass dose was the key factor in the removal of Cr(VI). The maximum adsorbed Cr(VI) amount (30.93 mg g(-1)) was found at 165.30 mg L(-1), 2.96, and 3.01 g L(-1) for initial Cr(VI) concentration, pH, and biosorbent dosage, respectively. The surface chemical functional groups and microstructure of unloaded and Cr(VI)-loaded dried Bacillus cereus were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Besides, the results gained from these studies indicated that Langmuir isotherm and the second-order rate expression were suitable for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater. The results revealed RSM was an effective method for optimizing biosorption process, and dried Bacillus cereus had a remarkable performance on the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater.

  10. PENGGUNAAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY UNTUK OPTIMASI PROSES DEKAFEINASI MENGGUNAKAN KITOSAN DARI KULIT UDANG [The Use of Response Surface Methodology in Decaffeination Process with Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi 1

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum condition of decaffeination process with chitosan in a model system using Response Surface Methodology. A 1000ppm caffeine solution was mixed with chitosan in varried concentrations, temperatures and process times. After filtration, caffeine in the filtrate was determined. The lower caffeine in the filtrate the more effective the decaffeination process. Result of the experiment showed that among chitosan concentrations of 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 mg per 100 ml caffeine solution, the concentration of 70mg was the most effective. Among temperatures applied of 28, 40, 60, 80, 90, and 100oC, the most effective was of 90oC. And among the process times of 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes, 15 minutes was the most effective. Result of optimatization using RSM showed that the optimum condition of decaffeination process were concentration of chitosan of 69,52mg, temperature of 89,71oC, and process time of 14,88 minutes. Under this condition the process diminished 79,56% of caffeine from the model system.

  11. UTILIZATION OF RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF ROSELLE ICE CREAM MAKING [Penggunaan Response Surface Methodology dalam Optimisasi Pembuatan Es Krim Rosella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia Manuel*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to develop a functional ice cream product with natural colorant derived from an optimum set of roselle calyces extract and citric acid concentrations. Although citric acid can improve red color stability of rosella, its addition is limited due to the acidic and bitter aftertaste it imparts. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to analyze the effect of roselle calyces extract and citric acid on physico-chemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of an ice cream. A central composite design consisting of two independent variables (roselle calyces extract and citric acid cocentrations at five levels (-1.41421, -1, 0, +1, and +1.41421 with 13 runs (formulations was prepared to establish the optimum set of variables. Higher concentration of roselle calyces extract significantly increased the total anthocyanin content and color acceptance, while decreased the ºHue and pH of the ice cream. Higher concentration of citric acid significantly increased the overrun and color acceptance, but decreased the viscosity, ºHue, pH, texture, taste acceptance, and overall acceptance of ice cream. The optimum scores of consumer sensory acceptance were met at 11.5% roselle calyces extract and 1.5% citric acid concentrations.

  12. RsmV a small non-coding regulatory RNA in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that sequesters RsmA and RsmF from target mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Kayley H; Diaz, Manisha R; Gode, Cindy J; Wolfgang, Matthew C; Yahr, Timothy L

    2018-06-04

    The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has distinct genetic programs that favor either acute or chronic virulence gene expression. Acute virulence is associated with twitching and swimming motility, expression of a type III secretion system (T3SS), and the absence of alginate, Psl, or Pel polysaccharide production. Traits associated with chronic infection include growth as a biofilm, reduced motility, and expression of a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The Rsm post-transcriptional regulatory system plays important roles in the inverse control of phenotypes associated with acute and chronic virulence. RsmA and RsmF are RNA-binding proteins that interact with target mRNAs to control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Previous work found that RsmA activity is controlled by at least three small, non-coding regulatory RNAs (RsmW, RsmY, and RsmZ). In this study, we took an in-silico approach to identify additional sRNAs that might function in the sequestration of RsmA and/or RsmF and identified RsmV, a 192 nt transcript with four predicted RsmA/RsmF consensus binding sites. RsmV is capable of sequestering RsmA and RsmF in vivo to activate translation of tssA1 , a component of the T6SS, and to inhibit T3SS gene expression. Each of the predicted RsmA/RsmF consensus binding sites contribute to RsmV activity. Electrophoretic mobility shifts assays show that RsmF binds RsmV with >10-fold higher affinity than RsmY and RsmZ. Gene expression studies revealed that the temporal expression pattern of RsmV differs from RsmW, RsmY, and RsmZ. These findings suggest that each sRNA may play distinct roles in controlling RsmA and RsmF activity. IMPORTANCE The CsrA/RsmA family of RNA-binding proteins play important roles in post-transcriptional control of gene expression. The activity of CsrA/RsmA proteins is controlled by small non-coding RNAs that function as decoys to sequester CsrA/RsmA from target mRNAs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has two Csr

  13. Statistical investigation of Kluyveromyces lactis cells permeabilization with ethanol by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Janaína T; Rocha, Pollyana F; Converti, Attilio; Passos, Flávia M L; Minim, Luis A; Sampaio, Fábio C

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to select the optimal operating conditions to permeabilize Kluyveromyces lactis cells using ethanol as a solvent as an alternative to cell disruption and extraction. Cell permeabilization was carried out by a non-mechanical method consisting of chemical treatment with ethanol, and the results were expressed as β-galactosidase activity. Experiments were conducted under different conditions of ethanol concentration, treatment time and temperature according to a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), and the collected results were then worked out by response surface methodology (RSM). Cell permeabilization was improved by an increase in ethanol concentration and simultaneous decreases in the incubation temperature and treatment time. Such an approach allowed us to identify an optimal range of the independent variables within which the β-galactosidase activity was optimized. A maximum permeabilization of 2,816 mmol L(-1) oNP min(-1) g(-1) was obtained by treating cells with 75.0% v/v of ethanol at 20.0 °C for 15.0 min. The proposed methodology resulted to be effective and suited for K. lactis cells permeabilization at a lab-scale and promises to be of possible interest for future applications mainly in the food industry.

  14. Parametric optimization of rice bran oil extraction using response surface methodology

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    Ahmad Syed W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of bran oil in various edible and nonedible industries is very common. In this research work, efficient and optimized methodology for the recovery of rice bran oil has been investigated. The present statistical study includes parametric optimization, based on experimental results of rice bran oil extraction. In this study, three solvents, acetone, ethanol and solvent mixture (SM [acetone: ethanol (1:1 v/v] were employed in extraction investigations. Response surface methodology (RSM, an optimization technique, was exploited for this purpose. A five level central composite design (CCD consisting four operating parameter, like temperature, stirring rate, solvent-bran ratio and contact time were examined to optimize rice bran oil extraction. Experimental results showed that oil recovery can be enhanced from 71% to 82% when temperature, solvent-bran ratio, stirring rate and contact time were kept at 55°C, 6:1, 180 rpm and 45 minutes, respectively while fixing the pH of the mixture at 7.1.

  15. Study on fermentation conditions of palm juice vinegar by response surface methodology and development of a kinetic model

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    S. Ghosh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural vinegar is one of the fermented products which has some potentiality with respect to a nutraceutical standpoint. The present study is an optimization of the fermentation conditions for palm juice vinegar production from palm juice (Borassus flabellifer wine, this biochemical process being aided by Acetobacter aceti (NCIM 2251. The physical parameters of the fermentation conditions such as temperature, pH, and time were investigated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM with 2³ factorial central composite designs (CCD. The optimum pH, temperature and time were 5.5, 30 °C and 72 hrs for the highest yield of acetic acid (68.12 g / L. The quadratic model equation had a R² value of 0.992. RSM played an important role in elucidating the basic mechanisms in a complex situation, thus providing better process control by maximizing acetic acid production with the respective physical parameters. At the optimized conditions of temperature, pH and time and with the help of mathematical kinetic equations, the Monod specific growth rate ( µ max= 0.021 h-1, maximum Logistic specific growth rate ( µ 'max = 0.027 h-1 and various other kinetic parameters were calculated, which helped in validation of the experimental data. Therefore, the established kinetic models may be applied for the production of natural vinegar by fermentation of low cost palm juice.

  16. Optimization of the Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil with Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureano Costarrosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biodiesel has become a very promising alternative to fossil diesel fuel, regarding environmental concerns and fuel resource depletion. Biodiesel is usually produced through homogeneous or heterogeneous transesterification of different fatty raw materials. Although main research has been carried out with homogenous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts may be of interest due to ease of recovery and recycling, as well as readiness for continuous processing. In this work, calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT was used for the heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking oil. Three reaction parameters, namely, reaction time, amount of catalyst, and methanol-to-oil molar ratio, were optimized by means of Response Surface Methodology (RSM at constant temperature (65 °C, using a Box-Behnken design. Optimal fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content (86.23% w/w FAME/sample was predicted by the model with an R-squared value of 98.45%, using 3.39 g of HT (8.5% w/w oil and an 8:1 methanol-oil molar ratio, for a duration of 3.12 h. It was observed that calcination of HT, while avoiding the previous washing step, allowed the presence of chemical species that enhanced the effect of the catalyst. It can be concluded from this field trial that calcined and nonwashed Mg-Al hydrotalcite may be considered an effective basic catalyst for the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Also, RSM proved to be a useful tool for predicting biodiesel yield.

  17. Optimization and characterization studies on bio-oil production from palm shell by pyrolysis using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Wan Daud, W.M.A.; Sahu, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this work palm shell waste was pyrolyzed to produces bio-oil. The effects of several parameters on the pyrolysis efficiency were tested to identify the optimal bio-oil production conditions. The tested parameters include temperature, N 2 flow rate, feed-stock particle size, and reaction time. The experiments were conducted using a fix-bed reactor. The efficient response surface methodology (RSM), with a central composite design (CCD), were used for modeling and optimization the process parameters. The results showed that the second-order polynomial equation explains adequately the non-linear nature of the modeled response. An R 2 value of 0.9337 indicates a sufficient adjustment of the model with the experimental data. The optimal conditions found to be at the temperature of 500 o C, N 2 flow rate of 2 L/min, particle size of 2 mm and reaction time of 60 min and yield of bio-oil was approximately obtained 46.4 wt %. In addition, Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to characterize the gained bio-oil under the optimum condition. -- Highlights: → The RSM, with a CCD, was used for modeling and optimization for bio-oil synthesis. → The obtained model explains adequately the non-linear nature. → An R 2 value of 0.9337 ensures a sufficient adjustment of the model. → It explains the importance of the experimental factors, their interactions.

  18. Optimization of edible coating formulations for improving postharvest quality and shelf life of pear fruit using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandane, A S; Dave, Rudri K; Rao, T V Ramana

    2017-01-01

    The effect of composite edible films containing soy protein isolate (SPI) in combination with additives like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and olive oil on 'Babughosha' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stored at ambient temperature (28 ± 5 °C and 60 ± 10% RH) was evaluated using Response surface methodology (RSM). A total of 30 edible coating formulations comprising of SPI (2-6%, w/v), olive oil (0.7-1.1%, v/v), HPMC (0.1-0.5%, w/v) and potassium sorbate (0-0.4% w/v) were evaluated for optimizing the most suitable combination. Quality parameters like weight loss%, TSS, pH and titrable acidity of the stored pears were selected as response variables for optimization. The optimization procedure was carried out using RSM. It was observed that the response variables were mainly effected by concentration of SPI and olive oil in the formulation. Edible coating comprising of SPI 5%, HPMC 0.40%, olive oil 1% and potassium sorbate 0.22% was found to be most suitable combination for pear fruit with predicted values of response variables indicated as weight loss% 3.50, pH 3.41, TSS 11.13 and TA% 0.513.

  19. Optimization of the production of bio diesel from egusi melon (Colocynthis Citrullus L.) oil using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giwa, S.O.; Chuah, L.A.; Nor Mariah Adam

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM), based on a central composite design (CCD), was used to determine the optimum conditions for the transesterification of crude egusi melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) seed oil. Three process factors were evaluated at three levels (2 3 experimental design): the oil/ methanol molar ratio, the amount of catalyst in relation to the oil mass, and the reaction temperature. The amounts of catalyst and reaction temperature were the most significant (P 2 = 0.98). Using multiple regression analysis a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for predicting methyl ester yield of the transesterification reaction. The squared terms of catalyst amount (P < 0.0001) and oil/ methanol molar ratio (P < 0.0072) showed significant effects on esters yield. The optimum reaction conditions for synthesis of EMOME were 1:6.55 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 1.22 % catalyst amounts, and 65 degree Celsius reaction temperature resulting in a yield of 84.01 %. Using these optimal factor values under experimental conditions a methyl esters yield of 84.04 % was obtained on an average, and this value was well within the range predicted by the model. RSM was found to be a suitable technique for optimizing transesterification of egusi melon seed oil. Fuel properties of EMOME measured according to accepted methods were found to satisfy all prescribed ASTM (D 6751) and EN 14214 specifications. (author)

  20. Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaheed, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Galip, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    In this research, ethanol production from carob pod extract (extract) using Zymomonas mobilis with medium optimized by Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodologies (RSM) was studied. Z. mobilis was recognized as useful for ethanol production from carob pod extract. The effects of initial concentrations of sugar, peptone, and yeast extract as well as agitation rate (rpm), pH, and culture time in nonhydrolyzed carob pod extract were investigated. Significantly affecting variables (P = 0.05) in the model obtained from RSM studies were: weights of bacterial inoculum, initial sugar, peptone, and yeast extract. Acid hydrolysis was useful to complete conversion of sugars to glucose and fructose. Nonhydrolyzed extract showed higher ethanol yield and residual sugar compared with hydrolyzed extract. Ethanol produced (g g(-1) initial sugar, as the response) was not significantly different (P = 0.05) when Z. mobilis performance was compared in hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed extract. The maximum ethanol of 0.34 ± 0.02 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained at 30°C, initial pH 5.2, and 80 rpm, using concentrations (g per 50 mL culture media) of: inoculum bacterial dry weight, 0.017; initial sugar, 5.78; peptone, 0.43; yeast extract, 0.43; and culture time of 36 h.

  1. Application of Response Surface Methodology on Leaching of Iron from Partially Laterised Khondalite Rocks: A Bauxite Mining Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ranjita; Bhima Rao, R.

    2018-04-01

    In the present investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) is used for a quadratic model that continuously controls the process parameters. This model is used to optimize the removal of iron oxide from Partially Laterised Khondalite (PLK) rocks which is influenced by several independent variables namely acid concentration, time and temperature. Second order response functions are produced for leaching of iron oxide from PLK rocks-a bauxite mining waste. In RSM, Box-Behnken design is used for the process optimization to achieve maximum removal of iron oxide. The influence of the process variables of leaching of iron oxide is presented in the form of 3-D response graphs. The results of this investigation reveals that 3 M hydrochloric acid concentration, 240 min time and 373 K temperature are found to be the best conditions for removal of 99% Fe2O3. The product obtain at this condition contain 80% brightness which is suitable for ceramic and filler industry applications. The novelity of the work is that the waste can be a value added product after suitable physical beneficiation and chemical treatment.

  2. Evaluating the influence of process parameters on soluble microbial products formation using response surface methodology coupled with grey relational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Luo, Hong-Wei; Fang, Fang; Li, Wen-Wei; Zeng, Raymond J; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMPs) present a major part of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluents from biological wastewater treatment systems, and the SMP formation is greatly influenced by a variety of process parameters. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with grey relational analysis (GRA) method was used to evaluate the effects of substrate concentration, temperature, NH(4)(+)-N concentration and aeration rate on the SMP production in batch activated sludge reactors. Carbohydrates were found to be the major component of SMP, and the influential priorities of these factors were: temperature>substrate concentration > aeration rate > NH(4)(+)-N concentration. On the basis of the RSM results, the interactive effects of these factors on the SMP formation were evaluated, and the optimal operating conditions for a minimum SMP production in such a batch activated sludge system also were identified. These results provide useful information about how to control the SMP formation of activated sludge and ensure the bioreactor high-quality effluent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasonic extraction of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruit using response surface methodology and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jixiang; Wang, Huifang; Wang, Donghui; Fang, Fang; Wang, Fengzhong; Wu, Tao

    2014-06-27

    For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g) liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v) ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.

  4. Ultrasonic Extraction of Antioxidants from Chinese Sumac (Rhus typhina L. Fruit Using Response Surface Methodology and Their Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L. fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.

  5. Response surface methodology investigation into the interactions between arsenic and humic acid in water during the coagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Malcolm Alexander; Tubić, Aleksandra; Agbaba, Jasmina; Nikić, Jasmina; Maletić, Snežana; Molnar Jazić, Jelena; Dalmacija, Božo

    2016-07-15

    Interactions between arsenic and natural organic matter (NOM) are key limiting factors during the optimisation of drinking water treatment when significant amounts of both must be removed. This work uses Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to investigate how they interact during their simultaneous removal by iron chloride coagulation, using humic acid (HA) as a model NOM substance. Using a three factor Box-Behnken experimental design, As and HA removals were modelled, as well as a combined removal response. ANOVA results showed the significance of the coagulant dose for all three responses. At high initial arsenic concentrations (200μg/l), As removal was significantly hindered by the presence of HA. In contrast, the HA removal response was found to be largely independent of the initial As concentration, with the optimum coagulant dose increasing at increasing HA concentrations. The combined response was similar to the HA removal response, and the interactions evident are most interesting in terms of optimising treatment processes during the preparation of drinking water, highlighting the importance of utilizing RSM for such investigations. The combined response model was successfully validated with two different groundwaters used for drinking water supply in the Republic of Serbia, showing excellent agreement under similar experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced styrene recovery from waste polystyrene pyrolysis using response surface methodology coupled with Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yu; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhonghui; Chen, Chia-Lung; Tan, Giin-Yu Amy; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    A work applied response surface methodology coupled with Box-Behnken design (RSM-BBD) has been developed to enhance styrene recovery from waste polystyrene (WPS) through pyrolysis. The relationship between styrene yield and three selected operating parameters (i.e., temperature, heating rate, and carrier gas flow rate) was investigated. A second order polynomial equation was successfully built to describe the process and predict styrene yield under the study conditions. The factors identified as statistically significant to styrene production were: temperature, with a quadratic effect; heating rate, with a linear effect; carrier gas flow rate, with a quadratic effect; interaction between temperature and carrier gas flow rate; and interaction between heating rate and carrier gas flow rate. The optimum conditions for the current system were determined to be at a temperature range of 470-505°C, a heating rate of 40°C/min, and a carrier gas flow rate range of 115-140mL/min. Under such conditions, 64.52% WPS was recovered as styrene, which was 12% more than the highest reported yield for reactors of similar size. It is concluded that RSM-BBD is an effective approach for yield optimization of styrene recovery from WPS pyrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Response Surface Methodology on Leaching of Iron from Partially Laterised Khondalite Rocks: A Bauxite Mining Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ranjita; Bhima Rao, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) is used for a quadratic model that continuously controls the process parameters. This model is used to optimize the removal of iron oxide from Partially Laterised Khondalite (PLK) rocks which is influenced by several independent variables namely acid concentration, time and temperature. Second order response functions are produced for leaching of iron oxide from PLK rocks-a bauxite mining waste. In RSM, Box-Behnken design is used for the process optimization to achieve maximum removal of iron oxide. The influence of the process variables of leaching of iron oxide is presented in the form of 3-D response graphs. The results of this investigation reveals that 3 M hydrochloric acid concentration, 240 min time and 373 K temperature are found to be the best conditions for removal of 99% Fe2O3. The product obtain at this condition contain 80% brightness which is suitable for ceramic and filler industry applications. The novelity of the work is that the waste can be a value added product after suitable physical beneficiation and chemical treatment.

  8. Color removal from distillery spent wash through coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds: use of optimum response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R Krishna

    2009-06-15

    The effects of dosage, pH and concentration of salts were investigated for an optimized condition of color removal from the distillery spent wash. The optimization process was analyzed using custom response surface methodology (RSM). The design was employed to derive a statistical model for the effect of parameters studied on removal of color using Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). The dosage (20 and 60 ml), pH (7 and 8.5) and concentration of 0.25 M had been found to be the optimum conditions for maximum 56% and 67% color removal using sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) salts respectively. The actual color removal at optimal conditions was found to be 53% and 64% respectively for NaCl and KCl salts which confirms close to RSM results. The effects of storage duration and temperature on MOC studied reveal that coagulation efficiency of MOC kept at room temperature was effective for 3 days and at 4 degrees C it performed coagulation up to 5 days.

  9. A Case Study on Maximizing Aqua Feed Pellet Properties Using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya

    2013-01-10

    Aims: The present case study is on maximizing the aqua feed properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Study Design: Effect of extrusion process variables like screw speed, L/D ratio, barrel temperature, and feed moisture content were analyzed to maximize the aqua feed properties like water stability, true density, and expansion ratio. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Methodology: A variable length single screw extruder was used in the study. The process variables selected were screw speed (rpm), length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, barrel temperature (degrees C), and feed moisture content (%). The pelletized aqua feed was analyzed for physical properties like water stability (WS), true density (TD), and expansion ratio (ER). Extrusion experimental data was collected by based on central composite design. The experimental data was further analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) for maximizing feed properties. Results: Regression equations developed for the experimental data has adequately described the effect of process variables on the physical properties with coefficient of determination values (R2) of > 0.95. RSM analysis indicated WS, ER, and TD were maximized at L/D ratio of 12-13, screw speed of 60-80 rpm, feed moisture content of 30-40%, and barrel temperature of = 80 degrees C for ER and TD and > 90 degrees C for WS. Based on GA analysis, a maxium WS of 98.10% was predicted at a screw speed of 96.71 rpm, L/D radio of 13.67, barrel temperature of 96.26 degrees C, and feed moisture content of 33.55%. Maximum ER and TD of 0.99 and 1346.9 kg/m3 was also predicted at screw speed of 60.37 and 90.24 rpm, L/D ratio of 12.18 and 13.52, barrel temperature of 68.50 and 64.88 degrees C, and medium feed moisture content of 33.61 and 38.36%. Conclusion: The present data analysis indicated

  10. Optimization of Sugar Replacement with Date Syrup in Prebiotic Chocolate Milk Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemalilou, Sahar; Alizadeh, Ainaz

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate milk is one of the most commonly used non-fermentative dairy products, which, due to high level of sucrose, could lead to diabetes and tooth decay among children. Therefore, it is important to replace sucrose with other types of sweeteners, especially, natural ones. In this research, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the ingredients formulation of prebiotic chocolate milk, date syrup as sweetener (4-10%w/w), inulin as prebiotic texturizer (0-0.5%w/w) and carrageenan as thickening agent (0-0.04%w/w) in the formulation of chocolate milk. The fitted models to predict the variables of selected responses such as pH, viscosity, total solid, sedimentation and overall acceptability of chocolate milk showed a high coefficient of determination. The independent effect of carrageenan was the most effective parameter which led to pH and sedimentation decrease but increased viscosity. Moreover, in most treatments, date syrup and inulin variables had significant effects which had a mutual impact. Optimization of the variables, based on the responses surface 3D plots showed that the sample containing 0.48% (w/w) of inulin, 0.04% (w/w) of carrageenan, and 10% of date syrup was selected as the optimum condition.

  11. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenolic compounds from coriander seeds using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Zoran P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander seeds (CS were used for preparation of extracts with high content of biologically active compounds. In order to optimize ultrasoundassisted extraction process, three levels and three variables of Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD in combination with response surface methodology (RSM were applied, yielding maximized total phenolics (TP and flavonoids (TF content and antioxidant activity (IC50 and EC50 values. Independent variables were temperature (40-80oC, extraction time (40-80 min and ultrasonic power (96-216 W. Experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model with multiple regression, while the analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to assess the model fitness and determine optimal conditions for TP (79.60oC, 49.20 min, 96.69 W, TF (79.40oC, 43.60 min, 216.00 W, IC50 (80.00oC, 60.40 min, 216.00 W and EC50 (78.40oC, 68.60 min, 214.80 W. On the basis of the obtained mathematical models, three-dimensional surface plots were generated. The predicted values for TP, TF, IC50 and EC50 were: 382.68 mg GAE/100 g CS, 216 mg CE/100 g CS, 0.03764 mg/mL and 0.1425 mg/mL, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31013

  12. An optimization study on transesterification catalyzed by the activated carbide slag through the response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mengqi; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Cheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New catalyst material for biodiesel production. • New utilization approach of waste carbide slag. • Detailed characterization of carbide slag used as transesterification catalyst. • Optimal parameters for biodiesel production obtained by response surface methodology. • Effect of impurities on catalytic activity of carbide slag in transesterification. - Abstract: After activated at 850 °C under air condition, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate in carbide slag are transformed into calcium oxide. The prepared transesterification catalyst, labeled as CS-850, gains surface area of 8.00 m 2 g −1 , functional groups of vanishing O−C−O and O−H bonds, surface morphology of tenuous branch and porous structure and basic strength of 9.8 < H – < 15.0. From aspects of the molar ratio of methanol to oil (γ), the catalyst added amount (ζ) and the reaction temperature (T r ), transesterification catalyzed by CS-850 is optimized through the Box–Behnken design of the response surface methodology (BBD–RSM). A quadratic polynomial model is preferred for transesterification efficiency prediction with coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.9815. The optimal parameters are predicted to be γ = 13.8, ζ = 6.7% and T r = 60 °C with the efficiency of 94.70% and validated by experimental value of 93.83%. Meanwhile, γ is demonstrated to be the most significant variable for the minimum p-value. Besides, CS-850 performs acceptable reusability and for the fifth time reusage, efficiency of 82.61% could still be supplied. Aluminium oxide is proved to have the greatest effect on the catalytic activity of CS-850 among other small quality oxides. Physicochemical properties of the purified biodiesel meet American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) standard

  13. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V.; Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Dang, Trung Thanh; Nguyen, Van Tang; Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Bowyer, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf. PMID:26785074

  14. An effective vacuum assisted extraction method for the optimization of labdane diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qi; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Ke, Gang; Yang, Ming

    2014-12-31

    An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE) technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  15. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols containing caproic acid by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis: Optimization by response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, D.Q.; Xu, Xuebing; Mu, Huiling

    2001-01-01

    Production in a batch reactor with a solvent-free system of structured triacylglycerols containing short-chain fatty acids by Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis between rapeseed oil and caproic acid was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Reaction time (t(r)), substrate ratio (S......-r = 2-6 mol/mol; and W-c = 2-12 wt %. The biocatalyst was Lipozyme RM IM, in which Rhizomucor miehei lipase is immobilized on a resin. The incorporation of caproic acid into rapeseed oil was the main monitoring response. In addition, the contents of mono-incorporated structured triacylglycerols and di......-incorporated structured triacylglycerols were also evaluated. The optimal reaction conditions for the incorporation of caproic acid and the content of di-incorporated structured triacylglycerols were as follows: t(r) = 17 h; 8, = 5; E-1 = 14 wt %; W-c = 10 wt %; T-e = 65 degreesC. At these conditions, products with 55...

  16. Development of a High Performance PES Ultrafiltration Hollow Fiber Membrane for Oily Wastewater Treatment Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Adila Aluwi Shakir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to optimize the spinning process used for fabricating hollow fiber membranes using the response surface methodology (RSM. The spinning factors considered for the experimental design are the dope extrusion rate (DER, air gap length (AGL, coagulation bath temperature (CBT, bore fluid ratio (BFR, and post-treatment time (PT whilst the response investigated is rejection. The optimal spinning conditions promising the high rejection performance of polyethersulfone (PES ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes for oily wastewater treatment are at the dope extrusion rate of 2.13 cm3/min, air gap length of 0 cm, coagulation bath temperature of 30 °C, and bore fluid ratio (NMP/H2O of 0.01/99.99 wt %. This study will ultimately enable the membrane fabricators to produce high-performance membranes that contribute towards the availability of a more sustainable water supply system.

  17. An Effective Vacuum Assisted Extraction Method for the Optimization of Labdane Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  18. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of altretamine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles using Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidwani, Bina; Vyas, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of altretamine (ALT) by the hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The study was conducted using the Box-Behnken design (BBD), with a 3(3) design and a total of 17 experimental runs, performed in combination with response surface methodology (RSM). The SLNs were evaluated for mean particle size, entrapment efficiency, and drug-loading. The optimized formulation, with a desirability factor of 0.92, was selected and characterized. In vitro release studies showed a biphasic release pattern from the SLNs for up to 24 h. The results of % EE (93.21 ± 1.5), %DL (1.15 ± 0.6), and mean diameter of (100.6 ± 2.1) nm, were very close to the predicted values.

  19. Modeling and Analysis of The Pressure Die Casting Using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittur, Jayant K.; Herwadkar, T. V.; Parappagoudar, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Pressure die casting is successfully used in the manufacture of Aluminum alloys components for automobile and many other industries. Die casting is a process involving many process parameters having complex relationship with the quality of the cast product. Though various process parameters have influence on the quality of die cast component, major influence is seen by the die casting machine parameters and their proper settings. In the present work, non-linear regression models have been developed for making predictions and analyzing the effect of die casting machine parameters on the performance characteristics of die casting process. Design of Experiments (DOE) with Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to analyze the effect of effect of input parameters and their interaction on the response and further used to develop nonlinear input-output relationships. Die casting machine parameters, namely, fast shot velocity, slow shot to fast shot change over point, intensification pressure and holding time have been considered as the input variables. The quality characteristics of the cast product were determined by porosity, hardness and surface rough roughness (output/responses). Design of experiments has been used to plan the experiments and analyze the impact of variables on the quality of casting. On the other-hand Response Surface Methodology (Central Composite Design) is utilized to develop non-linear input-output relationships (regression models). The developed regression models have been tested for their statistical adequacy through ANOVA test. The practical usefulness of these models has been tested with some test cases. These models can be used to make the predictions about different quality characteristics, for the known set of die casting machine parameters, without conducting the experiments.

  20. D-isoascorbyl palmitate: lipase-catalyzed synthesis, structural characterization and process optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Cui, Feng-Jie; Li, Yun-Hong; Yu, Si-Lian; Zhou, Qiang; Qian, Jing-Ya; Dong, Ying

    2013-07-08

    Isoascorbic acid is a stereoisomer of L-ascorbic acid, and widely used as a food antioxidant. However, its highly hydrophilic behavior prevents its application in cosmetics or fats and oils-based foods. To overcome this problem, D-isoascorbyl palmitate was synthesized in the present study for improving the isoascorbic acid's oil solubility with an immobilized lipase in organic media. The structural information of synthesized product was clarified using LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR analysis, and process parameters for high yield of D-isoascorbyl palmitate were optimized by using One-factor-at-a-time experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). The synthesized product had the purity of 95% and its structural characteristics were confirmed as isoascorbyl palmitate by LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis. Results from "one-factor-at-a-time" experiments indicated that the enzyme load, reaction temperature and D-isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio had a significant effect on the D-isoascorbyl palmitate conversion rate. 95.32% of conversion rate was obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) under the the optimized condition: enzyme load of 20% (w/w), reaction temperature of 53°C and D- isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio of 1:4 when the reaction parameters were set as: acetone 20 mL, 40 g/L of molecular sieves content, 200 rpm speed for 24-h reaction time. The findings of this study can become a reference for developing industrial processes for the preparation of isoascorbic acid ester, which might be used in food additives, cosmetic formulations and for the synthesis of other isoascorbic acid derivatives.

  1. Multi-Objective Optimization of Moving-magnet Linear Oscillatory Motor Using Response Surface Methodology with Quantum-Behaved PSO Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Meizhen; Wang, Liqiang

    2018-01-01

    To reduce the difficulty of manufacturing and increase the magnetic thrust density, a moving-magnet linear oscillatory motor (MMLOM) without inner-stators was Proposed. To get the optimal design of maximum electromagnetic thrust with minimal permanent magnetic material, firstly, the 3D finite element analysis (FEA) model of the MMLOM was built and verified by comparison with prototype experiment result. Then the influence of design parameters of permanent magnet (PM) on the electromagnetic thrust was systematically analyzed by the 3D FEA to get the design parameters. Secondly, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to build the response surface model of the new MMLOM, which can obtain an analytical model of the PM volume and thrust. Then a multi-objective optimization methods for design parameters of PM, using response surface methodology (RSM) with a quantum-behaved PSO (QPSO) operator, was proposed. Then the way to choose the best design parameters of PM among the multi-objective optimization solution sets was proposed. Then the 3D FEA of the optimal design candidates was compared. The comparison results showed that the proposed method can obtain the best combination of the geometric parameters of reducing the PM volume and increasing the thrust.

  2. On the use of response surface methodology to predict and interpret the preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk, J.; Horny, N.; Tricoteaux, A.; Jouan, P.-Y.; Zadam, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with experimental design applied to response surface methodology (RSM) in order to determine the influence of the discharge conditions on preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films. The thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on Si (1 0 0) substrates. The preferred orientation was evaluated using a conventional Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometer (θ-2θ) with the CuKα radiation. We have first determined the experimental domain for 3 parameters: sputtering pressure (2-6 mTorr), discharge current (312-438 mA) and nitrogen percentage (17-33%). For the setup of the experimental design we have used a three factors Doehlert matrix which allows the use of the statistical response surface methodology (RSM) in a spherical domain. A four dimensional surface response, which represents the (0 0 0 2) peak height as a function of sputtering pressure, discharge current and nitrogen percentage, was obtained. It has been found that the main interaction affecting the preferential c-axis orientation was the pressure-nitrogen percentage interaction. It has been proved that a Box-Cox transformation is a very useful method to interpret and discuss the experimental results and leads to predictions in good agreement with experiments

  3. On the use of response surface methodology to predict and interpret the preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, J.; Horny, N.; Tricoteaux, A. [IUT de Valenciennes, Departement Mesures Physiques, UVHC, Z.I. du Champ de l' Abbesse, 59600 Maubeuge (France); Jouan, P.-Y. [IUT de Valenciennes, Departement Mesures Physiques, UVHC, Z.I. du Champ de l' Abbesse, 59600 Maubeuge (France)], E-mail: pierre-yves.jouan@univ-valenciennes.fr; Zadam, M. [Electronic Department, Badji Mokhtar University, BP12 Annaba (Algeria)

    2008-01-15

    This paper deals with experimental design applied to response surface methodology (RSM) in order to determine the influence of the discharge conditions on preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films. The thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on Si (1 0 0) substrates. The preferred orientation was evaluated using a conventional Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometer ({theta}-2{theta}) with the CuK{alpha} radiation. We have first determined the experimental domain for 3 parameters: sputtering pressure (2-6 mTorr), discharge current (312-438 mA) and nitrogen percentage (17-33%). For the setup of the experimental design we have used a three factors Doehlert matrix which allows the use of the statistical response surface methodology (RSM) in a spherical domain. A four dimensional surface response, which represents the (0 0 0 2) peak height as a function of sputtering pressure, discharge current and nitrogen percentage, was obtained. It has been found that the main interaction affecting the preferential c-axis orientation was the pressure-nitrogen percentage interaction. It has been proved that a Box-Cox transformation is a very useful method to interpret and discuss the experimental results and leads to predictions in good agreement with experiments.

  4. Tannase production by Penicillium purpurogenum PAF6 in solid state fermentation of tannin-rich plant residues following OVAT and RSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Pati, Bikash Ranjan; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

    2012-07-01

    Tannase production by newly isolated Penicillium purpurogenum PAF6 was investigated by 'one variable at a time' (OVAT) approach followed by response surface methodology (RSM). Tannin-rich plant residues were used as supporting solid substrate and sole carbon source and, among them, tamarind seed was found to be the most favorable substrate than haritaki, pomegranate, tea leaf waste and arjun fruit. Physicochemical parameters were initially optimized using OVAT methodology and some important factors like incubation time, incubation temperature, substrate:moisture ratio as well as carbon, nitrogen and phosphate concentrations were verified with Box-Behken design of response surface methodology. Phosphate source, nitrogen source and temperature were found as the most favorable variables in the maximization of production. Tannase production was enhanced from 1.536 U/g to 5.784 U/g using tamarind seed OVAT optimization and further enhancement up to 6.15 U/g following RSM. An overall 3.76- and 4.0-fold increases in tannase production were achieved in OVAT and RSM, respectively.

