WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface meteorological measurements

  1. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  2. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  3. Instruments for meteorological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This present rule has for objective to determine the means for meteorological measurement near a site of nuclear facility in which there is not a PWR power plant [fr

  4. Some recent results of Russian measurements of surface ozone in Antarctica. A meteorological interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, A.N.; Elokhov, A.S.; Makarov, O.V.; Mokhov, I.I. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics)

    1993-01-01

    Surface ozone measurements were carried out at Molodezhnaya and Mirny stations in spring 1987-autumn 1988. The data show an annual variation with a summer minimum at 15 ppbv value. The striking feature of the surface ozone record is two types of day-to-day variability. One of the types is characterized by large day-to-day variations with about 10 ppbv magnitude. The likely mechanism of such variations is the vertical transport induced by cyclonic activity. The other type occurs in synoptically quiet periods (frequent in summer) when the day-to-day ozone variations are significant but not so large. The most likely mechanism of these variations is the slope katabatic wind which transports ozone from inside the Antarctic continent. The latitudinal distribution of surface ozone for this period, measured aboard an aircraft, showed a slight increase towards Vostok station. (26 refs., 3 figs.).

  5. Meteorological measurements. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Y. Hollinger

    2008-01-01

    Environmental measurements are useful for detecting climatic trends, understanding how the environment influences biological processes, and as input to ecosystem models. Landscape-scale monitoring requires a suite of environmental measures for all of these purposes, including air and soil temperature, humidity, wind speed, precipitation and soil moisture, and different...

  6. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  7. Applications of satellite data to the studies of agricultural meteorology, 2: Relationship between air temperature and surface temperature measured by infrared thermal radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, I.; Tani, H.; Morikawa, S.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed in order to establish interpretation keys for estimation of air temperature from satellite IR data. Field measurements were carried out over four kinds of land surfaces including seven different field crops on the university campus at Sapporo. The air temperature was compared with the surface temperature measured by infrared thermal radiometer (National ER2007, 8.5-12.5μm) and, also with other meteorological parameters (solar radiation, humidity and wind speed). Also perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) was measured to know vegetation density of lands by ho radio-spectralmeter (Figs. 1 & 2). Table 1 summarizes the measurements taken in these experiments.The correlation coefficients between air temperature and other meteorological parameters for each area are shown in Table 2. The best correlation coefficient for total data was obtained with surface temperature, and it suggests the possibility that air temperature may be estimated by satellite IR data since they are related to earth surface temperatures.Further analyses were done between air temperature and surface temperature measured with thermal infrared radiometer.The following conclusions may be drawn:(1) Air temperature from meteorological site was well correlated to surface temperature of lands that were covered with dense plant and water, for example, grass land, paddy field and rye field (Table 2).(2) The correlation coefficients and the regression equations on grass land, paddy field and rye field were almost the same (Fig. 3). The mean correlation coefficient for these three lands was 0.88 and the regression equation is given in Eq. (2).(3) There was good correlation on bare soil land also, but had large variations (Fig. 3).(4) The correlations on crop fields depend on the density of plant cover. Good correlation is obtained on dense vegetative fields.(5) Small variations about correlation coefficients were obtained for the time of day (Table 3).(6) On the other hand, large

  8. Meteorological measurements at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On-site meteorological measurements are necessary for evaluating atmospheric dispersion of gaseous effluents. Radiation doses in a plant's vicinity due to these effluents are calculated from the results of dispersion evaluations. The guide addresses the requirements for on-site meteorological measurement systems. Guide YVL 7.3 addresses atmospheric dispersion evaluations and calculation methods, Guide YVL 7.2 radiation dose calculations and Guide YVL 7.8 environmental data reporting. (5 refs.)

  9. Nowcasting Surface Meteorological Parameters Using Successive Correction Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henmi, Teizi

    2002-01-01

    The successive correction method was examined and evaluated statistically as a nowcasting method for surface meteorological parameters including temperature, dew point temperature, and horizontal wind vector components...

  10. Mesoscale meteorological measurements characterizing complex flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbe, J.M.; Allwine, K.J.

    1993-09-01

    Meteorological measurements are an integral and essential component of any emergency response system for addressing accidental releases from nuclear facilities. An important element of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program is the refinement and use of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation. ASCOT is currently making use of ground-based remote wind sensing instruments such as doppler acoustic sounders (sodars). These instruments are capable of continuously and reliably measuring winds up to several hundred meters above the ground, unattended. Two sodars are currently measuring the winds, as part of ASCOT's Front Range Study, in the vicinity of DOE's Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) near Boulder, Colorado. A brief description of ASCOT's ongoing Front Range Study is given followed by a case study analysis that demonstrates the utility of the meteorological measurement equipment and the complexity of flow phenomena that are experienced near RFP. These complex flow phenomena can significantly influence the transport of the released material and consequently need to be identified for accurate assessments of the consequences of a release

  11. ISLSCP II Reanalysis Near-Surface Meteorology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides near surface meteorological variables, fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum at the surface, and...

  12. ISLSCP II Reanalysis Near-Surface Meteorology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides near surface meteorological variables, fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum at the...

  13. Viking-1 meteorological measurements - First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S. L.; Henry, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Tillman, J. E.; Ryan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation is given of in situ meteorological measurements made by Viking 1 on Mars. The data reported show that: (1) the atmosphere has approximate volume mixing ratios of 1.5% argon, 3% nitrogen, and 95% carbon dioxide; (2) the diurnal temperature range is large and regular, with a sunrise minimum of about 188 K and a midafternoon maximum near 244 K; (3) air and ground temperatures coincide quite closely during the night, but ground temperature exceeds air temperature near midday by as much as 25 C; (4) the winds exhibit a marked diurnal cycle; and (5) a large diurnal pressure variation with an afternoon minimum and an early-morning maximum parallels the wind pattern. The variations are explained in terms of familiar meteorological processes. It is suggested that latent heat is unlikely to play an important role on Mars because no evidence has been observed for traveling synoptic-scale disturbances such as those that occur in the terrestrial tropics.

  14. Site evaluation using measured meteorology data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. E.; Rusche, B. C. [Savannah River Lab., E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, South Carolina (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A key factor in reactor site evaluation is the frequency of occurrence of various dispersion conditions and this relationship to potential off-site doses following a reactor accident. Detailed measurements of the wind speed, wind direction, and temperature at heights up to 1200 ft at the Savannah River Plant form the basis for a comprehensive analysis of the frequency of occurrence of potential off-site doses. A complete set of data was taken about every five minutes, and 107,000 sets (about one year of data) were analyzed. The meteorology data were converted to ordinary dispersion parameters through correlating equations developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The results were expressed on curves in dose per unit release of activity vs distance from the reactor with probability of occurrence as a parameter. Separate sets of curves were calculated for releases of noble gas and of halogens and at release heights of 200 ft (a nominal stack height) and of 850 ft (about the height of the tallest power plant stacks). Additional curves were developed to show dose as a function of direction and probability of occurrence. In addition to the dose frequency distribution analyses performed as a function of height of release, direction, and distance; more conventional frequency distributions of wind speed, wind direction, and thermal stability were developed as a function of height. All the analyses were carried out on the IBM 360/65. These results represent the first known analysis utilizing data up to 1200 ft and taken often enough to develop reliable frequency distributions for a short term release. (author)

  15. CAMEX-4 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air velocity with respect to the aircraft,...

  16. CAMEX-3 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) dataset consists of atmospheric parameters measured by the MMS instruments aboard NASA DC-8 aircraft. The MMS...

  17. CAMEX-4 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) was collected by the MMS, which consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air...

  18. Inconing solar radiation estimates at terrestrial surface using meteorological satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, N.; Almeida, F.C. de.

    1982-11-01

    By using the digital images of the visible channel of the GOES-5 meteorological satellite, and a simple radiative transfer model of the earth's atmosphere, the incoming solar radiation reaching ground is estimated. A model incorporating the effects of Rayleigh scattering and water vapor absorption, the latter parameterized using the surface dew point temperature value, is used. Comparisons with pyranometer observations, and parameterization versus radiosonde water vapor absorption calculation are presented. (Author) [pt

  19. On the predictability of land surface fluxes from meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Ned; Abramowitz, Gab; Pitman, Andy J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that land surface models (LSMs) are performing poorly when compared with relatively simple empirical models over a wide range of metrics and environments. Atmospheric driving data appear to provide information about land surface fluxes that LSMs are not fully utilising. Here, we further quantify the information available in the meteorological forcing data that are used by LSMs for predicting land surface fluxes, by interrogating FLUXNET data, and extending the benchmarking methodology used in previous experiments. We show that substantial performance improvement is possible for empirical models using meteorological data alone, with no explicit vegetation or soil properties, thus setting lower bounds on a priori expectations on LSM performance. The process also identifies key meteorological variables that provide predictive power. We provide an ensemble of empirical benchmarks that are simple to reproduce and provide a range of behaviours and predictive performance, acting as a baseline benchmark set for future studies. We reanalyse previously published LSM simulations and show that there is more diversity between LSMs than previously indicated, although it remains unclear why LSMs are broadly performing so much worse than simple empirical models.

  20. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún

    2017-10-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007-2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (PANGAEA.876206" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206).

  1. Sensitivity of surface meteorological analyses to observation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Daniel Paul

    A computationally efficient variational analysis system for two-dimensional meteorological fields is developed and described. This analysis approach is most efficient when the number of analysis grid points is much larger than the number of available observations, such as for large domain mesoscale analyses. The analysis system is developed using MATLAB software and can take advantage of multiple processors or processor cores. A version of the analysis system has been exported as a platform independent application (i.e., can be run on Windows, Linux, or Macintosh OS X desktop computers without a MATLAB license) with input/output operations handled by commonly available internet software combined with data archives at the University of Utah. The impact of observation networks on the meteorological analyses is assessed by utilizing a percentile ranking of individual observation sensitivity and impact, which is computed by using the adjoint of the variational surface assimilation system. This methodology is demonstrated using a case study of the analysis from 1400 UTC 27 October 2010 over the entire contiguous United States domain. The sensitivity of this approach to the dependence of the background error covariance on observation density is examined. Observation sensitivity and impact provide insight on the influence of observations from heterogeneous observing networks as well as serve as objective metrics for quality control procedures that may help to identify stations with significant siting, reporting, or representativeness issues.

  2. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Petersen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007–2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206.

  3. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1998, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  4. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1999, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1999-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  5. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 2000, Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15, 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  6. Estimating Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Using Standard Meteorological Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    The heat stress management program at the Department of Energy''s Savannah River Site (SRS) requires implementation of protective controls on outdoor work based on observed values of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). To ensure continued compliance with heat stress program requirements, a computer algorithm was developed which calculates an estimate of WBGT using standard meteorological measurements. In addition, scripts were developed to generate a calculation every 15 minutes and post the results to an Intranet web site

  7. The meteorological measurement system of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilger, H.

    1976-08-01

    The system mainly serves to record the parameters which are important for the diffusion of offgas plume. The system includes 47 instruments in total which are used to measure the wind velocity, the wind direction, the wind vector, the temperature, the dew point, the solar and heat radiation, the precipitations and the atmospheric pressure, most of them mounted at the 200 m high meteorological tower. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Assessing measurement uncertainty in meteorology in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curci, S; Lavecchia, C; Frustaci, G; Pilati, S; Paganelli, C; Paolini, R

    2017-01-01

    Measurement uncertainty in meteorology has been addressed in a number of recent projects. In urban environments, uncertainty is also affected by local effects which are more difficult to deal with than for synoptic stations. In Italy, beginning in 2010, an urban meteorological network (Climate Network ® ) was designed, set up and managed at national level according to high metrological standards and homogeneity criteria to support energy applications. The availability of such a high-quality operative automatic weather station network represents an opportunity to investigate the effects of station siting and sensor exposure and to estimate the related measurement uncertainty. An extended metadata set was established for the stations in Milan, including siting and exposure details. Statistical analysis on an almost 3-year-long operational period assessed network homogeneity, quality and reliability. Deviations from reference mean values were then evaluated in selected low-gradient local weather situations in order to investigate siting and exposure effects. In this paper the methodology is depicted and preliminary results of its application to air temperature discussed; this allowed the setting of an upper limit of 1 °C for the added measurement uncertainty at the top of the urban canopy layer. (paper)

  9. Assessing measurement uncertainty in meteorology in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, S.; Lavecchia, C.; Frustaci, G.; Paolini, R.; Pilati, S.; Paganelli, C.

    2017-10-01

    Measurement uncertainty in meteorology has been addressed in a number of recent projects. In urban environments, uncertainty is also affected by local effects which are more difficult to deal with than for synoptic stations. In Italy, beginning in 2010, an urban meteorological network (Climate Network®) was designed, set up and managed at national level according to high metrological standards and homogeneity criteria to support energy applications. The availability of such a high-quality operative automatic weather station network represents an opportunity to investigate the effects of station siting and sensor exposure and to estimate the related measurement uncertainty. An extended metadata set was established for the stations in Milan, including siting and exposure details. Statistical analysis on an almost 3-year-long operational period assessed network homogeneity, quality and reliability. Deviations from reference mean values were then evaluated in selected low-gradient local weather situations in order to investigate siting and exposure effects. In this paper the methodology is depicted and preliminary results of its application to air temperature discussed; this allowed the setting of an upper limit of 1 °C for the added measurement uncertainty at the top of the urban canopy layer.

  10. Diurnal and seasonal variations in surface methane at a tropical coastal station: Role of mesoscale meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, M; Nair, Prabha R; Girach, I A; Aneesh, S; Sijikumar, S; Renju, R

    2018-08-01

    In view of the large uncertainties in the methane (CH 4 ) emission estimates and the large spatial gaps in its measurements, studies on near-surface CH 4 on regional basis become highly relevant. This paper presents the first time observational results of a study on the impacts of mesoscale meteorology on the temporal variations of near-surface CH 4 at a tropical coastal station, in India. It is based on the in-situ measurements conducted during January 2014 to August 2016, using an on-line CH 4 analyzer working on the principle of gas chromatography. The diurnal variation shows a daytime low (1898-1925ppbv) and nighttime high (1936-2022ppbv) extending till early morning hours. These changes are closely associated with the mesoscale circulations, namely Sea Breeze (SB) and Land Breeze (LB), as obtained through the meteorological observations, WRF simulations of the circulations and the diurnal variation of boundary layer height as observed by the Microwave Radiometer Profiler. The diurnal enhancement always coincides with the onset of LB. Several cases of different onset timings of LB were examined and results presented. The CH 4 mixing ratio also exhibits significant seasonal patterns being maximum in winter and minimum in pre-monsoon/monsoon with significant inter-annual variations, which is also reflected in diurnal patterns, and are associated with changing synoptic meteorology. This paper also presents an analysis of in-situ measured near-surface CH 4 , column averaged and upper tropospheric CH 4 retrieved by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard Earth Observing System (EOS)/Aqua which gives insight into the vertical distribution of the CH 4 over the location. An attempt is also made to estimate the instantaneous radiative forcing for the measured CH 4 mixing ratio. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of an atmospheric model with surface and ABL meteorological data for energy applications in structured areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, A. G.; Kalogiros, J.; Krestou, A.; Leivaditou, E.; Zoumakis, N.; Bouris, D.; Garas, S.; Konstantinidis, E.; Wang, Q.

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides the performance evaluation of the meteorological component of The Air Pollution Model (TAPM), a nestable prognostic model, in predicting meteorological variables in urban areas, for both its surface layer and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) turbulence parameterizations. The model was modified by incorporating four urban land surface types, replacing the existing single urban surface. Control runs were carried out over the wider area of Kozani, an urban area in NW Greece. The model was evaluated for both surface and ABL meteorological variables by using measurements of near-surface and vertical profiles of wind and temperature. The data were collected by using monitoring surface stations in selected sites as well as an acoustic sounder (SOnic Detection And Ranging (SODAR), up to 300 m above ground) and a radiometer profiler (up to 600 m above ground). The results showed the model demonstrated good performance in predicting the near-surface meteorology in the Kozani region for both a winter and a summer month. In the ABL, the comparison showed that the model's forecasts generally performed well with respect to the thermal structure (temperature profiles and ABL height) but overestimated wind speed at the heights of comparison (mostly below 200 m) up to 3-4 ms-1.

  12. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1992, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1992-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  13. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1991, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  14. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1993, Part 4: meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1993-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  15. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1991, Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1992-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  16. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1994. Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  17. IceBridge NSERC L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge National Suborbital Education & Research Center (NSERC) L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature (IAMET1B) data set is a collection of...

  18. IceBridge NSERC L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge National Suborbital Education & Research Center (NSERC) L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature (IAMET1B) data set is a collection of...

  19. Phenomenological study of aerosol dry deposition in urban area: surface properties, turbulence and local meteorology influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roupsard, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol dry deposition is not much known for urban areas due to the lack of data. Knowledge on this phenomenon is necessary to understand pollutant fluxes in cities and to estimate inhabitant exposition to ionizing radiation of radioactive aerosols. A data providing could enable to enhance dry deposition models for these areas. An original experimental approach is performed to study submicron aerosol dry deposition on urban surfaces. Wind tunnel coupled to in situ experiments give results to study different physical phenomenon governing dry deposition. Dry deposition velocities are measured using aerosol tracers. These data are associated to turbulent and meteorological measured conditions. This database permits to classify the principal physical phenomenon for each experiment type. Finally, different phenomenon must be considered for chronic and acute exposition of urban surfaces to atmospheric particles. (author)

  20. Assessment of a surface-layer parameterization scheme in an atmospheric model for varying meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Anurose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a surface-layer parameterization scheme in a high-resolution regional model (HRM is carried out by comparing the model-simulated sensible heat flux (H with the concurrent in situ measurements recorded at Thiruvananthapuram (8.5° N, 76.9° E, a coastal station in India. With a view to examining the role of atmospheric stability in conjunction with the roughness lengths in the determination of heat exchange coefficient (CH and H for varying meteorological conditions, the model simulations are repeated by assigning different values to the ratio of momentum and thermal roughness lengths (i.e. z0m/z0h in three distinct configurations of the surface-layer scheme designed for the present study. These three configurations resulted in differential behaviour for the varying meteorological conditions, which is attributed to the sensitivity of CH to the bulk Richardson number (RiB under extremely unstable, near-neutral and stable stratification of the atmosphere.

  1. On the spectra and coherence of some surface meteorological parameters in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Fernandes, A.A.

    . In addition to peaks in the annual, semiannual and four-month periodicities, the various surface parameters exhibited some energy at 2, 3 and 4 year cycles. It was also found that most of the surface meteorological parameters were coherent (at 95% confidence...

  2. Modulation of surface meteorological parameters by extratropical planetary-scale Rossby waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niranjan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the link between upper-tropospheric planetary-scale Rossby waves and surface meteorological parameters based on the observations made in association with the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX campaign at an extratropical site at Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital (29.45° N, 79.5° E during November–December 2011. The spectral analysis of the tropospheric wind field from radiosonde measurements indicates a predominance power of around 8 days in the upper troposphere during the observational period. An analysis of the 200 hPa meridional wind (v200 hPa anomalies from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA reanalysis shows distinct Rossby-wave-like structures over a high-altitude site in the central Himalayan region. Furthermore, the spectral analysis of global v200 hPa anomalies indicates the Rossby waves are characterized by zonal wave number 6. The amplification of the Rossby wave packets over the site leads to persistent subtropical jet stream (STJ patterns, which further affects the surface weather conditions. The propagating Rossby waves in the upper troposphere along with the undulations in the STJ create convergence and divergence regions in the mid-troposphere. Therefore, the surface meteorological parameters such as the relative humidity, wind speeds, and temperature are synchronized with the phase of the propagating Rossby waves. Moreover, the present study finds important implications for medium-range forecasting through the upper-level Rossby waves over the study region.

  3. Variability of surface meteorological parameters over the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Fernandes, A.A

    different parameters shows that the sea surface temperature and air temperature are positively and significantly correlated over the study area. A similar relationship is found between wind speed and cloudiness amount. Wind speed and cloudiness...

  4. Meteorological applications of a surface network of Global Positioning System receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de S.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents meteorological applications of water vapour observations from a surface network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. GPS signals are delayed by the atmo¬sphere due to atmospheric refraction and bending. Mapped to the zenith, this delay is called Zenith Total Delay

  5. Summary of Meteorological Observations, Surface (SMOS), El Toro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    SURFACE WINDS DETACHMENT ASHEVILLE. NC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) EL TIPO , CALIrQO𔃾IA 73-’.? A ir, U~~tiAL...OF WiND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) ... 112L. E L TIPO , ALIODkI1A 71-q2 r ALL wEANCP _______ MEAN 11-11 6.S 7.A 1.U 11.W6 17.21 n...nTa IO STyVIO. *..M YUOnb0U T-mp. WIT BULl TEMPERATUIE DEPRESSION fF) TOTAL TOTAL 0 1- 2 3 -4 - j 8 9 10 11-12113 14,11516117. 18119 270:i21 . 2 23

  6. Wind potential data analysis based on on-site measurements with tall meteorological masts installed in northern Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terziev, A.; Genovski, I.; Petrov, P.; Valchev, V.

    2010-01-01

    The current work has studied the possibility of correlation between wind data collected with tall meteorological masts in Northern Bulgaria. The processed data were collected for the same time period. The analysis is based on daily wind data. The correlation was made taking into consideration the following factors: the height of carried wind measurements, the prevailing wind direction, and the surface roughness of the relief. The analysis of the distance effect between meteorological masts is also considered. The possibility of modeling the wind velocity field for the area limited by the meteorological mast locations is examined. For this purpose for wind speed velocity field description is used triangulation with linear interpolation between the data. Data interpolation was made based on compulsory condition for relative flatness of the terrain. (authors)

  7. The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-Situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G. M.; Newman, C. N.; De Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Richardson, M. I.; Fairén, A. G.; Genzer, M.; Guzewich, S. D.; Haberle, R. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the complete set of in-situ meteorological data obtained from the Viking landers in the 1970s to todays Curiosity rover to review our understanding of the modern near-surface climate of Mars, with focus on the dust, CO2 and H2O cycles and their impact on the radiative and thermodynamic conditions near the surface. In particular, we provide values of the highest confidence possible for atmospheric opacity, atmospheric pressure, near-surface air temperature, ground temperature, near-surface wind speed and direction, and near-surface air relative humidity and water vapor content. Then, we study the diurnal, seasonal and interannual variability of these quantities over a span of more than twenty Martian years. Finally, we propose measurements to improve our understanding of the Martian dust and H2O cycles, and discuss the potential for liquid water formation under Mars present day conditions and its implications for future Mars missions.

  8. Influence of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements: insights from field and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2016-04-01

    A precise knowledge of the surface energy budget, which includes the solar and terrestrial radiation fluxes, is needed to accurately characterize the global energy balance which is largely determining Earth's climate. To this aim national and global monitoring networks for surface radiative fluxes have been established in recent decades. The most prominent among these networks is the so-called Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) operating under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) (Ohmura et al., 1998). National monitoring networks such as the Austrian RADiation Monitoring Network (ARAD), which has been established in 2010 by a consortium of the Central Agency of Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), the University of Graz, the University of Innsbruck, and the University of Natural Resources and Applied Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), orient themselves on BSRN standards (McArthur, 2005). ARAD comprises to date five sites (Wien Hohe Warte, Graz/University, Innsbruck/University, Kanzelhöhe Observatory and Sonnblick (which is also a BSRN site)) and aims to provide long-term monitoring of radiation budget components at highest accuracy and to capture the spatial patterns of radiation climate in Austria (Olefs et al., 2015). Given the accuracy requirement for the local monitoring of radiative fluxes instrument offsets, triggered by meteorological factors and/or instrumentation, pose a major challenge in radiation monitoring. Within this study we investigate effects of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements performed with pyranometers contained in various heating/ventilation systems (HV-systems), all of which used in regular operation within the ARAD network. We focus particularly on instrument offsets observed following precipitation events. To quantify pyranometer responses to precipitation we performed a series of controlled laboratory experiments as well as targeted field campaigns in 2015 and 2016. Our results indicate

  9. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  10. Meteorological measurements performed at the Saclay Centre of Nuclear Studies, and used equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levrard, A.

    1960-01-01

    This note first recalls the objective of meteorological measurements performed at the CENS station atmospheric radioactivity control station. It briefly recalls some definitions and notions in meteorology: atmosphere vertical structure, atmospheric humidity, atmospheric pressure, weather fronts and passage of disturbances, cloud systems. It indicates measurements performed on a daily basis (temperature in the shelter, minimum and maximum temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature, atmospheric pressure, soil condition, present weather, visibility, past weather, cloudiness, precipitations, miscellaneous phenomena), recorded measurements (wind strength and direction, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, temperature, pluviometry), while indicating and presenting corresponding measurement devices

  11. Annual and latitudinal variations of surface fluxes and meteorological variables at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey; Uttal, Taneil; Persson, Ola; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzes and discusses seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface fluxes (turbulent, radiative, and soil ground heat) and other ancillary surface/snow/permafrost data based on in-situ measurements made at two long-term research observatories near the coast of the Arctic Ocean located in Canada and Russia. The hourly averaged data collected at Eureka (Canadian territory of Nunavut) and Tiksi (East Siberia) located at two quite different latitudes (80.0 N and 71.6 N respectively) are analyzed in details to describe the seasons in the Arctic. Although Eureka and Tiksi are located at the different continents and at the different latitudes, the annual course of the surface meteorology and the surface fluxes are qualitatively very similar. The air and soil temperatures display the familiar strong seasonal trend with maximum of measured temperatures in mid-summer and minimum during winter. According to our data, variation in incoming short-wave solar radiation led the seasonal pattern of the air and soil temperatures, and the turbulent fluxes. During the dark Polar nights, air and ground temperatures are strongly controlled by long-wave radiation associated generally with cloud cover. Due to the fact that in average the higher latitudes receive less solar radiation than lower latitudes, a length of the convective atmospheric boundary layer (warm season) is shorter and middle-summer amplitude of the turbulent fluxes is generally less in Eureka than in Tiksi. However, since solar elevation angle at local midnight in the middle of Arctic summer is higher for Eureka as compared to Tiksi, stable stratification and upward turbulent flux for carbon dioxide is generally did not observed at Eureka site during summer seasons. It was found a high correlation between the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, carbon dioxide and the net solar radiation. A comprehensive evaluation of energy balance closure problem is performed based on the multi-year data sets

  12. Tethered balloon-based measurements of meteorological variables and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, R. J.; Storey, R. W.; Chang, J. J. C.; Jacobsen, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tethered balloon based measurements of the vertical distributions of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and aerosol concentrations were taken over a 4-hour period beginning at sunrise on June 29, 1976, at Wallops Island, Virginia. Twelve consecutive profiles of each variable were obtained from ground to about 500 meters. These measurements were in conjuction with a noise propagation study on remotely arrayed acoustic range (ROMAAR) at Wallops Flight Center. An organized listing of these vertical soundings is presented. The tethered balloon system configuration utilized for these measurements is described.

  13. Climatology and time series of surface meteorology in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maturilli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A consistent meteorological dataset of the Arctic site Ny-Ålesund (11.9° E, 78.9° N spanning the 18 yr-period 1 August 1993 to 31 July 2011 is presented. Instrumentation and data handling of temperature, humidity, wind and pressure measurements are described in detail. Monthly mean values are shown for all years to illustrate the interannual variability of the different parameters. Climatological mean values are given for temperature, humidity and pressure. From the climatological dataset, we also present the time series of annual mean temperature and humidity, revealing a temperature increase of +1.35 K per decade and an increase in water vapor mixing ratio of +0.22 g kg−1 per decade for the given time period, respectively. With the continuation of the presented measurements, the Ny-Ålesund high resolution time series will provide a reliable source to monitor Arctic change and retrieve trends in the future. The relevant data are provided in high temporal resolution as averages over 5 (1 min before (after 14 July 1998, respectively, placed on the PANGAEA repository (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.793046. While 6 hourly synoptic observations in Ny-Ålesund by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute reach back to 1974 (Førland et al., 2011, the meteorological data presented here cover a shorter time period, but their high temporal resolution will be of value for atmospheric process studies on shorter time scales.

  14. measurements and analysis of some meteorological elements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of relative humidity, dew point and vapour pressure at Uturu (Lat. 05.33°N and 06.03°N, and long, 07.10°E and 07.29°E) were carried out. The data were collected in a synoptic hour, that is at 3 hours interval starting from 9am to 6pm each day for the months of February, March, and July using whirling ...

  15. Gulkana Glacier, Alaska-Mass balance, meteorology, and water measurements, 1997-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Rod S.; O'Neel, Shad

    2011-01-01

    The measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances for 1997-2001 in the Gulkana Glacier basin are determined at specific points and over the entire glacier area using the meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data. We provide descriptions of glacier geometry to aid in estimation of conventional and reference surface mass balances and descriptions of ice motion to aid in the understanding of the glacier's response to its changing geometry. These data provide annual estimates for area altitude distribution, equilibrium line altitude, and accumulation area ratio during the study interval. New determinations of historical area altitude distributions are given for 1900 and annually from 1966 to 2001. As original weather instrumentation is nearing the end of its deployment lifespan, we provide new estimates of overlap comparisons and precipitation catch efficiency. During 1997-2001, Gulkana Glacier showed a continued and accelerated negative mass balance trend, especially below the equilibrium line altitude where thinning was pronounced. Ice motion also slowed, which combined with the negative mass balance, resulted in glacier retreat under a warming climate. Average annual runoff augmentation by glacier shrinkage for 1997-2001 was 25 percent compared to the previous average of 13 percent, in accordance with the measured glacier volume reductions.

  16. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  17. Meteorological Instrumentation and Measurements Open Resource Training Modules for Undergraduate and Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, A.; Clark, R. D.; Stevermer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory, Millersville University and The COMET Program are collaborating to produce a series of nine online modules on the the topic of meteorological instrumentation and measurements. These interactive, multimedia educational modules can be integrated into undergraduate and graduate meteorology courses on instrumentation, measurement science, and observing systems to supplement traditional pedagogies and enhance blended instruction. These freely available and open-source training tools are designed to supplement traditional pedagogies and enhance blended instruction. Three of the modules are now available and address the theory and application of Instrument Performance Characteristics, Meteorological Temperature Instrumentation and Measurements, and Meteorological Pressure Instrumentation and Measurements. The content of these modules is of the highest caliber as it has been developed by scientists and engineers who are at the forefront of the field of observational science. Communicating the availability of these unique and influential educational resources with the community is of high priority. These modules will have a profound effect on the atmospheric observational sciences community by fulfilling a need for contemporary, interactive, multimedia guided education and training modules integrating the latest instructional design and assessment tools in observational science. Thousands of undergraduate and graduate students will benefit, while course instructors will value a set of high quality modules to use as supplements to their courses. The modules can serve as an alternative to observational research training and fill the void between field projects or assist those schools that lack the resources to stage a field- or laboratory-based instrumentation experience.

  18. Measuring the vertical electrical field above an oceanic convection system using a meteorological sounding balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A. B.; Chiu, C.; Lai, S.; Chen, C.; Kuo, C.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical electric field above thundercloud plays an important role in the generation and modeling of transient luminous events. For example, Pasko [1995] proposed that the high quasi-static E-field following the positive cloud-to-ground lightning could accelerate and input energy to ambient electrons; as they collide and excite nitrogen and oxygen molecules in upper atmosphere, sprites may be induced. A series of balloon experiments led by Holzworth have investigated the temporal and spatial fluctuations of the electric field and conductivity in the upper atmosphere at different sites [Holzworth 2005, and references in]. But the strength and variation of the vertical electric field above thundercloud, especially oceanic ones, are not well documented so far. A lightweight, low-cost measurement system including an electric field meter and the associated aviation electronics are developed to carry out the in-situ measurement of the vertical electric field and the inter-cloud charge distribution. Our measuring system was first deployed using a meteorological sounding balloon from Taitung, Taiwan in May 2012. The measured electric field below 3km height shows an exponential decay and it is consistent with the expected potential gradient variation between ionosphere and the Earth surface. But the background strength of the measured E-field grows up exponentially and a violent fluctuations is also observed when the balloon flew over a developing oceanic convection cell. The preliminary results from this flight will be reported and discussed. This low-cost electric field meter is developed within one year. In the coming months, more flights will be performed with the aim to measure the rapid variation of the electric field above thundercloud as well as the E-field that may induce transient luminous events. Our ground campaigns show that the occurrence rates of blue and gigantic jet are relatively high in the vicinity of Taiwan. Our experiment can be used to diagnose

  19. Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will

  20. Analysis of meteorological data and the surface energy balance of Keqicar Glacier, Tien Shan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, S.; Fujita, K.; Han, H.; Li, J.

    2009-04-01

    Northwestern China currently experiences a climate change with fundamental consequences for the hydrological cycle. In the strongly arid region where water resources are essential for agriculture and food production, glaciers represent important water resources, contributing significantly to streamflow. The debris is an important glaciological feature of the region and has major impact on melt rates. It is essential to understand and quantify the interaction of climate and sub-debris melt in order to assess the current situation and to predict future water yield. Note that the surface energy balance determines glacier melt. However, little is known about the variability characteristics of the surface energy fluxes in this region. For this reason, we set up two automatic weather stuation (AWSs) in the ablation area of Keqicar Glacier. Keqicar Glacier is located in the Tarim River basin (largest inland river basin in China), southwestern Tien Shan, China. It is a representative debris-covered glacier with a length of 26.0 km and a total surface area of 83.6 km2. The thickness of the debris layer varies from 0.0 to 2.50 m in general. In some places large rocks are piled up to several meters. In this study, we report on analysis of meteorological data for the period 1 July-13 September 2003, from two automatic weather stations, aimed at studying the relationship between climate and ablation. One station is located on the lower part of the ablation area where the glacier is covered by debris layer, and the other near the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). All sensors were sampled every 10 seconds, and data were stored as hourly averages. The stations were visited regularly for maintenance at two weeks intervals depending on the weather conditions and location of the AWS. A total of 17 ablation stakes were drilled into the glacier at different elevations to monitor glacier melt during the study period. Readings were taken regularly in connection with AWS maintenance. The

  1. Land surface modelling in hydrology and meteorology – lessons learned from the Baltic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Graham

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available By both tradition and purpose, the land parameterization schemes of hydrological and meteorological models differ greatly. Meteorologists are concerned primarily with solving the energy balance, whereas hydrologists are most interested in the water balance. Meteorological climate models typically have multi-layered soil parameterisation that solves temperature fluxes numerically with diffusive equations. The same approach is carried over to a similar treatment of water transport. Hydrological models are not usually so interested in soil temperatures, but must provide a reasonable representation of soil moisture to get runoff right. To treat the heterogeneity of the soil, many hydrological models use only one layer with a statistical representation of soil variability. Such a hydrological model can be used on large scales while taking subgrid variability into account. Hydrological models also include lateral transport of water – an imperative if' river discharge is to be estimated. The concept of a complexity chain for coupled modelling systems is introduced, together with considerations for mixing model components. Under BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment and SWECLIM (Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, a large-scale hydrological model of runoff in the Baltic Basin is used to review atmospheric climate model simulations. This incorporates both the runoff record and hydrological modelling experience into atmospheric model development. Results from two models are shown. A conclusion is that the key to improved models may be less complexity. Perhaps the meteorological models should keep their multi-layered approach for modelling soil temperature, but add a simpler, yet physically consistent, hydrological approach for modelling snow processes and water transport in the soil. Keywords: land surface modelling; hydrological modelling; atmospheric climate models; subgrid variability; Baltic Basin

  2. Near-Surface Meteorology During the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS): Evaluation of Reanalyses and Global Climate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, G.; Shupe, M.D.; Caldwell, P.M.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Persson, O.; Boyle, J.S.; Kelley, M.; Klein, S.A.; Tjernstrom, M.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric measurements from the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) are used to evaluate the performance of three atmospheric reanalyses (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF)- Interim reanalysis, National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis, and NCEP-DOE (Department of Energy) reanalysis) and two global climate models (CAM5 (Community Atmosphere Model 5) and NASA GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) ModelE2) in simulation of the high Arctic environment. Quantities analyzed include near surface meteorological variables such as temperature, pressure, humidity and winds, surface-based estimates of cloud and precipitation properties, the surface energy budget, and lower atmospheric temperature structure. In general, the models perform well in simulating large-scale dynamical quantities such as pressure and winds. Near-surface temperature and lower atmospheric stability, along with surface energy budget terms, are not as well represented due largely to errors in simulation of cloud occurrence, phase and altitude. Additionally, a development version of CAM5, which features improved handling of cloud macro physics, has demonstrated to improve simulation of cloud properties and liquid water amount. The ASCOS period additionally provides an excellent example of the benefits gained by evaluating individual budget terms, rather than simply evaluating the net end product, with large compensating errors between individual surface energy budget terms that result in the best net energy budget.

  3. Measurement of complex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.M.

    1993-05-01

    Several of the components used in coil fabrication involve complex surfaces and dimensions that are not well suited to measurements using conventional dimensional measuring equipment. Some relatively simple techniques that are in use in the SSCL Magnet Systems Division (MSD) for incoming inspection will be described, with discussion of their suitability for specific applications. Components that are submitted for MSD Quality Assurance (QA) dimensional inspection may be divided into two distinct categories; the first category involves components for which there is an approved drawing and for which all nominal dimensions are known; the second category involves parts for which 'reverse engineering' is required, the part is available but there are no available drawings or dimensions. This second category typically occurs during development of coil end parts and coil turn filler parts where it is necessary to manually shape the part and then measure it to develop the information required to prepare a drawing for the part

  4. Comparison of the meteorology and surface energy balance at Storbreen and Midtdalsbreen, two glaciers in southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Giesen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We compare 5 years of meteorological records from automatic weather stations (AWSs on Storbreen and Midtdalsbreen, two glaciers in southern Norway, located approximately 120 km apart. The records are obtained from identical AWSs with an altitude difference of 120 m and cover the period September 2001 to September 2006. Air temperature at the AWS locations is found to be highly correlated, even with the seasonal cycle removed. The most striking difference between the two sites is the difference in wind climate. Midtdalsbreen is much more under influence of the large-scale circulation with wind speeds on average a factor 1.75 higher. On Storbreen, weaker katabatic winds are dominant. The main melt season is from May to September at both locations. During the melt season, incoming and net solar radiation are larger on Midtdalsbreen, whereas incoming and net longwave radiation are larger on Storbreen, primarily caused by thicker clouds on the latter. The turbulent fluxes are a factor 1.7 larger on Midtdalsbreen, mainly due to the higher wind speeds. Inter-daily fluctuations in the surface energy fluxes are very similar at the AWS sites. On average, melt energy is a factor 1.3 larger on Midtdalsbreen, a result of both larger net radiation and larger turbulent fluxes. The relative contribution of net radiation to surface melt is larger on Storbreen (76% than on Midtdalsbreen (66%. As winter snow depth at the two locations is comparable in most years, the larger amount of melt energy results in an earlier disappearance of the snowpack on Midtdalsbreen and 70% more ice melt than on Storbreen. We compare the relative and absolute values of the energy fluxes on Storbreen and Midtdalsbreen with reported values for glaciers at similar latitudes. Furthermore, a comparison is made with meteorological variables measured at two nearby weather stations, showing that on-site measurements are essential for an accurate calculation of the surface energy balance and

  5. The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, G. M.; Newman, C. N.; De Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Richardson, M. I.; Fairén, A. G.; Genzer, M.; Guzewich, S. D.; Haberle, R. M.; Harri, A.-M.; Kemppinen, O.; Lemmon, M. T.; Smith, M. D.; de la Torre-Juárez, M.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the complete set of in-situ meteorological data obtained from the Viking landers in the 1970s to today's Curiosity rover to review our understanding of the modern near-surface climate of Mars, with focus on the dust, CO2 and H2O cycles and their impact on the radiative and thermodynamic conditions near the surface. In particular, we provide values of the highest confidence possible for atmospheric opacity, atmospheric pressure, near-surface air temperature, ground temperature, near-surface wind speed and direction, and near-surface air relative humidity and water vapor content. Then, we study the diurnal, seasonal and interannual variability of these quantities over a span of more than twenty Martian years. Finally, we propose measurements to improve our understanding of the Martian dust and H2O cycles, and discuss the potential for liquid water formation under Mars' present day conditions and its implications for future Mars missions. Understanding the modern Martian climate is important to determine if Mars could have the conditions to support life and to prepare for future human exploration.

