WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface memory markers

  1. Frameworking memory and serotonergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2017-07-26

    The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory. Bidirectional influence occurs between 5-HT markers and memory/amnesia. A growing number of researchers report that memory, amnesia, or forgetting modifies neural markers. Diverse approaches support the translatability of using neural markers and cerebral functions/dysfunctions, including memory formation and amnesia. At least, 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors and SERT seem to be useful neural markers and therapeutic targets. Hence, several mechanisms cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity or memory, including changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters.

  2. CD4(+) memory T cells with high CD26 surface expression are enriched for Th1 markers and correlate with clinical severity of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M; Sorensen, P S; Sellebjerg, F

    2006-01-01

    ) memory T lymphocytes contained the high levels of markers of Th1, activation, and effector functions and cell counts of this subset correlated with MS disease severity. This subset had lower expression of PD-1, CCR4, and L-selectin in MS than in controls. These changes were only partially normalised...

  3. Surface shape memory in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Many crosslinked polymers exhibit a shape memory effect wherein a permanent shape can be prescribed during crosslinking and arbitrary temporary shapes may be set through network chain immobilization. Researchers have extensively investigated such shape memory polymers in bulk form (bars, films, foams), revealing a multitude of approaches. Applications abound for such materials and a significant fraction of the studies in this area concern application-specific characterization. Recently, we have turned our attention to surface shape memory in polymers as a means to miniaturization of the effect, largely motivated to study the interaction of biological cells with shape memory polymers. In this presentation, attention will be given to several approaches we have taken to prepare and study surface shape memory phenomenon. First, a reversible embossing study involving a glassy, crosslinked shape memory material will be presented. Here, the permanent shape was flat while the temporary state consisted of embossed parallel groves. Further the fixing mechanism was vitrification, with Tg adjusted to accommodate experiments with cells. We observed that the orientation and spreading of adherent cells could be triggered to change by the topographical switch from grooved to flat. Second, a functionally graded shape memory polymer will be presented, the grading being a variation in glass transition temperature in one direction along the length of films. Characterization of the shape fixing and recovery of such films utilized an indentation technique that, along with polarizing microscopy, allowed visualization of stress distribution in proximity to the indentations. Finally, very recent research concerning shape memory induced wrinkle formation on polymer surfaces will be presented. A transformation from smooth to wrinkled surfaces at physiological temperatures has been observed to have a dramatic effect on the behavior of adherent cells. A look to the future in research and

  4. Surface markers. [Quarterly report, January 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This research examined information on natural phenomena and human activities to ultimately recommend specific sites for surface markers to warn future generations of the potential hazards of disposed waste. Literature pertaining to previous marker designs was reviewed and summarized. This literature primarily addressed the recommendations of a consultant team for developing a marker system to warn future generations about radioactive waste (WIPP, New Mexico). Literature on archeological markers (e.g., Nazca lines in Peru, pyramids) and their durability was also covered. Application to Yucca Mountain is discussed; sites for possible placement of surface markers are considered.

  5. Memory provisions for the Manche Surface Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Jean-Noel; Espiet-Subert, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The French La Manche repository site received its last radioactive waste package in 1994. In 2003, the official surveillance phase of the closed repository started under the supervision of Andra (the national industrial operator), the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) and society (e.g. the local municipalities). Florence Espiet explained that information on the existence of the repository, its content, how it was operated and how it works needs to be preserved. It also is planned to review the information periodically for a minimum of 300 years. She described the creation of two documents on memory (a detailed and a summary one), both on permanent paper, and the preservation of the land registration. The latter constitutes 'passive' provisions for preserving memory. In addition, a number of 'active' provisions are and will be put in place: guided visits, exhibitions, partnerships with organisations dealing with memory preservation, and the creation of a think tank. The latter consists of local citizens and politicians, retired employees from Andra and artists that meet several times a year and reflect on memory preservation from the perspective of, for instance, local history, education, arts and rituals. Finally, two types of markers will be used to preserve the repository's memory: i) three herbaria cataloguing the plants growing on the site of the repository, including a very short description of the repository, will be stored at different sites in France; ii) a stele indicating the main characteristics of the repository, potentially linked to an art work, will be erected at the repository

  6. Surface-Controlled Metal Oxide Resistive Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr-Jian

    2015-10-28

    To explore the surface effect on resistive random-access memory (ReRAM), the impact of surface roughness on the characteristics of ZnO ReRAM were studied. The thickness-independent resistance and the higher switching probability of ZnO ReRAM with rough surfaces indicate the importance of surface oxygen chemisorption on the switching process. Furthermore, the improvements in switching probability, switching voltage and resistance distribution observed for ReRAM with rough surfaces can be attributed to the stable oxygen adatoms under various ambience conditions. The findings validate the surface-controlled stability and uniformity of ReRAM and can serve as the guideline for developing practical device applications.

  7. Memory Correlates of Alzheimer's Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijs, Babette L R; Ramakers, Inez H G B; Köhler, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    -type dementia, and non-AD dementia from the European EDAR study. Assessment included CSF Aβ42 and t-tau analyses with INNO-BIA AlzBio3 Luminex assay, the CERAD wordlist learning and delayed recall, animal fluency test, and the CANTAB Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Spatial Working Memory tasks. Follow...... on the wordlist learning, whereas increased CSF t-tau were associated with decline in scores on the wordlist learning, wordlist delayed recall, and animal fluency. Associations were independent of baseline diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Tests assessing episodic verbal and visuospatial memory are most useful for detection......BACKGROUND: Performance on episodic, semantic, and working memory tests is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type dementia, but it is unclear which type of memory test is most strongly associated with early AD biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and most useful for monitoring disease...

  8. WORKING MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AS AN ENDOPHENOTYPIC MARKER OF A SCHIZOPHRENIA DIATHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohee; Gooding, Diane C

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the viability of working memory impairment as an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis. It begins with an introduction of the construct of working memory. It follows with a review of the operational criteria for defining an endophenotype. Research findings regarding the working memory performance of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum patients, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, are reviewed in terms of the criteria for being considered an endophenotypic marker. Special attention is paid to specific components of the working memory deficit (namely, encoding, maintenance, and manipulation), in terms of which aspects are likely to be the best candidates for endophenotypes. We consider the extant literature regarding working memory performance in bipolar disorder and major depression in order to address the issue of relative specificity to schizophrenia. Despite some unresolved issues, it appears that working memory impairment is a very promising candidate for an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis but not for mood disorders. Throughout this chapter, we identify future directions for research in this exciting and dynamic area of research and evaluate the contribution of working memory research to our understanding of schizophrenia.

  9. Working memory impairment as an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohee Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the viability of working memory impairment as an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis. It begins with an introduction of the construct of working memory. It follows with a consideration of the operational criteria for defining an endophenotype. Research findings regarding the working memory performance of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum patients, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, are reviewed in terms of the criteria for being considered an endophenotypic marker. Special attention is paid to specific components of the working memory deficit (namely, encoding, maintenance, and manipulation, in terms of which aspects are likely to be the best candidates for endophenotypes. We examine the extant literature regarding working memory performance in bipolar disorder and major depression in order to address the issue of relative specificity to schizophrenia. Despite some unresolved issues, it appears that working memory impairment is a very promising candidate for an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis but not for mood disorders. Throughout this review, we identify future directions for research in this exciting and dynamic area of research and evaluate the contribution of working memory research to our understanding of schizophrenia.

  10. Cartography of memory in Chris Marker and W.G. Sebald: Notes about History, memory and maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Brito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to approach the artists Chris Marker and W.G. Sebald, trying to determine and develop pervasive questions in their works: the construction of a historiographic discourse, the ambiguities of memory, the erratic movement of their characters and essayistic thinking. We have tried to draft some starting points to make possible the writing of a memory as a cartography, created through walking on the world and also through the collection of images and of stories that tell about lives that went astray in the mis-paths of History.

  11. Markers of preparatory attention predict visual short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexandra M; Nobre, Anna C; Stokes, Mark G

    2011-05-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is limited in capacity. Therefore, it is important to encode only visual information that is most likely to be relevant to behaviour. Here we asked which aspects of selective biasing of VSTM encoding predict subsequent memory-based performance. We measured EEG during a selective VSTM encoding task, in which we varied parametrically the memory load and the precision of recall required to compare a remembered item to a subsequent probe item. On half the trials, a spatial cue indicated that participants only needed to encode items from one hemifield. We observed a typical sequence of markers of anticipatory spatial attention: early attention directing negativity (EDAN), anterior attention directing negativity (ADAN), late directing attention positivity (LDAP); as well as of VSTM maintenance: contralateral delay activity (CDA). We found that individual differences in preparatory brain activity (EDAN/ADAN) predicted cue-related changes in recall accuracy, indexed by memory-probe discrimination sensitivity (d'). Importantly, our parametric manipulation of memory-probe similarity also allowed us to model the behavioural data for each participant, providing estimates for the quality of the memory representation and the probability that an item could be retrieved. We found that selective encoding primarily increased the probability of accurate memory recall; that ERP markers of preparatory attention predicted the cue-related changes in recall probability. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Ultraviolet light depletes surface markers of Langerhans cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberer, W.; Schuler, G.; Stingl, G.; Hoenigsmann, H.; Wolff, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report defines the influence of ultraviolet light (UV) on Langerhans cells (LC). Human volunteers and hairless mice (Swiss ha/ha) were exposed to various single and/or cumulative doses of either UV-A, UV-B, or UV-A plus small amounts of UV-B (UV-A (+B)). 24 hr after the last irradiation, morphology of the entire epidermis was evaluated by both light and electron microscopy while LC, in addition, were tested for expression of specific histochemical (ATPase) and functional immunological markers (Ia antigens). In both men and mice, cumulative doses of either 80-120 J/cm2 UV-A (+B) or 1-2 X 100 J/cm2 UV-A resulted in a dramatic reduction of cells exhibiting ATPase and Ia-reactivity. In the UV-B spectrum, single doses of 60-80 mJ/cm2 produced a virtually complete elimination of LC membrane markers. By contrast, pemphigus antigens of keratinocytes were unaffected by these energy doses. Electron microscopy revealed cellular damage of some LC after UV-doses which produce a virtually complete abolition of LC membrane markers. At certain dose ranges (15-30 mJ/cm2 UV-B and 1 x 40 to 2 x 100 J/cm2 UV-A) LC were the only epidermal cells to display morphological damage at the ultrastructural level whereas higher doses affected all epidermal cells. The finding that LC surface markers and to a lesser extent the cells themselves are particularly susceptible to UV irradiation has important implications in view of previous findings that LC are potent stimulators of antigen-specific and allogeneic T cell activation. UV-induced alteration of LC plasma membrane integrity may represent a tool to manipulate adverse immune reactions involving the epidermis

  13. Role of cholinergic markers on memory function of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraju, Sangu; Maiti, Panchanan; Pati, Soumya; Solanki, Preeti; Sharma, Alpesh Kumar; Singh, Shashi Bala; Prasad, Dipti; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2011-12-15

    Hypobaric hypoxia is encountered at high altitude. It has a deleterious effect on cognitive functions. An important cause of memory impairment at high altitude is the impairment of neurotransmission. The present study investigates the role of cholinergic markers in hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment. Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia at 6,100 m for 7 days in a simulated-decompression chamber. Memory performance was assessed using the Morris water maze task. Cholinergic markers such as acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor were also evaluated along with neuronal morphology and DNA fragmentation. We found impairment in memory function along with a decrease in acetylcholine levels, increase in acetylcholinesterase activity, down regulation of choline acetyltransferase, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. We also found that cellular damage is associated with a significant increase in DNA fragmentation. However, administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as physostigmine and galantamine, resulted in amelioration of the hypobaric hypoxia induced deleterious effects. It improved acetylcholine level, decreased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased the synthesis of acetylcholine by increasing choline acetyltransferase activity. Also, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors improved neuronal morphology, perhaps by increasing the expression of α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and by reducing the acetylcholinesterase level in the cortex and the hippocampus. Therefore, our results suggest cholinergic dysfunction is one of the mechanisms involved in hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment and that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were able to restore cholinergic function and thus improve memory function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. HLA-F is a surface marker on activated lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ni; Ishitani, Akiko; Geraghty, Daniel E

    2010-08-01

    Of the three nonclassical class I antigens expressed in humans, HLA-F has been least characterized with regard to expression or function. In this study, we examined HLA-F expression focusing on lymphoid cells, where our previous work with homologous cell lines had demonstrated surface HLA-F expression. HLA-F protein expression was observed by Western blot analysis in all resting lymphocytes, including B cells, T cells, NK cells, and monocytes, all of which lacked surface expression in the resting state. Upon activation, using a variety of methods to activate different lymphocyte subpopulations, all cell types that expressed HLA-F intracellularly showed an induction of surface HLA-F protein. An examination of peripheral blood from individuals genetically deficient for TAP and tapasin expression demonstrated the same activation expression profiles for HLA-F,but with altered kinetics post-activation. Further analysis of CD41+CD25+1 Treg showed that HLA-F was not upregulated on the major fraction of these cells when they were activated,whereas CD41+CD25- T cells showed strong expression of surface HLA-F when activated under identical conditions. These findings are discussed with regard to possible functions for HLA-F and its potential clinical use as a marker of an activated immune response.

  15. Assessment of Behavioural Markers of Autonoetic Consciousness during Episodic Autobiographical Memory Retrieval: A Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing theoretical debate regarding episodic memory and how it can be accurately measured, in particular if the focus should be content-based recall of episodic details or something more experiential involving the subjective capacity to mentally travel back in time and “re-live” aspects of the original event. The autonoetic subscale of the Episodic Autobiographical Memory Interview (EAMI is presented here as a new test instrument that attempts to redress theoretical and methodological shortcomings in autobiographical memory assessment. The EAMI merges a phenomenological detail-based approach with an assessment of autonoetic consciousness, departing considerably from traditional Remember/Know paradigms used within this field. We present findings from an initial pilot study investigating the potential markers of autonoetic consciousness that may accompany episodic retrieval. Key behavioural indices of autonoetic consciousness, notably those of viewer perspective, visual imagery, and emotional re-experiencing, emerged as being inextricably bound with the level of phenomenological detail recalled and the overall re-living judgment. The autonoetic subscale of the EAMI permits conceptually refined assessment of episodic personal memories and the accompanying subjective experience of mental re-living, characteristic of episodic memory.

  16. Cell surface differences of Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis exposed with surface markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robles, Arturo; Castañón, Guadalupe; Cristóbal-Ramos, Ana Ruth; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica Ivonne; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2007-12-01

    Differences in the distribution of diverse cell surface coat markers were found between Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis. The presence of carbohydrate-containing components in the cell coat of the two species was detected by selective staining with ruthenium red and alcian blue. Using both markers, N. fowleri presented a thicker deposit than N. lovaniensis. The existence of exposed mannose or glucose residues was revealed by discriminatory agglutination with the plant lectin Concanavalin A. These sugar residues were also visualized at the cell surface of these parasites either by transmission electron microscopy or by fluorescein-tagged Concanavalin A. Using this lectin cap formation was induced only in N. fowleri. The anionic sites on the cell surface detected by means of cationized ferritin were more apparent in N. fowleri. Biotinylation assays confirmed that even though the two amoebae species have some analogous plasma membrane proteins, there is a clear difference in their composition.