  5. Optimization of the ethanolysis of Raphanus sativus (L. Var.) crude oil applying the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Anderson Kurunczi; Saad, Emir Bolzani; Wilhelm, Helena Maria; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Raphanus sativus (L. Var) is a perennial plant of the Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae) family whose oil has not been investigated in detail for biodiesel production, particularly when ethanol is used as the alcoholysis agent. In this work, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum condition for the ethanolysis of R. sativus crude oil. Three process variables were evaluated at two levels (2(3) experimental design): the ethanol:oil molar ratio (6:1 and 12:1), the catalyst concentration in relation to oil mass (0.4 and 0.8 wt% NaOH) and the alcoholysis temperature (45 and 65 degrees C). When the experimental results were tentatively adjusted by linear regression, only 58.15% of its total variance was explained. Therefore, a quadratic model was investigated to improve the poor predictability of the linear model. To apply the quadratic model, the 2(3) experimental design had to be expanded to a circumscribed central composite design. This allowed the development of a response surface that was able to predict 97.75% of the total variance of the system. Validation was obtained by performing one ethanolysis experiment at the conditions predicted by the model (38 degrees C, ethanol:oil molar ratio of 11.7:1 and 0.6 wt% NaOH). The resulting ester yield (104.10 wt% or 99.10% of the theoretical yield of 105.04 wt%) was shown to be the highest among all conditions tested in this study. The second ethanolysis stage of the best RSM product required 50% less ethanol and 90% less catalyst consumption. The amount of ethyl esters obtained after this procedure reached 94.5% of the theoretical yield. The resulting ethyl esters were shown to comply with most of the Brazilian biodiesel specification parameters except for oxidation stability. Addition of 500 ppm of BHT to the esters, however, complied with the specification target of 6h. The application of 2 wt% Magnesol after the second ethanolysis stage eliminated the need for water washing and helped generate a

  6. Response surface methodology for autolysis parameters optimization of shrimp head and amino acids released during autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhong; Zhang, Chaohua; Hong, Pengzhi; Ji, Hongwu

    2008-07-01

    Protein hydrolysates were prepared from the head waste of Penaens vannamei, a China seawater major shrimp by autolysis method. Autolysis conditions (viz., temperature, pH and substrate concentration) for preparing protein hydrolysates from the head waste proteins were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design. Model equation was proposed with regard to the effect of temperature, pH and substrate concentration. Substrate concentration at 23% (w/v), pH at 7.85 and temperature at 50°C were found to be the optimal conditions to obtain a higher degree of hydrolysis close to 45%. The autolysis reaction was nearly finished in the initial 3h. The amino acid compositions of the autolysis hydrolysates prepared using the optimized conditions in different time revealed that the hydrolysates can be used as a functional food ingredient or flavor enhancer. Endogenous enzymes in the shrimp heads had a strong autolysis capacity (AC) for releasing threonine, serine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, histidine and tryptophan. Endogenous enzymes had a relatively lower AC for releasing cystine and glycine. Copyright © 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Esterification Optimization of Crude African Palm Olein Using Response Surface Methodology and Heterogeneous Acid Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Anguebes-Franseschi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of zeolite montmorillonite KSF in the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs of crude African palm olein (Eleaias guinnesis Jacq was studied. To optimize the esterification of FFAs of the crude African palm olein (CAPO, the response surface methodology (RSM that was based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD was used. The effects of three parameters were investigated: (a catalyst loading (2.6–9.4 wt %, (b reaction temperature (133.2–166.2 °C, and (c reaction time (0.32–3.68 h. The Analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated that linear terms of catalyst loading (X1, reaction temperature (X2, the quadratic term of catalyst loading ( X 1 2 , temperature reaction ( X 2 2 , reaction time ( X 3 2 , the interaction catalyst loading with reaction time ( X 1 * X3, and the interaction reaction temperature with reaction time ( X 2 * X3 have a significant effect (p < 0.05 with a 95% confidence level on Fatty Methyl Ester (FAME yield. The result indicated that the optimum reaction conditions to esterification of FFAs were: catalyst loading 9.4 wt %, reaction temperature 155.5 °C, and 3.3 h for reaction time, respectively. Under these conditions, the numerical estimation of FAME yield was 91.81 wt %. This result was experimentally validated obtaining a difference of 1.7% FAME yield, with respect to simulated values.

  8. Optimization of Fat-Reduced Puff Pastry Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Silow

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a fat-reduced version. The technological parameters modified included the level of roll-in fat, the number of fat layers (50–200 and the final thickness (1.0–3.5 mm of the laminated dough. Quality characteristics of puff pastry were measured using the Texture Analyzer with an attached Extended Craft Knife (ECK and Multiple Puncture Probe (MPP, the VolScan and the C-Cell imaging system. The number of fat layers and final dough thickness, in combination with the amount of roll-in fat, had a significant impact on the internal and external structural quality parameters. With technological changes alone, a fat-reduced (≥30% puff pastry was developed. The qualities of fat-reduced puff pastries were comparable to conventional full-fat (33 wt % products. A sensory acceptance test revealed no significant differences in taste of fatness or ‘liking of mouthfeel’. Additionally, the fat-reduced puff pastry resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 positive correlation to ‘liking of flavor’ and overall acceptance by the assessors.

  9. Optimization of Fat-Reduced Puff Pastry Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Axel, Claudia; Belz, Markus C E; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-02-22

    Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a fat-reduced version. The technological parameters modified included the level of roll-in fat, the number of fat layers (50-200) and the final thickness (1.0-3.5 mm) of the laminated dough. Quality characteristics of puff pastry were measured using the Texture Analyzer with an attached Extended Craft Knife (ECK) and Multiple Puncture Probe (MPP), the VolScan and the C-Cell imaging system. The number of fat layers and final dough thickness, in combination with the amount of roll-in fat, had a significant impact on the internal and external structural quality parameters. With technological changes alone, a fat-reduced (≥30%) puff pastry was developed. The qualities of fat-reduced puff pastries were comparable to conventional full-fat (33 wt %) products. A sensory acceptance test revealed no significant differences in taste of fatness or 'liking of mouthfeel'. Additionally, the fat-reduced puff pastry resulted in a significant ( p < 0.05) positive correlation to 'liking of flavor' and overall acceptance by the assessors.

  10. Optimization of alkaline and dilute acid pretreatment of agave bagasse by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimael I. Ávila-Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA and alkaline (AL catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15% since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification which will be reflected in lower capital costs, however this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables such as catalyst loading, retention time and solids loading, were studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on a factorial Central Composite Design (CCD of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS yield. Pretreated biomass

  11. Optimization of Extraction Parameters of Phenolic Compounds from Sarcopoterium spinosum Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Sunguc

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The shrublands are very common in Urla-Çeşme-Karaburun peninsula located in the western point of Turkey. Prickly shrubby burnet (Sarcopoterium spinosum L. is one of the common weed which has intensive thorns making its consumption for the local domestic animals. However, Sarcopoterium spinosum is a valuable and common medicinal plant in the Mediterranean region. Crude extract of S. spinosum leaves exhibited higher antioxidant activity, as 3143.5± 238.5 µM TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity/g dry weight (DW, when compared to other medicinal plants found in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of extraction parameters on the content and biological activity of the extract by response surface methodology (RSM as well as to identify its major compounds. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was employed to investigate the phenolic content of S. spinosum extract. The composition of the phenolic contents including hyperoside and isoquercetin, the latter being the major component, in S. spinosum extract has been shown for the first time by HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of S. spinosum extract, identified by minimum inhibition concentration (MIC assay, indicated that the crude extract had antifungal activity against Candida albicans.

  12. Arsenic Removal from Natural Groundwater by Electrocoagulation Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. García-Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of natural groundwater by arsenic (As is a serious problem that appears in some areas of Northern Central Mexico (NCM. In this research, As was removed from NCM wells groundwater by the electrocoagulation (EC technique. Laboratory-scale arsenic electroremoval experiments were carried out at continuous flow rates between 0.25 and 1.00 L min−1 using current densities of 5, 10, and 20 A m−2. Experiments were performed under galvanostatic conditions during 5 min, at constant temperature and pH. The response surface methodology (RSM was used for the optimization of the processing variables (flow rate and current density, response modeling, and predictions. The highest arsenic removal efficiency from underground water (99% was achieved at low flow rates (0.25 L min−1 and high current densities (20 A m−2. The response models developed explained 93.7% variability for As removal efficiency.

  13. Extraction, stability, and separation of betalains from Opuntia joconostle cv. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Noe; Jaime-Fonseca, Monica R; San Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Zepeda, L Gerardo

    2013-12-11

    Betalains were extracted and analyzed from Opuntia joconostle (the prickly pear known as xoconostle in Mexico). For the extraction, two solvent systems were used, methanol/water and ethanol/water. A three-variable Box-Behnken statistical design was used for extraction: solvent concentration (0-80%, v/v), temperature (5-30 °C), and treatment time (10-30 min). The extraction and stability of betalains from xoconostle were studied using response surface methodology (RSM). Techniques such as UV-vis, column chromatography, and HPLC were employed for the separation and analysis of the main pigments present in the extracts. Maximum pigment concentration (92 mg/100 g of fruit) was obtained at a temperature of 15 °C and a time of 10 min for methanol/water (20:80), whereas maximum stability of the pigment was observed at pH 5 and a temperature of 25 °C. HPLC chromatograms showed the main betalains of the xoconostle characterized were betalain, betanidin, and isobetalain.

  14. Efficient harvesting of marine Chlorella vulgaris microalgae utilizing cationic starch nanoparticles by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat Tork, Mahya; Khalilzadeh, Rasoul; Kouchakzadeh, Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Harvesting involves nearly thirty percent of total production cost of microalgae that needs to be done efficiently. Utilizing inexpensive and highly available biopolymer-based flocculants can be a solution for reducing the harvest costs. Herein, flocculation process of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae using cationic starch nanoparticles (CSNPs) was evaluated and optimized through the response surface methodology (RSM). pH, microalgae and CSNPs concentrations were considered as the main independent variables. Under the optimum conditions of microalgae concentration 0.75gdry weight/L, CSNPs concentration 7.1mgdry weight/L and pH 11.8, the maximum flocculation efficiency (90%) achieved. Twenty percent increase in flocculation efficiency observed with the use of CSNPs instead of the non-particulate starch which can be due to the more electrostatic interactions between the cationic nanoparticles and the microalgae. Therefore, the synthesized CSNPs can be employed as a convenient and economical flocculants for efficient harvest of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae at large scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Malachite Green Removal by Cl-nZVI Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Ghorbani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of effluents containing dyes into natural ecosystems pose serious threats to both the environment and its aquatic life. Malachite green (MG is a basic dye that has extensive industrial applications, especially in aquaculture, throughout the world. This study reports on the application of the central composite design (CCD under the response surface methodology (RSM for the optimization of MG adsorption from aqueous solutions using the clinoptilolite nano-zerovalence iron (Cl-nZVI nanocomposites. The sorbent structures produced are characterized by means of scanning electron micrograph (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The effects of different parameters including pH, initial MG concentration, and sorbent dosage on the removal efficiency (R of MG were studied to find the optimum operating conditions. For this purpose, a total of 20 sets of experiments were designed by the Design Expert.7.0 software and the values of removal efficiency were used as input response to the software. The optimum pH, initial MG concentration, and sorbent dosage were found to be 5.6, 49.21 mg.L-1, and 1.43 g.L-1, respectively. A high MG removal efficiency (57.90% was obtained with optimal process parameters. Moreover, a desirability value of 0.963 was obtained for the optimization process.

  16. Adsorption of malachite green by magnetic litchi pericarps: A response surface methodology investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Qi, Jinqiu; Jiang, Ruixue; Gao, Yan; Li, Xiaochen

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we synthesized a novel magnetic adsorbent containing litchi pericarps, denoted as MLP, for the removal of malachite green (MG) from solution. The factors influencing MG adsorption, such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration, were optimized using the Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM). The adsorption isotherms as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption of MG onto MLP are discussed. The results showed that MLP has a maximum adsorption efficiency of 99.5% when the temperature, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial MG concentration were optimally set as 25 °C, 6.0, 66.69 min, 5.14 g/L, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The best model to describe this process is the Langmuir isotherm, with the maximum adsorption capacity being 70.42 mg/g. In addition, the kinetics of MG adsorption onto MLP followed a pseudo-second-order model; moreover, thermodynamic analysis suggested that MG adsorption onto MLP is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, it was found that the new magnetic adsorbent can be separated easily and rapidly from mixed solutions in the presence of an external magnetic field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of osmotic dehydration of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. slices using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Delgado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration of chestnut slices in sucrose was optimized for the first time by Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Experiments were planned according to a three-factor central composite design (α=1.68, studying the influence of sucrose concentration, temperature and time, on the following parameters: volume ratio, water activity, color variation, weight reduction, solids gain, water loss and normalized moisture content, as well as total moisture, ash and fat contents. The experimental data was adequately fitted into second-order polynomial models with coefficients of determination (R2 from 0.716 to 0.976, adjusted-R2 values from 0.460 to 0.954, and non-significant lacks of fit. The optimal osmotic dehydration process conditions for maximum water loss and minimum solids gain and color variation were determined by the “Response Optimizer” option: 83% sucrose concentration, 20 °C and 9.2 hours. Thus, the best operational conditions corresponded to high sugar concentration and low temperature, improving energy saving and decreasing the process costs.

  18. Optimization of enzymatic esterification of dihydrocaffeic acid with hexanol in ionic liquid using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Somayeh; Lasekan, Ola; Tan, Chin Ping; Abas, Faridah; Wei, Leong Sze

    2017-05-26

    Developing an efficient lipophilization reaction system for phenolic derivatives could enhance their applications in food processing. Low solubility of phenolic acids reduces the efficiency of phenolic derivatives in most benign enzyme solvents. The conversion of phenolic acids through esterification alters their solubility and enhances their use as food antioxidant additives as well as their application in cosmetics. This study has shown that lipase-catalyzed esterification of dihydrocaffeic acid with hexanol in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumbis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide) was the best approach for esterification reaction. In order to achieve the maximum yield, the process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) based on a five-level and four independent variables such as: dosage of enzyme; hexanol/dihydrocaffeic acid mole ratio; temperature and reaction time. The optimum esterification condition (Y = 84.4%) was predicted to be obtained at temperature of 39.4 °C, time of 77.5 h dosage of enzyme at 41.6% and hexanol/dihydrocaffeic acid mole ratio of 2.1. Finally, this study has produced an efficient enzymatic esterification method for the preparation of hexyl dihydrocaffeate in vitro using a lipase in an ionic liquid system. Concentration of hexanol was the most significant (p < 0.05) independent variable that influenced the yield of hexyl dihydrocaffeate. Graphical abstract Synthesis of different Hexyl dihydrocaffeates in ionic liquid.

  19. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAP) for ginseng components by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Bélanger, Jacqueline M R; Paré, J R Jocelyn

    2003-03-26

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict optimum conditions for microwave-assisted extraction-a MAP technology-of saponin components from ginseng roots. A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of ethanol concentration (30-90%, X(1)) and extraction time (30-270 s, X(2)) on dependent variables, such as total extract yield (Y(1)), crude saponin content (Y(2)), and saponin ratio (Y(3)), under atmospheric pressure conditions when focused microwaves were applied at an emission frequency of 2450 MHz. In MAP under pre-established conditions, correlation coefficients (R (2)) of the models for total extract yield and crude saponin were 0.9841 (p extraction conditions were predicted for each variable as 52.6% ethanol and 224.7 s in extract yield and as 77.3% ethanol and 295.1 s in crude saponins, respectively. Estimated maximum values at predicted optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.

  20. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Paracetamol Particles Formation by RESS Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabet, J.K.; Ghotbi, C.; Dorkoosh, F.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafine particles of paracetamol were produced by Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution (RESS). The experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of extraction temperature (313-353 K), extraction pressure (10-18 MPa), pre expansion temperature (363-403 K), and post expansion temperature (273-323 K) on particles size and morphology of paracetamol particles. The characterization of the particles was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The average particle size of the original paracetamol was 20.8 μm, while the average particle size of paracetamol after nan onization via the RESS process was 0.46 μm depending on the experimental conditions used. Moreover, the morphology of the processed particles changed to spherical and regular while the virgin particles of paracetamol were needle-shape and irregular. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters. The extraction temperature, 347 K; extraction pressure, 12 MPa; pre expansion temperature, 403?K; and post expansion temperature, 322 K was found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the minimum average particle size of paracetamol.

  1. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF POTASSIUM NITRATE BASED SOLID PROPELLANT GRAINS FORMULATION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Olaosebikan Ogunleye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of propellant formulation and geometry on the solid propellant grains internal ballistic performance using core, bates, rod and tubular and end-burn geometries. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to analyze and optimize the effect of sucrose, potassium nitrate and carbon on the chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse of the solid propellant grains through Central Composite Design (CCD of the experiment. An increase in potassium nitrate increased the specific impulse while an increase in sucrose and carbon decreased specific impulse. The coefficient of determination (R2 for models of chamber pressure, temperature, thrust and specific impulse in terms of composition and geometry were 0.9737, 0.9984, 0.9745 and 0.9589, respectively. The optimum specific impulse of 127.89 s, pressure (462201 Pa, temperature (1618.3 K and thrust (834.83 N were obtained using 0.584 kg of sucrose, 1.364 kg of potassium nitrate and 0.052 kg of carbon as well as bate geometry. There was no significant difference between the calculated and experimented ballistic properties at p < 0.05. The bate grain geometry is more efficient for minimizing the oscillatory pressure in the combustion chamber.

  3. Optimization of Subcritical Water Extraction of Resveratrol from Grape Seeds by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subcritical water extraction (SWE is a high-efficiency and environment-friendly extraction method. The extraction of resveratrol (RES of grape seeds obtained from the wine production process was proposed using subcritical water extraction (SWE. The effects of different extraction process parameters on RES yield were investigated by single factors. Extraction optimization was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM. Extraction temperature was proven to be the most significant factor influencing RES yield. The optimal conditions was as follows: extraction pressure of 1.02 MPa, temperature of 152.32 °C, time of 24.89 min, and a solid/solvent ratio of 1:15 g/mL. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted extraction RES yield was 6.90 μg/g and the recoveries was up to 91.98%. Compared to other previous studies, this method required less pollution and less treatment time to extract RES from grape seeds. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly extraction techniques.

  4. Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by adsorption on hydroxyapatite (HAp using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mourabet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of fluoride onto hydroxyapatite was conducted and the process parameters were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Hydroxyapatite has been characterized by using different physicochemical methods. In order to determine the effects of process parameters namely temperature (20–40 °C, initial solution pH (4–11, adsorbent dose (0.1–0.3 g and initial fluoride concentration (10–20 mg L−1 on fluoride uptake from aqueous solution, a three-level, four-factor, Box–Behnken design has been employed. The second order mathematical model was developed by regression analysis of the experimental data obtained from 29 batch runs. The optimum pH, temperature, adsorbent dose and initial concentration were found by desirability function to be 4.16, 39.02 °C, 0.28 g and 20 mg L−1, respectively. Fluoride removal was 86.34% at the optimum combination of process parameters. Dynamic adsorption data were applied to pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. The time data fitted well to pseudo second order kinetic model. According to the correlation coefficients, the adsorption of fluoride on the hydroxyapatite was correlated well with the Langmuir and Freundlich models.

  5. Process optimization of microencapsulation of curcumin in γ-polyglutamic acid using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Ching; Chang, Chao-Kai; Wang, Hsiu-Ju; Wang, Shian-Jen; Hsieh, Chang-Wei

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optimal microencapsulation method for an oil-soluble component (curcumin) using γ-PGA. The results show that Span80 significantly enhances the encapsulation efficiency (EE) of γ-Na(+)-PGA microcapsules. Therefore, the effects of γ-Na(+)-PGA, curcumin and Span80 concentration on EE of γ-Na(+)-PGA microcapsules were studied by means of response surface methodology (RSM). It was found that the optimal microencapsulation process is achieved by using γ-Na(+)-PGA 6.05%, curcumin 15.97% and Span80 0.61% with a high EE% (74.47 ± 0.20%). Furthermore, the models explain 98% of the variability in the responses. γ-Na(+)-PGA seems to be a good carrier for the encapsulation of curcumin. In conclusion, this simple and versatile approach can potentially be applied to the microencapsulation of various oil-soluble components for food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of the shrinkage at the thick plate part using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, N. M.; Azlan, M. Z.; Shayfull, Z.; Roselina, S.; Nasir, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Injection moulding is well known for its manufacturing process especially in producing plastic products. To measure the final product quality, there are lots of precautions to be taken into such as parameters setting at the initial stage of the process. Sometimes, if these parameters were set up wrongly, defects may be occurred and one of the well-known defects in the injection moulding process is a shrinkage. To overcome this problem, a maximisation at the precaution stage by making an optimal adjustment on the parameter setting need to be done and this paper focuses on analysing the shrinkage by optimising the parameter at thick plate part with the help of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and ANOVA analysis. From the previous study, the outstanding parameter gained from the optimisation method in minimising the shrinkage at the moulded part was packing pressure. Therefore, with the reference from the previous literature, packing pressure was selected as the parameter setting for this study with other three parameters which are melt temperature, cooling time and mould temperature. The analysis of the process was obtained from the simulation by Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) software and the material used for moulded part was Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). The analysis and result were obtained and it found that the shrinkage can be minimised and the significant parameters were found as packing pressure, mould temperature and melt temperature.

  7. Defatted flaxseed meal incorporated corn-rice flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganorkar, Pravin M; Patel, Jhanvi M; Shah, Vrushti; Rangrej, Vihang V

    2016-04-01

    Considering the evidence of flaxseed and its defatted flaxseed meal (DFM) for human health benefits, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three level four factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the development of DFM incorporated corn - rice flour blend based extruded snack. The effect of DFM fortification (7.5-20 %), moisture content of feed (14-20 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (115-135 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), overall acceptability (OAA) score and water solubility index (WSI) of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Significant regression models explained the effect of considered variables on all responses. DFM incorporation level was found to be most significant independent variable affecting on extrudates characteristics followed by extruder barrel temperature and then screw rpm. Feed moisture content did not affect extrudates characteristics. As DFM level increased (7.5 % to 20 %), ER and OAA value decreased. However, BS and WSI values were found to increase with increase in DFM level. Based on the defined criteria for numerical optimization, the combination for the production of DFM incorporated extruded snack with desired sensory attributes was achieved by incorporating 10 % DFM (replacing rice flour in flour blend) and by keeping 20 % moisture content, 312 screw rpm and 125 °C barrel temperature.

  8. Optimal factor evaluation for the dissolution of alumina from Azaraegbelu clay in acid solution using RSM and ANN comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Ohale

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural network (ANN and Response Surface Methodology based on a 25−1 fractional factorial design were used as tools for simulation and optimisation of the dissolution process for Azaraegbelu clay. A feedforward neural network model with Levenberg–Marquard back propagating training algorithm was adapted to predict the response (alumina yield. The studied input variables were temperature, stirring speed, clay to acid dosage, leaching time and leachant concentration. The raw clay was characterized for structure elucidation via FTIR, SEM and X-ray diffraction spectroscopic techniques and the result indicates that the clay is predominantly kaolinite. Leachant concentration and dosage ratio were found to be the most significant process parameter with p-value of 0.0001. The performance of the ANN and RSM model showed adequate prediction of the response, with AAD of 11.6% and 3.6%, and R2 of 0.9733 and 0.9568, respectively. A non-dominated optimal response of 81.45% yield of alumina at 4.6 M sulphuric acid concentration, 214 min leaching time, 0.085 g/ml dosage and 214 rpm stirring speed was established as a viable route for reduced material and operating cost via RSM. Keywords: Alumina dissolution, ANN modelling, Azaraegbelu, Clay, RSM

  9. Defluoridation of water using activated alumina in presence of natural organic matter via response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandi, Mohammad Reza; Khiadani, Mehdi; Foroughi, Maryam; Zolghadr Nasab, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption by activated alumina is considered to be one of the most practiced methods for defluoridation of freshwater. This study was conducted, therefore, to investigate the effect of natural organic matters (NOMs) on the removal of fluoride by activated alumina using response surface methodology. To the authors' knowledge, this has not been previously investigated. Physico-chemical characterization of the alumina was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effect of single and combined parameters on the independent variables such as the initial concentration of fluoride, NOMs, and pH on the process. The results revealed that while presence of NOM and increase of pH enhance fluoride adsorption on the activated alumina, initial concentration of fluoride has an adverse effect on the efficiency. The experimental data were analyzed and found to be accurately and reliably fitted to a second-order polynomial model. Under optimum removal condition (fluoride concentration 20 mg/L, NOM concentration 20 mg/L, and pH 7) with a desirability value of 0.93 and fluoride removal efficiency of 80.6%, no significant difference was noticed with the previously reported sequence of the co-exiting ion affinity to activated alumina for fluoride removal. Moreover, aluminum residual was found to be below the recommended value by the guideline for drinking water. Also, the increase of fluoride adsorption on the activated alumina, as NOM concentrations increase, could be due to the complexation between fluoride and adsorbed NOM. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  10. RSM Outlook Winter 2013 : Growing Tomorrow's Entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Whittern (Justine); D. Schreiner (Dorine)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Innovation and the path to value (Russell Gilbert) At the RSM Leadership Summit in October, Frans van Houten, CEO of Royal Philips (pictured), gave a uniquely insightful presentation about the benefits of organisational transformation, innovation, and the importance of

  11. RSM Outlook Winter 2013: Growing Tomorrow's Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Whittern, Justine; Schreiner, Dorine

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Innovation and the path to value (Russell Gilbert) At the RSM Leadership Summit in October, Frans van Houten, CEO of Royal Philips (pictured), gave a uniquely insightful presentation about the benefits of organisational transformation, innovation, and the importance of keeping abreast of technological and societal changes. In an exclusive interview, Mr Van Houten discusses these issues with Russell Gilbert, Managing Editor of RSM Outlook. #### Ready for lift off!! (Bennet...

  12. Surface design methodology – challenge the steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, M; Rosen, B-G; Eriksson, L; Anderberg, C

    2014-01-01

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or ''feeling'' for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA

  13. Surface design methodology - challenge the steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, M.; Rosen, B.-G.; Eriksson, L.; Anderberg, C.

    2014-03-01

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or "feeling" for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA.

  14. Genetic Algorithm-Based Optimization for Surface Roughness in Cylindrically Grinding Process Using Helically Grooved Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaydaş, Ulaş; Çelik, Mahmut

    The present work is focused on the optimization of process parameters in cylindrical surface grinding of AISI 1050 steel with grooved wheels. Response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) techniques were merged to optimize the input variable parameters of grinding. The revolution speed of workpiece, depth of cut and number of grooves on the wheel were changed to explore their experimental effects on the surface roughness of machined bars. The mathematical models were established between the input parameters and response by using RSM. Then, the developed RSM model was used as objective functions on GA to optimize the process parameters.

  15. Optimization and evaluation of chelerythrine nanoparticles composed of magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes by response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yong [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541014 (China); Yuan, Yulin [Department of Clinical Laboratory, the People' s Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, Guangxi 530021 (China); Zhou, Zhide; Liang, Jintao; Chen, Zhencheng [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541014 (China); Li, Guiyin, E-mail: liguiyin01@163.com [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541014 (China)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, a new chelerythrine nanomaterial targeted drug delivery system (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs-CHE) was designed with chelerythrine (CHE) as model of antitumor drug and magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs) nanocomposites as drug carrier. The process and formulation variables of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs-CHE were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-level, three-factor Box–Behnken design (BBD). Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. The experimental results were fitted into second-order response surface model. When Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs:CHE ratio was 20.6:1, CHE concentration was 172.0 μg/mL, temperature was 34.5 °C, the drug loading content and entrapment efficiency were 3.04 ± 0.17% and 63.68 ± 2.36%, respectively. The optimized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs-CHE nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Zeta potential, in vitro drug release and MTT assays. The in vitro CHE drug release behavior from Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs-CHE displayed a biphasic drug release pattern and followed Korsmeyer–Peppas model with Fickian diffusion mechanism for drug release. The results from MTT assays suggested that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWNTs-CHE could effectively inhibit the proliferation of human hepatoma cells (HepG2), which displayed time or concentration-dependent manner. All these preliminary studies were expected to provide a theoretical basis and offer new methods for preparation efficient magnetic targeted drug delivery systems.

  16. Abrasion Resistance of Nano Silica Modified Roller Compacted Rubbercrete: Cantabro Loss Method and Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Musa; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Shafiq, Nasir

    2018-04-01

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) when used for pavement is subjected to skidding/rubbing by wheels of moving vehicles, this causes pavement surface to wear out and abrade. Therefore, abrasion resistance is one of the most important properties of concern for RCC pavement. In this study, response surface methodology was used to design, evaluate and analyze the effect of partial replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber, and addition of nano silica on the abrasion resistance of roller compacted rubbercrete (RCR). RCR is the terminology used for RCC pavement where crumb rubber was used as partial replacement to fine aggregate. The Box-Behnken design method was used to develop the mixtures combinations using 10%, 20%, and 30% crumb rubber with 0%, 1%, and 2% nano silica. The Cantabro loss method was used to measure the abrasion resistance. The results showed that the abrasion resistance of RCR decreases with increase in crumb rubber content, and increases with increase in addition of nano silica. The analysis of variance shows that the model developed using response surface methodology (RSM) has a very good degree of correlation, and can be used to predict the abrasion resistance of RCR with a percentage error of 5.44%. The combination of 10.76% crumb rubber and 1.59% nano silica yielded the best combinations of RCR in terms of abrasion resistance of RCR.

  17. Optimization of the Medium for the Production of Cellulase by the Mutant Trichoderma reesei WX-112 Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Cai Hao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mutant strain Trichoderma reesei WX-112 with high cellulase activity was isolated by a newly invented plate. The mutant’s ability to produce cellulase increased 1.95 times after the treatment with UV and N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG. Also, the medium composition was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. A fractional factorial design (26–2 was applied to elucidate the medium components that significantly affect cellulase production. The concentration of Avicel and soybean cake flour in the medium were significant factors. The steepest ascent method was used to locate the optimal domain and a central composite design was used to estimate the quadratic response surface from which the factor levels for maximum production of cellulase were determined. The composition of fermentation medium optimized with response surface methodology was (in g/L: wheat bran 30, Avicel 36.4, soybean cake flour 24.7, KH2PO4 4 and corn steep flour 5. Compared to the original medium, the cellulase activity increased from 7.2 to 10.6 IU/mL.

  18. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  19. Examining Mechanical Strength Characteristics of Selective Inhibition Sintered HDPE Specimens Using RSM and Desirability Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, D.; Esakki, Balasubramanian

    2017-09-01

    Selective inhibition sintering (SIS) is a powder based additive manufacturing (AM) technique to produce functional parts with an inexpensive system compared with other AM processes. Mechanical properties of SIS fabricated parts are of high dependence on various process parameters importantly layer thickness, heat energy, heater feedrate, and printer feedrate. In this paper, examining the influence of these process parameters on evaluating mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural strength using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is carried out. The test specimens are fabricated using high density polyethylene (HDPE) and mathematical models are developed to correlate the control factors to the respective experimental design response. Further, optimal SIS process parameters are determined using desirability approach to enhance the mechanical properties of HDPE specimens. Optimization studies reveal that, combination of high heat energy, low layer thickness, medium heater feedrate and printer feedrate yielded superior mechanical strength characteristics.

  20. Optimization of process parameters of ECM by RSM on AISI 202 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alex John Britto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The machining of complex shaped designs was difficult earlier, but with the advent of the newer machining processes incorporating in it electrical, chemical & mechanical processes, manufacturing has redefined itself. Especially, the Electrochemical Machining (ECM process is used to machine the hard to cut materials without producing heat and friction. Hence, in this work, the ECM process has been chosen to machine SS AISI 202 steel. This study establishes the effect of process parameters such as voltage, current and concentration of electrolyte on the responses on material removal rate (MRR. In this work, second-order quadratic models were developed for MRR, considering the electrolyte concentration, voltage and current as the machining parameters, using central composite design. The developed models were used for Response Surface Methodology (RSM optimization by desirability function approach to determine the optimum machining parameters.

  1. Assessment of Wind Turbine Structural Integrity using Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A new approach to assessment of site specific wind turbine loads is proposed. •The approach can be applied in both fatigue and ultimate limit state. •Two different response surface methodologies have been investigated. •The model uncertainty introduced by the response surfaces...

  2. Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated research program ''Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities'' (ISAM) has developed improved safety assessment methodology for near surface disposal facilities. The program has been underway for three years and has included around 75 active participants from 40 countries. It has also provided examples for application to three safety cases--vault, Radon type and borehole radioactive waste disposal facilities. The program has served as an excellent forum for exchange of information and good practices on safety assessment approaches and methodologies used worldwide. It also provided an opportunity for reaching broad consensus on the safety assessment methodologies to be applied to near surface low and intermediate level waste repositories. The methodology has found widespread acceptance and the need for its application on real waste disposal facilities has been clearly identified. The ISAM was finalized by the end of 2000, working material documents are available and an IAEA report will be published in 2002 summarizing the work performed during the three years of the program. The outcome of the ISAM program provides a sound basis for moving forward to a new IAEA program, which will focus on practical application of the safety assessment methodologies to different purposes, such as licensing radioactive waste repositories, development of design concepts, upgrading existing facilities, reassessment of operating repositories, etc. The new program will also provide an opportunity for development of guidance on application of the methodology that will be of assistance to both safety assessors and regulators

  3. Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) recycling: A doe white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Moore, H.H.; Ghoshal, A.

    1992-01-01

    An effective White Paper on recycling radioactive scrap metals has been drafted at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently. The paper has received the praise and commendation of the DOE's Director of Environmental Management. However, obstructionist posturing by the petty bureaucrats in DOE continues to plague the meaningful implementation of RSM recycling. The key findings of the White Paper study and its major recommendations have discussed in this paper. The study indicates that several technologies, such as melt refining and electro refining, are currently available for surface and volume decontamination of metals. The unit cost of decontamination was found to vary from $700 to $400/ton; recycling of most low-contaminated metals can therefore be cost-effective vis-a vis the average cost of low-level radioactive wastes disposal of %400 to $2800/ton. Major recycling demonstration projects with emphasis on restricted RSM reuse options have been recommended. Volume contamination standard for unrestricted release should be established only after adequate studies of health effects and scientific/industrial effects of RSM reuse has been conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Some of the significant technical data developed during this study have also been briefly discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. Optimization on Preparation Condition of Propolis Flavonoids Liposome by Response Surface Methodology and Research of Its Immunoenhancement Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prepare propolis flavonoids liposome (PFL and optimize the preparation condition and to investigate further whether liposome could promote the immunoenhancement activity of propolis flavonoids (PF. PFL was prepared with ethanol injection method, and the preparation conditions of PFL were optimized with response surface methodology (RSM. Moreover, the immunoenhancement activity of PFL and PF in vitro was determined. The result showed that the optimal preparation conditions for PFL by response surface methodology were as follows: ratio of lipid to drug (w/w 9.6 : 1, ratio of soybean phospholipid to cholesterol (w/w 8.5 : 1, and speed of injection 0.8 mL·min−1. Under these conditions, the experimental encapsulation efficiency of PFL was 91.67 ± 0.21%, which was close to the predicted value. Therefore, the optimized preparation condition is very reliable. Moreover, the results indicated that PFL could not only significantly promote lymphocytes proliferation singly or synergistically with PHA, but also increase expression level of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA. These indicated that liposome could significantly improve the immunoenhancement activity of PF. PFL demonstrates the significant immunoenhancement activity, which provides the theoretical basis for the further experiment in vivo.

  5. Optimization of synthesis conditions of PbS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, Ersin, E-mail: dr.ersinyucel@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Yücel, Yasin; Beleli, Buse [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • For the first time, RSM and CCD used for optimization of PbS thin film. • Tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and temperature were independent variables. • PbS thin film band gap value was 2.20 eV under the optimum conditions. • Quality of the film was improved after chemometrics optimization. - Abstract: In this study, PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) under different deposition parameters. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize synthesis parameters including amount of tri-sodium citrate (0.2–0.8 mL), deposition time (14–34 h) and deposition temperature (26.6–43.4 °C) for deposition of the films. 5-level-3-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate effects of the deposition parameters on the response (optical band gap of the films). The significant level of both the main effects and the interaction are investigated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The film structures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Morphological properties of the films were studied with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical properties of the films were investigated using a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The optimum amount of tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and deposition temperature were found to be 0.7 mL, 18.07 h and 30 °C respectively. Under these conditions, the experimental band gap of PbS was 2.20 eV, which is quite good correlation with value (1.98 eV) predicted by the model.

  6. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Fatemeh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli ( E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3), followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM). Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml). Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  7. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shafiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Materials and Methods: Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3, followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM. Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Results: Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml. Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. Conclusion: In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  8. Modeling and optimization of gelatin-chitosan micro-carriers preparation for soft tissue engineering: Using Response Surface Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radaei, Payam [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-8639 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mashayekhan, Shohreh, E-mail: mashayekhan@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-8639 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vakilian, Saeid [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-8639 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran 1997775555 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    Electrospray ionization is a wide spread technique for producing polymeric microcarriers (MCs) by applying electrostatic force and ionic cross-linker, simultaneously. In this study, fabrication process of gelatin-chitosan MCs and its optimization using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is reported. Gelatin/chitosan (G/C) blend ratio, applied voltage and feeding flow rate, their individual and interaction effects on the diameter and mechanical strength of the MCs were investigated. The obtained models for diameter and mechanical strength of MCs have a quadratic relationship with G/C blend ratio, applied voltage and feeding flow rate. Using the desirability curve, optimized G/C blend ratios that are introduced, include the desirable quantities for MCs diameter and mechanical strength. MCs of the same desirable diameter (350 μm) and different G/C blend ratio (1, 2, and 3) were fabricated and their elasticity was investigated via Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The biocompatibility of the MCs was evaluated using MTT assay. The results showed that human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hUCMSCs) could attach and proliferate on fabricated MCs during 7 days of culturing especially on those prepared with G/C blend ratios of 1 and 2. Such gelatin-chitosan MCs may be considered as a promising candidate for injectable tissue engineering scaffolds, supporting attachment and proliferation of hUCMSCs. - Highlights: • Gelatin-chitosan Micro-carriers fabricated by electrospray ionization method. • The effects of blend ratio, the syringe feeding rate, and voltage on micro-carrier optimization were investigated via RSM. • Both diameter and mechanical strength of Micro-carriers have a quadratic relationship with selected parameters. • The optimum conditions with fixed diameter of 350μm and maximized strength in different blend ratios were achieved. • The elasticity and biocompatibility of desirable fabricated micro-carriers characterized.