  6. Lightning Jump Algorithm and Relation to Thunderstorm Cell Tracking, GLM Proxy and Other Meteorological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Bateman, Monte

    2012-01-01

    The lightning jump algorithm has a robust history in correlating upward trends in lightning to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The algorithm uses the correlation between the physical principles that govern an updraft's ability to produce microphysical and kinematic conditions conducive for electrification and its role in the development of severe weather conditions. Recent work has demonstrated that the lightning jump algorithm concept holds significant promise in the operational realm, aiding in the identification of thunderstorms that have potential to produce severe or hazardous weather. However, a large amount of work still needs to be completed in spite of these positive results. The total lightning jump algorithm is not a stand-alone concept that can be used independent of other meteorological measurements, parameters, and techniques. For example, the algorithm is highly dependent upon thunderstorm tracking to build lightning histories on convective cells. Current tracking methods show that thunderstorm cell tracking is most reliable and cell histories are most accurate when radar information is incorporated with lightning data. In the absence of radar data, the cell tracking is a bit less reliable but the value added by the lightning information is much greater. For optimal application, the algorithm should be integrated with other measurements that assess storm scale properties (e.g., satellite, radar). Therefore, the recent focus of this research effort has been assessing the lightning jump's relation to thunderstorm tracking, meteorological parameters, and its potential uses in operational meteorology. Furthermore, the algorithm must be tailored for the optically-based GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), as what has been observed using Very High Frequency Lightning Mapping Array (VHF LMA) measurements will not exactly translate to what will be observed by GLM due to resolution and other instrument differences. Herein, we present some of

  7. The Role of Meteorology and Surface Condition to Multi-Decadal Variations of Dust Emission in Sahara and Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T. L.; Bian, H.; Brown, M. E.; Remer, L. A.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    North Africa is the world's largest dust source region influencing regional and global climate, human health, and even the local economy. However North Africa as a dust source is not uniform but it consists of the arid region (Sahara) and the semi-arid region (Sahel) with emission rates depending on meteorological and surface conditions. Several recent studies have shown that dust from North Africa seems to have a decreasing trend in the past three decades. The goal of this study is to better understand the controlling factors that determine the change of dust in North Africa using observational data and model simulations. First we analyze surface bareness conditions determined from a long-term satellite observed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for 1980-2008. Then we examine the key meteorological variables of precipitation and surface winds. Modeling experiments were conducted using the NASA Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, which has been recently updated with a dynamic dust source function. Using the method we separate the dust originating from the Sahel from that of the Sahara desert. We find that the surface wind speed is the most dominant factor affecting Sahelian dust emission while vegetation has a modulating effect. We will show regional differences in meteorological variables, surface conditions, dust emission, and dust distribution and address the relationships among meteorology, surface conditions, and dust emission/loading in the past three decades (1980-2008).

  8. Integrated modeling of the dynamic meteorological and sea surface conditions during the passage of Typhoon Morakot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Soo; Yamashita, Takao; Hsu, John R.-C.; Ding, Fei

    2013-01-01

    In August 2009, Typhoon Morakot caused massive flooding and devastating mudslides in the southern Taiwan triggered by extremely heavy rainfall (2777 mm in 4 days) which occurred during its passage. It was one of the deadliest typhoons that have ever attacked Taiwan in recent years. In this study, numerical simulations are performed for the storm surge and ocean surface waves, together with dynamic meteorological fields such as wind, pressure and precipitation induced by Typhoon Morakot, using an atmosphere-waves-ocean integrated modelling system. The wave-induced dissipation stress from breaking waves, whitecapping and depth-induced wave breaking, is parameterized and included in the wave-current interaction process, in addition to its influence on the storm surge level in shallow water along the coast of Taiwan. The simulated wind and pressure field captures the characteristics of the observed meteorological field. The spatial distribution of the accumulated rainfall within 4 days, from 00:00 UTC 6 August to 00:00 UTC 10 August 2009, shows similar patterns as the observed values. The 4-day accumulated rainfall of 2777 mm at the A-Li Shan mountain weather station for the same period depicted a high correlation with the observed value of 2780 mm/4 days. The effects of wave-induced dissipation stress in the wave-current interaction resulted in increased surge heights on the relatively shallow western coast of Taiwan, where the bottom slope of the bathymetry ranges from mild to moderate. The results also show that wave-breaking has to be considered for accurate storm surge prediction along the east coast of Taiwan over the narrow bank of surf zone with a high horizontal resolution of the model domain.

  9. Connecting meteorology to surface transport in aeolian landscapes: Peering into the boundary layer with Doppler lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, A.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Edmonds, D. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Wanker, M.; David, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Aolian sand dunes grow to 100s or 1000s of meters in wavelength by sand saltation, which also produces dust plumes that feed cloud formation and may spread around the world. The relations among sediment transport, landscape dynamics and wind are typically observed at the limiting ends of the relevant range: highly resolved and localized ground observations of turbulence and relevant fluxes; or regional and synoptic-scale meteorology and satellite imagery. Between the geostrophic winds aloft and shearing stress on the Earth's surface is the boundary layer, whose stability and structure determines how momentum is transferred and ultimately entrains sediment. Although the literature on atmospheric boundary layer flows is mature, this understanding is rarely applied to aeolian landscape dynamics. Moreover, there are few vertically and time-resolved datasets of atmospheric boundary layer flows in desert sand seas, where buoyancy effects are most pronounced. Here we employ a ground-based upward-looking doppler lidar to examine atmospheric boundary layer flow at the upwind margin of the White Sands (New Mexico) dune field, providing continuous 3D wind velocity data from the surface to 300-m aloft over 70 days of the characteristically windy spring season. Data show highly resolved daily cyles of convective instabilty due to daytime heating and stable stratification due to nightime cooling which act to enhance or depress, respectively, the surface wind stresses for a given free-stream velocity. Our data implicate convective instability in driving strong saltation and dust emission, because enhanced mixing flattens the vertical velocity profile (raising surface wind speed) while upward advection helps to deliver dust to the high atmosphere. We also find evidence for Ekman spiralling, with a magnitude that depends on atmospheric stability. This spiralling gives rise to a deflection in the direction between geostrophic and surface winds, that is significant for the

  10. Viking-2 Seismometer Measurements on Mars: PDS Data Archive and Meteorological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Nakamura, Yosio; Murphy, James R.

    2017-11-01

    A data product has been generated and archived on the NASA Planetary Data System (Geosciences Node), which presents the seismometer readings of Viking Lander 2 in an easy-to-access form, for both the raw ("high rate") waveform records and the compressed ("event mode") amplitude and frequency records. In addition to the records themselves, a separate summary file for each instrument mode lists key statistics of each record together with the meteorological measurements made closest in time to the seismic record. This juxtaposition facilitates correlation of the seismometer instrument response to different meteorological conditions, or the selection of seismic data during which wind disturbances can be expected to be small. We summarize data quality issues and also discuss lander-generated seismic signals, due to operation of the sampling arm or other systems, which may be of interest for prospective missions to other bodies. We review wind-seismic correlation, the "Martian solar day (sol) 80" candidate seismic event, and identify the seismic signature of a probable dust devil vortex on sol 482 : the seismometer data allow an estimate of the peak wind, occurring between coarsely spaced meteorology measurements. We present code to generate the plots in this paper to illustrate use of the data product.

  11. Comparison of surface meteorological data representativeness for the Weldon Spring transport and dispersion modeling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.

    1989-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of the SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus property available for other uses to the extent possible. This report presents the results of analysis of available meteorological data from stations near the Weldon Spring site. Data that are most representative of site conditions are needed to accurately model the transport and dispersion of air pollutants associated with remedial activities. Such modeling will assist the development of mitigative measures. 17 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Meteorological observations of the coastal boundary layer structure by remote measurement methods for determining the impact of meteorological conditions on the breeze circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barantiev, D.

    2010-09-01

    Continuous measurements of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer and the characteristics of breeze circulation were initiated at the meteorological observatory of Ahtopol on the Black Sea coast (south-east Bulgaria) under a Bulgarian-Russian collaborative programme. Research observations started in July 2008 and go on. These observations are the start of high resolution atmospheric boundary layer vertical structure climatology at a Bulgarian Black Sea coastal site. Automatic weather station «MK-15» with an acoustic anemometer (mounted at 4,5m height) and Flat Array Sodar without RASS extension «Scintec» were installed on polygon of Ahtopol. A preliminary analysis was made of the experimental data on the thermodynamic structure of the atmospheric boundary layer in the coastal zone. Vertical profiles of wind speed, direction and spatio-temporal sectional were constructed according to the sodar data. Graphs of temporal variations of the direction and modulus of wind velocity, vertical velocity, the standard deviation of the acoustic temperature and time variation of air temperature (at a height of 2m - standard synoptic measurements) were constructed according MK-15. The momentum u* = " - w-'u' and sensible heat H = w'T' surface turbulent fluxes were calculated from MK-15 raw data. Prevailing weather conditions contributing to breeze circulation in the area were investigated. Blurred pressure field of high pressure with warm air mass, clear and (or) the overcast weather was characterized for treatment cases. The average wind speed near the ground was did not exceed 3 m/s, with a ripple rate of up to 4 m/s according to MK-15. The nature of the wind changed direction during the day has been practically the same (i.e., diurnal repeats) in all cases. The breeze front location was also detected based on standard measurements in the surface layer (mean values of temperature at 2 m and wind speed and direction from MK-15). In the zone of the front the wind

  13. Meteorological and Land Surface Properties Impacting Sea Breeze Extent and Aerosol Distribution in a Dry Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Adele L.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Johnson, Jill S.

    2018-01-01

    The properties of sea breeze circulations are influenced by a variety of meteorological and geophysical factors that interact with one another. These circulations can redistribute aerosol particles and pollution and therefore can play an important role in local air quality, as well as impact remote sensing. In this study, we select 11 factors that have the potential to impact either the sea breeze circulation properties and/or the spatial distribution of aerosols. Simulations are run to identify which of the 11 factors have the largest influence on the sea breeze properties and aerosol concentrations and to subsequently understand the mean response of these variables to the selected factors. All simulations are designed to be representative of conditions in coastal sub tropical environments and are thus relatively dry, as such they do not support deep convection associated with the sea breeze front. For this dry sea breeze regime, we find that the background wind speed was the most influential factor for the sea breeze propagation, with the soil saturation fraction also being important. For the spatial aerosol distribution, the most important factors were the soil moisture, sea-air temperature difference, and the initial boundary layer height. The importance of these factors seems to be strongly tied to the development of the surface-based mixed layer both ahead of and behind the sea breeze front. This study highlights potential avenues for further research regarding sea breeze dynamics and the impact of sea breeze circulations on pollution dispersion and remote sensing algorithms.

  14. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1988, Part -2, Annex 2c, Environmental radioactivity control, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Zaric, M.; Adamovic, M.; Stevanovic, M.

    1988-01-01

    During 1988, meteorology measurements were continued as a part of the environmental control of the Vinca Institute. This report covers the period from November 1984 - November 1985. Part of the meteorology measurements and data analysis is adapted to the needs of the Institute, i.e. RA reactor and some Laboratories. The objective of these activities is forming the data base for solving everyday and special problems related to control, protection and safety of Institute environment [sr

  15. Effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Mehliyar; Tai, Amos P. K.; Lombardozzi, Danica; Martin, Maria Val

    2017-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the most hazardous air pollutants as it harms both human health and plant productivity. Foliage uptake of ozone via dry deposition damages photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. These foliage changes could lead to a cascade of biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects that not only modulate the carbon cycle, regional hydrometeorology and climate, but also cause feedbacks onto surface ozone concentration itself. In this study, we implement a semi-empirical parameterization of ozone damage on vegetation in the Community Earth System Model to enable online ozone-vegetation coupling, so that for the first time ecosystem structure and ozone concentration can coevolve in fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations. With ozone-vegetation coupling, present-day surface ozone is simulated to be higher by up to 4-6 ppbv over Europe, North America and China. Reduced dry deposition velocity following ozone damage contributes to ˜ 40-100 % of those increases, constituting a significant positive biogeochemical feedback on ozone air quality. Enhanced biogenic isoprene emission is found to contribute to most of the remaining increases, and is driven mainly by higher vegetation temperature that results from lower transpiration rate. This isoprene-driven pathway represents an indirect, positive meteorological feedback. The reduction in both dry deposition and transpiration is mostly associated with reduced stomatal conductance following ozone damage, whereas the modification of photosynthesis and further changes in ecosystem productivity are found to play a smaller role in contributing to the ozone-vegetation feedbacks. Our results highlight the need to consider two-way ozone-vegetation coupling in Earth system models to derive a more complete understanding and yield more reliable future predictions of ozone air quality.

  16. Meteorological and radiation measurements at Nabarlek, Northern Territory, June to July 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Davy, D.R.; Bendun, E.O.K.; O'Brien, B.

    1981-09-01

    A meteorological and radiation measurement program was conducted near the then developing uranium mine at Nabarlek in the Northern Territory. The two-filter tube radiation measuring technique was checked and compared with the continuous radon monitor and instant working level meter techniques. In general, the Nabarlek meteorology was characterised by weak stable layers and good ventilation conditions with winds rarely less than 1ms -1 . A comparison of wind measurements made near the open pit with those taken some 800 m away gave evidence of horizontal changes in the wind field over the site. Strong daytime winds gusting higher than 10 ms -1 caused a visible suspension of dust from the site. Dust deposition samples indicated that thorium-230 in air on site was a factor of twelve below the maximum permissible concentration for employees in Australia, but uranium was lower by several orders of magnitude. The concentrations of radioactivity in the aquatic food pathway, external radiation levels and radon daughter concentrations from deposited dust were likewise at least two orders of magnitude below the maximum concentrations permissible in Australia

  17. The enerMENA meteorological network - Solar radiation measurements in the MENA region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, D.; Wilbert, S.; Geuder, N.; Affolter, R.; Wolfertstetter, F.; Prahl, C.; Röger, M.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Abdellatif, G.; Guizani, A. Allah; Balghouthi, M.; Khalil, A.; Mezrhab, A.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Yassaa, N.; Chellali, F.; Draou, D.; Blanc, P.; Dubranna, J.; Sabry, O. M. K.

    2016-05-01

    For solar resource assessment of solar power plants and adjustment of satellite data, high accuracy measurement data of irradiance and ancillary meteorological data is needed. For the MENA region (Middle East and Northern Africa), which is of high importance for concentrating solar power applications, so far merely 2 publicly available ground measurement stations existed (BSRN network). This gap has been filled by ten stations in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan. In this publication the data quality is analyzed by evaluating data completeness and the cleanliness of irradiance sensors in comparison for all of the stations. The pyrheliometers have an average cleanliness of 99.2 % for week-daily cleaning. This is a 5 times higher effort than for Rotating Shadowband Irradiometer (RSI) stations which even have a slightly higher average cleanliness of 99.3 % for weekly cleaning. Furthermore, RSI stations show a data completeness of 99.4 % compared to 93.6 % at the stations equipped with thermal sensors. The results of this analysis are used to derive conclusions concerning instrument choice and are hence also applicable to other solar radiation measurements outside the enerMENA network. It turns out that RSIs are the more reliable and robust choice in cases of high soiling, rare station visits for cleaning and maintenance, as usual in desert sites. Furthermore, annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation as well as average meteorological parameters are calculated for all of the stations.

  18. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  19. BOREAS TF-06 SSA-YA Surface Energy Flux and Meteorological Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains meteorology data collected at the SSA-YA tower flux site by the TF6 group. These data were reported at 10 minute intervals. The flux and ancillary...

  20. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1989, Part 2 , Environmental radioactivity control - Meteorology measurements, Annex 2b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.; Zaric, M.

    1989-01-01

    Already poor state of the equipment and insufficient staff of the meteorology service in the Institute was not improved during the past year, on the contrary. In addition to the fact that the series of meteorology sensors available in the Institute are not appropriate for special measurements which are obligatory for nuclear facilities, it is clear that the methods of data acquisition and processing applied during the past year were such as emergency methods applied worldwide in case when automated measurements are not functioning. It is underlined that meteorology data acquisition and data processing are not in accordance with the legal regulations, which demand each nuclear facility owner to have an automated meteorology station [sr

  1. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  2. Data analysis of solar potential in northern Bulgaria obtained by measurements with tall meteorological masts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terziev, A.; Genovski, I.; Petrov, P.; Valchev, V.

    2010-01-01

    Energy from the sun as a renewable energy source could be used for producing not only heat energy but also electricity. The maximum utilization of this type energy requires very good knowledge of the solar radiation for an exact geographical location. Determination of the solar intensity is carried out with special devices called pyranometers. This work considers solar potential data analysis based on data collected from meteorological masts installed in Northern Bulgaria. Comparison between the data from on-site measurements and some long-term data sources well known in literature is also considered. The possibility of studying the interpolation between the points where measurements are carried out in order to obtain solar radiation intensity Filed for the area limited by the points of measurement is also reviewed. Based on correlation analysis results the estimated energy production within the studied area has been calculated. (authors)

  3. Response of surface and groundwater on meteorological drought in Topla River catchment, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Vrablikova, Dana; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Slivova, Valeria; Horvat, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Continuously increasing number of drought studies published in scientific journals reflects the attention of the scientific community paid to drought. The fundamental works among many others were published by Yevjevich (1967), Zelenhasic and Salvai (1987), later by Tallaksen and van Lanen Eds. (2004). The aim of the paper was to analyze the response of surface and groundwater to meteorological drought occurrence in the upper and middle part of the Topla River Basin, Slovakia. This catchment belongs to catchments with unfavourable hydrogeological conditions, being built of rocks with quite low permeability. The basin is located in the north-eastern part of Slovakia covering the area of 1050.05 km2. The response was analyzed using precipitation data from the Bardejov station (long-term annual average of 662 mm in 1981 - 2012) and discharge data from two gauging stations - Bardejov and Hanusovce nad Toplou. Data on groundwater head from eight observation wells, located in the catchment, were also used, covering the same observation period. Meteorological drought was estimated using characterisation of the year humidity and SPI index. Hydrological drought was evaluated using the threshold level method and method of sequent peak algorithm, both with the fixed and also variable thresholds. The centroid method of the cluster analysis with the squared Euclidean distance was used for clustering data according to occurrence of drought periods, lasting for 100 days and more. Results of the SPI index showed very good applicability for drought periods identification in the basin. The most pronounced dry periods occurred in 1982 - 1983, 1984, 1998 and 2012 being classified as moderately dry, and also in 1993 - 1994, 2003 - 2004 and 2007 evolving from moderately to severely dry years. Short-term drought prevailed in discharges, only three periods of drought longer than 100 days occurred during the evaluated period in 1986 - 1987, 1997 and 2003 - 2004. Discharge drought in the

  4. Transitioning Enhanced Land Surface Initialization and Model Verification Capabilities to the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Limaye, Ashutosh; Blankenship, Clay B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding, severe weather, and drought are key forecasting challenges for the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD), based in Nairobi, Kenya. Atmospheric processes leading to convection, excessive precipitation and/or prolonged drought can be strongly influenced by land cover, vegetation, and soil moisture content, especially during anomalous conditions and dry/wet seasonal transitions. It is thus important to represent accurately land surface state variables (green vegetation fraction, soil moisture, and soil temperature) in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. The NASA SERVIR and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) programs in Huntsville, AL have established a working partnership with KMD to enhance its regional modeling capabilities. SPoRT and SERVIR are providing experimental land surface initialization datasets and model verification capabilities for capacity building at KMD. To support its forecasting operations, KMD is running experimental configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008) model on a 12-km/4-km nested regional domain over eastern Africa, incorporating the land surface datasets provided by NASA SPoRT and SERVIR. SPoRT, SERVIR, and KMD participated in two training sessions in March 2014 and June 2015 to foster the collaboration and use of unique land surface datasets and model verification capabilities. Enhanced regional modeling capabilities have the potential to improve guidance in support of daily operations and high-impact weather and climate outlooks over Eastern Africa. For enhanced land-surface initialization, the NASA Land Information System (LIS) is run over Eastern Africa at 3-km resolution, providing real-time land surface initialization data in place of interpolated global model soil moisture and temperature data available at coarser resolutions. Additionally, real-time green vegetation fraction (GVF) composites from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS instrument is being incorporated

  5. Effects of meteorological models on the solution of the surface energy balance and soil temperature variations in bare soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hirotaka; Šimůnek, Jiri

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA complete evaluation of the soil thermal regime can be obtained by evaluating the movement of liquid water, water vapor, and thermal energy in the subsurface. Such an evaluation requires the simultaneous solution of the system of equations for the surface water and energy balance, and subsurface heat transport and water flow. When only daily climatic data is available, one needs not only to estimate diurnal cycles of climatic data, but to calculate the continuous values of various components in the energy balance equation, using different parameterization methods. The objective of this study is to quantify the impact of the choice of different estimation and parameterization methods, referred together to as meteorological models in this paper, on soil temperature predictions in bare soils. A variety of widely accepted meteorological models were tested on the dataset collected at a proposed low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in the Chihuahua Desert in West Texas. As the soil surface was kept bare during the study, no vegetation effects were evaluated. A coupled liquid water, water vapor, and heat transport model, implemented in the HYDRUS-1D program, was used to simulate diurnal and seasonal soil temperature changes in the engineered cover installed at the site. The modified version of HYDRUS provides a flexible means for using various types of information and different models to evaluate surface mass and energy balance. Different meteorological models were compared in terms of their prediction errors for soil temperatures at seven observation depths. The results obtained indicate that although many available meteorological models can be used to solve the energy balance equation at the soil-atmosphere interface in coupled water, vapor, and heat transport models, their impact on overall simulation results varies. For example, using daily average climatic data led to greater prediction errors, while relatively simple meteorological models may

  6. A marine meteorological data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    A marine meteorological data acquisition system has been developed for long term unattended measurements at remote coastal sites, ocean surface platforms and for use on board research vessels. The system has an open and modular configuration...

  7. Measurements of atmospheric aerosol in the Salentum Peninsula and its correlation with local meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belosi, F.; Prodi, F.; Contini, D.; Donateo, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the results of measurements of Total Suspended Particles (TSP), PM10 and PM2.5 and their correlation with meteorological parameters are presented. The samplings were carried out with a mobile laboratory in seven locations in the Salentum Peninsula located in the southeastern part of Italy in Puglia. Measurements were taken discontinuously during the period 2002-2005. Up to now no systematic analyses of aerosol concentrations in the Salentum Peninsula have been presented in the scientific literature. This study is therefore a useful basis for assessing the local situation and for planning future monitoring. Measurements have been performed, on a daily basis, using standard European inlet (CEN-EN12341, 1998) and successive gravimetric detection of aerosol deposited on filters. The measurement sites can be considered representative of urban background for all the cases investigated. An analysis of the random uncertainties (LOQ and LOD) for the different types of filters used is reported. Results show concentrations in good agreement with lognormal distributions, indicating that the PM10 fraction is about 66% of TSP and PM2.5 is about 67% of PM10, which has allowed to evaluate that the fraction of PM2.5 is about 44% of TSP. Concentration levels were correlated with local meteorological parameters, especially with wind velocity and precipitations. Results indicate that during rainy days the average concentration is reduced of about 70% and the reduction is larger for TSP and PM10 with respect to PM2.5. There is, on average, a substantial decrease of concentration levels in high wind conditions. Results also suggest the possibility of a significant contribution of African dust to PM10 and TSP, especially in the spring and summer season, which could be responsible for some days with concentrations above the threshold imposed by the European legislation on PM10

  8. Simulating air temperature in an urban street canyon in all weather conditions using measured data at a reference meteorological station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erell, E.; Williamson, T.

    2006-10-01

    A model is proposed that adapts data from a standard meteorological station to provide realistic site-specific air temperature in a city street exposed to the same meso-scale environment. In addition to a rudimentary description of the two sites, the canyon air temperature (CAT) model requires only inputs measured at standard weather stations; yet it is capable of accurately predicting the evolution of air temperature in all weather conditions for extended periods. It simulates the effect of urban geometry on radiant exchange; the effect of moisture availability on latent heat flux; energy stored in the ground and in building surfaces; air flow in the street based on wind above roof height; and the sensible heat flux from individual surfaces and from the street canyon as a whole. The CAT model has been tested on field data measured in a monitoring program carried out in Adelaide, Australia, in 2000-2001. After calibrating the model, predicted air temperature correlated well with measured data in all weather conditions over extended periods. The experimental validation provides additional evidence in support of a number of parameterisation schemes incorporated in the model to account for sensible heat and storage flux.

  9. Environmental gamma radiation measurements in Finland and the influence of the meteorological conditions after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Blomqvist, L.; Lemmelae, H.; Savolainen, A.L.; Sarkkula, S.

    1987-06-01

    Results from a survey of environmental gamma radiation levels in Finland after the Chernobyl accident 1986 were presented. The measurements were made by means of sensitive Geiger-counters and a gamma-spectrometer placed in cars. The results presented the level of external radiation caused by the cesium fallout on the first of October 1986. In the center of Southern Finland there are wide areas with exposure levels exceeding 0.04 μSv h -1 , areas exceeding 0.2 μSv h -1 being very rare. The surface area weighted mean dose rate for the 461 municipalities in Finland was 0.037 $mu$Sv h -1 (range 0-0.23 μSv h -1 ). The corresponding estimated surface activity of 137 Cs was 10.7 kBq m -2 . The population weighted mean dose rate was 0.051 μSv h -1 . Results from measurements at eight dose rate monitoring stations were presented as daily dose rate recordings in 1985-1986, the rate of decrease of the excess dose rate demonstrating quite large variations in the period from May to August. This indicated that the composition of the short-lived nuclides in the fallout varied from place to place. The influence of the meteorological conditions were reported with precipitation data from six days after the accident. There was a clear correlation between the results from precipitation and radiation measurements in different parts of Finland

  10. Annual report 2004 of the air-quality and meteorological measurements of the Federal Environment Agency Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangl, W.; Nagl, C.; Leeb, C.

    2005-01-01

    The air quality and meteorological measurements performed in several stations (Enzenkirchen, Illmitz, Pillersdorf, St. Koloman, St. Sigmund, Sonnblick, Stolzalpe, Sulzberg, Vorhegg and Zoebelboden) in Austria during 2004 are given. These activities were performed to fulfill the Emissions Protection law (Immissionsschutzgesetz-Luft) and the Ozone Law (Ozongesetz) as well as to collaborate with the Global Atmosphere Watch-measurement program of the World Meteorological Organization. The following pollutants were measured: ozone, PM10, PM2.5, PM1, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, nickel), VOC (benzene, toluene, xylenes, alkenes, alkanes), atmospheric precipitations (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - -N, NH 4 + -N, Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl - , K + ), methane. The meteorological measurements were wind, temperature, global radiations, duration of sun shine, rainfall precipitation. figs. 32, tabs. 45 (nevyjel)

  11. Measurement of thermal transmittance of opaque facade wall relationship with meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunović Biljana S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measurements of thermal transmittance or as otherwise called U-value [W/m2⋅K] of opaque facade wall of preschool institution built in 1977. The building has an incomplete technical documentation according to which considered wall was built of brick and masonry mortar. Thermal characteristics of the incorporated materials have not been specified. Considering that in the period of building construction JUS standards was used, a possible range of calculated U-vales was obtained (1,241-1,404 W/m2·K. Measurements were performed in accordance with ISO 9869 during three time periods with the resulting U-values (1,269±0,276 W/m2·K; 1,025±0,175 W/m2·K; 1,200±0,212 W/m2·K that do not differ from each other within experimental uncertainty. Furthermore, the correlation of the measured U-values and meteorological conditions that prevailed during the measurements was analyzed. In the second measurement period, the average values of the total cloud cover and low cloud cover were less, and the average duration of sunshine was longer than in the other two measurement periods.

  12. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1994. Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements; Deo 2 - Prilog 4 - Meteoroloska merenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grsic, Z; Adamovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1994-12-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day. [Serbo-Croat] Meteoroloska merenja u Institutu obavljaju se u skladu sa pravilnikom o nacinu, obimu i rokovima ispitivanja kontaminacije radioaktivnim materijama u okolini nuklearnih objekata. Predvidjeno je da se merenja i obrada podataka obavljaju automatskom meteoroloskom stanicom, medjutim do sada se dnevni meteoroloski bilten Instituta zavrsava na racunaru ali se prikupljanje i unos podataka radi manuelno. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi tabelarni i graficki prikaz rezultata obrade meteoroloskih merenja i osmatranja na meteoroloskoj stanici koja se nalazi u Institutu. Racunarski programi za obradu merenih podataka razvijeni su u Institutu. Podaci se sakupljaju u 24 dnevna termina, manuelno obradjuju, a zatim unose u mehanografske obrasce i u racunar. Originalni meteoroloski podaci arhiviraju se u obliku analognih zapisa.

  13. Exploring the relationship between meteorology and surface PM2.5 in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Paulot, F.; Ginoux, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Northern India is one of the most polluted and densely populated regions in world. Accurately modeling pollution in the region is difficult due to the extreme conditions with respect to emissions, meteorology, and topography, but it is paramount in order to understand how future changes in emissions and climate may alter the region's pollution regime. We evaluate a developmental version of the new-generation NOAA GFDL Atmospheric Model, version 4 (AM4) in its ability to simulate observed wintertime PM2.5 and its relationship to meteorology over the Northern India (23°N-31°N, 68°E-90°E). We perform two simulations of the GFDL-AM4 nudged to observed meteorology for the period (1980-2016) with two emission inventories developed for CMIP5 and CMIP6 and compare results with observations from India's Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for the period 1 October 2015 - 31 March 2016. Overall, our results indicate that the simulation with CMIP6 emissions has substantially reduced the low model bias in the region. The AM4, albeit biased low, generally simulates the magnitude and daily variability in observed total PM2.5. Ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate are the primary components of PM2.5 in the model, and although not directly observed, correlations of total observed PM2.5 and meteorology with the modeled individual PM2.5 components suggest the same for the observations. The model correctly reproduces the shape and magnitude of the seasonal cycle of PM2.5; but for the diurnal cycle, it misses the early evening rise and secondary maximum found in the observations. Observed PM2.5 abundances within the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain are by far the highest and are closely related to boundary layer meteorology, specifically relative humidity, wind speed, boundary layer height, and inversion strength. The GFDL-AM4 reproduces the observed pollution gradient over Northern India as well as the strength of the meteorology-PM2.5 relationship in most locations.

  14. Measurement of the meteorological parameters in Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant using captive balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Lobo, M.A. da; Lima e Silva Filho, P.P. de; Eschebach, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology to obtain the meteorological parameters in the vicinity of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant is presented. The study of the atmospheric dispersion is done by the analysis of the results and it is a complement of the meteorological operation of Angra-1 and pre-operation of Angra-2 and 3 program. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  16. Methods and strategy for modeling daily global solar radiation with measured meteorological data - A case study in Nanchang station, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Tiejun

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical and biological processes on the earth's surface, and complete and accurate solar radiation data at a specific region are quite indispensable to the solar energy related researches. This study, with Nanchang station, China, as a case study, aimed to calibrate existing models and develop new models for estimating missing global solar radiation data using commonly measured meteorological data and to propose a strategy for selecting the optimal models under different situations of available meteorological data. Using daily global radiation, sunshine hours, temperature, total precipitation and dew point data covering the years from 1994 to 2005, we calibrated or developed and evaluated seven existing models and two new models. Validation criteria included intercept, slope, coefficient of determination, mean bias error and root mean square error. The best result (R 2 = 0.93) was derived from Chen model 2, which uses sunshine hours and temperature as predictors. The Bahel model, which only uses sunshine hours, was almost as good, explaining 92% of the solar radiation variance. Temperature based models (Bristow and Campbell, Allen, Hargreaves and Chen 1 models) provided less accurate results, of which the best one (R 2 = 0.69) is the Bristow and Campbell model. The temperature based models were improved by adding other variables (daily mean total precipitation and mean dew point). Two such models could explain 77% (Wu model 1) and 80% (Wu model 2) of the solar radiation variance. We, thus, propose a strategy for selecting an optimal method for calculating missing daily values of global solar radiation: (1) when sunshine hour and temperature data are available, use Chen model 2; (2) when only sunshine hour data are available, use Bahel model; (3) when temperature, total precipitation and dew point data are available but not sunshine hours, use Wu model 2; (4) when only temperature and total precipitation are

  17. Long term measurements of submicrometer urban aerosols: statistical analysis for correlations with meteorological conditions and trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wehner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term measurements (over 4 years of particle number size distributions (submicrometer particles, 3-800 nm in diameter, trace gases (NO, NO2, and O3, and meteorological parameters (global radiation, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, etc. were taken in a moderately polluted site in the city of Leipzig (Germany. The resulting complex data set was analyzed with respect to seasonal, weekly, and diurnal variation of the submicrometer aerosol. Car traffic produced a peak in the number size distribution at around 20 nm particle diameter during morning rush hour on weekdays. A second peak at 10-15 nm particle diameter occurred around noon during summer, confirmed by high correlation between concentration of particles less than 20 nm and the global radiation. This new-particle formation at noon was correlated with the amount of global radiation. A high concentration of accumulation mode particles (between 100 and 800 nm, which are associated with large particle-surface area, might prevent this formation. Such high particle concentration in the ultrafine region (particles smaller than 20 nm in diameter was not detected in the particle mass, and thus, particle mass concentration is not suitable for determining the diurnal patterns of particles. In summer, statistical time series analysis showed a cyclic pattern of ultrafine particles with a period of one day and confirmed the correlation with global radiation. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed a strong correlation between the particle concentration for 20-800 nm particles and the NO- and NO2-concentrations, indicating the influence of combustion processes on this broad size range, in particular during winter. In addition, PCA also revealed that particle concentration depended on meteorological conditions such as wind speed and wind direction, although the dependence differed with particle size class.

  18. Meteorological and surface water observations from the Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System from 2007-04-25 to 2016-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0159578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological and surface water observations from the Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System. Ten stations are located from the mouth of the Susquehanna river near...

  19. El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) Field Campaign: Surface Meteorological Data from Kiritimati Island, January-March 2016 (NCEI Accession 0161526)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains surface meteorological data from Kiritimati (Christmas) Island, collected 25 January to 28 March 2016. These data have been corrected for known...

  20. Underway sea surface temperature and salinity data from thermosalinographs collected from multiple platforms assembled by NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains sea surface oceanographic data in netCDF and ASCII formatted files assembled by the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological...

  1. The 3D Mesonet Concept: Extending Networked Surface Meteorological Tower Observations Through Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilson, P. B.; Fiebrich, C. A.; Huck, R.; Grimsley, J.; Salazar-Cerreno, J.; Carson, K.; Jacob, J.

    2017-12-01

    Fixed monitoring sites, such as those in the US National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) and the Oklahoma Mesonet provide valuable, high temporal resolution information about the atmosphere to forecasters and the general public. The Oklahoma Mesonet is comprised of a network of 120 surface sites providing a wide array of atmospheric measurements up to a height of 10 m with an update time of five minutes. The deployment of small unmanned aircraft to collect in-situ vertical measurements of the atmospheric state in conjunction with surface conditions has potential to significantly expand weather observation capabilities. This concept can enhance the safety of individuals and support commerce through improved observations and short-term forecasts of the weather and other environmental variables in the lower atmosphere. We report on a concept of adding the capability of collecting vertical atmospheric measurements (profiles) through the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) at remote Oklahoma sites deemed suitable for this application. While there are a number of other technologies currently available that can provide measurements of one or a few variables, the proposed UAS concept will be expandable and modular to accommodate several different sensor packages and provide accurate in-situ measurements in virtually all weather conditions. Such a system would facilitate off-site maintenance and calibration and would provide the ability to add new sensors as they are developed or as new requirements are identified. The small UAS must be capable of accommodating the weight of all sensor packages and have lighting, communication, and aircraft avoidance systems necessary to meet existing or future FAA regulations. The system must be able to operate unattended, which necessitates the inclusion of risk mitigation measures such as a detect and avoid radar and the ability to transmit and receive transponder signals. Moreover, the system should be able to

  2. Using satellite data on meteorological and vegetation characteristics and soil surface humidity in the Land Surface Model for the vast territory of agricultural destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Vasilenko, Eugene; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The model of water and heat exchange between vegetation covered territory and atmosphere (LSM, Land Surface Model) for vegetation season has been developed to calculate soil water content, evapotranspiration, infiltration of water into the soil, vertical latent and sensible heat fluxes and other water and heat balances components as well as soil surface and vegetation cover temperatures and depth distributions of moisture and temperature. The LSM is suited for utilizing satellite-derived estimates of precipitation, land surface temperature and vegetation characteristics and soil surface humidity for each pixel. Vegetation and meteorological characteristics being the model parameters and input variables, correspondingly, have been estimated by ground observations and thematic processing measurement data of scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, SEVIRI/Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3) and MSU-MR/Meteor-M № 2. Values of soil surface humidity has been calculated from remote sensing data of scatterometers ASCAT/MetOp-A, -B. The case study has been carried out for the territory of part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region of European Russia with area of 227300 km2 located in the forest-steppe zone for years 2012-2015 vegetation seasons. The main objectives of the study have been: - to built estimates of precipitation, land surface temperatures (LST) and vegetation characteristics from MSU-MR measurement data using the refined technologies (including algorithms and programs) of thematic processing satellite information matured on AVHRR and SEVIRI data. All technologies have been adapted to the area of interest; - to investigate the possibility of utilizing satellite-derived estimates of values above in the LSM including verification of obtained estimates and development of procedure of their inputting into the model. From the AVHRR data there have been built the estimates of precipitation, three types of LST: land skin temperature Tsg, air temperature at a level of

  3. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  4. Artefacts for optical surface measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stuart; Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Brownhill, Andrew; MacDonald, Lindsay

    2011-07-01

    Flexible manufacturing technologies are supporting the routine production of components with freeform surfaces in a wide variety of materials and surface finishes. Such surfaces may be exploited for both aesthetic and performance criteria for a wide range of industries, for example automotive, aircraft, small consumer goods and medial components. In order to ensure conformance between manufactured part and digital design it is necessary to understand, validate and promote best practice of the available measurement technologies. Similar, but currently less quantifiable, measurement requirements also exist in heritage, museum and fine art recording where objects can be individually hand crafted to extremely fine levels of detail. Optical 3D measurement systems designed for close range applications are typified by one or more illumination sources projecting a spot, line or structured light pattern onto a surface or surfaces of interest. Reflections from the projected light are detected in one or more imaging devices and measurements made concerning the location, intensity and optionally colour of the image. Coordinates of locations on the surface may be computed either directly from an understanding of the illumination and imaging geometry or indirectly through analysis of the spatial frequencies of the projected pattern. Regardless of sensing configuration some independent means is necessary to ensure that measurement capability will meet the requirements of a given level of object recording and is consistent for variations in surface properties and structure. As technologies mature, guidelines for best practice are emerging, most prominent at the current time being the German VDI/VDE 2634 and ISO/DIS 10360-8 guidelines. This considers state of the art capabilities for independent validation of optical non-contact measurement systems suited to the close range measurement of table top sized manufactured or crafted objects.

  5. Database of meteorological and radiation measurements made in Belarus during the first three months following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2013-01-01

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow's milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow's milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. - Highlights: ► Meteorological and radiation measurements done after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus were collected. ► Data were verified and incorporated into a single database. ► Results of this study is being used to improve the thyroid dose estimates after the Chernobyl accident.

  6. Towards routine measurements of meteorological and aerosol parameters using small unmanned aerial and tethered balloon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, F.; Dexheimer, D.; Hubbe, J. M.; deBoer, G.; Schmid, B.; Ivey, M.; Longbottom, C.; Carroll, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Inaugural Campaigns for ARM Research using Unmanned Systems (ICARUS) had been launched in 2016 and then the effort has been continued in 2017. ICARUS centered on Oliktok Point, Alaska focusses on developing routine operations of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and Tethered Balloon Systems (TBS). The operation routine practiced during ICARUS 2016 provided valuable guidance for the ICARUS 2017 deployment. During two intensive operation periods in 2017, a small DataHawk II UAS has been deployed to collect data for two weeks each in May and August. Coordinated with DataHawk flights, the TBS has been launched with meteorology sensors such as iMet and Tethersondes, therefore vertical profiles of the basic atmospheric state (temperature, humidity, and horizontal wind) were observed simultaneously by UAS and TBS. In addition, an aerosol payload was attached and launched with 2 TBS flights in April and 7 TBS flights in May, which include a condensation particle counter (CPC, TSI 3007) and two printed optical particle spectrometers (POPS, Handix TBS version). The two POPS were operated at different inlet temperatures. This approach provided potential measurements for aerosol optical closure in future. Measured aerosol properties include total particle number concentrations, particle size distribution, at different ambient temperature and relative humidity. Vertical profiles of atmospheric state and aerosol properties will be discussed based on the coordinated flights. Monthly variation will be assessed with data from the upcoming August flights.

  7. Meteorologically-adjusted trend analysis of surface observed ozone at three monitoring sites in Delhi, India: 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J.; Farooqui, Z.; Guttikunda, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that meteorological parameters have significant impact on surface ozone concentrations. Therefore it is important to remove the effects of meteorology on ozone concentrations to correctly estimate long-term trends in ozone levels due to the alterations in precursor emissions. This is important for the development of effectual control strategies. In this study surface observed ozone trends in New Delhi are analyzed using Komogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter, US EPA ozone adjustment due to weather approach and the classification and regression tree method. The statistical models are applied to the ozone data at three observational sites in New Delhi metropolitan areas, 1) Income Tax Office (ITO) 2) Sirifort and 3) Delhi College of Engineering (DCE). The ITO site is located adjacent to a traffic crossing, Sirifort is an urban site and the DCE site is located in a residential area. The ITO site is also influenced by local industrial emissions. DCE has higher ozone levels than the other two sites. It was found that ITO has lowest ozone concentrations amongst the three sites due to ozone titrating due to industrial and on-road mobile NOx emissions. The statistical methods employed can assess ozone trends at these sites with a high degree of confidence and the results can be used to gauge the effectiveness of control strategies on surface ozone levels in New Delhi.

  8. Results of environmental radiation monitoring and meteorology measurements (material prepared for obtaining the licence for RA reactor experimental operation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    According to the demands for obtaining the licence for restarting the Ra reactor and the experimental operation this document includes the radiation monitoring measured data in the working space and environment of the RA reactor, i.e. Boris Kidric Institute. The meteorology measured data are included as well. All the measurements are performed according to the radiation protection program applied actually from the first reactor start-up at the end of 1959 [sr

  9. Measurement of meteorological data based on wireless data acquisition system monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghanem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of solar energy potential of a region requires detailed solar radiation climatology, and it is necessary to collect extensive radiation data of high accuracy covering all climatic zones of the region. In this regard, a wireless data acquisition system (WDAS) would help to estimate solar energy potential considering the remote region's energy requirement. This article explains the design and implementation of WDAS for assessment of solar energy. The proposed system consists of a set of sensors for measuring meteorological parameters. The collected data are first conditioned using precision electronic circuits and then interfaced to a PC using RS232 connection via wireless unit. The LabVIEW program is used to further process, display and store the collected data in the PC disk. The proposed architecture permits the rapid system development and has the advantage of flexibility and it can be easily extended for controlling the renewable energy systems like photovoltaic system. The WDAS with executive information systems and reporting tools helps to tap vast data resources and deliver information.