  17. Memory effects in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics at metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of temporal correlation in a Langevin equation describing nonadiabatic dynamics at metal surfaces. For a harmonic oscillator, the Langevin equation preserves the quantum dynamics exactly and it is demonstrated that memory effects are needed in order to conserve the ground state......, this approach is readily extended to anharmonic potentials. Using density functional theory, we calculate representative Langevin trajectories for associative desorption of N-2 from Ru(0001) and find that memory effects lower the dissipation of energy. Finally, we propose an ab initio scheme to calculate...

  18. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status

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    Mira Horváthová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells (p < 0.05. The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD, waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.

  19. Surface characteristics of chitin-based shape memory polyurethane elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Barikani, Mehdi; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Bilal

    2009-09-01

    Shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) were prepared from polycaprolactone diol 4000 (PCL 4000), 1,4-butanediol (BDO), chitin, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), triethylamine (TEA) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), and the structures of the synthesized materials were verified by infrared spectroscopy. The effects of chitin and DMPA contents in the polyurethane formulation on surface properties were investigated. DMPA provides function of making hydrophilic polyurethanes. The crystalline structure of chitin enhanced the hydrophobicity of the synthesized materials. Contact angle, water absorption, surface free energy, work of water adhesion and swelling behavior of the synthesized polyurethanes were affected by varying the DMPA and chitin contents. The interactions of the PU films with solvents on the surface were clearly related to the contents of DMPA and chitin in the final polyurethane formulation.

  20. Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  1. Serial position markers in space: visuospatial priming of serial order working memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya De Belder

    Full Text Available Most general theories on serial order working memory (WM assume the existence of position markers that are bound to the to-be-remembered items to keep track of the serial order. So far, the exact cognitive/neural characteristics of these markers have remained largely underspecified, while direct empirical evidence for their existence is mostly lacking. In the current study we demonstrate that retrieval from verbal serial order WM can be facilitated or hindered by spatial cuing: begin elements of a verbal WM sequence are retrieved faster after cuing the left side of space, while end elements are retrieved faster after cuing the right side of space. In direct complement to our previous work--where we showed the reversed impact of WM retrieval on spatial processing--we argue that the current findings provide us with a crucial piece of evidence suggesting a direct and functional involvement of space in verbal serial order WM. We outline the idea that serial order in verbal WM is coded within a spatial coordinate system with spatial attention being involved when searching through WM, and we discuss how this account can explain several hallmark observations related to serial order WM.

  2. Hepatitis B Viral Markers in Surface Antigen Negative Blood Donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 20 who were anti-HBc positive, seven had tattoo/traditional marks on their body and one had previous history of blood transfusion. Conclusion: This study has shown that some potential blood units containing HBV are being transfused to patients unknowingly by screening for HBsAg only. Screening for other markers ...

  3. The temporal evolution of electromagnetic markers sensitive to the capacity limits of visual short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel James Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An electroencephalographic (EEG marker of the limited contents of human visual short-term memory (VSTM has previously been described. Termed contralateral delay activity (CDA, this consists of a sustained, posterior, negative potential that correlates with memory load and is greatest contralateral to the remembered hemifield. The current investigation replicates this finding and uses magnetoencephalography (MEG to characterise its magnetic counterparts and their neural generators as they evolve throughout the memory delay. A parametric manipulation of memory load, within and beyond capacity limits, allows separation of signals that asymptote with behavioural VSTM performance from additional responses that contribute to a linear increase with set-size. Both EEG and MEG yielded bilateral signals that track the number of objects held in memory, and contralateral signals that are independent of memory load. In MEG, unlike EEG, the contralateral interaction between hemisphere and item load is much weaker, suggesting that bilateral and contralateral markers of memory load reflect distinct sources to which EEG and MEG are differentially sensitive. Nonetheless, source estimation allowed both the bilateral and the weaker contralateral capacity-limited responses to be localised, along with a load-independent contralateral signal. Sources of global and hemisphere-specific signals all localised to the posterior intraparietal sulcus during the early delay. However the bilateral load response peaked earlier and its generators shifted later in the delay. Therefore the hemifield-specific response may be more closely tied to memory maintenance while the global load response may be involved in initial processing of a limited number of attended objects, such as their individuation or consolidation into memory.

  4. The temporal evolution of electromagnetic markers sensitive to the capacity limits of visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel J; Cusack, Rhodri

    2011-01-01

    An electroencephalographic (EEG) marker of the limited contents of human visual short-term memory (VSTM) has previously been described. Termed contralateral delay activity, this consists of a sustained, posterior, negative potential that correlates with memory load and is greatest contralateral to the remembered hemifield. The current investigation replicates this finding and uses magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize its magnetic counterparts and their neural generators as they evolve throughout the memory delay. A parametric manipulation of memory load, within and beyond capacity limits, allows separation of signals that asymptote with behavioral VSTM performance from additional responses that contribute to a linear increase with set-size. Both EEG and MEG yielded bilateral signals that track the number of objects held in memory, and contralateral signals that are independent of memory load. In MEG, unlike EEG, the contralateral interaction between hemisphere and item load is much weaker, suggesting that bilateral and contralateral markers of memory load reflect distinct sources to which EEG and MEG are differentially sensitive. Nonetheless, source estimation allowed both the bilateral and the weaker contralateral capacity-limited responses to be localized, along with a load-independent contralateral signal. Sources of global and hemisphere-specific signals all localized to the posterior intraparietal sulcus during the early delay. However the bilateral load response peaked earlier and its generators shifted later in the delay. Therefore the hemifield-specific response may be more closely tied to memory maintenance while the global load response may be involved in initial processing of a limited number of attended objects, such as their individuation or consolidation into memory.

  5. The neural substrate for working memory of tactile surface texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Amanda L; van Mier, Hanneke; Visser, Maya; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Fine surface texture is best discriminated by touch, in contrast to macro geometric features like shape. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a delayed match-to-sample task to investigate the neural substrate for working memory of tactile surface texture. Blindfolded right-handed males encoded the texture or location of up to four sandpaper stimuli using the dominant or non-dominant hand. They maintained the information for 10-12 s and then answered whether a probe stimulus matched the memory array. Analyses of variance with the factors Hand, Task, and Load were performed on the estimated percent signal change for the encoding and delay phase. During encoding, contralateral effects of Hand were found in sensorimotor regions, whereas Load effects were observed in bilateral postcentral sulcus (BA2), secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), pre-SMA, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and superior parietal lobule (SPL). During encoding and delay, Task effects (texture > location) were found in central sulcus, S2, pre-SMA, dlPFC, and SPL. The Task and Load effects found in hand- and modality-specific regions BA2 and S2 indicate involvement of these regions in the tactile encoding and maintenance of fine surface textures. Similar effects in hand- and modality-unspecific areas dlPFC, pre-SMA and SPL suggest that these regions contribute to the cognitive monitoring required to encode and maintain multiple items. Our findings stress both the particular importance of S2 for the encoding and maintenance of tactile surface texture, as well as the supramodal nature of parieto-frontal networks involved in cognitive control. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Memory decline in Down syndrome and its relationship to iPF2alpha, a urinary marker of oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Zis

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation may be a marker of free-radical-mediated injury associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. We aimed to investigate whether changes in lipid peroxidation is associated with cognitive decline in individuals with Down syndrome over a 4-year period.Thirty-two adults with DS participated in a longitudinal study with urinary isoprostane 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha (iPF2alpha assays at baseline and four years follow-up. Informants rated their functional ability and memory function and the adults with DS attempted assessments of language skills and memory. Twenty-six individuals completed assessments of memory (Modified Memory Object Task, MOMT, adaptive behavior (ABAS, and receptive vocabulary (British Picture vocabulary, BPVS at both time-points.Overall change in iPF2alpha level was negatively correlated with change in the MOMT score (Spearman's Rho =  -0.576, p = 0.006, i.e., increased lipid peroxidation was correlated with worse memory functioning over time. An increase of ≥ 0.02 ng/mg creatinine iPF2α had good sensitivity (85.7%, positive predictive value (75%,, specificity (85.7% and negative predictive value (92.3% for memory decline.Change in iPF2alpha over time may have potential as a biomarker for memory decline in Down syndrome and potentially also help to track progression of MCI to AD in the general population.

  7. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core struc...

  8. Memory color of natural familiar objects: effects of surface texture and 3-D shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Milena; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya C

    2013-06-28

    Natural objects typically possess characteristic contours, chromatic surface textures, and three-dimensional shapes. These diagnostic features aid object recognition, as does memory color, the color most associated in memory with a particular object. Here we aim to determine whether polychromatic surface texture, 3-D shape, and contour diagnosticity improve memory color for familiar objects, separately and in combination. We use solid three-dimensional familiar objects rendered with their natural texture, which participants adjust in real time to match their memory color for the object. We analyze mean, accuracy, and precision of the memory color settings relative to the natural color of the objects under the same conditions. We find that in all conditions, memory colors deviate slightly but significantly in the same direction from the natural color. Surface polychromaticity, shape diagnosticity, and three dimensionality each improve memory color accuracy, relative to uniformly colored, generic, or two-dimensional shapes, respectively. Shape diagnosticity improves the precision of memory color also, and there is a trend for polychromaticity to do so as well. Differently from other studies, we find that the object contour alone also improves memory color. Thus, enhancing the naturalness of the stimulus, in terms of either surface or shape properties, enhances the accuracy and precision of memory color. The results support the hypothesis that memory color representations are polychromatic and are synergistically linked with diagnostic shape representations.

  9. Transference of surface markers in X-ray, CT- and MR-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevelhoerster, T.; Poetter, R.; Prott, F.J.; Dittrich, M.

    1995-01-01

    By using pharmacological capsules and plastic tubes filled with oily contrast medium contraining iodine (Lipiodol; Byk Gulden), marking aids were developed which can be seen in similar definite limits within the framework of MRI-, CT- and conventional X-ray-Imaging. A method to view these new, artificial markers in combination with individual, anatomical landmarks is introduced. The marking aid/surface marker, fixed on anatomical reference structures on the skin, does not result in an additional burden for the patient. The new, artificial markers are also useful for making other structures recognizable, such as anatomical relation lines, center of the portal and edges in planning imaging for radiotherapy treatments and are used as leading and reference structures to compare localisation and extent of lesions in X-ray-, CT- and MRI. Marking aids/surface markers do not have to be changed in different imaging methods. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Superhydrophobic NiTi shape memory alloy surfaces fabricated by anodization and surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shih-Fu; Wang, Kuang-Kuo; Hsu, Yen-Chi

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of superhydrophobic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) surfaces using an environmentally friendly method based on an economical anodizing process. Perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane was used to reduce the surface energy of the anodized surfaces. The wettability, morphology, composition, and microstructure of the surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface of the treated NiTi SMA exhibited superhydrophobicity, with a water contact angle of 150.6° and sliding angle of 8°. The anodic film on the NiTi SMA comprised of TiO2 and NiO, as well as traces of TiCl3. In addition, before the NiTi SMA was anodized, it underwent a surface mechanical attrition treatment to grain-refine its surface. This method efficiently enhanced the growth rate of the anodic oxide film, and improved the hydrophobic uniformity of the anodized NiTi-SMA-surface.

  11. Two small lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. I. Purification and surface marker profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1978-01-01

    By means of simple rosette sedimentation methods two subsets from human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been isolated: (1) (E, Fc)- and (2) (E, Ig)-. The first subset was obtained by centrifuging suspensions of macrophage-depleted PBL in which E and EA rosettes had been allowed to form...... simultaneously. The dominant marker of these E- Fc- cells was surface Ig, and during 4 days of culture this population did not alter its surface markers. Subset 2 was obtained in two ways following rosette centrifugation with AET-treated SRBC and rabbit anti-human Ig-coated autologous RBC. This 'Null cell...

  12. Suppressed working memory on the WMS-III as a marker for poor effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L; Sullivan, Karen; Anderson, Debbie

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of memory minus Working Memory Index (memory-WMI) discrepancy scores on the WMS-III for detecting poor effort in 145 personal injury litigants (19 poor effort, 126 adequate effort). On average, participants in the poor effort group performed significantly lower on all WMS-III memory indexes and demonstrated larger memory-WMI discrepancy scores compared to participants in the adequate effort group. Discriminant function analyses using memory-WMI discrepancy scores as independent variables revealed poor overall classification rates (60.0% to 63.4%). Based on the prevalence of unusually suppressed attention-concentration ability relative to memory functioning using unidirectional memory-WMI discrepancy scores, high specificity and negative predictive power values were found. However, there was unacceptably low sensitivity and positive predictive power. These results suggest that memory-WMI discrepancy scores on the WMS-III do not provide clinically useful information regarding response set and should be used cautiously as an indicator of poor effort.

  13. Surface Markers for Chondrogenic Determination: A Highlight of Synovium-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas D. Campbell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising field in regenerative medicine that can provide substantial relief to people suffering from degenerative cartilage disease. Current research shows the greatest chondrogenic potential for healthy articular cartilage growth with minimal hypertrophic differentiation to be from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs of synovial origin. These stem cells have the capacity for differentiation into multiple cell lineages related to mesenchymal tissue; however, evidence exists for cell surface markers that specify a greater potential for chondrogenesis than other differentiation fates. This review will examine relevant literature to summarize the chondrogenic differentiation capacities of tested synovium-derived stem cell (SDSC surface markers, along with a discussion about various other markers that may hold potential, yet require further investigation. With this information, a potential clinical benefit exists to develop a screening system for SDSCs that will produce the healthiest articular cartilage possible.