  9. Employing Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Lutein and β-Carotene from Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Altemimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. leaves is important to the dietary supplement industry. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of lutein and β-carotene from spinach. Three independent variables, extraction temperature (°C, extraction power (% and extraction time (min were studied. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC followed by UV visualization and densitometry was used as a simple and rapid method for both identification and quantification of lutein and β-carotene during UAE. Methanol extracts of leaves from spinach and authentic standards of lutein and β-carotene were separated by normal-phase TLC with ethyl acetate-acetone (5:4 (v/v as the mobile phase. In this study, the combination of TLC, densitometry, and Box–Behnken with RSM methods were effective for the quantitative analysis of lutein and β-carotene from spinach extracts. The resulting quadratic polynomial models for optimizing lutein and β-carotene from spinach had high coefficients of determination of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. The optimal UAE settings for output of lutein and β-carotene simultaneously from spinach extracts were an extraction temperature of 40 °C, extraction power of 40% (28 W/cm3 and extraction time of 16 min. The identity and purity of each TLC spot was measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Therefore, UAE assisted extraction of carotenes from spinach can provide a source of lutein and β-carotene for the dietary supplement industry.

  10. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of coriander phenolic antioxidants - response surface methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeković, Zoran; Vladić, Jelena; Vidović, Senka; Adamović, Dušan; Pavlić, Branimir

    2016-10-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polyphenols from coriander seeds was optimized by simultaneous maximization of total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) yields, as well as maximized antioxidant activity determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assays. Box-Behnken experimental design with response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of MAE. Extraction time (X1 , 15-35 min), ethanol concentration (X2 , 50-90% w/w) and irradiation power (X3 , 400-800 W) were investigated as independent variables. Experimentally obtained values of investigated responses were fitted to a second-order polynomial model, and multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine fitness of the model and optimal conditions. The optimal MAE conditions for simultaneous maximization of polyphenol yield and increased antioxidant activity were an extraction time of 19 min, an ethanol concentration of 63% and an irradiation power of 570 W, while predicted values of TP, TF, IC50 and EC50 at optimal MAE conditions were 311.23 mg gallic acid equivalent per 100 g dry weight (DW), 213.66 mg catechin equivalent per 100 g DW, 0.0315 mg mL(-1) and 0.1311 mg mL(-1) respectively. RSM was successfully used for multi-response optimization of coriander seed polyphenols. Comparison of optimized MAE with conventional extraction techniques confirmed that MAE provides significantly higher polyphenol yields and extracts with increased antioxidant activity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Cannabinoids in Hemp Nut Using Response Surface Methodology: Optimization and Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemp nut is commonly incorporated into several food preparations; however, most countries set regulations for hemp products according to their cannabinoid content. In this study, we have developed an efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE method for cannabinoids (i.e., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol in hemp nut. Optimization of the MAE procedure was conducted through single factor experiments and response surface methodology (RSM. A comparative study was also conducted to determine the differences in the extraction yields and morphology of hemp nut between MAE and reference extraction methods, namely heat reflux extraction (HRE, Soxhlet extraction (SE, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE. Among the independent variables in RSM, the temperature was the most significant parameter. The optimal conditions of MAE were as follows: extraction solvent of methanol, microwave power of 375 W, temperature of 109 °C, and extraction time of 30 min. Compared with reference extraction methods, MAE achieved the highest extraction yields of total cannabinoids in hemp nut (6.09 μg/g for MAE; 4.15 μg/g for HRE; 5.81 μg/g for SE; 3.61 μg/g for SFE; 3.73 μg/g for UAE with the least solvent consumption and shortest time. Morphological observations showed that substantial cell rupturing occurred in the microstructure of hemp nut after MAE, indicating enhanced dissolution of the target compounds during the extraction process. The MAE method is thus a rapid, economic, and environmentally friendly extraction method that is both effective and practical for industrial applications.

  12. Optimization of synthesis conditions of PbS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yücel, Ersin; Yücel, Yasin; Beleli, Buse

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time, RSM and CCD used for optimization of PbS thin film. • Tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and temperature were independent variables. • PbS thin film band gap value was 2.20 eV under the optimum conditions. • Quality of the film was improved after chemometrics optimization. - Abstract: In this study, PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) under different deposition parameters. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize synthesis parameters including amount of tri-sodium citrate (0.2–0.8 mL), deposition time (14–34 h) and deposition temperature (26.6–43.4 °C) for deposition of the films. 5-level-3-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate effects of the deposition parameters on the response (optical band gap of the films). The significant level of both the main effects and the interaction are investigated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The film structures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Morphological properties of the films were studied with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical properties of the films were investigated using a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The optimum amount of tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and deposition temperature were found to be 0.7 mL, 18.07 h and 30 °C respectively. Under these conditions, the experimental band gap of PbS was 2.20 eV, which is quite good correlation with value (1.98 eV) predicted by the model

  13. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Azelaic Acid to Its Derivatives by Response Surface Methodology

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    Nurshafira Khairudin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Azelaic acid (AzA and its derivatives have been known to be effective in the treatment of acne and various cutaneous hyperpigmentary disorders. The esterification of azelaic acid with lauryl alcohol (LA to produce dilaurylazelate using immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 is reported. Response surface methodology was selected to optimize the reaction conditions. A well-fitting quadratic polynomial regression model for the acid conversion was established with regards to several parameters, including reaction time and temperature, enzyme amount, and substrate molar ratios. The regression equation obtained by the central composite design of RSM predicted that the optimal reaction conditions included a reaction time of 360 min, 0.14 g of enzyme, a reaction temperature of 46 °C, and a molar ratio of substrates of 1:4.1. The results from the model were in good agreement with the experimental data and were within the experimental range (R2 of 0.9732.The inhibition zone can be seen at dilaurylazelate ester with diameter 9.0±0.1 mm activities against Staphylococcus epidermidis S273. The normal fibroblasts cell line (3T3 was used to assess the cytotoxicity activity of AzA and AzA derivative, which is dilaurylazelate ester. The comparison of the IC50 (50% inhibition of cell viability value for AzA and AzA derivative was demonstrated. The IC50 value for AzA was 85.28 μg/mL, whereas the IC50 value for AzA derivative was more than 100 μg/mL. The 3T3 cell was still able to survive without any sign of toxicity from the AzA derivative; thus, it was proven to be non-toxic in this MTT assay when compared with AzA.

  14. Enzymatic Transesterification of Ethyl Ferulate with Fish Oil and Reaction Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF with fish oil from cod liver was investigated with Novozym® 435 as catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the synthesis system for the production of feruloyl fish oil in industry. The modified HPLC method was first set up to characterise the reaction products together with liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. The influence of the addition of glycerol to the system on the feruloyl acylglycerol profile was investigated in terms of transesterification performance. The bioconversion rate of EF can be significantly increased with the increased formation of feruloyl fish oil products when appropriate amount of glycerol is present in the reaction. Therefore, an equivalent molar amount of glycerol was added to EF for the practical optimization of the system. The mutual effects of temperature (40 to 70 °C, reaction time (1 to 5 days, enzyme load (2 to 20 % and molar ratio of fish oil and EF in the substrate (1 to 5 were thus studied with the assistance of response surface methodology (RSM for the purpose of maximizing the formation of feruloyl fish oil. The models were well fitted and verified. The optimized conditions were found to be: temperature 70 °C, enzyme load 4.3 %, substrate ratio 4.7, and reaction time 5 days. Under these conditions, the maximum conversion of EF reached 92.4 %, and the formation of feruloyl fish oil reached 80.4 %, but the formation of by-product was minimized to 11.4 % only.

  15. Optimization of a Functional Cookie Formulation by Using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.; Tan, K.S.; Liew, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional cookie formulation containing oligo fructose, dietary fibre and lower calorie, fat and sugar contents than conventional cookies was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Instant N-Oil II was used as a fat replacer, while Raftilose P95 was used as a sugar substitute with the addition of fructose to enhance sweetness. Selection of the optimal formulation was based on caloric content. An optimized formulation, V1, was obtained from the model Y = 4927.70 - 152.34X 1 - 155.42X 3 + 104.20X 3 2 + 151.71X 3 3 - 95.08X 3 4 , where Instant N-Oil II replaced 30 % of butter and 24.4 %, w/w (30.5 g) fructose replaced 40.0 %, w/w (50.0 g) sucrose. Two additional optimized formulations, S1 and S2, were proposed which contained the same ingredients as V1, but both contained 19.0 %, w/w (23.8 g) Raftilose P95. Also, S2 had a higher fat replacement level (42 %). A reference cookie prepared from a conventional recipe received significantly higher scores (P < 0.05) than the functional cookies V1, S1 and S2 in the sensory evaluation. However, when health benefits of the functional cookies were explained to the panel after the sensory evaluation had concluded, majority of the panelists stated that they would prefer S1, had they known of its health benefits. S1 contained 19.04 % fat, 8.62 % fructose and 0.74 % sucrose, namely, significantly lower fat and sucrose levels and higher fructose content than the conventional cookie. (author)

  16. Optimization of extraction parameters of pentacyclic triterpenoids from Swertia chirata stem using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Devendra Kumar; Kaur, Prabhjot

    2018-03-01

    In the present investigation, pentacyclic triterpenoids were extracted from different parts of Swertia chirata by solid-liquid reflux extraction methods. The total pentacyclic triterpenoids (UA, OA, and BA) in extracted samples were determined by HPTLC method. Preliminary studies showed that stem part contains the maximum pentacyclic triterpenoid and was chosen for further studies. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been employed successfully by solid-liquid reflux extraction methods for the optimization of different extraction variables viz., temperature ( X 1 35-70 °C), extraction time ( X 2 30-60 min), solvent composition ( X 3 20-80%), solvent-to-solid ratio ( X 4 30-60 mlg -1 ), and particle size ( X 5 3-6 mm) on maximum recovery of triterpenoid from stem parts of Swertia chirata . A Plackett-Burman design has been used initially to screen out the three extraction factors viz., particle size, temperature, and solvent composition on yield of triterpenoid. Moreover, central composite design (CCD) was implemented to optimize the significant extraction parameters for maximum triterpenoid yield. Three extraction parameters viz., mean particle size (3 mm), temperature (65 °C), and methanol-ethyl acetate solvent composition (45%) can be considered as significant for the better yield of triterpenoid A second-order polynomial model satisfactorily fitted the experimental data with the R 2 values of 0.98 for the triterpenoid yield ( p  < 0.001), implying good agreement between the experimental triterpenoid yield (3.71%) to the predicted value (3.79%).

  17. Modeling of cryogenic frictional behaviour of titanium alloys using Response Surface Methodology approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tayeb, N.S.M.; Yap, T.C.; Venkatesh, V.C.; Brevern, P.V.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of cryogenic effect on frictional behaviour of newly developed titanium alloy Ti-5Al-4V-0.6Mo-0.4Fe (Ti54) sliding against tungsten carbide was investigated and compared with conventional titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Ti64). In this study, four models were developed to describe the interrelationship between the friction coefficient (response) and independent variables such as speed, load, and sliding distance (time). These variables were investigated using the design of experiments and utilization of the response surface methodology (RSM). By using this method, it was possible to study the effect of main and mixed (interaction) independent variables on the friction coefficient (COF) of both titanium alloys. Under cryogenic condition, the friction coefficient of both Ti64 and Ti54 behaved differently, i.e. an increase in the case of Ti64 and decrease in the case of Ti54. For Ti64, at higher levels of load and speed, sliding in cryogenic conditions produces relatively higher friction coefficients compared to those obtained in dry air conditions. On contrary, introduction of cryogenic fluid reduces the friction coefficients of Ti54 at all tested conditions of load, speed, and time. The established models demonstrated that the mixed effect of load/speed, time/speed, and load/time consistently decrease the COF of Ti54. However this was not the case for Ti64 whereas the COF increased up to 20% when the Ti64 was tested at higher levels of load and sliding time. Furthermore, the models indicated that interaction of loads and speeds was more effective for both Ti-alloy and have the most substantial influence on the friction. In addition, COF for both alloys behaved linearly with the speed but nonlinearly with the load.

  18. Modelling of aflatoxin G1 reduction by kefir grain using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Farzaneh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Rahmani, Anosheh

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) is one of the main toxic contaminants in pistachio nuts and causes potential health hazards. Hence, AFG1 reduction is one of the main concerns in food safety. Kefir-grains contain symbiotic association of microorganisms well known for their aflatoxin decontamination effects. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop a model in order to predict AFG1 reduction in pistachio nuts by kefir-grain (already heated at 70 and 110°C). The independent variables were: toxin concentration (X1: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ng/g), kefir-grain level (X2: 5, 10, 20, 10 and 25%), contact time (X3: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h), and incubation temperature (X4: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C). There was a significant reduction in AFG1 (p kefir-grain used. The variables including X1, X3 and the interactions between X2-X4 as well as X3-X4 have significant effects on AFG1 reduction. The model provided a good prediction of AFG1 reduction under the assay conditions. Optimization was used to enhance the efficiency of kefir-grain on AFG1 reduction. The optimum conditions for the highest AFG1 reduction (96.8%) were predicted by the model as follows: toxin concentration = 20 ng/g, kefir-grain level = 10%, contact time = 6 h, and incubation temperature = 30°C which validated practically in six replications.

  19. Use of response surface methodology for optimization of fluoride adsorption in an aqueous solution by Brushite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mourabet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Response surface methodology (RSM was employed for the removal of fluoride on Brushite and the process parameters were optimized. Four important process parameters including initial fluoride concentration (40–50 mg/L, pH (4–11, temperature (10–40 °C and B dose (0.05–0.15 g were optimized to obtain the best response of fluoride removal using the statistical Box–Behnken design. The experimental data obtained were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Numerical optimization applying desirability function was used to identify the optimum conditions for maximum removal of fluoride. The optimum conditions were found to be initial concentration = 49.06 mg/L, initial solution pH = 5.36, adsorbent dose = 0.15 g and temperature = 31.96 °C. A confirmatory experiment was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimization procedure and maximum fluoride removal of 88.78% was achieved under the optimized conditions. Several error analysis equations were used to measure the goodness-of-fit. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second order reaction. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherm models at different temperatures. The Langmuir model was found to be describing the data. The adsorption capacity from the Langmuir isotherm (QL was found to be 29.212, 35.952 and 36.260 mg/g at 298, 303, and 313 K respectively.

  20. Clarification of Pharmaceutical Wastewater with Moringa Oleifera: Optimization Through Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Rustanti Eri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbal pharmaceutical industrial wastewater contains a high amount of suspended solids and alkaline (pH > 8; therefore it requires approprite coagulant and flocculant compounds for its wastewater treatment. The most widely used flocculant is a synthetic that has certain problems such as non-biodegradability and releases of toxic residual monomers. The use of eco-friendly flocculants as alternative materials for conventional flocculant in water and wastewater treatments is increasing. Numerous factors influence the performance of coagulation-flocculation process, such as coagulant dosage, flocculant dosage, initial potential of hydrogen (pH and velocity gradient of coagulation-flocculation. The main aim of this research is to evaluate the capability and effectiveness of Moringa oleifera extract for removal of suspended solid in herbal pharmaceutical industry. A coagulation-flocculation test was done by performing jar test at various speeds, according to the variation of the conducted treatment research. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM approach was used to optimize the concentration of coagulant dosage, flocculant dosage and flocculation velocity gradient (G, and the results were measured as maximum percentage of suspended solid removal. The wastewater used in this research originally came from the inlet of herbal pharmaceutical industry wastewater treatment plant, which was collected over 3 days. The wastewater has a total suspended solids of more than 1250 mg/L, and was alkaline (pH 9-10. The moringa extract was made from the extraction of a fat free moringa powder with a salt solution in a certain ratio. The percentage removal of suspended solid was 93.42-99.54%. The final results of the analysis of response surface showed that the variables of flocculant dosage and the flocculation velocity gradient (G have a huge impact on the amount of suspended solid removal, compared with the coagulant dosage. The model generated from the

  1. Optimisation and Characterisation of Lipase-Catalysed Synthesis of a Kojic Monooleate Ester in a Solvent-Free System by Response Surface Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairulazhar Jumbri

    Full Text Available Kojic acid is widely used to inhibit the browning effect of tyrosinase in cosmetic and food industries. In this work, synthesis of kojic monooleate ester (KMO was carried out using lipase-catalysed esterification of kojic acid and oleic acid in a solvent-free system. Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD was used to optimise the main important reaction variables, such as enzyme amount, reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio, and reaction time along with immobilised lipase from Candida Antarctica (Novozym 435 as a biocatalyst. The RSM data indicated that the reaction temperature was less significant in comparison to other factors for the production of a KMO ester. By using this statistical analysis, a quadratic model was developed in order to correlate the preparation variable to the response (reaction yield. The optimum conditions for the enzymatic synthesis of KMO were as follows: an enzyme amount of 2.0 wt%, reaction temperature of 83.69°C, substrate molar ratio of 1:2.37 (mmole kojic acid:oleic acid and a reaction time of 300.0 min. Under these conditions, the actual yield percentage obtained was 42.09%, which is comparably well with the maximum predicted value of 44.46%. Under the optimal conditions, Novozym 435 could be reused for 5 cycles for KMO production percentage yield of at least 40%. The results demonstrated that statistical analysis using RSM can be used efficiently to optimise the production of a KMO ester. Moreover, the optimum conditions obtained can be applied to scale-up the process and minimise the cost.

  2. Optimisation and Characterisation of Lipase-Catalysed Synthesis of a Kojic Monooleate Ester in a Solvent-Free System by Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumbri, Khairulazhar; Al-Haniff Rozy, Mohd Fahruddin; Ashari, Siti Efliza; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Basri, Mahiran; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Kojic acid is widely used to inhibit the browning effect of tyrosinase in cosmetic and food industries. In this work, synthesis of kojic monooleate ester (KMO) was carried out using lipase-catalysed esterification of kojic acid and oleic acid in a solvent-free system. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimise the main important reaction variables, such as enzyme amount, reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio, and reaction time along with immobilised lipase from Candida Antarctica (Novozym 435) as a biocatalyst. The RSM data indicated that the reaction temperature was less significant in comparison to other factors for the production of a KMO ester. By using this statistical analysis, a quadratic model was developed in order to correlate the preparation variable to the response (reaction yield). The optimum conditions for the enzymatic synthesis of KMO were as follows: an enzyme amount of 2.0 wt%, reaction temperature of 83.69°C, substrate molar ratio of 1:2.37 (mmole kojic acid:oleic acid) and a reaction time of 300.0 min. Under these conditions, the actual yield percentage obtained was 42.09%, which is comparably well with the maximum predicted value of 44.46%. Under the optimal conditions, Novozym 435 could be reused for 5 cycles for KMO production percentage yield of at least 40%. The results demonstrated that statistical analysis using RSM can be used efficiently to optimise the production of a KMO ester. Moreover, the optimum conditions obtained can be applied to scale-up the process and minimise the cost.

  3. Ultrasound-assisted xanthation of cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass optimized by response surface methodology for Pb(II) sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongqing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guohua

    2018-02-15

    Alkali treatment of lignocellulosic biomass is conducted to remove hemi-cellulose and lignin, further increasing the reactivity and accessibility of cellulose. Ultrasound-assisted xanthation of alkali cellulose is optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design. A predicting mathematical model is obtained by fitting experimental data, and it is verified by analysis of variance. Response surface plots and the contour plots obtained from the model are applied to determine the interactions of experimental variables. The optimum conditions are NaOH concentration 1.3mol/L, ultrasonic time 71.6min and CS 2 dosage 1.5mL. FTIR, SEM and XPS characterizations confirm the synthesis and sorption mechanism of cellulose xanthate (CX). Biosorption of Pb (II) onto CX obeys pseudo-second order model and Langmuir model. The sorption mechanism is attributed to surface complexation or ion exchange. CX shows good reusability for Pb (II) sorption. The maximum sorption capacity of Pb(II) is 134.41mg/g, higher than that of other biosorbents. CX has great potential as an efficient and low-cost biosorbent for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Innovate or perish: The RSM Insight debate

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Russell

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Although innovation is one the hottest management topics of the 21st century, very few firms excel at it. Here, in the first RSM Insight debate, three of the school’s leading management scholars discuss how firms should approach the subject of innovation and what it takes to be successful at it.

  5. Innovate or perish : The RSM Insight debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilbert (Russell)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Although innovation is one the hottest management topics of the 21st century, very few firms excel at it. Here, in the first RSM Insight debate, three of the school’s leading management scholars discuss how firms should approach the subject of innovation and what

  6. The utilization of the response surface methodology for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... Drojdiile ca aliment-medicament. In: Anghel I (ed). Biologia si Tehnologia Drojdiilor, vol 2, Editura Tehnica, Bucharest. Shieh CJ, Liao HF, Lee CC (2003). Optimization of lipase-catalyzed biodiesel by response surface methodology, Bioresour. Technol. 88: 103-106. Smigelschi O, Woinarovschy A (1978).

  7. Design methodology to enhance high impedance surfaces performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grelier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A methodology is introduced for designing wideband, compact and ultra-thin high impedance surfaces (HIS. A parametric study is carried out to examine the effect of the periodicity on the electromagnetic properties of an HIS. This approach allows designers to reach the best trade-off for HIS performances.

  8. Cu2+ Montmorillonite K10 Clay Catalyst as a Green Catalyst for Production of Stearic Acid Methyl Ester: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Almadani; Farah W. Harun; Salina M. Radzi; Syamsul K. Muhamad

    2018-01-01

    Clay catalyst has received much attention to replace the homogeneous catalysts in the esterification reaction to produce fatty acid methyl ester as the source of biodiesel as it is low cost, easily available, as well as environmental friendly. However, the use of unmodified clay, in particular montmorillonite K10 (MMT K10), for the esterification of fatty acids showed that the acid conversion was less than 60% and this is not preferable to the production of biodiesel. In this study, synthesis...

  9. Effect of ultrasound on olive oil extraction and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of extra virgin olive oil by response surface methodology (RSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydar, A.Y.; Bağdatlıoğlu, N.; Köseoğlu, O.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different extraction parameters including ultrasound time, temperature and malaxation time on olive oil quality were investigated. The extraction variables ultrasound initial temperature (20–50 °C), ultrasound time (2–10 min) and malaxation time (30–50 min) were studied to obtain ideal conditions of ultrasonic treatment on the olive paste for obtaining of a greater yield in the extraction of oil, while maintaining a maximum level of commercial quality. To evaluate the level of commercial quality, absorbance in the UV region, peroxide (PV) and free acidity values (AV), the total chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenol contents, total antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of EVOOs extracted from Edremit cultivar were determined. The optimum conditions were found to be 50 °C, 2 min and 43.23 min for ultrasound initial temperature, sonication time and malaxation time, respectively. This optimal condition gave an extraction yield of 8.25 % and the acidity value of 0.24 mg oleic acid/100 g olive oil. The experimental values obtained under optimal conditions were in agreement with the theoretical values [es

  10. Optimization of the new formulation of ice cream with native Iranian seed gums (Lepidium perfoliatum and Lepidium sativum) using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari-Anpar, M; Soltani Tehrani, N; Aghajani, N; Khomeiri, M

    2017-01-01

    In this study, effect of Qodume shahri ( Lepidium perfoliatum ) and cress ( Lepidium sativum ) on rheological properties of ice cream were investigated. The gums were added to the ice cream formulation and different quality attributes including pH, acidity, melting characteristics, viscosity, overrun, texture analysis and sensory evaluation were determined. Results showed that ice cream formulations containing both the gums had improved overrun, melting rate, first dripping time, viscosity, hardness and adhesiveness. The gum concentrations beyond 0.2% level led to a negative effect on gumminess and chewiness of ice cream. Both the gums addition to improved quality attributes and textural properties of ice cream.

  11. RSM Outlook Spring 2007 : Green Technology: The New IT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Morris (Rebecca)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Sustaining change (Rebecca Morris) An interview with RSM alumnus and Royal DSM Managing Board member Feike Sijbesma. #### Why celebrity sells: The brain mechanisms of persuasion (Vittorio Busato & Rebecca Morris) Marketing researchers at RSM are combining the latest

  12. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afiqah Arham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The hydroxyl groups of the polyphenols are capable to act as reducing agent for reduction reaction. The effect of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration were evaluated using central composite design which consists of 20 experimental runs. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to estimate the optimum parameters in extracting polyphenols from the palm leaves. The correspondence analysis of the results yielded a quadratic model which can be used to find optimum conditions of extraction process. The optimum extraction condition of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration are 70°C, at 70°C of 10 minutes, respectively. Total polyphenols were determined by application of the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method and the extract was found contain of 8 mg GAE/g dry palm leaves at optimum conditions. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.95-100 [How to cite this article: Arham, N.A., Mohamad, N.A.N., Jai, J., Krishnan, J., Noorsuhana Mohd Yusof, N.M. (2013. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis. International Journal of Science and

  13. Assessment of (poly)phenols in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems by using food/pharma industry compatible solvents and Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Perles, R; Teixeira, A I; Rosa, E; Barros, A I

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was conducted to analyse the effect of time (10-30 min), temperature (25-95°C), and solvents concentration (5-90%) on the extraction of total phenolics, flavonoids, ortho-diphenols, and anthocyanins as well as to assess the ABTS(+) scavenging capacity, which were considered as response variables. Values coefficients of determination (R(2)), ranging from 0.903 to 0.996, fitted for describing efficient extraction of bioactive (poly)phenols and antioxidant activity. The recorded data allowed to establish the optimal extraction conditions at 23.0 min, 95.0°C, and 57.9% of food-quality ethanol/water for Vitis vinifera L. var. 'Viosinho' (white variety), and 23.4 min, 84.2°C, and 63.8% for var. 'Touriga Nacional' (red variety). The achievement of optimal extraction conditions of phenolics from grape stems using solvents compatible with further uses in food/pharma industries demonstrated that RSM constitutes a powerful tool for deriving optimal conditions for extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from grape stems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of response surface methodology and semi-mechanistic model to optimize fluoride removal using crushed concrete in a fixed-bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bon-Wun; Lee, Chang-Gu; Park, Seong-Jik

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions by using crushed concrete fines as a filter medium under varying conditions of pH 3-7, flow rate of 0.3-0.7 mL/min, and filter depth of 10-20 cm. The performance of fixed-bed columns was evaluated on the basis of the removal ratio (Re), uptake capacity (qe), degree of sorbent used (DoSU), and sorbent usage rate (SUR) obtained from breakthrough curves (BTCs). Three widely used semi-mechanistic models, that is, Bohart-Adams, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models, were applied to simulate the BTCs and to derive the design parameters. The Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM) was used to elucidate the individual and interactive effects of the three operational parameters on the column performance and to optimize these parameters. The results demonstrated that pH is the most important factor in the performance of fluoride removal by a fixed-bed column. The flow rate had a significant negative influence on Re and DoSU, and the effect of filter depth was observed only in the regression model for DoSU. Statistical analysis indicated that the model attained from the RSM study is suitable for describing the semi-mechanistic model parameters.

  15. Improved antimicrobial compound production by a new isolate Streptomyces hygroscopicus MTCC 4003 using Plackett-Burman design and response Surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Rai, Vibhuti

    2012-01-01

    An active strain, isolated from soil of Chhattisgarh, India, showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic bacteria and fungi in glucose soybean meal broth. Strain was characterized as Streptomyces hygroscopicus MTCC 4003 based on 16S rRNA sequencing from Microbial Type culture Collection (MTCC), IMTECH, Chandigarh, India. Identification of the purified antimicrobial compound was done by using Infra-red (IR), Mass, Ultraviolet (UV), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) methods were used for the optimization of antibiotic production. Effects of the four medium components soybean meal, glucose, CaCO3 and MgSO4 showed positive effect on antibiotic production, were investigated with the help of PBD. The individual and interaction effects of the selected variables were determined by RSM using central composite design (CCD). Applying statistical design, antibiotic production was improved nearly ten times (412 mg/L) compared with unoptimized production medium (37 mg/L).

  16. Efficient Preparation of Streptochlorin from Marine Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4 by Combination of Response Surface Methodology and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; He, Shan; Ding, Lijian; Yuan, Ye; Zhu, Peng; Epstein, Slava; Fan, Jianzhong; Wu, Xiaokai; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-05-27

    Since first isolated from the lipophilic extract of Streptomyces sp. SF2583, streptochlorin, has attracted a lot of attention because of its various pharmacological properties, such as antibiotic, antiallergic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. For the efficient preparation of streptochlorin from a producing strain Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4, we developed a combinative method by using response surface methodology (RSM) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). In the fermentation process, we used RSM to optimize the condition for the efficient accumulation of streptochlorin, and the optimal parameters were: yeast extract 1.889 g/L, soluble starch 8.636 g/L, K₂HPO₄ 0.359 g/L, CaCl₂ 2.5 g/L, MgSO₄ 0.625 g/L, marine salt 25 g/L, medium volume 50%, initial pH value 7.0, temperature 27.5 °C, which enhanced streptochlorin yield by 17.7-fold. During the purification process, the preparative HSCCC separation was performed using a petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (9:0.8:5:5, v/v/v/v) biphasic solvent system, where 300 mg of crude sample yielded 16.5 mg streptochlorin with over 95% purity as determined by UPLC. Consequently, the combination method provided a feasible strategy for highly effective preparation of streptochlorin, which ensured the supply of large amounts of streptochlorin for in vivo pharmacological assessments or other requirements.

  17. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Modeling of Postweld Heat Treatment Process in a Pressure Vessel Steel ASTM A516 Grade 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasura, Prachya

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the application of the response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) experiment in mathematical model and optimizes postweld heat treatment (PWHT). The material of study is a pressure vessel steel ASTM A516 grade 70 that is used for gas metal arc welding. PWHT parameters examined in this study included PWHT temperatures and time. The resulting materials were examined using CCD experiment and the RSM to determine the resulting material tensile strength test, observed with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that using a full quadratic model with the proposed mathematical model is YTS = -285.521 + 15.706X1 + 2.514X2 - 0.004X1(2) - 0.001X2(2) - 0.029X1X2. Tensile strength parameters of PWHT were optimized PWHT time of 5.00 hr and PWHT temperature of 645.75°C. The results show that the PWHT time is the dominant mechanism used to modify the tensile strength compared to the PWHT temperatures. This phenomenon could be explained by the fact that pearlite can contribute to higher tensile strength. Pearlite has an intensity, which results in increased material tensile strength. The research described here can be used as material data on PWHT parameters for an ASTM A516 grade 70 weld.

  18. The use of response surface methodology in the evaluation of captopril microparticles manufactured using an oil in oil solvent evaporation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamanga, Sandile Maswazi; Walker, Roderick B

    2012-01-01

    Captopril (CPT) microparticles were manufactured by solvent evaporation using acetone (dispersion phase) and liquid paraffin (manufacturing phase) with Eudragit® and Methocel® as coat materials. Design of experiments and response surface methodology (RSM) approaches were used to optimize the process. The microparticles were characterized based on the percent of drug released and yield, microcapsule size, entrapment efficiency and Hausner ratio. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in vitro dissolution studies were conducted. The microcapsules were spherical, free-flowing and IR and DSC thermograms revealed that CPT was stable. The percent drug released was investigated with respect to Eudragit® RS and Methocel® K100M, Methocel® K15M concentrations and homogenizing speed. The optimal conditions for microencapsulation were 1.12 g Eudragit® RS, 0.67 g Methocel® K100M and 0.39 g Methocel® K15M at a homogenizing speed of 1643 rpm and 89% CPT was released. The value of RSM-mediated microencapsulation of CPT was elucidated.

  19. Multi-Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction of Atratylodes macrocephala Polysaccharides and Antioxidants Using Response Surface Methodology and Desirability Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jin-Bao; Xia, Bo-Hou; Hu, Yi-Juan; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Chen, Jing; Zhou, Jie; Liang, Wei-Qing; Xu, Pan

    2015-12-11

    Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharides (RAMP) have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. In this study, an ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) was employed to obtain the highest extraction yield and strongest antioxidant activity of RAMP and optimized by a multi-response optimization process. A three-level four-factor Box-Behnken design (BBD) was performed as response surface methodology (RSM) with desirability function (DF) to attain the optimal extraction parameters. The DPPH scavenging percentage was used to represent the antioxidant ability of RAMP. The maximum D value (0.328), along with the maximum yield (59.92%) and DPPH scavenging percentage (13.28%) were achieved at 90.54 min, 57.99 °C, 1.95% cellulase and 225.29 W. These values were further validated and found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Compared to the other extraction methods, both the yield and scavenging percentage of RAMP obtained by UAEE was favorable and the method appeared to be time-saving and of high efficiency. These results demostrated that UAEE is an appropriate and effective extraction technique. Moreover, RSM with DF approach has been proved to be adequate for the design and optimization of the extraction parameters for RAMP. This work has a wide range of implications for the design and operation of polysaccharide extraction processes.

  20. Effect of C/N Ratio and Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology on Simultaneous Productions of Intra- and Extracellular Inulinase and Invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarvand, Mojdeh; Rezaee, Malahat; Masomian, Malihe; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Zareian, Mohsen; Abbasi, Sahar; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2013-01-01

    The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase) and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO3, Zn+2, and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R 2) more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v) sucrose, 2.5% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) NaNO3, 1.5 mM (v/v) Zn+2, and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100) by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry. PMID:24151605

  1. Effect of C/N Ratio and Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology on Simultaneous Productions of Intra- and Extracellular Inulinase and Invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Dinarvand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO3, Zn+2, and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R2 more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v sucrose, 2.5% (w/v yeast extract, 2% (w/v NaNO3, 1.5 mM (v/v Zn+2, and 1% (v/v Triton X-100 by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry.

  2. Response surface methodology approach for the optimisation of adsorption of hydrolysed polyacrylamide from polymer-flooding wastewater onto steel slag: a good option of waste mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mijia; Yao, Jun; Qin, Zhonghai; Lian, Luning; Zhang, Chi

    2017-08-01

    Wastewater produced from polymer flooding in oil production features high viscosity and chemical oxygen demand because of the residue of high-concentration polymer hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM). In this study, steel slag, a waste from steel manufacturing, was studied as a low-cost adsorbent for HPAM in wastewater. Optimisation of HPAM adsorption by steel slag was performed with a central composite design under response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 89.31% was obtained at an adsorbent dosage of 105.2 g/L, contact time of 95.4 min and pH of 5.6. These data were strongly correlated with the experimental values of the RSM model. Single and interactive effect analysis showed that HPAM removal efficiency increased with increasing adsorbent dosage and contact time. Efficiency increased when pH was increased from 2.6 to 5.6 and subsequently decreased from 5.6 to 9.3. It was observed that removal efficiency significantly increased (from 0% to 86.1%) at the initial stage (from 0 min to 60 min) and increased gradually after 60 min with an adsorbent dosage of 105.2 g/L, pH of 5.6. The adsorption kinetics was well correlated with the pseudo-second-order equation. Removal of HPAM from the studied water samples indicated that steel slag can be utilised for the pre-treatment of polymer-flooding wastewater.

  3. Use of response surface methodology to evaluate the effect of metal ions (Ca2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Cu2+) on production of antifungal compounds by Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Hongsheng, Wu; Qirong, Shen

    2010-03-01

    The effects of four metal ions (Ca(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+) and Cu(2+)) were evaluated on growth and production of antifungal compounds by Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21 and a quadratic predictive model was developed using response surface methodology (RSM). The results revealed, Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) showed most positive synergistic interactive affect on production of antifungal compounds followed by the positive interactive synergistic affect of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) and then Mn(2+) and Cu(2+). While the interactive effect of Ca(2+) with all other three metals inhibited the production of antifungal compounds. The Mn(2+) (P=0.0384), Ni(2+) (P=0.0004) and Cu(2+) (P=0.0117) significantly affected the production of antifungal compounds while the effect of Ca(2+) (P=0.1851) was less significant. The maximum growth (OD(600)=1.55) was obtained at 500 (0), 125 (0), 100 (-2) and 37.5 (0) microM levels and the maximum size of inhibition zone (31 mm) was measured at 400 (-1), 150 (1), 400 (1) and 25 microM (-1) levels of Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. The RSM model provided an easy and effective way to determine the interactive effect of metal ions on production of antifungal compounds by P. polymyxa SQR-21 so that optimum media recipes can be developed to produce maximum amounts of antifungal compounds under laboratory and commercial fermentation conditions. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Medium optimization for pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) production by Methylobacillus sp. zju323 using response surface methodology and artificial neural network-genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peilian; Si, Zhenjun; Lu, Yao; Yu, Qingfei; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

    2017-08-09

    Methylobacillus sp. zju323 was adopted to improve the biosynthesis of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) by systematic optimization of the fermentation medium. The Plackett-Burman design was implemented to screen for the key medium components for the PQQ production. CoCl 2  · 6H 2 O, ρ-amino benzoic acid, and MgSO 4  · 7H 2 O were found capable of enhancing the PQQ production most significantly. A five-level three-factor central composite design was used to investigate the direct and interactive effects of these variables. Both response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) were used to predict the PQQ production and to optimize the medium composition. The results showed that the medium optimized by ANN-GA was better than that by RSM in maximizing PQQ production and the experimental PQQ concentration in the ANN-GA-optimized medium was improved by 44.3% compared with that in the unoptimized medium. Further study showed that this ANN-GA-optimized medium was also effective in improving PQQ production by fed-batch mode, reaching the highest PQQ accumulation of 232.0 mg/L, which was about 47.6% increase relative to that in the original medium. The present work provided an optimized medium and developed a fed-batch strategy which might be potentially applicable in industrial PQQ production.