  10. Effects of nearby surface features on wind speed at a nuclear plant meteorological station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.A.; Goodwin, R.J.; Pittman, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a definite cause and effect relationship between the trees in the vicinity of the meteorological tower and the wind speed at the 10-meter level on the meteorological tower. For the affected directions, horizontal wind speed is significantly reduced below what it would be for that level if the trees were not present. This effect is only slightly less for the 10:1 exposure achieved with the 1977 tree clearing, which illustrates that meeting this commonly accepted distance to height ratio does not assure representativeness of 10-meter data collected at a nuclear plant site. The somewhat stronger effect for winds from the south through southwest directions may be partly attributable to the abrupt change in roughness and elevation encountered by air moving at an angle or directly across the reservoir, which is 3.5 to 5.0 kilometers wide at this site. This general reduction in wind speed values below what would be expected at the plant location will result in biased dispersion estimates. Calculated relative concentration values for releases treated as ground-level or building-wake releases would be larger than actual concentrations. While this would provide conservative concentration values, radioactive plume transport calculations would be nonconservative. The calculated, or predicted, transport rate would be slower than the actual transport rate. Such local biases affecting the spatial representativeness of airflow at 10 meters are a primary reason for TVA's decision to use 46-meter wind data for ground-level transport and diffusion modeling in its radiological emergency preparedness program

  11. A database of 10 min average measurements of solar radiation and meteorological variables in Ostrava, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Opálková

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A database containing 10 min means of solar irradiance measured on a horizontal plane in several ultraviolet and visible bands from July 2014 to December 2016 at three stations in the area of the city of Ostrava (Czech Republic is presented. The database contains time series of 10 min average irradiances or photosynthetic photon flux densities measured in the following spectral bands: 280–315 nm (UVB; 315–380 nm (UVA; and 400–700 nm (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR; 510–700 nm; 600–700 nm; 610–680 nm; 690–780 nm; 400–1100 nm. A series of meteorological variables including relative air humidity and air temperature at surface is also provided at the same 10 min time step at all three stations, and precipitation is provided for two stations. Air pressure, wind speed, wind direction, and concentrations of air pollutants PM10, SO2, NOx, NO, NO2 were measured at the 1 h time step at the fourth station owned by the Public Health Institute of Ostrava. The details of the experimental sites and instruments used for the measurements are given. Special attention is given to the data quality, and the original approach to the data quality which was established is described in detail. About 130 000 records for each of the three stations are available in the database. This database offers a unique ensemble of variables having a high temporal resolution and it is a reliable source for radiation in relation to environment and vegetation in highly polluted areas of industrial cities in the of northern mid-latitudes. The database has been placed on the PANGAEA repository (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879722 and contains individual data files for each station.

  12. A database of 10 min average measurements of solar radiation and meteorological variables in Ostrava, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opálková, Marie; Navrátil, Martin; Špunda, Vladimír; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2018-04-01

    A database containing 10 min means of solar irradiance measured on a horizontal plane in several ultraviolet and visible bands from July 2014 to December 2016 at three stations in the area of the city of Ostrava (Czech Republic) is presented. The database contains time series of 10 min average irradiances or photosynthetic photon flux densities measured in the following spectral bands: 280-315 nm (UVB); 315-380 nm (UVA); and 400-700 nm (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR); 510-700 nm; 600-700 nm; 610-680 nm; 690-780 nm; 400-1100 nm. A series of meteorological variables including relative air humidity and air temperature at surface is also provided at the same 10 min time step at all three stations, and precipitation is provided for two stations. Air pressure, wind speed, wind direction, and concentrations of air pollutants PM10, SO2, NOx, NO, NO2 were measured at the 1 h time step at the fourth station owned by the Public Health Institute of Ostrava. The details of the experimental sites and instruments used for the measurements are given. Special attention is given to the data quality, and the original approach to the data quality which was established is described in detail. About 130 000 records for each of the three stations are available in the database. This database offers a unique ensemble of variables having a high temporal resolution and it is a reliable source for radiation in relation to environment and vegetation in highly polluted areas of industrial cities in the of northern mid-latitudes. The database has been placed on the PANGAEA repository (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879722" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879722) and contains individual data files for each station.

  13. Motivational Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  14. Semi-automatic handling of meteorological ground measurements using WeatherProg: prospects and practical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Giuliano; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Manna, Piero; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    calculations in an automatic fashion, except the need of a human interaction upon specific issues (such as the decision whether a measurement is an anomaly or not according to the detected temporal and spatial variations with contiguous points). The presented computer program runs from command line and shows peculiar characteristics in the cascade modelling within different contexts belonging to agriculture, phytopathology and environment. In particular, it can be a powerful tool to set up cutting-edge regional web services based on weather information. Indeed, it can support territorial agencies in charge of meteorological and phytopathological bulletins.

  15. Surface flow measurements from drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Drones are transforming the way we sense and interact with the environment. However, despite their increased capabilities, the use of drones in geophysical sciences usually focuses on image acquisition for generating high-resolution maps. Motivated by the increasing demand for innovative and high performance geophysical observational methodologies, we posit the integration of drone technology and optical sensing toward a quantitative characterization of surface flow phenomena. We demonstrate that a recreational drone can be used to yield accurate surface flow maps of sub-meter water bodies. Specifically, drone's vibrations do not hinder surface flow observations, and velocity measurements are in agreement with traditional techniques. This first instance of quantitative water flow sensing from a flying drone paves the way to novel observations of the environment.

  16. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Quasi-periodic oscillations of aerosol backscatter profiles and surface meteorological parameters during winter nights over a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Manoj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric gravity waves, which are a manifestation of the fluctuations in buoyancy of the air parcels, are well known for their direct influence on concentration of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols, and also on oscillations of meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, visibility and so on. The present paper reports quasi-periodic oscillations in the lidar backscatter signal strength due to aerosol fluctuations in the nocturnal boundary layer, studied with a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro pulse lidar and concurrent meteorological parameters over a tropical station in India. The results of the spectral analysis of the data, archived on some typical clear-sky conditions during winter months of 2008 and 2009, exhibit a prominent periodicity of 20–40 min in lidar-observed aerosol variability and show close association with those observed in the near-surface temperature and wind at 5% statistical significance. Moreover, the lidar aerosol backscatter signal strength variations at different altitudes, which have been generated from the height-time series of the one-minute interval profiles at 2.4 m vertical resolution, indicate vertical propagation of these waves, exchanging energy between lower and higher height levels. Such oscillations are favoured by the stable atmospheric background condition and peculiar topography of the experimental site. Accurate representation of these buoyancy waves is essential in predicting the sporadic fluctuations of weather in the tropics.

  18. Method of measuring surface density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of measuring surface density or thickness, preferably of coating layers, using radiation emitted by a suitable radionuclide, e.g., 241 Am. The radiation impinges on the measured material, e.g., a copper foil and in dependence on its surface density or thickness part of the flux of impinging radiation is reflected and part penetrates through the material. The radiation which has penetrated through the material excites in a replaceable adjustable backing characteristic radiation of an energy close to that of the impinging radiation (within +-30 keV). Part of the flux of the characteristic radiation spreads back to the detector, penetrates through the material in which in dependence on surface density or thickness of the coating layer it is partly absorbed. The flux of the penetrated characteristic radiation impinging on the face of the detector is a function of surface density or thickness. Only that part of the energy is evaluated of the energy spectrum which corresponds to the energy of characteristic radiation. (B.S.)

  19. Optical measurements on contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, T. E.; Schmitt, R. J.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A bidirectional reflectometer system was developed for in situ measurements of the changes in spectral reflectance of surfaces contaminated with films of organic materials. The system permits experiments with films of controlled thickness in an environment that simulates the thermal, radiation, and vacuum conditions of space. The mechanical and optical construction of the reflectometer are discussed in detail, and actual data curves are used to illustrate its operation and performance.

  20. The impacts of urban surface characteristics on radiation balance and meteorological variables in the boundary layer around Beijing in summertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiting; Han, Zhiwei; Wu, Jian; Hu, Yonghong; Li, Jiawei

    2017-11-01

    In this study, some key geometric and thermal parameters derived from recent field and satellite observations in Beijing were collected and incorporated into WRF-UCM (Weather Research and Forecasting) model instead of previous default ones. A series of sensitivity model simulations were conducted to investigate the influences of these parameters on radiation balance, meteorological variables, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), as well as planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) in regions around Beijing in summer 2014. Model validation demonstrated that the updated parameters represented urban surface characteristics more realistically and the simulations of meteorological variables were evidently improved to be closer to observations than the default parameters. The increase in building height tended to increase and slightly decrease surface air temperature at 2 m (T2) at night and around noon, respectively, and to reduce wind speed at 10 m (WS10) through a day. The increase in road width led to significant decreases in T2 and WS10 through the whole day, with the maximum changes in early morning and in evening, respectively. Both lower surface albedo and inclusion of anthropogenic heat (AH) resulted in increases in T2 and WS10 over the day, with stronger influence from AH. The vertical extension of the impact of urban surface parameters was mainly confined within 300 m at night and reached as high as 1600 m during daytime. The increase in building height tended to increase TKE and PBLH and the TKE increase was larger at night than during daytime due to enhancements of both mechanical and buoyant productions. The increase in road width generally reduced TKE and PBLH except for a few hours in the afternoon. The lower surface albedo and the presence of AH consistently resulted in increases of TKE and PBLH through both day and night. The increase in building height induced a slight divergence by day and a notable convergence at night, whereas the increase in road width

  1. Coupling of WRF meteorological model to WAM spectral wave model through sea surface roughness at the Balearic Sea: impact on wind and wave forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosana-Delgado, R.; Soret, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological models, like WRF, usually describe the earth surface characteristics by tables that are function of land-use. The roughness length (z0) is an example of such approach. However, over sea z0 is modeled by the Charnock (1955) relation, linking the surface friction velocity u*2 with the roughness length z0 of turbulent air flow, z0 = α-u2* g The Charnock coefficient α may be considered a measure of roughness. For the sea surface, WRF considers a constant roughness α = 0.0185. However, there is evidence that sea surface roughness should depend on wave energy (Donelan, 1982). Spectral wave models like WAM, model the evolution and propagation of wave energy as a function of wind, and include a richer sea surface roughness description. Coupling WRF and WAM is thus a common way to improve the sea surface roughness description of WRF. WAM is a third generation wave model, solving the equation of advection of wave energy subject to input/output terms of: wind growth, energy dissipation and resonant non-linear wave-wave interactions. Third generation models work on the spectral domain. WAM considers the Charnock coefficient α a complex yet known function of the total wind input term, which depends on the wind velocity and on the Charnock coefficient again. This is solved iteratively (Janssen et al., 1990). Coupling of meteorological and wave models through a common Charnock coefficient is operationally done in medium-range met forecasting systems (e.g., at ECMWF) though the impact of coupling for smaller domains is not yet clearly assessed (Warner et al, 2010). It is unclear to which extent the additional effort of coupling improves the local wind and wave fields, in comparison to the effects of other factors, like e.g. a better bathymetry and relief resolution, or a better circulation information which might have its influence on local-scale meteorological processes (local wind jets, local convection, daily marine wind regimes, etc.). This work, within the

  2. Surface meteorological conditions at benthic disturbance experiment site - INDEX area during austral winter 1997

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.; RameshBabu, V.; Beena, B.S.

    latent heat flux of 220 W/m sup(2), leading to net surface heat loss (100 W/m sup(2)) in June and near heat balance in August. Temporal variation of weather elements and the heat budget parameters showed fluctuations of period 10-13 days in June and 7...

  3. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity and dire...

  4. O3, VOC, NOx, PM2.5 and Meteorological Measurements during an Inversion Episode in Utah's Uinta Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. D.; Martin, R. S.; Hill, S.; Shorthill, H.

    2011-12-01

    .7%, and 0.6%, respectively, of the Vernal ozone formation potential. For the Red Wash site, the equivalent MIRs were 7.0%, 10.9%, 4.7%, 0.5%, 32.4%, 39.6%, and 4.8%. Five collocated AirMetrics MiniVol samplers measured 23-hr average PM2.5 concentrations at each site. Collocation allowed various analyses for compositional determination. The PM2.5 levels averaged 16.4±3.9 at Vernal and 8.9±0.3 μg/m3 Red Wash. At both sites, carbonaceous material made up around 80% of the PM2.5. Elemental carbon accounted for 13.4% and 12.8% of the PM2.5 and organic carbon contributed 64.1% and 69.6%, at Vernal and Red Wash, respectively. Vertical meteorology was examined through the use of tethersondes. The period was characterized by a stagnant high pressure system until the final day of the study when an active storm system moved through the area. Vertical temperature profiles showed strong temperature inversions from the ground to >350 m agl and a very stable atmosphere throughout the study. Winds were almost always light (≤2 m/s) and changed direction through the vertical profile. Diurnal variation in the height of the surface layer was observed varied from 20-80 m agl.

  5. Surface pressure retrieval from SCIAMACHY measurements in the O2 A Band: validation of the measurements and sensitivity on aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Diedenhoven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform surface pressure retrievals from cloud-free Oxygen A band measurements of SCIAMACHY. These retrievals can be well validated because surface pressure is a quantity that is, in general, accurately known from meteorological models. Therefore, surface pressure retrievals and their validation provide important insight into the quality of the instrument calibration. Furthermore, they can provide insight into retrievals which are affected by similar radiation transport processes, for example the retrieval of total columns of H2O, CO, CO2 and CH4. In our retrieval aerosols are neglected. Using synthetic measurements, it is shown that for low to moderate surface albedos this leads to an underestimation of the retrieved surface pressures. For high surface albedos this generally leads to an overestimation of the retrieved surface pressures. The surface pressures retrieved from the SCIAMACHY measurements indeed show this dependence on surface albedo, when compared to the corresponding pressures from a meteorological database. However, an offset of about 20 hPa was found, which can not be caused by neglecting aerosols in the retrieval. The same offset was found when comparing the retrieved surface pressures to those retrieved from co-located GOME Oxygen A band measurements. This implies a calibration error in the SCIAMACHY measurements. By adding an offset of 0.86% of the continuum reflectance at 756 nm to the SCIAMACHY reflectance measurements, this systematic bias vanishes.

  6. Modelling regional scale surface fluxes, meteorology and CO2 mixing ratios for the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolk, L.F.; Peters, W.; Meesters, A.G.C.A.; Groenendijk, M.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Dolman, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    We simulated meteorology and atmospheric CO2 transport over the Netherlands with the mesoscale model RAMS-Leaf3 coupled to the biospheric CO2 flux model 5PM. The results were compared with meteorological and CO2 observations, with emphasis on the tall tower of Cabauw. An analysis of the coupled

  7. Radiation protection at the RA reactor in 1984, Part II c Radioactivity control in the environment of the RA reactor, Meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Zaric, M.; Nikolic, R.; Stevanovic, M.

    1984-01-01

    During 1984, meteorology measurements were continued as a part of the environmental control of the Vinca Institute. This report covers the period from December 1983 - November 1984. Part of the meteorology measurements and data analysis is adapted to the needs of the Institute, i.e. RA reactor and some Laboratories. The objective of these activities is forming the data base for solving everyday and special problems related to control, protection and safety of Institute environment

  8. On quality control procedures for solar radiation and meteorological measures, from subhourly to montly average time periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinar, B.; Blanc, P.; Wald, L.; Hoyer-Klick, C.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Wanderer, T.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological data measured by ground stations are often a key element in the development and validation of methods exploiting satellite images. These data are considered as a reference against which satellite-derived estimates are compared. Long-term radiation and meteorological measurements are available from a large number of measuring stations. However, close examination of the data often reveals a lack of quality, often for extended periods of time. This lack of quality has been the reason, in many cases, of the rejection of large amount of available data. The quality data must be checked before their use in order to guarantee the inputs for the methods used in modelling, monitoring, forecast, etc. To control their quality, data should be submitted to several conditions or tests. After this checking, data that are not flagged by any of the test is released as a plausible data. In this work, it has been performed a bibliographical research of quality control tests for the common meteorological variables (ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) and for the usual solar radiometrical variables (horizontal global and diffuse components of the solar radiation and the beam normal component). The different tests have been grouped according to the variable and the average time period (sub-hourly, hourly, daily and monthly averages). The quality test may be classified as follows: • Range checks: test that verify values are within a specific range. There are two types of range checks, those based on extrema and those based on rare observations. • Step check: test aimed at detecting unrealistic jumps or stagnation in the time series. • Consistency checks: test that verify the relationship between two or more time series. The gathered quality tests are applicable for all latitudes as they have not been optimized regionally nor seasonably with the aim of being generic. They have been applied to ground measurements in several geographic locations, what

  9. Automatization of the measurement to the environmental gamma dose rate and of meteorological variables that condition it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, O.; Alonso, D.; Capote, E.; Ramos, E.O.; Carrazana, J. A.; Prendes, M.; Manzano, J. F.; Tomas, J.; Kalbert, O.; Ledo, L.M.; Guibert, R.; Leyva, J.C.; Montalvan, A.; Fabelo, O.; Cartas, H.

    2004-01-01

    The National Network of Environmental Radiological Surveillance of the Republic of Cuba has strengthened its detection and answer capacity regarding its constant monitoring of the National atmospheric means. 4 type A posts of that network measure the gamma dose rate and the data are being received in real time. The CPHR as head Center receives the information of the remaining posts at a relatively short time, for a series of computer tools, has been developed for that purpose. On the other hand, in the radiological post of our center the wind speed and its direction monitoring have been automated, the information on these meteorological variables is collected in real time

  10. Modeling detailed hydro-meteorological surfaces and runoff response in large diverse watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.; Kienzle, S.W.; MacDonald, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of local variability in climatic conditions over complex terrain is imperative to making accurate assessments of impacts from climate change on fresh water ecosystems (Daly, 2006). The derivation of representative spatial data in diverse environments poses a significant challenge to the modelling community. This presentation describes the current status of a long term ongoing hydro-climate model development program. We are developing a gridded hydroclimate dataset for diverse watersheds using SimGrid (Larson, 2008; Lapp et al., 2005; Sheppard, 1996), a model that applies the Mountain Climate Model (MTCLIM; Hungerford et al., 1989) to simulate hydro-climatic conditions over diverse terrain. The model uses GIS based terrain categories (TC) classified by slope, aspect, elevation, and soil water storage. SimGrid provides daily estimates of solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, snowpack and soil water storage over space. Earlier versions of the model have been applied in the St. Mary (Larson, 2008) and upper Oldman basins (Lapp et al., 2005), giving realistic estimates of hydro-climatic variables. The current study demonstrates improvements to the estimation of temperature, precipitation, snowpack, soil water storage and runoff from the basin. Soil water storage data for the upper drainage were derived with GIS and included in SimGrid to estimate soil water flux over the time period. These changes help improve the estimation of spatial climatic variability over the basin while accounting for topographical influence. In further work we will apply spatial hydro-climatic surfaces from the SimGrid model to assess the hydrologic response to environmental change for watersheds in Canada and beyond. (author)

  11. Variability of the Surface Meteorological Fields over Eurasia for the Recent 30 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharin, D.V.

    2009-10-01

    On the basis of the Japanese reanalysis (JRA25) dataset (1979-2008), linear trends, interannual to decadal variability of the sea level pressure (SLP), surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation fields over the Eurasian region have been studied. For the recent 30 years there are only significant positive linear trends of SAT in the northwestern part of the Eurasia/eastern Asia in winter and central Europe in summer. Areas with significant negative trends of SAT are absent. For precipitation field there are no significant tendencies except for the significantly positive area over England both in winter and in summer time. In winter, there are two areas with the opposite SLP tendencies: insignificant negative (to the north of 45-50N) and significant positive (to the south of 45-50N) one. These trends could be accompanied by the corresponding tendencies bee-hive reproduction and honey production in different regions of Ukraine. Space-time patterns of the first, second and third EOF of the fields under study are mainly determined by the NAO and in the less extent by the SO (only in spring-summer). It was found that the leading modes become more contributive over the Eurasia for the last 30 years comparing with NCEP data for the previous period (1950-2001). It could imply that an internal signal of the ocean-atmosphere system, which determines space-time patterns over Eurasia, has arisen. Intercomparison of the space-time EOF patterns between JRA25 and NCEP (1950-2001) re-analyses show that in autumn, winter and spring the first 3-4 corresponding time coefficients stay at the same order (coefficient correlations between them are significant), while in summer such correspondence in order of modes is changed. (author)

  12. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  13. Continuous measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide and water vapour in an urban atmosphere: isotopic variations associated with meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ryuichi; Matsumi, Yutaka; Nakayama, Tomoki; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi; Kurita, Naoyuki; Muramoto, Kenichiro; Takanashi, Satoru; Kodama, Naomi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    Isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the near-surface air were continuously measured for one month in an urban area of the city of Nagoya in central Japan in September 2010 using laser spectroscopic techniques. During the passages of a typhoon and a stationary front in the observation period, remarkable changes in the isotope ratios of CO 2 and water vapour were observed. The isotope ratios of both CO 2 and water vapour decreased during the typhoon passage. The decreases can be attributed to the air coming from an industrial area and the rainout effects of the typhoon, respectively. During the passage of the stationary front, δ 13 C-CO 2 and δ 18 O-CO 2 increased, while δ 2 H-H 2 Ov and δ 18 O-H 2 Ov decreased. These changes can be attributed to the air coming from rural areas and the air surrounding the observational site changing from a subtropical air mass to a subpolar air mass during the passage of the stationary front. A clear relationship was observed between the isotopic CO 2 and water vapour and the meteorological phenomena. Therefore, isotopic information of CO 2 and H 2 Ov could be used as a tracer of meteorological information.

  14. The measurement of surface gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Hinderer, Jacques; Riccardi, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    This review covers basic theory and techniques behind the use of ground-based gravimetry at the Earth's surface. The orientation is toward modern instrumentation, data processing and interpretation for observing surface, land-based, time-variable changes to the geopotential. The instrumentation side is covered in some detail, with specifications and performance of the most widely used models of the three main types: the absolute gravimeters (FG5, A10 from Micro-g LaCoste), superconducting gravimeters (OSG, iGrav from GWR instruments), and the new generation of spring instruments (Micro-g LaCoste gPhone, Scintrex CG5 and Burris ZLS). A wide range of applications is covered, with selected examples from tides and ocean loading, atmospheric effects on gravity, local and global hydrology, seismology and normal modes, long period and tectonics, volcanology, exploration gravimetry, and some examples of gravimetry connected to fundamental physics. We show that there are only a modest number of very large signals, i.e. hundreds of µGal (10(-8) m s(-2)), that are easy to see with all gravimeters (e.g. tides, volcanic eruptions, large earthquakes, seasonal hydrology). The majority of signals of interest are in the range 0.1-5.0 µGal and occur at a wide range of time scales (minutes to years) and spatial extent (a few meters to global). Here the competing effects require a careful combination of different gravimeter types and measurement strategies to efficiently characterize and distinguish the signals. Gravimeters are sophisticated instruments, with substantial up-front costs, and they place demands on the operators to maximize the results. Nevertheless their performance characteristics such as drift and precision have improved dramatically in recent years, and their data recording ability and ruggedness have seen similar advances. Many subtle signals are now routinely connected with known geophysical effects such as coseismic earthquake displacements, post

  15. Meteorological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multi-year summaries of one or more meteorological elements at a station or in a state. Primarily includes Form 1078, a United States Weather Bureau form designed...

  16. Meteorology Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  17. Water, ice, and meteorological measurements at South Cascade glacier, Washington, balance year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass-balance quantities for balance year 2003. The 2003 glacier-average maximum winter snow balance was 2.66 meters water equivalent, which was about equal to the average of such balances for the glacier since balance year 1959. The 2003 glacier summer balance (-4.76 meters water equivalent) was the most negative reported for the glacier, and the 2003 net balance (-2.10 meters water equivalent), was the second-most negative reported. The glacier 2003 annual (water year) balance was -1.89 meters water equivalent. The area of the glacier near the end of the balance year was 1.89 square kilometers, a decrease of 0.03 square kilometer from the previous year. The equilibrium-line altitude was higher than any part of the glacier; however, because snow remained along part of one side of the upper glacier, the accumulation-area ratio was 0.07. During September 13, 2002-September 13, 2003, the glacier terminus retreated at a rate of about 15 meters per year. Average speed of surface ice, computed using a series of vertical aerial photographs dating back to 2001, ranged from 2.2 to 21.8 meters per year. Runoff from the subbasin containing the glacier and from an adjacent non-glacierized basin was gaged during part of water year 2003. Air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric water-vapor pressure, wind speed, and incoming solar radiation were measured at selected locations on and near the glacier. Summer 2003 at the glacier was among the warmest for which data are available.

  18. Photochemical and Meteorological Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; de Foy, B.; Molina, M. J.; Caetano, E.; Magana, V.; Zitacuaro, A.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Cardenas, B.; Martinez, A.; Reyes, R.; Sosa, G.

    2004-12-01

    MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in April of 2003. April is in the transition from the dry to the wet season with predominant westerly synoptic winds and intense radiation heating leading to strong thermal mountain flows. Three basic types of meteorological conditions were identified: "Cold Surge", "O3-North" and "O3-South", corresponding to cloudy days associated with "Norte" events, peak ozone in the north of the city, and peak ozone in the south. The circulation associated with these is described both at the regional and local level, as high concentrations of both ozone and primary pollutants for each category make them equally relevant to chemical analyses of the basin. Modified wind roses (time roses) based on time of day categories instead of wind speed categories are used to identify shifts in wind directions associated with slope flows inside the basin and sea breeze flows outside of it. The photochemical episodes are compared with historical data from the RAMA monitoring network to assess the representativeness of MCMA-2003. The analysis of the episodes during the campaign shows the existence of one-day episodes where no build-up of pollutants is needed in order to attain very highly localized concentrations but where multi-day events lead to peaks covering a much larger geographic area.

  19. Meteorological data for four sites at surface-disruption features in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1985--1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Surface-disruption features, or craters, resulting from underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site may increase the potential for ground-water recharge in an area that would normally produce little, if any, recharge. This report presents selected meteorological data resulting from a study of two surface-disruption features during May 1985 through June 1986. The data were collected at four adjacent sites in Yucca Flat, about 56 kilometers north of Mercury, Nevada. Three sites (one in each of two craters and one at an undisturbed site at the original land surface) were instrumented to collect meteorological data for calculating bare-soil evaporation. These data include (1) long-wave radiation, (2) short-wave radiation, (3) net radiation, (4) air temperature, and (5) soil surface temperature. Meteorological data also were collected at a weather station at an undisturbed site near the study craters. Data collected at this site include (1) air temperature, (2) relative humidity, (3) wind velocity, and (4) wind direction

  20. Climate and meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations

  1. Climate and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  2. Ocean, Land and Meteorology Studies Using Space-Based Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu,Yongxiang

    2009-01-01

    CALIPSO's main mission objective is studying the climate impact of clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. CALIPSO also collects information about other components of the Earth's ecosystem, such as oceans and land. This paper introduces the physics concepts and presents preliminary results for the valueadded CALIPSO Earth system science products. These include ocean surface wind speeds, column atmospheric optical depths, ocean subsurface backscatter, land surface elevations, atmospheric temperature profiles, and A-train data fusion products.

  3. The Mars Pathfinder atmospheric structure investigation/meteorology (ASI/MET) experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schofield, J.T.; Barnes, J.R.; Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder atmospheric structure investigation/meteorology (ASI/MET) experiment measured the vertical density, pressure, and temperature structure of the martian atmosphere from the surface to 160 km, and monitored surface meteorology and climate for 83 sols (1 sol = 1 martian day = 24...

  4. Daily river flow prediction based on Two-Phase Constructive Fuzzy Systems Modeling: A case of hydrological - meteorological measurements asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Fakhreddine, Bassam; Mougharbel, Imad; Faye, Alain; Abou Chakra, Sara; Pollet, Yann

    2018-03-01

    Accurate daily river flow forecast is essential in many applications of water resources such as hydropower operation, agricultural planning and flood control. This paper presents a forecasting approach to deal with a newly addressed situation where hydrological data exist for a period longer than that of meteorological data (measurements asymmetry). In fact, one of the potential solutions to resolve measurements asymmetry issue is data re-sampling. It is a matter of either considering only the hydrological data or the balanced part of the hydro-meteorological data set during the forecasting process. However, the main disadvantage is that we may lose potentially relevant information from the left-out data. In this research, the key output is a Two-Phase Constructive Fuzzy inference hybrid model that is implemented over the non re-sampled data. The introduced modeling approach must be capable of exploiting the available data efficiently with higher prediction efficiency relative to Constructive Fuzzy model trained over re-sampled data set. The study was applied to Litani River in the Bekaa Valley - Lebanon by using 4 years of rainfall and 24 years of river flow daily measurements. A Constructive Fuzzy System Model (C-FSM) and a Two-Phase Constructive Fuzzy System Model (TPC-FSM) are trained. Upon validating, the second model has shown a primarily competitive performance and accuracy with the ability to preserve a higher day-to-day variability for 1, 3 and 6 days ahead. In fact, for the longest lead period, the C-FSM and TPC-FSM were able of explaining respectively 84.6% and 86.5% of the actual river flow variation. Overall, the results indicate that TPC-FSM model has provided a better tool to capture extreme flows in the process of streamflow prediction.

  5. The summertime Boreal forest field measurement intensive (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010): an overview of meteorological and chemical influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J.; Petäjä, T.

    2012-04-01

    This submission describes the background, instrumentation, goals, and the regional influences on the HUMPPA-COPEC intensive field measurement campaign, conducted at the Boreal forest research station SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relation) in Hyytiälä, Finland from 12th July-12th August 2010. The prevailing meteorological conditions during the campaign are examined and contrasted with those of the past six years. Back trajectory analyses show that meteorological conditions at the site in 2010 were characterized by a higher proportion of southerly flow than in the other years studied. As a result the summer of 2010 was anomalously warm and high in ozone making the campaign relevant for the analysis of possible future climates. A comprehensive land use analysis, provided on both 5 and 50 km scales, shows that the main vegetation types surrounding the site on both the regional and local scales are: coniferous forest (Scots pine and/or Norway spruce); mixed forest (Birch and conifers); and woodland scrub (e.g. Willows, Aspen); indicating that the campaign results can be taken as representative of the Boreal forest ecosystem. In addition to the influence of biogenic emissions, the measurement site was occasionally impacted by sources other than vegetation. Specific tracers have been used here to identify the time periods when such sources have impacted the site namely: biomass burning (acetonitrile and CO), urban anthropogenic pollution (pentane and SO2) and the nearby Korkeakoski sawmill (enantiomeric ratio of chiral monoterpenes). None of these sources dominated the study period, allowing the Boreal forest summertime emissions to be assessed and contrasted with various other source signatures.

  6. The summertime Boreal forest field measurement intensive (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010: an overview of meteorological and chemical influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the background, instrumentation, goals, and the regional influences on the HUMPPA-COPEC intensive field measurement campaign, conducted at the Boreal forest research station SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relation in Hyytiälä, Finland from 12 July–12 August 2010. The prevailing meteorological conditions during the campaign are examined and contrasted with those of the past six years. Back trajectory analyses show that meteorological conditions at the site in 2010 were characterized by a higher proportion of southerly flow than in the other years studied. As a result the summer of 2010 was anomalously warm and high in ozone making the campaign relevant for the analysis of possible future climates. A comprehensive land use analysis, provided on both 5 and 50 km scales, shows that the main vegetation types surrounding the site on both the regional and local scales are: coniferous forest (Scots pine and/or Norway spruce; mixed forest (Birch and conifers; and woodland scrub (e.g. Willows, Aspen; indicating that the campaign results can be taken as representative of the Boreal forest ecosystem. In addition to the influence of biogenic emissions, the measurement site was occasionally impacted by sources other than vegetation. Specific tracers have been used here to identify the time periods when such sources have impacted the site namely: biomass burning (acetonitrile and CO, urban anthropogenic pollution (pentane and SO2 and the nearby Korkeakoski sawmill (enantiomeric ratio of chiral monoterpenes. None of these sources dominated the study period, allowing the Boreal forest summertime emissions to be assessed and contrasted with various other source signatures.

  7. Mass balance, meteorology, area altitude distribution, glacier-surface altitude, ice motion, terminus position, and runoff at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, 1996 balance year

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Rod S.

    2003-01-01

    The 1996 measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances in the Gulkana Glacier Basin were evaluated on the basis of meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data. Averaged over the glacier, the measured winter snow balance was 0.87 meter on April 18, 1996, 1.1 standard deviation below the long-term average; the maximum winter snow balance, 1.06 meters, was reached on May 28, 1996; and the net balance (from August 30, 1995, to August 24, 1996) was -0.53 meter, 0.53 standard deviation below the long-term average. The annual balance (October 1, 1995, to September 30, 1996) was -0.37 meter. Area-averaged balances were reported using both the 1967 and 1993 area altitude distributions (the numbers previously given in this abstract use the 1993 area altitude distribution). Net balance was about 25 percent less negative using the 1993 area altitude distribution than the 1967 distribution. Annual average air temperature was 0.9 degree Celsius warmer than that recorded with the analog sensor used since 1966. Total precipitation catch for the year was 0.78 meter, 0.8 standard deviations below normal. The annual average wind speed was 3.5 meters per second in the first year of measuring wind speed. Annual runoff averaged 1.50 meters over the basin, 1.0 standard deviation below the long-term average. Glacier-surface altitude and ice-motion changes measured at three index sites document seasonal ice-speed and glacier-thickness changes. Both showed a continuation of a slowing and thinning trend present in the 1990s. The glacier terminus and lower ablation area were defined for 1996 with a handheld Global Positioning System survey of 126 locations spread out over about 4 kilometers on the lower glacier margin. From 1949 to 1996, the terminus retreated about 1,650 meters for an average retreat rate of 35 meters per year.

  8. An oscillating microbalance for meteorological measurements of ice and volcanic ash accumulation from a weather balloon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, Martin; Harrison, Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Williams, Paul; Marlton, Graeme

    2017-04-01

    A new, low cost, instrument has been developed for meteorological measurements of the accumulation of ice and volcanic ash that can be readily deployed using commercial radiosondes and weather balloons. It is based on principles used by [1], an instrument originally developed to measure supercooled liquid water profiles in clouds. This new instrument introduces numerous improvements in terms of reduced complexity and cost. It uses the oscillating microbalance principle, whereby a wire vibrating at its natural frequency is subjected to increased loading of the property to be measured. The increase in mass modifies the wire properties such that its natural frequency of oscillation changes. By measuring this frequency, the increase in mass can be inferred and transmitted to a ground base station through the radiosonde's UHF antenna via the PANDORA interface [2], which has been previously developed to provide power and connection to the radiosonde telemetry. The device consists of a simple circuit board controlled by an ATMEGA microcontroller. For calibration, the controller is capable of driving the wire at specified frequencies via excitation by a piezo sounder upon which the wire is mounted. The same piezo sounder is also used during active operation to measure the frequency of the wire in its non-driven state in order to infer the mass change on the wire. A phase-locked loop implemented on the board identifies when resonance occurs and the measured frequency is stable, prompting the microcontroller to send the measurement through the data interface. The device may be used for any application that requires the measurement of incremental mass variation e.g. ice accumulation, frosting, or particle accumulation such as dust and volcanic ash. For the solid particle accumulation, a low temperature, high-tack, adhesive may be applied to the wire prior to deployment to collect the material. In addition, the same instrument may be used for ground-based applications, such as

  9. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  10. Analysis of Surface Electric Field Measurements from an Array of Electric Field Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G.; Thayer, J. P.; Deierling, W.

    2016-12-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has operated an distributed array of over 30 electric field mills over the past 18 years, providing a unique data set of surface electric field measurements over a very long timespan. In addition to the electric field instruments there are many meteorological towers around KSC that monitor the local meteorological conditions. Utilizing these datasets we have investigated and found unique spatial and temporal signatures in the electric field data that are attributed to local meteorological effects and the global electric circuit. The local and global scale influences on the atmospheric electric field will be discussed including the generation of space charge from the ocean surf, local cloud cover, and a local enhancement in the electric field that is seen at sunrise.

  11. Assessing the impact of local meteorological variables on surface ozone in Hong Kong during 2000-2015 using quantile and multiple line regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Fan, Shaojia; Guo, Hai; Gao, Bo; Sun, Jiaren; Chen, Laiguo

    2016-11-01

    The quantile regression (QR) method has been increasingly introduced to atmospheric environmental studies to explore the non-linear relationship between local meteorological conditions and ozone mixing ratios. In this study, we applied QR for the first time, together with multiple linear regression (MLR), to analyze the dominant meteorological parameters influencing the mean, 10th percentile, 90th percentile and 99th percentile of maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentrations in 2000-2015 in Hong Kong. The dominance analysis (DA) was used to assess the relative importance of meteorological variables in the regression models. Results showed that the MLR models worked better at suburban and rural sites than at urban sites, and worked better in winter than in summer. QR models performed better in summer for 99th and 90th percentiles and performed better in autumn and winter for 10th percentile. And QR models also performed better in suburban and rural areas for 10th percentile. The top 3 dominant variables associated with MDA8 ozone concentrations, changing with seasons and regions, were frequently associated with the six meteorological parameters: boundary layer height, humidity, wind direction, surface solar radiation, total cloud cover and sea level pressure. Temperature rarely became a significant variable in any season, which could partly explain the peak of monthly average ozone concentrations in October in Hong Kong. And we found the effect of solar radiation would be enhanced during extremely ozone pollution episodes (i.e., the 99th percentile). Finally, meteorological effects on MDA8 ozone had no significant changes before and after the 2010 Asian Games.

  12. Comparison of the meteorology and surface energy balance at Storbreen and Midtdalsbreen, two glaciers in southern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, R.H.; Andreassen, L.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Oerlemans, J.

    2009-01-01

    We compare 5 years of meteorological records from automatic weather stations (AWSs) on Storbreen and Midtdalsbreen, two glaciers in southern Norway, located approximately 120 km apart. The records are obtained from identical AWSs with an altitude difference of 120 m and cover the period September

  13. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable.

  14. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  15. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV. Development of an isolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The following are covered: the Sun and its radiation, solar radiation and atmospheric interaction, solar radiation measurement methods, spectral irradiance measurements of natural sources, the measurement of infrared radiation, the measurement of circumsolar radiation, some empirical properties of solar radiation and related parameters, duration of sunshine, and meteorological variables related to solar energy. Included in appendices are manufacturers and distributors of solar radiation measuring instruments and an approximate method for quality control of solar radiation instruments. (MHR)

  16. Symposium on radiation transfer problems and satellite measurements in meteorology and oceanography. Symposium ueber Strahlungstransportprobleme und Satellitenmessungen in der Meteorologie und der Ozeanographie. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The atmospherical cloud fields in the mesoscale and the synoptic scale are studied and classified with respect to brightness, form, structure, horizontal and vertical dimension, and surface temperature on the basis of satellite observations. The different developing stages and the drift of the clouds are analysed by satellite measurements; which give insight into the atmospheric processes, improving the possibilities for predictions. The wind velocities in the higher troposphere are of particular interest for civil aviation. The world climate program takes profit from the covering statistics of the cloud fields, and from measurements of the surface temperature, covering the continents and the sea. Such measurements can be performed by satellite-born radiometers, e.g. also with Meteosat. The surface radiation temperature distributions are the initial data for climate models aiming at climate predictions for the human society on a time scale of several years. Models describing the circulation in the atmosphere and in the sea as well as in the boundary region in between can be considered as a first step in this direction. Several reports are dedicated to the role of the radiation budget for the simulation and description of such physical processes. The changes of the radiation budget components in space and time as well as the resulting meteorological effects, in particular the number and the properties (first of all radiation temperature and albedo) of the clouds have an essential influence on the calculation of the radiation fluxes and divergencies in different layers of the atmosphere. Abstracts are available for 59 papers of this conference report.

  17. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cuenca, R.H. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program`s SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  18. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cuenca, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1990-01-01

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program's SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  19. Aspheric surface measurement using capacitive probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Yuan, Daocheng; Li, Shaobo

    2017-02-01

    With the application of aspheres in optical fields, high precision and high efficiency aspheric surface metrology becomes a hot research topic. We describe a novel method of non-contact measurement of aspheric surface with capacitive probe. Taking an eccentric spherical surface as the object of study, the averaging effect of capacitive probe measurement and the influence of tilting the capacitive probe on the measurement results are investigated. By comparing measurement results from simultaneous measurement of the capacitive probe and contact probe of roundness instrument, this paper indicates the feasibility of using capacitive probes to test aspheric surface and proposes the compensation method of measurement error caused by averaging effect and the tilting of the capacitive probe.

  20. Meteorological measurements and simulations by the LORAN model performed during the ETEX experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiter, D.; Berger, H.; Galmarini, S.