  14. Neuroimaging markers associated with maintenance of optimal memory performance in late-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekhtyar, Maria; Papp, Kathryn V; Buckley, Rachel; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Schultz, Aaron P; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Rentz, Dorene M

    2017-06-01

    Age-related memory decline has been well-documented; however, some individuals reach their 8th-10th decade while maintaining strong memory performance. To determine which demographic and biomarker factors differentiated top memory performers (aged 75+, top 20% for memory) from their peers and whether top memory performance was maintained over 3 years. Clinically normal adults (n=125, CDR=0; age: 79.5±3.57 years) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study underwent cognitive testing and neuroimaging (amyloid PET, MRI) at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Participants were grouped into Optimal (n=25) vs. Typical (n=100) performers using performance on 3 challenging memory measures. Non-parametric tests were used to compare groups. There were no differences in age, sex, or education between Optimal vs. Typical performers. The Optimal group performed better in Processing Speed (p=0.016) and Executive Functioning (pmemory performance while 7 declined. Non-Maintainers additionally declined in Executive Functioning but not Processing Speed. Longitudinally, there were no hippocampal volume differences between Maintainers and Non-Maintainers, however Non-Maintainers exhibited higher amyloid burden at baseline in contrast with Maintainers (p=0.008). Excellent memory performance in late life does not guarantee protection against cognitive decline. Those who maintain an optimal memory into the 8th and 9th decades may have lower levels of AD pathology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Two small lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. I. Purification and surface marker profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1978-01-01

    By means of simple rosette sedimentation methods two subsets from human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been isolated: (1) (E, Fc)- and (2) (E, Ig)-. The first subset was obtained by centrifuging suspensions of macrophage-depleted PBL in which E and EA rosettes had been allowed to form simultan......By means of simple rosette sedimentation methods two subsets from human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been isolated: (1) (E, Fc)- and (2) (E, Ig)-. The first subset was obtained by centrifuging suspensions of macrophage-depleted PBL in which E and EA rosettes had been allowed to form...... simultaneously. The dominant marker of these E- Fc- cells was surface Ig, and during 4 days of culture this population did not alter its surface markers. Subset 2 was obtained in two ways following rosette centrifugation with AET-treated SRBC and rabbit anti-human Ig-coated autologous RBC. This 'Null cell...... population' was shown to be highly variable as judged by the surface markers applied after 4 days of culture, and it is suggested that Null cells contain a number of immature lymphoid cells that may acquire their surface marker during culture. It is concluded that the methods described for purification...

  16. A comparison of surface marker analysis and FAB classification in acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, H. J.; van Rhenen, D. J.; Lansdorp, P. M.; van't Veer, M. B.; Langenhuijsen, M. M.; Engelfriet, C. P.; von dem Borne, A. E.

    1983-01-01

    Surface marker analysis with rosette tests and a large panel of xenoantisera and monoclonal antibodies was done on the malignant cells of 55 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The diagnosis was made on morphological and cytochemical grounds, and the leukemias were classified according to

  17. Increased expression of T-helper cell activation markers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    expressing the activation markers naïve/memory (CD45RA/CD45RO) and interleukin–2 light chain receptor (CD25) in ... cells co-expressing both naive and memory surface markers feature atopic asthma from acute lower respiratory .... binding of monoclonal antibodies. Red cells in EDTA samples were lysed using.

  18. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface engineering of ferroelectric polymer for the enhanced electrical performance of organic transistor memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Kyung; Lee, Gyu-Jeong; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Bae, Jin-Hyuk

    2018-05-01

    We suggest a viable surface control method to improve the electrical properties of organic nonvolatile memory transistors. For viable surface control, the surface of the ferroelectric insulator in the memory field-effect transistors was modified using a smooth-contact-curing process. For the modification of the ferroelectric polymer, during the curing of the ferroelectric insulators, the smooth surface of a soft elastomer contacts intimately with the ferroelectric surface. This smooth-contact-curing process reduced the surface roughness of the ferroelectric insulator without degrading its ferroelectric properties. The reduced roughness of the ferroelectric insulator increases the mobility of the organic field-effect transistor by approximately eight times, which results in a high memory on–off ratio and a low-voltage reading operation.

  20. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  1. Polymeric Shape-Memory Micro-Patterned Surface for Switching Wettability with Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria García-Huete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative method to switch the wettability of a micropatterned polymeric surface by thermally induced shape memory effect is presented. For this purpose, first polycyclooctene (PCO is crosslinked with dycumil peroxide (DCP and its melting temperature, which corresponds with the switching transition temperature (Ttrans, is measured by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA in tension mode. Later, the shape memory behavior of the bulk material is analyzed under different experimental conditions employing a cyclic thermomechanical analysis (TMA. Finally, after creating shape memory micropillars by laser ablation of crosslinked thermo-active polycyclooctene (PCO, shape memory response and associated effect on water contact angle is analyzed. Thus, deformed micropillars cause lower contact angle on the surface from reduced roughness, but the original hydrophobicity is restored by thermally induced recovery of the original surface structure.

  2. Message development for surface markers at the Hanford Radwaste Disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1984-12-31

    At the Hanford Reservation in Washington, there are sites which received liquid and solid transuranic wastes from the late 1940`s until 1970. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) is investigating the feasibility of several options for the permanent disposal of these wastes. One option is to stabilize the wastes in their present locations and to add barriers to minimize water infiltration and root penetration into the wastes. This report forms part of the project to develop a marking system for transuranic wastes on the Hanford Reservation. The focus of this report is the development of the message system to appear on the surface markers. A logical framework is developed to deduce what is required by the message system. Alternatives for each message component are evaluated and justification is provided for the choice of each component. The components are then laid out on the surface marker to provide a legible, comprehensible message system. The surface markers are tall, standing monoliths which ring the perimeter of each disposal area. Based on the logical framework, it is recommended that three domains of representation -- symbols, pictures, and language -- be used in the message system. The warning symbol chosen for the message system is the radiation trefoil. Two other options were considered, including the warning symbol developed by the Human Interference Task Force for a high-level waste repository. The trefoil was preferred because of the widespread usage and international acceptance which is already enjoys.

  3. Resident Memory T Cells as Surrogate Markers of the Efficacy of Cancer Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizard, Mevyn; Roussel, Hélène; Tartour, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Cancer vaccine boost via the cervicovaginal rather than the intramuscular route of immunization appears to be crucial to induce genital CD8(+) T cells and tumor regression. This clinical activity is correlated with the ability of the mucosal boost to elicit resident memory T cells in the genital tract. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Neural markers of memory consolidation do not predict temporal estimates of encoded items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damsma, Atser; van der Mijn, Wilmar; van Rijn, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the paradigms used in most laboratory experiments on interval timing, everyday tasks often involve the continuous tracking of multiple intervals without an explicit starting signal. A potential explanation of this capacity is that time perception and working memory encoding are

  5. Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  6. Inflammatory markers are associated with inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esumi, L A; Palma, B D; Gomes, V L; Tufik, S; Hipólide, D C

    2011-08-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) causes detrimental effects to the body, such as memory impairment and weight loss. SD also changes the concentration of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, which, in turn, can affect cognitive functioning. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of these inflammatory mediators in inhibitory avoidance memory deficit in sleep-deprived rats. Male Wistar rats were deprived of sleep by the modified multiple platform method for 96 h, while their respective controls remained in their housing cages. To assess memory after SD, all animals underwent training, followed by the inhibitory avoidance task test 24h later. Also, the weight of each animal was recorded daily. In the first experiment, animals received an acute administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 or 75 μg/kg i.p.) 3h before the inhibitory avoidance training. In the experiment 2, the animals received acute or chronic administration of anti-IL-6 antibody (Ab, 2 μg/kg i.p.). The acute administration was performed 3h before the inhibitory avoidance training, while the chronic treatment administrations were performed daily during the SD period. The 75 μg/kg dose of LPS, but not the 50 μg/kg dose, caused a significant attenuation of memory impairment in the sleep-deprived animals. Although the treatments with the anti-IL-6 Ab did not produce any significant changes in cognitive performance, the Ab attenuated weight loss in sleep-deprived animals. Taken together, these results suggest the involvement of inflammatory mediators in the modulation of memory deficit and weight loss that are observed in sleep-deprived rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Time course effects of lithium administration on spatial memory acquisition and cholinergic marker expression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M H Karimfar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of chronic lithium exposure on spatial memory in rats remain controversial. In this study a time course of the effects of lithium, administered systemically, on spatial memory acquisition in Morris water maze was investigated. Material and Methods: Lithium (600 mg/L was administered to four groups of rats in their drinking water; the first group of animals received lithium for one week, the second group for two weeks, the third group for three weeks, and the fourth group for four weeks.  As controls, four groups of animals received only normal drinking water for the same period of time.  Toward the end of their lithium or water treatment, all animals were trained for four days; each day included one block and each block contained four trials.  Test trials were conducted 48 hrs after completion of the lithium treatment. Escape latency, traveled distance and swimming speed were evaluated during testing trials. Brain tissues from animals were processed according to the standard protocols for immunohistochemical analysis.  Results: Lithium treatment decreased escape latency and traveled distance, but not swimming speed, compared with controls, suggesting significant spatial memory acquisition enhancement by lithium. Quantitative analysis showed that lithium, particularly after four weeks of exposure, significantly increased the number and density of immunostained ChAT-containing (choline acetyltransferase neurons in the medial septal area in comparison with control groups.  There was also a significant correlation between the number of immunostained ChAT neurons and behavioral measures. Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic oral administration of lithium causes spatial memory acquisition improvement in rats and an increase in ChAT immunostaining levels in medial septal nuclei.

  8. Measuring working memory load effects on electrophysiological markers of attention orienting during a simulated drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Veerle; Vossen, Alexandra Y; Smulders, Fren T Y; Ruiter, Robert A C; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Wets, Geert; Jongen, Ellen M M

    2018-03-01

    Intersection accidents result in a significant proportion of road fatalities, and attention allocation likely plays a role. Attention allocation may depend on (limited) working memory (WM) capacity. Driving is often combined with tasks increasing WM load, consequently impairing attention orienting. This study (n = 22) investigated WM load effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attention orienting. A simulated driving environment allowed continuous lane-keeping measurement. Participants were asked to orient attention covertly towards the side indicated by an arrow, and to respond only to moving cars appearing on the attended side by pressing a button. WM load was manipulated using a concurrent memory task. ERPs showed typical attentional modulation (cue: contralateral negativity, LDAP; car: N1, P1, SN and P3) under low and high load conditions. With increased WM load, lane-keeping performance improved, while dual task performance degraded (memory task: increased error rate; orienting task: increased false alarms, smaller P3). Practitioner Summary: Intersection driver-support systems aim to improve traffic safety and flow. However, in-vehicle systems induce WM load, increasing the tendency to yield. Traffic flow reduces if drivers stop at inappropriate times, reducing the effectiveness of systems. Consequently, driver-support systems could include WM load measurement during driving in the development phase.

  9. Quantitative studies of rhubarb using quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiachen; Wu, Yueting; Dong, Shengjie; Li, Xia; Gao, Wenyuan

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we developed a novel approach to evaluate the contents of bioactive components in rhubarb. The present method was based on the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by a single-marker and response surface methodology approaches. The quantitative analysis of multicomponents by a single-marker method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed and applied to determine the contents of 12 bioactive components in rhubarb. No significant differences were found in the results from the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by a single-marker and the external standard method. In order to maximize the extraction of 12 bioactive compounds in rhubarb, the ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions were obtained by the response surface methodology coupled with Box-Behnken design. According to the obtained results, we showed that the optimal conditions would be as follows: proportion of ethanol/water 74.39%, solvent-to-solid ratio 24.07:1 v/w, extraction time 51.13 min, and extraction temperature 63.61°C. The analytical scheme established in this research should be a reliable, convenient, and appropriate method for quantitative determination of bioactive compounds in rhubarb. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Memory effect on energy losses of charged particles moving parallel to solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwei, C.M.; Tu, Y.H.; Hsu, Y.H.; Tung, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical derivations were made for the induced potential and the stopping power of a charged particle moving close and parallel to the surface of a solid. It was illustrated that the induced potential produced by the interaction of particle and solid depended not only on the velocity but also on the previous velocity of the particle before its last inelastic interaction. Another words, the particle kept a memory on its previous velocity, v , in determining the stopping power for the particle of velocity v. Based on the dielectric response theory, formulas were derived for the induced potential and the stopping power with memory effect. An extended Drude dielectric function with spatial dispersion was used in the application of these formulas for a proton moving parallel to Si surface. It was found that the induced potential with memory effect lay between induced potentials without memory effect for constant velocities v and v. The memory effect was manifest as the proton changes its velocity in the previous inelastic interaction. This memory effect also reduced the stopping power of the proton. The formulas derived in the present work can be applied to any solid surface and charged particle moving with arbitrary parallel trajectory either inside or outside the solid

  11. The surface elevation table: marker horizon method for measuring wetland accretion and elevation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, John C.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Lynch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Tidal wetlands are highly sensitive to processes that affect their elevation relative to sea level. The surface elevation table–marker horizon (SET–MH) method has been used to successfully measure these processes, including sediment accretion, changes in relative elevation, and shallow soil processes (subsidence and expansion due to root production). The SET–MH method is capable of measuring changes at very high resolution (±millimeters) and has been used worldwide both in natural wetlands and under experimental conditions. Marker horizons are typically deployed using feldspar over 50- by 50-cm plots, with replicate plots at each sampling location. Plots are sampled using a liquid N2 cryocorer that freezes a small sample, allowing the handling and measurement of soft and easily compressed soils with minimal compaction. The SET instrument is a portable device that is attached to a permanent benchmark to make high-precision measurements of wetland surface elevation. The SET instrument has evolved substantially in recent decades, and the current rod SET (RSET) is widely used. For the RSET, a 15-mm-diameter stainless steel rod is pounded into the ground until substantial resistance is achieved to establish a benchmark. The SET instrument is attached to the benchmark and leveled such that it reoccupies the same reference plane in space, and pins lowered from the instrument repeatedly measure the same point on the soil surface. Changes in the height of the lowered pins reflect changes in the soil surface. Permanent or temporary platforms provide access to SET and MH locations without disturbing the wetland surface.

  12. Automated vehicle guidance using discrete reference markers. [road surface steering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.; Assefi, T.; Lai, J. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques for providing steering control for an automated vehicle using discrete reference markers fixed to the road surface are investigated analytically. Either optical or magnetic approaches can be used for the sensor, which generates a measurement of the lateral offset of the vehicle path at each marker to form the basic data for steering control. Possible mechanizations of sensor and controller are outlined. Techniques for handling certain anomalous conditions, such as a missing marker, or loss of acquisition, and special maneuvers, such as u-turns and switching, are briefly discussed. A general analysis of the vehicle dynamics and the discrete control system is presented using the state variable formulation. Noise in both the sensor measurement and in the steering servo are accounted for. An optimal controller is simulated on a general purpose computer, and the resulting plots of vehicle path are presented. Parameters representing a small multipassenger tram were selected, and the simulation runs show response to an erroneous sensor measurement and acquisition following large initial path errors.

  13. Prospective Isolation of Murine and Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Based on Surface Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Mabuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are currently defined as multipotent stromal cells that undergo sustained in vitro growth and can give rise to cells of multiple mesenchymal lineages, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts. The regenerative and immunosuppressive properties of MSCs have led to numerous clinical trials exploring their utility for the treatment of a variety of diseases (e.g., acute graft-versus-host disease, Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, and cardiovascular diseases including heart failure and myocardial infarction. On the other hand, conventionally cultured MSCs reflect heterogeneous populations that often contain contaminating cells due to the significant variability in isolation methods and the lack of specific MSC markers. This review article focuses on recent developments in the MSC research field, with a special emphasis on the identification of novel surface markers for the in vivo localization and prospective isolation of murine and human MSCs. Furthermore, we discuss the physiological importance of MSC subtypes in vivo with specific reference to data supporting their contribution to HSC niche homeostasis. The isolation of MSCs using selective markers (combination of PDGFRα and Sca-1 is crucial to address the many unanswered questions pertaining to these cells and has the potential to enhance their therapeutic potential enormously.