  5. Investigation of soil properties influence on the heavy metals sorption by plants and possibilities for prediction of their bioaccumulation by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Zlate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine soil properties influence on the heavy metals sorption by vegetables which are used in the diet and possibilities for prediction of their bioaccumulation by response surface methodology (RSM. Lettuce was used as biosorbent, and cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were used as contaminants. Lettuce is grown on compost (previously contaminated with different concentrations of Cd and Pb which pH was adjusted with different amounts of NPK fertilizers. The content of heavy metals was determined by ICP-MS. Results showed that Cd content in lettuce was below the toxic values, but Pb concentration was above allowable, which indicates that limit value for Pb is not set in accordance with the food safety regulations. It was found that the heavy metals accumulation in plants depends not only on its content in the soil, but also on the plant affinity to the specific metal, and the individual or the interactive effects of different soil properties. Through the transfer factor it was found that lettuce has a much higher affinity to Cd in relation to Pb. RSM has proved to be very good for the examination of a large number of variables with a small number of experiments.

  6. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of bioactive alkaloid compounds from rhizoma coptidis (Coptis chinensis Franch.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Choi, Yong Hee

    2014-01-01

    The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum recovery of total alkaloid content (TAC), berberine content (BC), palmatine content (PC), and the highest antioxidant capacity (AC) from rhizoma coptidis subjected to ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design (CCD) with three variables and five levels was employed, and response surface plots were constructed in accordance with a second order polynomial model. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the quadratic model was well fitted and significant for responses of TAC, BC, PC, and AA. The optimum conditions obtained through the overlapped contour plot were as follows: ethanol concentration of 59%, extraction time of 46.57min, and temperature of 66.22°C. Verification experiment was carried out, and no significant difference was found between observed and estimated values for each response, suggesting that the estimated models were reliable and valid for UAE of alkaloids. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sorption of phenol from synthetic aqueous solution by activated saw dust: Optimizing parameters with response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Sahu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic pollutants have an adverse effect on the neighboring environment. Industrial activates are the major sources of different organic pollutants. These primary pollutants react with surrounding and forms secondary pollutant, which persists for a long time. The present investigation has been carried out on the surface of activated sawdust for phenol eliminations. The process parameters initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM. The numerical optimization of sawdust (SD, initial concentration 10 mg/l, contact time 1.5 h, adsorbent dose 4 g and pH 2, the optimum response result was 78.3% adsorption. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to judge the adequacy of the central composite design and quadratic model found to be suitable. The coefficient of determination values was found to be maximum Adj R2 0.7223, and Pre R2 0.5739 and significant regression at 95% confidence level values.

  8. Model development for mechanical properties and weld quality class of friction stir welding using multi-objective Taguchi method and response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Ackiel; Manurung, Yupiter HP; Berhan, Mohamed Nor

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the effect of the governing parameters in friction stir welding (FSW) on the mechanical properties and weld quality of a 6mm thick 6061 T651 Aluminum alloy butt joint. The main FSW parameters, the rotational and traverse speed were optimized based on multiple mechanical properties and quality features, which focus on the tensile strength, hardness and the weld quality class using the multi-objective Taguchi method (MTM). Multi signal to noise ratio (MSNR) was employed to determine the optimum welding parameters for MTM while further analysis concerning the significant level determination was accomplished via the well-established analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the first order model for predicting the mechanical properties and weld quality class is derived by applying response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the experimental confirmation test, the proposed method can effectively estimate the mechanical properties and weld quality class which can be used to enhance the welding performance in FSW or other applications.

  9. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) by-products with sunflower oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Santos, Luis Eduardo; Pinzón-Zarate, Lina Ximena; González-Salcedo, Luis Octavio

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports on the extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit by-products with sunflower oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Three independent variables including ultrasonic intensity (764-1528, W/m(2)), temperature (25-45°C), and the extraction time (10-30 min). According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with an ultrasonic intensity of 1528 W/m(2), extraction temperature of 35°C and extraction time of 30 min. At these conditions, extraction maximum extraction of total carotenoids as 163.47 mg/100 g dried peel. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Model development for mechanical properties and weld quality class of friction stir welding using multi-objective Taguchi method and response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Ackiel [University Kuala Lumpur Malaysia France Institute, Bandar Baru Bangi (Malaysia); Manurung, Yupiter HP; Berhan, Mohamed Nor [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia)

    2015-06-15

    This study presents the effect of the governing parameters in friction stir welding (FSW) on the mechanical properties and weld quality of a 6mm thick 6061 T651 Aluminum alloy butt joint. The main FSW parameters, the rotational and traverse speed were optimized based on multiple mechanical properties and quality features, which focus on the tensile strength, hardness and the weld quality class using the multi-objective Taguchi method (MTM). Multi signal to noise ratio (MSNR) was employed to determine the optimum welding parameters for MTM while further analysis concerning the significant level determination was accomplished via the well-established analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the first order model for predicting the mechanical properties and weld quality class is derived by applying response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the experimental confirmation test, the proposed method can effectively estimate the mechanical properties and weld quality class which can be used to enhance the welding performance in FSW or other applications.

  11. Optimization of hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solution using acid-modified granular activated carbon as adsorbent through response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, Waseem; Ebadi, Taghi; Fahimifar, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effect of the main operational variables, including initial pH, initial chromium ion concentration, bulk density of GAC and time on the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr(Ⅵ) from contaminated groundwater by permeable reactive barriers (PRB) with acid-modified granular activated carbon (GAC) as an adsorbent material. The removal rates of Cr(Ⅵ) under different values of these parameters were investigated and results indicated high adsorption capacity at low pH and low initial metal ion concentration of Cr(Ⅵ), but the bulk density of GAC slightly influenced the process efficiency. According to the ANOVA (analysis of variance) results, the model presents high R 2 values of 94.35% for Cr(Ⅵ) removal efficiency, which indicates that the accuracy of the polynomial models was good. Also, quadratic regression models with estimated coefficients were developed to describe the pollutant removals

  12. Optimization of hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solution using acid-modified granular activated carbon as adsorbent through response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, Waseem; Ebadi, Taghi; Fahimifar, Ahmad [Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effect of the main operational variables, including initial pH, initial chromium ion concentration, bulk density of GAC and time on the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr(Ⅵ) from contaminated groundwater by permeable reactive barriers (PRB) with acid-modified granular activated carbon (GAC) as an adsorbent material. The removal rates of Cr(Ⅵ) under different values of these parameters were investigated and results indicated high adsorption capacity at low pH and low initial metal ion concentration of Cr(Ⅵ), but the bulk density of GAC slightly influenced the process efficiency. According to the ANOVA (analysis of variance) results, the model presents high R{sup 2} values of 94.35% for Cr(Ⅵ) removal efficiency, which indicates that the accuracy of the polynomial models was good. Also, quadratic regression models with estimated coefficients were developed to describe the pollutant removals.

  13. Simple Response Surface Methodology: Investigation on Advance Photocatalytic Oxidation of 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic Acid Using UV-Active ZnO Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kian Mun; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd

    2015-01-19

    The performance of advance photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) strongly depends on photocatalyst dosage, initial concentration and initial pH. In the present study, a simple response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the interaction between these three independent factors. Thus, the photocatalytic degradation of 4-CPA in aqueous medium assisted by ultraviolet-active ZnO photocatalyst was systematically investigated. This study aims to determine the optimum processing parameters to maximize 4-CPA degradation. Based on the results obtained, it was found that a maximum of 91% of 4-CPA was successfully degraded under optimal conditions (0.02 g ZnO dosage, 20.00 mg/L of 4-CPA and pH 7.71). All the experimental data showed good agreement with the predicted results obtained from statistical analysis.

  14. Optimization of an A(2)/O process for tetracycline removal via response surface methodology coupled with a Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fang-Fang; Huang, Man-Hong; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the operating conditions of an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) process by maximizing the removal efficiency of tetracycline (TC). Solid retention time (SRT), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial TC concentration (CTC, in) were selected as independent variables for incorporation in the Box-Behnken design. The results showed SRT and CTC, in were more significant parameters than HRT for the removal efficiency of TC. TC could be completely removed under the optimal conditions of an SRT of 15.5 days, an HRT of 9.9 h and a CTC, in of 283.3 μg L(-1). TC removal efficiencies of 99% and 96% were attained for synthetic and real wastewater, respectively, under the optimal conditions. This indicated the constructed model was validated and reliable for optimizing the A(2)/O process for TC removal.

  15. Optimization of thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) previously treated with freezing-point regulators using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Zunying; Zhao, Yuanhui; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Yang, Huicheng

    2015-08-01

    Three freezing-point regulators (glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol) were employed to optimize thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent variables were glycine content (0.250-1.250 %), sodium chloride content (0.500-2.500 %) and D-sorbitol content (0.125-0.625 %) and analysis of variance showed that the effects of glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol on the thermophysical properties were statistically significant (P thermophysical properties were T i , - 5.086 °C; W u , 17.222 %; C app , 41.038 J/g °C and H, 155.942 J/g, respectively. Briefly, the application of freezing-point regulators depressed T i and obtained the optimum W u , C app and H, which would be obviously beneficial for the exploitation of various thermal processing and food storage.

  16. Decolorization and mineralization of Diarylide Yellow 12 (PY12) by photo-Fenton process: the Response Surface Methodology as the optimization tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GilPavas, Edison; Dobrosz-Gómez, Izabela; Gómez-García, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied as a tool for the optimization of the operational conditions of the photo-degradation of highly concentrated PY12 wastewater, resulting from a textile industry located in the suburbs of Medellin (Colombia). The Box-Behnken experimental Design (BBD) was chosen for the purpose of response optimization. The photo-Fenton process was carried out in a laboratory-scale batch photo-reactor. A multifactorial experimental design was proposed, including the following variables: the initial dyestuff concentration, the H(2)O(2) and the Fe(+2) concentrations, as well as the UV wavelength radiation. The photo-Fenton process performed at the optimized conditions resulted in ca. 100% of dyestuff decolorization, 92% of COD and 82% of TOC degradation. A kinetic study was accomplished, including the identification of some intermediate compounds generated during the oxidation process. The water biodegradability reached a final DBO(5)/DQO = 0.86 value.

  17. Modeling and optimization of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Co-Mn-Ce/SiO_2 catalyst using hybrid RSM/LHHW approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohdi-Fasaei, Hossein; Atashi, Hossein; Farshchi Tabrizi, Farshad; Mirzaei, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Operating conditions considerably affect the energy required for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, depending on the catalyst composition and reactor type (catalyst system). This paper reports the use of cobalt-manganese-cerium supported on silica as a novel CO hydrogenation catalyst, to produce hydrocarbons in a fixed bed micro-reactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to study the effects of temperature, pressure, feed ratio and their interactions on CO consumption rate, and the selectivity of light olefins (light olefinity), methane and C_5_+ hydrocarbons. Quadratic mathematical models adequately described the responses in this catalyst system. According to Langmuir Hinshelwood Hougen Watson (LHHW) approach, kinetic mechanism of the reaction was found to be an associative adsorption of H_2 and CO. Statistical analysis demonstrated that pressure and feed ratio were the most important factors for the production of C_5_+ and light alkenes, respectively. Model graphs indicated that minimum methane selectivity was achieved at 523.15 k and 2 bar. The maximum amounts of light olefins and heavier hydrocarbons were obtained at H_2/CO = 1 and H_2/CO = 2, respectively. Characterization of precursor and calcined catalyst (before and after the reaction) was carried out using SEM and BET techniques. - Highlights: • The performance of a new catalytic system was studied using RSM as a research plan. • Interactions between significant factors were investigated using mathematical models. • Based on LHHW approach, kinetic mechanism was molecular adsorptions of H_2 and CO. • RSM rate expression was in consistent with the LHHW kinetic model. • Hybrid RSM/LHHW is promising for optimization, mechanism and selectivity studies.

  18. Optimization of GMAW process of AA 6063-T5 aluminum alloy butt joints based on the response surface methodology and on the bead geometry; Optimizacion del proceso de soldadura GMAW de uniones a tope de la aleacion AA 6063-T5 basada en la metodologia de superficie de respuesta y en la geometria del cordon de soldadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, V.; Martinez-Conesa, E. J.; Segura, F.; Manjabacas, M. C.; Abellan, E.

    2012-11-01

    The geometry of the weld beads is characterized by the overhead, the width and the penetration. These values are indices of the behavior of the welded joint and therefore, they can be considered as factors that control the process. This work is performed to optimize the GMAW process of the aluminum alloy AA 6063-T5 by means of the response surface methodology (RSM). The variables herein considered are the arc voltage, the welding speed, the wire feed speed and the separation between surfaces in butt joints. The response functions that are herein studied are the overhead, the width, the penetration and the angle of the bead. The obtained results by RSM show high grade of agreement with the experimental values. The procedure is experimentally validated by welding for the theoretically obtained optimized technological conditions and a wide agreement between theoretical and experimental values is found. (Author) 16 refs.

  19. Optimization of palm oil extraction from Decanter cake of small crude palm oil mill by aqueous surfactant solution using RSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Pirshahid, Shewa; Arirob, Wallop; Punsuvon, Vittaya

    2018-04-01

    The use of hexane to extract vegetable oil from oilseeds or seed cake is of growing concern due to its environmental impact such as its smelling and toxicity. In our method, used Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to study the optimum condition of decanter cake obtained from small crude palm oil with aqueous surfactant solution. For the first time, we provide an optimum condition of preliminary study with decanter cake extraction to obtain the maximum of oil yield. The result from preliminary was further used in RSM study by using Central Composite Design (CCD) that consisted of thirty experiments. The effect of four independent variables: the concentration of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) as surfactant, temperature, the ratio by weight to volume of cake to surfactant solution and the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) on dependent variables are studied. Data were analyzed using Design-Expert 8 software. The results showed that the optimum condition of decanter cake extraction were 0.016M of SDS solution concentration, 73°C of extraction temperature, 1:10 (g:ml) of the ratio of decanter cake to SDS solution and 2% (w/w) of NaCl amount. This condition gave 77.05% (w/w) oil yield. The chemical properties of the extracted palm oil from this aqueous surfactant extraction are further investigated compared with the hexane extraction. The obtained result showed that all properties of both extractions were nearly the same.

  20. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products.

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF PATCHOULI OIL (POGOSTEMON CABLIN, BENTH WITH STEAM DISTILLATION ASSISTED BY PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD VIA RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKARDI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the role of pulsed electric field (PEF treatment before hydro-distillation of the patchouli oil. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize PEF treatment (voltages, frequencies and times of distillation of patchouli oil from dried patchouli crops. The experimental design and analysis the result to obtain the optimal processing parameters was a Box-Behnken Design (BBD. Three variables were examined in this study: voltages (1,000-2,000 volt; frequencies (1,000-2,000 Hz; and distillation time (4-8 hours. The results showed that the voltage greatly affects the volume of patchouli oil obtained and optimum condition of PEF was voltages of 2,000 volts, frequencies of 1,874 Hz, and 8 hours distillation. The patchouli oil obtained is 8.037 ml of 300 g of dry material (±2.7%. The verification of the model shows that 96.6% (7.76±0.15 ml can adequately for reflecting the expected optimization.

  2. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Apium graveolens L. Seeds using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Dinç Zor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, optimum conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of antioxidants from Apium graveolens L. seeds were investigated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM. A Box-Behnken Design (BBD was used to evaluate the effect of sonication time (5, 10, 15 min, ultrasound power (60, 120, 180 W and the ratio of extraction solvent in terms of methanol (0, 50, 100% on antioxidant capacity. The optimal UAE conditions for the parameters investigated were 11 min of sonication time, ultrasound power of 131 W and 100% methanol as an extraction solvent. Under these conditions, UAE of antioxidants from the seeds achieved a maximum of 95.08% in respect to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the high value of the adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj = 0.9192 and the non-significant difference between experimental and predicted values confirmed the validity of the quadratic polynomial model. Hence, UAE is a suitable, fast, economical and practical technique for the extraction of antioxidants from Apium graveolens L. seeds.

  3. Optimization of conditions for probiotic curd formulation by Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 with probiotic properties using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2014-11-01

    Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 possessing potential probiotic properties as well as enterocin producing ability was used as starter culture. Effect of time (12-24 h) and inoculum level (3-7 % v/v) on cell growth, bacteriocin production, antioxidant property, titrable acidity and pH of curd was studied by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were 26.48 h and 2.17%v/v inoculum and the second order model validated. Co cultivation studies revealed that the formulated product had the ability to prevent growth of foodborne pathogens that affect keeping quality of the product during storage. The results indicated that application of E. faecium MTCC 5695 along with usage of optimized conditions attributed to the formation of highly consistent well set curd with bioactive and bioprotective properties. Formulated curd with potential probiotic attributes can be used as therapeutic agent for the treatment of foodborne diseases like Traveler's diarrhea and gastroenteritis which thereby help in improvement of bowel health.

  4. Solar photoelectro-Fenton degradation of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid optimized by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Almeida, Lucio Cesar; Bocchi, Nerilso; Brillas, Enric

    2011-10-30

    A central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the experimental variables of the solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) treatment of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). The experiments were made with a flow plant containing a Pt/air-diffusion reactor coupled to a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) under recirculation of 10 L of 186 mg L(-1) MCPA solutions in 0.05 M Na(2)SO(4) at a liquid flow rate of 180 L h(-1) with an average UV irradiation intensity of about 32 Wm(-2). The optimum variables found for the SPEF process were 5.0 A, 1.0mM Fe(2+) and pH 3.0 after 120 min of electrolysis. Under these conditions, 75% of mineralization with 71% of current efficiency and 87.7 k Wh kg(-1) TOC of energy consumption were obtained. MCPA decayed under the attack of generated hydroxyl radicals following a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Hydroxyl radicals also destroyed 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, methylhydroquinone and methyl-p-benzoquinone detected as aromatic by-products. Glycolic, maleic, fumaric, malic, succinic, tartronic, oxalic and formic acids were identified as generated carboxylic acids, which form Fe(III) complexes that are quickly photodecarboxylated by the UV irradiation of sunlight at the CPC photoreactor. A reaction sequence for the SPEF degradation of MCPA was proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed biodiesel by isopropanolysis in a continuous packed-bed reactor using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Wu, Tsung-Ta; Shieh, Chwen-Jen

    2009-10-31

    Isopropanolysis reactions were performed using triglycerides with immobilized lipase in a solvent-free environment. This study modeled the degree of isopropanolysis of soybean oil in a continuous packed-bed reactor when Novozym 435 was used as the biocatalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) and three-level-three-factor Box-Behnken design were employed to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, reaction temperature ( degrees C), flow rate (mL/min) and substrate molar ratio of isopropanol to soybean oil, on the percentage molar conversion of biodiesel by transesterification. The results show that flow rate and temperature have a significant effect on the percentage of molar conversion. On the basis of ridge max analysis, the optimum conditions for synthesis were as follows: flow rate 0.1 mL/min, temperature 51.5 degrees C and substrate molar ratio 1:4.14. The predicted value was 76.62+/-1.52% and actual experimental value was 75.62+/-0.81% molar conversion. Moreover, continuous enzymatic process for seven days did not show any appreciable decrease in the percent of molar conversion (75%). This work demonstrates the applicability of lipase catalysis to prepare isopropyl esters by transesterification in solvent-free system with a continuous packed-bed reactor for industrial production.

  6. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and soybean oil effects on quality characteristics of pork patties studied by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunkyung; Joo, Nami

    2013-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect and interactions of processing variables such as roselle extract (0.1-1.3%), soybean oil (5-20%) on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked pork patties. It was found that reduction in thickness, pH, L* and b* values decreased; however, water-holding capacity, reduction in diameter and a* values increased, respectively, as the amount of roselle increased. Soybean oil addition increased water-holding capacity, reduction in thickness, b* values of the patties. The hardness depended on the roselle and soybean oil added, as its linear effect was negative at proselle and soybean oil. The maximum overall quality score (5.42) was observed when 12.5 g of soybean oil and 0.7 g of roselle extract was added. The results of this optimization study would be useful for meat industry that tends to increase the product yield for patties using the optimum levels of ingredients by RSM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of binder addition and particle size for densification of coffee husks briquettes using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudah; Zulkifli

    2018-03-01

    The present research focuses on establishing the optimum conditions in converting coffee husk into a densified biomass fuel using starch as a binding agent. A Response Surface Methodology (RSM) approach using Box-Behnken experimental design with three levels (-1, 0, and +1) was employed to obtain the optimum level for each parameter. The briquettes wereproduced by compressing the mixture of coffee husk-starch in a piston and die assembly with the pressure of 2000 psi. Furthermore, starch percentage, pyrolysis time, and particle size were the input parameters for the algorithm. Bomb calorimeter was used to determine the heating value (HHV) of the solid fuel. The result of the study indicated that a combination of 34.71 mesh particle size, 110.93 min pyrolysis time, and 8% starch concentration werethe optimum variables.The HHV and density of the fuel were up to 5644.66 calgr-1 and 0.7069 grcm-3,respectively. The study showed that further research should be conducted to improve the briquette density therefore the coffee husk could be convert into commercialsolid fuel to replace the dependent on fossil fuel.

  8. Optimization of Lactide synthesis from Lactic Acid in biorefinery of palm oil waste using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozan, M.; Kamilah, F.; Whulanza, Y.; Rahmayetty

    2018-03-01

    Ring open polymerization is one of the production polylactic acid by formation of monomer before. Lactic acid is converted into lactide in two stages, polycondensation and depolymerization. Yield lactide will determine the molecular weight which produced. This study is to optimize the lactide production from lactic acid 90% by the variations of temperature (190-220°C), vacuum pressure (5-15 cmHg), and zinc acetate catalyst (0,3-0,6% w/w). As the temperature, vacuum pressure, and catalyst is increased, lactide that is produced also increases. Optimum condition of lactide production is obtained by Response surface methodology at the temperature 220°C, catalyst 0,45%w/w, and 10 cmHg in vacuum pressure. Equation or model from this study by using RSM is yield lactide = -258,75 + 7,79A + 2,90B + 3,51C + 0,48AB - 0,06AC – 3,97x10-3BC – 105,42A2 – 7,17B2– 0,10C2(A:catalyst; B:temperature; C:pressure).

  9. Statistical optimization of ultraviolet irradiate conditions for vitamin D₂ synthesis in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus using response surface methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie Wu

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus. Ultraviolet B (UV-B was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (25-45°C, exposure time (40-120 min, and irradiation intensity (0.6-1.2 W/m2. The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16°C, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min, the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 µg/g (dry weight was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 µg/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 µg/g within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min, and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry.

  10. Aluminum nitride coatings using response surface methodology to optimize the thermal dissipated performance of light-emitting diode modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Ming-Der; Lei, Peng-Da; Kong, Ling-Hua; Liu, Cheng-Wu

    2018-05-01

    This study optimizes the thermal dissipation ability of aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramics to increase the thermal performance of light-emitting diode (LED) modulus. AlN powders are deposited on heat sink as a heat interface material, using an electrostatic spraying process. The junction temperature of the heat sink is developed by response surface methodology based on Taguchi methods. In addition, the structure and properties of the AlN coating are examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the XPS analysis, the AlN sub-peaks are observed at 72.79 eV for Al2p and 398.88 eV for N1s, and an N1s sub-peak is assigned to N-O at 398.60eV and Al-N bonding at 395.95eV, which allows good thermal properties. The results have shown that the use of AlN ceramic material on a heat sink can enhance the thermal performance of LED modules. In addition, the percentage error between the predicted and experimental results compared the quadric model with between the linear and he interaction models was found to be within 7.89%, indicating that it was a good predictor. Accordingly, RSM can effectively enhance the thermal performance of an LED, and the beneficial heat dissipation effects for AlN are improved by electrostatic spraying.

  11. Application of Response Surface Methodology to study the effect of different calcium sources in fish muscle-alginate restructured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena María Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate needs the presence of calcium ions to gelify. For this reason, the contribution of the calcium source in a fish muscle mince added by sodium alginate, makes gelification possible, resulting a restructured fish product. The three different calcium sources considered were: Calcium Chloride (CC; Calcium Caseinate (CCa; and Calcium lactate (CLa. Several physical properties were analyzed, including mechanical properties, colour and cooking loss. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to determine the contribution of different calcium sources to a restructured fish muscle. The calcium source that modifies the system the most is CC. A combination of CC and sodium alginate weakened mechanical properties as reflected in the negative linear contribution of sodium alginate. Moreover, CC by itself increased lightness and cooking loss. The mechanical properties of restructured fish muscle elaborated were enhanced by using CCa and sodium alginate, as reflected in the negative linear contribution of sodium alginate. Also, CCa increased cooking loss. The role of CLa combined with sodium alginate was not so pronounced in the system discussed here.

  12. Optimization of artemisinin extraction from artemisia annua l. With supercritical carbon dioxide + ethanol using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Ozan Nazim; Cahyadi, Jessica; Guigard, Selma E; Saldaña, Marleny D A

    2018-05-13

    Malaria is a high priority life-threatening public health concern in developing countries, and therefore there is a growing interest to obtain artemisinin for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy products. In this study, artemisinin was extracted from the Artemisia annua L. plant using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) modified with ethanol. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to investigate and optimize the extraction conditions of pressure (9.9-30 MPa), temperature (33-67°C), and co-solvent (ethanol, 0-12.6 wt.%). Optimum SC-CO 2 extraction conditions were found to be 30 MPa and 33°C. Under optimized conditions, the predicted artemisinin yield was 1.09% whereas the experimental value was 0.71±0.07%. Soxhlet extraction with hexane resulted in higher artemisinin yields and there was no significant difference in the purity of the extracts obtained with SC-CO 2 and Soxhlet extractions. Results indicated that SC-CO 2 and SC-CO 2 +ethanol extraction is a promising alternative for the extraction of artemisinin to eliminate the use of organic solvents, such as hexane and produce extracts that can be used for the production of antimalarial products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling and optimization of gelatin-chitosan micro-carriers preparation for soft tissue engineering: Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaei, Payam; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Vakilian, Saeid

    2017-06-01

    Electrospray ionization is a wide spread technique for producing polymeric microcarriers (MCs) by applying electrostatic force and ionic cross-linker, simultaneously. In this study, fabrication process of gelatin-chitosan MCs and its optimization using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is reported. Gelatin/chitosan (G/C) blend ratio, applied voltage and feeding flow rate, their individual and interaction effects on the diameter and mechanical strength of the MCs were investigated. The obtained models for diameter and mechanical strength of MCs have a quadratic relationship with G/C blend ratio, applied voltage and feeding flow rate. Using the desirability curve, optimized G/C blend ratios that are introduced, include the desirable quantities for MCs diameter and mechanical strength. MCs of the same desirable diameter (350μm) and different G/C blend ratio (1, 2, and 3) were fabricated and their elasticity was investigated via Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The biocompatibility of the MCs was evaluated using MTT assay. The results showed that human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hUCMSCs) could attach and proliferate on fabricated MCs during 7days of culturing especially on those prepared with G/C blend ratios of 1 and 2. Such gelatin-chitosan MCs may be considered as a promising candidate for injectable tissue engineering scaffolds, supporting attachment and proliferation of hUCMSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of process variables on flexural properties of epoxy/organo-montmorillonite nanocomposite by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate the preparation and optimization of the flexural properties for epoxy/organomontmorillonite (OMMT nanocomposites. In-situ polymerization method was used to prepare epoxy/OMMT nanocomposites. The diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA and curing agent were mixed first, followed by the addition of OMMT. In this study, computer aided statistical methods of experimental design (Response Surface Methodology, RSM was used to investigate the process variables on the flexural properties of epoxy/4wt% OMMT nanocomposites. Speed of mechanical stirrer, post-curing time and post-curing temperature were chosen as process variables in the experimental design. Results showed that the speed of mechanical stirrer, post-curing time and post-curing temperature were able to influence the flexural modulus and flexural yield stress of epoxy/4 wt% OMMT nanocomposites. The results of optimization showed that the design of experiment (DOE has six combination of operating variables which have been obtained in order to attain the greatest overall desirability.

  15. Statistical Optimization for Biobutanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from Oil Palm Frond (OPF Juice Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Nasrah Nur Syazana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between incubation temperature, yeast extract concentration and inoculum size was investigated to optimize critical environmental parameters for production of biobutanol from oil palm frond (OPF juice by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 using response surface methodology (RSM. A central composite design (CCD was applied as the experimental design and a polynomial regression model with quadratic term was used to analyse the experimental data using analysis of variance (ANOVA. ANOVA analysis showed that the model was very significant (p < 0.0001 for the biobutanol production. The incubation temperature, yeast extract concentration and inoculum size showed significant value at p < 0.005. The results of optimization process showed that a maximum biobutanol production was obtained under the condition of temperature 37 °C, yeast extract concentration 5.5 g/L and inoculum size 10%. Under these optimized conditions, the highest biobutanol yield was 0.3054 g/g after 144 hours of incubation period. The model was validated by applying the optimized conditions and 0.2992 g/g biobutanol yield was obtained. These experimental findings were in close agreement with the model prediction, with a difference of only 9.76%.

  16. Optimisation of Copper Oxide Impregnation on Carbonised Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for Nitric Oxide Removal using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norhidayah; Yong, Sing Hung; Ibrahim, Naimah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md; Ridwan, Fahmi Muhammad; Ahmad, Razi

    2018-03-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was successfully modified with phosphoric acid hydration followed by impregnation with copper oxide (CuO) to synthesize CuO modified catalytic carbon (CuO/EFBC) for low-temperature removal of nitric oxide (NO) from gas streams. CuO impregnation was optimised through response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken Design (BBD) in terms of metal loading (5-20%), sintering temperature (200-800˚C) and sintering time (2-6 hours). The model response for the variables was NO adsorption capacity, which was obtained from an up-flow column adsorption experiment with 100 mL/min flow of 500 ppm NO/He at different operating conditions. The optimum operating variables suggested by the model were 20% metal loading, 200˚C sintering temperature and 6 hours sintering time. A good agreement (R2 = 0.9625) was achieved between the experimental data and model prediction. ANOVA analysis indicated that the model terms (metal loading and sintering temperature) are significant (Prob.>F less than 0.05).

  17. Optimization of methanol crystallization for highly efficient separation of palmitic acid from palm fatty acid mixture using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A.W. Japir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to develop parameters for the separation of palmitic acid (PA from a crude palm oil saturated fatty acid (SFAs mixture by using the methanol crystallization method. The conditions of methanol crystallization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM with the D-optimal design. The procedure of developing the solvent crystallization method was based on various different parameters. The fatty acid composition was carried out using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID as fatty acid methyl esters. The highest percentage of SFAs was more than 96% with the percentage yield of 87.5% under the optimal conditions of fatty acids-to-methanol ratio of 1: 20 (w/v, the crystallization temperature of -15 °C, and the crystallization time of 24 hours, respectively. The composition of separated SFAs in the solid fraction contains 96.7% of palmitic acid (C16:0 as a dominant component and 3.3% of stearic acid (C18:0. The results showed that utilizing methanol as a crystallization solvent is recommended because of its high efficiency, low cost, stability, availability, comparative ease of recovery and its ability to form needle-like crystals which have good filtering and washing characteristics.

  18. Optimization of the Conditions for Extraction of Serine Protease from Kesinai Plant (Streblus asper Leaves Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of serine protease from kesinai (Streblus asper leaves. The effect of independent variables, namely temperature (42.5,47.5, X1, mixing time (2–6 min, X2, buffer content (0–80 mL, X3 and buffer pH (4.5–10.5, X4 on specific activity, storage stability, temperature and oxidizing agent stability of serine protease from kesinai leaves was investigated. The study demonstrated that use of the optimum temperature, mixing time, buffer content and buffer pH conditions protected serine protease during extraction, as demonstrated by low activity loss. It was found that the interaction effect of mixing time and buffer content improved the serine protease stability, and the buffer pH had the most significant effect on the specific activity of the enzyme. The most desirable conditions of 2.5 °C temperature, 4 min mixing time, 40 mL buffer at pH 7.5 was established for serine protease extraction from kesinai leaves.

  19. An investigation of laser cutting quality of 22MnB5 ultra high strength steel using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Abdul Fattah Mohd; Aqida, Syarifah Nur

    2017-07-01

    In hot press forming, changes of mechanical properties in boron steel blanks have been a setback in trimming the final shape components. This paper presents investigation of kerf width and heat affected zone (HAZ) of ultra high strength 22MnB5 steel cutting. Sample cutting was conducted using a 4 kW Carbon Dioxide (CO2) laser machine with 10.6 μm wavelength with the laser spot size of 0.2 mm. A response surface methodology (RSM) using three level Box-Behnken design of experiment was developed with three factors of peak power, cutting speed and duty cycle. The parameters were optimised for minimum kerf width and HAZ formation. Optical evaluation using MITUTOYO TM 505 were conducted to measure the kerf width and HAZ region. From the findings, laser duty cycle was crucial to determine cutting quality of ultra-high strength steel; followed by cutting speed and laser power. Meanwhile, low power intensity with continuous wave contributes the narrowest kerf width formation and least HAZ region.

  20. Optimization of methanol crystallization for highly efficient separation of palmitic acid from palm fatty acid mixture using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japir, A.A.W.; Salimon, J.; Derawi, D.; Yahaya, B.H.; Jamil, M.S.M.; Yusop, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop parameters for the separation of palmitic acid (PA) from a crude palm oil saturated fatty acid (SFAs) mixture by using the methanol crystallization method. The conditions of methanol crystallization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) with the D-optimal design. The procedure of developing the solvent crystallization method was based on various different parameters. The fatty acid composition was carried out using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) as fatty acid methyl esters. The highest percentage of SFAs was more than 96% with the percentage yield of 87.5% under the optimal conditions of fatty acids-to-methanol ratio of 1: 20 (w/v), the crystallization temperature of -15 °C, and the crystallization time of 24 hours, respectively. The composition of separated SFAs in the solid fraction contains 96.7% of palmitic acid (C16:0) as a dominant component and 3.3% of stearic acid (C18:0). The results showed that utilizing methanol as a crystallization solvent is recommended because of its high efficiency, low cost, stability, availability, comparative ease of recovery and its ability to form needle-like crystals which have good filtering and washing characteristics. [es

  1. Formulation of a minimal nutritional medium for enhanced lipid productivity in Chlorella sp. and Botryococcus sp. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Rashi; Dhar, Dolly Wattal; Pabbi, Sunil

    2018-03-01

    Chlorella sp. MCC 7 and Botryococcus sp. MCC 31 were investigated to enable large-scale biodiesel production from minimal constituents in the growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to maximise the biomass productivity and lipid yield using only nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) as urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash. The optimum values were 0.42 g/L nitrogen; 0.14 g/L phosphorus and 0.22 g/L potassium for Chlorella sp.; and 0.46 g/L; 0.14 g/L and 0.25 g/L for Botryococcus sp. Lipid yield of 42% for Chlorella sp. and 52% in Botryococcus sp. was observed. An enhancement in lipid yield by approximately 55% for Chlorella sp. and 73% for Botryococcus sp. was registered as compared to original nutrient medium. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of extracted lipids revealed characteristic bands for triglycerides. This study provided utilisation of a practicable nutrient recipe in the form of N, P, K input for enhanced lipid yield from the selected microalgal strains.

  2. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of colchicine compound from Colchicum haussknechtii by using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Khodadoust

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method was used for extraction of colchicine in root of Colchicum haussknechtii prior to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. C. haussknechtii is used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The root of this plant is full of colchicine that is suitable for the treatment of gout and cirrhosis and applicable in plant breeding studies to produce polyploidy. The influence of variables on the extraction method was investigated by response surface methodology (RSM and composite design (CCD to achieve maximum extraction yield of colchicine from the root of C. haussknechtii. The most suitable condition for the extraction of colchicine was found to at 40 °C temperature, 32 min extraction time, and 70:30 v/v ethanol–water mixtures with 45:1 solvent-solid ratio. Obtained results showed that there is 1.2% colchicine in the root of C. haussknechtii, so this plant could be introduced as a rich source of colchicine.

  3. Rapid adsorption of heavy metals by Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite and optimization study using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Katayoon; Ahmad, Mansor B; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Khandanlou, Roshanak

    2014-07-21

    Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was used for removal of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Experiments were designed by response surface methodology (RSM) and a quadratic model was used to predict the variables. The adsorption parameters such as adsorbent dosage, removal time, and initial ion concentration were used as the independent variables and their effects on heavy metal ion removal were investigated. Analysis of variance was incorporated to judge the adequacy of the models. Optimal conditions with initial heavy metal ion concentration of 100, 92 and 270 mg/L, 120 s of removal time and 0.12 g of adsorbent amount resulted in 72.15%, 50.23%, and 91.35% removal efficiency for Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The predictions of the model were in good agreement with experimental results and the Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was successfully used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

  4. Optimisation of Copper Oxide Impregnation on Carbonised Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for Nitric Oxide Removal using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Norhidayah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB was successfully modified with phosphoric acid hydration followed by impregnation with copper oxide (CuO to synthesize CuO modified catalytic carbon (CuO/EFBC for low-temperature removal of nitric oxide (NO from gas streams. CuO impregnation was optimised through response surface methodology (RSM using Box-Behnken Design (BBD in terms of metal loading (5-20%, sintering temperature (200-800˚C and sintering time (2-6 hours. The model response for the variables was NO adsorption capacity, which was obtained from an up-flow column adsorption experiment with 100 mL/min flow of 500 ppm NO/He at different operating conditions. The optimum operating variables suggested by the model were 20% metal loading, 200˚C sintering temperature and 6 hours sintering time. A good agreement (R2 = 0.9625 was achieved between the experimental data and model prediction. ANOVA analysis indicated that the model terms (metal loading and sintering temperature are significant (Prob.>F less than 0.05.