    1997-01-01

    A SODAR (SOnic Detection and Ranging) installed by the SMA at the tracer release site (Monterfil near Rennes, France) was operating continuously during the two ETEX experiments (from 22nd to 25th Oct. and from 13th to 17th Nov. 1994). Vertical profiles of the horizontal and vertical components of the wind were measured every 20 m, from 20 m above ground up to 600 m, depending on the strength of the returned echoes. Samplings were averaged over 30 minutes

  1. Water, ice, and meteorological measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, balance year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass balance quantities for balance year 2002. The 2002 glacier-average maximum winter snow balance was 4.02 meters, the second largest since 1959. The 2002 glacier summer, net, and annual (water year) balances were -3.47, 0.55, and 0.54 meters, respectively. The area of the glacier near the end of the balance year was 1.92 square kilometers, and the equilibrium-line altitude and the accumulation area ratio were 1,820 meters and 0.84, respectively. During September 20, 2001 to September 13, 2002, the terminus retreated 4 meters, and computed average ice speeds in the ablation area ranged from 7.8 to 20.7 meters per year. Runoff from the subbasin containing the glacier and from an adjacent non-glacierized basin were measured during part of the 2002 water year. Air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric water-vapor pressure, wind speed and incoming solar radiation were measured at selected locations near the glacier.

  2. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  3. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from MTU1 Buoy by Michigan Technological University and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123646)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123646 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  4. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from MTU Buoy by Michigan Technological University and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-09-01 (NODC Accession 0123644)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123644 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  5. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Holland Buoy by LimnoTech and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123650)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123650 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  6. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Oregon Pump Station by City of Oregon and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-06-20 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130547 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  7. El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) Field Campaign: Surface Meteorological and Ship Data from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown, 2016-02 to 2016-03 (NCEI Accession 0161528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains surface meteorological and ship data from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown, collected 16 February to 16 March 2016. These data have been corrected for...

  8. Measurements of Po214 at Sao Jose dos Campos and Cachoeira Paulista: correlation with meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, E.V.A.; Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1985-01-01

    PO 214 , a short life daughter product of RN 222 , was measured by alpha-ray spectrometry of a atmospheric particles sampled on Millipore filters (0.8 μm pore) at Sao Jose dos Campos (23 0 12'S, 45 0 51'W) and Cachoeira Paulista (22 0 41'S, 45 0 00'W). The infleunce of rainfall on the atmospheric Po 214 was studied at Sao Jose dos Campos. The mean activity was 98 pCi/m 3 for dry days (without rain during the preceding two days). On the contrary a low mean activity of 35 pCi/m 3 was observed for high pluviometry days from 08/30 to 10/26 for which total rainfall was 365.5 mm. At Cachoeria Paulista the Po 214 activity was correlated with the stability of the air (measured by the Richardson number), showing an accumaltion of natural radioactive aerosols during periods of higher stability of the lower atmosphere. (author) [pt

  9. Analysis of remotely sensed and surface data of aerosols and meteorology for the Mexico Megalopolis Area between 2003 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Marco; Braun, Rachel A; Shingler, Taylor; Sorooshian, Armin

    2017-08-27

    This paper presents an aerosol characterization study from 2003 to 2015 for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using remotely sensed aerosol data, ground-based measurements, air mass trajectory modeling, aerosol chemical composition modeling, and reanalysis data for the broader Megalopolis of Central Mexico region. The most extensive biomass burning emissions occur between March and May concurrent with the highest aerosol optical depth, ultraviolet aerosol index, and surface particulate matter (PM) mass concentration values. A notable enhancement in coarse PM levels is observed during vehicular rush hour periods on weekdays versus weekends owing to nonengine-related emissions such as resuspended dust. Among wet deposition species measured, PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and PM coarse (PM 10 -PM 2.5 ) were best correlated with NH 4 + , SO 4 2- , and Ca 2+ , suggesting that the latter three constituents are important components of the aerosol seeding raindrops that eventually deposit to the surface in the study region. Reductions in surface PM mass concentrations were observed in 2014-2015 owing to reduced regional biomass burning as compared to 2003-2013.

  10. Water, Ice, and Meteorological Measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, Balance Years 2004 and 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass-balance quantities for balance years 2004 and 2005. The North Cascade Range in the vicinity of South Cascade Glacier accumulated smaller than normal winter snowpacks during water years 2004 and 2005. Correspondingly, the balance years 2004 and 2005 maximum winter snow balances of South Cascade Glacier, 2.08 and 1.97 meters water equivalent, respectively, were smaller than the average of such balances since 1959. The 2004 glacier summer balance (-3.73 meters water equivalent) was the eleventh most negative during 1959 to 2005 and the 2005 glacier summer balance (-4.42 meters water equivalent) was the third most negative. The relatively small winter snow balances and unusually negative summer balances of 2004 and 2005 led to an overall loss of glacier mass. The 2004 and 2005 glacier net balances, -1.65 and -2.45 meters water equivalent, respectively, were the seventh and second most negative during 1953 to 2005. For both balance years, the accumulation area ratio was less than 0.05 and the equilibrium line altitude was higher than the glacier. The unusually negative 2004 and 2005 glacier net balances, combined with a negative balance previously reported for 2003, resulted in a cumulative 3-year net balance of -6.20 meters water equivalent. No equal or greater 3-year mass loss has occurred previously during the more than 4 decades of U.S. Geological Survey mass-balance measurements at South Cascade Glacier. Accompanying the glacier mass losses were retreat of the terminus and reduction of total glacier area. The terminus retreated at a rate of about 17 meters per year during balance year 2004 and 15 meters per year during balance year 2005. Glacier area near the end of balance years 2004 and 2005 was 1.82 and 1.75 square kilometers, respectively. Runoff from the basin containing the glacier and from an adjacent nonglacierized basin was

  11. Meteorological utilization of measurements of the artificial radioactivity on the air and precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwirth, R

    1955-01-01

    German, French, and American measurements of the rainfall and air activity are being evaluated. For that purpose, trajectories from the experimental grounds for bomb tests in Nevada to Western Germany are drawn. By means of intermediate values, the test possibilities of air paths first only scheduled are given. The so-called deposit spaces and meridional circulations, which are significant particularly in divergence regions, prove to be of especial importance. The mechanism of activation of precipitation is discussed. A connexion between the activity of precipitation and air masses could only be found in individual cases. But it seems that semitropical air masses dispose of a higher specific activity in comparison with the polar air masses.

  12. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Giusca, Claudiu L.; Macaulay, Gavin D.; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K.; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A.

    2015-06-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting.

  13. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Macaulay, Gavin D; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting. (paper)

  14. Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William W.

    2008-10-01

    A scintillating crystal's surface reflectance has to be well understood in order to accurately predict and optimize the crystal's light collection through Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we measure the inner surface reflectance properties for BGO. The measurements include BGO crystals with a mechanically polished surface, rough-cut surface, and chemically etched surface, and with various reflectors attached, both air-coupled and with coupling compound. The measurements are performed with a laser aimed at the center of a hemispherical shaped BGO crystal. The hemispherical shape eliminates any non-perpendicular angles for light entering and exiting the crystal. The reflected light is collected with an array of photodiodes. The laser can be set at an arbitrary angle, and the photodiode array is rotated to fully cover 2pi of solid angle. The current produced in the photodiodes is readout with a digital multimeter connected through a multiplexer. The two rows of photodiodes achieve 5-degree by 4-degree resolution, and the current measurement has a dynamic range of 105:1. The acquired data was not described by the commonly assumed linear combination of specular and diffuse (Lambertian) distributions, except for a very few surfaces. Surface roughness proved to be the most important parameter when choosing crystal setup. The reflector choice was of less importance and of almost no consequence for rough-cut surfaces. Pure specular reflection distribution for all incidence angles was measured for polished surfaces with VM2000 film, while the most Lambertian distribution for any surface finish was measured for titanium dioxide paint. The distributions acquired in this paper will be used to create more accurate Monte Carlo models for light reflection distribution within BGO crystals.

  15. Geometric Measure Theory and Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bombieri, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    W.K. ALLARD: On the first variation of area and generalized mean curvature.- F.J. ALMGREN Jr.: Geometric measure theory and elliptic variational problems.- E. GIUSTI: Minimal surfaces with obstacles.- J. GUCKENHEIMER: Singularities in soap-bubble-like and soap-film-like surfaces.- D. KINDERLEHRER: The analyticity of the coincidence set in variational inequalities.- M. MIRANDA: Boundaries of Caciopoli sets in the calculus of variations.- L. PICCININI: De Giorgi's measure and thin obstacles.

  16. Measurement of airborne radioactivity and its meteorological application. Part IV. Annual report, 1 April 1972--31 March 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, R.; Sladkovic, R.; Kanter, H.J.; Carnuth, W.; Poetzi, K.

    1975-01-01

    Results obtained by a previously described method of studying the exchange of air masses between stratosphere and troposphere are reported. Continuous data on the ratio of 7 Be, 32 P, 33 P, and 35 S and of fallout radioisotopes are given for the entire period reported. First measurements with a Rawinsonde station and with a lidar system are described. An intrusion of stratospheric air into the troposphere is described by a detailed meteorological analysis. The transport between place of intrusion and observation could be reconstructed with all details over a distance of about 12,000 km. Subsidence has been observed only during the first part of the course of transport. Over more than half the distance of the transport was maintained by advection. A case of horizontal mixing observed could be described by two corresponding trajectories on the same plane. Radionuclides with a short life-time originating from a Chinese nuclear test were determined in fallout by γ-spectrometry. Solar f []ares increase the frequency of intrusions of stratospheric air into the troposphere. (auth)

  17. Meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological monitoring data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Oehman, Johan; Holgersson, Bjoern; Roennback, Kristoffer; Marelius, Fredrick

    2008-12-01

    This report presents and analyses meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological time-series data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, available in SKB's Sicada database at time of the Laxemar 2.3 data freeze (Aug. 31, 2007). The meteorological data set includes data from two local stations, located on the island of Aespoe and at Plittorp, located further inland. In addition, the data evaluation uses a longer-term data set from 7 surrounding stations, operated by SMHI. As part of this study, a time series is constructed of the water content of snow. According to the data evaluation, the site-average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration can be estimated to be on the order of 600 and 535 mm, respectively. In particular, precipitation demonstrates a near-coastal gradient, with less precipitation at the coast compared to areas further inland. The surface-water level data set includes data from 4 lake-level gauging stations and 3 sea-level gauging stations. All lakes are located above sea level, including the near-coastal Lake Soeraa. Hence, no intrusion of sea water to lakes takes place. There is a strong co-variation among the monitored lake-water levels, typically with maxima during spring and minima during late summer and early autumn. Concerning the sea as a hydraulic boundary, the maximum and minimum sea levels (daily averages) during the site-investigation period were -0.52 and 0.71 metres above sea level, respectively, whereas the average sea level was 0.03 metres above sea level (RHB 70). The data set on stream discharge, surface-water temperature and electrical conductivity includes data from 9 discharge-gauging stations in 7 streams. Based on the discharge data, the site-average specific discharge for the years 2005-2007 can be estimated to 165 mm/y, which is within the interval of the estimated long-term average. Overall, discharge-data errors are likely to be small. The hydrogeological time

  18. Meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological monitoring data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec, Taeby (Sweden)); Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Holgersson, Bjoern (SWECO VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden)); Roennback, Kristoffer (Aqualog AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Marelius, Fredrick (WSP Sverige, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report presents and analyses meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological time-series data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, available in SKB's Sicada database at time of the Laxemar 2.3 data freeze (Aug. 31, 2007). The meteorological data set includes data from two local stations, located on the island of Aespoe and at Plittorp, located further inland. In addition, the data evaluation uses a longer-term data set from 7 surrounding stations, operated by SMHI. As part of this study, a time series is constructed of the water content of snow. According to the data evaluation, the site-average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration can be estimated to be on the order of 600 and 535 mm, respectively. In particular, precipitation demonstrates a near-coastal gradient, with less precipitation at the coast compared to areas further inland. The surface-water level data set includes data from 4 lake-level gauging stations and 3 sea-level gauging stations. All lakes are located above sea level, including the near-coastal Lake Soeraa. Hence, no intrusion of sea water to lakes takes place. There is a strong co-variation among the monitored lake-water levels, typically with maxima during spring and minima during late summer and early autumn. Concerning the sea as a hydraulic boundary, the maximum and minimum sea levels (daily averages) during the site-investigation period were -0.52 and 0.71 metres above sea level, respectively, whereas the average sea level was 0.03 metres above sea level (RHB 70). The data set on stream discharge, surface-water temperature and electrical conductivity includes data from 9 discharge-gauging stations in 7 streams. Based on the discharge data, the site-average specific discharge for the years 2005-2007 can be estimated to 165 mm/y, which is within the interval of the estimated long-term average. Overall, discharge-data errors are likely to be small. The hydrogeological

  19. Meteorological Measurement Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    crystal in its feedback loop. Depending on crystal cut orientation, the resonant frequency of the oscillator circuit can exhibit a temperature...along a line-of-sight path established between a transmitter and a downrange receiver. Scintillometer hardware includes a laser or LED light source and...been received. Although single receiver magnetic-direction finding ( MDF ) systems are in use, the most common configuration incorporates several receiver

  20. Meteorological measurements on Midtdalsbreen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    An automatic weather station (AWS) has been operating in the ablation area on Midtdalsbreen, a north-easterly outlet glacier of Hardangerjøkulen (Fig. 6-2), since October 2000. The station (Fig. 6-6) is owned and maintained by the Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht (IMAU), Utrecht

  1. Evaluation of a Simple, Small-Plot Meteorological Technique for Measurement of Ammonia Emission: Feasibility, Costs, and Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon Vilms; di Perta, Ester Scotto; Hafner, Sasha D.

    2018-01-01

    are regularly developed, and their efficacy needs to be tested using accurate methods. To date, a major obstacle to many available emission measurement techniques is the requirement of large plot sizes of homogeneous surface characteristics, which particularly is a challenge to the number of plot......-level replicates that can be carried out on a field providing uniform surface characteristics throughout. The objectives of this research were to test three different methods for measuring NH3 flux when applied to small plots (methods and to determine...... techniques, wind tunnels measuring gas-phase ammonia using ALPHA passive diffusion samplers and a flux chamber method using Dräger tubes for measurements of ammonia concentration (DTM) were used. As an inexpensive alternative small-plot method, we studied the feasibility of applying ALPHA passive diffusion...

  2. Sound field separation with cross measurement surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mao

    Full Text Available With conventional near-field acoustical holography, it is impossible to identify sound pressure when the coherent sound sources are located on the same side of the array. This paper proposes a solution, using cross measurement surfaces to separate the sources based on the equivalent source method. Each equivalent source surface is built in the center of the corresponding original source with a spherical surface. According to the different transfer matrices between equivalent sources and points on holographic surfaces, the weighting of each equivalent source from coherent sources can be obtained. Numerical and experimental studies have been performed to test the method. For the sound pressure including noise after separation in the experiment, the calculation accuracy can be improved by reconstructing the pressure with Tikhonov regularization and the L-curve method. On the whole, a single source can be effectively separated from coherent sources using cross measurement.

  3. Study on the cloud detection of GOCI by using the simulated surface reflectance from BRDF-model for the land application and meteorological utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Won; Yeom, Jong-Min; Woo, Sun-Hee; Chae, Tae-Byeong

    2016-04-01

    COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite) was launched at French Guiana Kourou space center on 27 June 2010. Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), which is the first ocean color geostationary satellite in the world for observing the ocean phenomena, is able to obtain the scientific data per an hour from 00UTC to 07UTC. Moreover, the spectral channels of GOCI would enable not only monitoring for the ocean, but for extracting the information of the land surface over the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Eastern China. Since it is extremely important to utilize GOCI data accurately for the land application, cloud pixels over the surface have to be removed. Unfortunately, infra-red (IR) channels that can easily detect the water vapor with the cloud top temperature, are not included in the GOCI sensor. In this paper, the advanced cloud masking algorithm will be proposed with visible and near-IR (NIR) bands that are within GOCI bands. The main obstacle of cloud masking with GOCI is how to handle the high variable surface reflectance, which is mainly depending on the solar zenith angle. In this study, we use semi-empirical BRDF model to simulate the surface reflectance by using 16 day composite cloudy free image. When estimating the simulated surface reflectance, same geometry for GOCI observation was applied. The simulated surface reflectance is used to discriminate cloud areas especially for the thin cloud and shows more reasonable result than original threshold methods.

  4. Saipan 2005 Sea Surface Temperature and Meteorological Enhanced Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site Saipan, CNMI (15.2375N, 145.72283W) ARGOS Buoy ID 26105 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature, and surface...

  5. Measurement of airborne radioactivity and its meteorological application. Part V. Annual report, 1 April 1973--31 July 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, R.; Kanter, H.J.; Sladkovic, R.; Poetzl, K.

    1976-03-01

    Results are reported from studies on the exchange of air between stratosphere and troposphere. Continuous data on the concentrations of the radio-nuclides Be7, P32, P33, and S35, of the fallout and ozone from April 1972 to August 1974 are reported. The meteorological analysis of five intrusions of stratospheric air is presented

  6. Surface resistivity measurement of plasma treated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, D.; Pigram, P.J.; Liesegang, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Resistivity of insulators is an important property of materials used within the integrated circuit and packaging industries. The measurement of electrical resistivity of insulator materials in the surface region in this work is interpreted through observations of surface charge decay. A self-field driven and diffusion charge transport theory is used to model the process and resistivity values obtained computationally. Data for the charge decay of surface charged samples are collected by suspending them inside a coaxial cylinder connected to an electrometer. Samples used have been low density polyethylene LDPE sheet, both pristine and surface treated. Some samples have been treated by air plasma at low vacuum pressures for different periods of time; others have been washed in ethyl acetate and then plasma treated before the resistivity measurement. The sets of resistivity measurements form the various treatments are compared below. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has also been used to investigate and account for the observed variations in surface resistivity

  7. Associations between seasonal meteorological conditions and the daily step count of adults in Yokohama, Japan: Results of year-round pedometer measurements in a large population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Hino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available People's year-round interpersonal step count variations according to meteorological conditions are not fully understood, because complete year-round data from a sufficient sample of the general population are difficult to acquire. This study examined the associations between meteorological conditions and objectively measured step counts using year-round data collected from a large cohort (N=24,625 in Yokohama, Japan from April 2015 to March 2016.Two-piece linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations between the monthly median daily step count and three meteorological indices (mean values of temperature, temperature-humidity index (THI, and net effective temperature (NET.The number of steps per day peaked at temperatures between 19.4 and 20.7°C. At lower temperatures, the increase in steps per day was between 46.4 and 52.5 steps per 1°C increase. At temperatures higher than those at which step counts peaked, the decrease in steps per day was between 98.0 and 187.9 per 1°C increase. Furthermore, these effects were more obvious in elderly than non-elderly persons in both sexes. A similar tendency was seen when using THI and NET instead of temperature. Among the three meteorological indices, the highest R2 value with step counts was observed with THI in all four groups.Both high and low meteorological indices discourage people from walking and higher values of the indices adversely affect step count more than lower values, particularly among the elderly. Among the three indices assessed, THI best explains the seasonal fluctuations in step counts. Keywords: Elderly, Developed countries, Health policy, Humidity, Linear regression, Physical activity, Temperature

  8. Quantifying the Influence of Near-Surface Water-Energy Budgets on Soil Thermal Properties Using a Network of Coupled Meteorological and Vadose Zone Instrument Arrays in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Gustin, A. R.; Ellett, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Weather stations that collect reliable, sustained meteorological data sets are becoming more widely distributed because of advances in both instrumentation and data server technology. However, sites collecting soil moisture and soil temperature data remain sparse with even fewer locations where complete meteorological data are collected in conjunction with soil data. Thanks to the advent of sensors that collect continuous in-situ thermal properties data for soils, we have gone a step further and incorporated thermal properties measurements as part of hydrologic instrument arrays in central and northern Indiana. The coupled approach provides insights into the variability of soil thermal conductivity and diffusivity attributable to geologic and climatological controls for various hydrogeologic settings. These data are collected to facilitate the optimization of ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) in the glaciated Midwest by establishing publicly available data that can be used to parameterize system design models. A network of six monitoring sites was developed in Indiana. Sensors that determine thermal conductivity and diffusivity using radial differential temperature measurements around a heating wire were installed at 1.2 meters below ground surface— a typical depth for horizontal GSHP systems. Each site also includes standard meteorological sensors for calculating reference evapotranspiration following the methods by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Vadose zone instrumentation includes time domain reflectometry soil-moisture and temperature sensors installed at 0.3-meter depth intervals down to a 1.8-meter depth, in addition to matric potential sensors at 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 meters. Cores collected at 0.3-meter intervals were analyzed in a laboratory for grain size distribution, bulk density, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity. Our work includes developing methods for calibrating thermal properties sensors based on

  9. POSEIDON: An integrated system for analysis and forecast of hydrological, meteorological and surface marine fields in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, A.; Accadia, C.; Casaioli, M.; Mariani, S.; Monacelli, G.; Inghilesi, R.; Tartaglione, N.; Ruti, P. M.; Carillo, A.; Bargagli, A.; Pisacane, G.; Valentinotti, F.; Lavagnini, A.

    2004-07-01

    The Mediterranean area is characterized by relevant hydrological, meteorological and marine processes developing at horizontal space-scales of the order of 1-100 km. In the recent past, several international programs have been addressed (ALPEX, POEM, MAP, etc.) to "resolving" the dynamics of such motions. Other projects (INTERREG-Flooding, MEDEX, etc.) are at present being developed with special emphasis on catastrophic events with major impact on human society that are, quite often, characterized in their manifestation by processes with the above-mentioned scales of motion. In the dynamical evolution of such events, however, equally important is the dynamics of interaction of the local (and sometimes very damaging) processes with others developing at larger scales of motion. In fact, some of the most catastrophic events in the history of Mediterranean countries are associated with dynamical processes covering all the range of space-time scales from planetary to local. The Prevision Operational System for the mEditerranean basIn and the Defence of the lagOon of veNice (POSEIDON) is an integrated system for the analysis and forecast of hydrological, meteorological, oceanic fields specifically designed and set up in order to bridge the gap between global and local scales of motion, by modeling explicitly the above referred to dynamical processes in the range of scales from Mediterranean to local. The core of POSEIDON consists of a "cascade" of numerical models that, starting from global scale numerical analysis-forecast, goes all the way to very local phenomena, like tidal propagation in Venice Lagoon. The large computational load imposed by such operational design requires necessarily parallel computing technology: the first model in the cascade is a parallelised version of BOlogna Limited Area Model (BOLAM) running on a Quadrics 128 processors computer (also known as QBOLAM). POSEIDON, developed in the context of a co-operation between the Italian Agency for New

  10. Supporting data for hydrologic studies in San Francisco Bay, California : meteorological measurements at the Port of Redwood City during 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    2002-01-01

    Meteorological data were collected during 1998-2001 at the Port of Redwood City, California, to support hydrologic studies in South San Francisco Bay. The measured meteorological variables were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, quantum flux (insolation), and four parameters of wind speed and direction: scalar mean horizontal wind speed, (vector) resultant horizontal wind speed, resultant wind direction, and standard deviation of the wind direction. Hourly mean values based on measurements at five-minute intervals were logged at the site. Daily mean values were computed for temperature, infolation, pressure, and scalar wind speed. Daily mean values for 1998-2001 are described in this report, and a short record of hourly mean values is compared to data from another near-by station. Data (hourly and daily mean) from the entire period of record (starting in April 1992) and reports describing data prior to 1998 are provided.

  11. Surface Tension Measurements with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Nicolas-Alexandre; Denis, Zakari; Lavaud, Maxime; Grolleau, Adrian; Dufour, Nicolas; Deblais, Antoine; Delabre, Ulysse

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are increasingly used in higher education and at university in mechanics, acoustics, and even thermodynamics as they offer a unique way to do simple science experiments. In this article, we show how smartphones can be used in fluid mechanics to measure surface tension of various liquids, which could help students understand the concept…

  12. Surface charge measurement using an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1998-01-01

    During the 1960s, the first measurements of charge on dielectric surfaces using simple electrostatic probes were reported. However it is only within the last 10 years that a proper understanding of the probe response has been developed. This situation arose as a consequence of the earlier studies...

  13. Optical measurement of surface roughness in manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodmann, R.

    1984-11-01

    The measuring system described here is based on the light-scattering method, and was developed by Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, Munich. It is especially useful for rapid non-contact monitoring of surface roughness in production-related areas. This paper outlines the differences between this system and the common stylus instrument, including descriptions of some applications in industry.

  14. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  15. Surface dose extrapolation measurements with radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Currie, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of surface dose delivered from radiotherapy x-ray beams for optimal results should be performed both inside and outside the prescribed treatment fields. An extrapolation technique can be used with radiographic film to perform surface dose assessment for open field high energy x-ray beams. This can produce an accurate two-dimensional map of surface dose if required. Results have shown that the surface percentage dose can be estimated within ±3% of parallel plate ionization chamber results with radiographic film using a series of film layers to produce an extrapolated result. Extrapolated percentage dose assessment for 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm square fields was estimated to be 15% ± 2%, 29% ± 3% and 38% ± 3% at the central axis and relatively uniform across the treatment field. The corresponding parallel plate ionization chamber measurements are 16%, 27% and 37%, respectively. Surface doses are also measured outside the treatment field which are mainly due to scattered electron contamination. To achieve this result, film calibration curves must be irradiated to similar x-ray field sizes as the experimental film to minimize quantitative variations in film optical density caused by varying x-ray spectrum with field size. (note)

  16. Modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.

  17. Airline meteorological requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Pappas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of airline meteorological/flight planning is presented. The effects of variations in meteorological parameters upon flight and operational costs are reviewed. Flight path planning through the use of meteorological information is briefly discussed.

  18. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  19. Palmyra Atoll, 2006 Sea Surface Temperature and Meteorological Enhanced Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site Palmyra Atoll, (5.88467, -162.10281 ) ARGOS ID 307-001. Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature and conductivity, and...

  20. Surface aerosol measurements at Barrow during AGASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodhaine, B.A.; Dutton, E.G.; DeLuisi, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Surface aerosol measurements were made at the Barrow GMCC Observatory during the AGASP flight series in March 1983. The condensation nucleus, scattering extinction coefficient, size distribution, and total aerosol optical depth measurements all clearly show conditions of background Arctic haze for March 9-11, a series of haze episodes during March 12-16, and a return to background haze for March 17-18. Angstrom exponents calculated from scattering coefficient data were low during March 9-11, relatively higher during March 12-14, and highest during March 15-18. Surface aerosol data and aerosol optical depth data are in good qualitative agreement for the 10-day period studied. Background haze was present when trajectories circled the Arctic basin, and haze episodes occurred when trajectories originated in western Asia and Europe

  1. Plasma measurements with surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futch, A.H. Jr.; Bradley, A.E.

    1969-01-01

    A surface barrier detector system for measuring the loss rate of protons from a hydrogen plasma and their energy spectrum is described. A full width at half maximum (FWHM) resolution of 1.4 keV for 15-keV hydrogen atoms was obtained using a selected detector having a sensitive area of 3 mm 2 and a depletion depth of 700 microns

  2. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishman, E.C.; Jewell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/10 6 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/10 6 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG [pt

  3. Description of measurement techniques for surface contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The needs of evaluation of the surface contamination are numerous in the processes of production and management of radioactive waste. The market of radiation protection materials proposes a lot of devices answering to the almost all these needs. These device have however their conditions and particular limits for use. To realize correct measurements it is use the device, the technique and the methods adapted to the need, by taking into account the optimization of economical aspect. (N.C.)

  4. Doping profile measurement on textured silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Zahi; Taleb, Nadjib; Sermage, Bernard; Broussillou, Cédric; Bazer-Bachi, Barbara; Quillec, Maurice

    2018-04-01

    In crystalline silicon solar cells, the front surface is textured in order to lower the reflection of the incident light and increase the efficiency of the cell. This texturing whose dimensions are a few micrometers wide and high, often makes it difficult to determine the doping profile measurement. We have measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance voltage profiling the doping profile of implanted phosphorus in alkaline textured and in polished monocrystalline silicon wafers. The paper shows that SIMS gives accurate results provided the primary ion impact angle is small enough. Moreover, the comparison between these two techniques gives an estimation of the concentration of electrically inactive phosphorus atoms.

  5. Highly accurate surface maps from profilometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Kate M.; Nelson, Jessica D.; Mandina, Mike P.

    2013-04-01

    Many aspheres and free-form optical surfaces are measured using a single line trace profilometer which is limiting because accurate 3D corrections are not possible with the single trace. We show a method to produce an accurate fully 2.5D surface height map when measuring a surface with a profilometer using only 6 traces and without expensive hardware. The 6 traces are taken at varying angular positions of the lens, rotating the part between each trace. The output height map contains low form error only, the first 36 Zernikes. The accuracy of the height map is ±10% of the actual Zernike values and within ±3% of the actual peak to valley number. The calculated Zernike values are affected by errors in the angular positioning, by the centering of the lens, and to a small effect, choices made in the processing algorithm. We have found that the angular positioning of the part should be better than 1?, which is achievable with typical hardware. The centering of the lens is essential to achieving accurate measurements. The part must be centered to within 0.5% of the diameter to achieve accurate results. This value is achievable with care, with an indicator, but the part must be edged to a clean diameter.

  6. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  7. Distinguishing the roles of meteorology, emission control measures, regional transport, and co-benefits of reduced aerosol feedbacks in ;APEC Blue;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Liu, Zirui; Wang, Yuesi; Lu, Xiao; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Lili; Li, Meng; Wang, Zifa; Zhang, Qiang; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2017-10-01

    Air quality are strongly influenced by both emissions and meteorological conditions. During the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) week (November 5-11, 2014), the Chinese government implemented unprecedented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding provinces, and then a phenomenon referred to as ;APEC Blue; (rare blue sky) occurred. It is challenging to quantify the effectiveness of the implemented strict control measures solely based on observations. In this study, we use the WRF-Chem model to distinguish the roles of meteorology, emission control measures, regional transport, and co-benefits of reduced aerosol feedbacks during APEC week. In general, meteorological variables, PM2.5 concentrations and PM2.5 chemical compositions are well reproduced in Beijing. Positive weather conditions (lower temperature, lower relative humidity, higher wind speeds and enhanced boundary layer heights) play important roles in ;APEC Blue;. Applying strict emission control measures in Beijing and five surrounding provinces can only explain an average decrease of 17.7 μg/m3 (-21.8%) decreases in PM2.5 concentrations, roughly more than half of which is caused by emission controls that implemented in the five surrounding provinces (12.5 μg/m3). During the APEC week, non-local emissions contributed to 41.3% to PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, and the effectiveness of implementing emission control measures hinges on dominant pathways and transport speeds. Besides, we also quantified the contribution of reduced aerosol feedbacks due to strict emission control measures in this study. During daytime, co-benefits of reduced aerosol feedbacks account for about 10.9% of the total decreases in PM2.5 concentrations in urban Beijing. The separation of contributions from aerosol absorption and scattering restates the importance of controlling BC to accelerate the effectiveness of aerosol pollution control.

  8. The meteorological data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouharrour, S.; Thomas, P.

    1975-07-01

    The 200 m meteorological tower of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center has been equipped with 45 instruments measuring the meteorological parameters near the ground level. Frequent inquiry of the instruments implies data acquisition with on-line data reduction. This task is fulfilled by some peripheral units controlled by a PDP-8/I. This report presents details of the hardware configuration and a short description of the software configuration of the meteorological data acquisition system. The report also serves as an instruction for maintenance and repair work to be carried out at the system. (orig.) [de

  9. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV-Development of an insolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Recognizing a need for a coordinated approach to resolve energy problems, certain members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) met in September 1974 and agreed to develop an International Energy Program. The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established within the OECD to administer, monitor and execute this International Energy Program. In July 1975, Solar Heating and Cooling was selected as one of the sixteen technology fields for multilateral cooperation. Five project areas, called tasks, were identified for cooperative activities within the IEA Program to Develop and Test Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. The objective of one task was to obtain improved basic resource information for the design and operation of solar heating and cooling systems through a better understanding of the required insolation (solar radiation) and related weather data, and through improved techniques for measurement and evaluation of such data. At the February 1976 initial experts meeting in Norrkoeping, Sweden, the participants developed the objective statement into two subtasks. (1) an insolation handbook; and (2) a portable meteorological instrument package. This handbook is the product of the first subtask. The objective of this handbook is to provide a basis for a dialogue between solar scientists and meteorologists. Introducing the solar scientist to solar radiation and related meteorological data enables him to better express his scientific and engineering needs to the meteorologist; and introducing the meteorologist to the special solar radiation and meteorological data applications of the solar scientist enables him to better meet the needs of the solar energy community.

  10. Mean surface meteorological parameter characterization at Kavaratti, Lakshadweep Island, South-East Arabian Sea, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijaykumar, K.; Mehra, P.; Nair, B.; Agarwadekar, Y.; Luis, R.; Ghatge, D.; Lobo, S.; Halmalkar, B.

    with lesser intensity. Monthly mean wind speed in October was ~ 2 m/s while in July it was ~7 m/s. Monthly mean atmospheric pressure in October was ~1008 mbar as against ~1007 mbar in July. Surface air-temperature and relative humidity have also exhibited...

  11. Virtual Meteorological Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brinzila

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual meteorological center, computer based with Internet possibility transmission of the information is presented. Circumstance data is collected with logging field meteorological station. The station collects and automatically save data about the temperature in the air, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and wind direction, rain gauge, solar radiation and air quality. Also can perform sensors test, analyze historical data and evaluate statistical information. The novelty of the system is that it can publish data over the Internet using LabVIEW Web Server capabilities and deliver a video signal to the School TV network. Also the system performs redundant measurement of temperature and humidity and was improved using new sensors and an original signal conditioning module.

  12. Surface temperature measurement with radioactive kryptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.; Piatrik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactive kryptonates is described for measuring surface temperatures within the region of 45 to 70 degC. Two samples each were prepared of kryptonated beechwood and hydroquinone on a paper carrier. One sample served as the standard which during the experiment was placed in a thermostat at a constant temperature of 45 degC. The second sample was placed in another thermostat where the temperature changed from 45 to 70 degC. Both samples were in the thermostat for 30 mins. The temperature was raised in steps of 2.5 degC and the time of measurement was constant in both samples. The dependences are given of the drop in activity on temperature for both types of samples. The difference was determined of the drop in activity between the standard and the second sample and the relation for measuring the temperature of the sample was determined therefrom. (J.B.)

  13. Measurement and removal of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, M.; Tamberg, T.

    1990-01-01

    This is a critical reappraisal of the sampling factor which is important for indirect contamination measurement. The factor gives the radioactivity collected by means of a wipe sample as a fraction of the total loose radioactivity i.e. without firm adhesion. It is used in national and international standard specifications and stated, frequently with excessive conservatism, as 0.1. Secondly, the standard specifications for the testing and appraisal of surface materials in relation to their decontamination capacity and for testing the effect of decontamination agents hitherto bond and Co-60 and Cs-137 are to be expanded to include radioactive iodine, which is important in nuclear medicine. The selection of optimum surface materials will thus be put on an improved basis. (orig./DG) [de

  14. Measuring the Valence of Nanocrystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan Scharle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this project is to understand and control the interplay between nanocrystal stoichiometry, surface ligand binding and exchange, and the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in solution and in thin solid films. We pursued three research directions with this goal in mind: 1) We characterized nanocrystal stoichiometry and its influence on the binding of L-type and X-type ligands, including the thermodynamics of binding and the kinetics of ligand exchange. 2) We developed a quantitative understanding of the relationship between surface ligand passivation and photoluminescence quantum yield. 3) We developed methods to replace the organic ligands on the nanocrystal with halide ligands and controllably deposit these nanocrystals into thin films, where electrical measurements were used to investigate the electrical transport and internanocrystal electronic coupling.

  15. Physical, chemical, current profile, water pressure, sea surface temperature, meteorological, and other data from current meters, bottle casts, pressure gauges, meteorological sensors, current meters, and other instruments from the ANDRE NIZERY and other platforms from the TOGA Area - Atlantic as part of the Seasonal Response of the Equatorial Atlantic Experiment/Francais Ocean Et Climat Dans L'Atlantique Equatorial (SEQUAL/FOCAL) project from 1964-01-01 to 1985-12-31 (NODC Accession 8700150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, current profile, water pressure, sea surface temperature, meteorological, and other data were collected from the ANDRE NIZERY and other platforms...

  16. Diurnal variations of the Martian surface layer meteorological parameters during the first 45 sols at two Viking Lander sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, J.L.; Leovy, C.B.; Tillman, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Wind speed, ambient and surface temperatures from both Viking Landers have been used to compute bulk Richardson numbers and Monin-Obukhov lengths during the earliest phase of the Mars missions. These parameters are used to estimate drag and heat transfer coefficients, friction velocities and surface heat fluxes at the two sites. The principal uncertainty is in the specification of the roughness length. Maximum heat fluxes occur near local noon at both sites, and are estimated to be in the range 15--20 W m -2 at the Viking 1 site and 10--15 W m -2 at the Viking 2 site. Maximum values of friction velocity occur in late morning at Viking 1 and are estimated to be 0.4--0.6 m s -1 . They occur shortly after drawn at the Viking 2 site where peak values are estimated to be in the range 0.25--0.35 m s -1 . Extension of these calculations to later times during the mission will require allowance for dust opacity effects in the estimation of surface temperature and in the correction of radiation errors of the Viking 2 temperature sensor

  17. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW, radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  18. Calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewig, J.; Eifler, M.

    2017-06-01

    The ISO standards which are related to the calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments are the ISO 25178-6xx series which defines the relevant metrological characteristics for the calibration of different measuring principles and the ISO 25178-7xx series which defines the actual calibration procedures. As the field of areal measurement is however not yet fully standardized, there are still open questions to be addressed which are subject to current research. Based on this, selected research results of the authors in this area are presented. This includes the design and fabrication of areal material measures. For this topic, two examples are presented with the direct laser writing of a stepless material measure for the calibration of the height axis which is based on the Abbott- Curve and the manufacturing of a Siemens star for the determination of the lateral resolution limit. Based on these results, as well a new definition for the resolution criterion, the small scale fidelity, which is still under discussion, is presented. Additionally, a software solution for automated calibration procedures is outlined.

  19. Meteorological observatory for Antarctic data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigioni, P.; De Silvestri, L.

    1996-01-01

    In the last years, a great number of automatic weather stations was installed in Antarctica, with the aim to examine closely the weather and climate of this region and to improve the coverage of measuring points on the Antarctic surface. In 1987 the Italian Antarctic Project started to set up a meteorological network, in an area not completely covered by other countries. Some of the activities performed by the meteorological observatory, concerning technical functions such as maintenance of the AWS's and the execution of radio soundings, or relating to scientific purposes such as validation and elaboration of collected data, are exposed. Finally, some climatological considerations on the thermal behaviour of the Antarctic troposphere such as 'coreless winter', and on the wind field, including katabatic flows in North Victoria Land are described

  20. LOFT fuel rod surface temperature measurement testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, A.M.; Tolman, E.L.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Testing of the LOFT fuel rod cladding surface thermocouples has been performed to evaluate how accurately the LOFT thermocouples measure the cladding surface temperature during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence and what effect, if any, the thermocouple would have on core performance. Extensive testing has been done to characterize the thermocouple design. Thermal cycling and corrosion testing of the thermocouple weld design have provided an expected lifetime of 6000 hours when exposed to reactor coolant conditions of 620 K and 15.9 MPa and to sixteen thermal cycles with an initial temperature of 480 K and peak temperatures ranging from 870 to 1200K. Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) tests have indicated a DNB penalty (5 to 28% lower) during steady state operation and negligible effects during LOCA blowdown caused by the LOFT fuel rod surface thermocouple arrangement. Experience with the thermocouple design in Power Burst Facility (PBF) and LOFT nonnuclear blowdown testing has been quite satisfactory. Tests discussed here were conducted using both stainless steel and zircaloy-clad electrically heated rod in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF) blowdown simulation loop

  1. Mars atmospheric phenomena during major dust storms, as measured at surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Henry, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Meteorological instrumentation aboard the Viking Mars Landers measures wind, temperature, and pressure. Two global dust storms occurred during northern autumn and winter, observed both by the orbiters and by the landers. The meteorological data from the landers has been analyzed for the period just before first storm arrival to just after second storm arrival, with the objectives being definition of meteorological phenomena during the storm period, determination of those associated with storm and dust arrival, and evaluation of effects on synoptic conditions and the general circulation. Times of dust arrival over the sites could be defined fairly closely from optical and pressure (solar tide) data, and dust arrival was also accompanied by changes in diurnal temperature range, temperature maxima, and temperature minima. The arrivals of the storms at VL-1 were accompanied by significant increase in wind speed and pressure. No such changes were observed at VL-2. It is possible that surface material could have been raised locally at VL-1. Throughout the period except following the second dust storm synoptic picture at VL-2 was one of eastward moving cyclonic and anticyclonic systems. These disappeared following the second storm, a phenomenon which may be related to the storm

  2. The impact of urbanization during half a century on surface meteorology based on WRF model simulations over National Capital Region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Ankur Prabhat; Mohan, Manju

    2017-10-01

    An estimated 50% of the global population lives in the urban areas, and this percentage is projected to reach around 69% by the year 2050 (World Urbanization Prospects 2009). There is a considerable growth of urban and built-up area during the recent decades over National Capital Region (NCR) of India (17-fold increase in the urban extent). The proposed study estimates the land use land cover changes particularly changes to urban class from other land use types such as croplands, shrubland, open areas, and water bodies and quantify these changes for a span of about five decades. Further, the impact of these land use/land cover changes is examined on spatial and temporal variations of meteorological parameters using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model. The urbanized areas appear to be one of the regions with highest changes in the values of the fluxes and temperatures where during daytime, the surface sensible heat flux values show a noticeable increase of 60-70 W m-2 which commensurate with increase in urbanization. Similarly, the nighttime LST and T2m show an increase of 3-5 and 2-3 K, respectively. The diurnal temperature range (DTR) of LST and surface temperature also shows a decrease of about 5 and 2-3 K, respectively, with increasing urbanization. Significant decrease in the magnitude of surface winds and relative humidity is also observed over the areas converted to urban form over a period of half a century. The impacts shown here have serious implications on human health, energy consumption, ventilation, and atmospheric pollution.