  14. Marker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  15. Dyes as bifunctional markers of DNA hybridization on surfaces and mutation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mendiola, Tania; Cerro, María Ramos; López-Moreno, José María; Pariente, Félix; Lorenzo, Encarnación

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of small molecules with DNA has found diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this work, we propose the use of two different dyes, in particular Azure A and Safranine, as bifunctional markers of on-surface DNA hybridization and potent tools for screening of specific gene mutations directly in real DNA PCR amplicons extracted from blood cells. By combining spectroscopic and electrochemical methods we demonstrate that both dyes can interact with single and double stranded DNA to a different extent, allowing reliable hybridization detection. From these data, we have also elucidated the nature of the interaction. We conclude that the binding mode is fundamentally intercalative with an electrostatic component. The dye fluorescence allows their use as nucleic acid stains for the detection of on-surfaces DNA hybridization. Its redox activity is exploited in the development of selective electrochemical DNA biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical use of computed tomography and surface markers to assist internal fixation within the equine hoof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowski, Janik C; Richardson, Dean W

    2015-02-01

    To describe clinical use of computed tomography (CT) and hoof surface markers to facilitate internal fixation within the confines of the hoof wall. Retrospective case series. Horses (n = 16) that had CT-guided internal fixation of the distal phalanx (DP) or distal sesamoid bone (DSB). Drill bit entry point and direction were planned from CT image series performed on hooves with grids of barium paste dots at proposed entry and projected exit sites. Post-implantation CT images were obtained to check screw position and length as well as fracture reduction. Imaging, reduction, and surgical and general anesthesia times were evaluated. Outcome was recorded. Screw position and length were considered near optimal in all horses, with no consequential malposition of bits or screws. Fracture reduction was evident in all cases. Preoperative planning times (at least 2 CT image acquisitions and grid creation) ranged from 10 to 20 minutes. Surgery time ranged from 45 to 90 minutes (mean, 61 minutes) and general anesthesia time ranged from 115 to 220 minutes (mean, 171 minutes). The combination of CT and surface marker grids allowed accurate positioning of screws in clinical DP and DSB fractures. The technique was simple and rapid. An aiming device is useful for the technique. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Established cell surface markers efficiently isolate highly overlapping populations of skeletal muscle satellite cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesner, Claire C; Almada, Albert E; Wagers, Amy J

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) has enabled the direct isolation of highly enriched skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell, populations from postnatal tissue. Several distinct surface marker panels containing different positively selecting surface antigens have been used to distinguish muscle satellite cells from other non-myogenic cell types. Because functional and transcriptional heterogeneity is known to exist within the satellite cell population, a direct comparison of results obtained in different laboratories has been complicated by a lack of clarity as to whether commonly utilized surface marker combinations select for distinct or overlapping subsets of the satellite cell pool. This study therefore sought to evaluate phenotypic and functional overlap among popular satellite cell sorting paradigms. Utilizing a transgenic Pax7 -zsGreen reporter mouse, we compared the overlap between the fluorescent signal of canonical paired homeobox protein 7 ( Pax7 ) expressing satellite cells to cells identified by combinations of surface markers previously published for satellite cells isolation. We designed two panels for mouse skeletal muscle analysis, each composed of markers that exclude hematopoietic and stromal cells (CD45, CD11b, Ter119, CD31, and Sca1), combined with previously published antibody clones recognizing surface markers present on satellite cells (β1-integrin/CXCR4, α7-integrin/CD34, and Vcam1). Cell populations were comparatively analyzed by flow cytometry and FACS sorted for functional assessment of myogenic activity. Consistent with prior reports, each of the commonly used surface marker schemes evaluated here identified a highly enriched satellite cell population, with 89-90 % positivity for Pax7 expression based on zsGreen fluorescence. Distinct surface marker panels were also equivalent in their ability to identify the majority of the satellite cell pool, with 90-93 % of all Pax7-zsGreen positive cells marked by each of the

  18. In situ characterization of local elastic properties of thin shape memory films by surface acoustic waves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grabec, T.; Sedlák, Petr; Stoklasová, Pavla; Thomasová, M.; Shilo, D.; Kabla, M.; Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 12 (2016), č. článku 127002. ISSN 0964-1726 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : thin films * shape memory alloys * surface acoustic waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.909, year: 2016

  19. Surface Expression of NMDA Receptor Changes during Memory Consolidation in the Crab "Neohelice granulata"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Yanil; Salles, Angeles; Carbo-Tano, Martin; Pedreira, Maria Eugenia; Freudenthal, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the surface expression of the NMDA-like receptors during the consolidation of contextual learning in the crab "Neohelice granulata". Memory storage is based on alterations in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. The glutamatergic synapses undergo various forms of…

  20. Surface feature congruency effects in the object-reviewing paradigm are dependent on task memory demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2014-08-01

    Perception of object continuity depends on establishing correspondence between objects viewed across disruptions in visual information. The role of spatiotemporal information in guiding object continuity is well documented; the role of surface features, however, is controversial. Some researchers have shown an object-specific preview benefit (OSPB)-a standard index of object continuity-only when correspondence could be based on an object's spatiotemporal information, whereas others have found color-based OSPB, suggesting that surface features can also guide object continuity. This study shows that surface feature-based OSPB is dependent on the task memory demands. When the task involved letters and matching just one target letter to the preview ones, no color congruency effect was found under spatiotemporal discontinuity and spatiotemporal ambiguity (Experiments 1-3), indicating that the absence of feature-based OSPB cannot be accounted for by salient spatiotemporal discontinuity. When the task involved complex shapes and matching two target shapes to the preview ones, color-based OSPB was obtained. Critically, however, when a visual working memory task was performed concurrently with the matching task, the presence of a nonspatial (but not a spatial) working memory load eliminated the color-based OSPB (Experiments 4 and 5). These results suggest that the surface feature congruency effects that are observed in the object-reviewing paradigm (with the matching task) reflect memory-based strategies that participants use to solve a memory-demanding task; therefore, they are not reliable measures of online object continuity and cannot be taken as evidence for the role of surface features in establishing object correspondence.

  1. Memory Effects and Coverage Dependence of Surface Diffusion in a Model Adsorption System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio; Ying, S. C.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    1999-01-01

    We study the coverage dependence of surface diffusion coefficients for a strongly interacting adsorption system O/W(110) via Monte Carlo simulations of a lattice-gas model. In particular, we consider the nature and emergence of memory effects as contained in the corresponding correlation factors...... diffusion is found to decay following a power law after an initial transient period. This behavior persists until the hydrodynamic regime is reached, after which the memory effect decays exponentially. The time required to reach the hydrodynamical regime and the related exponential decay is strongly...

  2. A Screen Space GPGPU Surface LIC Algorithm for Distributed Memory Data Parallel Sort Last Rendering Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, Burlen; Karimabadi, Homa; Rortershteyn, Vadim

    2014-07-01

    The surface line integral convolution(LIC) visualization technique produces dense visualization of vector fields on arbitrary surfaces. We present a screen space surface LIC algorithm for use in distributed memory data parallel sort last rendering infrastructures. The motivations for our work are to support analysis of datasets that are too large to fit in the main memory of a single computer and compatibility with prevalent parallel scientific visualization tools such as ParaView and VisIt. By working in screen space using OpenGL we can leverage the computational power of GPUs when they are available and run without them when they are not. We address efficiency and performance issues that arise from the transformation of data from physical to screen space by selecting an alternate screen space domain decomposition. We analyze the algorithm's scaling behavior with and without GPUs on two high performance computing systems using data from turbulent plasma simulations.

  3. A Software for the Analysis of Scripted Dialogs Based on Surface Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Delisle

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Most information systems that deal with natural language texts do not tolerate much deviation from their idealized and simplified model of language. Spoken dialog is notoriously ungrammatical however. Because the MAREDI project focuses in particular on the automatic analysis of scripted dialogs, we needed to develop a robust capacity to analyze transcribed spoken language. This paper presents the main elements of our approach, which is based on exploiting surface markers as the best route to the semantics of the conversation modelled. We highlight the foundations of our particular conversational model and give an overview of the MAREDI system. The latter consists of three key modules, which are 1 a connectionist network to recognise speech acts, 2 a robust syntactic parser, and 3 a semantic analyzer. These three modules are fully implemented in Prolog and C++ and have been packaged into an integrated software.

  4. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  5. Intra-operative prostate motion tracking using surface markers for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamatian, Mehdi; Sarkar, Kripasindhu; Pautler, Stephen E.; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Radical prostatectomy surgery (RP) is the gold standard for treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Recently, emergence of minimally invasive techniques such as Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (LRP) and Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RARP) has improved the outcomes for prostatectomy. However, it remains difficult for the surgeons to make informed decisions regarding resection margins and nerve sparing since the location of the tumor within the organ is not usually visible in a laparoscopic view. While MRI enables visualization of the salient structures and cancer foci, its efficacy in LRP is reduced unless it is fused into a stereoscopic view such that homologous structures overlap. Registration of the MRI image and peri-operative ultrasound image using a tracked probe can potentially be exploited to bring the pre-operative information into alignment with the patient coordinate system during the procedure. While doing so, prostate motion needs to be compensated in real-time to synchronize the stereoscopic view with the pre-operative MRI during the prostatectomy procedure. In this study, a point-based stereoscopic tracking technique is investigated to compensate for rigid prostate motion so that the same motion can be applied to the pre-operative images. This method benefits from stereoscopic tracking of the surface markers implanted over the surface of the prostate phantom. The average target registration error using this approach was 3.25+/-1.43mm.

  6. Neospora caninum surface antigen (p40) is a potential diagnostic marker for cattle neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pengfei; Li, Jianhua; Gong, Pengtao; Liu, Chengwu; Zhang, Guocai; Yang, Ju; Tuo, Wenbin; Yang, Bintong; Zhang, Xichen

    2013-05-01

    Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan that infects domestic and wild canids as well as many warm-blooded animals as shown by the isolation of viable parasites. The effectiveness of diagnostic tests for detecting specific antibodies against N. caninum is hampered by potential cross-reaction with other Coccidia. So, there is currently an urgent need for a sensitive and specific diagnostic assay for detecting N. caninum in animals. The N. caninum 40-kD surface antigen (p40), similar to NcSAG1 and NcSRS2, was shown to belong to surface antigen super family and thus represents an excellent marker for the diagnosis of neosporosis. In order to test the hypothesis, recombinant Ncp40 (rNcp40) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and an indirect ELISA test was developed using recombinant NCp40 antigen for N. caninum serodiagnosis. The antigen used in this study did not have cross-reactivity with anti-Toxoplasma gondii serum. Anti-p40 antibodies were detected by ELISA in the sera of Yellow cattle and were compared with (IFAT). Optimal sensitivity and specificity (98.2 and 98.6 %) were identified by IFAT. Additionally, 37 positive sera of T. gondii were detected and there was no significant difference with the negative serum of N. caninum. The rNcp40 ELISA developed here provides a specific and sensitive assay for detecting neosporosis in cattle.

  7. Effect of surface oxidation on thermomechanical behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ching Wei; Mahmud, Abdus Samad

    2017-12-01

    Nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy is a unique alloy that exhibits special behavior that recovers fully its shape after being deformed to beyond elastic region. However, this alloy is sensitive to any changes of its composition and introduction of inclusion in its matrix. Heat treatment of NiTi shape memory alloy to above 600 °C leads to the formation of the titanium oxide (TiO2) layer. Titanium oxide is a ceramic material that does not exhibit shape memory behaviors and possess different mechanical properties than that of NiTi alloy, thus disturbs the shape memory behavior of the alloy. In this work, the effect of formation of TiO2 surface oxide layer towards the thermal phase transformation and stress-induced deformation behaviors of the NiTi alloy were studied. The NiTi wire with composition of Ti-50.6 at% Ni was subjected to thermal oxidation at 600 °C to 900 °C for 30 and 60 minutes. The formation of the surface oxide layers was characterized by using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The effect of surface oxide layers with different thickness towards the thermal phase transformation behavior was studied by using the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The effect of surface oxidation towards the stress-induced deformation behavior was studied through the tensile deformation test. The stress-induced deformation behavior and the shape memory recovery of the NiTi wire under tensile deformation were found to be affected marginally by the formation of thick TiO2 layer.

  8. Comparative analysis of the expression of surface markers on fibroblasts and fibroblast-like cells isolated from different human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupatov, A Yu; Vdovin, A S; Vakhrushev, I V; Poltavtseva, R A; Yarygin, K N

    2015-02-01

    Expression of 20 surface markers was analyzed in cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells of the umbilical cord, fibroblasts from adult and fetal human skin, and fibroblast-like cells of fetal liver was analyzed by fl ow cytometry. The studied cultures did not express hemopoietic cells markers, but were positive for CD73, CD90, and CD105 markers recommended by the International Society of Cell Therapy for the identification of the multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. Fetal liver fibroblast-like cells were positive for CD54; this marker was absent in skin fibroblast cultures, but was expressed by umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells. Further study of these cells revealed a minor subpopulation of cells co-expressing CD24 and CD90 or CD24 and CD54. We hypothesized that these cells probably participate in epithelial mesenchymal transition.

  9. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across Generations (RK and M). A Literature Survey on Markers and Memory Preservation for Deep Geological Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buser, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This study is an English translation and slight update of a previous study originally commissioned by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy between 2008 and 2010. The intention was to investigate the 'state of the art' on marking with a view to learning lessons for geological repositories. This is an edited and slightly updated English translation, published by the NEA as part of the RWMC project 'The Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations'. The work is conceived as a literature study. It considers over 150 texts, published between 1928 and 2013. Texts published between the 1990 and 2010 form a majority, making the 1990's and 2000's the dominant era. The texts include technical reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, implementation plans, national regulations, and full-length books. Some publications are specifically about the concept, implementation and requirements for Markers. Others consider the geological disposal of radioactive from other points of view - for example, archiving, or intrusion scenarios. Others are publications on history or futurism, including histories of genocide and language, and the possibilities of communication far into the future. Authors of the texts include academies, international organisations, consultants commissioned by national organisations, regulators, implementers, and protest groups. It should be recognised that, whilst care has been taken to provide a wide and representative study, the concept of 'marking' a geological repository was first established in the USA. The available literature on Markers is still dominated by work carried out in the USA in the 1980's, 1990's and 2000's. The conclusions and points of view surveyed are therefore weighted towards this body of work. The study brings together the knowledge and experience from the field of marking and archiving from the last few decades and provides an overview of the present status of discussions on the topic. It is an

  10. Surface characterizations of laser modified biomedical grade NiTi shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pequegnat, A. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining (CAMJ), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology (CBB), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Michael, A., E-mail: a2michae@uwaterloo.ca [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining (CAMJ), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology (CBB), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wang, J. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining (CAMJ), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology (CBB), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Lian, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, ON M5S 3E4 (Canada); Zhou, Y. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining (CAMJ), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology (CBB), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Khan, M.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, ON M5S 3E4 (Canada); Smarter Alloys, Inc., MaRS Centre, South Tower, 101 College Street, Suite 200, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7 (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Laser processing of shape memory alloys (SMAs) promises to enable the multifunctional capabilities needed for medical device applications. Prior to clinical implementation, the surface characterisation of laser processed SMA is essential in order to understand any adverse biological interaction that may occur. The current study systematically investigated two Ni-49.8 at.% Ti SMA laser processed surface finishes, including as-processed and polished, while comparing them to a chemically etched parent material. Spectrographic characterisation of the surface included; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and Raman spectroscopy. Corrosion performance and Ni ion release were also assessed using potentiodynamic cyclic polarization testing and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. Results showed that surface defects, including increased roughness, crystallinity and presence of volatile oxide species, overshadowed any possible performance improvements from an increased Ti/Ni ratio or inclusion dissolution imparted by laser processing. However, post-laser process mechanical polishing was shown to remove these defects and restore the performance, making it comparable to chemically etched NiTi material. - Highlights: • Laser processed NiTi shape memory alloy surfaces were systematically characterized. • Chemistry, oxide thickness, composition, microstructure, and roughness were identified. • Localized superficial defects dictated corrosion and Ni ion release performance. • Mechanical polishing restored corrosion performance. • Bulk material corrosion performance was unaffected by pulsed laser process.