  5. Mechanical behavior and wear prediction of stir cast Al–TiB2 composites using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, S.; Shenbaga Vinayaga Moorthi, N.; Vettivel, S.C.; Selvakumar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Various experiments were conducted on Al6061–TiB 2 composite. • XRD and EDS studies confirm the crystalline size and elements present. • SEM, EDS and OM observations were used to study the characteristics. • Curve fitting and RSM design methods are effectively used to develop the model. - Abstract: Al6061 was reinforced with various percentages of TiB 2 particles by using high energy stir casting method. The characterization was performed through X-ray Diffraction, Energy Dispersive Spectrum and Scanning Electron Microscope. The mechanical behaviors such as hardness, tensile strength and tribological behavior were investigated. Wear experiments were conducted by using a pin-on-disc wear tester at varying load. The curve fitting technique was used to develop the respective polynomial and power law equations. The wear mechanism of the specimen was studied through SEM. Response Surface Methodology was used to minimize the number of experimental conditions and develop the mathematical models between the key process parameters namely weight percentage of TiB 2 , load and sliding distance. Analysis of Variance technique was applied to check the validity of the developed model. The mathematical model developed for the specific wear rate was predicted at 99.5% confidence level and some useful conclusions were made

  6. Optimization Of Activated Carbon Preparation From Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Via Box- Behnken Design Of Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Shuhada Md Desa; Zaidi Ab Ghani; Suhaimi Abdul-Talib; Chia-Chay, T.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on activated carbon preparation from spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) via chemical activation using Box-Behnken design (BBD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Potassium hydroxide (KOH) functions as activating reagent and it play an important role in enhancing the activated carbon porosity. Three input parameters and two responses were evaluated via this software generated experimental design. The effects of three preparation parameters of impregnation ratio, activation time and activation temperature as well as two responses of carbon yield and iodine number were investigated. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from SMFW was found at SMFW: KOH impregnation ratio of 0.25, activation time of 30 min and activation temperature of 400 degree Celsius which resulted in 28.23 % of carbon yield and 314.14 mg/ g of iodine number with desirability of 0.994. The predicted results were well corresponded with experimental results. This study is important in economical large scale SMFW activated carbon preparation for application study of adsorption process for metal treatment in wastewater with minimum chemical and energy input. (author)

  7. Optimization of free radical scavenging capacity and pH of Hylocereus polyrhizus peel by Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, A. W.; Dewi, S. R.; Puspitasari, Y.; Nuriah, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel, a by-product of juice processing, contains a high antioxidant that can be used for nutraceuticals. Hence, it is important to extract and investigate its antioxidant stability. The aim of this study was to optimize the free radical scavenging capacity and pH of H. polyrhizus peel extract using Central Composite Design (CCD) under Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The extraction of H. polyrhizus peel was done by using green-Pulsed Electric Field (PEF)-assisted extraction method. Factors optimized were electric field strength (kV/cm) and extraction time (seconds). The result showed that the correlation between responses (free radical-scavenging capacity and pH) and two factors was quadratic model. The optimum conditions was obtained at the electric field strength of 3.96 kV/cm, and treatment time of 31.9 seconds. Under these conditions, the actual free radical-scavenging capacity and pH were 75.86 ± 0.2 % and 4.8, respectively. The verification model showed that the actual values are in accordance with the predicted values, and have error rate values of free radical-scavenging capacity and pH responses were 0.1% and 3.98%, respectively. We suggest to extract the H. polyrhizus peel using a green and non-thermal extraction technology, PEF-assisted extraction, for research, food applications and nutraceuticals industry.

  8. Enzymatic Phorbol Esters Degradation using the Germinated Jatropha Curcas Seed Lipase as Biocatalyst: Optimization Process Conditions by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita Kusuma Wardhani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of Jatropha curcas seed cake is limited by the presence of phorbol esters (PE, which are the main toxic compound and heat stable. The objective of this research was to optimize the reaction conditions of the enzymatic PE degradation of the defatted Jatropha curcas seed cake (DJSC using the acetone-dried lipase from the germinated Jatropha curcas seeds as a biocatalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM using three-factors-three-levels Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the reaction time, the ratio of buffer volume to DJSC, and the ratio of enzyme to DJSC on PE degradation. The results showed that the optimum conditions of PE degradation were 29.33 h, 51.11 : 6 (mL/g, and 30.10 : 5 (U/g cake for the reaction time, the ratio of buffer volume to DJSC, and the ratio of enzyme to DJSC, respectively. The predicted degradation of PE was 98.96% and not significantly different with the validated data of PE degradation. PE content was 0.035 mg/g, in which it was lower than PE in non-toxic Jatropha seeds. The results indicated that enzymatic degradation of PE might be a promising method for degradation of PE.  Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 22nd December 2015; Revised: 1st April 2016; Accepted: 14th April 2016 How to Cite: Wardhani, A.K., Hidayat, C., Hastuti, P. (2016. Enzymatic Phorbol Esters Degradation using the Germinated Jatropha Curcas Seed Lipase as Biocatalyst: Optimization Process Conditions by Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 346-353 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.574.346-353 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.574.346-353

  9. Solar photoelectro-Fenton degradation of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid optimized by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Almeida, Lucio Cesar; Bocchi, Nerilso; Brillas, Enric

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The herbicide MCPA is quickly mineralized by solar photoelectro-Fenton. → A CCRD allowed the optimization of current, Fe 2+ content and solution pH. → TOC, MCE and energy consumption are described by response surface methodology. → Generated hydroxyl radical destroys MCPA and its aromatic oxidation by-products. → UV light of solar irradiation photolyzes the Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes produced. - Abstract: A central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the experimental variables of the solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) treatment of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). The experiments were made with a flow plant containing a Pt/air-diffusion reactor coupled to a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) under recirculation of 10 L of 186 mg L -1 MCPA solutions in 0.05 M Na 2 SO 4 at a liquid flow rate of 180 L h -1 with an average UV irradiation intensity of about 32 W m -2 . The optimum variables found for the SPEF process were 5.0 A, 1.0 mM Fe 2+ and pH 3.0 after 120 min of electrolysis. Under these conditions, 75% of mineralization with 71% of current efficiency and 87.7 kWh kg -1 TOC of energy consumption were obtained. MCPA decayed under the attack of generated hydroxyl radicals following a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Hydroxyl radicals also destroyed 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, methylhydroquinone and methyl-p-benzoquinone detected as aromatic by-products. Glycolic, maleic, fumaric, malic, succinic, tartronic, oxalic and formic acids were identified as generated carboxylic acids, which form Fe(III) complexes that are quickly photodecarboxylated by the UV irradiation of sunlight at the CPC photoreactor. A reaction sequence for the SPEF degradation of MCPA was proposed.

  10. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The potential of immobilized TiO_2 and ZnO nanophotocatalysts for the removal of reactive dye was investigated. • Optimum decolorization conditions have been determined. • The immobilized nanophotocatalysts decolorized azo dyes completely from a textile effluent within 60 min. • Photocatalytic decolorization rates obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate. - Abstract: In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO_2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R"2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R"2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  11. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid, E-mail: m.ghoreishian.1985@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badii, Khashayar [Department of Environmental Researches, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouzi, Mohammad [Graduate Program of Biomedical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Malek, Kaveh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The potential of immobilized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanophotocatalysts for the removal of reactive dye was investigated. • Optimum decolorization conditions have been determined. • The immobilized nanophotocatalysts decolorized azo dyes completely from a textile effluent within 60 min. • Photocatalytic decolorization rates obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate. - Abstract: In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO{sub 2} nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R{sup 2} = 0.9996, Adjusted R{sup 2} = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  12. Improvement for enhanced xylanase production by Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 using central composite design of response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Abhishek; Mehta, Preeti; Guleria, Shiwani; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-12-01

    The effects of yeast extract (X 1 ), NH 4 NO 3 (X 2 ), peptone (X 3 ), urea (X 4 ), CMC (X 5 ), Tween 20 (X 6 ), MgSO 4 (X 7 ), and CaCO 3 (X 8 ) on production of xylanase from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CKMX1 were optimized by statistical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM was used to optimize xylanase production by implementing the Central composite design. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the linear, interaction and quadric terms of these variables had significant effects. However, only the linear effect of X 4 , X 5 , interaction effect of X 1 X 7 , X 1 X 8 , X 2 X 3 , X 2 X 8 , X 3 X 6 , X 3 X 8 , X 4 X 6 , X 4 X 7 , X 5 X 7 , X 5 X 8 and quadratic effect of X 3 2 , X 5 2 and X 7 2 found to be insignificant terms in the quadratic model and had no response at significant level. The minimum and maximum xylanase production obtained was 331.50 U/g DBP and 1027.65 U/g DBP, respectively. The highest xylanase activity was obtained from Run No. 30, which consisted of yeast extract (X 1 ), 1.00 g (%); NH 4 NO 3 (X 2 ), 0.20 g (%); peptone (X 3 ), 1.00 g (%); urea (X 4 ), 10 mg (%); CMC (X 5 ), 1.00 g (%); Tween 20 (X 6 ), 0.02 mL (%); CaCO 3 (X 7 ), 0.50 g (%) and MgSO 4 (X 8 ), 9.0 g (%). The optimization resulted in 3.1-fold increase of xylanase production, compared with the lowest xylanase production of 331.50 U/g DBP after 72 h of incubation in stationary flask experiment. Application of cellulase-free xylanase in pulp biobleaching from C. cellulans CKMX1 under C-E P -D sequence has been shown to bring about a 12.5 % reduction of chlorine, decrease of 0.8 kappa points (40 %), and gain in brightness was 1.42 % ISO points in 0.5 % enzyme treated pulp as compared to control.

  13. Improvement of gel strength and melting point of fish gelatin by addition of coenhancers using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Jayappa M; Basu, Subrata; Nayak, Binay B; Kannuchamy, Nagalakshmi; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2011-08-01

    Fish gelatin is a potential alternative to mammalian gelatin. However, poor gel strength and low melting point limit its applications. The study was aimed at improving these properties by adding coenhancers in the range obtained from response surface methodology (RSM) by using Box-Behnken design. Three different coenhancers, MgSO₄, sucrose, and transglutaminase were used as the independent variables for improving the gel strength and melting point of gelatin extracted from Tiger-toothed croaker (Otolithes ruber). Addition of coenhancers at different combinations resulted gel strength and melting point in the range of 150.5 to 240.5 g and 19.5 to 22.5 °C, respectively. The optimal concentrations of coenhancers for predicted maximum gel strength (242.8 g) obtained by RSM were 0.23 M MgSO₄, 12.60% sucrose (w/v), and 5.92 mg/g transglutaminase and for predicted maximum melting point (22.57 °C), the values were 0.24 M MgSO₄, 10.44% sucrose (w/v), and 5.72 mg/g transglutaminase. By addition of coenhancers at these optimal concentrations in verification experiments, the gel strength and melting point were improved from 170 to 240.89 g and 20.3 to 22.7 °C, respectively. These experimental values agreed well with the predicted values demonstrating the fitness of the models. Results from the present study clearly revealed that the addition of coenhancers at a particular combination can improve the gel strength and melting point of fish gelatin to enhance its range of applications. There is a growing interest in the use of fish gelatin as an alternative to mammalian gelatin. However, poor gel strength and low melting point of fish gelatin have limited its commercial applications. The gel strength and melting point of fish gelatin can be increased by incorporation of coenhancers such as magnesium sulphate, sucrose, and transglutaminase. Results of this work help to produce the fish gelatin suitable for wide range of applications in the food industry. © 2011 Institute

  14. Intensification of biodiesel production from waste goat tallow using infrared radiation: Process evaluation through response surface methodology and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, R.; Sahu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced and significantly accelerated biodiesel synthesis from waste goat tallow by infrared radiation. • In situ water removal by adsorbent profoundly promotes achieving high free fatty acids (FFAs) conversion. • Process optimization and parametric interaction-effects assessment by response surface method. • Artificial Neural Network Modeling for prediction of triglycerides and FFA conversion. • At optimal conditions, product biodiesel contains 98.5 wt.% FAME. - Abstract: For the first time, an efficient simultaneous trans/esterification process for biodiesel synthesis from waste goat tallow with considerable free fatty acids (FFAs) content has been explored employing an infrared radiation assisted reactor (IRAR). The impacts of methanol to tallow molar ratio, IRAR temperature and H 2 SO 4 concentration on goat tallow conversion were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, 96.7% FFA conversion was achieved within 2.5 h at 59.93 wt.% H 2 SO 4 , 69.97 °C IRAR temperature and 31.88:1 methanol to tallow molar ratio. The experimental results were also modeled using artificial neural network (ANN) and marginal improvement in modeling efficiency was observed in comparison with RSM. The infrared radiation strategy could significantly accelerate the conversion process as demonstrated through a substantial reduction in reaction time compared to conventionally heated reactor while providing appreciably high biodiesel yield. Moreover, the in situ water removal using silica-gel adsorbent could also facilitate achieving higher FFA conversion to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Owing to the occurrence of simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides present in goat tallow, overall 98.5 wt.% FAME content was determined at optimal conditions in the product biodiesel which conformed to ASTM and EN biodiesel specifications

  15. Maximization of fructose esters synthesis by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair Sampaio; Peres, António M; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of fructose fatty acid ester was performed in organic solvent media, using a purified lipase from Candida antartica B immobilized in acrylic resin. Response surface methodology with a central composite rotatable design based on five levels was implemented to optimize three experimental operating conditions (temperature, agitation and reaction time). A statistical significant cubic model was established. Temperature and reaction time were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum operational conditions for maximizing the synthesis of fructose esters were 57.1°C, 100 rpm and 37.8 h. The model was validated in the identified optimal conditions to check its adequacy and accuracy, and an experimental esterification percentage of 88.4% (±0.3%) was obtained. These results showed that an improvement of the enzymatic synthesis of fructose esters was obtained under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. OPTIMASI DENGAN ALGORITMA RSM-CCD PADA EVAPORATOR VAKUM WATERJET DENGAN PENGENDALI SUHU FUZZY PADA PEMBUATAN PERMEN SUSU (RSM-CCD Algorithm for Optimizing Waterjet Vacuum Evaporator Using Fuzzy Temperature Control in The Milk Candy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hendrawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk candy is a product which has to be produced under a high temperature to achieve the caramelization process. The use of vacuum system during a food processing is one of the alternatives to engineer the value of a material’s boiling point. The temperature control system and the mixing speed in machine that produce the milk candy were expected to be able to prevent the formation of off-flavour in the final product. A smart control system based on fuzzy logic was applied in the temperature control within the double jacket vacuum evaporator machine that needs stable temperature in the cooking process. The objective of this research is developing vacuum evaporator for milk candy production using fuzzy temperature control. The result in machine and system planning showed that the process of milk candy production was going on well. The parameter optimization of water content and ash content purposed to acquire the temperature point parameter and mixing speed in milk candy production. The optimization method was response surface methodology (RSM, by using the model of central composite design (CCD. The optimization resulted 90.18oC for the temperature parameter and 512 RPM for the mixing speed, with the prediction about 4.69% of water content and 1.57% of ash content. Keywords: Optimization, vacuum evaporator, fuzzy, milk candy, response surface methodology ABSTRAK Permen susu merupakan salah satu produk yang diolah dengan suhu tinggi untuk mencapai proses karamelisasi. Pengolahan pangan dengan sistem vakum merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk merekayasa nilai titik didih suatu bahan. Sistem pengendalian suhu serta kecepatan pengadukan pada mesin produksi permen susu diharapkan dapat mencegah terbentuknya partikel hitam (off-flavour pada produk akhir. Sistem kontrol cerdas logika fuzzy diaplikasikan dalam pengendalian suhu pada mesin evaporator vakum double jacket yang membutuhkan tingkat stabilitas suhu pemasakan permen susu. Tujuan dari

  17. Climate Downscaling over Nordeste, Brazil, Using the NCEP RSM97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqiang; Ferran Moncunill, David; Li, Huilan; Divino Moura, Antonio; de Assis de Souza Filho, Francisco

    2005-02-01

    The NCEP Regional Spectral Model (RSM), with horizontal resolution of 60 km, was used to downscale the ECHAM4.5 AGCM (T42) simulations forced with observed SSTs over northeast Brazil. An ensemble of 10 runs for the period January-June 1971-2000 was used in this study. The RSM can resolve the spatial patterns of observed seasonal precipitation and capture the interannual variability of observed seasonal precipitation as well. The AGCM bias in displacement of the Atlantic ITCZ is partially corrected in the RSM. The RSM probability distribution function of seasonal precipitation anomalies is in better agreement with observations than that of the driving AGCM. Good potential prediction skills are demonstrated by the RSM in predicting the interannual variability of regional seasonal precipitation. The RSM can also capture the interannual variability of observed precipitation at intraseasonal time scales, such as precipitation intensity distribution and dry spells. A drought index and a flooding index were adopted to indicate the severity of drought and flooding conditions, and their interannual variability was reproduced by the RSM. The overall RSM performance in the downscaled climate of the ECHAM4.5 AGCM is satisfactory over Nordeste. The primary deficiency is a systematic dry bias for precipitation simulation.

  18. Response Surface Methodology Approach on Effect of Cutting Parameter on Tool Wear during End Milling of High Thermal Conductivity Steel -150 (HTCS-150)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hadzley, A B; Wan Mohd Azahar, W M Y; Izamshah, R; Mohd Shahir, K; Mohd Amran, A; Anis Afuza, A

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of development the tool life's mathematical model during the milling process on High Thermal Conductivity Steel 150 (HTCS-150) 56 HRC. Using response surface methodology, the mathematical models for tool life have been developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Box-Behnken techniques is a part of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to carry out the work plan to predict, the tool wear and generate the numerical equation in relation to independent variable parameters by Design Expert software. Dry milling experiments were conducted by using two levels of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this study, the variable for the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were in the range of 484-553 m/min, 0.31-0.36 mm/tooth, and 0.1-0.5 mm, width of cut is constantly 0.01mm per passes. The tool wear was measured using tool maker microscope. The effect of input factors that on the responds were identified by using mean of ANOVA. The responds of tool wear then simultaneously optimized. The validation of the test reveals the model accuracy 5% and low tool wear under same experimental condition. (paper)

  19. Optimizing the conditions for the microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of Ulva prolifera for bio-oil production using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junhai; Zhuang, Yingbin; Li, Yan; Chen, Limei; Guo, Jingxue; Li, Demao; Ye, Naihao

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-assisted direct liquefaction (MADL) of Ulva prolifera was performed in ethylene glycol (EG) using sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) as a catalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to optimize the conditions of three independent variables (catalyst content, solvent-to-feedstock ratio and temperature) for the liquefaction yield. And the bio-oil was analyzed by elementary analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The maximum liquefaction yield was 93.17%, which was obtained under a microwave power of 600 W for 30 min at 165 °C with a solvent-to-feedstock ratio of 18.87:1 and 4.93% sulfuric acid. The bio-oil was mainly composed of phthalic acid esters, alkenes and a fatty acid methyl ester with a long chain from C 16 to C 20 . - Highlights: • Ulva prolifera was converted to bio-oil through microwave-assisted direct liquefaction. • Response surface methodology was used to optimize the liquefaction technology. • A maximum liquefaction rate of 93.17 wt% bio-oil was obtained. • The bio-oil was composed of carboxylic acids and esters

  20. Effects of process parameters of various pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysability of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (Kapok) fibre: A response surface methodology study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tye, Ying Ying; Lee, Keat Teong; Wan Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Leh, Cheu Peng

    2015-01-01

    Kapok fibre is a promising raw material to produce sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, effects of water, acid and alkaline pretreatments on the enzymatic sugar yield were studied through response surface methodology (RSM) and supported by the analysis of chemical compositions and physical structure of the fibre. For water pretreatment, reaction temperature and time were the independent variables while chemical concentration was also used as the third independent variable for acid and alkaline pretreatments. For all pretreatments, the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were kept constant. The structure of pretreated fibre was also examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results showed that water and acid pretreatments effectively dissolved hemicellulose of the fibre with the latter unveiled better results. The alkaline pretreatment resulted in the highest total glucose yield (g/kg of untreated fibre) as compared to water and acid pretreatments. SEM analysis illustrated that water and acid pretreatments led severe destruction of fibre structure; however, both of these pretreatments exhibited lower enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysability of kapok fibre as compared to that observed in alkaline pretreatment. - Highlights: • Effect of pretreatments on sugar yield was studied by response surface methodology. • Glucose yield was highly related to the chemical compositions of pretreated fibers. • Pretreatments altered the physical structure of kapok fibers. • Enzymatic hydrolysability of fibre was improved the most by alkaline treatment. • Over 94% cellulose of the pretreated fibres was converted to glucose

  1. Response Surface Methodology Approach on Effect of Cutting Parameter on Tool Wear during End Milling of High Thermal Conductivity Steel -150 (HTCS-150)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Hadzley, A. B.; Mohd Azahar, W. M. Y. Wan; Izamshah, R.; Mohd Shahir, K.; Mohd Amran, A.; Anis Afuza, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a study of development the tool life's mathematical model during the milling process on High Thermal Conductivity Steel 150 (HTCS-150) 56 HRC. Using response surface methodology, the mathematical models for tool life have been developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Box-Behnken techniques is a part of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to carry out the work plan to predict, the tool wear and generate the numerical equation in relation to independent variable parameters by Design Expert software. Dry milling experiments were conducted by using two levels of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this study, the variable for the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were in the range of 484-553 m/min, 0.31-0.36 mm/tooth, and 0.1-0.5 mm, width of cut is constantly 0.01mm per passes. The tool wear was measured using tool maker microscope. The effect of input factors that on the responds were identified by using mean of ANOVA. The responds of tool wear then simultaneously optimized. The validation of the test reveals the model accuracy 5% and low tool wear under same experimental condition.

  2. Optimization of magnetic field-assisted ultrasonication for the disintegration of waste activated sludge using Box-Behnken design with response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su; Deng, Feng; Huang, Si-Qi; Liu, Shu-Yang; Ai, Le-Xian; She, Pu-Ying

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated for the first time the feasibility of using a magnetic field for sludge disintegration. Approximately 41.01% disintegration degree (DD) was reached after 30min at 180mT magnetic field intensity upon separate magnetic field treatment. Protein and polysaccharide contents significantly increased. This test was optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with response surface methodology (RSM) to fit the multiple equation of the DD. The maximum DD was 43.75% and the protein and polysaccharide contents increased to 56.71 and 119.44mg/L, respectively, when the magnetic field strength was 119.69mT, reaction time was 30.49min, and pH was 9.82 in the optimization experiment. We then analyzed the effects of ultrasound alone. We are the first to combine magnetic field with ultrasound to disintegrate waste-activated sludge (WAS). The optimum effect was obtained with the application of ultrasound alone at 45kHz frequency, with a DD of about 58.09%. By contrast, 62.62% DD was reached in combined magnetic field and ultrasound treatment. This combined test was also optimized using BBD with RSM to fit the multiple equation of DD. The maximum DD of 64.59% was achieved when the magnetic field intensity was 197.87mT, ultrasonic frequency was 42.28kHz, reaction time was 33.96min, and pH was 8.90. These results were consistent with those of particle size and electron microscopy analyses. This research proved that a magnetic field can effectively disintegrate WAS and can be combined with other physical techniques such as ultrasound for optimal results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Response surface methodology optimization of partitioning of xylanase form Aspergillus Niger by metal affinity polymer-salt aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Mohamad Ali; Rahimpour, Farshad; Taran, Mojtaba

    2017-09-15

    Aqueous two phase affinity partitioning system using metal ligands was applied for partitioning and purification of xylanase produced by Aspergillus Niger. To minimization the number of experiments for the design parameters and develop predictive models for optimization of the purification process, response surface methodology (RSM) with a face-centered central composite design (CCF) has been used. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 was activated using epichlorohydrin, covalently linked to iminodiacetic acid (IDA), and the specific metal ligand Cu was attached to the polyethylene glycol-iminodiacetic acid (PEG-IDA). The influence of some experimental variables such as PEG (10-18%w/w), sodium sulfate (8-12%), PEG-IDA-Cu 2+ concentration (0-50% w/w of total PEG), pH of system (4-8) and crude enzyme loading (6-18%w/w) on xylanase and total protein partitioning coefficient, enzyme yield and enzyme specific activity were systematically evaluated. Two optimal point with high enzyme partitioning factor 10.97 and yield 79.95 (including 10% PEG, 12% Na 2 SO 4 , 50% ligand, pH 8 and 6% crude enzyme loading) and high specific activity in top phase 42.21 (including 14.73% PEG, 8.02% Na 2 SO 4 , 28.43% ligand, pH 7.7 and 6.08% crude enzyme loading) were attained. The adequacy of the RSM models was verified by a good agreement between experimental and predicted results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant Phenolics Extraction from Flos Chrysanthemi: Response Surface Methodology Based Optimization and the Correlation Between Extracts and Free Radical Scavenging Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanfang; Wang, Xinsheng; Xue, Jintao; Fan, Enguo

    2017-11-01

    Huaiju is one of the most famous and widely used Flos Chrysanthemi (FC) for medicinal purposes in China. Although various investigations aimed at phenolics extraction from other FC have been reported, a thorough optimization of the phenolics extraction conditions from Huaiju has not been achieved. This work applied the widely used response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate the effects of 3 independent variables including ethanol concentration (%), extraction time (min), and solvent-to-material ratio (mL/g) on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolics from FC. The data suggested the optimal UAE condition was an ethanol concentration of 75.3% and extraction time of 43.5 min, whereas the ratio of solvent to material has no significant effect. When the free radical scavenging ability was used as an indicator for a successful extraction, a similar optimal extraction was achieved with an ethanol concentration of 72.8%, extraction time of 44.3 min, and the ratio of solvent to material was 29.5 mL/g. Furthermore, a moderate correlation between the antioxidant activity of TP extract and the content of extracted phenolic compounds was observed. Moreover, a well consistent of the experimental values under optimal conditions with those predicted values suggests RSM successfully optimized the UAE conditions for phenolics extraction from FC. The work of the research investigated the plant phenolics in Flos Chrysanthemi and antioxidant capacities. These results of this study can support the development of antioxidant additive and relative food. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  5. Efficient Preparation of Streptochlorin from Marine Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4 by Combination of Response Surface Methodology and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since first isolated from the lipophilic extract of Streptomyces sp. SF2583, streptochlorin, has attracted a lot of attention because of its various pharmacological properties, such as antibiotic, antiallergic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. For the efficient preparation of streptochlorin from a producing strain Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4, we developed a combinative method by using response surface methodology (RSM and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. In the fermentation process, we used RSM to optimize the condition for the efficient accumulation of streptochlorin, and the optimal parameters were: yeast extract 1.889 g/L, soluble starch 8.636 g/L, K2HPO4 0.359 g/L, CaCl2 2.5 g/L, MgSO4 0.625 g/L, marine salt 25 g/L, medium volume 50%, initial pH value 7.0, temperature 27.5 °C, which enhanced streptochlorin yield by 17.7-fold. During the purification process, the preparative HSCCC separation was performed using a petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (9:0.8:5:5, v/v/v/v biphasic solvent system, where 300 mg of crude sample yielded 16.5 mg streptochlorin with over 95% purity as determined by UPLC. Consequently, the combination method provided a feasible strategy for highly effective preparation of streptochlorin, which ensured the supply of large amounts of streptochlorin for in vivo pharmacological assessments or other requirements.

  6. Optimization of polyphenols extraction using response surface methodology and application of near infrared spectroscopy to phenolic content analysis of pine bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkyi, Nana Sarfo Agyemang

    2010-04-01

    The utilization of pine bark for processing water resistant phenol-formaldehyde adhesive for plywood production encounters difficulties due to the very high reactivity of the formaldehyde condensable phenolics and other un-intended compounds (sugars) extracted into solution, as well as time consuming and costly chemical analysis. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapidly and accurately determining the polyphenolic contents in Pinus caribaea bark extracts was assessed by means of multivariate calibration techniques. To optimize the polyphenol content, four different solvents (aqueous acetone, aqueous ethanol, aqueous NaOH and water) were used in the extractions. Batch experiments were performed at different solvent concentrations, time, temperature and liquid-solid ratio. Mathematical polynomial models were proposed to identify the effects of individual interactions of these variables on the extraction of polyphenols and optimum content using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were used to extract polyphenols which were used in the formulation of resol resins for plywood manufacture. The first derivative spectra with PLS regression were found to provide the best prediction of the tannin content and stiasny number of pine bark with a SECV = 0.14 and 1.26 and r"2 = 0.97 and 0.95 respectively. The predicted values were thus highly correlated with costly measured values of tannin content and Stiasny number. The highest extraction model efficiency (78.98%) was observed for aqueous extraction when only tannin content was maximized in the numerical optimization process. This corresponded to optimum extraction conditions of 69°C extraction temperature, 126 min extraction time and 23:1 liquid-solid ratio. The RSM model that gave a high tannin content (18.85%) with a corresponding good quality resin (shear strength = 2.4 MPa, 10% delamination) was found for aqueous ethanol extraction when the objective function was

  7. Optimization of dye extraction from Cordyline fruticosa via response surface methodology to produce a natural sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A.M. Al-Alwani

    Full Text Available In the present work, the application of response surface methodology (RSM for the optimization of process parameters in the chlorophyll extraction from Cordyline fruticosa leaves was performed. The absorbance of the extract obtained from the extraction process under different conditions was estimated using the D-optimal design in RSM. Three different process parameters such as the nature of organic solvent based on their boiling point (ethanol, methanol, and acetonitrile, pH (4–8 and extraction temperature (50–90 °C were optimized for chlorophyll extraction. The effects of these parameters on the absorbance or concentration of the extract were evaluated using ANOVA results of quadratic polynomial regression. The results showed a high R2 and adjusted R2 correlation coefficients of 0.9963 and 0.9921 respectively. Moreover, the analysis of the final quadric model based on the design experiments indicated an optimal extraction condition of pH of 7.99, extraction temperature of 78.33 °C, and a solvent boiling point, 78 °C. The predicted absorbance was 1.006, which is in good agreement with the experimentally obtained result of 1.04 at 665 nm wavelength. The application of pigment obtained under the optimal condition was further evaluated as a sensitizer for the dye sensitized solar cells. Maximum solar conversion efficiency (η of 0.5% was achieved for the C. fruticosa leaf extract obtained under the optimum extraction conditions. Furthermore, the exposure of the leaf pigment to 100 mW/cm2 simulated sunlight yielded a short circuit photocurrent density (Isc of 1.3 mA, open circuit voltage (Voc of 616 mV, and a fill factor (ff of 60.16%. Keywords: Optimization, Cordyline fruticosa, Chlorophyll, Process variables, D-optimal design, Solar cells

  8. Modeling and optimization of effective parameters on the size of synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} superparamagnetic nanoparticles by coprecipitation technique using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazanfari, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: Ghazanfari.mr@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kashefi, Mehrdad, E-mail: m-kashefi@um.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza [Biotechnology Research Center, Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-01

    Generally, the statistical methods are defined as appropriate techniques to study the processes trends. In current research, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} superparamagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method. In order to investigate the size properties of synthesized particles, the experimental design was done using central composite method (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) while the temperature, pH, and cation ratio of reaction were selected as influential factors. After particles synthesis based on designed runs, the different responses such as hydrodynamic size of particles (both freeze dried and air dried), size distribution, crystallite size, magnetic size, and zeta potential were evaluated by different techniques i.e. dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Based on these results, the quadratic polynomial model was fitted for each response that could predict the response amounts. In following, the study of factors effects was carried out that showed the temperature, pH, and their interactions had higher effectiveness. Finally, by optimizing, it was clear that the minimum amounts of particle size (10.15 nm) and size distribution (13.01 nm) were reached in the minimum temperature (70 °C) and cation ratio (0.5) amounts and maximum pH amount (10.5). Moreover, the characterizations showed the particles size was about 10 nm while the amounts of M{sub s}, H{sub c}, and M{sub r} were equal to 60 (emu/g), 0.2 (Oe) and 0.22 (emu/g), respectively. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation method. • By RSM technique, some predicted models were presented for particles size. • Temperature, pH and their interactions had most effectiveness on the particles size. • The drying techniques can effect on the size properties.

  9. Solvent selection and optimization of α-chymotrypsin-catalyzed synthesis of N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH2 using mixture design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shih-Hao; Kuo, Chia-Hung; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Shieh, Chwen-Jen

    2012-01-01

    A peptide, N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH(2) , with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity was synthesized by an α-chymotrypsin-catalyzed condensation reaction of N-acetyl phenylalanine ethyl ester (N-Ac-Phe-OEt) and tyrosinamide (Tyr-NH(2) ). Three kinds of solvents: a Tris-HCl buffer (80 mM, pH 9.0), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and acetonitrile were employed in this study. The optimum reaction solvent component was determined by simplex centroid mixture design. The synthesis efficiency was enhanced in an organic-aqueous solvent (Tris-HCl buffer: DMSO: acetonitrile = 2:1:1) in which 73.55% of the yield of N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH(2) could be achieved. Furthermore, the effect of reaction parameters on the yield was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Based on a ridge max analysis, the optimum condition for this peptide synthesis included a reaction time of 7.4 min, a reaction temperature of 28.1°C, an enzyme activity of 98.9 U, and a substrate molar ratio (Phe:Tyr) of 1:2.8. The predicted and the actual (experimental) yields were 87.6 and 85.5%, respectively. The experimental design and RSM performed well in the optimization of synthesis of N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH(2) , so it is expected to be an effective method for obtaining a good yield of enzymatic peptide. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2012. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  10. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Principles in Flood Recovery: Incorporating RSM after the 2011 Missouri River Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    project also included adding seepage blankets in mul- tiple areas along the landward side of the lev- ee. At the Upper Hamburg Chute site, less than...that served as the downstream shore of the spillway pond. The pond is part of a recreation area and serves as a wa- ter intake for the Garrison fish ...Corps of Engineers (USACE) Re- gional Sediment Management (RSM) principles into a wide variety of projects as part of flood recov- ery and

  11. Surface current double-heterogeneous multilayer multicell methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanek, J.; Segev, M.

    1991-01-01

    A surface current methodology is developed to respond to the need for treating the various levels of material heterogeneity in a double-heterogeneous multilayer multicell in processing neutron multigroup cross sections in the resonance as well as thermal energy range. First, the basic surface cosine current transport equations to calculate the energy-dependent neutron flux spatial distribution in the multilayered multicell are formulated. Slab, spherical and cylindrical geometries, as well as square and hexagonal lattices and pebble-bed configurations with white or reflective cell boundary conditions, are considered. Second, starting from the surface cosine-current formulation, a two-zone three-layer multicell formalism for reduction of heterogeneous flux expressions to equivalent homogeneous flux expression for table method was developed. This formalism allows an infinite, as well as a limited, number of second-heterogeneity cells within a partial first-heterogeneity cell layer to be considered. Also, the number of the first-and second-heterogeneity cell types is quite general. The 'outer' (right side) as well as 'inner' (left side) Dancoff probabilities can be calculated for any particular layer. An accurate, efficient, and compact interpolation procedure is developed to calculate the basic collision probabilities. These are transmission and escape probabilities for shells in slab, cylindrical, and spherical geometries, as well as Dancoff probabilities for cylinders in square and hexagonal lattices. The use of the interpolation procedure is exemplified in a multilayer multicell approximation for the Dancoff probability, enabling a routine evaluation of the equivalence-based shielded resonance integral in highly complex lattices of slab, cylindrical, or spherical cells. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 10 refs

  12. Robust Optimization in Simulation : Taguchi and Response Surface Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellino, G.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Meloni, C.

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of simulated systems is tackled by many methods, but most methods assume known environments. This article, however, develops a 'robust' methodology for uncertain environments. This methodology uses Taguchi's view of the uncertain world, but replaces his statistical techniques by

  13. Optimizing supercritical carbon dioxide in the inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste by using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Nik Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Balakrishnan, Venugopal [Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Alkarkhi, Abbas F.M. [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ahmad Rajion, Zainul [School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar, E-mail: akmomar@usm.my [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization of clinical solid waste. • Inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste using supercritical carbon dioxide. • Reduction of the hazardous exposure of clinical solid waste. • Optimization of the supercritical carbon dioxide experimental conditions. - Abstract: Clinical solid waste (CSW) poses a challenge to health care facilities because of the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, leading to concerns in the effective sterilization of the CSW for safe handling and elimination of infectious disease transmission. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) was applied to inactivate gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and gram-negative Escherichia coli in CSW. The effects of SC-CO{sub 2} sterilization parameters such as pressure, temperature, and time were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. The linear quadratic terms and interaction between pressure and temperature had significant effects on the inactivation of S. aureus, E. coli, E. faecalis, and B. subtilis in CSW. Optimum conditions for the complete inactivation of bacteria within the experimental range of the studied variables were 20 MPa, 60 °C, and 60 min. The SC-CO{sub 2}-treated bacterial cells, observed under a scanning electron microscope, showed morphological changes, including cell breakage and dislodged cell walls, which could have caused the inactivation. This espouses the inference that SC-CO{sub 2} exerts strong inactivating effects on the bacteria present in CSW, and has the potential to be used in CSW management for the safe handling and recycling-reuse of CSW materials.