  3. Meteorological considerations in emergency response capability at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairobent, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Meteorological considerations in emergency response at nuclear power plants are discussed through examination of current regulations and guidance documents, including discussion of the rationale for current regulatory requirements related to meteorological information for emergency response. Areas discussed include: major meteorological features important to emergency response; onsite meteorological measurements programs, including redundant and backup measurements; access to offsite sources of meteorological information; consideration of real-time and forecast conditions and atmospheric dispersion modeling

  4. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  5. ECOCLIMAP-II/Europe: a twofold database of ecosystems and surface parameters at 1 km resolution based on satellite information for use in land surface, meteorological and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroux, S.; Kaptué Tchuenté, A. T.; Roujean, J.-L.; Masson, V.; Martin, E.; Le Moigne, P.

    2013-04-01

    The overall objective of the present study is to introduce the new ECOCLIMAP-II database for Europe, which is an upgrade for this region of the former initiative, ECOCLIMAP-I, already implemented at global scale. The ECOCLIMAP programme is a dual database at 1 km resolution that includes an ecosystem classification and a coherent set of land surface parameters that are primarily mandatory in meteorological modelling (notably leaf area index and albedo). Hence, the aim of this innovative physiography is to enhance the quality of initialisation and impose some surface attributes within the scope of weather forecasting and climate related studies. The strategy for implementing ECOCLIMAP-II is to depart from prevalent land cover products such as CLC2000 (Corine Land Cover) and GLC2000 (Global Land Cover) by splitting existing classes into new classes that possess a better regional character by virtue of the climatic environment (latitude, proximity to the sea, topography). The leaf area index (LAI) from MODIS and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from SPOT/Vegetation (a global monitoring system of vegetation) yield the two proxy variables that were considered here in order to perform a multi-year trimmed analysis between 1999 and 2005 using the K-means method. Further, meteorological applications require each land cover type to appear as a partition of fractions of 4 main surface types or tiles (nature, water bodies, sea, urban areas) and, inside the nature tile, fractions of 12 plant functional types (PFTs) representing generic vegetation types - principally broadleaf forest, needleleaf forest, C3 and C4 crops, grassland and bare land - as incorporated by the SVAT model ISBA (Interactions Surface Biosphere Atmosphere) developed at Météo France. This landscape division also forms the cornerstone of a validation exercise. The new ECOCLIMAP-II can be verified with auxiliary land cover products at very fine and coarse resolutions by means of versatile land

  6. Atmospheric corrosion in Gran Canaria specifically meteorological and pollution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.E.G.; Valles, M.L.; Mirza R, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon steel, copper, zinc and aluminium samples were exposed in different sizes with known ambient parameters in Gran Canaria Island and atmospheric corrosion was investigated. Weight-loss measurements used to determine corrosion damage were complemented with metallographic and XP S determination in order to characterize the structure and morphology of surface corrosion products. The ambient aggressiveness could be well evaluated from meteorological and pollution data. All atmospheric corrosion and environmental data were statistically processed for establishing general corrosion damage functions for carbon steel, copper, aluminium and zinc in terms of Gran Canaria extreme meteorological and pollution parameters. (Author)

  7. Comparative Measurement of Microcystins in Diverse Surface ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of microcystins, cyanotoxins associated with cyanobacterial blooms which are increasingly prevalent in inland waters, is complicated by the diversity of congeners which have been observed in the environment. At present, more than 150 microcystin congeners have been identified, and this poses a significant challenge to analytical methods intended to assess human health risks in surface and drinking water systems. The most widely employed analytical method at present is the ADDA-ELISA technique which is potentially sensitive to all microcystins, but it is primarily intended as a semi-quantitative method, and questions have been raised regarding the potential for cross-reactivity and false positives. LC-MS/MS methods targeting specific congeners, such as US EPA Method 544, are intended for use as a secondary confirmation following a positive ELISA response, but these techniques can target only those congeners for which commercial standards are available. Accordingly, they are not suitable for ascertaining the safety of a given water sample, given the potential for omitting unknown microcystin congeners which might be present.An alternative approach involves oxidative transformation of microcystins to a common product, 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid, or MMPB. Measuring MMPB by LC-MS/MS can potentially provide a metric for the sum of all microcystin congeners present in a sample, subject to the efficiency and overall yield of conversion. The

  8. Can the combined use of an ensemble based modelling approach and the analysis of measured meteorological trends lead to increased confidence in climate change impact assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädeke, Anne; Koch, Hagen; Pohle, Ina; Grünewald, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In anthropogenically heavily impacted river catchments, such as the Lusatian river catchments of Spree and Schwarze Elster (Germany), the robust assessment of possible impacts of climate change on the regional water resources is of high relevance for the development and implementation of suitable climate change adaptation strategies. Large uncertainties inherent in future climate projections may, however, reduce the willingness of regional stakeholder to develop and implement suitable adaptation strategies to climate change. This study provides an overview of different possibilities to consider uncertainties in climate change impact assessments by means of (1) an ensemble based modelling approach and (2) the incorporation of measured and simulated meteorological trends. The ensemble based modelling approach consists of the meteorological output of four climate downscaling approaches (DAs) (two dynamical and two statistical DAs (113 realisations in total)), which drive different model configurations of two conceptually different hydrological models (HBV-light and WaSiM-ETH). As study area serve three near natural subcatchments of the Spree and Schwarze Elster river catchments. The objective of incorporating measured meteorological trends into the analysis was twofold: measured trends can (i) serve as a mean to validate the results of the DAs and (ii) be regarded as harbinger for the future direction of change. Moreover, regional stakeholders seem to have more trust in measurements than in modelling results. In order to evaluate the nature of the trends, both gradual (Mann-Kendall test) and step changes (Pettitt test) are considered as well as both temporal and spatial correlations in the data. The results of the ensemble based modelling chain show that depending on the type (dynamical or statistical) of DA used, opposing trends in precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and discharge are simulated in the scenario period (2031-2060). While the statistical DAs

  9. ECOCLIMAP-II/Europe: a twofold database of ecosystems and surface parameters at 1-km resolution based on satellite information for use in land surface, meteorological and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroux, S.; Kaptué Tchuenté, A. T.; Roujean, J.-L.; Masson, V.; Martin, E.; Le Moigne, P.

    2012-11-01

    The overall objective of the present study is to introduce the new ECOCLIMAP-II database for Europe, which is an upgrade for this region of the former initiative, ECOCLIMAP-I, already implemented at global scale. The ECOCLIMAP programme is a dual database at 1-km resolution that includes an ecosystem classification and a coherent set of land surface parameters that are primarily mandatory in meteorological modelling (notably leaf area index and albedo). Hence, the aim of this innovative physiography is to enhance the quality of initialisation and impose some surface attributes within the scope of weather forecasting and climate related studies. The strategy for implementing ECOCLIMAP-II is to depart from prevalent land cover products such as CLC2000 (Corine Land Cover) and GLC2000 (Global Land Cover) by splitting existing classes into new classes that possess a better regional character by virtue of the climatic environment (latitude, proximity to the sea, topography). The leaf area index (LAI) from MODIS and NDVI from SPOT/Vegetation yield the two proxy variables that were considered here in order to perform a multi-year trimmed analysis between 1999 and 2005 using the K-means method. Further, meteorological applications require each land cover type to appear as a partition of fractions of 4 main surface types or tiles (nature, water bodies, sea, urban areas) and, inside the nature tile, fractions of 12 Plant Functional Types (PFTs) representing generic vegetation types - principally broadleaf forest, needleleaf forest, C3 and C4 crops, grassland and bare land - as incorporated by the SVAT model ISBA developed at Météo France. This landscape division also forms the cornerstone of a validation exercise. The new ECOCLIMAP-II can be verified with auxiliary land cover products at very fine and coarse resolutions by means of versatile land occupation nomenclatures.

  10. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-08-15

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R(2)=0.946 and R(2)=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental measurements of negative hydrogen ion production from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.G.

    1977-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the production of H - from surfaces bombarded with hydrogen are reviewed. Some measurements of H + and H 0 production from surfaces are also discussed with particular emphasis on work which might be relevant to ion source applications

  12. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done with DAS (data aquisition system) updating. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. Wireless data transmission to MIPS (Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where enviromental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. The meteorological data as the result of this project had been used to report `Environmental Impact Assessment of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor` and {sup S}ite Selection of Meteorological Tower and Environment Impact Assessment of the Cooling Tower of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor{sup .} (Author).

  13. Application of nonlinear forecasting techniques for meteorological modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pérez-Muñuzuri

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear forecasting method was used to predict the behavior of a cloud coverage time series several hours in advance. The method is based on the reconstruction of a chaotic strange attractor using four years of cloud absorption data obtained from half-hourly Meteosat infrared images from Northwestern Spain. An exhaustive nonlinear analysis of the time series was carried out to reconstruct the phase space of the underlying chaotic attractor. The forecast values are used by a non-hydrostatic meteorological model ARPS for daily weather prediction and their results compared with surface temperature measurements from a meteorological station and a vertical sounding. The effect of noise in the time series is analyzed in terms of the prediction results.Key words: Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; general – General (new fields

  14. Application of nonlinear forecasting techniques for meteorological modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pérez-Muñuzuri

    Full Text Available A nonlinear forecasting method was used to predict the behavior of a cloud coverage time series several hours in advance. The method is based on the reconstruction of a chaotic strange attractor using four years of cloud absorption data obtained from half-hourly Meteosat infrared images from Northwestern Spain. An exhaustive nonlinear analysis of the time series was carried out to reconstruct the phase space of the underlying chaotic attractor. The forecast values are used by a non-hydrostatic meteorological model ARPS for daily weather prediction and their results compared with surface temperature measurements from a meteorological station and a vertical sounding. The effect of noise in the time series is analyzed in terms of the prediction results.

    Key words: Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; general – General (new fields

  15. NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget: Integrated Data Product With Reprocessed Radiance, Cloud, and Meteorology Inputs, and New Surface Albedo Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, Taiping

    2016-01-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current release 3.0 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number will allow SRB a higher resolution gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree), as well as the production of pixel-level fluxes. In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made. Most notable has been the adaptation of Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) from CERES to improve the initial calculation of shortwave TOA fluxes, from which the surface flux calculations follow. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC), temperature and moisture profiles from HIRS, and new topography, surface type, and snow/ice. Here we present results for the improved GEWEX Shortwave and Longwave algorithm (GSW and GLW) with new ISCCP data, the various other improved input data sets and the incorporation of many additional internal SRB model improvements. As of the time of abstract submission, results from 2007 have been produced with ISCCP H availability the limiting factor. More SRB data will be produced as ISCCP reprocessing continues. The SRB data produced will be released as part of the Release 4.0 Integrated Product, recognizing the interdependence of the radiative fluxes with other GEWEX products providing estimates of the Earth's global water and energy cycle (I.e., ISCCP, SeaFlux, LandFlux, NVAP, etc.).

  16. Research on High-Precision, Low Cost Piezoresistive MEMS-Array Pressure Transmitters Based on Genetic Wavelet Neural Networks for Meteorological Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a novel and effective compensation method by improving the hardware design and software algorithm to achieve optimization of piezoresistive pressure sensors and corresponding measurement systems in order to measure pressure more accurately and stably, as well as to meet the application requirements of the meteorological industry. Specifically, GE NovaSensor MEMS piezoresistive pressure sensors within a thousandth of accuracy are selected to constitute an array. In the versatile compensation method, the hardware utilizes the array of MEMS pressure sensors to reduce random error caused by sensor creep, and the software adopts the data fusion technique based on the wavelet neural network (WNN which is improved by genetic algorithm (GA to analyze the data of sensors for the sake of obtaining accurate and complete information over the wide temperature and pressure ranges. The GA-WNN model is implemented in hardware by using the 32-bit STMicroelectronics (STM32 microcontroller combined with an embedded real-time operating system µC/OS-II to make the output of the array of MEMS sensors be a direct digital readout. The results of calibration and test experiments clearly show that the GA-WNN technique can be effectively applied to minimize the sensor errors due to the temperature drift, the hysteresis effect and the long-term drift because of aging and environmental changes. The maximum error of the low cost piezoresistive MEMS-array pressure transmitter proposed by us is within 0.04% of its full-scale value, and it can satisfy the meteorological pressure measurement.

  17. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties of Molybdenite by Direct Force Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-10-27

    Probing anisotropic surface properties of layer-type mineral is fundamentally important in understanding its surface charge and wettability for a variety of applications. In this study, the surface properties of the face and the edge surfaces of natural molybdenite (MoS2) were investigated by direct surface force measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM). The interaction forces between the AFM tip (Si3N4) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were measured in 10 mM NaCl solutions at various pHs. The force profiles were well-fitted with classical DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory to determine the surface potentials of the face and the edge surfaces of molybdenite. The surface potentials of both the face and edge surfaces become more negative with increasing pH. At neutral and alkaline conditions, the edge surface exhibits more negative surface potential than the face surface, which is possibly due to molybdate and hydromolybdate ions on the edge surface. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the edge surface was determined around pH 3 while PZC of the face surface was not observed in the range of pH 3-11. The interaction forces between octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated AFM tip (OTS-tip) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were also measured at various pHs to study the wettability of molybdenite surfaces. An attractive force between the OTS-tip and the face surface was detected. The force profiles were well-fitted by considering DLVO forces and additional hydrophobic force. Our results suggest the hydrophobic feature of the face surface of molybdenite. In contrast, no attractive force between the OTS-tip and the edge surface was detected. This is the first study in directly measuring surface charge and wettability of the pristine face and edge surfaces of molybdenite through surface force measurements.

  18. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  19. Identification of thermohaline structure of a tropical estuary and its sensitivity to meteorological disturbance through temperature, salinity, and surface meteorological measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.; Sivadas, T.K.; Balachandran, K.K.; Vijaykumar, K.; Revichandran, C.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Francis, R.; Martin, G.D.

    -neap variability in which thermal and haline variability bear an inverse relationship, with cooling and enhanced salinity during spring tide and vice versa during neap tide. The diurnal variability in temperature is controlled by day/night cyclicity rather than...

  20. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Mick Y.; Wang, Lixin; Parkes, Stephen; Strauss, Josiah; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; Griffiths, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  1. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Mick Y.

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  2. The summertime Boreal forest field measurement intensive (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010): an overview of meteorological and chemical influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, J.; Crowley, J.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H.; Martinez, M.; Ouwersloot, H.G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Lelieveld, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the background, instrumentation, goals, and the regional influences on the HUMPPACOPEC intensive field measurement campaign, conducted at the Boreal forest research station SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relation) in Hyyti¨al¨a, Finland from 12 July–12

  3. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program

  4. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  5. Lectures in Micro Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    This report contains the notes from my lectures on Micro scale meteorology at the Geophysics Department of the Niels Bohr Institute of Copenhagen University. In the period 1993-2012, I was responsible for this course at the University. At the start of the course, I decided that the text books...... available in meteorology at that time did not include enough of the special flavor of micro meteorology that characterized the work of the meteorology group at Risø (presently of the Institute of wind energy of the Danish Technical University). This work was focused on Boundary layer flows and turbulence...

  6. On the usefulness of atmospheric measurements for air quality evaluation in the context of recent urban meteorology findings in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Nunez, X.; Jazcilevich Diamant, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: xochitl@atmosfera.unam.mx

    2007-10-15

    In many cities, the main tool used to assess pollution abatement policies is the air quality information obtained from local monitoring network. However, in the context of a complex meteorology and land use such as those prevailing in Mexico City, the point-wise character and lack of detailed chemistry of this information may confer conflictive or biased information. The approach to understand the problem could be not based on solid ground. It is not until the measurement effort is complemented with detailed meteorological and air quality modeling that proper use of the information can be assured. In order to provide an example of this assertion, the usefulness of measured air quality data is gauged in a simplified manner, constructing three dimensional graphs containing local emission concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations, that we call ozone isopleths, for three sites in Mexico City. Together with corresponding wind rose data, an interpretation of the air pollution transport in the Valley of Mexico using only measured data is attempted. This interpretation, based on measured information subject to local influences, is compared with recent air quality modeling results showing that when measured data is used in conjunction with air quality modeling a better interpretation of air pollution problem can be obtained. A correct strategy to study the air quality problem, especially in the case of Mexico City where complex meteorology and land use is present, should be that both endeavors, measuring and modeling, are pursued with equal vigor. [Spanish] En muchas ciudades la herramienta principal en la evaluacion de las politicas para el control de la contaminacion es la informacion de calidad del aire proveniente de las redes locales de mediciones. Sin embargo, en el contexto de una meteorologia compleja y el uso de suelo de la Ciudad de Mexico, el caracter puntual y la carencia de

  7. Air Quality and Meteorological Boundary Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Arriaga, J.; Vega, E.; Magaña, V.; Caetano, E.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Zaragoza, J.; Martínez, A. P.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Allwine, E.; Pressley, S.; Westberg, H.; Reyes, R.

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive field campaign to characterize photochemical smog in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) was conducted during April 2003. An important number of equipment was deployed all around the urban core and its surroundings to measure gas and particles composition from the various sources and receptor sites. In addition to air quality measurements, meteorology variables were also taken by regular weather meteorological stations, tethered balloons, radiosondes, sodars and lidars. One important issue with regard to the field campaign was the characterization of the boundary conditions in order to feed meteorological and air quality models. Four boundary sites were selected to measure continuously criteria pollutants, VOC and meteorological variables at surface level. Vertical meteorological profiles were measured at three other sites : radiosondes in Tacubaya site were launched every six hours daily; tethered balloons were launched at CENICA and FES-Cuautitlan sites according to the weather conditions, and one sodar was deployed at UNAM site in the south of the city. Additionally to these measurements, two fixed meteorological monitoring networks deployed along the city were available to complement these measurements. In general, we observed that transport of pollutants from the city to the boundary sites changes every day, according to the coupling between synoptic and local winds. This effect were less important at elevated sites such as Cerro de la Catedral and ININ, where synoptic wind were more dominant during the field campaign. Also, local sources nearby boundary sites hide the influence of pollution coming from the city some days, particularly at the La Reforma site.

  8. Airborne-Measured Spatially-Averaged Temperature and Moisture Turbulent Structure Parameters Over a Heterogeneous Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platis, Andreas; Martinez, Daniel; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent structure parameters of temperature and humidity can be derived from scintillometer measurements along horizontal paths of several 100 m to several 10 km. These parameters can be very useful to estimate the vertical turbulent heat fluxes at the surface (applying MOST). However, there are many assumptions required by this method which can be checked using in situ data, e.g. 1) Were CT2 and CQ2 correctly derived from the initial CN2 scintillometer data (structure parameter of density fluctuations or refraction index, respectively)? 2) What is the influence of the surround hetereogeneous surface regarding its footprint and the weighted averaging effect of the scintillometer method 3) Does MOST provide the correct turbulent fluxes from scintillometer data. To check these issues, in situ data from low-level flight measurements are well suited, since research aircraft cover horizontal distances in very short time (Taylor's hypothesis of a frozen turbulence structure can be applyed very likely). From airborne-measured time series the spatial series are calculated and then their structure functions that finally provide the structure parameters. The influence of the heterogeneous surface can be controlled by the definition of certain moving-average window sizes. A very useful instrument for this task are UAVs since they can fly very low and maintain altitude very precisely. However, the data base of such unmanned operations is still quite thin. So in this contribution we want to present turbulence data obtained with the Helipod, a turbulence probe hanging below a manned helicopter. The structure parameters of temperature and moisture, CT2 and CQ2, in the lower convective boundary layer were derived from data measured using the Helipod in 2003. The measurements were carried out during the LITFASS03 campaign over a heterogeneous land surface around the boundary-layer field site of the Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory-Richard-Aßmann-Observatory (MOL) of the

  9. Meso- and Micro-scale modelling in China: Wind measurements at 12 meteorological stations in NE China (Dongbei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw-Marsden, Petter; Enevoldsen, Karen

    This report is part of the presentation of the results obtained during the CMA component of the Wind Energy Development (WED) program. It describes the techniques and results of the project “A02 Measurements” which produced wind measurements from mast mounted anemometers and vanes in Dongbei...

  10. Physical and meteorological delayed-mode full-resolution data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the Equatorial Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array of moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific. Moorings within the array measure surface meteorological and upper-ocean...

  11. The prediction of BRDFs from surface profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.; Leonard, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses methods of predicting the BRDF of smooth surfaces from profile measurements of their surface finish. The conversion of optical profile data to the BRDF at the same wavelength is essentially independent of scattering models, while the conversion of mechanical measurements, and wavelength scaling in general, are model dependent. Procedures are illustrated for several surfaces, including two from the recent HeNe BRDF round robin, and results are compared with measured data. Reasonable agreement is found except for surfaces which involve significant scattering from isolated surface defects which are poorly sampled in the profile data

  12. A new fiber optic sensor for inner surface roughness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shoubin; Hu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    In order to measure inner surface roughness of small holes nondestructively, a new fiber optic sensor is researched and developed. Firstly, a new model for surface roughness measurement is proposed, which is based on intensity-modulated fiber optic sensors and scattering modeling of rough surfaces. Secondly, a fiber optical measurement system is designed and set up. Under the help of new techniques, the fiber optic sensor can be miniaturized. Furthermore, the use of micro prism makes the light turn 90 degree, so the inner side surface roughness of small holes can be measured. Thirdly, the fiber optic sensor is gauged by standard surface roughness specimens, and a series of measurement experiments have been done. The measurement results are compared with those obtained by TR220 Surface Roughness Instrument and Form Talysurf Laser 635, and validity of the developed fiber optic sensor is verified. Finally, precision and influence factors of the fiber optic sensor are analyzed.

  13. Estimating net surface shortwave radiation from Chinese geostationary meteorological satellite FengYun-2D (FY-2D) data under clear sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Lingling

    2016-03-21

    Net surface shortwave radiation (NSSR) significantly affects regional and global climate change, and is an important aspect of research on surface radiation budget balance. Many previous studies have proposed methods for estimating NSSR. This study proposes a method to calculate NSSR using FY-2D short-wave channel data. Firstly, a linear regression model is established between the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband albedo (r) and the narrowband reflectivity (ρ1), based on data simulated with MODTRAN 4.2. Secondly, the relationship between surface absorption coefficient (as) and broadband albedo (r) is determined by dividing the surface type into land, sea, or snow&ice, and NSSR can then be calculated. Thirdly, sensitivity analysis is performed for errors associated with sensor noise, vertically integrated atmospheric water content, view zenith angle and solar zenith angle. Finally, validation using ground measurements is performed. Results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) between the estimated and actual r is less than 0.011 for all conditions, and the RMSEs between estimated and real NSSR are 26.60 W/m2, 9.99 W/m2, and 23.40 W/m2, using simulated data for land, sea, and snow&ice surfaces, respectively. This indicates that the proposed method can be used to adequately estimate NSSR. Additionally, we compare field measurements from TaiYuan and ChangWu ecological stations with estimates using corresponding FY-2D data acquired from January to April 2012, on cloud-free days. Results show that the RMSE between the estimated and actual NSSR is 48.56W/m2, with a mean error of -2.23W/m2. Causes of errors also include measurement accuracy and estimations of atmospheric water vertical contents. This method is only suitable for cloudless conditions.

  14. Measuring wintertime surface fluxes at the Tiksi observatory in northern Sakha (Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Thomas; Aurela, Mika; Hatakka, Juha; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Asmi, Eija; Kondratyev, Vladimir; Ivakhov, Victor; Reshetnikov, Alexander; Makshtas, Alexander; Uttal, Taneil

    2013-04-01

    Tiksi hydrometeorological observatory has been equipped by new instrumentation for meteorology, turbulence, trace gas and aerosols studies as a joint effort by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Roshydromet (Yakutian Hydrometeorological Service, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute and Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory units) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The site is close to the coast of the Laptev Sea on deep permafrost soil with low tundra vegetation and patches of arctic semidesert. Near-by terrain is gently sloping to the south. Further away they are hills in the NE- and W-directions. Turbulence (3-d wind components and sonic temperature) was measured at 10 Hz by USA-1Scientific sonic by Metek, Gmbh. Concentrations of CO2 and H2O were measured by LiCor LI7000 analyzer and CH4 concentrations by Los Gatos RMT200 analyzer. Measurement height was 2.5m. Active layer freeze up took place in extended October period. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions were observed up to early December. Emissions to the atmosphere were enhanced by turbulence created by high wind speeds. Midwinter conditions existed from the end of October to the beginning of April based on rather constant negative net radiation between 20-30 Wm-2 that cools the surface and forms highly stable stratification. Weather conditions are characterized by either low or high wind speed modes. Roughly half of the time wind speed was low, below 2 ms-1. Then, katabatic winds were common and air temperature was between -40..-30°C. High wind speeds, up to 24 ms-1, were observed during synoptic disturbances which lasted typically a few days. In this presentation we will show climatology of surface layer characteristics in late autumn and winter. We will show frequency of well-developed turbulence vs. katabatic low wind speed conditions and related atmospheric stability. The effect of wind speed on methane and carbon dioxide emissions during the freezing period will be

  15. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  16. Inspection of freeform surfaces considering uncertainties in measurement, localization and surface reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrad, Vahid; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

    2013-01-01

    Inspection of a manufactured freeform surface can be conducted by building its surface model and comparing this manufactured surface model with the ideal design surface model and its tolerance requirement. The manufactured freeform surface model is usually achieved by obtaining measurement points on the manufactured surface, transforming these measurement points from the measurement coordinate system to the design coordinate system through localization, and reconstructing the surface model using the localized measurement points. In this research, a method was developed to estimate the locations and their variances of any selected points on the reconstructed freeform surface considering different sources of uncertainties in measurement, localization and surface reconstruction processes. In this method, first locations and variances of the localized measurement points are calculated considering uncertainties of the measurement points and uncertainties introduced in the localization processes. Then locations and variances of points on the reconstructed freeform surface are obtained considering uncertainties of the localized measurement points and uncertainties introduced in the freeform surface reconstruction process. Two case studies were developed to demonstrate how these three different uncertainty sources influence the quality of the reconstructed freeform curve and freeform surface in inspection. (paper)

  17. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  18. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  19. Understanding the link between meteorology and speciated abundance of bioaerosols in an urban environment using colocated flow cytometry and real-time autofluorescence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron Marty, Arnaldo; DeLeon-Rodriguez, Natasha; Waters, Samantha; Ziemba, Luke; Anderson, Bruce; Bergin, Michael; Konstantinidis, Kostas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2017-04-01

    The abundance and speciation of primary biological atmospheric particles (PBAP) has been of great interest due to their potential impact on human health, cloud formation and contribution to atmospheric nutrient deposition [1, 2]. During this study state-of-the-art sampling techniques and protocols have been developed and combined with the speciation of PBAP by flow cytometry (FCM). An effective FCM protocol has been developed to identify and quantify speciated bioaerosols populations. In addition, a Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS) has been used to understand the temporal variability of the PBAP, by measuring the autofluorescence of the atmospheric particles [3]. The techniques developed here have been applied to understand the PBAP variability and abundance in downtown Atlanta under different meteorological conditions. FCM results show the presence of a low nucleic acid (LNA) and a high nucleic acid (HNA) content subpopulation. The contribution of each subpopulation to the total biological atmospheric particles (TBAP) varies depending on the predominant meteorological conditions. Results suggest the HNA subpopulation, named fungal spores, dominates the composition of the TBAP during humid and warm days after rain events. However, during dry episodes the HNA subpopulation is diminished and the LNA subpopulation dominates the composition of the TBAP in downtown Atlanta. WIBS size distribution shifts between dry periods and humid and warm periods agreed well with the LNA and HNA subpopulations behavior. Our finding suggests Atlanta average PBAP concentration is around 1-8 x 104 part. /m3during Spring, where WIBS represents the lower bound and FCM the upper bound of the quantification. Additional experiments performed with different types of pollen, fungi and bacteria were used to better understand the scattering and fluorescence properties of them under different growing phases. References: [1] Morris, C. E., F. Conen, J. Alex Huffman, V. Phillips, U

  20. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    1998-01-01

    of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  1. Surface magnetic field measurement with magnetic shielding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2010), 66-68 ISSN 1335-3632 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic hysteresis * magnetic field measurement * magnetic shielding * extrapolation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.270, year: 2010

  2. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station shp by University of South Florida (USF) Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (USF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2015-01-29 (NODC Accession 0118791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118791 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  3. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station fhp by University of South Florida (USF) Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (USF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2015-01-29 (NODC Accession 0118789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118789 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  4. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station ilm3 by Coastal Ocean Research and Monitoring Program (CORMP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-02-01 (NODC Accession 0118742)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accession 0118742 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention (CF)...

  5. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station tarponbay by Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation River, Estuary and Coastal Observing Network (SCCF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118785)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118785 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  6. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from U-GLOS Station 45026, Near Cook Nuclear Plant, by LimnoTech and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123647)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123647 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  7. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Toledo Low Service Pump Station by LimnoTech and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-05-12 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130072 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  8. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station 45165, Monroe, MI, by LimnoTech and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-08-07 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123661)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123661 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  9. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station bgsusd2, Sandusky Bay 2, by Bowling Green State University and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2017-06-10 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0163831)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163831 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  10. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Gibraltar Island Station by Ohio State University; Stone Laboratory and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-05-26 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130545)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130545 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  11. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Port of Albany weather/hydro by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2011-01-04 to 2017-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0163364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163364 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Port of Albany weather/hydro, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  12. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Avon Lake Pump Station by Avon Lake Regional Water and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-06-28 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130546)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130546 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  13. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Sandusky Bay by Bowling Green State University and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-07-04 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0155656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155656 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  14. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station racypoint by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FLDEP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-03-07 to 2016-04-28 (NODC Accession 0118777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118777 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  15. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station melbourne by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FLDEP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-04-29 (NODC Accession 0118773)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118773 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  16. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station c21 by University of South Florida (USF) Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (USF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2014-12-14 (NODC Accession 0118788)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118788 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  17. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station ATW20 by University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123639)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123639 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  18. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Sodus Bay South (ESF2) by State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123654)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123654 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  19. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station redbaypoint by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FLDEP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-04-28 (NODC Accession 0118778)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118778 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  20. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Middle Bay Light, AL by Dauphin Island Sea Laboratory (DISL) and assembled by Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) in the Coastal waters of Alabama and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-01-01 to 2017-05-03 (NCEI Accession 0163754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163754 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  1. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station apachepier by Long Bay Hypoxia Monitoring Consortium (LBHMC) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2015-07-09 (NODC Accession 0118794)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accession 0118794 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention (CF)...

  2. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Perdido Pass, AL by Dauphin Island Sea Laboratory (DISL) and assembled by Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) in the Coastal waters of Alabama and Gulf of Mexico from 2011-11-07 to 2017-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0163767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163767 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  3. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Bon Secour, LA by Dauphin Island Sea Laboratory (DISL) and assembled by Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) in the Coastal waters of Alabama and Gulf of Mexico from 2011-01-01 to 2017-05-02 (NCEI Accession 0163204)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163204 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  4. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station c12 by University of South Florida (USF) Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (USF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-11 (NODC Accession 0118787)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118787 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  5. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station redfishpass by Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation River, Estuary and Coastal Observing Network (SCCF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118783)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118783 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  6. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Schodack Island hydro/weather by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2008-04-25 to 2017-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0163416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163416 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Schodack Island hydro/weather, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  7. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station gulfofmexico by Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation River, Estuary and Coastal Observing Network (SCCF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118782)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118782 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  8. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station RECON Erie, Cleveland (CLV), by Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-24 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123652)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123652 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  9. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from 45171, Granite Island Buoy, by Northern Michigan University and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-07-09 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130588 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  10. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Sodus Bay Center (ESF5) by State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123657)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123657 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  11. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Sodus Bay Weather Station (ESF4) by State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-15 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123656 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  12. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from U-GLOS Station 004, Little Traverse Bay, by University of Michigan and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123643)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123643 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  13. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from RECON Alpena, Thunder Bay Buoy, by Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes and Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary region from 2016-05-19 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0137891)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0137891 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  14. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Katrina Cut, AL by Dauphin Island Sea Laboratory (DISL) and assembled by Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) in the Coastal waters of Alabama and Gulf of Mexico from 2011-04-15 to 2017-05-04 (NCEI Accession 0163673)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163673 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  15. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station 2ndave by Long Bay Hypoxia Monitoring Consortium (LBHMC) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2015-06-01 (NODC Accession 0118793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118793 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  16. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station gbtf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118752 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  17. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station lobo by Florida Atlantic University (FAU) Land/Ocean Biogeochemical Observatory (LOBO) (FAU) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-21 to 2014-11-04 (NODC Accession 0118768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118768 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  18. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station wiwf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118765 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  19. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station wwef1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118767 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  20. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Ottawa County Pump Station by Ottawa County Regional Water Treatment Plant and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-06-28 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130587 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  1. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station City of Toledo Water Intake Crib by LimnoTech and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-05-20 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130548)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130548 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  2. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from University of Michigan Marine Hydrodynamics Laboratories Bio Buoy by University of Michigan and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123645)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123645 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  3. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from University of Michigan Marine Hydrodynamics Laboratories Bio Buoy by University of Michigan and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0123660)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123660 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  4. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Little Cedar Point by University of Toledo and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-07-03 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0155545)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155545 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  5. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station shellpoint by Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation River, Estuary and Coastal Observing Network (SCCF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118784)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118784 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  6. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Dunkirk Buoy, Lake Erie, by State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123655)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123655 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  7. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station fortmyers by Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation River, Estuary and Coastal Observing Network (SCCF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118739)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118739 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  8. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station PR1: South of Caja de Muertos Island by University of Maine and assembled by the Caribbean Coastal Ocean Observing System (CariCOOS) in the Caribbean Sea from 2009-06-09 to 2011-04-06 (NCEI Accession 0163740)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163740 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  9. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Dauphin Island, AL by Dauphin Island Sea Laboratory (DISL) and assembled by Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) in the Coastal waters of Alabama and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-01-01 to 2017-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0163672)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163672 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  10. Transitioning from CRD to CDRD in Bayesian retrieval of rainfall from satellite passive microwave measurements: Part 3 – Identification of optimal meteorological tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Smith

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the first two parts of this study we have presented a performance analysis of our new Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD satellite precipitation retrieval algorithm on various convective and stratiform rainfall case studies verified with precision radar ground truth data, and an exposition of the algorithm's detailed design in conjunction with a proof-of-concept analysis vis-à-vis its theoretical underpinnings. In this third part of the study, we present the underlying analysis used to identify what we refer to as the optimal metrological and geophysical tags, which are the optimally effective atmospheric and geographic parameters that are used to refine the selection of candidate microphysical profiles used for the Bayesian retrieval. These tags enable extending beyond the conventional Cloud Radiation Database (CRD algorithm by invoking meteorological-geophysical guidance, drawn from a simulated database, which affect and are in congruence with the observed precipitation states. This is guidance beyond the restrictive control provided by only simulated radiative transfer equation (RTE model-derived database brightness temperature (TB vector proximity information in seeking to relate physically consistent precipitation profile solutions to individual satellite-observed TB vectors. The first two parts of the study have rigorously demonstrated that the optimal tags effectively mitigate against solution ambiguity, where use of only a CRD framework (TB guidance only leads to pervasive non-uniqueness problems in finding rainfall solutions. Alternatively, a CDRD framework (TB + tag guidance mitigates against non-uniqueness problems through improved constraints. It remains to show how these optimal tags are identified. By use of three statistical analysis procedures applied to a database from 120 North American atmospheric simulations of precipitating storms (independent of the 60 simulations for the European-Mediterranean basin region

  11. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near backgr...

  12. Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)

  13. In situ surface roughness measurement using a laser scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. J.; Wang, S. H.; Quan, C.; Shang, H. M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an optical probe for in situ measurement of surface roughness are discussed. Based on this light scattering principle, the probe which consists of a laser diode, measuring lens and a linear photodiode array, is designed to capture the scattered light from a test surface with a relatively large scattering angle ϕ (=28°). This capability increases the measuring range and enhances repeatability of the results. The coaxial arrangement that incorporates a dual-laser beam and a constant compressed air stream renders the proposed system insensitive to movement or vibration of the test surface as well as surface conditions. Tests were conducted on workpieces which were mounted on a turning machine that operates with different cutting speeds. Test specimens which underwent different machining processes and of different surface finish were also studied. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of surface roughness measurement using the proposed method.

  14. Are estimates of wind characteristics based on measurements with Pitot tubes and GNSS receivers mounted on consumer-grade unmanned aerial vehicles applicable in meteorological studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Skjøth, Carsten; Werner, Małgorzata; Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Sawiński, Tymoteusz; Drzeniecka-Osiadacz, Anetta; Korzystka-Muskała, Magdalena; Muskała, Piotr; Modzel, Piotr; Guzikowski, Jakub; Kryza, Maciej

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to empirically show that estimates of wind speed and wind direction based on measurements carried out using the Pitot tubes and GNSS receivers, mounted on consumer-grade unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may accurately approximate true wind parameters. The motivation for the study is that a growing number of commercial and scientific UAV operations may soon become a new source of data on wind speed and wind direction, with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. The feasibility study was carried out within an isolated mountain meadow of Polana Izerska located in the Izera Mountains (SW Poland) during an experiment which aimed to compare wind characteristics measured by several instruments: three UAVs (swinglet CAM, eBee, Maja) equipped with the Pitot tubes and GNSS receivers, wind speed and direction meters mounted at 2.5 and 10 m (mast), conventional weather station and vertical sodar. The three UAVs performed seven missions along spiral-like trajectories, most reaching 130 m above take-off location. The estimates of wind speed and wind direction were found to agree between UAVs. The time series of wind speed measured at 10 m were extrapolated to flight altitudes recorded at a given time so that a comparison was made feasible. It was found that the wind speed estimates provided by the UAVs on a basis of the Pitot tube/GNSS data are in agreement with measurements carried out using dedicated meteorological instruments. The discrepancies were recorded in the first and last phases of UAV flights.

  15. Reference crop evapotranspiration estimate using high-resolution meteorological network's data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lussana

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Water management authorities need detailed information about each component of the hydrological balance. This document presents a method to estimate the evapotranspiration rate, initialized in order to obtain the reference crop evapotranspiration rate (ET0. By using an Optimal Interpolation (OI scheme, the hourly observations of several meteorological variables, measured by a high-resolution local meteorological network, are interpolated over a regular grid. The analysed meteorological fields, containing detailed meteorological information, enter a model for turbulent heat fluxes estimation based on Monin-Obukhov surface layer similarity theory. The obtained ET0 fields are then post-processed and disseminated to the users.

  16. First measurements of ambient aerosol over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India: Relationships between PM2.5 mass, its optical properties, and meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder Raman, Ramya; Kumar, Samresh

    2016-04-15

    PM2.5 mass and its optical properties were measured over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India between January and December, 2012. Meteorological parameters including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and barometric pressure were also monitored. During the study period, the PM2.5 (fine PM) concentration ranged between 3.2μgm(-3) and 193.9μgm(-3) with a median concentration of 31.4μgm(-3). The attenuation coefficients, βATN at 370nm, 550nm, and 880nm had median values of 104.5Mm(-1), 79.2Mm(-1), and 59.8Mm(-1), respectively. Further, the dry scattering coefficient, βSCAT at 550nm had a median value of 17.1Mm(-1) while the absorption coefficient βABS at 550nm had a median value of 61.2Mm(-1). The relationship between fine PM mass and attenuation coefficients showed pronounced seasonality. Scattering, absorption, and attenuation coefficient at different wavelengths were all well correlated with fine PM mass only during the post-monsoon season (October, November, and December). The highest correlation (r(2)=0.81) was between fine PM mass and βSCAT at 550nm during post-monsoon season. During this season, the mass scattering efficiency (σSCAT) was 1.44m(2)g(-1). Thus, monitoring optical properties all year round, as a surrogate for fine PM mass was found unsuitable for the study location. In order to assess the relationships between fine PM mass and its optical properties and meteorological parameters, multiple linear regression (MLR) models were fitted for each season, with fine PM mass as the dependent variable. Such a model fitted for the post-monsoon season explained over 88% of the variability in fine PM mass. However, the MLR models were able to explain only 31 and 32% of the variability in fine PM during pre-monsoon (March, April, and May) and monsoon (June, July, August, and September) seasons, respectively. During the winter (January and February) season, the MLR model explained 54% of the PM2.5 variability. Copyright

  17. Integration of ambient seismic noise monitoring, displacement and meteorological measurements to infer the temperature-controlled long-term evolution of a complex prone-to-fall cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, C.; Baillet, L.; Comina, C.; Jongmans, D.; Larose, E.; Valentin, J.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring the temporal evolution of resonance frequencies and velocity changes detected from ambient seismic noise recordings can help in recognizing reversible and irreversible modifications within unstable rock volumes. With this aim, the long-term ambient seismic noise data set acquired at the potentially unstable cliff of Madonna delSasso (NW Italian Alps) was analysed in this study, using both spectral analysis and cross-correlation techniques. Noise results were integrated and compared with direct displacement measurements and meteorological data, to understand the long-term evolution of the cliff. No irreversible modifications in the stability of the site were detected over the monitored period. Conversely, daily and seasonal air temperature fluctuations were found to control resonance frequency values, amplitudes and directivities and to induce reversible velocity changes within the fractured rock mass. The immediate modification in the noise parameters due to temperature fluctuations was interpreted as the result of rock mass thermal expansion and contraction, inducing variations in the contact stiffness along the fractures isolating two unstable compartments. Differences with previous case studies were highlighted in the long-term evolution of noise spectral amplitudes and directivities, due to the complex 3-D fracture setting of the site and to the combined effects of the two unstable compartments.