  11. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression.

  12. Bryophyte diaspore bank: a genetic memory? Genetic structure and genetic diversity of surface populations and diaspore bank in the liverwort Mannia fragrans (Aytoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Zsófia; Szövényi, Péter; Schneller, Jakob J; Tóth, Zoltán; Urmi, Edwin

    2008-05-01

    Propagule banks are assumed to be able to store considerable genetic variability. Bryophyte populations are expected to rely more heavily on stored propagules than those of seed plants due to the vulnerability of the haploid gametophyte. This reliance has important implications for the genetic structure and evolutionary potential of surface populations. A liverwort, Mannia fragrans, was used to test whether the bryophyte diaspore bank functions as a "genetic memory." If a diaspore bank is capable of conserving genetic variability over generations, the levels of genetic diversity in the soil are expected to be similar or higher than at the surface. Surface and diaspore bank constituents of two populations of M. fragrans were investigated. Genetic structure and diversity measured as unbiased heterozygosity were analyzed using three ISSR markers. Similar genetic diversities were found in the soil (H(s) = 0.067) and at the surface (H(s)= 0.082). However, more haplotypes and specific haplotype lineages were present in soil samples. The results suggest that the bryophyte diaspore bank has an important role in accumulating genetic variability over generations and seasons. It is postulated that the role of the diaspore bank as a "genetic memory" is especially important in species of temporarily available habitats that have long-lived spores and genetically variable populations.

  13. Isolation of Pancreatic Progenitor Cells with the Surface Marker of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To isolate pancreatic progenitor cells with the surface markers of hematopoietic stem cells, the expression of stem cell antigen (Sca-1 and c-Kit and the coexpression of them with pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1, neurogenin 3 (Ngn3, and insulin were examined in murine embryonic pancreas. Then different pancreatic cell subpopulations were isolated by magnet-activated cell sorting. Isolated cells were cultured overnight in hanging drops. When cells formed spheres, they were laid on floating filters at the air/medium interface. With this new culture system, pancreatic progenitor cells were induced to differentiate to endocrine and exocrine cells. It was shown that c-Kit and Sca-1 were expressed differently in embryonic pancreas at 12.5, 15.5, and 17.5 days of gestation. The expression of c-Kit and Sca-1 was the highest at 15.5 days of gestation. c-Kit rather than Sca-1 coexpressed with PDX-1, Ngn3, and insulin. Cells differentiated from c-Kit-positive cells contained more insulin-producing cells and secreted more insulin in response to glucose stimulation than that from c-Kit-negative cells. These results suggested that c-Kit could be used to isolate pancreatic progenitor cells and our new culture system permitted pancreatic progenitor cells to differentiate to mature endocrine cells.

  14. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  15. Laser Shock Wave-Assisted Patterning on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhom, Saidjafarzoda; Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Kholikov, Khomidkohodza; Thomas, Zachary; Er, Ali O.; Li, Peizhen; Karaca, Haluk E.; San, Omer

    2018-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of smart materials and they were employed in various applications in engineering, biomedical, and aerospace technologies. Here, we report an advanced, efficient, and low-cost direct imprinting method with low environmental impact to create thermally controllable surface patterns. Patterned microindents were generated on Ni50Ti50 (at. %) SMAs using an Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm wavelength at 10 Hz. Laser pulses at selected fluences were focused on the NiTi surface and generated pressure pulses of up to a few GPa. Optical microscope images showed that surface patterns with tailorable sizes can be obtained. The depth of the patterns increases with laser power and irradiation time. Upon heating, the depth profile of SMA surfaces changed where the maximum depth recovery ratio of 30% was observed. Recovery ratio decreased and stabilized when the number of pulses and thus the well depth were further increased. A numerical simulation of pressure evolution in shape memory alloys showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The stress wave closely followed the rise time of the laser pulse to its peak value and initial decay. Rapid attenuation and dispersion of the stress wave were found in our simulation.

  16. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across Generations (RK and M). Markers - Reflections on Inter-generational Warnings in the Form of Japanese Tsunami Stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, Claudio; Botezvan, Radu; Luik, Abe; Holtorf, Cornelius; Van Wyck, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    As states with nuclear power programmes are, or intend to become, engaged in planning the disposal of their high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in deep geological repositories, means to ensure that future generations will be aware of these repositories and not disturb them are being studied. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations, launched in March 2010, is the relevant initiative under the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee in this area. Its several years of work and findings are documented online at www.oecdnea. org/rwm/rkm. A strategy of communicating important information to future generations must be based on several complementary means and approaches. Markers placed in the vicinity of closed repositories represent one potential component of this strategy. The RK and M initiative's glossary defines a marker as 'a long-lasting object that indicates an area of influence, power or danger. It is placed strategically at or near the site for immediate recognition or for discovery at a later time'. Markers are meant to reach future generations in the medium (a few hundred years) to long term (hundred thousand of years) and are conceived to be immobile (that is, in permanent association with a site), robust (in order to maximize survivability on its own) and provide messages that are likely to be understandable across generations. A marking system can range from a simple stone to a contrived and monumental multi-component system. The present report seeks to develop the understanding of the potential effectiveness of makers drawing from the study of the role that stone markers played in Japan during the Tohoku tsunami event of 2011. There are hundreds such markers placed at various epochs on Japan's north-eastern coast to warn future generations about the dangers of tsunamis. The existence of markers for recurrent, destructive events may help save lives, as in the case of the villages of Murohama and Aneyoshi

  17. The Cell Surface Structure of Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) is Regulated by the Actin Cytoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Mi Young; Chaudhary, Amit; Seaman, Steven; Dunty, Jill; Stevens, Janine; Elzarrad, Mohammed K.; Frankel, Arthur E.; St. Croix, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) is an integrin-like cell surface protein upregulated on tumor blood vessels and a potential vascular target for cancer therapy. Here, we found that the ability of an anti-TEM8 antibody, clone SB5, to recognize the extracellular domain of TEM8 on the cell surface depends on other host-cell factors. By taking advantage of SB5’s ability to distinguish different forms of cell-surface TEM8, we identified alpha-smooth muscle actin and transgelin, an actin binding p...

  18. Plasma immersion ion implantation of polyurethane shape memory polymer: Surface properties and protein immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xinying; Kondyurin, Alexey; Bao, Shisan; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Ye, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Polyurethane-type shape memory polymers (SMPU) are promising biomedical implant materials due to their ability to recover to a predetermined shape from a temporary shape induced by thermal activation close to human body temperature and their advantageous mechanical properties including large recovery strains and low recovery stresses. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a surface modification process using energetic ions that generates radicals in polymer surfaces leading to carbonisation and oxidation and the ability to covalently immobilise proteins without the need for wet chemistry. Here we show that PIII treatment of SMPU significantly enhances its bioactivity making SMPU suitable for applications in permanent implantable biomedical devices. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, surface energy measurements, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterise the PIII modified surface, including its after treatment aging kinetics and its capability to covalently immobilise protein directly from solution. The results show a substantial improvement in wettability and dramatic changes of surface chemical composition dependent on treatment duration, due to the generation of radicals and subsequent oxidation. The SMPU surface, PIII treated for 200s, achieved a saturated level of covalently immobilized protein indicating that a full monolayer coverage was achieved. We conclude that PIII is a promising and efficient surface modification method to enhance the biocompatibility of SMPU for use in medical applications that demand bioactivity for tissue integration and stability in vivo.

  19. Surface expression of NMDA receptor changes during memory consolidation in the crab Neohelice granulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Yanil; Salles, Angeles; Carbo-Tano, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the surface expression of the NMDA-like receptors during the consolidation of contextual learning in the crab Neohelice granulata. Memory storage is based on alterations in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. The glutamatergic synapses undergo various forms of N-methyl-D aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent changes in strength, a process that affects the abundance of other receptors at the synapse and underlies some forms of learning and memory. Here we propose a direct regulation of the NMDAR. Changes in NMDAR's functionality might be induced by the modification of the subunit's expression or cellular trafficking. This trafficking does not only include NMDAR's movement between synaptic and extra-synaptic localizations but also the cycling between intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane, a process called surface expression. Consolidation of contextual learning affects the surface expression of the receptor without affecting its general expression. The surface expression of the GluN1 subunit of the NMDAR is down-regulated immediately after training, up-regulated 3 h after training and returns to naïve and control levels 24 h after training. The changes in NMDAR surface expression observed in the central brain are not seen in the thoracic ganglion. A similar increment in surface expression of GluN1 in the central brain is observed 3 h after administration of the competitive GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. These consolidation changes are part of a plasticity event that first, during the down-regulation, stabilizes the trace and later, at 3-h post-training, changes the threshold for synapse activation. PMID:27421895

  20. Stem Cell Surface Marker Expression Defines Late Stages of Reprogramming to Pluripotency in Human Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Jordan E; Hough, Shelley R; Davidson, Kathryn C; Quaas, Alex M; Rees, Jordan A; Pera, Martin F

    2016-07-01

    Our current understanding of the induction of pluripotency by defined factors indicates that this process occurs in discrete stages characterized by specific alterations in the cellular transcriptome and epigenome. However, the final phase of the reprogramming process is incompletely understood. We sought to generate tools to characterize the transition to a fully reprogramed state. We used combinations of stem cell surface markers to isolate colonies emerging after transfection of human fibroblasts with reprogramming factors and then analyzed their expression of genes associated with pluripotency and early germ lineage specification. We found that expression of a subset of these genes, including the cell-cell adhesion molecule CDH3, characterized a late stage in the reprogramming process. Combined live-cell staining with the antibody GCTM-2 and anti-CDH3 during reprogramming identified colonies of cells that showed gene expression patterns very similar to those of embryonic stem cell or established induced pluripotent stem cell lines, and gave rise to stable induced pluripotent stem cell lines at high frequency. Our findings will facilitate studies of the final stages of reprogramming of human cells to pluripotency and will provide a simple means for prospective identification of fully reprogrammed cells. Reprogramming of differentiated cells back to an embryonic pluripotent state has wide ranging applications in understanding and treating human disease. However, how cells traverse the barriers on the journey to pluripotency still is not fully understood. This report describes tools to study the late stages of cellular reprogramming. The findings enable a more precise approach to dissecting the final phases of conversion to pluripotency, a process that is particularly poorly defined. The results of this study also provide a simple new method for the selection of fully reprogrammed cells, which could enhance the efficiency of derivation of cell lines for research

  1. Relationship of CD86 surface marker expression and cytotoxicity on dendritic cells exposed to chemical allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulette, Ben C.; Ryan, Cindy A.; Gildea, Lucy A.; Gerberick, G. Frank

    2005-01-01

    Human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells (DC) respond to a variety of chemical allergens by up-regulating expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86. It has been postulated that this measure might provide the basis for an in vitro alternative approach for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals. We recently reported that DC, exposed in culture to the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of various chemical allergens, displayed marginal up-regulation of membrane CD86 expression; the interpretation being that such changes were insufficiently sensitive for the purposes of hazard identification. For the work presented here, immature DC were derived from human monocytes and treated with the chemical allergens 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), nickel sulfate (NiSO 4 ), p-phenylenediamine (PPD), Bandrowski's base (BB), hydroquinone (HQ) and propyl gallate (PG) for 48 h at concentrations which induced both no to slight to moderate cytotoxicity. For comparison, DC were treated with the irritants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), benzoic acid (BA), and benzalkonium chloride (BZC) at concentrations resulting in comparable levels of cytotoxicity. CD86 expression, as measured by flow cytometry, was consistently up-regulated (ranging from 162 to 386% control) on DC treated with concentrations of chemical allergens that induced approximately 10-15% cytotoxicity. The irritants BA and BZC did not induce up-regulation of CD86 expression when tested at concentrations that induced similar levels of cytotoxicity. SDS, however, up-regulated CD86 expression to 125-138% of control in 2/4 preparations when tested at concentrations which induced similar toxicity. Our results confirm that chemical allergens up-regulate CD86 expression on blood-derived DC and illustrate further that up-regulation of CD86 surface marker expression is more robust when DC are treated with concentrations of chemical allergen that induce slight to moderate cytotoxicity

  2. Refrigerated storage of platelets initiates changes in platelet surface marker expression and localization of intracellular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ben; Padula, Matthew P; Marks, Denese C; Johnson, Lacey

    2016-10-01

    Platelets (PLTs) are currently stored at room temperature (22°C), which limits their shelf life, primarily due to the risk of bacterial growth. Alternatives to room temperature storage include PLT refrigeration (2-6°C), which inhibits bacterial growth, thus potentially allowing an extension of shelf life. Additionally, refrigerated PLTs appear more hemostatically active than conventional PLTs, which may be beneficial in certain clinical situations. However, the mechanisms responsible for this hemostatic function are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to assess the protein profile of refrigerated PLTs in an effort to understand these functional consequences. Buffy coat PLTs were pooled, split, and stored either at room temperature (20-24°C) or under refrigerated (2-6°C) conditions (n = 8 in each group). PLTs were assessed for changes in external receptor expression and actin filamentation using flow cytometry. Intracellular proteomic changes were assessed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. PLT refrigeration significantly reduced the abundance of glycoproteins (GPIb, GPIX, GPIIb, and GPIV) on the external membrane. However, refrigeration resulted in the increased expression of high-affinity integrins (αIIbβ3 and β1) and activation and apoptosis markers (CD62P, CD63, and phosphatidylserine). PLT refrigeration substantially altered the abundance and localization of several cytoskeletal proteins and resulted in an increase in actin filamentation, as measured by phalloidin staining. Refrigerated storage of PLTs induces significant changes in the expression and localization of both surface-expressed and intracellular proteins. Understanding these proteomic changes may help to identify the mechanisms resulting in the refrigeration-associated alterations in PLT function and clearance. © 2016 AABB.