  14. Dechlorination of Hexachlorobenzene in Contaminated Soils Using a Nanometallic Al/CaO Dispersion Mixture: Optimization through Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhui; Shang, Yixuan; Yu, Shuyao; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) contamination of soils remains a significant environmental challenge all over the world. Reductive stabilization is a developing technology that can decompose the HCB with a dechlorination process. A nanometallic Al/CaO (n-Al/CaO) dispersion mixture was developed utilizing ball-milling technology in this study. The dechlorination efficiency of HCB in contaminated soils by the n-Al/CaO grinding treatment was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of three variables (soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage and grinding time) and the interactions between these variables under the Box-Behnken Design (BBD). A high regression coefficient value (R2 = 0.9807) and low p value (soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage, and grinding time were found to be 7% (m/m), 17.7% (m/m), and 24 h, respectively, in the experimental ranges and levels. Under optimal conditions, the dechlorination efficiency was 80%. The intermediate product analysis indicated that dechlorination was the process by stepwise loss of chloride atoms. The main pathway observed within 24 h was HCB → pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) → 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) and 1,2,4,5-TeCB. The results indicated that the moderate soil moisture content was crucial for the hydrodechlorination of HCB. A probable mechanism was proposed wherein water acted like a hydrogen donor and promoted the hydrodechlorination process. The potential application of n-Al/CaO is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective option for decontamination of HCB-contaminated soils. PMID:29702570

  15. Dechlorination of Hexachlorobenzene in Contaminated Soils Using a Nanometallic Al/CaO Dispersion Mixture: Optimization through Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexachlorobenzene (HCB contamination of soils remains a significant environmental challenge all over the world. Reductive stabilization is a developing technology that can decompose the HCB with a dechlorination process. A nanometallic Al/CaO (n-Al/CaO dispersion mixture was developed utilizing ball-milling technology in this study. The dechlorination efficiency of HCB in contaminated soils by the n-Al/CaO grinding treatment was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to investigate the effects of three variables (soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage and grinding time and the interactions between these variables under the Box-Behnken Design (BBD. A high regression coefficient value (R2 = 0.9807 and low p value (<0.0001 of the quadratic model indicated that the model was accurate in predicting the experimental results. The optimal soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage, and grinding time were found to be 7% (m/m, 17.7% (m/m, and 24 h, respectively, in the experimental ranges and levels. Under optimal conditions, the dechlorination efficiency was 80%. The intermediate product analysis indicated that dechlorination was the process by stepwise loss of chloride atoms. The main pathway observed within 24 h was HCB → pentachlorobenzene (PeCB → 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB and 1,2,4,5-TeCB. The results indicated that the moderate soil moisture content was crucial for the hydrodechlorination of HCB. A probable mechanism was proposed wherein water acted like a hydrogen donor and promoted the hydrodechlorination process. The potential application of n-Al/CaO is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective option for decontamination of HCB-contaminated soils.

  16. Optimization of sulfamethoxazole degradation by TiO2/hydroxyapatite composite under ultraviolet irradiation using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Suk Young; Kim, Ji Tae; Chang, Soon Woong; An, Sang Woo; Lee, Si Jin

    2014-01-01

    A titanium dioxide/hydroxyapatite/ultraviolet (TiO 2 /HAP/UV-A) system was used to remove sulfamethoxazole (SMX) from water in a second-order response surface methodology (RSM) experiment with a three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) for optimization. The effects of both the primary and secondary interaction effects of three photocatalytic reaction variables were examined: the concentration of SMX (X 1 ), dose of TiO 2 /HAP composite (X 2 ), and UV intensity (X 3 ). The UV intensity and TiO 2 /HAP dose significantly influence the SMX and total organic carbon (TOC) removal (p<0.001). However, the SMX and TOC removal are enhanced with increasing TiO 2 /HAP dose up to certain levels, and further increases in the TiO 2 /HAP dose result in adverse effects due to hydroxyl radical scavenging at higher catalyst concentrations. Complete removal of SMX was achieved upon UV-A irradiation for 180 min. Under optimal conditions, 51.2% of the TOC was removed, indicating the formation of intermediate products during SMX degradation. The optimal ratio of SMX (mg L -1 ) to TiO 2 /HAP (g L -1 ) to UV (W/L) was 5.4145 mg L -1 to 1.4351 g L -1 to 18 W for both SMX and TOC removal. By comparison with actual applications, the experimental results were found to be in good agreement with the model's predictions, with mean results for SMX and TOC removal of 99.89% and 51.01%, respectively

  17. Application of response surface methodology as a new PID tuning method in an electrocoagulation process control case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camcıoğlu, Ş; Özyurt, B; Doğan, I C; Hapoğlu, H

    2017-12-01

    In this work the application of response surface methodology (RSM) to proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameter tuning for electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater was researched. Dynamic data for two controlled variables (pH and electrical conductivity) were obtained under pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) input signals applied to manipulated variables (acid and supporting electrolyte flow rates). Third order plus time delay model parameters were evaluated through System Identification Toolbox™ in MATLAB ® . Four level full factorial design was applied to form a design matrix for three controller tuning parameters as factors and to evaluate statistical analysis of the system in terms of integral of square error (ISE), integral of absolute error (IAE), integral of time square error (ITSE) and integral of time absolute error (ITAE) performance criteria as response. Numerical values of the responses for the runs in the design matrices were determined using closed-loop PID control system simulations designed in Simulink ® . Optimum proportional gain, integral action and derivative action values for electrical conductivity control were found to be 1,500 s, 0 s and 16.4636 s respectively. Accordingly, the same optimization scheme was followed for pH control and optimum controller parameters were found to be -8.6970 s, 0.0211 s and 50 s, respectively. Theoretically optimized controller parameters were applied to batch experimental studies. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and energy consumption of pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment by EC under controlled action of pH at 5.5 and electrical conductivity at 2.72 mS/cm was found to be 85% and 3.87 kWh/m 3 respectively. Results showed that multi input-multi output (MIMO) control action increased removal efficiency of COD by 15.41% and reduced energy consumption by 6.52% in comparison with treatment under uncontrolled conditions.

  18. Optimization of sulfamethoxazole degradation by TiO{sub 2}/hydroxyapatite composite under ultraviolet irradiation using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Suk Young; Kim, Ji Tae; Chang, Soon Woong [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang Woo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si Jin [Korea Environment Corporation, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    A titanium dioxide/hydroxyapatite/ultraviolet (TiO{sub 2}/HAP/UV-A) system was used to remove sulfamethoxazole (SMX) from water in a second-order response surface methodology (RSM) experiment with a three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) for optimization. The effects of both the primary and secondary interaction effects of three photocatalytic reaction variables were examined: the concentration of SMX (X{sub 1}), dose of TiO{sub 2}/HAP composite (X{sub 2}), and UV intensity (X{sub 3}). The UV intensity and TiO{sub 2}/HAP dose significantly influence the SMX and total organic carbon (TOC) removal (p<0.001). However, the SMX and TOC removal are enhanced with increasing TiO{sub 2}/HAP dose up to certain levels, and further increases in the TiO{sub 2}/HAP dose result in adverse effects due to hydroxyl radical scavenging at higher catalyst concentrations. Complete removal of SMX was achieved upon UV-A irradiation for 180 min. Under optimal conditions, 51.2% of the TOC was removed, indicating the formation of intermediate products during SMX degradation. The optimal ratio of SMX (mg L{sup -1}) to TiO{sub 2}/HAP (g L{sup -1}) to UV (W/L) was 5.4145 mg L{sup -1} to 1.4351 g L{sup -1} to 18 W for both SMX and TOC removal. By comparison with actual applications, the experimental results were found to be in good agreement with the model's predictions, with mean results for SMX and TOC removal of 99.89% and 51.01%, respectively.

  19. Optimizing supercritical carbon dioxide in the inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste by using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Nik Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Alkarkhi, Abbas F.M.; Ahmad Rajion, Zainul; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization of clinical solid waste. • Inactivation of bacteria in clinical solid waste using supercritical carbon dioxide. • Reduction of the hazardous exposure of clinical solid waste. • Optimization of the supercritical carbon dioxide experimental conditions. - Abstract: Clinical solid waste (CSW) poses a challenge to health care facilities because of the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, leading to concerns in the effective sterilization of the CSW for safe handling and elimination of infectious disease transmission. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) was applied to inactivate gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and gram-negative Escherichia coli in CSW. The effects of SC-CO 2 sterilization parameters such as pressure, temperature, and time were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. The linear quadratic terms and interaction between pressure and temperature had significant effects on the inactivation of S. aureus, E. coli, E. faecalis, and B. subtilis in CSW. Optimum conditions for the complete inactivation of bacteria within the experimental range of the studied variables were 20 MPa, 60 °C, and 60 min. The SC-CO 2 -treated bacterial cells, observed under a scanning electron microscope, showed morphological changes, including cell breakage and dislodged cell walls, which could have caused the inactivation. This espouses the inference that SC-CO 2 exerts strong inactivating effects on the bacteria present in CSW, and has the potential to be used in CSW management for the safe handling and recycling-reuse of CSW materials

  20. PRODUCTION OF MEDIUM-CHAIN ACYLGLYCEROLS BY LIPASE ESTERIFICATION IN PACKED BED REACTOR: PROCESS OPTIMIZATION BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZANARIAH MOHD DOM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medium-chain acylglycerols (or glycerides are formed of mono-, di- and triacylglycerol classes. In this study, an alternative method to produce MCA from esterifying palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD with the presence of oil palm mesocarp lipase (OPML which is a plant-sourced lipase and PFAD is also cheap by-product is developed in a packed bed reactor. The production of medium-chain acylglycerols (MCA by lipase-catalysed esterification of palm oil fatty acid distillate with glycerol are optimize in order to determine the factors that have significant effects on the reaction condition and high yield of MCA. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the reaction conditions. The reaction conditions, namely, the reaction time (30-240 min, enzyme load (0.5-1.5 kg, silica gel load (0.2-1.0 kg, and solvent amount (200-600 vol/wt. Reaction time, enzyme loading and solvent amount strongly effect MCA synthesis (p0.05 influence on MCA yield. Best-fitting models were successfully established for MCA yield (R 2 =0.9133. The optimum MCA yield were 75% from the predicted value and 75.4% from the experimental data for 6 kg enzyme loading, a reaction time of 135min and a solvent amount of 350 vol/wt at 65ºC reaction temperature. Verification of experimental results under optimized reaction conditions were conducted, and the results agreed well with the predicted range. Esterification products (mono-, di- and triacylglycerol from the PBR were identified using Thin Layer Chromatography method. The chromatograms showed the successful fractionation of esterified products in this alternative method of process esterification.

  1. Biodegradation of free cyanide and subsequent utilisation of biodegradation by-products by Bacillus consortia: optimisation using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuto, Lukhanyo; Ntwampe, Seteno Karabo Obed; Jackson, Vanessa Angela

    2015-07-01

    A mesophilic alkali-tolerant bacterial consortium belonging to the Bacillus genus was evaluated for its ability to biodegrade high free cyanide (CN(-)) concentration (up to 500 mg CN(-)/L), subsequent to the oxidation of the formed ammonium and nitrates in a continuous bioreactor system solely supplemented with whey waste. Furthermore, an optimisation study for successful cyanide biodegradation by this consortium was evaluated in batch bioreactors (BBs) using response surface methodology (RSM). The input variables, that is, pH, temperature and whey-waste concentration, were optimised using a numerical optimisation technique where the optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pH 9.88, temperature 33.60 °C and whey-waste concentration of 14.27 g/L, under which 206.53 mg CN(-)/L in 96 h can be biodegraded by the microbial species from an initial cyanide concentration of 500 mg CN(-)/L. Furthermore, using the optimised data, cyanide biodegradation in a continuous mode was evaluated in a dual-stage packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) connected in series to a pneumatic bioreactor system (PBS) used for simultaneous nitrification, including aerobic denitrification. The whey-supported Bacillus sp. culture was not inhibited by the free cyanide concentration of up to 500 mg CN(-)/L, with an overall degradation efficiency of ≥ 99 % with subsequent nitrification and aerobic denitrification of the formed ammonium and nitrates over a period of 80 days. This is the first study to report free cyanide biodegradation at concentrations of up to 500 mg CN(-)/L in a continuous system using whey waste as a microbial feedstock. The results showed that the process has the potential for the bioremediation of cyanide-containing wastewaters.

  2. Characterization and Optimization of the Glyoxalation of a Methanol-Fractionated Alkali Lignin using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikfei Ang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The glyoxalation of a methanol-fractionated alkali lignin was executed at 60 °C for 8 h with different amounts of glyoxal (40% in water and 30% NaOH. The weights of the lignin and water were fixed at 10.0 and 15.0 g, respectively. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC results indicated that depolymerization of lignin molecules occurred during the glyoxalation process. However, a higher polydispersity index (Mw/Mn of all glyoxalated lignins compared to the unmodified lignin (ML showed that lignin polymers with a variety of chain lengths were generated through the crosslinking and through the repolymerization of lignin molecules via methylene (CH2 bridges and new, strong C-C bonds after the condensation reaction. This was confirmed by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA. Optimum amounts of glyoxal and NaOH to be used in the glyoxalation process were ascertained by quantifying the intensity of relative absorbance for the CH2 bands obtained from FT-IR spectra and by using response surface methodology (RSM and central composite design (CCD, which facilitated the development of a lignin with appropriate reactivity for wood adhesive formulation. The experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted ones, and the model was highly significant, with a coefficient of determination of 0.9164. The intensity of the relative absorbance for the CH2 band of 0.42 was obtained when the optimum amounts of glyoxal and NaOH, i.e., 0.222 and 0.353, respectively, were used in the glyoxalation process.

  3. Optimization of composite flour biscuits by mixture response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Laura C; Okoli, Eric C

    2013-08-01

    Biscuits were produced from blends of pigeon pea, sorghum and cocoyam flours. The study was carried out using mixture response surface methodology as the optimization technique. Using the simplex centroid design, 10 formulations were obtained. Protein and sensory quality of the biscuits were analyzed. The sensory attributes studied were appearance, taste, texture, crispness and general acceptability, while the protein quality indices were biological value and net protein utilization. The results showed that while the addition of pigeon pea improved the protein quality, its addition resulted in reduced sensory ratings for all the sensory attributes with the exception of appearance. Some of the biscuits had sensory ratings, which were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from biscuits made with wheat. Rat feeding experiments indicated that the biological value and net protein utilization values obtained for most of the biscuits were above minimum recommended values. Optimization suggested biscuits containing 75.30% sorghum, 0% pigeon pea and 24.70% cocoyam flours as the best proportion of these components. This sample received good scores for the sensory attributes.

  4. Computational optimization of biodiesel combustion using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Prabhakara Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on optimization of biodiesel combustion phenomena through parametric approach using response surface methodology. Physical properties of biodiesel play a vital role for accurate simulations of the fuel spray, atomization, combustion, and emission formation processes. Typically methyl based biodiesel consists of five main types of esters: methyl palmitate, methyl oleate, methyl stearate, methyl linoleate, and methyl linolenate in its composition. Based on the amount of methyl esters present the properties of pongamia bio-diesel and its blends were estimated. CONVERGETM computational fluid dynamics software was used to simulate the fuel spray, turbulence and combustion phenomena. The simulation responses such as indicated specific fuel consumption, NOx, and soot were analyzed using design of experiments. Regression equations were developed for each of these responses. The optimum parameters were found out to be compression ratio – 16.75, start of injection – 21.9° before top dead center, and exhaust gas re-circulation – 10.94%. Results have been compared with baseline case.

  5. Optimizing and modeling of effective parameters on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized by coprecipitation technique using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazanfari, Mohammad Reza [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kashefi, Mehrdad, E-mail: m-kashefi@um.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza [Biotechnology Research Center, Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    In present work, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation method. In order to study the effects of influential factors on the structural and magnetic properties of particles, the experimental runs were designed using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD), while the reaction temperature, Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} cation ratio, and pH of reaction were defined as effective factors on the two responses include the amounts of crystallinity degree and saturation magnetization (M{sub s}). The investigation of structural, magnetic, and microstructural properties of particles were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. As a result, the predictive quadratic models were fitted on the both responses while the R{sup 2} values were more than 0.97 for both models. The highest amounts of both responses (crystallinity degree: 88.07% and M{sub s}: 65.801 emu/g) are presented when the reaction temperature, cation ratio, and pH amounts are equal to 90 °C, 0.60, and 10.5, respectively. Finally, the TEM results show the particles with size of about 10 nm and narrow size distribution. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation method. • By RSM technique, the predictive models were presented for crystallinity degree. • By RSM technique, the predictive models were presented for amounts of M{sub s}. • Temperature, pH and their interactions had most effectiveness on the amounts of M{sub s}. • Temperature, cation ratio and their interactions had most effectiveness on the crystallinity degree.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of sulfate, alkalinity and disinfector on iron release of iron pipe and iron corrosion scale characteristics under water quality changing condition using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Zhang, Weiyu; Guo, Jianbo; Wu, Nana; Liu, Xinyuan

    2018-02-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM), particularly Box-Behnken design model, was used in this study to evaluate the sulfate, alkalinity and free chlorine on iron release of pipe with groundwater supply history and its iron corrosion scale characteristics under water quality changing experiment. The RSM results together with response surface contour plots indicated that the iron release of pipe section reactors was positively related with Larson Ratio and free chlorine. The thin Corrosion scales with groundwater supply history upon collection site contained Fe3O4 (18%), α-FeOOH (64%), FeCO3 (9%), β-FeOOH (8%) and γ-FeOOH (5%), besides their averaged amorphous iron oxide content was 13.6%. After the RSM water quality changing experiment, Fe3O4, amorphous iron oxide and intermediate iron products (FeCO3, Green Rust (GR)) content on scale of Cl2Rs increased, while their α-FeOOH contents decreased and β-FeOOH disappeared. The high iron released Cl2Rs receiving higher LR water (1.40-2.04) contained highest FeCO3 (20%) and amorphous iron oxide (42%), while the low iron release Cl2Rs receiving lower LR water (0.52-0.73) had higher GR(6.5%) and the amorphous iron oxide (23.7%). In high LR water (>0.73), the thin and non-protective corrosion scale containing higher amorphous iron oxide, Fe(II) derived from new produced Fe3O4 or FeCO3 or GR was easy for oxidants and sulfate ions penetration, and had higher iron release. However the same unstable corrosion scale didn’t have much iron release in low LR water (≤0.73). RSM experiment indicated that iron release of these unstable corrosion scales had close relationship with water quality (Larson Ratio and disinfectant). Optimizing the water quality of new source water and using reasonable water purification measures can help to eliminate the red water case.

  7. Optimization of Laser Transmission Joining Process Parameters on Joint Strength of PET and 316 L Stainless Steel Joint Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Prakash Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to study the effects of laser power, joining speed, and stand-off distance on the joint strength of PET and 316 L stainless steel joint. The process parameters were optimized using response methodology for achieving good joint strength. The central composite design (CCD has been utilized to plan the experiments and response surface methodology (RSM is employed to develop mathematical model between laser transmission joining parameters and desired response (joint strength. From the ANOVA (analysis of variance, it was concluded that laser power is contributing more and it is followed by joining speed and stand-off distance. In the range of process parameters, the result shows that laser power increases and joint strength increases. Whereas joining speed increases, joint strength increases. The joint strength increases with the increase of the stand-off distance until it reaches the center value; the joint strength then starts to decrease with the increase of stand-off distance beyond the center limit. Optimum values of laser power, joining speed, and stand-off distance were found to be 18 watt, 100 mm/min, and 2 mm to get the maximum joint strength (predicted: 88.48 MPa. There was approximately 3.37% error in the experimental and modeled results of joint strength.

  8. Development of an aeroelastic methodology for surface morphing rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James R.

    Helicopter performance capabilities are limited by maximum lift characteristics and vibratory loading. In high speed forward flight, dynamic stall and transonic flow greatly increase the amplitude of vibratory loads. Experiments and computational simulations alike have indicated that a variety of active rotor control devices are capable of reducing vibratory loads. For example, periodic blade twist and flap excitation have been optimized to reduce vibratory loads in various rotors. Airfoil geometry can also be modified in order to increase lift coefficient, delay stall, or weaken transonic effects. To explore the potential benefits of active controls, computational methods are being developed for aeroelastic rotor evaluation, including coupling between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural dynamics (CSD) solvers. In many contemporary CFD/CSD coupling methods it is assumed that the airfoil is rigid to reduce the interface by single dimension. Some methods retain the conventional one-dimensional beam model while prescribing an airfoil shape to simulate active chord deformation. However, to simulate the actual response of a compliant airfoil it is necessary to include deformations that originate not only from control devices (such as piezoelectric actuators), but also inertial forces, elastic stresses, and aerodynamic pressures. An accurate representation of the physics requires an interaction with a more complete representation of loads and geometry. A CFD/CSD coupling methodology capable of communicating three-dimensional structural deformations and a distribution of aerodynamic forces over the wetted blade surface has not yet been developed. In this research an interface is created within the Fully Unstructured Navier-Stokes (FUN3D) solver that communicates aerodynamic forces on the blade surface to University of Michigan's Nonlinear Active Beam Solver (UM/NLABS -- referred to as NLABS in this thesis). Interface routines are developed for

  9. Chemical Flooding in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs: From Technical Investigation to Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Le Van

    2016-09-01

    rather than using a water slug in between. The results of the pre-evaluation show that two sequences of the ASP group have the highest NPV corresponding to the dissimilar applied oil prices. In the post-evaluation, the successful use of response surface methodology (RSM in the estimation and optimization procedures with coefficients of determination R2 greater than 0.97 shows that the project can possibly gain 4.47 $MM at a mean oil price of 46.5 $/bbl with the field scale of a quarter five-spot pattern. Further, with the novel assumption of normal distribution for the oil price variation, the chemical flooding sequence of concurrent alkali-surfactant-polymer injection with a buffering polymer solution is evaluated as the most feasible scheme owing to the achievement of the highest NPV at the highly possible oil price of 40–55 $/bbl compared to the other scheme.

  10. Using Chitosan/CHPATC as coagulant to remove color and turbidity of industrial wastewater: Optimization through RSM design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Meysam Mohammad; Kahforoushan, Davood; Abbasi, Farhang; Ghanbarian, Saeid

    2018-04-01

    One of the most important solid-liquid separation processes is coagulation and flocculation that is extensively used in the primary treatment of industrial wastewater. The biopolymers, because of biodegradable properties and low cost have been used as coagulants. In this study, chitosan as a natural coagulant of choice, was modified by (3-chloro 2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride and was used to remove the color and turbidity of industrial wastewater. To evaluate the effect of pH, settling time, the initial turbidity of wastewater, the amount of coagulant, and the concentration of dye (Melanoidin) were chosen to study their effects on removal of wastewater color and turbidity. The experiments were done in a batch system by using a jar test. To achieve the optimum conditions for the removal of color and turbidity, the response surface methodology (RSM) experimental design method was used. The results obtained from experiments showed that the optimum conditions for the removal of color were as: pH = 3, concentration of dye = 1000 mg/L, settling time = 78.93 min, and dose of coagulant = 3 g/L. The maximum color removal in these conditions was predicted 82.78% by the RSM model. The optimal conditions for the removal of turbidity of the waste water were as: pH = 5.66, initial turbidity = 60 NTU, settling time = 105 min, and amount of coagulant = 3 g/L. The maximum turbidity removal in these circumstances was predicted 94.19% by the model. The experimental results obtained in optimum conditions for removal of color and turbidity were 76.20% and 90.14%, respectively, indicating the high accuracy of the prediction model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RSM Outlook Spring 2007: Green Technology: The New IT

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Sustaining change (Rebecca Morris) An interview with RSM alumnus and Royal DSM Managing Board member Feike Sijbesma. #### Why celebrity sells: The brain mechanisms of persuasion (Vittorio Busato & Rebecca Morris) Marketing researchers at RSM are combining the latest neuroimaging techniques to discover more about what goes on in the brains of consumers. For marketeers, this may help take the last remaining guesswork out of pricey advertising campaigns. #### Green technolog...

  12. Application and optimization of the tenderization of pig Longissimus dorsi muscle by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) using the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoying; Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong

    2016-03-01

    Based on single factor experiments, NaCl concentration, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) concentration and temperature were selected as independent variables for a three-level Box-Behnken experimental design, and the shear force and cooking loss were response values for regression analysis. According to the statistical models, it showed that all independent variables had significant effects on shear force and cooking loss, and optimal values were at the NaCl concentration of 4.15%, AMP concentration of 22.27 mmol/L and temperature of 16.70°C, which was determined with three-dimensional response surface diagrams and contour plots. Under this condition, the observed shear force and cooking loss were 0.625 kg and 8.07%, respectively, exhibiting a good agreement with their predicted values, showing the good applicability and feasibility of response surface methodology (RSM) for improving pork tenderness. Compared with control pig muscles, AMP combined with NaCl treatment demonstrated significant effects on improvement of meat tenderness and reduction of cooking loss. Therefore, AMP could be regarded as an effective tenderization agent for pork. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Influence of Reinforcement Parameters and Ageing Time on Mechanical Behavior of Novel Al2024/SiC/Red Mud Composites Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaswinder; Chauhan, Amit

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the mechanical behavior of aluminum 2024 matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide and red mud particles. The hybrid reinforcements were successfully incorporated into the alloy matrix using the stir casting process. An orthogonal array based on Taguchi's technique was used to acquire experimental data for mechanical properties (hardness and impact energy) of the composites. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were used to evaluate the influence of test parameters (reinforcement ratio, particle size and ageing time). The morphological analysis of the surfaces (fractured during impact tests) was conducted to identify the failure mechanism. Finally, a confirmation experiment was performed to check the adequacy of the developed model. The results indicate that the ageing time is the most effective parameter as far as the hardness of the hybrid composites is concerned. It has also been revealed that red mud wt.% has maximum influence on the impact energy characteristics of the hybrid composites. The study concludes that Al2024/SiC/red mud hybrid composites possess superior mechanical performance in comparison to pure alloy under optimized conditions.

  14. Optimization of the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of landfill leachate using copper and nitrate co-doped TiO2 (Ti by response surface methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, a statistically-based experimental design with response surface methodology (RSM was employed to examine the effects of functional conditions on the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of landfill leachate using a Cu/N co-doped TiO2 (Ti electrode. The experimental design method was applied to response surface modeling and the optimization of the operational parameters of the photoelectro-catalytic degradation of landfill leachate using TiO2 as a photo-anode. The variables considered were the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD concentration, pH and the potential bias. Two dependent parameters were either directly measured or calculated as responses: chemical oxygen demand (COD removal and total organic carbon (TOC removal. The results of this investigation reveal that the optimum conditions are an initial pH of 10.0, 4377.98mgL-1 initial COD concentration and 25.0 V of potential bias. The model predictions and the test data were in satisfactory agreement. COD and TOC removals of 67% and 82.5%, respectively, were demonstrated. Under the optimal conditions, GC/MS showed 73 organic micro-pollutants in the raw landfill leachate which included hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds and esters. After the landfill leachate treatment processes, 38 organic micro-pollutants disappeared completely in the photoelectrocatalytic process.

  15. Evaluation of optimum conditions for pachyman encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic acid nanospheres by response surface methodology and results of a related in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sisi Zheng, Li Luo, Ruonan Bo, Zhenguang Liu, Jie Xing, Yale Niu, Yuanliang Hu, Jiaguo Liu, Deyun Wang Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: This study aimed to optimize the preparation conditions of pachyman (PHY-loaded poly(D,L-lactic acid (PLA (PHYP nanospheres by response surface methodology, explore their characteristics, and assess their effects on splenic lymphocytes. Double emulsion solvent evaporation was used to synthesize PHYP nanospheres, and the optimal preparation conditions were identified as a concentration of poloxamer 188 (F68 (w/v of 0.33%, a concentration of PLA of 30 mg/mL, and a ratio of PLA to drug (w/w of 10.25:1 required to reach the highest encapsulation efficiency, which was calculated to be 59.10%. PHYP had a spherical shape with a smooth surface and uniform size and an evident effect of sustained release and relative stability. Splenic lymphocytes are crucial and multifunctional cells in the immune system, and their immunological properties could be enhanced significantly by PHYP treatment. This study confirmed that PHY encapsulated in PLA nanospheres had comparatively steady properties and exerted obvious immune enhancement. Keywords: PHYP, optimal preparation condition, RSM, in vitro study

  16. [Optimization of vacuum belt drying process of Gardeniae Fructus in Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dao-sheng; Shi, Wei; Han, Lei; Sun, Ke; Chen, Guang-bo; Wu Jian-xiong; Xu, Gui-hong; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    To optimize the belt drying process conditions optimization of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology, on the basis of single factor experiment, a three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the drying technology of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection. With drying temperature, drying time, feeding speed as independent variables and the content of geniposide as dependent variable, the experimental data were fitted to a second order polynomial equation, establishing the mathematical relationship between the content of geniposide and respective variables. With the experimental data analyzed by Design-Expert 8. 0. 6, the optimal drying parameter was as follows: the drying temperature was 98.5 degrees C , the drying time was 89 min, the feeding speed was 99.8 r x min(-1). Three verification experiments were taked under this technology and the measured average content of geniposide was 564. 108 mg x g(-1), which was close to the model prediction: 563. 307 mg x g(-1). According to the verification test, the Gardeniae Fructus belt drying process is steady and feasible. So single factor experiments combined with response surface method (RSM) could be used to optimize the drying technology of Reduning injection Gardenia extract.

  17. Optimising reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation of an acidic mixture on a monolithic stationary phase with the aid of response surface methodology and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Harrison, M; Clark, B J

    2006-02-10

    An optimization strategy for the separation of an acidic mixture by employing a monolithic stationary phase is presented, with the aid of experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM). An orthogonal array design (OAD) OA(16) (2(15)) was used to choose the significant parameters for the optimization. The significant factors were optimized by using a central composite design (CCD) and the quadratic models between the dependent and the independent parameters were built. The mathematical models were tested on a number of simulated data set and had a coefficient of R(2) > 0.97 (n = 16). On applying the optimization strategy, the factor effects were visualized as three-dimensional (3D) response surfaces and contour plots. The optimal condition was achieved in less than 40 min by using the monolithic packing with the mobile phase of methanol/20 mM phosphate buffer pH 2.7 (25.5/74.5, v/v). The method showed good agreement between the experimental data and predictive value throughout the studied parameter space and were suitable for optimization studies on the monolithic stationary phase for acidic compounds.

  18. Synthesis of MnO2/cellulose fiber nanocomposites for rapid adsorption of insecticide compound and optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Fakhri, Ali; Agarwal, Shilpi; Sadeghi, Nima

    2017-09-01

    The MnO 2 /Cellulose fiber Nanocomposites have been prepared via the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The characteristic structure of MnO 2 /Cellulose fiber Nanocomposites was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and UV-vis spectra, Transmission electron Microscopy, N 2 adsorption-desorption and Scanning electron microscopy instrumental techniques. BET surface area and crystallite size values of MnO 2 /cellulose fiber nanocomposites have been found as 87.064m 2 /g and 70.0nm, respectively. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used for adsorption of Insecticide compound such as Toxaphene by prepared adsorbent. MnO 2 /Cellulose fiber Nanocomposites shows maximum removal of 96.5% at initial Toxaphene concentration of 5.0mg/L, pH 3 and adsorbent dose of 5.0g/L. Kinetic and equilibrium data follow pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Adsorption capacity of MnO 2 /Cellulose fiber Nanocomposites has been found to be 5.465mg/g. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2012-10-08

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  20. RSM 1.0 - A RESUPPLY SCHEDULER USING INTEGER OPTIMIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    RSM, Resupply Scheduling Modeler, is a fully menu-driven program that uses integer programming techniques to determine an optimum schedule for replacing components on or before the end of a fixed replacement period. Although written to analyze the electrical power system on the Space Station Freedom, RSM is quite general and can be used to model the resupply of almost any system subject to user-defined resource constraints. RSM is based on a specific form of the general linear programming problem in which all variables in the objective function and all variables in the constraints are integers. While more computationally intensive, integer programming was required for accuracy when modeling systems with small quantities of components. Input values for component life cane be real numbers, RSM converts them to integers by dividing the lifetime by the period duration, then reducing the result to the next lowest integer. For each component, there is a set of constraints that insure that it is replaced before its lifetime expires. RSM includes user-defined constraints such as transportation mass and volume limits, as well as component life, available repair crew time and assembly sequences. A weighting factor allows the program to minimize factors such as cost. The program then performs an iterative analysis, which is displayed during the processing. A message gives the first period in which resources are being exceeded on each iteration. If the scheduling problem is unfeasible, the final message will also indicate the first period in which resources were exceeded. RSM is written in APL2 for IBM PC series computers and compatibles. A stand-alone executable version of RSM is provided; however, this is a "packed" version of RSM which can only utilize the memory within the 640K DOS limit. This executable requires at least 640K of memory and DOS 3.1 or higher. Source code for an APL2/PC workspace version is also provided. This version of RSM can make full use of any

  1. Regulation of bacterial virulence by Csr (Rsm) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakulskas, Christopher A; Potts, Anastasia H; Babitzke, Paul; Ahmer, Brian M M; Romeo, Tony

    2015-06-01

    Most bacterial pathogens have the remarkable ability to flourish in the external environment and in specialized host niches. This ability requires their metabolism, physiology, and virulence factors to be responsive to changes in their surroundings. It is no surprise that the underlying genetic circuitry that supports this adaptability is multilayered and exceedingly complex. Studies over the past 2 decades have established that the CsrA/RsmA proteins, global regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression, play important roles in the expression of virulence factors of numerous proteobacterial pathogens. To accomplish these tasks, CsrA binds to the 5' untranslated and/or early coding regions of mRNAs and alters translation, mRNA turnover, and/or transcript elongation. CsrA activity is regulated by noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) that contain multiple CsrA binding sites, which permit them to sequester multiple CsrA homodimers away from mRNA targets. Environmental cues sensed by two-component signal transduction systems and other regulatory factors govern the expression of the CsrA-binding sRNAs and, ultimately, the effects of CsrA on secretion systems, surface molecules and biofilm formation, quorum sensing, motility, pigmentation, siderophore production, and phagocytic avoidance. This review presents the workings of the Csr system, the paradigm shift that it generated for understanding posttranscriptional regulation, and its roles in virulence networks of animal and plant pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Characterization of gloss properties of differently treated polymer coating surfaces by surface clarity measurement methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Dieter P; Buder-Stroisznigg, Michael; Wallner, Gernot; Strauß, Bernhard; Jandel, Lothar; Lang, Reinhold W

    2012-07-10

    With one measurement configuration, existing gloss measurement methodologies are generally restricted to specific gloss levels. A newly developed image-analytical gloss parameter called "clarity" provides the possibility to describe the perceptual result of a broad range of different gloss levels with one setup. In order to analyze and finally monitor the perceived gloss of products, a fast and flexible method also for the automated inspection is highly demanded. The clarity parameter is very fast to calculate and therefore usable for fast in-line surface inspection. Coated metal specimens were deformed by varying degree and polished afterwards in order to study the clarity parameter regarding the quantification of varying surface gloss types and levels. In order to analyze the correlation with the human gloss perception a study was carried out in which experts were asked to assess gloss properties of a series of surface samples under standardized conditions. The study confirmed clarity to exhibit considerably better correlation to the human perception than alternative gloss parameters.

  3. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Urea Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Enhancing Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Uptake by Paddy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Mohamad Yatim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of urea fertilizer (UF as important nitrogen (N source in the world’s rice production has been a concern. Carbon-based materials developed to improve UF performance still represent a great challenge to be formulated for plant nutrition. Advanced N nanocarrier is developed based on functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs grafted with UF to produce urea-multiwall carbon nanotubes (UF-MWCNTs for enhancing the nitrogen uptake (NU and use efficiency (NUE. The grafted N can be absorbed and utilized by rice efficiently to overcome the N loss from soil-plant systems. The individual and interaction effect between the specified factors of f-MWCNTs amount (0.10–0.60 wt% and functionalization reflux time (12–24 hrs with the corresponding responses (NUE, NU were structured via the Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on five-level CCD. The UF-MWCNTs with optimized 0.5 wt% f-MWCNTs treated at 21 hrs reflux time achieve tremendous NUE up to 96% and NU at 1180 mg/pot. Significant model terms (p value < 0.05 for NUE and NU responses were confirmed by the ANOVA. Homogeneous dispersion of UF-MWCNTs was observed via FESEM and TEM. The chemical changes were monitored by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Hence, this UF-MWCNTs’ approach provides a promising strategy in enhancing plant nutrition for rice.

  4. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Urea Grafted Multi walled Carbon Nano tubes in Enhancing Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Uptake by Paddy Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatim, N. M.; Shaaban, A.; Dimin, M. F.; Yusof, F.; Abo Razak, J.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient use of urea fertilizer (UF) as important nitrogen (N) source in the world’s rice production has been a concern. Carbon-based materials developed to improve UF performance still represent a great challenge to be formulated for plant nutrition. Advanced N nano carrier is developed based on functionalized multi wall carbon nano tubes (f-MWCNTs) grafted with UF to produce urea-multi wall carbon nano tubes (UF-MWCNTs) for enhancing the nitrogen uptake (NU) and use efficiency (NUE). The grafted N can be absorbed and utilized by rice efficiently to overcome the N loss from soil-plant systems. The individual and interaction effect between the specified factors of f-MWCNTs amount (0.10-0.60 wt%) and functionalization reflux time (12-24 hrs) with the corresponding responses (NUE, NU) were structured via the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on five-level CCD. The UF-MWCNTs with optimized 0.5 wt% f-MWCNTs treated at 21 hrs reflux time achieve tremendous NUE up to 96% and NU at 1180 mg/pot. Significant model terms (Þ value < 0.05) for NUE and NU responses were confirmed by the ANOVA. Homogeneous dispersion of UF-MWCNTs was observed via FESEM and TEM. The chemical changes were monitored by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Hence, this UF-MWCNTs’ approach provides a promising strategy in enhancing plant nutrition for rice.