  18. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  19. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T G

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near background to about four orders of magnitude higher. Almost every nuclide identification test demonstrated some radioactivity content from one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclide series of thorium or uranium. The glazes seemed to contribute most of the activity, although a sample of unglazed pottery greenware showed some activity. Samples of glazing paints and samples of deliberately doped glass from the World War II era were included in the test, as was a section of foam filled poster board. A glass disc with known (232)Th radioactivity concentration was cast for use as a calibration source. The results from the two assay methods are compared, and a projection of sensitivity from larger electret ion chamber devices is presented.

  20. US Marine Meteorological Journals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This series consists of volumes entitled 'Meteorological Journal' (a regulation Navy-issue publication) which were to be completed by masters of merchant vessels...

  1. Meteorology and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The science of meteorology is useful in providing information that will be of assistance in the choice of favorable plant locations and in the evaluation of significant relations between meteorology and the design, construction, and operation of plant and facilities, especially those from which radioactive or toxic products could be released to the atmosphere. Under a continuing contract with the Atomic Energy Commission, the Weather Bureau has carried out this study. Some of the meteorological techniques that are available are summarized, and their applications to the possible atmospheric pollution deriving from the use of atomic energy are described. Methods and suggestions for the collection, analysis, and use of meteorological data are presented. Separate abstracts are included of 12 chapters in this publication for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  2. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  3. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  4. Influence of different land surfaces on atmospheric conditions measured by a wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengfeld, Katharina; Ament, Felix

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric conditions close to the surface, like temperature, wind speed and humidity, vary on small scales because of surface heterogeneities. Therefore, the traditional measuring approach of using a single, highly accurate station is of limited representativeness for a larger domain, because it is not able to determine these small scale variabilities. However, both the variability and the domain averages are important information for the development and validation of atmospheric models and soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) schemes. Due to progress in microelectronics it is possible to construct networks of comparably cheap meteorological stations with moderate accuracy. Such a network provides data in high spatial and temporal resolution. The EPFL Lausanne developed such a network called SensorScope, consisting of low cost autonomous stations. Each station observes air and surface temperature, humidity, wind direction and speed, incoming solar radiation, precipitations, soil moisture and soil temperature and sends the data via radio communication to a base station. This base station forwards the collected data via GSM/GPRS to a central server. Within the FLUXPAT project in August 2009 we deployed 15 stations as a twin transect near Jülich, Germany. One aim of this first experiment was to test the quality of the low cost sensors by comparing them to more accurate reference measurements. It turned out, that although the network is not highly accurate, the measurements are consistent. Consequently an analysis of the pattern of atmospheric conditions is feasible. For example, we detect a variability of ± 0.5K in the mean temperature at a distance of only 2.3 km. The transect covers different types of vegetation and a small river. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of different land surfaces and the distance to the river on meteorological conditions. On the one hand, some results meet our expectations, e.g. the relative humidity decreases with increasing

  5. Measurements of radon progeny activity on typical indoor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Gogolak, C.V.; Klemic, G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of studies aimed at defining how well radon progeny on surfaces can be measured, information that is needed in order to test physical/mathematical models governing indoor radon progeny behaviour, are described. One experiment compared the decomposition on to different surfaces. Only relatively small differences were found among metal, filter paper, broadcloth, corduroy fabric, vinyl wallpaper, glass, and latex paint, but polyethylene film collected two to four times as much as the others, due most likely to electrostatic charge on the plastic surface. Another experiment compared the gamma and gross alpha count methods of measuring surface activity for metal, filter paper, broadcloth and corduroy surfaces. No difference for the surfaces tested was found from which it is concluded that, even for rougher surfaces, progeny atoms deposit mainly on the outer layers. A final experiment compared in situ and surrogate-surface methods for measuring surface deposition. For most tests, the two methods agreed within 30%, and the average ratio was not significantly different from unity. 210 Po is a complication in the in situ method. An unexpected location effect was found in the experiments conducted in houses with high radon concentrations: the deposition on the ceiling was higher than on the surfaces. (author)

  6. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engers, Christian D; Cousens, Nico E A; Babenko, Vitaliy; Britton, Jude; Zappone, Bruno; Grobert, Nicole; Perkin, Susan

    2017-06-14

    Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for implementing graphene in a range of technologies. In most device configurations, one side of the graphene is supported by a solid substrate, wheras the other side is in contact with a medium of interest, such as a liquid or other two-dimensional material within a van der Waals stack. In such devices, graphene interacts on both faces via noncovalent interactions and therefore surface energies are key parameters for device fabrication and operation. In this work, we directly measured adhesive forces and surface energies of CVD-grown graphene in dry nitrogen, water, and sodium cholate using a modified surface force balance. For this, we fabricated large (∼1 cm 2 ) and clean graphene-coated surfaces with smooth topography at both macro- and nanoscales. By bringing two such surfaces into contact and measuring the force required to separate them, we measured the surface energy of single-layer graphene in dry nitrogen to be 115 ± 4 mJ/m 2 , which was similar to that of few-layer graphene (119 ± 3 mJ/m 2 ). In water and sodium cholate, we measured interfacial energies of 83 ± 7 and 29 ± 6 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Our work provides the first direct measurement of graphene surface energy and is expected to have an impact both on the development of graphene-based devices and contribute to the fundamental understanding of surface interactions.

  7. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application

  8. Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Evans, Christopher; He, Liangyu; Davies, Angela; Duparré, Angela; Henning, Andrew; Jones, Christopher W; O’Connor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Control of surface topography has always been of vital importance for manufacturing and many other engineering and scientific disciplines. However, despite over one hundred years of quantitative surface topography measurement, there are still many open questions. At the top of the list of questions is ‘Are we getting the right answer?’ This begs the obvious question ‘How would we know?’ There are many other questions relating to applications, the appropriateness of a technique for a given scenario, or the relationship between a particular analysis and the function of the surface. In this first ‘open questions’ article we have gathered together some experts in surface topography measurement and asked them to address timely, unresolved questions about the subject. We hope that their responses will go some way to answer these questions, address areas where further research is required, and look at the future of the subject. The first section ‘Spatial content characterization for precision surfaces’ addresses the need to characterise the spatial content of precision surfaces. Whilst we have been manufacturing optics for centuries, there still isn’t a consensus on how to specify the surface for manufacture. The most common three methods for spatial characterisation are reviewed and compared, and the need for further work on quantifying measurement uncertainties is highlighted. The article is focussed on optical surfaces, but the ideas are more pervasive. Different communities refer to ‘figure, mid-spatial frequencies, and finish’ and ‘form, waviness, and roughness’, but the mathematics are identical. The second section ‘Light scattering methods’ is focussed on light scattering techniques; an important topic with in-line metrology becoming essential in many manufacturing scenarios. The potential of scattering methods has long been recognized; in the ‘smooth surface limit’ functionally significant relationships can be derived from first

  9. Measurement of Dynamic Friction Coefficient on the Irregular Free Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, S. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    A spent fuel storage cask must be estimated for a structural integrity when an earthquake occurs because it freely stands on ground surface without a restriction condition. Usually the integrity estimation for a seismic load is performed by a FEM analysis, the friction coefficient for a standing surface is an important parameter in seismic analysis when a sliding happens. When a storage cask is placed on an irregular ground surface, measuring a friction coefficient of an irregular surface is very difficult because the friction coefficient is affected by the surface condition. In this research, dynamic friction coefficients on the irregular surfaces between a concrete cylinder block and a flat concrete slab are measured with two methods by one direction actuator

  10. Measurement of near neighbor separations of surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.I.

    Two techniques are being developed to measure the nearest neighbor distances of atoms at the surfaces of solids. Both measures extended fine structure in the excitation probability of core level electrons which are excited by an incident electron beam. This is an important problem because the structures of most surface systems are as yet unknown, even though the location of surface atoms is the basis for any quantitative understanding of the chemistry and physics of surfaces and interfaces. These methods would allow any laboratory to make in situ determinations of surface structure in conjunction with most other laboratory probes of surfaces. Each of these two techniques has different advantages; further, the combination of the two will increase confidence in the results by reducing systematic error in the data analysis

  11. Surface deposition measurements of the TMI-2 gross decontamination experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIssac, C.V.; Hetzer, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of the gross decontamination experiment (principally a water spray technique) performed in the TMI-2 reactor building, the Technical Information and Examination Program's Radiation and Environment personnel made surface activity measurements before and after the experiment. In conjunction with surface sampling, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and gamma spectrometry measurements were also performed to distinguish between radiation fields and contamination. The surface sampler used to collect samples from external surfaces within the reactor building is a milling tool having four major components: a 1.27-cm constant-speed drill; a drill support assembly that allows setting sample penetration depth; filter cartridges for intake air purification and sample collection; and an air pump that forces air across the surface being sampled and through the sample filter cartridge

  12. A Meteorological Supersite for Aviation and Cold Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Agelin-Chaab, M.; Komar, J.; Elfstrom, G.; Boudala, F.; Zhou, B.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand atmospheric boundary layer processes and parameters, and to evaluate physical processes for aviation applications using data from a supersite observing site. Various meteorological sensors, including a weather and environmental unmanned aerial vehicle (WE-UAV), and a fog and snow tower (FSOS) observations are part of the project. The PanAm University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) Meteorological Supersite (PUMS) observations are being collected from April 2015 to date. The FSOS tower gathers observations related to rain, snow, fog, and visibility, aerosols, solar radiation, and wind and turbulence, as well as surface and sky temperature. The FSOSs are located at three locations at about 450-800 m away from the PUMS supersite. The WE-UAV measurements representing aerosol, wind speed and direction, as well as temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) are provided during clear weather conditions. Other measurements at the PUMS site include cloud backscattering profiles from CL51 ceilometer, MWR observations of liquid water content (LWC), T, and RH, and Microwave Rain Radar (MRR) reflectivity profile, as well as the present weather type, snow water depth, icing rate, 3D-ultrasonic wind and turbulence, and conventional meteorological observations from compact weather stations, e.g., WXTs. The results based on important weather event studies, representing fog, snow, rain, blowing snow, wind gust, planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind research for UAV, and icing conditions are given. The microphysical parameterizations and analysis processes for each event are provided, but the results should not be generalized for all weather events and be used cautiously. Results suggested that integrated observing systems based on data from a supersite as well as satellite sites can provide better information applicable to aviation meteorology, including PBL weather research, validation of numerical weather model predictions, and

  13. A computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisitions/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined

  14. Measuring Forces between Oxide Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Høj, Jakob Weiland

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between colloidal particles play a major role in processing of ceramics, especially in casting processes. With the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) it is possible to measure the inter-action force between a small oxide particle (a few micron) and a surface as function of surface...

  15. Drop shape visualization and contact angle measurement on curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilizzoni, Manfredo

    2011-12-01

    The shape and contact angles of drops on curved surfaces is experimentally investigated. Image processing, spline fitting and numerical integration are used to extract the drop contour in a number of cross-sections. The three-dimensional surfaces which describe the surface-air and drop-air interfaces can be visualized and a simple procedure to determine the equilibrium contact angle starting from measurements on curved surfaces is proposed. Contact angles on flat surfaces serve as a reference term and a procedure to measure them is proposed. Such procedure is not as accurate as the axisymmetric drop shape analysis algorithms, but it has the advantage of requiring only a side view of the drop-surface couple and no further information. It can therefore be used also for fluids with unknown surface tension and there is no need to measure the drop volume. Examples of application of the proposed techniques for distilled water drops on gemstones confirm that they can be useful for drop shape analysis and contact angle measurement on three-dimensional sculptured surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulated BRDF based on measured surface topography of metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiyue; Haist, Tobias; Gronle, Marc; Osten, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    The radiative reflective properties of a calibration standard rough surface were simulated by ray tracing and the Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results have been used to compute the reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) of metal surfaces and have been compared with experimental measurements. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement.

  17. Meteorological research studies at Jervis Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bendun, E.O.K.

    1974-07-01

    A climatological study of the winds and temperature from the Jervis Bay region which commenced in October 1970 has shown the presence of a coastal sea breeze and secondary bay breeze circulation system. In an attempt to define the influence of the Murray's Beach site on the local atmospheric dispersion, special smoke plume photography studies were conducted in the lower atmosphere. In June 1972 a meteorological acoustic sounding research programme was initiated at the Jervis Bay settlement. The aims of the research are to calibrate the sounder in terms of surface wind, turbulence and temperature measurements pertinent to a description of the lower atmospheric dispersion potential. Preliminary results on six months' data have shown encouraging correlations between the acoustic sounder patterns and particularly the wind direction turbulence traces. (author)

  18. Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer scintillometer. ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... of soil heat flux and net irradiance, evaporation rates were calculated as a residual of the ...

  19. Calibration technique for the neutron surface moisture measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.T.; Shreve, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for calibrating the response of a surface neutron moisture measurement probe to material moisture concentration has been devised. Tests to ensure that the probe will function in the expected in-tank operating environment are also outlined

  20. Aerosol particle measurements at three stationary sites in the megacity of Paris during summer 2009: meteorology and air mass origin dominate aerosol particle composition and size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Freutel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During July 2009, a one-month measurement campaign was performed in the megacity of Paris. Amongst other measurement platforms, three stationary sites distributed over an area of 40 km in diameter in the greater Paris region enabled a detailed characterization of the aerosol particle and gas phase. Simulation results from the FLEXPART dispersion model were used to distinguish between different types of air masses sampled. It was found that the origin of air masses had a large influence on measured mass concentrations of the secondary species particulate sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, and oxygenated organic aerosol measured with the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer in the submicron particle size range: particularly high concentrations of these species (about 4 μg m−3, 2 μg m−3, 2 μg m−3, and 7 μg m−3, respectively were measured when aged material was advected from continental Europe, while for air masses originating from the Atlantic, much lower mass concentrations of these species were observed (about 1 μg m−3, 0.2 μg m−3, 0.4 μg m−3, and 1–3 μg m−3, respectively. For the primary emission tracers hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, black carbon, and NOx it was found that apart from diurnal source strength variations and proximity to emission sources, local meteorology had the largest influence on measured concentrations, with higher wind speeds leading to larger dilution and therefore smaller measured concentrations. Also the shape of particle size distributions was affected by wind speed and air mass origin. Quasi-Lagrangian measurements performed under connected flow conditions between the three stationary sites were used to estimate the influence of the Paris emission plume onto its surroundings, which was found to be rather small. Rough estimates for the impact of the Paris emission plume on the suburban areas can be

  1. Meteorology Products - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC › Meteorology Products FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info Meteorology Products Global

  2. Surface Resistance Measurements of LHC Dipole Beam Screen Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Ruggiero, F; Tan, J; Tsutsui, H

    2000-01-01

    An estimate of the resistive losses in the LHC dipole beam screen is given from cold surface resistance measurements using the shielded pair technique. Several beam screen samples have been evaluated, with different copper coating methods, including a sample with ribbed surface envisaged to reduce electron cloud losses thanks to its low reflectivity. Experimental data, derived by a proper analysis of the measured Q-factors and including error estimates are compared with theoretical predictions of the anomalous skin effect.

  3. On $L_p$ Affine Surface Area and Curvature Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between $L_p$ affine surface area and curvature measures is investigated. As a result, a new representation of the existing notion of $L_p$ affine surface area depending only on curvature measures is derived. Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided. The proofs show that the new representation is, in a sense, "polar" to that of Lutwak's and "dual" to that of Sch\\"utt & Werner's.

  4. Simulation of the Impact of New Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Chen, Shuyi; Hood, Robbie; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The H*Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of surface wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. This product is designed to improve understanding of the extent and strength of the wind field, and to improve the assessment of hurricane intensity. See http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data sub/wind.html. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new passive microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRAD is being designed to enhance the current real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft using the operational airbome Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 x the aircraft altitude, or approximately 2 km from space). The instrument is described in a separate paper presented at this conference. The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a numerical model from the University of Miami, and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the relative impact of HIRAD and other instruments on H*Wind analyses, including the use of HIRAD from 2 aircraft altitudes and from a space-based platform.

  5. Accuracy of Surface Plate Measurements - General Purpose Software for Flatness Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.; Heuvelman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Flatness departures of surface plates are generally obtained from straightness measurements of lines on the surface. A computer program has been developed for on-line measurement and evaluation, based on the simultaneous coupling of measurements in all grid points. Statistical methods are used to

  6. A noncontact laser system for measuring soil surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.; White, I.; Thwaite, E.G.; Bendeli, A.

    1988-01-01

    Soil surface topography profoundly influences runoff hydrodynamics, soil erosion, and surface retention of water. Here we describe an optical noncontact system for measuring soil surface topography. Soil elevation is measured by projecting a laser beam onto the surface and detecting the position of the interception point. The optical axis of the detection system is oriented at a small angle to the incident beam. A low-power HeNe (Helium-Neon) laser is used as the laser source, a photodiode array is used as the laser image detector and an ordinary 35-mm single lens reflex camera provides the optical system to focus the laser image onto the diode array. A wide spectrum of measurement ranges (R) and resolutions are selectable, from 1 mm to 1 m. These are determined by the laser-camera distance and angle, the focal length of the lens, and the sensing length of the diode array and the number of elements (N) contained in the array. The resolution of the system is approximately R/2N. We show for the system used here that this resolution is approximately 0.2%. In the configuration selected, elevation changes of 0.16 mm could be detected over a surface elevation range of 87 mm. The sampling rate of the system is 1000 Hz, which permits soil surfaces to be measured at speeds of up to 1 m s −1 with measurements taken at 1-mm spacing. Measurements of individual raindrop impacts on the soil and of soil surfaces before and after rain show the versatility of the laser surface profiler, which has applications in studies of erosion processes, surface storage and soil trafficability

  7. Dynamic Bubble Surface Tension Measurements in Northwest Atlantic Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber, D. J.; Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kinsey, J. D.; Frossard, A. A.; Beaupre, S. R.; Duplessis, P.; Maben, J. R.; Lu, X.; Chang, R.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous reports suggest that most organic matter (OM) associated with newly formed primary marine aerosol (PMA) originates from the sea-surface microlayer. However, surface-active OM rapidly adsorbs onto bubble surfaces in the water column and is ejected into the atmosphere when bubbles burst at the air-water interface. Here we present dynamic surface tension measurements of bubbles produced in near surface seawater from biologically productive and oligotrophic sites and in deep seawater collected from 2500 m in the northwest Atlantic. In all cases, the surface tension of bubble surfaces decreased within seconds after the bubbles were exposed to seawater. These observations demonstrate that bubble surfaces are rapidly saturated by surfactant material scavenged from seawater. Spatial and diel variability in bubble surface evolution indicate corresponding variability in surfactant concentrations and/or composition. Our results reveal that surface-active OM is found throughout the water column, and that at least some surfactants are not of recent biological origin. Our results also support the hypothesis that the surface microlayer is a minor to negligible source of OM associated with freshly produced PMA.

  8. The 1989 progress report: dynamic meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadourny, R.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The aim of the research programs is the dynamic study of climate and environment in relationship with the global athmospheric behavior. The investigations reported were performed in the fields of: climate modelling, dynamic study of Turbulence, analysis of atmospheric radiation and nebulosity, tropical meteorology and climate, Earth radioactive balance, lidar measurements, middle atmosphere studies. The published papers, the conferences and Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  9. Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Larsen, S. E.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Astrup, P.; Larsén, X. G.

    2017-12-01

    Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth’s atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber, or frequency. Spectra are derived from Fourier transforms of wind records as functions of space or time corresponding to wavenumber and frequency spectra, respectively. Atmospheric spectra often exhibit different subranges that can be distinguished and scaled by the physical parameters responsible for: (1) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen’s early work in 1953 ‘on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow’ led Tchen to predict a shear production subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured in a meteorological mast at Høvsøre, Denmark, that support Tchen’s prediction of a shear production subrange following a distinct power law of degree -1

  10. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  11. Summations over equilaterally triangulated surfaces and the critical string measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, D.J.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the summation over dynamically triangulated Riemann surfaces which does not rely on properties of the potential in a matrix model. Instead, we formulate a purely algebraic discretization of critical string path integral. This is combined with a technique which assigns to each equilateral triangulation of a two-dimensional surface a Riemann surface defined over a certain finite extension of the field of rational numbers, i.e. an arithmetic surface. Thus we establish a new formulated in which the sum over randomly triangulated surfaces defines an invariant measure on the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces. It is shown that because of this it is far from obvious that this measure for large genera approximates the measure defined by the continuum theory, i.e. Liouville theory or critical string theory. In low genus this subtlety does not exist. In the case of critical string theory we explicitly compute the volume of the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces in terms of the modular height function and show that for low genus it approximates correctly the continuum measure. We also discuss a continuum limit which bears some resemblance with a double scaling limit in matrix models. (orig.)

  12. Measurement for Surface Tension of Aqueous Inorganic Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubble columns are effective means of filtration in filtered containment venting systems. Here, the surface tension has a significant influence on bubble size distribution and bubble deformation, which have a strong impact on the behavior of the bubble column. The influence of aqueous inorganic compounds on the surface tension depends on the electrolytic activity, Debye length, entropy of ion hydration, and surface deficiencies or excess. In this work, the surface tensions of same specific aqueous solutions have been measured by different methods including platinum plate method, platinum ring method, and maximum bubble pressure method. The measured surface tensions of both sodium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate are less than that of water. As solution temperature ranges from 20 to 75°C, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution decreases from 71 to 55 mN/m while that of 1 mol/L solution decreases from 60 to 45 mN/m. Similarly during the same temperature range, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium thiosulfate decreases from 70 to 38 mN/m, and that of 1 mol/L sodium thiosulfate is between 68 and 36 mN/m. The analysis for the influence mechanism of aqueous inorganic on surface tension is provided. In addition, experimental results show that the surface tension of solid aerosol suspension liquid has no obvious difference from that of distilled water.

  13. RZP 202 - a modular system for surface density measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, L.; Merinsky, J.

    The sensing element is an ionization chamber of the type that has maximum sensitivity to beta radiation of the used radionuclide ( 147 Pm, 85 Kr, 90 Sr- 90 Y) or to gamma radiation of radionuclide 241 Am. Collimation shields were developed for the said sources. Measurement of the ionization currents is made with an electrometer with a vibration capacitor. Invariable configuration is secured by a measuring arm. The modular units are of the CAMAC system design. The surface density meters measure deviations from the rated surface density. The scale for inputting surface density is linear. The configuration, functional continuity of the individual parts and the possibility of variant designs of surface density meters are described and the technical parameters of RZP 202 and its configuration and design are given

  14. Relationship between particle matter and meteorological data in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Azad; Memarian Fard, Mahsa; Bahrami, Ala

    2017-04-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has a strong influence on the hydrological cycle, cloud formation, visibility, global climate, and human health. The meteorological conditions have important effects on PM2.5 mass concentration. Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network measures air pollutants at urban, suburban and rural locations in Canada. In this study, the point monthly relationships between meteorological data provided by Environment of Canada and PM2.5 mass concentration from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2015 of fifteen speciation stations in Canada were analyzed. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentrations and precipitation as well as surface pressure demonstrated a negative correlation. It should be noted that the correlation between temperature and special humidity with PM2.5 in cold seasons and warm seasons were negative and positive respectively. Moreover, the weak correlation between wind speed and PM2.5 were obtained.

  15. Advances in the Surface Renewal Flux Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapland, T. M.; McElrone, A.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of ecosystem-scale energy and mass fluxes between the planetary surface and the atmosphere is crucial for understanding geophysical processes. Surface renewal is a flux measurement technique based on analyzing the turbulent coherent structures that interact with the surface. It is a less expensive technique because it does not require fast-response velocity measurements, but only a fast-response scalar measurement. It is therefore also a useful tool for the study of the global cycling of trace gases. Currently, surface renewal requires calibration against another flux measurement technique, such as eddy covariance, to account for the linear bias of its measurements. We present two advances in the surface renewal theory and methodology that bring the technique closer to becoming a fully independent flux measurement method. The first advance develops the theory of turbulent coherent structure transport associated with the different scales of coherent structures. A novel method was developed for identifying the scalar change rate within structures at different scales. Our results suggest that for canopies less than one meter in height, the second smallest coherent structure scale dominates the energy and mass flux process. Using the method for resolving the scalar exchange rate of the second smallest coherent structure scale, calibration is unnecessary for surface renewal measurements over short canopies. This study forms the foundation for analysis over more complex surfaces. The second advance is a sensor frequency response correction for measuring the sensible heat flux via surface renewal. Inexpensive fine-wire thermocouples are frequently used to record high frequency temperature data in the surface renewal technique. The sensible heat flux is used in conjunction with net radiation and ground heat flux measurements to determine the latent heat flux as the energy balance residual. The robust thermocouples commonly used in field experiments

  16. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  17. Meteorology in site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    During the site selection and design phases of a plant, meteorological assistance must be based on past records, usually accumulated at stations not actually on the site. These preliminary atadvices will be averages and extremes that might be expected. After a location has been chosen and work has begun, current and forecast weather conditions become of immediate concern. On-site meteorological observations and forecasts have many applications to the operating program of an atomic energy site. Requirements may range from observations of the daily minimum temperatures to forecasts of radiation dosages from airborne clouds

  18. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  19. Outdoor surface temperature measurement: ground truth or lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skauli, Torbjorn

    2004-08-01

    Contact surface temperature measurement in the field is essential in trials of thermal imaging systems and camouflage, as well as for scene modeling studies. The accuracy of such measurements is challenged by environmental factors such as sun and wind, which induce temperature gradients around a surface sensor and lead to incorrect temperature readings. In this work, a simple method is used to test temperature sensors under conditions representative of a surface whose temperature is determined by heat exchange with the environment. The tested sensors are different types of thermocouples and platinum thermistors typically used in field trials, as well as digital temperature sensors. The results illustrate that the actual measurement errors can be much larger than the specified accuracy of the sensors. The measurement error typically scales with the difference between surface temperature and ambient air temperature. Unless proper care is taken, systematic errors can easily reach 10% of this temperature difference, which is often unacceptable. Reasonably accurate readings are obtained using a miniature platinum thermistor. Thermocouples can perform well on bare metal surfaces if the connection to the surface is highly conductive. It is pointed out that digital temperature sensors have many advantages for field trials use.

  20. Measuring and modeling surface sorption dynamics of organophosphate flame retardants on impervious surfaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data presented in this data file is a product of a journal publication. The dataset contains measured and model predicted OPFRs gas-phase and surface-phase...

  1. Noise evaluation of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maculotti, Giacomo; Feng, Xiaobing; Galetto, Maurizio; Leach, Richard

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument is evaluated, as the first step towards establishing a route to traceability for this type of instrument. The evaluation is based on the determination of the metrological characteristics for noise as outlined in draft ISO specification standards by using a calibrated optical flat. The static noise and repeatability of the autofocus sensor are evaluated. The influence of environmental disturbances on the measured surface topography and the built-in software to compensate for such influences are also investigated. The instrument was found to have a measurement noise of approximately 2 nm or, when expressed with the measurement bandwidth, 0.4 nm for a single-point measurement.

  2. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  3. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  4. Surface Forces Apparatus measurements of interactions between rough and reactive calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadkowiec, Joanna; Javadi, Shaghayegh; Bratvold, Jon Einar; Nilsen, Ola; Røyne, Anja

    2018-05-28

    Nm-range forces acting between calcite surfaces in water affect macroscopic properties of carbonate rocks and calcite-based granular materials, and are significantly influenced by calcite surface recrystallization. We suggest that the repulsive mechanical effects related to nm-scale surface recrystallization of calcite in water could be partially responsible for the observed decrease of cohesion in calcitic rocks saturated with water. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA), we simultaneously followed the calcite reactivity and measured the forces in water in two surface configurations: between two rough calcite surfaces (CC), or between rough calcite and a smooth mica surface (CM). We used nm-scale rough, polycrystalline calcite films prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). We measured only repulsive forces in CC in CaCO 3 -saturated water, which was related to roughness and possibly to repulsive hydration effects. Adhesive or repulsive forces were measured in CM in CaCO 3 -saturated water depending on calcite roughness, and the adhesion was likely enhanced by electrostatic effects. The pull-off adhesive force in CM became stronger with time and this increase was correlated with a decrease of roughness at contacts, which parameter could be estimated from the measured force-distance curves. That suggested a progressive increase of real contact areas between the surfaces, caused by gradual pressure-driven deformation of calcite surface asperities during repeated loading-unloading cycles. Reactivity of calcite was affected by mass transport across nm to µm-thick gaps between the surfaces. Major roughening was observed only for the smoothest calcite films, where gaps between two opposing surfaces were nm-thick over µm-sized areas, and led to force of crystallization that could overcome confining pressures of the order of MPa. Any substantial roughening of calcite caused a significant increase of the repulsive mechanical force contribution.

  5. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  6. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  7. Meteorological Drivers of Extreme Air Pollution Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D. E.; Schnell, J.; Callahan, C. W.; Suo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The accumulation of pollutants in the near-surface atmosphere has been shown to have deleterious consequences for public health, agricultural productivity, and economic vitality. Natural and anthropogenic emissions of ozone and particulate matter can accumulate to hazardous concentrations when atmospheric conditions are favorable, and can reach extreme levels when such conditions persist. Favorable atmospheric conditions for pollutant accumulation include optimal temperatures for photochemical reaction rates, circulation patterns conducive to pollutant advection, and a lack of ventilation, dispersion, and scavenging in the local environment. Given our changing climate system and the dual ingredients of poor air quality - pollutants and the atmospheric conditions favorable to their accumulation - it is important to characterize recent changes in favorable meteorological conditions, and quantify their potential contribution to recent extreme air pollution events. To facilitate our characterization, this study employs the recently updated Schnell et al (2015) 1°×1° gridded observed surface ozone and particulate matter datasets for the period of 1998 to 2015, in conjunction with reanalysis and climate model simulation data. We identify extreme air pollution episodes in the observational record and assess the meteorological factors of primary support at local and synoptic scales. We then assess (i) the contribution of observed meteorological trends (if extant) to the magnitude of the event, (ii) the return interval of the meteorological event in the observational record, simulated historical climate, and simulated pre-industrial climate, as well as (iii) the probability of the observed meteorological trend in historical and pre-industrial climates.

  8. Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Maro, D; Lamotte, M; Voiseux, C; Laguionie, P; Cazimajou, O; Le Cavelier, S; Godinot, C; Morillon, M; Thomas, L; Percot, S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of (85)Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague - France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two (85)Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5-4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    surfaces in use have changed - for instance to road surface types with less noise from wheel passages. Because of this, a co-operation between the road administrations of the Nordic countries (abbreviated NMF) decided to construct a portable instrument to be used on selections of traffic roads within......Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  10. Accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional surface reconstruction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukami, Chikashi; Yamamoto, Etsuo; Ohmura, Masaki; Oiki, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Jun; Muneta, Yuki; Tanabe, Makito; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Azemoto, Syougo.

    1993-01-01

    We are using a new three-dimensional (3-D) surface reconstruction system to measure the temporal bones. This system offers the advantage of observation of the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct and the porus acusticus internus in living subjects. However, its accuracy has not been confirmed. To investigate the accuracy of this new system, we measured the length of an in situ ceramic ossicular replacement prosthesis (CORP) of known length of 6.0 mm using 3-D surface reconstruction, conventional plain X-ray and polytomography. The CORP was scanned in the axial, sagittal and oblique directions. The mean measured length obtained with the 3-D surface reconstruction images was 5.94±0.21 on vertical scans, 5.91±0.27 on horizontal scans, and 6.01±0.25 on oblique scans. There were no significant differences among the measured lengths obtained in the three directions. Therefore, this 3-D surface reconstruction measurement system is considered to be reliable. Conversely, the mean measured length obtained by plain X-ray was 7.98±0.20, and by polytomography it was 7.94±0.23. These conventional methods have the inherent disadvantage of magnification of size which consequently requires correction. (author)

  11. Field measurement of albedo for limited extent test surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David J. [Portland State University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, P.O. Box 751-ME, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Resh, Kyle; Segura, Del [Tulane University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 400 Lindy Boggs Center, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    A new method is introduced for field measurement of surface albedo. This method consists of the use of a cylindrical shade ring made of opaque fabric with a known (low) albedo placed over a test surface. The albedo measurement is accomplished using two small pyranometers situated so that the downward-facing pyranometer receives radiation only from the test surface and the shade ring. The upward-facing pyranometer simultaneously records the incoming solar radiation. The radiation received by the downward-facing pyramometer is a combination of reflected radiation from shaded and unshaded portions of these two surfaces, requiring detailed accounting of the resulting view factor geometries. The method presented here improves upon past approaches by allowing for smaller sample sizes, minimizing errors associated with reflective properties of the surroundings, and allowing for accurate measurements even under partially cloudy skies. In addition to these methodological improvements we introduce an approach for estimating the uncertainty in the resulting albedo measurements. Results from field measurements are presented to validate the measurement protocol, and to compare its accuracy with the accuracy of a published standard. (author)

  12. Intelligent sampling for the measurement of structured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Jiang, X; Blunt, L A; Scott, P J; Leach, R K

    2012-01-01

    Uniform sampling in metrology has known drawbacks such as coherent spectral aliasing and a lack of efficiency in terms of measuring time and data storage. The requirement for intelligent sampling strategies has been outlined over recent years, particularly where the measurement of structured surfaces is concerned. Most of the present research on intelligent sampling has focused on dimensional metrology using coordinate-measuring machines with little reported on the area of surface metrology. In the research reported here, potential intelligent sampling strategies for surface topography measurement of structured surfaces are investigated by using numerical simulation and experimental verification. The methods include the jittered uniform method, low-discrepancy pattern sampling and several adaptive methods which originate from computer graphics, coordinate metrology and previous research by the authors. By combining the use of advanced reconstruction methods and feature-based characterization techniques, the measurement performance of the sampling methods is studied using case studies. The advantages, stability and feasibility of these techniques for practical measurements are discussed. (paper)

  13. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  14. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author) [fr

  15. Optimized Estimation of Surface Layer Characteristics from Profiling Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreene Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain. The profiling data is different from the traditional mean profiles obtained at two or more fixed levels in the surface layer from which surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are derived based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST. This research develops an improved method to derive surface fluxes and the corresponding MASL mean profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity with a least-squares optimization method using the profiling measurements. This approach allows the use of all available independent data. We use a weighted cost function based on the framework of MOST with the cost being optimized using a quasi-Newton method. This approach was applied to seven sets of data collected from the Monterey Bay. The derived fluxes and mean profiles show reasonable results. An empirical bias analysis is conducted using 1000 synthetic datasets to evaluate the robustness of the method.

  16. Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietti, Sergio; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Fedorov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E A =1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D 0  = 0.53(×2.1±1) cm 2 s −1 that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

  17. Direct measurement of Cu surface self-diffusion on a checked surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, Jacques; Peix, Roger; Perraillon, Bernard.

    1976-01-01

    A radiotracer technique ( 64 Cu) was developed to measure surface diffusion on copper surfaces of total impurity concentration not exceeding some 10 -3 monolayers. The apparatus used consists of a slow electron diffraction device, an Auger analysis spectrometer (CMA), an ion gun and an evaporation device assembled in an ultra-vacuum chamber holding a residual pressure below 10 -10 Torr. A sample handler enables the surface studied to be positioned in front of each of these instruments. During the diffusion treatment the chemical composition of the surface is checked intermittently, and afterwards the spread of the deposit is measured outside the ultravacuum chamber. Slices several microns thick are removed and dissolved separately in dishes containing HNO 3 . The activity is then measured with a flow counter [fr

  18. Measurement of surface recombination velocity on heavily doped indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, P.; Ghalla-Goradia, M.; Faur, M.; Bailey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the published low values of surface recombination velocity (SRV) in n-InP, solidified in recent years when modeling of existing n/p InP solar cells revealed that the front surface SRV had to be higher than 1 x 10 6 cm/sec in order to justify the poor blue response that is characteristic of all n/p InP solar cells. In this paper, SRV on heavily doped (>10 18 cm -3 )n-type and p-type InP is measured as a function of surface treatment. For the limited range of substrates and surface treatments studied, SRV and surface stability depend strongly on the surface treatment. SRVs of ∼10 5 cm/sec in both p-type and n-type InP are obtainable, but in n-type the low SRV surfaces were unstable, and the only stable surfaces on n-type had SRVs of >10 6 cm/sec

  19. Monitoring Forsmark. Meteorological monitoring at Forsmark, January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Cari; Jones, Joergen (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    In the Forsmark area, SKB's meteorological monitoring started in 2003 at the sites Storskaeret and Hoegmasten. However, since July 1, 2007 measurements are only performed at Hoegmasten. Measured and calculated parameters at Hoegmasten are precipitation and corrected precipitation, air temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, air humidity, global radiation and potential evapotranspiration. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, has been responsible for planning and design, as well as for the operation of the stations used for meteorological monitoring. In general, the quality of the meteorological measurements during the period concerned, starting January 1, 2010, and ending December 31, 2010, has shown to be good

  20. Fermi surface measurements in actinide metals and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.; Schirber, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The various techniques of measuring Fermi Surface parameters are briefly discussed in terms f application to actinide systems. Particular emphasis is given the dHvA effect. Some general results found in the dHvA studies of actinide compounds are given. The dHvA effect has been measured in α-U and is presented in detail. None of the observed frequencies corresponds to closed surfaces. Results are compared to the calculations of Freeman, Koelling and Watson-Yang where qualitative agreement is observed

  1. Meteorological Observations Available for the State of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The National Weather Service’s Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) contains a large number of station networks of surface and upper air meteorological observations for the state of Utah. In addition to MADIS, observations from individual station networks may also be available. It has been confirmed that LLNL has access to the data sources listed below.

  2. Measuring surface flow velocity with smartphones: potential for citizen observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Steven V.; Chen, Zichong; Brauchli, Tristan; Huwald, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    Stream flow velocity is an important variable for discharge estimation and research on sediment dynamics. Given the influence of the latter on rating curves (stage-discharge relations), and the relative scarcity of direct streamflow measurements, surface velocity measurements can offer important information for, e.g., flood warning, hydropower, and hydrological science and engineering in general. With the growing amount of sensing and computing power in the hands of more outdoorsy individuals, and the advances in image processing techniques, there is now a tremendous potential to obtain hydrologically relevant data from motivated citizens. This is the main focus of the interdisciplinary "WeSenseIt" project, a citizen observatory of water. In this subproject, we investigate the feasibility of stream flow surface velocity measurements from movie clips taken by (smartphone-) cameras. First results from movie-clip derived velocity information will be shown and compared to reference measurements.

  3. Topography measurements for determining the decay factors in surface replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Zheng, A; Vorburger, T V; Rubert, P

    2008-01-01

    The electro-forming technique is used at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the production of standard reference material (SRM) 2461 standard casings to support nationwide ballistics measurement traceability and measurement quality control in the US. In order to ensure that the SRM casings are produced with virtually the same surface topography, it is necessary to test the decay factors of the replication process. Twenty-six replica casings are replicated from the same master casing for the decay factor tests. The NIST topography measurement system is used for measurements and correlations of surface topography. The topography decays are quantified by the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max . Based on the test, it is expected that 256 SRM casings can be replicated from the same master with CCF max values higher than 95%

  4. Measuring the Surface Temperature of the Cryosphere using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    A general description of the remote sensing of cryosphere surface temperatures from satellites will be provided. This will give historical information on surface-temperature measurements from space. There will also be a detailed description of measuring the surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data which will be the focus of the presentation. Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate data record, trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the MODIS IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now freely available to download at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The consistency of this IST record, with temperature and melt records from other sources will be discussed.

  5. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  6. Modeled and measured glacier change and related glaciological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, balance and water years 2006 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass balance quantities for balance years 2006 and 2007. Mass balances were computed with assistance from a new model that was based on the works of other glacier researchers. The model, which was developed for mass balance practitioners, coupled selected meteorological and glaciological data to systematically estimate daily mass balance at selected glacier sites. The North Cascade Range in the vicinity of South Cascade Glacier accumulated approximately average to above average winter snow packs during 2006 and 2007. Correspondingly, the balance years 2006 and 2007 maximum winter snow mass balances of South Cascade Glacier, 2.61 and 3.41 meters water equivalent, respectively, were approximately equal to or more positive (larger) than the average of such balances since 1959. The 2006 glacier summer balance, -4.20 meters water equivalent, was among the four most negative since 1959. The 2007 glacier summer balance, -3.63 meters water equivalent, was among the 14 most negative since 1959. The glacier continued to lose mass during 2006 and 2007, as it commonly has since 1953, but the loss was much smaller during 2007 than during 2006. The 2006 glacier net balance, -1.59 meters water equivalent, was 1.02 meters water equivalent more negative (smaller) than the average during 1953-2005. The 2007 glacier net balance, -0.22 meters water equivalent, was 0.37 meters water equivalent less negative (larger) than the average during 1953-2006. The 2006 accumulation area ratio was less than 0.10, owing to isolated patches of accumulated snow that endured the 2006 summer season. The 2006 equilibrium line altitude was higher than the glacier. The 2007 accumulation area ratio and equilibrium line altitude were 0.60 and 1,880 meters, respectively. Accompanying the glacier mass losses were retreat of the terminus and reduction of total glacier area. The

  7. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Surface Measurement of Liver Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan H; Reistad, Nina; Brange, Hannes; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Sturesson, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Liver parenchymal injuries such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome can lead to increased morbidity and liver failure after liver resection. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical measuring method that is fast, convenient, and established. DRS has previously been used on the liver with an invasive technique consisting of a needle that is inserted into the parenchyma. We developed a DRS system with a hand-held probe that is applied to the liver surface. In this study, we investigated the impact of the liver capsule on DRS measurements and whether liver surface measurements are representative of the whole liver. We also wanted to confirm that we could discriminate between tumor and liver parenchyma by DRS. The instrumentation setup consisted of a light source, a fiber-optic contact probe, and two spectrometers connected to a computer. Patients scheduled for liver resection due to hepatic malignancy were included, and DRS measurements were performed on the excised liver part with and without the liver capsule and alongside a newly cut surface. To estimate the scattering parameters and tissue chromophore volume fractions, including blood, bile, and fat, the measured diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to an analytical model. In total, 960 DRS spectra from the excised liver tissue of 18 patients were analyzed. All factors analyzed regarding tumor versus liver tissue were significantly different. When measuring through the capsule, the blood volume fraction was found to be 8.4 ± 3.5%, the lipid volume fraction was 9.9 ± 4.7%, and the bile volume fraction was 8.2 ± 4.6%. No differences could be found between surface measurements and cross-sectional measurements. In measurements with/without the liver capsule, the differences in volume fraction were 1.63% (0.75-2.77), -0.54% (-2.97 to 0.32), and -0.15% (-1.06 to 1.24) for blood, lipid, and bile, respectively. This study shows that it is possible to manage DRS

  8. Experimental Method for Measuring Dust Load on Surfaces in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, Philip; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, Alfred

    A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms, there is a n......A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension. With the presented experimental setup, the dust load on surfaces in a channel can be measured as a function of the environmental and surface conditions and the type of particles under controlled laboratory conditions....