  3. Chronic Exposure to Malaria Is Associated with Inhibitory and Activation Markers on Atypical Memory B Cells and Marginal Zone-Like B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Ubillos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In persistent infections that are accompanied by chronic immune activation, such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria, there is an increased frequency of a phenotypically distinct subset of memory B cells lacking the classic memory marker CD27 and showing a reduced capacity to produce antibodies. However, critical knowledge gaps remain on specific B cell changes and immune adaptation in chronic infections. We hypothesized that expansion of atypical memory B cells (aMBCs and reduction of activated peripheral marginal zone (MZ-like B cells in constantly exposed individuals might be accompanied by phenotypic changes that would confer a tolerogenic profile, helping to establish tolerance to infections. To better understand malaria-associated phenotypic abnormalities on B cells, we analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 55 pregnant women living in a malaria-endemic area of Papua Nueva Guinea and 9 Spanish malaria-naïve individuals using four 11-color flow cytometry panels. We assessed the expression of markers of B cell specificity (IgG and IgM, activation (CD40, CD80, CD86, b220, TACI, and CD150, inhibition (PD1, CD95, and CD71, and migration (CCR3, CXCR3, and CD62l. We found higher frequencies of active and resting aMBC and marked reduction of MZ-like B cells, although changes in absolute cell counts could not be assessed. Highly exposed women had higher PD1+-, CD95+-, CD40+-, CD71+-, and CD80+-activated aMBC frequencies than non-exposed subjects. Malaria exposure increased frequencies of b220 and proapoptotic markers PD1 and CD95, and decreased expression of the activation marker TACI on MZ-like B cells. The increased frequencies of inhibitory and apoptotic markers on activated aMBCs and MZ-like B cells in malaria-exposed adults suggest an immune-homeostatic mechanism for maintaining B cell development and function while simultaneously downregulating hyperreactive B cells. This mechanism would keep the B cell

  4. Surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up vs. CBCT for radiotherapy of the thorax and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallotta, Stefania; Bucciolini, Marta; Vanzi, Eleonora; Marrazzo, Livia; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Paiar, Fabiola; Ceroti, Marco; Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up in radiotherapy of thoracic and pelvic regions, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data as the gold standard. Twenty patients were included in this study. CBCT, surface acquisition (SA), and two orthogonal portal images (PI) were acquired during the first four treatment sessions. Patient set-up corrections, obtained by registering the planning CT with CBCT, were used as the gold standard. Registration results of the PI and SA were evaluated and compared with those obtained with CBCT. The advantage derived from using SA or PI verification systems over a skin marker set-up was also quantified. A statistically significant difference between PI and SA (in favour of PI) was observed in seven patients undergoing treatment of the pelvic region and in two patients undergoing treatment of the thoracic region. The use of SA or PI, compared with a skin marker set-up, improved patient positioning in 50% and 57 % of the thoracic fractions, respectively. For pelvic fractions, the use of PI was beneficial in 73 % of the cases, while the use of SA was beneficial in only 45 %. Patient positioning worsened with SA, particularly along longitudinal and vertical directions. PI yielded more accurate registration results than SA for both pelvic and thoracic fractions. Compared with the skin marker set-up, PI performances were superior to SA for pelvic fractions while comparable results were obtained for thoracic fractions. (orig.) [de

  5. The thrombopoietin receptor, c-Mpl, is a selective surface marker for human hematopoietic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr William G

    2006-02-01

    from mid-fetal through adult life. This study extends our previous work documenting human B-lineage, myeloid and CD34+ cell repopulation by c-mpl+ progenitors to show that c-mpl+ HSC/PC are also capable of significant T-lineage reconstitution in vivo. These results suggest that c-mpl merits consideration as a selective surface marker for the identification and isolation of human HSC in both basic research and clinical settings.

  6. Interpreting potential markers of storage and rehearsal: Implications for studies of verbal short-term memory and neuropsychological cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Logie, Robert H; Jarrold, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychological studies of verbal short-term memory have often focused on two signature effects - phonological similarity and word length - the absence of which has been taken to indicate problems in phonological storage and rehearsal respectively. In the present study we present a possible alternative reading of such data, namely that the absence of these effects can follow as a consequence of an individual's poor level of recall. Data from a large normative sample of 251 adult participants were re-analyzed under the assumption that the size of phonological similarity and word length effects are proportional to an individual's overall level of recall. For both manipulations, when proportionalized effects were plotted against memory span, the same function fit the data in both auditory and visual presentation conditions. Furthermore, two additional sets of single-case data were broadly comparable to those that would be expected for an individual's level of verbal short-term memory performance albeit with some variation across tasks. These findings indicate that the absolute magnitude of phonological similarity and word length effects depends on overall levels of recall, and that these effects are necessarily eliminated at low levels of verbal short-term memory performance. This has implications for how one interprets any variation in the size of these effects, and raises serious questions about the causal direction of any relationship between impaired verbal short-term memory and the absence of phonological similarity or word length effects.

  7. Sleep spindles: a physiological marker of age-related changes in gray matter in brain regions supporting motor skill memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Stuart; Vien, Catherine; Karni, Avi; Benali, Habib; Carrier, Julie; Doyon, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is necessary for the optimal consolidation of procedural learning, and in particular, for motor sequential skills. Motor sequence learning remains intact with age, but sleep-dependent consolidation is impaired, suggesting that memory deficits for procedural skills are specifically impacted by age-related changes in sleep. Age-related changes in spindles may be responsible for impaired motor sequence learning consolidation, but the morphological basis for this deficit is unknown. Here, we found that gray matter in the hippocampus and cerebellum was positively correlated with both sleep spindles and offline improvements in performance in young participants but not in older participants. These results suggest that age-related changes in gray matter in the hippocampus relate to spindles and may underlie age-related deficits in sleep-related motor sequence memory consolidation. In this way, spindles can serve as a biological marker for structural brain changes and the related memory deficits in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of spatial learning and memory, cortical gyrification patterns and brain oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats treated with Ficus deltoidea leaf extract and vitexin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nurdiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Ficus deltoidea and vitexin played important roles in controlling hyperglycemia, an effective mitigation strategy dealing with cognitive deficit observed in diabetes, little is known about its neuroprotective effects. The study is aimed to determine changes in behavioral, gyrification patterns and brain oxidative stress markers in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats following F. deltoidea and vitexin treatments. Diabetic rats were treated orally with metformin, methanolic extract of F. deltoidea leaves and vitexin for eight weeks. Morris water maze (MWM test was performed to evaluate learning and memory functions. The patterns of cortical gyrification were subsequently visualized using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. Quantification of brain oxidative stress biomarkers, insulin, amylin as well as serum testosterone were measured using a spectrophotometer. The brain fatty acid composition was determined using gas chromatography (GC. Biochemical variation in brain was estimated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. Results showed that oral administration of F. deltoidea extract and vitexin to diabetic rats attenuated learning and memory impairment, along with several clusters of improved gyrification. Both treatments also caused a significant increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx values, as well as a significant reduction of TBARS. Strikingly, improvement of cortical gyrification, spatial learning and memory are supported by serum testosterone levels, fatty acid composition of brain and FT-IR spectra.

  9. Surface microstructures and corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti-Nb shape memory thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Xu [Memry Corporation, Bethel, CT 06801 (United States); Gibson, Des [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jiao; Sun, Lu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Fu, Yong Qing, E-mail: richard.fu@northumbria.ac.uk [Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • The corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti-Nb shape memory thin films is investigated. • Modified surface oxide layers improve the corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti-Nb films. • Further Nb additions reduce the potential corrosion tendency of the films. - Abstract: Ni-Ti-Nb and Ni-Ti shape memory thin films were sputter-deposited onto silicon substrates and annealed at 600 °C for crystallization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that all of the annealed Ni-Ti-Nb films were composed of crystalline Ni-Ti (Nb) and Nb-rich grains. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) tests showed that the surfaces of Ni-Ti-Nb films were covered with Ti oxides, NiO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti-Nb films in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated using electrochemical tests such as open-circuit potential (OCP) and potentio-dynamic polarization tests. Ni-Ti-Nb films showed higher OCPs, higher corrosion potentials (E{sub corr}) and lower corrosion current densities (i{sub corr}) than the binary Ni-Ti film, which indicated a better corrosion resistance. The reason may be that Nb additions modified the passive layer on the film surface. The OCPs of Ni-Ti-Nb films increased with further Nb additions, whereas no apparent difference of E{sub corr} and i{sub corr} was found among the Ni-Ti-Nb films.

  10. Posttraining Increases in REM Sleep Intensity Implicate REM Sleep in Memory Processing and Provide a Biological Marker of Learning Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Rebecca S.; Smith, Carlyle T.; Nixon, Margaret R.

    2004-01-01

    Posttraining rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been reported to be important for efficient memory consolidation. The present results demonstrate increases in the intensity of REM sleep during the night of sleep following cognitive procedural/implicit task acquisition. These REM increases manifest as increases in total number of rapid eye…

  11. Fornix As An Imaging Marker For Episodic Memory Deficits In Healthy Aging and in Various Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eDouet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fornix is a part of the limbic system and constitutes the major efferent and afferent white matter tracts from the hippocampi. The underdevelopment of or injuries to the fornix are strongly associated with memory deficits. Its role in memory impairments was suggested long ago with cases of surgical forniceal transaction. However, recent advances in brain imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging; enabling more qualitative and quantitative studies, have revealed that macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities of the fornix correlated highly with declarative and episodic memory performance. This structure appears to provide a robust and early imaging predictor for memory deficits not only in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis, but also in schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders, and during neurodevelopment and typical aging. The objective of the manuscript is to present a systematic review regarding published brain imaging research on the fornix, including the development of its tracts, its role in various neurological diseases, and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in human studies.

  12. Fornix as an imaging marker for episodic memory deficits in healthy aging and in various neurological disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Vanessa; Chang, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The fornix is a part of the limbic system and constitutes the major efferent and afferent white matter tracts from the hippocampi. The underdevelopment of or injuries to the fornix are strongly associated with memory deficits. Its role in memory impairments was suggested long ago with cases of surgical forniceal transections. However, recent advances in brain imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, have revealed that macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities of the fornix correlated highly with declarative and episodic memory performance. This structure appears to provide a robust and early imaging predictor for memory deficits not only in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, but also in schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders, and during neurodevelopment and “typical” aging. The objective of the manuscript is to present a systematic review regarding published brain imaging research on the fornix, including the development of its tracts, its role in various neurological diseases, and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in human studies. PMID:25642186

  13. Smooth ROC curves and surfaces for markers subject to a limit of detection using monotone natural cubic splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantis, Leonidas E; Tsimikas, John V; Georgiou, Stelios D

    2013-09-01

    The use of ROC curves in evaluating a continuous or ordinal biomarker for the discrimination of two populations is commonplace. However, in many settings, marker measurements above or below a certain value cannot be obtained. In this paper, we study the construction of a smooth ROC curve (or surface in the case of three populations) when there is a lower or upper limit of detection. We propose the use of spline models that incorporate monotonicity constraints for the cumulative hazard function of the marker distribution. The proposed technique is computationally stable and simulation results showed a satisfactory performance. Other observed covariates can be also accommodated by this spline-based approach. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A method of surface marker location optimization for tumor motion estimation in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bo; Park, Justin C.; Fan, Qiyong; Kahler, Darren; Liu, Chihray; Chen, Yunmei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Accurately localizing lung tumor localization is essential for high-precision radiation therapy techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Since direct monitoring of tumor motion is not always achievable due to the limitation of imaging modalities for treatment guidance, placement of fiducial markers on the patient’s body surface to act as a surrogate for tumor position prediction is a practical alternative for tracking lung tumor motion during SBRT treatments. In this work, the authors propose an innovative and robust model to solve the multimarker position optimization problem. The model is able to overcome the major drawbacks of the sparse optimization approach (SOA) model. Methods: The principle-component-analysis (PCA) method was employed as the framework to build the authors’ statistical prediction model. The method can be divided into two stages. The first stage is to build the surrogate tumor matrix and calculate its eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors. The second stage is to determine the “best represented” columns of the eigenvector matrix obtained from stage one and subsequently acquire the optimal marker positions as well as numbers. Using 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and breath hold CT imaging data, the PCA method was compared to the SOA method with respect to calculation time, average prediction accuracy, prediction stability, noise resistance, marker position consistency, and marker distribution. Results: The PCA and SOA methods which were both tested were on all 11 patients for a total of 130 cases including 4DCT and breath-hold CT scenarios. The maximum calculation time for the PCA method was less than 1 s with 64 752 surface points, whereas the average calculation time for the SOA method was over 12 min with 400 surface points. Overall, the tumor center position prediction errors were comparable between the two methods, and all were less than 1.5 mm. However, for the extreme scenarios (breath hold), the

  15. Neural markers of age-related reserve and decline in visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Attentional performance is assumed to be a major source of general cognitive abilities in older age. The present study aimed at identifying neural markers of preserved and declined basic visual attention functions in aging individuals. For groups of younger and older adults, we modeled general...... capacity parameters, visual perceptual processing speed C and vSTM storage capacity K, based on Bundesen’s formal ‘Theory of Visual Attention’, and recorded ERPs of the same participants. First, in both age groups, parameters were correlated with the same distinct ERP markers of C and K, respectively...

  16. Surface effects of electrode-dependent switching behavior of resistive random-access memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr Jian

    2016-09-26

    The surface effects of ZnO-based resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) were investigated using various electrodes. Pt electrodes were found to have better performance in terms of the device\\'s switching functionality. A thermodynamic model of the oxygen chemisorption process was proposed to explain this electrode-dependent switching behavior. The temperature-dependent switching voltage demonstrates that the ReRAM devices fabricated with Pt electrodes have a lower activation energy for the chemisorption process, resulting in a better resistive switching performance. These findings provide an in-depth understanding of electrode-dependent switching behaviors and can serve as design guidelines for future ReRAM devices.

  17. Memory for surface features of unfamiliar melodies: independent effects of changes in pitch and tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M; Marks, Bradley M

    2014-01-01

    A melody's identity is determined by relations between consecutive tones in terms of pitch and duration, whereas surface features (i.e., pitch level or key, tempo, and timbre) are irrelevant. Although surface features of highly familiar recordings are encoded into memory, little is known about listeners' mental representations of melodies heard once or twice. It is also unknown whether musical pitch is represented additively or interactively with temporal information. In two experiments, listeners heard unfamiliar melodies twice in an initial exposure phase. In a subsequent test phase, they heard the same (old) melodies interspersed with new melodies. Some of the old melodies were shifted in key, tempo, or key and tempo. Listeners' task was to rate how well they recognized each melody from the exposure phase while ignoring changes in key and tempo. Recognition ratings were higher for old melodies that stayed the same compared to those that were shifted in key or tempo, and detrimental effects of key and tempo changes were additive in between-subjects (Experiment 1) and within-subjects (Experiment 2) designs. The results confirm that surface features are remembered for melodies heard only twice. They also imply that key and tempo are processed and stored independently.