  5. Application of response surface methodology to optimize pressurized liquid extraction of antioxidant compounds from sage (Salvia officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M B; Brunton, N P; Martin-Diana, A B; Barry-Ryan, C

    2010-12-01

    The present study optimized pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) conditions using Dionex ASE® 200, USA to maximize the antioxidant activity [Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)] and total polyphenol content (TP) of the extracts from three spices of Lamiaceae family (sage, basil and thyme). Optimal conditions with regard to extraction temperature (66-129 °C) and solvent concentration (32-88% methanol) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). For all three spices, results showed that 129 °C was the optimum temperature with regard to antioxidant activity. Optimal methanol concentrations with respect to the antioxidant activity of sage and basil extracts were 58% and 60% respectively. Thyme showed a different trend with regard to methanol concentration and was optimally extracted at 33%. Antioxidant activity yields of the optimal PLE were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than solid/liquid extracts. Predicted models were highly significant (p < 0.05) for both total phenol (TP) and FRAP values in all the spices with high regression coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.651 to 0.999.

  6. Response surface methodology modeling to improve degradation of Chlorpyrifos in agriculture runoff using TiO2 solar photocatalytic in a raceway pond reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hoda; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Silva Martinez, Susana; Jamaleddin Shahtaheri, Seyed; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Badiei, Alireza; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Naddafi, Kazem

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of a raceway pond reactor (RPR) as an alternative photoreactor for solar photocatalytic applications. Raceway pond reactors are common low-cost reactors which can treat large volumes of water. The experiments were carried out with TiO 2 in the agriculture effluent spiked with Chlorpyrifos (CPF) at circumneutral pH. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to find the optimum process parameters to maximize CPF oxidation from the mathematical model equations developed in this study using R software. By ANOVA, p-value of lack of fit > 0.05 indicated that, the equation was well-fitted. The theoretical efficiency of CPF removal, under the optimum oxidation conditions with UV solar energy of around 697 ± 5.33 lux, was 84.01%, which is in close agreement with the mean experimental value (80 ± 1.42%) confirming that the response model was suitable for the optimization. As far as the authors know, this is the first study of CPF removal using RPR in agriculture runoff at circumneutral pH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Optimization of non-thermal plasma efficiency in the simultaneous elimination of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene from polluted airstreams using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpoor, Ali Asghar; Jonidi Jafari, Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Ahmad; Khani Jazani, Reza; Bargozin, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    Treatment with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) is a new and effective technology applied recently for conversion of gases for air pollution control. This research was initiated to optimize the efficient application of the NTP process in benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal. The effects of four variables including temperature, initial BTEX concentration, voltage, and flow rate on the BTEX elimination efficiency were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The constructed model was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The model goodness-of-fit and statistical significance was assessed using determination coefficients (R 2 and R 2 adj ) and the F-test. The results revealed that the R 2 proportion was greater than 0.96 for BTEX removal efficiency. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the BTEX removal efficiency was significantly correlated with the temperature, BTEX concentration, voltage, and flow rate. Voltage was the most influential variable affecting the dependent variable as it exerted a significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the response variable. According to the achieved results, NTP can be applied as a progressive, cost-effective, and practical process for treatment of airstreams polluted with BTEX in conditions of low residence time and high concentrations of pollutants.

  8. Experimental design based response surface methodology optimization of ultrasonic assisted adsorption of safaranin O by tin sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosta, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Daneshfar, A.; Sahraei, R.

    2014-03-01

    In this research, the adsorption rate of safranine O (SO) onto tin sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (SnS-NPAC) was accelerated by the ultrasound. SnS-NP-AC was characterized by different techniques such as SEM, XRD and UV-Vis measurements. The present results confirm that the ultrasound assisted adsorption method has remarkable ability to improve the adsorption efficiency. The influence of parameters such as the sonication time, adsorbent dosage, pH and initial SO concentration was examined and evaluated by central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF). Conducting adsorption experiments at optimal conditions set as 4 min of sonication time, 0.024 g of adsorbent, pH 7 and 18 mg L-1 SO make admit to achieve high removal percentage (98%) and high adsorption capacity (50.25 mg g-1). A good agreement between experimental and predicted data in this study was observed. The experimental equilibrium data fitting to Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models show that the Langmuir model is a good and suitable model for evaluation and the actual behavior of adsorption. Kinetic evaluation of experimental data showed that the adsorption processes followed well pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models.

  9. Simultaneous optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction for phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. fruit using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shasha; Zeng, Zhi; Hu, Na; Bai, Bo; Wang, Honglun; Suo, Yourui

    2018-03-01

    Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LR) is a functional food that plays an important role in anti-oxidation due to its high level of phenolic compounds. This study aims to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of obtained extracts from LR using response surface methodology (RSM). A four-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to discuss the following extracting parameters: extraction time (X 1 ), ultrasonic power (X 2 ), solvent to sample ratio (X 3 ) and solvent concentration (X 4 ). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results revealed that the solvent to sample ratio had a significant influence on all responses, while the extraction time had no statistically significant effect on phenolic compounds. The optimum values of the combination of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were obtained for X 1 =30min, X 2 =100W, X 3 =40mL/g, and X 4 =33% (v/v). Five phenolic acids, including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, were analyzed by HPLC. Our results indicated that optimization extraction is vital for the quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in LR, which may be contributed to large-scale industrial applications and future pharmacological activities research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Computation of interactive effects and optimization of process parameters for alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10,055 was optimized in shake flask batch fermentation using response surface methodology. An empirical model was developed through Box-Behnken experimental design to describe the relationship among tested variables (pH, temperature, castor oil, starch and triton-X-100. The second-order quadratic model determined the optimum conditions as castor oil, 1.77 mL.L-1; starch, 15.0 g.L-1; triton-X-100, 0.93 mL.L-1; incubation temperature, 34.12 ºC and pH 8.1 resulting into maximum alkaline lipase production (3142.57 U.mL-1. The quadratic model was in satisfactory adjustment with the experimental data as evidenced by a high coefficient of determination (R² value (0.9987. The RSM facilitated the analysis and interpretation of experimental data to ascertain the optimum conditions of the variables for the process and recognized the contribution of individual variables to assess the response under optimal conditions. Hence Box-Behnken approach could fruitfully be applied for process optimization.

  11. Beneficial effects of bio-controlling agent Bacillus cereus IB311 on the agricultural crop production and its biomass optimization through response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOUTAM BANERJEE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Disease in agricultural field is a big problem that causes a massive loss in production. In this present investigation, we have reported a soil-borne bacterium Bacillus cereus IB311 which is antagonistic to plant pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and could make a substantial contribution to the prevention of plant diseases. To prove the practical application, the strain was directly applied in agricultural field. The results demonstrated that B. cereus IB311 has increased the production (20% and 26% in term of average pod number per plant, average seed number per pod, and seed yield per experimental plot in ground nut (Arachis hypogaea var. Koushal, G201 and sesame (Sesamum indicum var. Kanak, respectively. To reduce the production cost, the biomass production was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM. Interactions of three variables (glucose, beef extract and inoculum were studied using Central Composite Design. According to our analysis, optimum production of Bacillus cereus IB311 (5.383 µg/ mL may be obtained at glucose 1.985%, beef extract 1.615% and inoculums size 0.757%. Therefore, we strongly believe that the application of this strain in agricultural field as bio-controlling agent will definitely enhance the production yield and will reduce the disease risk.

  12. Assessment on the decolourization of textile dye (Reactive Yellow) using Pseudomonas sp. immobilized on fly ash: Response surface methodology optimization and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Uttariya; Sengupta, Shubhalakshmi; Banerjee, Priya; Das, Papita; Bhowal, Avijit; Datta, Siddhartha

    2018-06-18

    This study focuses on the investigation of removal of textile dye (Reactive Yellow) by a combined approach of sorption integrated with biodegradation using low cost adsorbent fly ash immobilized with Pseudomonas sp. To ensure immobilization of bacterial species on treated fly ash, fly ash with immobilized bacterial cells was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescence microscopy. Comparative batch studies were carried out using Pseudomonas sp, fly ash and immobilized Pseudomonas sp on flyash and were observed that immobilized Pseudomonas sp on flyash acted as better decolourizing agent. The optimized pH, temperature, and immobilized adsorbent dosage for highest percentage of dye removal were observed to be pH 6, 303 K, 1.2 g/L in all the cases. At optimum condition, the highest percentage of dye removal was found to be 88.51%, 92.62% and 98.72% for sorption (flyash), biodegradation (Pseudomonas sp) and integral approach (Pseudomonas sp on flyash) respectively. Optimization of operating parameters of textile dye decolourization was done by response surface methodology (RSM) using Design Expert 7 software. Phytotoxicity evaluation with Cicer arietinum revealed that seeds exposed to untreated dye effluents showed considerably lower growth, inhibited biochemical, and enzyme parameters with compared to those exposed to treated textile effluents. Thus this immobilized inexpensive technique could be used for removal of synthetic dyes present in textile wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of the Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Fermentation Parameters for Enhanced Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Production by Thraustochytrium sp. ATCC 26185.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kang; Ding, Lijian; Zhu, Peng; Li, Shuang; He, Shan

    2018-04-22

    The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative effect of fermentation parameters and enhance the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Thraustochytrium sp. ATCC 26185 using response surface methodology (RSM). Among the eight variables screened for effects of fermentation parameters on DHA production by Plackett-Burman design (PBD), the initial pH, inoculum volume, and fermentation volume were found to be most significant. The Box-Behnken design was applied to derive a statistical model for optimizing these three fermentation parameters for DHA production. The optimal parameters for maximum DHA production were initial pH: 6.89, inoculum volume: 4.16%, and fermentation volume: 140.47 mL, respectively. The maximum yield of DHA production was 1.68 g/L, which was in agreement with predicted values. An increase in DHA production was achieved by optimizing the initial pH, fermentation, and inoculum volume parameters. This optimization strategy led to a significant increase in the amount of DHA produced, from 1.16 g/L to 1.68 g/L. Thraustochytrium sp. ATCC 26185 is a promising resource for microbial DHA production due to the high-level yield of DHA that it produces, and the capacity for large-scale fermentation of this organism.

  14. Optimization of process condition for the preparation of amine-impregnated activated carbon developed for CO2 capture and applied to methylene blue adsorption by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipa; Meikap, Bhim C

    2017-10-15

    The present research describes the optimal adsorption condition for methylene blue (MB). The adsorbent used here was monoethanol amine-impregnated activated carbon (MEA-AC) prepared from green coconut shell. Response surface methodology (RSM) is the multivariate statistical technique used for the optimization of the process variables. The central composite design is used to determine the effect of activation temperature, activation time and impregnation ratio on the MB removal. The percentage (%) MB adsorption by MEA-AC is evaluated as a response of the system. A quadratic model was developed for response. From the analysis of variance, the factor which was the most influential on the experimental design response has been identified. The optimum condition for the preparation of MEA-AC from green coconut shells is the temperature of activation 545.6°C, activation time of 41.64 min and impregnation ratio of 0.33 to achieve the maximum removal efficiency of 98.21%. At the same optimum parameter, the % MB removal from the textile-effluent industry was examined and found to be 96.44%.

  15. Application of response surface methodology for rapid chrysene biodegradation by newly isolated marine-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jwalant K; Ghevariya, Chirag M; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2014-11-01

    For the first time, Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D, a marine-derived ascomycete fungus isolated from historically contaminated crude oil polluted shoreline of Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard, at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat has been reported showing the rapid and enhanced biodegradation of chrysene, a four ringed high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Mineral Salt Broth (MSB) components such as ammonium tartrate and glucose along with chrysene, pH and trace metal solution have been successfully optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD). A validated, two-step optimization protocol has yielded a substantial 93.10% chrysene degradation on the 4(th) day, against unoptimized 56.37% degradation on the 14(th) day. The results depict 1.65 fold increase in chrysene degradation and 1.40 fold increase in biomass with a considerable decrement in time. Based on the successful laboratory experiments, C. lunatus strain CHR4D can thus be predicted as a potential candidate for mycoremediation of HMW PAHs impacted environments.

  16. Synthesis of low-cost adsorbent from rice bran for the removal of reactive dye based on the response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gui-Bing; Wang, Yi-Kai

    2017-11-01

    Rice bran is a major by-product of the rice milling industry and is abundant in Taiwan. This study proposed a simple method for modifying rice bran to make it a low-cost adsorbent to remove reactive blue 4 (RB4) from aqueous solutions. The effects of independent variables such as dye concentration (100-500 ppm), adsorbent dosage (20-120 mg) and temperature (30-60 °C) on the dye adsorption capacity of the modified rice bran adsorbent were investigated by using the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the dye maximum adsorption capacity of the modified rice bran adsorbent was 151.3 mg g-1 with respect to a dye concentration of 500 ppm, adsorbent dosage of 65.36 mg, and temperature of 60 °C. The adsorption kinetics data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the isotherm data fit the Langmuir isotherm model well. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 178.57-185.19 mg g-1, which was comparable to that of other agricultural waste adsorbents used to remove RB4 from aqueous solutions in the literature. The thermodynamics analysis results indicated that the adsorption of RB4 onto the modified rice bran adsorbent is an endothermic, spontaneous monolayer adsorption that occurs through a physical process.

  17. Computation of interactive effects and optimization of process parameters for alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Deepali; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Darmwal, Nandan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10,055 was optimized in shake flask batch fermentation using response surface methodology. An empirical model was developed through Box-Behnken experimental design to describe the relationship among tested variables (pH, temperature, castor oil, starch and triton-X-100). The second-order quadratic model determined the optimum conditions as castor oil, 1.77 mL.L−1; starch, 15.0 g.L−1; triton-X-100, 0.93 mL.L−1; incubation temperature, 34.12 °C and pH 8.1 resulting into maximum alkaline lipase production (3142.57 U.mL−1). The quadratic model was in satisfactory adjustment with the experimental data as evidenced by a high coefficient of determination (R2) value (0.9987). The RSM facilitated the analysis and interpretation of experimental data to ascertain the optimum conditions of the variables for the process and recognized the contribution of individual variables to assess the response under optimal conditions. Hence Box-Behnken approach could fruitfully be applied for process optimization. PMID:24159311

  18. Optimization of formulation of cmc-na, xanthan gum and carrageenan affecting the physicochemical properties of papaya-wolfberry beverage using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geo, J.Z.H.; Zong, G.L.P.

    2013-01-01

    CMC-Na, xanthan gum and carrageenan are widely employed in food industry. They were used for its thickening properties of aqueous solutions or emulsifying abilities. The present work aims to optimize the formula of the three stabilizers in the process of papaya-wolfberry beverage by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the models were significantly (p<0.05) fitted for describing the viscosity and cloudiness of papaya-wolfberry beverage. The results also indicated that the linear terms of CMC-Na and xanthan gum were the most significant (p<0.05) variables affecting the viscosity, while xanthan gum and carrageenan were the most significant (p<0.05) variable affecting the cloudiness. The interaction of CMC-Na and xanthan gum behaved extremely significant for viscosity. From the optimization procedure, the best formula for viscosity was obtained at the combined level of 0.0652% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1070% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1485% (w/w) carrageenan, and the other group of 0.0623% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1375% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1461% (w/w) carrageenan for cloudiness. The results of our study would be used to improve the quality of papaya-wolfberry beverage and increase its economic efficiency. (author)

  19. Application of Taguchi Design and Response Surface Methodology for Improving Conversion of Isoeugenol into Vanillin by Resting Cells of Psychrobacter sp. CSW4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashengroph, Morahem; Nahvi, Iraj; Amini, Jahanshir

    2013-01-01

    For all industrial processes, modelling, optimisation and control are the keys to enhance productivity and ensure product quality. In the current study, the optimization of process parameters for improving the conversion of isoeugenol to vanillin by Psychrobacter sp. CSW4 was investigated by means of Taguchi approach and Box-Behnken statistical design under resting cell conditions. Taguchi design was employed for screening the significant variables in the bioconversion medium. Sequentially, Box-Behnken design experiments under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for further optimization. Four factors (isoeugenol, NaCl, biomass and tween 80 initial concentrations), which have significant effects on vanillin yield, were selected from ten variables by Taguchi experimental design. With the regression coefficient analysis in the Box-Behnken design, a relationship between vanillin production and four significant variables was obtained, and the optimum levels of the four variables were as follows: initial isoeugenol concentration 6.5 g/L, initial tween 80 concentration 0.89 g/L, initial NaCl concentration 113.2 g/L and initial biomass concentration 6.27 g/L. Under these optimized conditions, the maximum predicted concentration of vanillin was 2.25 g/L. These optimized values of the factors were validated in a triplicate shaking flask study and an average of 2.19 g/L for vanillin, which corresponded to a molar yield 36.3%, after a 24 h bioconversion was obtained. The present work is the first one reporting the application of Taguchi design and Response surface methodology for optimizing bioconversion of isoeugenol into vanillin under resting cell conditions.

  20. Decolorization of Ionic Dyes from Synthesized Textile Wastewater by Nanofiltration Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Farhadian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Decolorization of aqueous solutions containing ionic dyes (Reactive Blue 19 and Acid Black 172 by a TFC commercial polyamide nanofilter (NF in a spiral wound configuration was studied. The effect of operating parameters including feed concentration (60-180 mg/l, pressure (0.5-1.1 MPa and pH (6-10 on dye removal efficiency was evaluated. The response surface method (RSM was utilized for the experimental design and statistical analysis to identify the impact of each factor. The results showed that an increase in the dye concentration and pH can significantly enhance the removal efficiency from 88% and 87% up to 95% and 93% for Reactive and Acid dye, respectively. The effect of pressure on the removal efficiency showed different behavior such that by the raise of pressure from 0.5 to 0.8 MPa, the removal efficiency increased to its maximum, then reduction in removal efficiency was observed by further increases in pressure above the optimum range. The maximum dye removal efficiencies which were predicted at the optimum conditions by Design Expert software were 97 % and 94 % for Reactive Blue 19 and Acid Black 172, respectively. According to the results of this study, NF processes can be used at a significantly lower pressure and fouling issue for reuse applications as an alternative to the widely used RO process.

  1. Identification of the RsmG methyltransferase target as 16S rRNA nucleotide G527 and characterization of Bacillus subtilis rsmG mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimura, Kenji; Johansen, Shanna K; Inaoka, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    The methyltransferase RsmG methylates the N7 position of nucleotide G535 in 16S rRNA of Bacillus subtilis (corresponding to G527 in Escherichia coli). Disruption of rsmG resulted in low-level resistance to streptomycin. A growth competition assay revealed that there are no differences in fitness...... between the rsmG mutant and parent strains under the various culture conditions examined. B. subtilis rsmG mutants emerged spontaneously at a relatively high frequency, 10(-6). Importantly, in the rsmG mutant background, high-level-streptomycin-resistant rpsL (encoding ribosomal protein S12) mutants...

  2. Design Methodology And Performance Studies Of A Flexible Electrotextile Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayacan Ozan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘The smart textiles’ concept has to develop products based not only on design, fashion and comfort but also in terms of functions. The novel electro-textiles in the market open up new trends in smart and interactive gadgets. ‘Easy to care and durability’ properties are among the most important features of these products. On the other hand, wearable electronic knitwear has been gaining the attention of both researchers and industrial sectors. Combining knitting technology with electronics may become a dominant trend in the future because of the wide application possibilities. This research is concerned primarily with the design methodology of knitted fabrics containing electrically conductive textiles and especially in-use performance studies. The structural characteristics of the fabrics have been evaluated to enhance the performance properties.

  3. Application of response surface methodology optimization for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... of CQAs in tobacco waste were identified as three isomers containing chlorogenic acid (5-caffecylquinic acid ... Key words: Caffeic acid, caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), hydrolysis reaction parameter optimization, response surface ..... Rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid produce antidepressive-like effect in.

  4. Optimizing Propagation of Staphylococcus aureus Infecting Bacteriophage vB_SauM-phiIPLA-RODI on Staphylococcus xylosus Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Eva; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Martínez, Beatriz; García, Pilar; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Rodríguez, Ana

    2018-03-27

    The use of bacteriophages for killing pathogenic bacteria is a feasible alternative to antibiotics and disinfectants. To obtain the large quantities of phages required for this application, large-scale production of bacteriophages must be optimized. This study aims to define conditions that maximize the phage yield of the virulent and polyvalent staphylococcal bacteriophage vB_SauM-phiIPLA-RODI in broth culture, using the food-grade species Staphylococcus xylosus as the host strain to reduce the risk of growing massive quantities of pathogenic bacteria and therefore, to ensure the safety of the final phage stock. The effect of four variables, namely initial bacterial concentration (5.66-8.40 log 10 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL), initial phage concentration (5-8 log 10 plaque-forming unit (PFU)/mL), temperature (21-40 °C) and agitation (20-250 rpm), on phage yield (response) was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). Successive experimental designs showed that agitation did not significantly impact phage yield, while temperature did have a significant effect, with 38 °C being the optimum for phage propagation. The results allowed the design of a model to describe phage yield as a function of the initial bacterial and phage concentrations at fixed agitation (135 rpm), and optimum temperature (38 °C). The maximum experimental phage yield obtained was 9.3 log 10 PFU/mL, while that predicted by the model under the optimized conditions (7.07 log 10 CFU/mL initial bacterial population and 6.00 log 10 PFU/mL initial phage titer) was 9.25 ± 0.30 log 10 PFU/mL, with the desirability of 0.96. This yield is comparable to that obtained when the phage was propagated on the original host, Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriophage phiIPLA-RODI showed the same host range and very similar biofilm removal ability regardless of the staphylococcal species used for its propagation. The results presented in this study show the suitability of using a food-grade strain of S

  5. Optimizing Propagation of Staphylococcus aureus Infecting Bacteriophage vB_SauM-phiIPLA-RODI on Staphylococcus xylosus Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva González-Menéndez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bacteriophages for killing pathogenic bacteria is a feasible alternative to antibiotics and disinfectants. To obtain the large quantities of phages required for this application, large-scale production of bacteriophages must be optimized. This study aims to define conditions that maximize the phage yield of the virulent and polyvalent staphylococcal bacteriophage vB_SauM-phiIPLA-RODI in broth culture, using the food-grade species Staphylococcus xylosus as the host strain to reduce the risk of growing massive quantities of pathogenic bacteria and therefore, to ensure the safety of the final phage stock. The effect of four variables, namely initial bacterial concentration (5.66–8.40 log10 colony-forming unit (CFU/mL, initial phage concentration (5–8 log10 plaque-forming unit (PFU/mL, temperature (21–40 °C and agitation (20–250 rpm, on phage yield (response was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM. Successive experimental designs showed that agitation did not significantly impact phage yield, while temperature did have a significant effect, with 38 °C being the optimum for phage propagation. The results allowed the design of a model to describe phage yield as a function of the initial bacterial and phage concentrations at fixed agitation (135 rpm, and optimum temperature (38 °C. The maximum experimental phage yield obtained was 9.3 log10 PFU/mL, while that predicted by the model under the optimized conditions (7.07 log10 CFU/mL initial bacterial population and 6.00 log10 PFU/mL initial phage titer was 9.25 ± 0.30 log10 PFU/mL, with the desirability of 0.96. This yield is comparable to that obtained when the phage was propagated on the original host, Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriophage phiIPLA-RODI showed the same host range and very similar biofilm removal ability regardless of the staphylococcal species used for its propagation. The results presented in this study show the suitability of using a food

  6. Response surface methodology based extraction of Tribulus terrestris leads to an upsurge of antilithiatic potential by inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Jyoti; Tandon, Simran; Gupta, Varun; Nayyar, Jasamrit; Singla, Surinder Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2017-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris has significant antilithiatic efficacy established via both in vitro as well as in vivo studies and is used in numerous anti-urolithiatic herbal formulations viz. Cystone, Uriflow, Uritone and Neeri. However, to fully utilize its antilithiatic potential, the influence of different extraction parameters on antilithiatic ability of T. terrestris aqueous extract needs elucidation. Thus, the current study was undertaken using statistically optimized extraction conditions for aqueous extract preparation. Response surface methodology was employed to observe the influence of three variables i.e. temperature (°C), time (h) and solid: liquid ratio (S: L) on the extraction yield (%) and protein content (mg/g) of T. terrestris aqueous extract. RSM results revealed that the high S:L ratio, low temperature and reduced incubation time were optimal conditions for aqueous extraction. Under such extraction conditions the protein content reached the value of 26.6±1.22 mg/g and the obtained extraction yield was 27.32±1.62%. The assessment of antilithiatic activity of 4 selected extracts (AE1-4), revealed enhanced nucleation and aggregation inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals with AE1 and AE2, which in addition significantly altered the size and morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals compared to AE3 and AE4. In vitro cell culture based studies on renal epithelial cells (MDCK, NRK-52E and PK 15) proved that the AE1 showed higher cytoprotective potency by increasing cell viability as compared to the oxalate treated group. The free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract lowered the reactive oxygen specie’s induced damage and potentially reduced the signals of programmed cell death due to oxalate injury. In addition, modulation of the COM crystal morphology was enhanced by AE1 as compared to AE2. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis of AE1, showed the presence of biomolecules which could aid in the attenuation of lithiatic process. In the light

  7. Response surface methodology based extraction of Tribulus terrestris leads to an upsurge of antilithiatic potential by inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Jyoti; Tandon, Simran; Gupta, Varun; Nayyar, Jasamrit; Singla, Surinder Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2017-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris has significant antilithiatic efficacy established via both in vitro as well as in vivo studies and is used in numerous anti-urolithiatic herbal formulations viz. Cystone, Uriflow, Uritone and Neeri. However, to fully utilize its antilithiatic potential, the influence of different extraction parameters on antilithiatic ability of T. terrestris aqueous extract needs elucidation. Thus, the current study was undertaken using statistically optimized extraction conditions for aqueous extract preparation. Response surface methodology was employed to observe the influence of three variables i.e. temperature (°C), time (h) and solid: liquid ratio (S: L) on the extraction yield (%) and protein content (mg/g) of T. terrestris aqueous extract. RSM results revealed that the high S:L ratio, low temperature and reduced incubation time were optimal conditions for aqueous extraction. Under such extraction conditions the protein content reached the value of 26.6±1.22 mg/g and the obtained extraction yield was 27.32±1.62%. The assessment of antilithiatic activity of 4 selected extracts (AE1-4), revealed enhanced nucleation and aggregation inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals with AE1 and AE2, which in addition significantly altered the size and morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals compared to AE3 and AE4. In vitro cell culture based studies on renal epithelial cells (MDCK, NRK-52E and PK 15) proved that the AE1 showed higher cytoprotective potency by increasing cell viability as compared to the oxalate treated group. The free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract lowered the reactive oxygen specie's induced damage and potentially reduced the signals of programmed cell death due to oxalate injury. In addition, modulation of the COM crystal morphology was enhanced by AE1 as compared to AE2. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis of AE1, showed the presence of biomolecules which could aid in the attenuation of lithiatic process. In the light

  8. Response surface methodology based extraction of Tribulus terrestris leads to an upsurge of antilithiatic potential by inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kaushik

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris has significant antilithiatic efficacy established via both in vitro as well as in vivo studies and is used in numerous anti-urolithiatic herbal formulations viz. Cystone, Uriflow, Uritone and Neeri. However, to fully utilize its antilithiatic potential, the influence of different extraction parameters on antilithiatic ability of T. terrestris aqueous extract needs elucidation. Thus, the current study was undertaken using statistically optimized extraction conditions for aqueous extract preparation. Response surface methodology was employed to observe the influence of three variables i.e. temperature (°C, time (h and solid: liquid ratio (S: L on the extraction yield (% and protein content (mg/g of T. terrestris aqueous extract. RSM results revealed that the high S:L ratio, low temperature and reduced incubation time were optimal conditions for aqueous extraction. Under such extraction conditions the protein content reached the value of 26.6±1.22 mg/g and the obtained extraction yield was 27.32±1.62%. The assessment of antilithiatic activity of 4 selected extracts (AE1-4, revealed enhanced nucleation and aggregation inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals with AE1 and AE2, which in addition significantly altered the size and morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals compared to AE3 and AE4. In vitro cell culture based studies on renal epithelial cells (MDCK, NRK-52E and PK 15 proved that the AE1 showed higher cytoprotective potency by increasing cell viability as compared to the oxalate treated group. The free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract lowered the reactive oxygen specie's induced damage and potentially reduced the signals of programmed cell death due to oxalate injury. In addition, modulation of the COM crystal morphology was enhanced by AE1 as compared to AE2. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis of AE1, showed the presence of biomolecules which could aid in the attenuation of lithiatic process. In

  9. How to Select the most Relevant Roughness Parameters of a Surface: Methodology Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovskij, I. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the foundations for new methodology creation which provides solving problem of surfaces structure new standards parameters huge amount conflicted with necessary actual floors quantity of surfaces structure parameters which is related to measurement complexity decreasing are considered. At the moment, there is no single assessment of the importance of a parameters. The approval of presented methodology for aerospace cluster components surfaces allows to create necessary foundation, to develop scientific estimation of surfaces texture parameters, to obtain material for investigators of chosen technological procedure. The methods necessary for further work, the creation of a fundamental reserve and development as a scientific direction for assessing the significance of microgeometry parameters are selected.

  10. Pavement Aging Model by Response Surface Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzano-Ramírez A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, surface course aging was modeled by Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The Marshall specimens were placed in a conventional oven for time and temperature conditions established on the basis of the environment factors of the region where the surface course is constructed by AC-20 from the Ing. Antonio M. Amor refinery. Volatilized material (VM, load resistance increment (ΔL and flow resistance increment (ΔF models were developed by the RSM. Cylindrical specimens with real aging were extracted from the surface course pilot to evaluate the error of the models. The VM model was adequate, in contrast (ΔL and (ΔF models were almost adequate with an error of 20 %, that was associated with the other environmental factors, which were not considered at the beginning of the research.

  11. Formulation optimization of transdermal meloxicam potassium-loaded mesomorphic phases containing ethanol, oleic acid and mixture surfactant using the statistical experimental design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Te; Tsai, Chia-Hsun; Tsou, Hsin-Yeh; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2011-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to develop and optimize the mesomorphic phase formulation for a meloxicam transdermal dosage form. A mixture design was applied to prepare formulations which consisted of three independent variables including oleic acid (X(1)), distilled water (X(2)) and ethanol (X(3)). The flux and lag time (LT) were selected as dependent variables. The result showed that using mesomorphic phases as vehicles can significantly increase flux and shorten LT of drug. The analysis of variance showed that the permeation parameters of meloxicam from formulations were significantly influenced by the independent variables and their interactions. The X(3) (ethanol) had the greatest potential influence on the flux and LT, followed by X(1) and X(2). A new formulation was prepared according to the independent levels provided by RSM. The observed responses were in close agreement with the predicted values, demonstrating that RSM could be successfully used to optimize mesomorphic phase formulations.

  12. Potential RSM Projects: West Maui Region, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Hawaii by Thomas D. Smith BACKGROUND: The Hawaii West Maui Region (Figure 1) was the focus of Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM...Conservation Service; Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources; Hawaii Department of Transportation; Maui...County; University of Hawaii , Sea Grant; Sea Engineering, Inc.; Maui Nui Marine Resource Council; Coral Reef Alliance; The Nature Conservancy; Henningson

  13. RSM Outlook Summer 2008 : Entrepreneurship: The Leap of Faith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Morris (Rebecca); L. Sawahata (Lesa)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract#### What it takes to be an entrepreneur (Stephen Hoare, Rebecca Morris) Starting your own business is the stuff of capitalist dreams, with multitudes leaving behind the comfort of their salaried positions each year to attempt it. These RSM alumni are lucky enough to be able to

  14. Optimization and modeling of spot welding parameters with simultaneous multiple response consideration using multi objective Taguchi method and RSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Nora Siah; Manurung Yupiter HP; Hafidzi, Moham Mad; Abas, Sun Haji Kiyai; Tham, Ghalib; Haru Man, Esa [Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents an alternative method to optimize process parameters of resistance spot welding (RSW) towards weld zone development. The optimization approach attempts to consider simultaneously the multiple quality characteristics, namely weld nugget and heat affected zone (HAZ), using multi objective Taguchi method (MTM). The experimental study was conducted for plate thickness of 1.5mm under different welding current, weld time and hold time. The optimum welding parameters were investigated using the Taguchi method with L9 orthogonal array. The optimum value was analyzed by means of MTM, which involved the calculation of total normalized quality loss (TNQL) and multi signal to noise ratio (MSNR). A significant level of the welding parameters was further obtained by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the first order model for predicting the weld zone development is derived by using response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the experimental confirmation test, the proposed method can be effectively applied to estimate the size of weld zone, which can be used to enhance and optimized the welding performance in RSW or other application.

  15. RSM optimized Moringa oleifera peel extract for green synthesis of M. oleifera capped palladium nanoparticles with antibacterial and hemolytic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, T V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rayalu, G Mokesh

    2016-09-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) are the very good catalytic agents in many coupling reactions, also these are very well biological agents against bacteria and fungus. M. oleifera capped Pd NPs were synthesized from microwave assisted methanolic extract of M. oleifera peel. To optimize the extraction process RSM (Response Surface Methodology) was applied. To get a good extraction yield BBD (Box-Behnken Design) was employed. The better optimized conditions for the extraction was found as 400W, 25mL of CH3OH at 65°C for 2min. We observed 61.66mg of extract yield from this method. Eco-friendly M. oleifera capped Pd NPs were synthesized using M. oleifera peel extract and confirmed using the different characterization techniques like UV- Vis spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and HR-TEM analysis. We found the size of the M. oleifera capped Pd NPs nanoparticles as 27±2nm and shape of the particles as spherical through the TEM analysis. M. oleifera capped Pd NPs exhibits good antibacterial activity against S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and E. coli (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains and we found the zone inhibition as 0.6 and 0.7mm. The synthesized M. oleifera capped Pd NPs are screened for hemolytic activity and it proved the M. oleifera capped Pd NPs are non-toxic on RBCs cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization and modeling of spot welding parameters with simultaneous multiple response consideration using multi objective Taguchi method and RSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Nora Siah; Manurung Yupiter HP; Hafidzi, Moham Mad; Abas, Sun Haji Kiyai; Tham, Ghalib; Haru Man, Esa

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative method to optimize process parameters of resistance spot welding (RSW) towards weld zone development. The optimization approach attempts to consider simultaneously the multiple quality characteristics, namely weld nugget and heat affected zone (HAZ), using multi objective Taguchi method (MTM). The experimental study was conducted for plate thickness of 1.5mm under different welding current, weld time and hold time. The optimum welding parameters were investigated using the Taguchi method with L9 orthogonal array. The optimum value was analyzed by means of MTM, which involved the calculation of total normalized quality loss (TNQL) and multi signal to noise ratio (MSNR). A significant level of the welding parameters was further obtained by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the first order model for predicting the weld zone development is derived by using response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the experimental confirmation test, the proposed method can be effectively applied to estimate the size of weld zone, which can be used to enhance and optimized the welding performance in RSW or other application

  17. Response Surface Model (RSM)-based Benefit Per Ton Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tables below are updated versions of the tables appearing in The influence of location, source, and emission type in estimates of the human health benefits of reducing a ton of air pollution (Fann, Fulcher and Hubbell 2009).

  18. Optimization protocol for the extraction of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade and improving antioxidant and anticancer activity using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2015-07-30

    Analysis and extraction of plant matrices are important processes for the development, modernization, and quality control of herbal formulations. Response surface methodology is a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques that are used to optimize the range of variables in various experimental processes to reduce the number of experimental runs, cost , and time, compared to other methods. Response surface methodology was applied for optimizing reflux extraction conditions for achieving high 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol contents, and high antioxidant activity in Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade . The two-factor central composite design was employed to determine the effects of two independent variables, namely extraction temperature (X1: 50-80 °C) and time (X2: 2-4 h), on the properties of the extracts. The 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol contents were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the rhizome extracts was determined by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Anticancer activity of optimized extracts against HeLa cancer cell lines was measured using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Increasing the extraction temperature and time induced significant response of the variables. The optimum extraction condition for all responses was at 76.9 °C for 3.4 h. Under the optimum condition, the corresponding predicted response values for 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and the antioxidant activity were 2.89 mg/g DW, 1.85 mg/g DW, and 84.3%, respectively. 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were extracted under optimized condition to check the viability of the models. The values were 2.92 and 1.88 mg/g DW, and 84.0% for 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and the antioxidant activity respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the models employed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction condition. With optimizing of reflux extraction

  19. Extraction Optimization of Water-Extracted Mycelial Polysaccharide from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Zhou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (WPS from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis was found to be an efficient elicitor to enhance diosgenin accumulation in D. zingigerensis cultures, and also demonstrated antioxidant activity. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the extraction process of WPS from F. oxysporum Dzf17 using Box-Behnken design (BBD. The ranges of the factors investigated were 1–3 h for extraction time (X1, 80–100 °C for extraction temperature (X2, and 20–40 (v/w for ratio of water volume (mL to raw material weight (g (X3. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the polynomial regression model was in good agreement with the experimental results with the determination coefficient (R2 of 0.9978. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface contour plots, the extraction parameters were optimized as 1.7 h for extraction time, 95 °C for extraction temperature, 39 (v/w for ratio of water volume (mL to raw material weight (g, and with 2 extractions. The maximum value (10.862% of WPS yield was obtained when the WPS extraction process was conducted under the optimal conditions.

  20. A methodology for modeling surface effects on stiff and soft solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Park, Harold S.