  9. Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Christine

    2012-03-01

    Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

  10. Freeform surface measurement and characterisation using a toolmakers microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Francis Seung-yin; Chauh, Kong-Bieng; Venuvinod, Patri K

    2014-01-01

    Current freeform surface (FFS) characterization systems mainly cover aspects related to computer-aided design/manufacture (CAD/CAM). This paper describes a new approach that extends into computer-aided inspection (CAI).The following novel features are addressed: - ◼ Feature recognition and extraction from surface data; - ◼ Characterisation of properties of the surface's M and N vectors at individual vertex; - ◼ Development of a measuring plan using a toolmakers microscope for the inspection of the FFS; - ◼ Inspection of the actual FFS produced by CNC milling; - ◼ Verification of the measurement results and comparison with the CAD design data; Tests have shown that the deviations between the CAI and CAD data were within the estimated uncertainty limits

  11. Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.

  12. French Frigate Shoals, NWHI, 2005 Sea Surface Temperature and Meteorological Enhanced (Iridium) Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site - French Frigate Shoals, NWHI (23.85678, -166.27183 ) ARGOS ID 261-003 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature, and...

  13. Surface moisture measurement system acceptance testing work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This work plan addresses testing of the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The purpose of this plan is to define the scope of work, identify organizational responsibilities, describe test control requirements, and provide estimated costs and schedule associated with acceptance testing

  14. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  15. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  16. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  17. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. An analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station is presented. (Author) [pt

  18. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. Finally, it is presented an analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station. (Author) [pt

  19. Pantex Plant meteorological monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.F.

    1993-07-01

    The current meteorological monitoring program of the US Department of Energy's Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas, is described in detail. Instrumentation, meteorological data collection and management, and program management are reviewed. In addition, primary contacts are noted for instrumentation, calibration, data processing, and alternative databases. The quality assurance steps implemented during each portion of the meteorological monitoring program are also indicated

  20. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  1. Analysis and initialisation of starting meteorologic information and parameters of effluents of sources of harmful substances of Karachaganak petroleum condensate deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdosov, A.; Zaurbekova, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    Initial meteorologic information for mathematical simulation conducting is presented in form of standard meteorologic tables for district of the gas condensate deposit. Analysis of meteorologic data confirms the hypothesis about horizontal heterogeneity of meteorologic regime above near Earth surface in the region and allows to carry out typification of principal meteorologic situation by year seasons

  2. An experimental method for making spectral emittance and surface temperature measurements of opaque surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Daniel Maynes, R.; Baxter, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to make spectral emittance and temperature measurements. The spectral emittance of an object is calculated using measurements of the spectral emissive power and of the surface temperature of the object obtained using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A calibration procedure is described in detail which accounts for the temperature dependence of the detector. The methods used to extract the spectral emissive power and surface temperature from measured infrared spectra were validated using a blackbody radiator at known temperatures. The average error in the measured spectral emittance was 2.1% and the average difference between the temperature inferred from the recorded spectra and the temperature indicated on the blackbody radiator was 1.2%. The method was used to measure the spectral emittance of oxidized copper at various temperatures.

  3. Wireless Sensor Node for Surface Seawater Density Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Saletti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes’ law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  4. Wireless sensor node for surface seawater density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes' law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  5. Field Measurement of Surface Ship Magnetic Signature Using Multiple AUVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    been equipped with a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer and used to perform preliminary magnetic field measurements. Measurements of this type will be...mounted on the AUVs, shown in Fig. 1, was a three-axis fluxgate type [16] magnetometer with a range of ±100,000 nT and a sensitivity of 100μV/nT. The...surface ship. The system will employ a formation of multiple AUVs, each equipped with a magnetometer . The objective is to measure total magnetic

  6. Measurement of annual dose on porcelain using surface TLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Leung, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of TL authentication test for porcelain, a method of measurement of annual dose using ultrathin (CaSO 4 :Tm) dosage layer on porcelain was studied. The TLD was placed on the part of porcelain without glaze. A comparison of measurement of annual dose for surface TLD, inside TLD and alpha counting on porcelain was made. The results show that this technique is suitable for measuring annual dose and improving accuracy of TL authentication test for both porcelain and pottery

  7. Women in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  8. In vivo measurement of vocal fold surface resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Kurita, Takashi; Dillon, Neal P; Kimball, Emily E; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti; Webster, Robert J; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    A custom-designed probe was developed to measure vocal fold surface resistance in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate proof of concept of using vocal fold surface resistance as a proxy of functional tissue integrity after acute phonotrauma using an animal model. Prospective animal study. New Zealand White breeder rabbits received 120 minutes of airflow without vocal fold approximation (control) or 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation (experimental). The probe was inserted via laryngoscope and placed on the left vocal fold under endoscopic visualization. Vocal fold surface resistance of the middle one-third of the vocal fold was measured after 0 (baseline), 60, and 120 minutes of phonation. After the phonation procedure, the larynx was harvested and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. In the control group, vocal fold surface resistance values remained stable across time points. In the experimental group, surface resistance (X% ± Y% relative to baseline) was significantly decreased after 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation. This was associated with structural changes using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed damage to the vocal fold epithelium after phonotrauma, including disruption of the epithelium and basement membrane, dilated paracellular spaces, and alterations to epithelial microprojections. In contrast, control vocal fold specimens showed well-preserved stratified squamous epithelia. These data demonstrate the feasibility of measuring vocal fold surface resistance in vivo as a means of evaluating functional vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Device prototypes are in development for additional testing, validation, and for clinical applications in laryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E364-E370, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Modeling of mean radiant temperature based on comparison of airborne remote sensing data with surface measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Yu; Matzarakis, Andreas; Liu, Jin-King; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of outdoor thermal comfort is becoming increasingly important due to the urban heat island effect, which strongly affects the urban thermal environment. The mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) quantifies the effect of the radiation environment on humans, but it can only be estimated based on influencing parameters and factors. Knowledge of Tmrt is important for quantifying the heat load on human beings, especially during heat waves. This study estimates Tmrt using several methods, which are based on climatic data from a traditional weather station, microscale ground surface measurements, land surface temperature (LST) and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data measured using airborne devices. Analytical results reveal that the best means of estimating Tmrt combines information about LST and surface elevation information with meteorological data from the closest weather station. The application in this method can eliminate the inconvenience of executing a wide range ground surface measurement, the insufficient resolution of satellite data and the incomplete data of current urban built environments. This method can be used to map a whole city to identify hot spots, and can be contributed to understanding human biometeorological conditions quickly and accurately.

  10. DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Lev; Unlü, M Selim; Swan, Anna K; Goldberg, Bennett B; Cantor, Charles R

    2006-02-21

    The conformation of DNA molecules tethered to the surface of a microarray may significantly affect the efficiency of hybridization. Although a number of methods have been applied to determine the structure of the DNA layer, they are not very sensitive to variations in the shape of DNA molecules. Here we describe the application of an interferometric technique called spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy to the precise measurement of the average location of a fluorescent label in a DNA layer relative to the surface and thus determine specific information on the conformation of the surface-bound DNA molecules. Using spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy, we have estimated the shape of coiled single-stranded DNA, the average tilt of double-stranded DNA of different lengths, and the amount of hybridization. The data provide important proofs of concept for the capabilities of novel optical surface analytical methods of the molecular disposition of DNA on surfaces. The determination of DNA conformations on surfaces and hybridization behavior provide information required to move DNA interfacial applications forward and thus impact emerging clinical and biotechnological fields.

  11. A new surface resistance measurement method with ultrahigh sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Changnian.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting niobium triaxial cavity has been designed and fabricated to study residual surface resistance of planar superconducting materials. The edge of a 25.4 mm or larger diameter sample in the triaxial cavity is located outside the strong field region. Therefore, the edge effects and possible losses between the thin film and the substrate have been minimized, ensuring that induced RF losses are intrinsic to the test material. The fundamental resonant frequency of the cavity is the same as the working frequency of CEBAF cavities. The cavity has a compact size compared to its TE 011 counterpart, which makes it more sensitive to the sample's loss. For even higher sensitivity, a calorimetry method has been used to measure the RF losses on the superconducting sample. At 2 K, a 2 μK temperature change can be resolved by using carbon resistor sensors. The temperature distribution caused by RF heating is measured by 16 carbon composition resistor sensors. A 0.05 μW heating power can be detected as such a resolution, which translates to a surface resistance of 0.02 nΩ at a surface magnetic field of 52 Oe. This is the most sensitive device for surface resistance measurements to date. In addition, losses due to the indium seal, coupling probes, field emission sites other than the sample, and all of the high field resonator surface, are excluded in the measurement. Surface resistance of both niobium and high-Tc superconducting thin films has been measured. A low R s of 35.2 μΩ was measured for a 25.4 mm diameter YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin film at 1.5 GHz and at 2 K. The measurement result is the first result for a large area epitaxially grown thin film sample at such a low RF frequency. The abrupt disappearance of multipacting between two parallel plates has been observed and monitored with the 16 temperature mapping sensors. Field emission or some field dependent anomalous RF losses on the niobium plate have also been observed

  12. Quality Assurance Guidance for the Collection of Meteorological Data Using Passive Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document augments the February 2000 guidance entitled Meteorological Monitoring Guidance for Regulatory Modeling Applications and the March 2008 guidance entitled Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems Volume IV: Meteorological Measurements Version ...

  13. Measurements of the near-surface flow over a hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosper, S. B.; Mobbs, S. D.; Gardiner, B. A.

    2002-10-01

    The near-surface flow over a hill with moderate slope and height comparable with the boundary-layer depth is investigated through field measurements of the mean flow (at 2 m), surface pressure, and turbulent momentum flux divergence between 8 and 15 m. The measurements were made along an east-west transect across the hill Tighvein (height 458 m, approximate width 8 km) on the Isle of Arran, south-west Scotland, during two separate periods, each of around three-weeks duration. Radiosonde ascents are used to determine the variation of a Froude number, FL = U/NL, where U is the wind speed at the middle-layer height, hm, N is the mean Brunt-Väisälä frequency below this height and L is a hill length-scale. Measurements show that for moderately stratified flows (for which FL 0.25) a minimum in the hill-induced surface-pressure perturbation occurs across the summit and this is accompanied by a maximum in the near-surface wind speed. In the more strongly stratified case (FL 0.25) the pressure field is more asymmetric and the lee-slope flow is generally stronger than on the windward slope. Such a flow pattern is qualitatively consistent with that predicted by stratified linear boundary-layer and gravity-wave theories. The near-surface momentum budget is analysed by evaluating the dominant terms in a Bernoulli equation suitable for turbulent flow. Measurements during periods of westerly flow are used to evaluate the dominant terms, and the equation is shown to hold to a reasonable approximation on the upwind slope of the hill and also on the downwind slope, away from the summit. Immediately downwind of the summit, however, the Bernoulli equation does not hold. Possible reasons for this, such as non-separated sheltering and flow separation, are discussed.

  14. Simultaneous measurements of top surface and its underlying film surfaces in multilayer film structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Young-Sik; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Davies, Angela

    2017-09-19

    With the growth of 3D packaging technology and the development of flexible, transparent electrodes, the use of multilayer thin-films is steadily increasing throughout high-tech industries including semiconductor, flat panel display, and solar photovoltaic industries. Also, this in turn leads to an increase in industrial demands for inspection of internal analysis. However, there still remain many technical limitations to overcome for measurement of the internal structure of the specimen without damage. In this paper, we propose an innovative optical inspection technique for simultaneous measurements of the surface and film thickness corresponding to each layer of multilayer film structures by computing the phase and reflectance over a wide range of wavelengths. For verification of our proposed method, the sample specimen of multilayer films was fabricated via photolithography process, and the surface profile and film thickness of each layer were measured by two different techniques of a stylus profilometer and an ellipsometer, respectively. Comparison results shows that our proposed technique enables simultaneous measurements of the top surface and its underlying film surfaces with high precision, which could not be measured by conventional non-destructive methods.

  15. Internal variability of fine-scale components of meteorological fields in extended-range limited-area model simulations with atmospheric and surface nudging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separovic, Leo; Husain, Syed Zahid; Yu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Internal variability (IV) in dynamical downscaling with limited-area models (LAMs) represents a source of error inherent to the downscaled fields, which originates from the sensitive dependence of the models to arbitrarily small modifications. If IV is large it may impose the need for probabilistic verification of the downscaled information. Atmospheric spectral nudging (ASN) can reduce IV in LAMs as it constrains the large-scale components of LAM fields in the interior of the computational domain and thus prevents any considerable penetration of sensitively dependent deviations into the range of large scales. Using initial condition ensembles, the present study quantifies the impact of ASN on IV in LAM simulations in the range of fine scales that are not controlled by spectral nudging. Four simulation configurations that all include strong ASN but differ in the nudging settings are considered. In the fifth configuration, grid nudging of land surface variables toward high-resolution surface analyses is applied. The results show that the IV at scales larger than 300 km can be suppressed by selecting an appropriate ASN setup. At scales between 300 and 30 km, however, in all configurations, the hourly near-surface temperature, humidity, and winds are only partly reproducible. Nudging the land surface variables is found to have the potential to significantly reduce IV, particularly for fine-scale temperature and humidity. On the other hand, hourly precipitation accumulations at these scales are generally irreproducible in all configurations, and probabilistic approach to downscaling is therefore recommended.

  16. Airborne spectral measurements of surface anisotropy during SCAR-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; King, Michael D.; Arnold, G. Thomas; Li, Jason Y.

    1998-12-01

    During the Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) deployment, angular distributions of spectral reflectance for vegetated surfaces and smoke layers were measured using the scanning cloud absorption radiometer (CAR) mounted on the University of Washington C-131A research aircraft. The CAR contains 13 narrowband spectral channels between 0.3 and 2.3 μm with a 190° scan aperture (5° before zenith to 5° past nadir) and 1° instantaneous field of view. The bidirectional reflectance is obtained by flying a clockwise circular orbit above the surface, resulting in a ground track ˜3 km in diameter within about 2 min. Although the CAR measurements are contaminated by minor atmospheric effects, results show distinct spectral characteristics for various types of surfaces. Spectral bidirectional reflectances of three simple and well-defined surfaces are presented: cerrado (August 18, 1995) and dense forest (August 25, 1995), both measured in Brazil under nearly clear-sky conditions, and thick smoke layers over dense forest (September 6 and 11, 1995). The bidirectional reflectances of cerrado and dense forest revealed fairly symmetric patterns along the principal plane, with varying maximal strengths and widths spectrally in the backscattering direction. In the shortwave-infrared region the aerosol effect is very small due to low spectral optical depth. Also, these backscattering maxima can be seen on the bidirectional reflectance of smoke layer over dense forest. These detailed measurements of the angular distribution of spectral reflectance can be parameterized by a few independent variables and utilized to retrieve either surface characteristics or aerosol microphysical and optical properties (e.g., size distribution and single-scattering parameters), if proper physical and radiation models are used. The spectral-hemispherical albedo of these surfaces is obtained directly by integrating all angular measurements and is compared with the measured nadir reflectance

  17. Hydrologic Science and Satellite Measurements of Surface Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    While significant advances continue to be made for satellite measurements of surface waters, important science and application opportunities remain. Examples include the following: (1) Our current methods of measuring floodwater dynamics are either sparsely distributed or temporally inadequate. As an example, flood depths are measured by using high water marks, which capture only the peak of the flood wave, not its temporal variability. (2) Discharge is well measured at individual points along stream networks using in-situ gauges, but these do not capture within-reach hydraulic variability such as the water surface slope changes on the rising and falling limbs of flood waves. (3) Just a 1.0 mm/day error in ET over the Congo Basin translates to a 35,000 m3/s discharge error. Knowing the discharge of the Congo River and its many tributaries should significantly improve our understanding of the water balance throughout the basin. The Congo is exemplary of many other basins around the globe. (4) Arctic hydrology is punctuated by millions of unmeasured lakes. Globally, there might be as many as 30 million lakes larger than a hectare. Storage changes in these lakes are nearly unknown, but in the Arctic such changes are likely an indication of global warming. (5) Well over 100 rivers cross international boundaries, yet the sharing of water data is poor. Overcoming this helps to better manage the entire river basin while also providing a better assessment of potential water related disasters. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT, http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/) mission is designed to meet these needs by providing global measurements of surface water hydrodynamics. SWOT will allow estimates of discharge in rivers wider than 100m (50m goal) and storage changes in water bodies larger than 250m by 250m (and likely as small as one hectare).

  18. Oceanographic and meteorological data measurements collected from CTD, bottle and other instruments from Gerda, J.E., Pillsbury and Calanus in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 1967-02-24 to 1970-11-13 (NCEI Accession 7100821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic and meteorological data measurements collected from CTD, bottle and other instruments. Data were collected from Gerda, J.E., Pillsbury and Calanus in...

  19. Sea-air boundary meteorological sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jose G.

    2015-05-01

    The atmospheric environment can significantly affect radio frequency and optical propagation. In the RF spectrum refraction and ducting can degrade or enhance communications and radar coverage. Platforms in or beneath refractive boundaries can exploit the benefits or suffer the effects of the atmospheric boundary layers. Evaporative ducts and surface-base ducts are of most concern for ocean surface platforms and evaporative ducts are almost always present along the sea-air interface. The atmospheric environment also degrades electro-optical systems resolution and visibility. The atmospheric environment has been proven not to be uniform and under heterogeneous conditions substantial propagation errors may be present for large distances from homogeneous models. An accurate and portable atmospheric sensor to profile the vertical index of refraction is needed for mission planning, post analysis, and in-situ performance assessment. The meteorological instrument used in conjunction with a radio frequency and electro-optical propagation prediction tactical decision aid tool would give military platforms, in real time, the ability to make assessments on communication systems propagation ranges, radar detection and vulnerability ranges, satellite communications vulnerability, laser range finder performance, and imaging system performance predictions. Raman lidar has been shown to be capable of measuring the required atmospheric parameters needed to profile the atmospheric environment. The atmospheric profile could then be used as input to a tactical decision aid tool to make propagation predictions.

  20. Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel; Schneising, Oliver; Farrell, Paige; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.

    2013-08-01

    The potent greenhouse gas, methane, CH4, has a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Fall, continental-scale (Florida to California) surface CH4 data were collected to investigate the importance of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) emissions in the South US. A total of 6600 measurements along 7020-km of roadways were made by flame ion detection gas chromatography onboard a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle in 2010. A second, winter survey in Southern California measured CH4 at 2 Hz with a cavity ring-down spectrometer in 2012. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI CH4 sources associated with refining, oil/gas production, a presumed major pipeline leak, and a coal loading plant. Nocturnal CH4 mixing ratios tended to be higher than daytime values for similar sources, sometimes significantly, which was attributed to day/night meteorological differences, primarily changes in the boundary layer height. The highest CH4 mixing ratio (39 ppm) was observed near the Kern River Oil Field, California, which uses steam reinjection. FFI CH4 plume signatures were distinguished as stronger than other sources on local scales. On large (4°) scales, the CH4 trend was better matched spatially with FFI activity than wetland spatial patterns. Qualitative comparison of surface data with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite retrievals showed agreement of the large-scale CH4 spatial patterns. Comparison with inventory models and seasonal winds suggests for some seasons and some portions of the Gulf of Mexico a non-negligible underestimation of FFI emissions. For other seasons and locations, qualitative interpretation is not feasible. Unambiguous quantitative source attribution is more complex, requiring transport modeling.

  1. Surface renewal: an advanced micrometeorological method for measuring and processing field-scale energy flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrone, Andrew J; Shapland, Thomas M; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L

    2013-12-12

    Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn.

  2. Magnetic flux surface measurements at the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, Matthias; Andreeva, Tamara; Biedermann, Christoph; Bozhenkov, Sergey; Geiger, Joachim; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Lazerson, Samuel [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Recently the first plasma operation phase of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator has been started at IPP Greifswald. Wendelstein 7-X is an optimized stellarator with a complex superconducting magnet system consisting of 50 non-planar and 20 planar field coils and further 10 normal conducting control and 5 trim coils. The magnetic confinement and hence the expected plasma performance are decisively determined by the properties of the magnet system, especially by the existence and quality of the magnetic flux surfaces. Even small error fields may result in significant changes of the flux surface topology. Therefore, measurements of the vacuum magnetic flux surfaces have been performed before plasma operation. The first experimental results confirm the existence and quality of the flux surfaces to the full extend from low field up to the nominal field strength of B=2.5T. This includes the dedicated magnetic limiter configuration that is exclusively used for the first plasma operation. Furthermore, the measurements are indicating that the intrinsic error fields are within the tolerable range and can be controlled utilizing the trim coils as expected.

  3. Impacts of Local Soil Moisture Anomalies on the Atmospheric Circulation and on Remote Surface Meteorological Fields During Boreal Summer: A Comprehensive Analysis over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Chang, Yehui; Wang, Hailan; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2016-01-01

    We perform a series of stationary wave model (SWM) experiments in which the boreal summer atmosphere is forced, over a number of locations in the continental U.S., with an idealized diabatic heating anomaly that mimics the atmospheric heating associated with a dry land surface. For localized heating within a large portion of the continental interior, regardless of the specific location of this heating, the spatial pattern of the forced atmospheric circulation anomaly (in terms of 250-mb eddy streamfunction) is largely the same: a high anomaly forms over west central North America and a low anomaly forms to the east. In supplemental atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments, we find similar results; imposing soil moisture dryness in the AGCM in different locations within the US interior tends to produce the aforementioned pattern, along with an associated near-surface warming and precipitation deficit in the center of the continent. The SWM-based and AGCM-based patterns generally agree with composites generated using reanalysis and precipitation gauge data. The AGCM experiments also suggest that dry anomalies imposed in the lower Mississippi Valley have remote surface impacts of particularly large spatial extent, and a region along the eastern half of the US-Canada border is particularly sensitive to dry anomalies in a number of remote areas. Overall, the SWM and AGCM experiments support the idea of a positive feedback loop operating over the continent: dry surface conditions in many interior locations lead to changes in atmospheric circulation that act to enhance further the overall dryness of the continental interior.

  4. Possible impact of fixed point sources of SO2 in NSW to the secondary sulphate measurements at Richmond and the dependence of the background secondary sulphate on meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.; Cohen, D.D.; Stelcer, E.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution to secondary sulfate measurements at Richmond, Australia, from known point sources of SOz is investigated using air mass back trajectories. The conditional probability function (CPF) shows that contribution for days of high sulfur is from areas north east of the site. This is an area where known point sources of SOz, such as coal fired power stations, are located. The meteorological conditions associated with high sulfur days are examined and an artificial neural network is employed to determine the relationship between meteorological variables and sulfur measurements after the influence of known point sources was removed. It is shown that temperature and humidity have a nonlinear positive correlation with sulphate measurements, while wind speed, mixing layer depth and rainfall have a negative nonlinear correlation. In addition, the time of day at which air masses reach Richmond from the eastern and western power stations varies, and so thus the altitude at which the power stations are crossed. The time of day, as well as the altitude at which an SOz point source was passed, show an impact to the measured sulfate at Richmond, although the extent of this remains to be fully investigated

  5. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  6. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  7. Quantitative nanoscale surface voltage measurement on organic semiconductor blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuenat, Alexandre; Muñiz-Piniella, Andrés; Muñoz-Rojo, Miguel; Murphy, Craig E; Tsoi, Wing C

    2012-01-01

    We report on the validation of a method based on Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) able to measure the different phases and the relative work function of polymer blend heterojunctions at the nanoscale. The method does not necessitate complex ultra-high vacuum setup. The quantitative information that can be extracted from the topography and the Kelvin probe measurements is critically analysed. Surface voltage difference can be observed at the nanoscale on poly(3-hexyl-thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blends and dependence on the annealing condition and the regio-regularity of P3HT is observed. (paper)

  8. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test procedure is to verify that the mechanical and electrical features of the Surface Moisture Measurement System are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. This procedure will be used in conjunction with a software acceptance test procedure, which addresses testing of software and electrical features not addressed in this document. Hardware testing will be performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  9. Reliability of surface EMG measurements from the suprahyoid muscle complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Stubbs, Peter William; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2017-01-01

    of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days. Methods: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited. Measurements were performed twice with one week...... on stimulus type/intensity) had significantly different MEP values between day 1 and day 2 for single pulse and paired pulse TMS. A large stimulus artefact resulted in MEP responses that could not be assessed in four participants. Conclusions: The assessment of the SMC using sEMG following TMS was poorly...... reliable for ≈50% of participants. Although using sEMG to assess swallowing musculature function is easier to perform clinically and more comfortable to patients than invasive measures, as the measurement of muscle activity using TMS is unreliable, the use of sEMG for this muscle group is not recommended...

  10. Photometric imaging in particle size measurement and surface visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Niklas

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight into photometric particle sizing approaches, which differ from the typical particle size measurement of dispersed particles. These approaches can often be advantageous especially for samples that are moist or cohesive, when dispersion of particles is difficult or sometimes impossible. The main focus of this paper is in the use of photometric stereo imaging. The technique allows the reconstruction of three-dimensional images of objects using multiple light sources in illumination. The use of photometric techniques is demonstrated in at-line measurement of granules and on-line measurement during granulation and dry milling. Also, surface visualization and roughness measurements are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Net Surface Shortwave Radiation from GOES Imagery—Product Evaluation Using Ground-Based Measurements from SURFRAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K. Inamdar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s surface net radiation controls the energy and water exchanges between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere, and can be derived from satellite observations. The ability to monitor the net surface radiation over large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for many applications, such as weather forecasting, short-term climate prediction or water resources management. The objective of this paper is to derive the net surface radiation in the shortwave domain at high temporal (half-hourly and spatial resolution (~1 km using visible imagery from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES. The retrieval algorithm represents an adaptation to GOES data of a standard algorithm initially developed for the NASA-operated Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES scanner. The methodology relies on: (1 the estimation of top of atmosphere shortwave radiation from GOES spectral measurements; and (2 the calculation of net surface shortwave (SW radiation accounting for atmospheric effects. Comparison of GOES-retrieved net surface shortwave radiation with ground-measurements at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD stations yields very good agreement with average bias lower than 5 W·m−2 and root mean square difference around 70 W·m−2. The algorithm performance is usually higher over areas characterized by low spatial variability in term of land cover type and surface biophysical properties. The technique does not involve retrieval and assessment of cloud properties and can be easily adapted to other meteorological satellites around the globe.

  12. Generalized Split-Window Algorithm for Estimate of Land Surface Temperature from Chinese Geostationary FengYun Meteorological Satellite (FY-2C Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the radiative transfer theory, this paper addressed the estimate ofLand Surface Temperature (LST from the Chinese first operational geostationarymeteorological satellite-FengYun-2C (FY-2C data in two thermal infrared channels (IR1,10.3-11.3 μ m and IR2, 11.5-12.5 μ m , using the Generalized Split-Window (GSWalgorithm proposed by Wan and Dozier (1996. The coefficients in the GSW algorithmcorresponding to a series of overlapping ranging of the mean emissivity, the atmosphericWater Vapor Content (WVC, and the LST were derived using a statistical regressionmethod from the numerical values simulated with an accurate atmospheric radiativetransfer model MODTRAN 4 over a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions.The simulation analysis showed that the LST could be estimated by the GSW algorithmwith the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE less than 1 K for the sub-ranges with theViewing Zenith Angle (VZA less than 30° or for the sub-rangs with VZA less than 60°and the atmospheric WVC less than 3.5 g/cm2 provided that the Land Surface Emissivities(LSEs are known. In order to determine the range for the optimum coefficients of theGSW algorithm, the LSEs could be derived from the data in MODIS channels 31 and 32 provided by MODIS/Terra LST product MOD11B1, or be estimated either according tothe land surface classification or using the method proposed by Jiang et al. (2006; and theWVC could be obtained from MODIS total precipitable water product MOD05, or beretrieved using Li et al.’ method (2003. The sensitivity and error analyses in term of theuncertainty of the LSE and WVC as well as the instrumental noise were performed. Inaddition, in order to compare the different formulations of the split-window algorithms,several recently proposed split-window algorithms were used to estimate the LST with thesame simulated FY-2C data. The result of the intercomparsion showed that most of thealgorithms give

  13. GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data, VIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB), MODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night, NWS surface meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data descriptions are provided at the following urls:GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data - https://aqs.epa.gov/aqsweb/documents/data_mart_welcome.htmlhttps://www3.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/files/ambient/pm25/qa/QA-Handbook-Vol-II.pdfVIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB) http://www.class.ngdc.noaa.gov/saa/products/search?datatype_family=VIIRS_SDRMODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night -MOD0&_L2; http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov/MOD07_L2/index.html NWS surface meteorological data - https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/isdThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Wang, J., C. Aegerter, and J. Szykman. Potential Application of VIIRS Day/Night Band for Monitoring Nighttime Surface PM2.5 Air Quality From Space. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 124(0): 55-63, (2016).

  14. Radiotherapy high energy surface dose measurements: effects of chamber polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The effects of chamber polarity have been investigated for the measurement of 6MV and 18MV x-ray surface dose using a parallel plate ionization chamber. Results have shown that a significant difference in measured ionization is recorded between to polarities at 6MV and 18MV at the phantom surface. A polarity ratio ranging from 1 062 to 1 005 is seen for 6MV x-rays at the phantom surface for field sizes 5cm x 5cm to 40cm x 40cm when comparing positive to negative polarity. These ratios range from 1.024 to 1.004 for 18MV x-rays with the same field sizes. When these charge reading are compared to the D max readings of the same polarity it is found that these polarity effects are minimal for the calculation of percentage dose results with variations being less than 1% of maximum. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  15. Surface Current Measurements In Terra Nova Bay By Hf Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocco, D.; Falco, P.; Wadhams, P.; Spezie, G.

    We present the preliminary results of a field experiment carried out within frame- work of the CLIMA project of the Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research (PNRA) and in cooperation with the Scott Polar Research Institute of Cambridge. Dur- ing the second period (02/12/1999-23/01/2000) of the XV Italian expedition a coastal radar was used to characterize the current field in the area of Terra Nova Bay (TNB). One of the aims of the CLIMA (Climatic Long-term Interactions for the Mass balance in Antarctica) project is to determine the role of the polynya in the sea ice mass bal- ance, water structure and local climate. The OSCR-II experiment was planned in order to provide surface current measurements in the area of TNB polynya, one of the most important coastal polynya of the Ross Sea. OSCR (Ocean Surface Current Radar) is a shore based, remote sensing system designed to measure sea surface currents in coastal waters. Two radar sites (a master and a slave) provide with radial current mea- surements; data combined from both sites yield the total current vector. Unfortunately the master and slave stations did not work together throughout the whole period of the experiment. A description of the experiment and a discussion of the results, will be proposed.

  16. Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fraser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We use an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF, together with the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model, to estimate regional monthly methane (CH4 fluxes for the period June 2009–December 2010 using proxy dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4 from GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite and/or NOAA ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory and CSIRO GASLAB (Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory CH4 surface mole fraction measurements. Global posterior estimates using GOSAT and/or surface measurements are between 510–516 Tg yr−1, which is less than, though within the uncertainty of, the prior global flux of 529 ± 25 Tg yr−1. We find larger differences between regional prior and posterior fluxes, with the largest changes in monthly emissions (75 Tg yr−1 occurring in Temperate Eurasia. In non-boreal regions the error reductions for inversions using the GOSAT data are at least three times larger (up to 45% than if only surface data are assimilated, a reflection of the greater spatial coverage of GOSAT, with the two exceptions of latitudes >60° associated with a data filter and over Europe where the surface network adequately describes fluxes on our model spatial and temporal grid. We use CarbonTracker and GEOS-Chem XCO2 model output to investigate model error on quantifying proxy GOSAT XCH4 (involving model XCO2 and inferring methane flux estimates from surface mole fraction data and show similar resulting fluxes, with differences reflecting initial differences in the proxy value. Using a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs we characterize the posterior flux error introduced by non-uniform atmospheric sampling by GOSAT. We show that clear-sky measurements can theoretically reproduce fluxes within 10% of true values, with the exception of tropical regions where, due to a large seasonal cycle in the number of measurements because of clouds and aerosols, fluxes are within 15% of true fluxes. We evaluate our

  17. Surface ozone measurements in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Huelva, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, Jose A Adame; Bolívar, Juan P; de la Morena, Benito A

    2010-02-01

    Photochemical ozone pollution of the lower troposphere (LT) is a very complex process involving meteorological, topographic emissions and chemical parameters. Ozone is considered the most important air pollutant in rural, suburban and industrial areas of many sites in the world since it strongly affects human health, vegetation and forest ecosystems, and its increase during the last decades has been significant. In addition, ozone is a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. For these reasons, it is necessary to carry out investigations that determine the behaviour of ozone at different locations. The aim of this work is to understand the levels and temporal variations of surface ozone in an industrial-urban region of the Southwest Iberian Peninsula. The study is based on ozone hourly data recorded during a 6-year period, 2000 to 2005 at four stations and meteorological data from a coastal station. The stations used were El Arenosillo and Cartaya--both coastal stations, Huelva--an urban site and Valverde--an inland station 50 km away from the coastline. The general characteristics of the ozone series, seasonal and daily ozone cycles as well as number of exceedances of the threshold established in the European Ozone Directive have been calculated and analysed. Analysis of the meteorological data shows that winter-autumn seasons are governed by the movement of synoptic weather systems; however, in the spring-summer seasons, both synoptic and mesoescale conditions exist. Average hourly ozone concentrations range from 78.5 +/- 0.1 microg m(-3) at Valverde to 57.8 +/- 0.2 microg m(-3) at Huelva. Ozone concentrations present a seasonal variability with higher values in summer months, while in wintertime, lower values are recorded. A seasonal daily evolution has also been found with minimum levels around 08:00 UTC, which occurs approximately 1-1.5 h after sunrise, whereas the maximum is reached at about 16:00 UTC. Furthermore, during summer, the maximum value

  18. Measurements of flux surfaces in the ATF torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.C.; Colchin, R.J.; Harris, J.H.; Hillis, D.L.; Jernigan, T.C.; Anderson, F.S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Flux surfaces in the advanced toroidal facility (ATF) torsatron have been measured using electron-beam techniques. The beam was injected toroidally and impinged on a phosphor-coated screen located ∼ 180 degrees from the gun. The gun was mounted on a drive mechanism that enabled the beam to scan the entire cross section of the last closed flux surface in ATF. The screen material was st. steel, coated with ZnO:Zn (P-15 or P-24) phosphor, and the transparency was ∼ 90%. The emitted light was detected with an image-intensified CCD camera that viewed the mesh through a nearby port. The images were displayed directly on a TV monitor and stored on video tape. Frames from the video tape were transferred to a computer, where the image was enhanced and transformed to remove spatial distortions due to the lens and the viewing angle of the camera

  19. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase.

  20. BOREAS RSS-20 POLDER C-130 Measurements of Surface BRDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Marc; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickerson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-20 data set contains measurements of surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) made by the polarization and Directionality of Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument over several surface types (pine, spruce, fen) of the BOREAS southern study area (SSA) during the 1994 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). Single-point BRDF values were acquired either from the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) C-130 aircraft or from a NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) helicopter. A related data set collected from the helicopter platform is available as is POLDER imagery acquired from the C-130. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. Electrical properties of Titan's surface from Cassini RADAR scatterometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wye, Lauren C.; Zebker, Howard A.; Ostro, Steven J.; West, Richard D.; Gim, Yonggyu; Lorenz, Ralph D.; The Cassini Radar Team

    2007-06-01

    albedo feature Shangri-La is best fit by a Hagfors model with a dielectric constant close to 2.4 and an rms slope near 9.5°. From the modeled backscatter curves, we find the average radar albedo in the same linear (SL) polarization to be near 0.34. We constrain the total-power albedo in order to compare the measurements with available groundbased radar results, which are typically obtained in both senses of circular polarization. We estimate an upper limit of 0.4 on the total-power albedo, a value that is significantly higher than the 0.21 total albedo value measured at 13 cm [Campbell, D., Black, G., Carter, L., Ostro, S., 2003. Science 302, 431-434]. This is consistent with a surface that has more small-scale structure and is thus more reflective at 2-cm than 13-cm. We compare results across overlapping observations and observe that the reduction and analysis are repeatable and consistent. We also confirm the strong correlations between radar and near-infrared images.

  2. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  3. Design parameters for measurements of local catalytic activity on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Johannessen, Tue; Jørgensen, Jan Hoffmann

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward......, the limits of the range in reaction rate, which can be Studied are estimated. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward...... limit for the lateral resolution of the measurement, and that a flow rate of the order of 240 (ml/min)(n) is sufficient to achieve this resolution. The sensitivity is reasonable also with high flow rates, due to the presence of a pocket of stagnant gas under the tip of the capillary. Furthermore...

  4. Results of environmental radiation monitoring and meteorology measurements (material prepared for obtaining the licence for RA reactor experimental operation); Rezultati merenja zracenja u okolini i rezultati meteoroloskih merenja (materijal pripremljen radi dobijanja dozvole za pustanje Reaktora RA u probni rad)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-10-15

    According to the demands for obtaining the licence for restarting the Ra reactor and the experimental operation this document includes the radiation monitoring measured data in the working space and environment of the RA reactor, i.e. Boris Kidric Institute. The meteorology measured data are included as well. All the measurements are performed according to the radiation protection program applied actually from the first reactor start-up at the end of 1959. [Serbo-Croat] Saglasno zahtevu za dobijanje dozvole za ponovno pustanje u probni rad reaktora RA, ovaj dokument sadrzi rezultate merenja zracenja u okolini (radnoj i zivotnoj) reaktora RA odnosno instituta 'Boris Kidric' kao i podatke o meteoroloskim merenjima. Sve merenja rade se prema programu mera zastite od zracenja koje se sprovode prakticno od prvog pustanja reaktora u rad krajem 1959. godine.

  5. Surface Fitting for Quasi Scattered Data from Coordinate Measuring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing; Liu, Shugui; Wang, Sen; Ma, Xinhui

    2018-01-13

    Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface fitting from data points is wildly used in the fields of computer aided design (CAD), medical imaging, cultural relic representation and object-shape detection. Usually, the measured data acquired from coordinate measuring systems is neither gridded nor completely scattered. The distribution of this kind of data is scattered in physical space, but the data points are stored in a way consistent with the order of measurement, so it is named quasi scattered data in this paper. Therefore they can be organized into rows easily but the number of points in each row is random. In order to overcome the difficulty of surface fitting from this kind of data, a new method based on resampling is proposed. It consists of three major steps: (1) NURBS curve fitting for each row, (2) resampling on the fitted curve and (3) surface fitting from the resampled data. Iterative projection optimization scheme is applied in the first and third step to yield advisable parameterization and reduce the time cost of projection. A resampling approach based on parameters, local peaks and contour curvature is proposed to overcome the problems of nodes redundancy and high time consumption in the fitting of this kind of scattered data. Numerical experiments are conducted with both simulation and practical data, and the results show that the proposed method is fast, effective and robust. What's more, by analyzing the fitting results acquired form data with different degrees of scatterness it can be demonstrated that the error introduced by resampling is negligible and therefore it is feasible.

  6. The Measurement and Interpretation of Surface Wave Group Arrival Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, G.; Kane, D.; Morrow, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have recently developed an efficient technique for measuring the relative group arrival times of surface waves by using cross-correlation and cluster analysis of waveform envelope functions. Applying the analysis to minor arc Love and Rayleigh waves in the frequency band 7 to 35 mHz for all events over magnitude 5.5 results in a dataset of over 200,000 measurements at each frequency for long period Rayleigh waves (frequency less than 25 mHz) and about 100,000 measurements at the shorter periods. Analysis of transverse components results in about half as many Love wave measurements. Simple ray theory inversions of the relative arrival times for apparent group velocity produce maps which are accurate representations of the data (often over 90% variance reduction of the relative arrival times) and which show features strongly correlated with tectonics and crustal thickness. The apparent group velocity variations can be extremely large: 30% velocity variations for 20 mHz Rayleigh waves and 40% variations for 30 mHz Rayleigh waves and can have abrupt lateral changes. This raises the concern that non-ray theory effects could be important. Indeed, a recent analysis by Dahlen and Zhou (personal communication) suggests that the group arrival times should be a functions of both the group velocity AND the phase velocity. The simplest way to test the interpretation of the measurements is to perform the analysis on synthetic seismograms computed for a realistic model of the Earth. Here, we use the SEM with a model which incorporates realistic crust and mantle structure. We are currently computing synthetics for a suite of roughly 1000 events recorded globally that extend to a period of 18 seconds. We shall present the results of applying both ray-based and finite frequency inversions to the synthetic data as well as evaluating the effects of off path propagation at short periods using surface wave ray tracing.