  18. Laboratory studies of spectroscopic markers for the characterization of surface erosion by plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, D.M.; Bennett, T.; Herzer, M.; Schwarzmann, J.

    1992-01-01

    The erosion rates in portions of fusion plasma devices like the ITER tokamak are sufficiently high that nearly real-time information on cumulative removal is needed for control and machine safety. We are developing a digitally--encoded scheme to indicate the depth of erosion at numerous poloidal and toroidal locations around ITER. The scheme uses materials embedded in the walls and divertors, which, when uncovered, present remotely detectable signals. This paper reports laboratory experiments on prototype markers consisting of combinations of up to 5 elements (Au,Pd,Ag,In,Ga) along with Au,Pt, and Ta pure metals. The markers were bonded to 4-D carbon-carbon composite of the type proposed for use in the ITER first wall, and placed in the lower-hybrid-driven plasma of the atomic beam facility at PPL. The paper describes this device Light emission was characterized using a 1 meter Czerny-Turner vacuum ultraviolet monochromator. The samples were characterized both before and after plasma exposure by Auger spectroscopy. We report the time-dependent behavior of the spectra of the visible and ultraviolet light emitted by the plasma when the markers are uncovered by the erosion showing emission lines of the marker elements which are easily distinguished from the background plasma lines. The dependence of the light intensity on bias voltage is compared to the known sputtering yields of the elements. The optical detection method allows exploration of the threshold dependence of these multi-element targets. An exponential dependence of yield above threshold was observed for all of the elements studied

  19. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Borowski, Tomasz; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Lelątko, Józef; Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Low temperature plasma nitriding process of NiTi shape memory alloy is presented. • The possibility of treatment details of sophisticated shape. • TiN surface layer has diffusive character. • TiN surface layer increases corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy. • Produced TiN layer modify the biological properties of NiTi alloy. - Abstract: NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications

  20. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Borowski, Tomasz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Sowińska, Agnieszka [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Lelątko, Józef [Silesia University, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Wierzchoń, Tadeusz, E-mail: twierz@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Low temperature plasma nitriding process of NiTi shape memory alloy is presented. • The possibility of treatment details of sophisticated shape. • TiN surface layer has diffusive character. • TiN surface layer increases corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy. • Produced TiN layer modify the biological properties of NiTi alloy. - Abstract: NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications.

  1. Memory effect in the deposition of C20 fullerenes on a diamond surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, A. J.; Pan, Z. Y.; Ho, Y. K.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, Z. X.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, the deposition of C20 fullerenes on a diamond (001)-(2×1) surface and the fabrication of C20 thin film at 100 K were investigated by a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using the many-body Brenner bond order potential. First, we found that the collision dynamic of a single C20 fullerene on a diamond surface was strongly dependent on its impact energy. Within the energy range 10-45 eV, the C20 fullerene chemisorbed on the surface retained its free cage structure. This is consistent with the experimental observation, where it was called the memory effect in ``C20-type'' films [P. Melion et al., Int. J. Mod. B 9, 339 (1995); P. Milani et al., Cluster Beam Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials (Springer, Berlin, 1999)]. Next, more than one hundred C20 (10-25 eV) were deposited one after the other onto the surface. The initial growth stage of C20 thin film was observed to be in the three-dimensional island mode. The randomly deposited C20 fullerenes stacked on diamond surface and acted as building blocks forming a polymerlike structure. The assembled film was also highly porous due to cluster-cluster interaction. The bond angle distribution and the neighbor-atom-number distribution of the film presented a well-defined local order, which is of sp3 hybridization character, the same as that of a free C20 cage. These simulation results are again in good agreement with the experimental observation. Finally, the deposited C20 film showed high stability even when the temperature was raised up to 1500 K.

  2. A Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Surface N-Glycoproteome Resource Reveals Markers, Extracellular Epitopes, and Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Boheler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed knowledge of cell-surface proteins for isolating well-defined populations of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs would significantly enhance their characterization and translational potential. Through a chemoproteomic approach, we developed a cell-surface proteome inventory containing 496 N-linked glycoproteins on human embryonic (hESCs and induced PSCs (hiPSCs. Against a backdrop of human fibroblasts and 50 other cell types, >100 surface proteins of interest for hPSCs were revealed. The >30 positive and negative markers verified here by orthogonal approaches provide experimental justification for the rational selection of pluripotency and lineage markers, epitopes for cell isolation, and reagents for the characterization of putative hiPSC lines. Comparative differences between the chemoproteomic-defined surfaceome and the transcriptome-predicted surfaceome directly led to the discovery that STF-31, a reported GLUT-1 inhibitor, is toxic to hPSCs and efficient for selective elimination of hPSCs from mixed cultures.

  3. Neural markers of negative symptom outcomes in distributed working memory brain activity of antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, Ayna B.; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Ebdrup, Bjørn H.

    2013-01-01

    but not the default mode network. These preliminary data suggest that functional patterns at baseline can predict negative symptom treatment–response in schizophrenia. This information may be used to stratify patients into subgroups thereby facilitating personalized treatment.......Since working memory deficits in schizophrenia have been linked to negative symptoms, we tested whether features of the one could predict the treatment outcome in the other. Specifically, we hypothesized that working memory-related functional connectivity at pre-treatment can predict improvement...... of negative symptoms in antipsychotic-treated patients. Fourteen antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia were clinically assessed before and after 7 months of quetiapine monotherapy. At baseline, patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a verbal n...

  4. Effects of surface damage on twinning stress and the stability of twin microstructures of magnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielus, Markus; Witherspoon, Cassie; Ullakko, Kari; Muellner, Peter; Schneider, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Electropolishing reduces residual stresses in surfaces of magnetic shape-memory alloys and reduces the twinning stress. → Mechanical polishing and grinding produces a layer of defects on surfaces and increases the twinning stress of magnetic shape-memory alloys. → Defects localized near the surface (surface damage) increase the twinning stress and smoothen the stress-strain curve. → Defects localized near the surface create a stable and dense twin microstructure with mobile twins which extend throughout the entire crystal. → A stable dense twin microstructure provides the basis for fatigue-resistant magnetic shape-memory alloys. - Abstract: Twinning is the primary deformation mechanism in magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs). Obstacles such as inclusions, precipitates and defects hinder or even prevent twin boundary motion in the bulk of Ni-Mn-Ga MSMA single crystals. Here, we study the effect of surface damage on the mechanical properties and twin structure of Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals. Any methods that produce defects may be considered for modifying the near-surface microstructure. In this study deformations were produced by grinding and mechanical polishing using abrasive particles. The amount of damage was characterized with X-ray diffraction: damage causes peak broadening. Deformation and damage localized near the surface increases the twinning stress. Surface damage stabilizes a densely twinned microstructure. The twins are thin but extend over the entire sample and allow a large strain to be accommodated at moderate stress. This effect is critical for preventing damage accumulation in high-cycle magnetomechanical actuation and for achieving high dynamic performance.

  5. Neural markers of age-related reserve and decline in visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Attentional performance is assumed to be a major source of general cognitive abilities in older age. The present study aimed at identifying neural markers of preserved and declined basic visual attention functions in aging individuals. For groups of younger and older adults, we modeled general...... capacity parameters, visual perceptual processing speed C and vSTM storage capacity K, based on Bundesen’s formal ‘Theory of Visual Attention’, and recorded ERPs of the same participants. First, in both age groups, parameters were correlated with the same distinct ERP markers of C and K, respectively...... in older adults, performance in both parameters was related to two further distinct ERP correlates: older participants with higher relative to lower processing speed showed larger anterior N1 amplitudes and older participants with higher relative to lower storage capacity exhibited a right...

  6. Timing of activation of CD4+ memory cells as a possible marker to establish the efficacy of vaccines against contagious agalactia in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnone, Annalisa; La Manna, Marco P; Loria, Guido R; Puleio, Roberto; Villari, Sara; Nicholas, Robin A J; Guggino, Giuliana; Sireci, Guido

    2013-04-15

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is a major pathogen of sheep and goats in many areas of the world and particularly in Mediterranean countries. It causes contagious agalactia, an infectious disease primarily affecting mammary glands. Many vaccines against the pathogen are currently under development. The aim of the study was to investigate the involvement of T cell-mediated immunity during vaccination and challenge experiments against Mycoplasma agalactiae. A comparison of the antigen-specific expansion of interferon gamma positive T cell memory and naïve subsets was performed between vaccinated and non-vaccinated sheep to identify cellular subsets whose activation was different between protected and non-protected sheep. Data reported in this manuscript demonstrated that two out of the three vaccines used in this study protected sheep from the disease. In the protected groups CD4(+) memory interferon-γ(+) T cells underwent an early expansion (pmemory CD8(+) Interferon-γ(+) T cells increased in non-protected animals 7 days after infection (pcells reached peaks of expansion in infected and in two vaccinated groups thus indicating that these cells are not preferentially involved in protection or pathogenesis (pmemory Interferon-γ(+) T cells could be considered as a marker of protection from the disease as well as a tool to establish vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. EEG markers of reduced visual short-term memory capacity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Kilian, Beate; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists frequently into adulthood. The disease is associated with difficulties in many cognitive tasks, which are assumed to be caused by neurobiologically-based basal dysfunctions. A reduction in visual working memory storage capacity has recently...... in individuals with higher compared to lower storage capacity. A later section of the CP was further overall increased in the group of ADHD patients relative to controls. Together, the findings indicate that ADHD patients show disease-specific changes in brain mechanisms underlying visual storage capacity...

  8. Effect of working memory load on electrophysiological markers of visuospatial orienting in a spatial cueing task simulating a traffic situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Alexandra Y; Ross, Veerle; Jongen, Ellen M M; Ruiter, Robert A C; Smulders, Fren T Y

    2016-02-01

    Visuospatial attentional orienting has typically been studied in abstract tasks with low ecological validity. However, real-life tasks such as driving require allocation of working memory (WM) resources to several subtasks over and above orienting in a complex sensory environment. The aims of this study were twofold: firstly, to establish whether electrophysiological signatures of attentional orienting commonly observed under simplified task conditions generalize to a more naturalistic task situation with realistic-looking stimuli, and, secondly, to assess how these signatures are affected by increased WM load under such conditions. Sixteen healthy participants performed a dual task consisting of a spatial cueing paradigm and a concurrent verbal memory task that simulated aspects of an actual traffic situation. Behaviorally, we observed a load-induced detriment of sensitivity to targets. In the EEG, we replicated orienting-related alpha lateralization, the lateralized ERPs ADAN, EDAN, and LDAP, and the P1-N1 attention effect. When WM load was high (i.e., WM resources were reduced), lateralization of oscillatory activity in the lower alpha band was delayed. In the ERPs, we found that ADAN was also delayed, while EDAN was absent. Later ERP correlates were unaffected by load. Our results show that the findings in highly controlled artificial tasks can be generalized to spatial orienting in ecologically more valid tasks, and further suggest that the initiation of spatial orienting is delayed when WM demands of an unrelated secondary task are high. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. The Mesenchymal Precursor Cell Marker Antibody STRO-1 Binds to Cell Surface Heat Shock Cognate 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitter, Stephen; Gronthos, Stan; Ooi, Soo Siang; Zannettino, Andrew C W

    2017-04-01

    Since its discovery more than 25 years ago, the STRO-1 antibody has played a fundamental role in defining the hierarchical nature of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) and their progeny. STRO-1 antibody binding remains a hallmark of immature pluripotent MPC. Despite the significance of STRO-1 in the MPC field, the identity of the antigen has remained elusive. Using a combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, coupled with Western blotting and Tandem mass spectroscopy, we have identified the STRO-1 antigen as heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70;HSPA8). STRO-1 binds to immune-precipitated HSC70 and siRNA-mediated knock down of HSPA8 reduced STRO-1 binding. STRO-1 surface binding does not correlate with HSC70 expression and sequestration of cholesterol reduces STRO-1 surface binding, suggesting that the plasma membrane lipid composition may be an important determinant in the presentation of HSC70 on the cell surface. HSC70 is present on the surface of STRO-1 + but not STRO-1 - cell lines as assessed by cell surface biotinylation and recombinant HSC70 blocks STRO-1 binding to the cell surface. The STRO-1 epitope on HSC70 was mapped to the ATPase domain using a series of deletion mutants in combination with peptide arrays. Deletion of the first four amino acids of the consensus epitope negated STRO-1 binding. Notably, in addition to HSC70, STRO-1 cross-reacts with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), however all the clonogenic cell activity is restricted to the STRO-1 BRIGHT /HSP70 - fraction. These results provide important insight into the properties that define multipotent MPC and provide the impetus to explore the role of cell surface HSC70 in MPC biology. Stem Cells 2017;35:940-951. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Application of Taguchi method to optimization of surface roughness during precise turning of NiTi shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the research results of surface quality research after the NiTi shape memory alloy (Nitinol) precise turning by the tools with edges made of polycrystalline diamonds (PCD). Nitinol, a nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium shape memory alloy, has wide applications in the arms industry, military, medicine and aerospace industry, and industrial robots. Due to their specific properties NiTi alloys are known to be difficult-to-machine materials particularly by using conventional techniques. The research trials were conducted for three independent parameters (vc, f, ap) affecting the surface roughness were analyzed. The choice of parameter configurations were performed by factorial design methods using orthogonal plan type L9, with three control factors, changing on three levels, developed by G. Taguchi. S/N ratio and ANOVA analyses were performed to identify the best of cutting parameters influencing surface roughness.

  11. Monuments in the Structure of an Urban Environment: The Source of Social Memory and the Marker of the Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, N.; Grunt, E.; Merenkov, A.

    2017-10-01

    The major research objective was to analyze the role of monuments in the formation of local residents’ and guests’ representations about the city, its history and traditions. The authors consider the system of monuments’ location in the urban space as a way of its social construction, as the system of influence on citizens’ aesthetic feelings, as the formation of their attitudes towards maintaining of continuity in the activities of different generations for the improvement of the territory of their permanent residence. Methodology. An urban monument is considered in two ways: as a transfer of historical memory and as a social memory transfer, which includes the experience of previous generations. One of the main provisions of the study is the idea that monuments can lose their former social value, transforming into “simple” objects of a public place. The study was conducted in the city of Yekaterinburg, one of the largest, cultural, scientific and industrial Russian megalopolises in 2015. The primary data was collected using standardized interviews. Four hundred and twenty respondents at the age of and above 18 were questioned on the basis of quota sampling. Interviews with respondents were conducted in order to identify key problems involved and reasons for shaping respondents’ representations of monuments in the urban environment typical for the population of Russian megalopolises. The standardized interview guide included 15 questions. Findings and discussion. Our investigation has revealed that different monuments fulfil various functions in an urban environment (ideological, aesthetic, transferring, valuable, etc.). The study has unequivocally confirmed that objects in the urban space have a different emotional colour background: people paint them in accordance with the feelings that arise in their perception. Hence, some monuments effectively fulfil the functions of social memory transfer: they are remembered, they tell us about the events to

  12. Surface diffusion of long chainlike molecules: The role of memory effects and stiffness on effective diffusion barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelt, T.; Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio

    2000-01-01

    studies with chains of different lengths lead to a conclusion that, for a single diffusing chain, the memory contribution in E-A(T) decreases along with an increasing chain length and is almost negligible in the case of very long chains. Finally, we close this work by discussing our results in light......We study the coverage dependence of surface diffusion for chainlike molecules by the fluctuating-bond model with a Monte Carlo dynamics. The model includes short-ranged excluded volume interactions between different chains as well as an intrachain bond angle potential to describe the chain...... stiffness. Our primary aim is to consider the role played by chain stiffness and the resulting memory effects in tracer diffusion, and in particular their role in the effective tracer diffusion barrier E-A(T) extracted from the well-known Arrhenius form. We show that the memory effects in tracer diffusion...