    2018-06-01

    We present a computational method that can be applied to capture surface stress and surface tension-driven effects in both stiff, crystalline nanostructures, like size-dependent mechanical properties, and soft solids, like elastocapillary effects. We show that the method is equivalent to the classical Young-Laplace model. The method is based on converting surface tension and surface elasticity on a zero-thickness surface to an initial stress and corresponding elastic properties on a finite thickness shell, where the consideration of geometric nonlinearity enables capturing the out-of-plane component of the surface tension that results for curved surfaces through evaluation of the surface stress in the deformed configuration. In doing so, we are able to use commercially available finite element technology, and thus do not require consideration and implementation of the classical Young-Laplace equation. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of the methodology for modeling surface stress in both soft solids and crystalline nanostructures.

  1. Current status and new trends in the methodology of safety assessment for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Danchiv, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present the status of the safety assessment methodology at the end of IAEA CRP 'Application of Safety Assessment Methodology for Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ASAM)', and the new trends outlined at the launch of the follow-up project 'Practical Implementation of Safety Assessment Methodologies in a Context of Safety Case of Near-Surface Facilities (PRISM)'. Over the duration of the ASAM project, the ISAM methodology was confirmed as providing a good framework for conducting safety assessment calculations. In contrast, ASAM project identified the limitations of the ISAM methodology as currently formulated. The major limitations are situated in the area of the use of safety assessment for informing practical decisions about alternative waste and risk management strategies for real disposal sites. As a result of the limitation of the ISAM methodology, the PRISM project is established as an extension of the ISAM and ASAM projects. Based on the outcomes of the ASAM project, the main objective of the PRISM project are: 1 - to develop an overview of what constitutes an adequate safety case and safety assessment with a view to supporting decision making processes; 2 - to provide practical illustrations of how the safety assessment methodology could be used for addressing some specific issues arising from the ASAM project and national cases; 3 - to support harmonization with the IAEA's international safety standards. (authors)

  2. An ultrasound-assisted system for the optimization of biodiesel production from chicken fat oil using a genetic algorithm and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyazi, E; Ghobadian, B; Najafi, G; Hosseinzadeh, B; Mamat, R; Hosseinzadeh, J

    2015-09-01

    Biodiesel is a green (clean), renewable energy source and is an alternative for diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil or fat. Fats and oils react with alcohol to produce methyl ester, which is generally known as biodiesel. Because vegetable oil and animal fat wastes are cheaper, the tendency to produce biodiesel from these materials is increasing. In this research, the effect of some parameters such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, 8:1), the catalyst concentration (0.75%, 1% and 1.25% w/w) and the time for the transesterification reaction using ultrasonication on the rate of the fatty acids-to-methyl ester (biodiesel) conversion percentage have been studied (3, 6 and 9 min). In biodiesel production from chicken fat, when increasing the catalyst concentration up to 1%, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage was first increased and then decreased. Upon increasing the molar ratio from 4:1 to 6:1 and then to 8:1, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage increased by 21.9% and then 22.8%, respectively. The optimal point is determined by response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithms (GAs). The biodiesel production from chicken fat by ultrasonic waves with a 1% w/w catalyst percentage, 7:1 alcohol-to-oil molar ratio and 9 min reaction time was equal to 94.8%. For biodiesel that was produced by ultrasonic waves under a similar conversion percentage condition compared to the conventional method, the reaction time was decreased by approximately 87.5%. The time reduction for the ultrasonic method compared to the conventional method makes the ultrasonic method superior. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Evaluation, prediction and optimization the ultrasound-assisted extraction method using response surface methodology: antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi, Davoud Salar; Dowom, Samaneh Attaran; Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly; Khanzadeh, Farhad; Soheili, Vahid; Mohammadpour, Ali

    2016-05-01

    To optimize the extraction method using response surface methodology, extract the phenolic compounds, and identify the antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L. extracts. Maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) (4, 7, 10 min treatment time, 40, 70, 100 % high-intensity and 60, 80, 100 % (v v-1) methanol purity) were applied to obtain the extracts. SEM was conducted to provide the microstructure of the extracted plant. MICs (colorimetric assay), MFCs (colony diameter), total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging capacity and extraction efficiency were determined. HPLC analysis was applied to measure the existent phenolic compounds. A quadratic model (4 min treatment time, 74.5 % high-intensity and 74.2 % solvent purity) was suggested as the best (TPC: 20.89 mg GAE g-1 d.m., TFC: 6.22 mg QEs g-1 d.m., DPPH IC50: 21.86 µg ml-1 and EE: 113.65 mg g-1 d.m.) UAE extraction model. The optimized UAE extract was generally more effective against Gram-positive microorganisms (MIC: 10-20; MBC: 10-40 (mg ml-1)) than Gram-negative ones (MIC: 40; MBC: >40 (mg ml-1)). Moreover, it (MGI: 2.32-100 %) revealed more anti-mold activity than maceration (MGI: <28.77 %). Explosive disruption of the cell walls, therefore, enhanced extraction yield by acoustic cavitation, was elucidated using SEM. Caffeic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, trans ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid were determined as the phenolic compounds in the optimized extract. RSM optimization was successfully applied for UAE from S. parviflora. The considerable antioxidant and biological properties were attributed to the phenolic compounds.

  4. Evaluation, prediction and optimization the ultrasound-assisted extraction method using response surface methodology: antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Salarbashi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:To optimize the extraction method using response surface methodology, extract the phenolic compounds, and identify the antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L.  extracts. Materials and Methods: Maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE (4, 7, 10 min treatment time, 40, 70, 100 % high-intensity and 60, 80, 100 % (v v-1 methanol purity were applied to obtain the extracts. SEM was conducted to provide the microstructure of the extracted plant. MICs (colorimetric assay, MFCs (colony diameter, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging capacity and extraction efficiency were determined. HPLC analysis was applied to measure the existent phenolic compounds. Results: A quadratic model (4 min treatment time, 74.5 % high-intensity and 74.2 % solvent purity was suggested as the best (TPC: 20.89 mg GAE g-1 d.m., TFC: 6.22 mg QEs g-1 d.m., DPPH IC50: 21.86 µg ml-1 and EE: 113.65 mg g-1 d.m. UAE extraction model. The optimized UAE extract was generally more effective against Gram-positive microorganisms (MIC: 10-20; MBC: 10-40 (mg ml-1 than Gram-negative ones (MIC: 40; MBC: >40 (mg ml-1. Moreover, it (MGI: 2.32-100 % revealed more anti-mold activity than maceration (MGI: Conclusion: RSM optimization was successfully applied for UAE from S. parviflora. The considerable antioxidant and biological properties were attributed to the phenolic compounds.

  5. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves by multiresponse surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at studying the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) by multi-response surface methodology (RSM) to test their efficiency towards the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves. The extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TF), DPPH scavenging method and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay were considered as response variables while effects of extraction time, percentage of ethanol, and temperature were studied. Extraction time of 20 min, 42% ethanol and 158°C were the MAE optimum conditions for achieving extraction yield of 26 ± 2%, EC50 15 ± 2 μg/mL, 16 ± 1 Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 5.2 ± 0.5 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 86 ± 4 mg GAE/g dry leaf. Regarding PLE, the optimum conditions that allowed extraction yield of 56 ± 2%, EC50 21 ± 3 μg/mL, 12 ± 2 mmol Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 6.5 ± 0.2 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 59 ± 6 mg GAE/g dry leaf were 128°C, 35% of ethanol, and 20 min. PLE enabled the extraction of phenolic compounds with a higher number of hydroxyl-type substituents such as kaempferol diglycoside and its acetyl derivatives and those that are sensitive to high temperatures (glucosinolates or amino acids) while MAE allowed better recoveries of kaempferol, quercetin, and their glucosides derivatives. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Optimization of pH, temperature and CaCl2 concentrations for Ricotta cheese production from Buffalo cheese whey using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul Ahid; Huma, Nuzhat; Zahoor, Tahir; Asgher, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The recovery of milk constituents from cheese whey is affected by various processing conditions followed during production of Ricotta cheese. The objective of the present investigation was to optimize the temperature (60-90 °C), pH (3-7) and CaCl2 concentration (2·0-6·0 mm) for maximum yield/recovery of milk constituents. The research work was carried out in two phases. In 1st phase, the influence of these processing conditions was evaluated through 20 experiments formulated by central composite design (CCD) keeping the yield as response factor. The results obtained from these experiments were used to optimize processing conditions for maximum yield using response surface methodology (RSM). The three best combinations of processing conditions (90 °C, pH 7, CaCl2 6 mm), (100 °C, pH 5, CaCl2 4 mm) and (75 °C, pH 8·4, CaCl2 4 mm) were exploited in the next phase for Ricotta cheese production from a mixture of Buffalo cheese whey and skim milk (9 : 1) to determine the influence of optimized conditions on the cheese composition. Ricotta cheeses were analyzed for various physicochemical (moisture, fat, protein, lactose, total solids, pH and acidity indicated) parameters during storage of 60 d at 4 ± 2 °C after every 15 d interval. Ricotta cheese prepared at 90 °C, pH 7 and CaCl2 6 mm exhibited the highest cheese yield, proteins and total solids, while high fat content was recorded for cheese processed at 100 °C, pH 5 and 4 mm CaCl2 concentration. A significant storage-related increase in acidity and NPN was recorded for all cheese samples.

  7. Microwave absorption properties of polypyrrole-SrFe12O19-TiO2-epoxy resin nanocomposites: Optimization using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Dorraji, M. S.; Rasoulifard, M. H.; Amani-Ghadim, A. R.; Khodabandeloo, M. H.; Felekari, M.; Khoshrou, M. R.; hajimiri, I.

    2016-10-01

    At a few works are discussed about formation of heterogeneous composites with different distribution of particle shape and size that are used for electromagnetic absorption purposes. In this study a novel heterogeneous nanocpmposites is investigated. The nanocomposite has been successfully prepared based on epoxy resin including various nano-metal oxides (TiO2, SrFe12O19) and polypyrrole (PPy) by sol-gel and the solution chemistry method, respectively. The performance of prepared nanocomposite in absorption of microwave in X-band range was investigated and transmission line method by X-band waveguide straight was used to measure EM parameters of nanocomposites. The Response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was utilized to study the effects of the wt.% TiO2 in SrFe12O19, wt.% Tio2-SrFe12O19 in PPy and wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19-PPy in epoxy resin, on the microwave absorption properties with the absorber thickness of only 2 mm. The proposed quadratic model was in accordance with the experimental results with correlation coefficient of 96.5%. The optimum condition for maximum microwave absorption efficiency were wt.% TiO2 in SrFe12O19 of 70, wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19 in PPy of 10 and wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19-PPy in epoxy of 25. The sample prepared in optimal conditions indicated reflection loss of -15 dB corresponding to 97% absorption, at the range of 9.2-10.8 GHz.

  8. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of azocarmine B removal by heterogeneous photo-Fenton process using hydroxy-iron–aluminum pillared bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianyuan, E-mail: xutianyuan1988@126.com; Liu, Yun, E-mail: liuyunscut@163.com; Ge, Fei, E-mail: gefei@xtu.edu.cn; Liu, Lin, E-mail: liulin861@163.com; Ouyang, Yuting, E-mail: oyt0225@126.com

    2013-09-01

    Hydroxy-iron–aluminum pillared bentonite (H-Fe–Al-B) was synthesized with ion exchange method, and its catalyst characteristics were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The photo-Fenton catalytic activity of H-Fe–Al-B was tested under different reaction condition using azocarmine B (ACB) as model pollutant under ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. The effects of three operating variables, initial dye concentration, initial pH value and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration on the decolorization efficiency of ACB were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design. The results showed that hydroxy aluminum iron ions intercalated into the interlayer spaces of bentonite successfully and H-Fe–Al-B had high photocatalytic activity. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the proposed quadratic model could be used to navigate the design space. The proposed model was approximately in accordance with the experimental case with correlation coefficients R{sup 2}, R{sub adj}{sup 2} and R{sub pred}{sup 2} correlation coefficients of 0.9996, 0.9991 and 0.9934, respectively. The optimum conditions for ACB decolorization were dye concentration of 143.7 mg/L, pH of 4.2 and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 17.7 mM, respectively. The predicted decolorization rate under the optimum conditions determined by the proposed model was 99.6%. Confirmatory tests were carried out under the optimum conditions and the decolorization rate of 99.5% was observed, which closely agreed with the predicted value.

  9. Influence of activated carbon characteristics on toluene and hexane adsorption: Application of surface response methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Mª Teresa; de Yuso, Alicia Martínez; Valenciano, Raquel; Rubio, Begoña; Pino, Mª Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of toluene and hexane over activated carbons prepared according an experimental design, considering as variables the activation temperature, the impregnation ratio and the activation time. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize the adsorption capacity of the carbons regarding the preparation conditions that determine the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons. The methodology of preparation produced activated carbons with surface areas and micropore volumes as high as 1128 m2/g and 0.52 cm3/g, respectively. Moreover, the activated carbons exhibit mesoporosity, ranging from 64.6% to 89.1% the percentage of microporosity. The surface chemistry was characterized by TPD, FTIR and acid-base titration obtaining different values of surface groups from the different techniques because the limitation of each technique, but obtaining similar trends for the activated carbons studied. The exhaustive characterization of the activated carbons allows to state that the measured surface area does not explain the adsorption capacity for either toluene or n-hexane. On the other hand, the surface chemistry does not explain the adsorption results either. A compromise between physical and chemical characteristics can be obtained from the appropriate activation conditions, and the response surface methodology gives the optimal activated carbon to maximize adsorption capacity. Low activation temperature, intermediate impregnation ratio lead to high toluene and n-hexane adsorption capacities depending on the activation time, which a determining factor to maximize toluene adsorption.

  10. Evaluation of The Effects of Cutting Parameters On The Surface Roughness During The Turning of Hadfield Steel With Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün EKİCİ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hadfield steel (X120Mn12 is widely used in the engineering applications due to its excellent wear resistance. In this study, the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness were investigated in relation to the lathe process carried out on Hadfield steel. The experiments were conducted at a cutting speed of 80, 110, 140 m/min, feed rate of 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mm/rev and depth of cut 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mm, using coated carbide tools. Regarding the evaluation of the machinability of Hadfield steel, a model was formed utilizing the response surface method (RSM. For the determination of the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness, the central composite design (CCD and variance analysis (ANOVA were used. By means of the model formed as a result of the experimental study, it was demonstrated that among the cutting parameters, the feed rate is the most effective parameter on the surface roughness, with a contribution ratio of 90.28%. It was determined that the surface roughness increases with increasing feed rate. With respect to the effect on the surface roughness, the feed rate was followed by the cutting speed with a contribution ratio of 3.1% and the cutting depth with a contribution ratio of 1.7%.

  11. Determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the Barberry Extract and the Dried Residue of Red Grape and Their Effects on the Growth Inhibition of Sausage Bacteria by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With regard to the hazards of nitrite, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the microbial load of meat and meat products is increasing. Owing to their anti-bacterial properties, red barberry and the dried residue of red grape could be suitable replacers for nitrite. Materials and Methods: Agar dilution method was employed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape. The anti-microbial effects of the barberry extract (0-600 mg/kg, the dried residue of red grape (0-2% and nitrite (30-90 mg/kg were investigated on the total viable counts of Clostridium perfringens, as well as on the psychrophilic bacteria after 30 days of storage at 4°C. Finally, the effects of the three independent variables in the optimal sample were examined on the growth of the inoculated C. perfringens. Results: The MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape on Staphylococcus aureus was 3 and 6 (mg/ml, respectively. In the case of Escherichia coli, it was 4 and 7 (mg/ml, respectively. The barberry extract and nitrite reduced the growth of the living aerobic bacteria significantly. The spores of the inoculated C. perfringens had no growth in the optimum sample during storage. Conclusions: The barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape as natural preservatives, could partially substitute for nitrite in order to reduce the microbial load of sausage.

  12. Optimization of CO2 Laser Cutting Process using Taguchi and Dual Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Selection of optimal cutting parameter settings for obtaining high cut quality in CO2 laser cutting process is of great importance. Among various analytical and experimental optimization methods, the application of Taguchi and response surface methodology is one of most commonly used for laser cutting process optimization. Although the concept of dual response surface methodology for process optimization has been used with success, till date, no experimental study has been reported in the field of laser cutting. In this paper an approach for optimization of CO2 laser cutting process using Taguchi and dual response surface methodology is presented. The goal was to determine the near optimal laser cutting parameter values in order to ensure robust condition for minimization of average surface roughness. To obtain experimental database for development of response surface models, Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. Three cutting parameters, the cutting speed (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 m/min, the laser power (0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5 kW, and the assist gas pressure (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 bar, were used in the experiment. To obtain near optimal cutting parameters settings, multi-stage Monte Carlo simulation procedure was performed on the developed response surface models.

  13. Optimization of lysine production in Corynebacteriumglutamicum ATCC15032 by Response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Haghi

    2017-03-01

    Discussion and conclusion: According to the results, the proposed culture media by response surface methodology causes 1400 times increase in the lysine production compared with M9 culture media and methionine had an important role in the production of lysine, probably by inhibiting the other metabolic pathway which has common metabolic precursor with lysine production metabolic pathway.

  14. A methodology for evaluating alternative sites for a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.; Brownlow, S.A.

    1986-02-01

    This report addresses the issue of constructing an evaluation procedure for a near-surface radioactive waste repository. It builds on earlier work of the authors, and describes a basis for a practicable methodology for assessing the relative merits of different sites. (author)

  15. Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of oxalic acid pretreated corncob assessed with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae-Won Lee; Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate optimal time, temperature and oxalic acid concentration for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corncob particles by Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. Fifteen different conditions for pretreatment were examined in a 23 full factorial design with six axial points. Temperatures ranged from 132 to 180º...

  16. Continuous vs. pulsating flow boiling. Part 2: Statistical comparison using response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology is used to investigate an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The flow pulsations are introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and compared with the baseline continuous flow provided by a stepper...

  17. Surface Roughness Analysis in the Hard Milling of JIS SKD61 Alloy Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Huu-That Nguyen; Quang-Cherng Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Hard machining is an efficient solution that can be used to replace the grinding operation in the mold and die manufacturing industry. In this study, an attempt is made to analyze the effect of process parameters on workpiece surface roughness (Ra) in the hard milling of JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) SKD61 steel, based on a combination of the Taguchi method and response surface methodology (RSM). The cutting parameters are selected based on the structural dynamic analysis of the machine ...

  18. The IAEA research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Vidal, C.; Graham, D.; Batandjieva, B.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Research Coordinated Project on Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities (ISAM) was launched in November 1997 and it has been underway for three years. The ISAM project was developed to provide a critical evaluation of the approaches and tools used in long-term safety assessment of near surface repositories. It resulted in the development of a harmonised approach and illustrated its application by way of three test cases - vault, borehole and Radon (a particular range of repository designs developed within the former Soviet Union) type repositories. As a consequence, the ISAM project had over 70 active participants and attracted considerable interest involving around 700 experts from 72 Member States. The methodology developed, the test cases, the main lessons learnt and the conclusions have been documented and will be published in the form of an IAEA TECDOC. This paper presents the work of the IAEA on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface waste disposal facilities and the application of these methodologies for different purposes in the individual stages of the repository development. The paper introduces the main objectives, activities and outcome of the ISAM project and summarizes the work performed by the six working groups within the ISAM programme, i.e. Scenario Generation and Justification, Modelling, Confidence Building, Vault, Radon Type Facility and Borehole test cases. (author)

  19. Genome-wide mapping of the RNA targets of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa riboregulatory protein RsmN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Manuel; Silistre, Hazel; Lovelock, Laura; Wright, Victoria J; Chan, Kok-Gan; Hong, Kar-Wai; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel; Heeb, Stephan

    2018-04-30

    Pseudomonads typically carry multiple non-identical alleles of the post-transcriptional regulator rsmA. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, RsmN is notable in that its structural rearrangement confers distinct and overlapping functions with RsmA. However, little is known about the specificities of RsmN for its target RNAs and overall impact on the biology of this pathogen. We purified and mapped 503 transcripts directly bound by RsmN in P. aeruginosa. About 200 of the mRNAs identified encode proteins of demonstrated function including some determining acute and chronic virulence traits. For example, RsmN reduces biofilm development both directly and indirectly via multiple pathways, involving control of Pel exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and c-di-GMP levels. The RsmN targets identified are also shared with RsmA, although deletion of rsmN generally results in less pronounced phenotypes than those observed for ΔrsmA or ΔrsmArsmNind mutants, probably as a consequence of different binding affinities. Targets newly identified for the Rsm system include the small non-coding RNA CrcZ involved in carbon catabolite repression, for which differential binding of RsmN and RsmA to specific CrcZ regions is demonstrated. The results presented here provide new insights into the intricacy of riboregulatory networks involving multiple but distinct RsmA homologues.

  20. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Optimizing a Three Echelon Inventory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Razavi Hajiagha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control is an important subject in supply chain management. In this paper, a three echelon production, distribution, inventory system composed of one producer, two wholesalers and a set of retailers has been considered. Costumers' demands follow a compound Poisson process and the inventory policy is a kind of continuous review (R, Q. In this paper, regarding the standard cost structure in an inventory model, the cost function of system has been approximated using Response Surface Methodology as a combination of designed experiments, simulation, regression analysis and optimization. The proposed methodology in this paper can be applied as a novel method in optimization of inventory policy of supply chains. Also, the joint optimization of inventory parameters, including reorder point and batch order size, is another advantage of the proposed methodology.

  1. Methodology for safety assessment of near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the work is to present the conceptual model of the methodology of safety assessment of near-surface radioactive disposal facilities. The widely used mathematical models and approaches are presented. The emphasis is given on the mathematical models and approaches, which are applicable for the conditions in our country. The different transport models for analysis and safety assessment of migration processes are presented. The parallel between the Mixing-Cell Cascade model and model of Finite-Differences is made. In the methodology the basic physical and chemical processes and events, concerning mathematical modelling of the flow and the transport of radionuclides from the Near Field to Far Field and Biosphere are analyzed. Suitable computer codes corresponding to the ideology and appropriate for implementing of the methodology are shown

  2. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget for the West Maui Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 5 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-5 June 2016 Hawaii Regional Sediment Management...distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “ Hawaii Regional Sediment Management

  3. A dual response surface optimization methodology for achieving uniform coating thickness in powder coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The powder coating is an economic, technologically superior and environment friendly painting technique compared with other conventional painting methods. However large variation in coating thickness can reduce the attractiveness of powder coated products. The coating thickness variation can also adversely affect the surface appearance and corrosion resistivity of the product. This can eventually lead to customer dissatisfaction and loss of market share. In this paper, the author discusses a dual response surface optimization methodology to minimize the thickness variation around the target value of powder coated industrial enclosures. The industrial enclosures are cabinets used for mounting the electrical and electronic equipment. The proposed methodology consists of establishing the relationship between the coating thickness & the powder coating process parameters and developing models for the mean and variance of coating thickness. Then the powder coating process is optimized by minimizing the standard deviation of coating thickness subject to the constraint that the thickness mean would be very close to the target. The study resulted in achieving a coating thickness mean of 80.0199 microns for industrial enclosures, which is very close to the target value of 80 microns. A comparison of the results of the proposed approach with that of existing methodologies showed that the suggested method is equally good or even better than the existing methodologies. The result of the study is also validated with a new batch of industrial enclosures.

  4. Evaluation of electro-oxidation of biologically treated landfill leachate using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Ran Xiaoni; Wu Xiaogang; Zhang Daobin

    2011-01-01

    Box-Behnken statistical experiment design and response surface methodology were used to investigate electrochemical oxidation of mature landfill leachate pretreated by sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Titanium coated with ruthenium dioxide (RuO 2 ) and iridium dioxide (IrO 2 ) was used as the anode in this study. The variables included current density, inter-electrode gap and reaction time. Response factors were ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency and COD removal efficiency. The response surface methodology models were derived based on the results. The predicted values calculated with the model equations were very close to the experimental values and the models were highly significant. The organic components before and after electrochemical oxidation were determined by GC-MS.

  5. Gas migration from closed coal mines to the surface. Risk assessment methodology and prevention means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokryszka, Z.; Tauziede, Ch.; Lagny, C.; Guise, Y.; Gobillot, R.; Planchenault, J.M.; Lagarde, R.

    2005-01-01

    French law as regards renunciation to mining concessions calls for the mining operator to first undertake analyses of the risks represented by their underground mining works. The problem of gas migration to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate to the earth's surface, then present significant risks: explosion, suffocation or gas poisoning risks. As part of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national mining operator Charbonnages de France, a general methodology for assessing the risk linked to gas in the context of closed coal mines. This article presents the principles of this methodology. An application example based on a true case study is then described. This is completed by a presentation of the preventive and monitoring resources recommended and usually applied in order to manage the risk linked to gaseous emissions. (authors)

  6. Optimization of Protease Production by Psychrotrophic Rheinheimera sp. with Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Mrayam Mahjoubin-Tehran; Bahar Shahnavaz; Razie Ghazi-Birjandi; Mansour Mashreghi; Jamshid Fooladi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Psychrotrophic bacteria can produce enzymes at low temperatures; this provides a wide biotechnological potential, and offers numerous economical advantages over the use of mesophilic bacteria. In this study, extracellular protease production by psychrotrophic Rheinheimera sp. (KM459533) was optimized by the response surface methodology.Materials and Methods: The culture medium was tryptic soy broth containing 1% (w v -1 ) skim milk. First, the effects of variables w...

  7. Optimization of the extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brad, K.; Liu, W.

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves was optimized to maximize flavonoids yield in this study. A central composite design of response surface methodology involving extracting time, power, liquid-solid ratio, and concentration was used, and second-order model for Y was employed to generate the response surfaces. The optimum condition for flavonoids yield was determined as follows: extracting time 24.95 min, power 72.05, ethanol concentration 63.35%, liquid-solid ratio 10.04. Under the optimum condition, the flavonoids yield was 76.84 %. (author)

  8. Calculation of t8/5 by response surface methodology for electric arc welding applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meseguer-Valdenebro José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest difficulties traditionally found in stainless steel constructions has been the execution of welding parts in them. At the present time, the available technology allows us to use arc welding processes for that application without any disadvantage. Response surface methodology is used to optimise a process in which the variables that take part in it are not related to each other by a mathematical law. Therefore, an empiric model must be formulated. With this methodology the optimisation of one selected variable may be done. In this work, the cooling time that takes place from 800 to 500ºC, t8/5, after TIG welding operation, is modelled by the response surface method. The arc power, the welding velocity and the thermal efficiency factor are considered as the variables that have influence on the t8/5 value. Different cooling times,t8/5, for different combinations of values for the variables are previously determined by a numerical method. The input values for the variables have been experimentally established. The results indicate that response surface methodology may be considered as a valid technique for these purposes.

  9. SUDOQU, a new dose-assessment methodology for radiological surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, Teun; van Dijk, Arjan

    2018-06-12

    A new methodology has been developed for the assessment of the annual effective dose resulting from removable and fixed radiological surface contamination. It is entitled SUDOQU (SUrface DOse QUantification) and it can for instance be used to derive criteria for surface contamination related to the import of non-food consumer goods, containers and conveyances, e.g., limiting values and operational screening levels. SUDOQU imposes mass (activity)-balance equations based on radioactive decay, removal and deposition processes in indoor and outdoor environments. This leads to time-dependent contamination levels that may be of particular importance in exposure scenarios dealing with one or a few contaminated items only (usually public exposure scenarios, therefore referred to as the 'consumer' model). Exposure scenarios with a continuous flow of freshly contaminated goods also fall within the scope of the methodology (typically occupational exposure scenarios, thus referred to as the 'worker model'). In this paper we describe SUDOQU, its applications, and its current limitations. First, we delineate the contamination issue, present the assumptions and explain the concepts. We describe the relevant removal, transfer, and deposition processes, and derive equations for the time evolution of the radiological surface-, air- and skin-contamination levels. These are then input for the subsequent evaluation of the annual effective dose with possible contributions from external gamma radiation, inhalation, secondary ingestion (indirect, from hand to mouth), skin contamination, direct ingestion and skin-contact exposure. The limiting effective surface dose is introduced for issues involving the conservatism of dose calculations. SUDOQU can be used by radiation-protection scientists/experts and policy makers in the field of e.g. emergency preparedness, trade and transport, exemption and clearance, waste management, and nuclear facilities. Several practical examples are worked

  10. Optimization of Protease Production by Psychrotrophic Rheinheimera sp. with Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrayam Mahjoubin-Tehran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Psychrotrophic bacteria can produce enzymes at low temperatures; this provides a wide biotechnological potential, and offers numerous economical advantages over the use of mesophilic bacteria. In this study, extracellular protease production by psychrotrophic Rheinheimera sp. (KM459533 was optimized by the response surface methodology.Materials and Methods: The culture medium was tryptic soy broth containing 1% (w v -1 skim milk. First, the effects of variables were independently evaluated on the microbial growth and protease production by one-factor-at-a-time method within the following ranges: incubation time 24-120 h, temperature 15-37°C, pH 6- 11, skim milk concentration 0-2% (w v -1 , and inoculum size 0.5-3% (v v -1 . The combinational effects of the four major variable including temperature, pH, skim milk concentration, and inoculum size were then evaluated within 96 h using response surface methodology through 27 experiments.Results and Conclusion: In one-factor-at-a-time method, high cell density was detected at 72h, 20°C, pH 7, skim milk 2% (w v -1 , and inoculum size 3% (v v -1 , and maximum enzyme production (533.74 Uml-1 was achieved at 96h, 20°C, pH 9, skim milk 1% (w v -1 , and inoculum size 3% (v v -1 . The response surface methodology study showed that pH is the most effective factor in enzyme production, and among the other variables, only temperature had significant interaction with pH and inoculum size. The determination coefficient (R2 =0.9544 and non-significant lack of fit demonstrated correlation between the experimental and predicted values. The optimal conditions predicted by the response surface methodology for protease production were defined as: 22C, pH 8.5, skim milk 1.1% (w v -1 , and inoculum size 4% (v v -1 . Protease production under these conditions reached to 567.19 Uml-1 . The use of response surface methodology in this study increased protease production by eight times as

  11. Optimization of process parameters and catalyst compositions in carbon dioxide oxidative coupling of methane over CaO-MnO/CeO{sub 2} catalyst using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Istadi,; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina [Chemical Reaction Engineering Group (CREG), Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru (81310 Malaysia)

    2006-05-15

    The optimization of process parameters and catalyst compositions for the CO{sub 2} oxidative coupling of methane (CO{sub 2}-OCM) reaction over CaO-MnO/CeO{sub 2} catalyst was developed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The relationship between the responses, i.e. CH{sub 4} conversion, C{sub 2} hydrocarbons selectivity or yield, with four independent variables, i.e. CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio, reactor temperature, wt.% CaO and wt.% MnO in the catalyst, were presented as empirical mathematical models. The maximum C{sub 2} hydrocarbons selectivity and yields of 82.62% and 3.93%, respectively, were achieved by the individual-response optimization at the corresponding optimal process parameters and catalyst compositions. However, the CH{sub 4} conversion was a saddle function and did not show a unique optimum as revealed by the canonical analysis. Moreover pertaining to simultaneous multi-responses optimization, the maximum C{sub 2} selectivity and yield of 76.56% and 3.74%, respectively, were obtained at a unique optimal process parameters and catalyst compositions. It may be deduced that both individual- and multi-responses optimizations are useful for the recommendation of optimal process parameters and catalyst compositions for the CO{sub 2}-OCM process. (author)

  12. A comparative study of the disinfection efficacy of H2O2/ferrate and UV/H2O2/ferrate processes on inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by response surface methodology for modeling and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Atiyeh Rajabi; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Mahvi, Amirhossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Aslani, Hassan; Nabizadeh, Ramin

    2018-04-03

    Although chlorination can inactivate most of the microorganisms in water but protozoan parasites like C. parvum oocysts and Giardia cysts can resist against it. Therefore, many researches have been conducted to find a novel method for water disinfection. Present study evaluated the synergistic effect of H2O2 and ferrate followed by UV radiation to inactivate Bacillus subtilis spores as surrogate microorganisms. Response surface methodology(RSM) was employed for the optimization for UV/H2O2/ferrate and H2O2/ferrate processes. By using central composite design(CCD), the effect of three main parameters including time, hydrogen peroxide, and ferrate concentrations was examined on process performance. The results showed that the combination of UV, H2O2 and ferrate was the most effective disinfection process in compare with when H2O2 and ferrate were used. This study indicated that by UV/H2O2/ferrate, about 5.2 log reductions of B. subtilis spores was inactivated at 9299 mg/l of H2O2 and 0.4 mg/l of ferrate concentrations after 57 min of contact time which was the optimum condition, but H2O2/ferrate can inactivate B. subtilis spores about 4.7 logs compare to the other process. Therefore, the results of this research demonstrated that UV/H2O2 /ferrate process is a promising process for spore inactivation and water disinfection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Response surface methodology approach for optimization of adsorption of Janus Green B from aqueous solution onto ZnO/Zn(OH)2-NP-AC: Kinetic and isotherm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M.; Khafri, H. Zare; Asfaram, A.; Goudarzi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Janus Green B (JGB) adsorption onto homemade ZnO/Zn(OH)2 nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (AC) which characterized by FESEM and XRD analysis has been reported. Combination of response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) has been employed to model and optimize variables using STATISTICA 10.0 software. The influence of parameters over pH (2.0-8.0), adsorbent (0.004-0.012 g), sonication time (4-8 min) and JGB concentration (3-21 mg L-1) on JGB removal percentage was investigated and their main and interaction contribution was examined. It was revealed that 21 mg L-1 JGB, 0.012 g ZnO/Zn(OH)2-NP-AC at pH 7.0 and 7 min sonication time permit to achieve removal percentage more than 99%. Finally, a good agreement between experimental and predicted values after 7 min was achieved using pseudo-second-order rate equation. The Langmuir adsorption is appropriate for correlation of equilibrium data. The small amount of adsorbent (0.008-0.015 g) is applicable for successful removal of JGB (RE > 99%) in short time (7 min) with high adsorption capacity (81.3-98.03 mg g-1).

  14. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Crude Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida Seed Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM. Process variables were power level (25–75%, temperature (45–55 °C and sonication time (20–40 min. It was found that all process variables have significant (p < 0.05 effects on the response variable. A central composite design (CCD was used to determine the optimum process conditions. Optimal conditions were identified as 65% power level, 52 °C temperature and 36 min sonication time for maximum crude yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  15. Development of a methodology for the safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.; Cancio, D.; Alonso, L.F.; Agueero, A.; Lopez de la Higuera, J.; Gil, E.; Garcia, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Project on the Environmental Radiological Impact in CIEMAT is developing, for the Spanish regulatory body Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), a methodology for the Safety Assessment of near surface disposal facilities. This method has been developed incorporating some elements developed through the participation in the IAEA's ISAM Programme (Improving Long Term Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities). The first step of the approach is the consideration of the assessment context, including the purpose of the assessment, the end-Points, philosophy, disposal system, source term and temporal scales as well as the hypothesis about the critical group. Once the context has been established, and considering the peculiarities of the system, an specific list of features, events and processes (FEPs) is produced. These will be incorporated into the assessment scenarios. The set of scenarios will be represented in the conceptual and mathematical models. By the use of mathematical codes, calculations are performed to obtain results (i.e. in terms of doses) to be analysed and compared against the criteria. The methodology is being tested by the application to an hypothetical engineered disposal system based on an exercise within the ISAM Programme, and will finally be applied to the Spanish case. (author)

  16. Regression Modeling of EDM Process for AISI D2 Tool Steel with RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir M. Mousa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Response Surface Method (RSM is utilized to carry out an investigation of the impact of input parameters: electrode type (E.T. [Gr, Cu and CuW], pulse duration of current (Ip, pulse duration on time (Ton, and pulse duration off time (Toff on the surface finish in EDM operation. To approximate and concentrate the suggested second- order regression model is generally accepted for Surface Roughness Ra, a Central Composite Design (CCD is utilized for evaluating the model constant coefficients of the input parameters on Surface Roughness (Ra. Examinations were performed on AISI D2 tool steel. The important coefficients are gotten by achieving successfully an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA at the 5 % confidence interval. The outcomes discover that Surface Roughness (Ra is much more impacted by E.T., Ton, Toff, Ip and little of their interactions action or influence. To predict the average Surface Roughness (Ra, a mathematical regression model was developed. Furthermore, for saving in time, the created model could be utilized for the choice of the high levels in the EDM procedure. The model adequacy was extremely agreeable as the constant Coefficient of Determination (R2 is observed to be 99.72% and adjusted R2-measurement (R2adj 99.60%.

  17. RSM Outlook Summer 2009 : Post-Crisis World: a change for the better?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilbert (Russell); L. Sawahata (Lesa)

    2009-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Business and Academia: The Mutual Benefits of Collaboration (Lesa Sawahata) Business is at the heart – and in the DNA – of RSM. And through collaborative activities at every level, RSM researchers, alumni and students are impacting business. #### The New Face of

  18. Enhanced Production of Cellulase from Pineapple Waste by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the media components for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using pineapple waste as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nutrients and their influence on the cellulase production was studied using a Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and yeast extract were found to have the positive influence for the production of cellulase. The selected components were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum concentrations are avicel: 26.5 g/L, soybean cake flour: 22.5 g/L, KH2PO4: 4.5 g/L, and yeast extract: 12.3 g/L. A maximum cellulase activity of 8.61 IU/mL was obtained under the optimized medium in the validation experiment.

  19. Response surface methodology based optimization of diesel–n-butanol –cotton oil ternary blend ratios to improve engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanlı, Alpaslan; Yüksel, Bedri; İleri, Erol; Deniz Karaoglan, A.

    2015-01-01