  7. Meteorology ans solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Oliver

    When in the second half of the 19th century both solar physics and astrophysics came into existence, various solar phenomena were described by analogies encountered in the terrestrial atmosphere. For a certain time, meteorology played a central role in research on solar processes. At first glance, this may appear as a curious and old-fashioned specialty. However, solar physics owes its first insights into solar structure to various analogies in terrestrial atmospheric studies. The present investigation intends to elucidate this fact, to present details of the historical development, and to demonstrate how our present knowledge in certain fields is based on considerations which were originally taken from the description of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  8. Sea surface temperature measurements by the along-track scanning radiometer on the ERS 1 satellite: Early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlow, C. T.; ZáVody, A. M.; Barton, I. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1994-11-01

    The along-track scanning radiometer (ATSR) was launched in July 1991 on the European Space Agency's first remote sensing satellite, ERS 1. An initial analysis of ATSR data demonstrates that the sea surface temperature (SST) can be measured from space with very high accuracy. Comparison of simultaneous measurements of SST made from ATSR and from a ship-borne radiometer show that they agree to within 0.3°C. To assess data consistency, a complementary analysis of SST data from ATSR was also carried out. The ATSR global SST field was compared on a daily basis with daily SST analysis of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO). The ATSR global field is consistently within 1.0°C of the UKMO analysis. Also, to demonstrate the benefits of along-track scanning SST determination, the ATSR SST data were compared with high-quality bulk temperature observations from drifting buoys. The likely causes of the differences between ATSR and the bulk temperature data are briefly discussed. These results provide early confidence in the quantitative benefit of ATSR's two-angle view of the Earth and its high radiometric performance and show a significant advance on the data obtained from other spaceborne sensors. It should be noted that these measurements were made at a time when the atmosphere was severely contaminated with volcanic aerosol particles, which degrade infrared measurements of the Earth's surface made from space.

  9. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR RAPID NEAR SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Stoll

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS options and deals with a magnetometer sensor system which might be of interest in conducting rapid near surface geophysical measurements. Few of the traditional airborne geophysical sensors are now capable of being miniaturized to sizes and payload within mini UAS limits (e.g. airborne magnetics, gamma ray spectrometer. Here the deployment of a fluxgate magnetometer mounted on an UAS is presented demonstrating its capability of detecting metallic materials that are buried in the soil. The effectiveness in finding ferrous objects (e.g. UXO, landslides is demonstrated in two case studies.

  10. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  11. Comparison of several databases of downward solar daily irradiation data at ocean surface with PIRATA measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolliet, Mélodie; Wald, Lucien

    2017-04-01

    The solar radiation impinging at sea surface is an essential variable in climate system. There are several means to assess the daily irradiation at surface, such as pyranometers aboard ship or on buoys, meteorological re-analyses and satellite-derived databases. Among the latter, assessments made from the series of geostationary Meteosat satellites offer synoptic views of the tropical and equatorial Atlantic Ocean every 15 min with a spatial resolution of approximately 5 km. Such Meteosat-derived databases are fairly recent and the quality of the estimates of the daily irradiation must be established. Efforts have been made for the land masses and must be repeated for the Atlantic Ocean. The Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) network of moorings in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean is considered as a reference for oceanographic data. It consists in 17 long-term Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System (ATLAS) buoys equipped with sensors to measure near-surface meteorological and subsurface oceanic parameters, including downward solar irradiation. Corrected downward solar daily irradiation from PIRATA were downloaded from the NOAA web site and were compared to several databases: CAMS RAD, HelioClim-1, HelioClim-3 v4 and HelioClim-3 v5. CAMS-RAD, the CAMS radiation service, combines products of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) on gaseous content and aerosols in the atmosphere together with cloud optical properties deduced every 15 min from Meteosat imagery to supply estimates of the solar irradiation. Part of this service is the McClear clear sky model that provides estimates of the solar irradiation that should be observed in cloud-free conditions. The second and third databases are HelioClim-1 and HelioClim-3 v4 that are derived from Meteosat images using the Heliosat-2 method and the ESRA clear sky model, based on the Linke turbidity factor. HelioClim-3 v5 is the fourth database and differs from v4 by the

  12. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-04-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The

  13. "Rapid Revisit" Measurements of Sea Surface Winds Using CYGNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Johnson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a space-borne GNSS-R (GNSS-Reflectometry) mission that launched December 15, 2016 for ocean surface wind speed measurements. CYGNSS includes 8 small satellites in the same LEO orbit, so that the mission provides wind speed products having unprecedented coverage both in time and space to study multi-temporal behaviors of oceanic winds. The nature of CYGNSS coverage results in some locations on Earth experiencing multiple wind speed measurements within a short period of time (a "clump" of observations in time resulting in a "rapid revisit" series of measurements). Such observations could seemingly provide indications of regions experiencing rapid changes in wind speeds, and therefore be of scientific utility. Temporally "clumped" properties of CYGNSS measurements are investigated using early CYGNSS L1/L2 measurements, and the results show that clump durations and spacing vary with latitude. For example, the duration of a clump can extend as long as a few hours at higher latitudes, with gaps between clumps ranging from 6 to as high as 12 hours depending on latitude. Examples are provided to indicate the potential of changes within a clump to produce a "rapid revisit" product for detecting convective activity. Also, we investigate detector design for identifying convective activities. Results from analyses using recent CYGNSS L2 winds will be provided in the presentation.

  14. Hyperion technology enables unified meteorological and radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigic, A.; Saponjic, D.; Arandjelovic, V.; Zunic, Z. . E-mail address of corresponding author: alex@vin.bg.ac.yu; Zigic, A.)

    2005-01-01

    The present state of meteorological and radiological measurement and monitoring are quite localized to smaller areas which implies the difficulties in knowing the measurement results in the wider region instantly. The need for establishing a distributed, flexible, modular and centralized measurement system for both meteorological and radiological parameters of environment is arising. The measurement and monitoring of radiological parameters of environment are not sufficient since there is a strong correlation between radiological and meteorological parameters which implies a unified distributed automatic monitoring system. The unified monitoring system makes it possible to transfer, process and store measured data in local and central databases. Central database gives a possibility of easy access to all measured data for authorized personnel and institutions. Stored measured data in central database gives a new opportunity to create a base for meteorological and radiological modelling and studies. (author)

  15. Contact angle measurements at the colemanite and realgar surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Sabiha; Savas, Mehmet

    2004-03-01

    Colemanite is one of the most important boron minerals and covers an important part of Turkey's boron mineral deposits. The friable nature of the colemanite tends to produce a large amount of fines. Flotation appears to be a promising technique to recover colemanite from such fines. During flotation process, selectivity problem arises between colemanite and associated gangue minerals such as realgar. There is a close relationship between floatability of minerals and contact angle. Therefore, surface hydrophobicity of colemanite and realgar minerals were investigated by receding contact angle measurements in the absence and presence of flotation reagents. The water contact angle values at the colemanite surface remained almost unchanged at 32-35° in the solutions of potassium amyl xanthate (KAX), potassium ethyl xanthate (KEX) and petroleum sulphanate (R825) while another petroleum sulphanate (R840), sodium oleate and tallow amine (Armac-T) affected hydrophobicity of colemanite, and the contact angle values increased up to 47°. The contact angle values of 62, 63, 45, 46, 39, and 43° at the realgar surface were obtained in the solutions of KAX, KEX, sodium oleate, R825, R840 and Armac-T, respectively.

  16. Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, K.; Tanabe, T.; Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles

  17. Preliminary GRS Measurement of Chlorine Distribution on Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Boynton, W. V.; Taylor, G. J.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K.

    2003-12-01

    Ongoing measurements with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard Mars Odyssey provide preliminary detection of chlorine at the surface of Mars. Summing all data since boom deployment and using a forward calculation model, we estimate values for chlorine concentration at 5° resolution. Rebinning this data and smoothing with a 15-degree-radius boxcar filter reveal regions of noticeable chlorine enrichment at scales larger than the original 5° resolution and allow for preliminary comparison with previous Mars datasets. Analyzing chlorine concentrations within 30 degrees of the equator, we find a negative correlation with thermal inertia (R2=0.55) and positive correlation with albedo (R2=0.52), indicating that chlorine is associated with fine, non-rock surface materials. Although possibly a smoothing artifact, the spatial correlation is more noticeable in the region covering Tharsis and Amazonis than around Arabia and Elysium. Additionally, a noticeable region of chlorine enrichment appears west of Tharsis Montes ( ˜0 to 20N, ˜110 to 150W) and chlorine concentration is estimated to vary in the equatorial region by over a factor of two. A simplified two-component model involving chlorine-poor rocks and a homogenous chlorine-rich fine material requires rock abundance to vary from zero to over 50%, a result inconsistent with previous measurements and models. In addition to variations in rock composition and distribution, substantial variations in chlorine content of various types of fine materials including dust, sand, and duricrust appear important in explaining this preliminary observation. Surprisingly, visual comparison of surface units mapped by Christensen and Moore (1992) does not show enrichment in chlorine associated with regions of indurated surfaces, where cementation has been proposed. Rather, Tharsis, a region of active deposition with proposed mantling of 0.1 to 2 meters of recent dust (Christensen 1986), shows the greatest chlorine signal. In light of

  18. Autonomous target recognition using remotely sensed surface vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, James; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.; Barr, Dallas N.

    1993-09-01

    The remotely measured surface vibration signatures of tactical military ground vehicles are investigated for use in target classification and identification friend or foe (IFF) systems. The use of remote surface vibration sensing by a laser radar reduces the effects of partial occlusion, concealment, and camouflage experienced by automatic target recognition systems using traditional imagery in a tactical battlefield environment. Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) efficiently represents the vibration signatures and nearest neighbor classifiers exploit the LPC feature set using a variety of distortion metrics. Nearest neighbor classifiers achieve an 88 percent classification rate in an eight class problem, representing a classification performance increase of thirty percent from previous efforts. A novel confidence figure of merit is implemented to attain a 100 percent classification rate with less than 60 percent rejection. The high classification rates are achieved on a target set which would pose significant problems to traditional image-based recognition systems. The targets are presented to the sensor in a variety of aspects and engine speeds at a range of 1 kilometer. The classification rates achieved demonstrate the benefits of using remote vibration measurement in a ground IFF system. The signature modeling and classification system can also be used to identify rotary and fixed-wing targets.

  19. Surface contact potential patches and Casimir force measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. J.; Sushkov, A. O.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Dalvit, D. A. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present calculations of contact potential surface patch effects that simplify previous treatments. It is shown that, because of the linearity of Laplace's equation, the presence of patch potentials does not affect an electrostatic calibration of a two-plate Casimir measurement apparatus. Using models that include long-range variations in the contact potential across the plate surfaces, a number of experimental observations can be reproduced and explained. For these models, numerical calculations show that if a voltage is applied between the plates which minimizes the force, a residual electrostatic force persists, and that the minimizing potential varies with distance. The residual force can be described by a fit to a simple two-parameter function involving the minimizing potential and its variation with distance. We show the origin of this residual force by use of a simple parallel capacitor model. Finally, the implications of a residual force that varies in a manner different from 1/d on the accuracy of previous Casimir measurements is discussed.

  20. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  1. Entrance surface dose measurements in mammography using thermoluminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.; Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E; Azorin, J.; Gonzalez, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Of the various techniques that can be used for personnel dosimetry, thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) has emerged as a superior technique due to its manifold advantages over other methods of dose estimation. Various phosphors have been therefore investigated regarding their suitability for dosimetry. In this paper, a dosimetry system based on thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) from zirconium oxide phosphors embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (ZrO 2 +PTFE) was developed for entrance surface doses (ES) measurements in mammography. Small ZrO 2 pellets of 5 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in thickness were used. The reproducibility of measurements and linearity of ZrO 2 were also studied. The results were compared with those obtained from LiF:Mg,Cu,P usually used for the determination of absorbed dose in mammography. Measurements both per unit air kerma and In vivo were performed using a mammography unit model DMR (General Electric). The results showed that ZrO 2 TLDs can be used for the same X-ray dosimetry applications as LiF:Mg,Cu,P, with each type having the disadvantage of a response dependent on energy, particularly at low energies. These results indicate a considerable potential for use in routine control and In vivo ES measurements in mammography. (Author)

  2. An Analysis of Fundamental Mode Surface Wave Amplitude Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardong, L.; Ferreira, A. M.; van Heijst, H. J.; Ritsema, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic tomography is a powerful tool to decipher the Earth's interior structure at various scales. Traveltimes of seismic waves are widely used to build velocity models, whereas amplitudes are still only seldomly accounted for. This mainly results from our limited ability to separate the various physical effects responsible for observed amplitude variations, such as focussing/defocussing, scattering and source effects. We present new measurements from 50 global earthquakes of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love wave amplitude anomalies measured in the period range 35-275 seconds using two different schemes: (i) a standard time-domain amplitude power ratio technique; and (ii) a mode-branch stripping scheme. For minor-arc data, we observe amplitude anomalies with respect to PREM in the range of 0-4, for which the two measurement techniques show a very good overall agreement. We present here a statistical analysis and comparison of these datasets, as well as comparisons with theoretical calculations for a variety of 3-D Earth models. We assess the geographical coherency of the measurements, and investigate the impact of source, path and receiver effects on surface wave amplitudes, as well as their variations with frequency in a wider range than previously studied.

  3. Characterization of gloss properties of differently treated polymer coating surfaces by surface clarity measurement methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Dieter P; Buder-Stroisznigg, Michael; Wallner, Gernot; Strauß, Bernhard; Jandel, Lothar; Lang, Reinhold W

    2012-07-10

    With one measurement configuration, existing gloss measurement methodologies are generally restricted to specific gloss levels. A newly developed image-analytical gloss parameter called "clarity" provides the possibility to describe the perceptual result of a broad range of different gloss levels with one setup. In order to analyze and finally monitor the perceived gloss of products, a fast and flexible method also for the automated inspection is highly demanded. The clarity parameter is very fast to calculate and therefore usable for fast in-line surface inspection. Coated metal specimens were deformed by varying degree and polished afterwards in order to study the clarity parameter regarding the quantification of varying surface gloss types and levels. In order to analyze the correlation with the human gloss perception a study was carried out in which experts were asked to assess gloss properties of a series of surface samples under standardized conditions. The study confirmed clarity to exhibit considerably better correlation to the human perception than alternative gloss parameters.

  4. Accurate fluid force measurement based on control surface integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David

    2018-01-01

    Nonintrusive 3D fluid force measurements are still challenging to conduct accurately for freely moving animals, vehicles, and deforming objects. Two techniques, 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a new technique, the aerodynamic force platform (AFP), address this. Both rely on the control volume integral for momentum; whereas PIV requires numerical integration of flow fields, the AFP performs the integration mechanically based on rigid walls that form the control surface. The accuracy of both PIV and AFP measurements based on the control surface integration is thought to hinge on determining the unsteady body force associated with the acceleration of the volume of displaced fluid. Here, I introduce a set of non-dimensional error ratios to show which fluid and body parameters make the error negligible. The unsteady body force is insignificant in all conditions where the average density of the body is much greater than the density of the fluid, e.g., in gas. Whenever a strongly deforming body experiences significant buoyancy and acceleration, the error is significant. Remarkably, this error can be entirely corrected for with an exact factor provided that the body has a sufficiently homogenous density or acceleration distribution, which is common in liquids. The correction factor for omitting the unsteady body force, {{{ {ρ f}} {1 - {ρ f} ( {{ρ b}+{ρ f}} )}.{( {{{{ρ }}b}+{ρ f}} )}}} , depends only on the fluid, {ρ f}, and body, {{ρ }}b, density. Whereas these straightforward solutions work even at the liquid-gas interface in a significant number of cases, they do not work for generalized bodies undergoing buoyancy in combination with appreciable body density inhomogeneity, volume change (PIV), or volume rate-of-change (PIV and AFP). In these less common cases, the 3D body shape needs to be measured and resolved in time and space to estimate the unsteady body force. The analysis shows that accounting for the unsteady body force is straightforward to non

  5. Measurement of pressure on a surface using bubble acoustic resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldham, Ben; Manasseh, Richard; Liffman, Kurt; Šutalo, Ilija D; Illesinghe, Suhith; Ooi, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The frequency response of gas bubbles as a function of liquid ambient pressure was measured and compared with theory. A bubble size with equivalent spherical radius of 2.29 mm was used over a frequency range of 1000–1500 Hz. The ultimate aim is to develop an acoustic sensor that can measure static pressure and is sensitive to variations as small as a few kPa. The classical bubble resonance frequency is known to vary with ambient pressure. Experiments were conducted with a driven bubble in a pressurizable tank with a signal processing system designed to extract the resonant peak. Since the background response of the containing tank is significant, particularly near tank-modal resonances, it must be carefully removed from the bubble response signal. A dual-hydrophone method was developed to allow rapid and reliable real-time measurements. The expected pressure dependence was found. In order to obtain a reasonable match with theory, the classical theory was modified by the introduction of a 'mirror bubble' to account for the influence of a nearby surface. (technical design note)

  6. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  7. The data collection component of the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Islam, M.M.

    1988-09-01

    An intensive program of meteorological monitoring is in place at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program involves the measurement, observation, and storage of various meteorological data; continuous monitoring of regional weather conditions by a staff of professional meteorologists; and around-the-clock forecasting of weather conditions for the Hanford Site. The objective of this report is to document the data collection component of the program. In this report, each meteorological monitoring site is discussed in detail. Each site's location and instrumentation are described and photographs are presented. The methods for processing and communicating data to the Hanford Meteorology Station are also discussed. Finally, the procedures followed to maintain and calibrate these instruments are presented. 2 refs., 83 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Measuring sea surface height with a GNSS-Wave Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Penna, Nigel T.; Foden, Peter R.; Martin, Ian; Cipollini, Paolo; Williams, Simon D.; Pugh, Jeff P.

    2017-04-01

    A GNSS-Wave Glider is a novel technique to measure sea surface height autonomously using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It consists of an unmanned surface vehicle manufactured by Liquid Robotics, a Wave Glider, and a geodetic-grade GNSS antenna-receiver system, with the antenna installed on a mast on the vehicle's deck. The Wave Glider uses the differential wave motion through the water column for propulsion, thus guaranteeing an, in principle, indefinite autonomy. Solar energy is collected to power all on-board instrumentation, including the GNSS system. The GNSS-Wave Glider was first tested in Loch Ness in 2013, demonstrating that the technology is capable of mapping geoid heights within the loch with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The trial in Loch Ness did not conclusively confirm the reliability of the technique because, during the tests, the state of the water surface was much more benign than would normally be expect in the open ocean. We now report on a first deployment of a GNSS-Wave Glider in the North Sea. The deployment took place in August 2016 and lasted thirteen days, during which the vehicle covered a distance of about 350 nautical miles in the north western North Sea off Great Britain. During the experiment, the GNSS-Wave Glider experienced sea states between 1 (0-0.1 m wave heights) and 5 (2.5-4 m wave heights). The GNSS-Wave Glider data, recorded at 5 Hz frequency, were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS-GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations. Filtered with a 900 s moving-average window, the PPP heights reveal geoid patterns in the survey area that are very similar to the EGM2008 geoid model, thus demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS-Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. The residual of subtracting the modelled or measured marine geoid from the PPP signal combines information

  9. Channel Storage change: a new remote sensed surface water measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, S. P.; Durand, M. T.; Yi, Y.; Guo, Q.; Shum, C. K.; Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present river channel storage change (CSC) measurements for 17 major world rivers from 2002-2016. We combined interpolated daily 1 km resolution Global River Radar Altimeter Time Series (GRRATS) river surface elevation data with static widths from the global river Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) dataset, to generate preliminary channel storage measurements. CSC is a previously unmeasured component of the terrestrial water balance It is a fundamental Earth science quantity with global bearing on floodplains, ecology, and geochemistry. CSC calculations require only remote sensed data, making them an ideal tool for studying remote regions where hydrological data is not easily accessible. CSC is uniquely suited to determine the role of hydrologic and hydraulic controls in basins with strong seasonal cycles (freeze-up and break-up). The cumulative CSC anomaly can impart spatial details that discharge measurements cannot. With this new measurement, we may be able to determine critical hydrological and hydraulic controls on rapidly changing systems like Arctic rivers. Results for Mississippi River indicate that peak CSC anomaly was the highest in 2011 (12.6 km3) and minimum CSC anomaly was in 2012 (-12.2 km3). Peak CSC has most frequently occurs in May (5 years), but has come as late in the year as July, and as early as January. Results for the Yukon River indicate that peak CSC anomaly was the highest in 2013 (13.9 km3) and minimum CSC anomaly was in 2010 (-14.2 km3). Peak CSC has most frequently come in early to mid-June (4-18), but has occurred in May (19-31) four years in the study period (three of the last 6 years) and once on April 30th.

  10. Surface force measurements and simulations of mussel-derived peptide adhesives on wet organic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary A; Rapp, Michael V; Wei, Wei; Mullen, Ryan Gotchy; Wu, Chun; Zerze, Gül H; Mittal, Jeetain; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2016-04-19

    Translating sticky biological molecules-such as mussel foot proteins (MFPs)-into synthetic, cost-effective underwater adhesives with adjustable nano- and macroscale characteristics requires an intimate understanding of the glue's molecular interactions. To help facilitate the next generation of aqueous adhesives, we performed a combination of surface forces apparatus (SFA) measurements and replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations on a synthetic, easy to prepare, Dopa-containing peptide (MFP-3s peptide), which adheres to organic surfaces just as effectively as its wild-type protein analog. Experiments and simulations both show significant differences in peptide adsorption on CH3-terminated (hydrophobic) and OH-terminated (hydrophilic) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), where adsorption is strongest on hydrophobic SAMs because of orientationally specific interactions with Dopa. Additional umbrella-sampling simulations yield free-energy profiles that quantitatively agree with SFA measurements and are used to extract the adhesive properties of individual amino acids within the context of MFP-3s peptide adhesion, revealing a delicate balance between van der Waals, hydrophobic, and electrostatic forces.

  11. Surface characterization of hemodialysis membranes based on streaming potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C; Jacobasch, H J; Reichelt, G

    1995-01-01

    Hemodialysis membranes made from cellulose (CUPROPHAN, HEMOPHAN) and sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) were characterized using the streaming potential technique to determine the zeta potential at their interfaces against well-defined aqueous solutions of varied pH and potassium chloride concentrations. Streaming potential measurements enable distinction between different membrane materials. In addition to parameters of the electrochemical double layer at membrane interfaces, thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption of different solved species were evaluated. For that aim a description of double layer formation as suggested by Börner and Jacobasch (in: Electrokinetic Phenomena, p. 231. Institut für Technologie der Polymere, Dresden (1989)) was applied which is based on the generally accepted model of the electrochemical double layer according to Stern (Z. Elektrochemie 30, 508 (1924)) and Grahame (Chem. Rev. 41, 441 (1947)). The membranes investigated show different surface acidic/basic and polar/nonpolar behavior. Furthermore, alterations of membrane interfaces through adsorption processes of components of biologically relevant solutions were shown to be detectable by streaming potential measurements.

  12. A Method for Dimensional and Surface Optical Measurements Uncertainty Assessment on Micro Structured Surfaces Manufactured by Jet-ECM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    Surface texture and step height measurements of electrochemically machined cavities have been compared among optical and tactile instruments. A procedure is introduced for correcting possible divergences among the instruments and, ultimately, for evaluating the measurement uncertainty according t...

  13. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    , UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test this assumption and to test the limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has built a lighter-than-air kite with a long tether, Bergen University flies a derivative......This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good...... movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tenthousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12MW class, with tip heights of over 200m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics, and most...

  14. Leidenfrost drops cooling surfaces: theory and interferometric measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Van Limbeek, Michiel A. J.; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexey; Sun, Chao; Colinet, Pierre; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    When a liquid drop is placed on a highly superheated surface, it can be levitated by its own vapour. This remarkable phenomenon is referred to as the Leidenfrost effect. The thermally insulating vapour film results in a severe reduction of the heat transfer rate compared to experiments at lower surface temperatures, where the drop is in direct contact with the solid surface. A commonly made assumption is that this solid surface is isothermal, which is at least questionable for materials of lo...

  15. Mathematical problems in meteorological modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Csomós, Petra; Faragó, István; Horányi, András; Szépszó, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with mathematical problems arising in the context of meteorological modelling. It gathers and presents some of the most interesting and important issues from the interaction of mathematics and meteorology. It is unique in that it features contributions on topics like data assimilation, ensemble prediction, numerical methods, and transport modelling, from both mathematical and meteorological perspectives. The derivation and solution of all kinds of numerical prediction models require the application of results from various mathematical fields. The present volume is divided into three parts, moving from mathematical and numerical problems through air quality modelling, to advanced applications in data assimilation and probabilistic forecasting. The book arose from the workshop “Mathematical Problems in Meteorological Modelling” held in Budapest in May 2014 and organized by the ECMI Special Interest Group on Numerical Weather Prediction. Its main objective is to highlight the beauty of the de...

  16. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  17. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure PCB-emission rates from indoor surfaces on-site in contaminated buildings using a newly developed portable emission test cell. Emission rates were measured from six different surfaces; three untreated surfaces and three remediated surfaces in a contaminated...

  18. Entrance surface dose measurements in pediatric radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, L.A.; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of pediatric radiological examinations was carried out in a reference pediatric hospital of the city of Sao Paulo, in order to investigate the doses to children undergoing conventional X-ray examinations. The results showed that the majority of pediatric patients are below 4 years, and that about 80% of the examinations correspond to chest projections. Doses to typical radiological examinations were measured in vivo with thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF: Mg, Ti and LiF: Mg, Cu, P) attached to the skin of the children to determine entrance surface dose (ESD). Also homogeneous phantoms were used to obtain ESD to younger children, because the technique uses a so small kVp that the dosimeters would produce an artifact image in the patient radiograph. Four kinds of pediatric examinations were investigated: three conventional examinations (chest, skull and abdomen) and a fluoroscopic procedure (barium swallow). Relevant information about kVp and mAs values used in the examinations was collected, and we discuss how these parameters can affect the ESD. The ESD values measured in this work are compared to reference levels published by the European Commission for pediatric patients. The results obtained (third-quartile of the ESD distribution) for chest AP examinations in three age groups were: 0.056 mGy (2-4 years old); 0.068 mGy (5-9 years old); 0.069 mGy (10-15 years old). All of them are below the European reference level (0.100 mGy). ESD values measured to the older age group in skull and abdomen AP radiographs (mean values 3.44 and 1.20 mGy, respectively) are above the European reference levels (1.5 mGy to skull and 1.0 mGy to abdomen). ESD values measured in the barium swallow examination reached 10 mGy in skin regions corresponding to thyroid and esophagus. It was noticed during this survey that some technicians use, improperly, X-ray fluoroscopy in conventional examinations to help them in positioning the patient. The results presented here are a

  19. FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface a level of pollution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangong

    2010-01-01

    On the pipe surface contamination were detected α level of pollution is a frequently encountered dose-detection work. Because the pipeline surface arc, while the measuring probe for the plane, which for accurate measurement difficult. In this paper, on the FJ-2207-type pipe surface contamination measuring instrument measuring pollution levels in the α method was studied. Introduced the FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface α pollution levels. Studied this measuring instrument on the same sources of surface, plane α level of radioactivity measured differences in the results obtained control of the apparatus when the direct measurement of the surface correction factor, and gives 32-216 specifications commonly used pipe direct measurement of the amendment factor. Convenient method, test results are reliable for the accurate measurement of pipe pollution levels in the surface of α as a reference and learning. (authors)

  20. Effects of drop size and measuring condition on static contact angle measurement on a superhydrophobic surface with goniometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kwangseok; Kim, Minyoung; Kim, Do Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Keun

    2015-01-01

    It is not a simple task to measure a contact angle of a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface with sessile drop method, because a roll-off angle is very low. Usually contact angle of a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface is measured by fixing a drop with intentional defects on the surface or a needle. We examined the effects of drop size and measuring condition such as the use of a needle or defects on the static contact angle measurement on superhydrophobic surface. Results showed that the contact angles on a superhydrophobic surface remain almost constant within intrinsic measurement errors unless there is a wetting transition during the measurement. We expect that this study will provide a deeper understanding on the nature of the contact angle and convenient measurement of the contact angle on the superhydrophobic surface.

  1. Seafloor geodesy: Measuring surface deformation and strain-build up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Seafloor deformation is intrinsically related to tectonic processes, which potentially may evolve into geohazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. The nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy provides a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The measurements extract information on stress and elastic strain stored in the oceanic crust. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be obtained by acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) array uses acoustic telemetry for relative positioning at mm-scale resolution. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years. The seafloor acoustic transponders are mounted on 4 m high tripod steel frames to ensure clear line-of-sight between the stations. The transponders also include high-precision pressure sensors to monitor vertical movements and dual-axis inclinometers in order to measure their level as well as any tilt of the seafloor. Sound velocity sensor measurements are used to correct for water sound speed variations. A further component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is able to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. The GeoSEA array is capable of both continuously monitoring horizontal and vertical ground displacement rates along submarine fault zones and characterizing their behavior (locked or aseismically creeping). Seafloor transponders are currently installed along the Siliviri segment of the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul for measurements of strain build-up along the fault. The first 18 month of baseline ranging were analyzed by a joint-least square inversion

  2. Surface temperature measurements on superconducting cavities in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, T.; Junquera, T.; Caruette, A.

    1991-01-01

    Two thermometry systems have been developed: a scanning thermometer system routinely used for the 1.5 GHz monocell cavity studies and a fixed thermometer array used to investigate spatial surface resistance distribution on various SC removable endplates of a cylindrical TE011mode cavity. Thermometers used in these systems are thermally insulated from the surrounding HeII bath by an epoxy housing ('epoxy'thermometers). Accurate calibration of the fixed thermometers was conducted by using different test cells and the experimental results were compared to model calculations performed with a finite element computational code. Measured thermometer efficiency and linearity are in good agreement with numerical results. Some typical temperature maps of different Nb samples obtained with the TE011 array (40 epoxy thermometers) are discussed. On the basis of numerical modelling results, a new type of thermometer with an improved efficiency has been designed. The thermal insulation against Helium II has been drastically improved by placing the sensitive part of the thermometer in a small vacuum jacket ('vacuum' thermometers). Two main goals have been reached with the first prototypes: improved efficiency by a factor of 2.5 - 3, and a bath temperature dependence of the thermal response in good agreement with the expected Kapitza conductance behaviour. Fitting experimental results with numerical modelling data, allow us to estimate the Kapitza conductance. The obtained values are in good agreement with the previous results reported by several authors using a different measurement method. The 'vacuum' thermometers are currently used on the TE011 mode cavity with Nb and NbTiN plates and the first results are presented

  3. Surface Flux Measurements at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, T.; Lee, B.; Lee, H.; Shim, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is important in terms of global warming research due to pronounced increase of air temperature over the last century. The first eddy covariance system was established and turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor, CO2 and momentum have been measured at King Sejong Station (62 \\deg 13øØS, 58 \\deg 47øØW) located in the northern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula since December in 2002. Our objectives are to better understand the interactions between the Antarctic land surface and the atmosphere and to test the feasibility of the long-term operation of eddy covariance system under extreme weather conditions. Various lichens cover the study area and the dominant species is Usnea fasciata-Himantormia. Based on the analyses on turbulent statistics such as integral turbulence characteristics of vertical velocity (w) and heat (T), stationarity test and investigation of correlation coefficient, they follow the Monin-Obukhov similarity and eddy covariance flux data were reliable. About 50 % of total retrieved sensible heat flux data could be used for further analysis. We will report on seasonal variations of energy and mass fluxes and environmental variables. In addition, factors controlling these fluxes will be presented. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by ¡rEnvironmental Monitoring on Human Impacts at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica¡_ (Project PP04102 of Korea Polar Research Institute) and ¡rEco-technopia 21 project¡_ (Ministry of Environment of Korea).

  4. UAV BASED BRDF-MEASUREMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL SURFACES WITH PFIFFIKUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Grenzdörffer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BRDF is a common problem in remote sensing and also in oblique photogrammetry. Common approaches of BRDF-measurement with a field goniometer are costly and rather cumbersome. UAVs may offer an interesting alternative by using a special flight pattern of oblique and converging images. The main part of this paper is the description of a photogrammetric workflow in order to determine the anisotropic reflection properties of a given surface. Due to the relatively low flying heights standard procedures from close range photogrammetry were adopted for outdoor usage. The photogrammetric processing delivered automatic and highly accurate orientation information with the aid of coded targets. The interior orientation of the consumer grade camera is more or less stable. The radiometrically corrected oblique images are converted into ortho photos. The azimuth and elevation angle of every point may then be computed. The calculated anisotropy of a winter wheat plot is shown. A system four diagonally-looking cameras (Four Vision and an additional nadir looking camera is under development. The multi camera system especially designed for a Micro- UAV with a payload of min 1 kg. The system is composed of five industrial digital frame cameras (1.3 Mpix CCD-chips, 15 fp/s with fixed lenses. Also special problems with the construction of a light weight housing of the multi camera solution are covered in the paper.

  5. Oceanographic temperature, salinity, oxygen and meteorology measurements collected using CTD from multiple ships in the Sea of Azov from 1999 to 2006 (NODC Accession 0037021)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in dataset CTD taken from the ZODIAK (Motor boat), GROZA (Motor felucca) and other platforms in the Black Sea from...

  6. Operative meteorological data base in Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Hallberg, B.; Nordlinder, S.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes how data collected during a field measurement campaign were analysed and compiled to create a data base for operative use. The data base gives information about the wind and the atmospheric stability at five locations around the Forsmark nuclear power plant. In the measurement campaign, sodar systems and a 100 m high tower at Forsmark were used. Temperature, wind speed and wind direction were measured by sensors on the tower, while wind speed and direction, and the standard deviation of the vertical wind, were monitored by the sodar systems. This gave meteorological data from several heights. At Forsmark, the temperature difference and the wind speed from the tower were used to determine the atmospheric stability. At the sodar locations, the stability was deduced by employing a scheme which considered the season, the time of day, the wind direction and the wind speed. To create the operative data base, the wind speeds and wind directions, respectively, from two locations at the time were correlated. A code for graphical and numerical presentation of the data from the data base was developed. A special system of warnings was included, featuring notification about phenomena such as sea breeze, warnings about large variation in the wind conditions within the area, and warnings for situations in which the meteorological conditions make the results from the atmospheric dispersion calculations uncertain. This feature was implemented to alert the user to the fact that ordinary dispersion and dose calculations, using meteorological data from a single point, might give erroneous results. The operative data base and the presentation code were integrated with the dispersion and dose calculation code AIRPAC/EMMA, which is to be used in case of increased releases from nuclear power plants. The possibility to use the data from the operative data base in the dispersion calculations was investigated. It was found that a modification of AIRPAC/EMMA, in such a

  7. On the measurement of the surface energy budget over a land ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The measurement of surface energy balance over a land surface in an open area in Bangalore is reported. Measurements of all variables needed to calculate the surface energy balance on time scales longer than a week are made. Components of radiative fluxes are measured while sensible and latent heat fluxes are ...

  8. The short half-life descendents from radon measured in Sao Jose dos Campos and Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil, and its correlation with meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Marinho, E.V. de.

    1985-09-01

    The correlations between the activity of the short half-life radon decay products in the low atmosphere and the meterological parameters, measuring the atmospheric polonium 214 are studied. The aerosols were collected on membrane filters and analysed by alpha spectrometry. Measurements have been made in Sao Jose dos Campos and Cachoeira Paulista, in Brazil. At S. Jose dos Campos the influence of the pluviometry on the concentration of atmospheric Po 214 has been analysed, showing that high activity correspond to low pluviometry and inversely, low activities correspond to high pluviometry. At Cachoeira Paulista, the variation in the atmospheric Po 214 activity in corresation with the air stability, measured, showing the accumulation of radioactive aerosols during the greater stability in the the lower atmospheric layers, was studied. (author) [pt

  9. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Han; Lee, Yung Bok; Han, Moon Heui; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang Won Tae

    1995-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, at 67 m, 27 m, and 10 m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, N and NW in autumn and winter season. The calm distributed 13.6% at 67 m, 24.5% at 27 m, 40.8% at 10 m height. 4 figs, 9 tabs, 6 refs. (Author)

  10. Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological parameters in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another.

  11. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Seo, Kyung Seok; Hwang, Wan Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, NNW in winter season. The calm distributed 28.6% at 67m, 20.5% at 27m, 39.2% at 10m height. 9 tabs., 4 figs., 6 refs. (Author).

  12. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Han; Lee, Yung Bok; Han, Moon Heui; Suh, Kyung Suk; Tae, Hwang Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, at 67 m, 27 m, and 10 m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, N and NW in autumn and winter season. The calm distributed 13.6% at 67 m, 24.5% at 27 m, 40.8% at 10 m height. 4 figs, 9 tabs, 6 refs. (Author).

  13. MEASURING PROTOPLANETARY DISK GAS SURFACE DENSITY PROFILES WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; McPartland, Conor, E-mail: jpw@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams and Best to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity {sup 13}CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, M {sub gas} = 0.048 M {sub ⊙}, and accretion disk characteristic size R {sub c} = 213 au and gradient γ = 0.39. The same parameters match the C{sup 18}O 2–1 image and indicate an abundance ratio [{sup 12}CO]/[C{sup 18}O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large {sup 13}CO 2–1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3–10 M {sub Jup} at 150 pc, ALMA observations with a resolution of 0.″2–0.″3 and integration times of ∼20 minutes allow reliable estimates of R {sub c} to within about 10 au and γ to within about 0.2. Economic gas imaging surveys are therefore feasible and offer the opportunity to open up a new dimension for studying disk structure and its evolution toward planet formation.

  14. Meteorology/Oceanography Help - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › Help › Meteorology/Oceanography Help USNO Logo USNO Info Meteorology/Oceanography Help Send an e-mail regarding meteorology or oceanography products. Privacy Advisory Your E-Mail

  15. Meteorological safeguarding of nuclear power plant operation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, J.; Skulec, S.

    1976-01-01

    A meteorological tower 200 m high has to be built for meteorological control of the operation of the A-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. This meteorological station will measure the physical properties of the lower layers of the atmosphere, carry out experimental verifications of the models of air pollution, investigate the effects of waste heat and waste water from the nuclear power plant on the microclimate, provide the theoretical processing of measured data with the aim of selecting the most favourable model for conditions prevailing in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, perform basic research of the physical properties of the ground and boundary layers of the atmosphere and the coordination of state-wide plans in the field of securing the operation of nuclear power plants with regard to meteorology. (Z.M.)

  16. Eddy covariance measurement of the spatial heterogeneity of surface energy exchanges over Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, M.; McGowan, H. A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Coral reefs cover 2.8 to 6.0 x 105 km2 of the Earth's surface and are warm, shallow regions that are believed to contribute enhanced sensible and latent heat to the atmosphere, relative to the surrounding ocean. To predict the impact of climate variability on coral reefs and their weather and climate including cloud, winds, rainfall patterns and cyclone genesis, accurate parameterisation of air-sea energy exchanges over coral reefs is essential. This is also important for the parameterisation and validation of regional to global scale forecast models to improve prediction of tropical and sub-tropical marine and coastal weather. Eddy covariance measurements of air-sea fluxes over coral reefs are rare due to the complexities of installing instrumentation over shallow, tidal water. Consequently, measurements of radiation and turbulent flux data for coral reefs have been captured remotely (satellite data) or via single measurement sites downwind of coral reefs (e.g. terrestrial or shipboard instrumentation). The resolution of such measurements and those that have been made at single locations on reefs may not capture the spatial heterogeneity of surface-atmosphere energy exchanges due to the different geomorphic and biological zones on coral reefs. Accordingly, the heterogeneity of coral reefs with regard to substrate, benthic communities and hydrodynamic processes are not considered in the characterization of the surface radiation energy flux transfers across the water-atmosphere interface. In this paper we present a unique dataset of concurrent in situ eddy covariance measurements made on instrumented pontoons of the surface energy balance over different geomorphic zones of a coral reef (shallow reef flat, shallow and deep lagoons). Significant differences in radiation transfers and air-sea turbulent flux exchanges over the reef were highlighted, with higher Bowen ratios over the shallow reef flat. Increasing wind speed was shown to increase flux divergence between

  17. Autonomous Operation of Mars Meteorological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Vázquez, L.; Linkin, V.; Alexashkin, S.

    2012-09-01

    In the next years a series of small landing vehicles concentrating on Martian meteorology should be deployed to the surface of Mars. As commanding from Earth will not be possible most of the time, the station software has to be capable of adapting to any foreseeable conditions and optimize the science return as much as feasible. In this paper we outline the constraints and strategies implemented into the control system of the MetNet Landers. For details to the mission and its instruments see the mission home page [1].

  18. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  19. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    KAUST Repository

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennedy, Hilary A.; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M.; Githaiga, Michael N.; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-01-01

    in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya

  20. Measuring the surface inhomogeneity of metals on accreting white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M H; Hippel, T von; Thompson, S E

    2009-01-01

    Due to the short settling times of metals in DA white dwarf atmospheres, any white dwarfs with photospheric metals must be actively accreting. It is therefore natural to expect that the metals may not be deposited uniformly on the surface of the star. We present calculations showing how the temperature variations associated with white dwarf pulsations lead to an observable diagnostic of the surface metal distribution, and we show what constraints current data sets are able to provide.