  13. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for the detection of VEGFR-1-a protein marker of myelodysplastic syndromes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pimková, K.; Bocková, Markéta; Hegnerová, Kateřina; Suttnar, J.; Čermák, J.; Homola, Jiří; Dyr, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 402, č. 1 (2012), s. 381-387 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance * myelodysplastic syndromes * vascular endothelial growth factor Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.659, year: 2012

  14. Lactobacilli differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface markers in murine dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne; Pestka, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    in the capacity to induce IL-12 and TNF-a production in the DC. Similar but less pronounced differences were observed among lactobacilli in the induction of IL-6 and IL-10. Although all strains up-regulated surface MHC class II and B7-2 (CD86), which is indicative of DC maturation, those lactobacilli...

  15. Prediction of Sea Surface Temperature Using Long Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Wang, Hui; Dong, Junyu; Zhong, Guoqiang; Sun, Xin

    2017-10-01

    This letter adopts long short-term memory(LSTM) to predict sea surface temperature(SST), which is the first attempt, to our knowledge, to use recurrent neural network to solve the problem of SST prediction, and to make one week and one month daily prediction. We formulate the SST prediction problem as a time series regression problem. LSTM is a special kind of recurrent neural network, which introduces gate mechanism into vanilla RNN to prevent the vanished or exploding gradient problem. It has strong ability to model the temporal relationship of time series data and can handle the long-term dependency problem well. The proposed network architecture is composed of two kinds of layers: LSTM layer and full-connected dense layer. LSTM layer is utilized to model the time series relationship. Full-connected layer is utilized to map the output of LSTM layer to a final prediction. We explore the optimal setting of this architecture by experiments and report the accuracy of coastal seas of China to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, we also show its online updated characteristics.

  16. Laser surface remelting of a Cu-Al-Ni-Mn shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero da Silva, Murillo, E-mail: murilloromero_@hotmail.com [Postgraduate Program in Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Gargarella, Piter [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Gustmann, Tobias [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstraße 20, d-01069 Dresden (Germany); Botta Filho, Walter José; Kiminami, Claudio S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Eckert, Jürgen [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Department Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Pauly, Simon [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstraße 20, d-01069 Dresden (Germany); Bolfarini, Claudemiro [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2016-04-20

    Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) show better thermal and electrical conductivity, lower cost and are easier to process than traditional Ti-based SMAs, but they exhibit a lower ductility and lower fatigue life. These properties can be improved by decreasing the grain size and reducing microstructural segregations, which may be obtained using laser surface remelting treatments. The aim of the present work was to produce and characterize laser remelted Cu-11.85Al-3.2Ni-3Mn SMA plates. Twelve plates with the dimensions of 50×10×1.5 mm were produced by suction casting in a first step. The surface of the plates was remelted afterwards with a laser beam power of 300 W, hatching of 50% and using three different scanning speeds: 100, 300 and 500 mm/s. The plates were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry as well as by tensile and microhardness tests. The remelted region showed a T morphology, with average thickness of 52, 29 and 23 µm for the plates remelted with scanning speeds of 100, 300 and 500 mm/s, respectively. In the plates remelted with 100 and 300 mm/s, some pores were found around the center of the track, due to the keyhole instability. The same phase formed in the as-cast sample was obtained in the laser remelted coatings: the monoclinic β′{sub 1} martensitic phase with zig-zag morphology. However, the laser treated samples exhibit lower transformation temperatures than the as-cast sample, due to grain refinement at the surface. They also show an improvement in the mechanical properties, with an increase of up to 162 MPa in fracture stress, up to 2.2% in ductility and up to 20.9 HV in microhardness when compared with the as-cast sample, which makes the laser surface remelting a promising method for improving the mechanical properties of Cu-based SMAs.

  17. Radiation Response of Cancer Stem-Like Cells From Established Human Cell Lines After Sorting for Surface Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Assar, Osama; Muschel, Ruth J.; Mantoni, Tine S.; McKenna, W. Gillies; Brunner, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A subpopulation of cancer stem-like cells (CSLC) is hypothesized to exist in different cancer cell lines and to mediate radioresistance in solid tumors. Methods and Materials: Cells were stained for CSLC markers and sorted (fluorescence-activated cell sorter/magnetic beads) to compare foci and radiosensitivity of phosphorylated histone H2AX at Ser 139 (γ-H2AX) in sorted vs. unsorted populations in eight cell lines from different organs. CSLC properties were examined using anchorage-independent growth and levels of activated Notch1. Validation consisted of testing tumorigenicity and postirradiation enrichment of CSLC in xenograft tumors. Results: The quantity of CSLC was generally in good agreement with primary tumors. CSLC from MDA-MB-231 (breast) and Panc-1 and PSN-1 (both pancreatic) cells had fewer residual γ-H2AX foci than unsorted cells, pointing to radioresistance of CSLC. However, only MDA-MB-231 CSLC were more radioresistant than unsorted cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-231 CSLC showed enhanced anchorage-independent growth and overexpression of activated Notch1 protein. The expression of cancer stem cell surface markers in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model was increased after exposure to fractionated radiation. In contrast to PSN-1 cells, a growth advantage for MDA-MB-231 CSLC xenograft tumors was found compared to tumors arising from unsorted cells. Conclusions: CSLC subpopulations showed no general radioresistant phenotype, despite the quantities of CSLC subpopulations shown to correspond relatively well in other reports. Likewise, CSLC characteristics were found in some but not all of the tested cell lines. The reported problems in testing for CSLC in cell lines may be overcome by additional techniques, beyond sorting for markers.

  18. Cell-Surface Proteomics Identifies Lineage-Specific Markers of Embryo-Derived Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rugg-Gunn, Peter J.; Cox, Brian J.; Lanner, Fredrik; Sharma, Parveen; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; McDonald, Angela C.H.; Garner, Jodi; Gramolini, Anthony O.; Rossant, Janet; Kislinger, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Summary The advent of reprogramming and its impact on stem cell biology has renewed interest in lineage restriction in mammalian embryos, the source of embryonic (ES), epiblast (EpiSC), trophoblast (TS), and extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) stem cell lineages. Isolation of specific cell types during stem cell differentiation and reprogramming, and also directly from embryos, is a major technical challenge because few cell-surface proteins are known that can distinguish each cell type. We provide...

  19. Wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of thirdhand tobacco smoke contamination on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Penelope J E; Matt, Georg E; Chatfield, Dale; Zakarian, Joy M; Fortmann, Addie L; Hoh, Eunha

    2013-09-01

    Secondhand smoke contains a mixture of pollutants that can persist in air, dust, and on surfaces for months or longer. This persistent residue is known as thirdhand smoke (THS). Here, we detail a simple method of wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of accumulated THS on surfaces. We analyzed findings from 5 real-world studies to investigate the performance of wipe sampling for nicotine on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels in relation to smoking behavior and smoking restrictions. The intraclass correlation coefficient for side-by-side samples was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94). Wipe sampling for nicotine reliably distinguished between private homes, private cars, rental cars, and hotels with and without smoking bans and was significantly positively correlated with other measures of tobacco smoke contamination such as air and dust nicotine. The sensitivity and specificity of possible threshold values (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/m(2)) were evaluated for distinguishing between nonsmoking and smoking environments. Sensitivity was highest at a threshold of 0.1 μg/m(2), with 74%-100% of smoker environments showing nicotine levels above threshold. Specificity was highest at a threshold of 10 μg/m(2), with 81%-100% of nonsmoker environments showing nicotine levels below threshold. The optimal threshold will depend on the desired balance of sensitivity and specificity and on the types of smoking and nonsmoking environments. Surface wipe sampling for nicotine is a reliable, valid, and relatively simple collection method to quantify THS contamination on surfaces across a wide range of field settings and to distinguish between nonsmoking and smoking environments.

  20. Gold nanoparticles as markers for fluorinated surfaces containing embedded amide groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Barbara; Barreca, Davide; Bertola, Maurizio; Cristina Cassani, Maria; Carraro, Giorgio; Maccato, Chiara; Mignani, Adriana; Nanni, Daniele; Parise, Chiara; Ranieri, Silvia

    2018-05-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates were functionalized with fluoroalkylsilanes (FAS) having formula RFC(O)N(R)(CH2)3Si(OMe)3 (1, R = H, RF = C5F11; 2, R = CH3, RF = C5F11;3, R = H, RF = C3F7) and containing embedded amide moieties between the perfluoroalkyl chain and the syloxanic moiety. Subsequently, Au nanoparticle deposition (AuNP) onto the ITO-FAS functionalized surfaces was carried out by immersion into a solution of citrate-stabilized AuNP. The ITO-FAS and AuNP/ITO-FAS modified systems were characterized by various complementary techniques and compared with AuNP/ITO modified with RF(CH2)2Si(OEt)3 (4, RF = C6F13), free from functional groups between the fluorinated tail and the syloxanic moiety. The results showed that only ITO glasses modified with 1, 2 and 3 displayed an oleophobic, as well as hydrophobic, behaviour and that the AuNP Surface Coverage (SC %) directly depended on the fluoroalkylsilane nature with the following trend: 60% ITO-2 > 16% ITO-3 > 9% ITO-1 > 3% ITO-4. The obtained results revealed that, in organosilane 2, the presence of a methyl group on the amide nitrogen increases the steric hindrance in the rotation around the Nsbnd CO bond, resulting in the co-presence of two stable conformers in comparable amounts. Their co-presence in solution, combined with the lack of intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯OCsbnd N hydrogen bonds among the anchored molecules, has dramatic influences on the functionalized ITO, yielding a disorderedly packed coating able to accommodate a large quantity of AuNP. These results indicate that AuNP can act as excellent probes to evaluate the coating layer quality but, at the same time, it is possible to tune the gold loading on electroactive surfaces depending on the chemical structure of the used fluorinated silane.

  1. Surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up vs. CBCT for radiotherapy of the thorax and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallotta, Stefania; Bucciolini, Marta [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Florence (Italy); AOU Careggi, Sezione di Fisica Medica, Florence (Italy); Vanzi, Eleonora; Marrazzo, Livia [AOU Careggi, Sezione di Fisica Medica, Florence (Italy); Simontacchi, Gabriele; Paiar, Fabiola [AOU Careggi, Sezione di Radioterapia, Florence (Italy); Ceroti, Marco [ISPO, U.O. Epidemiologia Molecolare e Nutrizionale, Florence (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Florence (Italy); AOU Careggi, Sezione di Radioterapia, Florence (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to compare surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up in radiotherapy of thoracic and pelvic regions, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data as the gold standard. Twenty patients were included in this study. CBCT, surface acquisition (SA), and two orthogonal portal images (PI) were acquired during the first four treatment sessions. Patient set-up corrections, obtained by registering the planning CT with CBCT, were used as the gold standard. Registration results of the PI and SA were evaluated and compared with those obtained with CBCT. The advantage derived from using SA or PI verification systems over a skin marker set-up was also quantified. A statistically significant difference between PI and SA (in favour of PI) was observed in seven patients undergoing treatment of the pelvic region and in two patients undergoing treatment of the thoracic region. The use of SA or PI, compared with a skin marker set-up, improved patient positioning in 50% and 57 % of the thoracic fractions, respectively. For pelvic fractions, the use of PI was beneficial in 73 % of the cases, while the use of SA was beneficial in only 45 %. Patient positioning worsened with SA, particularly along longitudinal and vertical directions. PI yielded more accurate registration results than SA for both pelvic and thoracic fractions. Compared with the skin marker set-up, PI performances were superior to SA for pelvic fractions while comparable results were obtained for thoracic fractions. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie ist der Vergleich der Patientenpositionierung mittels der 3-D/4-D-Erfassung der Patientenoberflaeche durch ein Abtastsystem, kV/MV-Verifikationsaufnahmen mit Hochenergiebildsystemen und Markierungen auf der Haut bei Bestrahlungen im Thorax- bzw. Beckenbereich. Als Goldstandard zum Vergleich dienten CBCT(''cone beam computed tomography'')-Aufnahmen. Die Studie basiert auf Untersuchungen an 20 Patienten. Es wurden

  2. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Borowski, Tomasz; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Lelątko, Józef; Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2015-04-01

    NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications.

  3. Cognitive and imaging markers in non-demented subjects attending a memory clinic: study design and baseline findings of the MEMENTO cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Dubois, Bruno; Vellas, Bruno; Pasquier, Florence; Blanc, Frédéric; Hugon, Jacques; Hanon, Olivier; Dartigues, Jean-François; Harston, Sandrine; Gabelle, Audrey; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Beauchet, Olivier; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; David, Renaud; Rouaud, Olivier; Godefroy, Olivier; Belin, Catherine; Rouch, Isabelle; Auguste, Nicolas; Wallon, David; Benetos, Athanase; Pariente, Jérémie; Paccalin, Marc; Moreaud, Olivier; Hommet, Caroline; Sellal, François; Boutoleau-Bretonniére, Claire; Jalenques, Isabelle; Gentric, Armelle; Vandel, Pierre; Azouani, Chabha; Fillon, Ludovic; Fischer, Clara; Savarieau, Helen; Operto, Gregory; Bertin, Hugo; Chupin, Marie; Bouteloup, Vincent; Habert, Marie-Odile; Mangin, Jean-François; Chêne, Geneviève

    2017-08-29

    The natural history and disease mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) are still poorly understood. Very few resources are available to scrutinise patients as early as needed and to use integrative approaches combining standardised, repeated clinical investigations and cutting-edge biomarker measurements. In the nationwide French MEMENTO cohort study, participants were recruited in memory clinics and screened for either isolated subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI; defined as test performance 1.5 SD below age, sex and education-level norms) while not demented (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] <1). Baseline data collection included neurological and physical examinations as well as extensive neuropsychological testing. To be included in the MEMENTO cohort, participants had to agree to undergo both brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood sampling. Cerebral 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positon emission tomography and lumbar puncture were optional. Automated analyses of cerebral MRI included assessments of volumes of whole-brain, hippocampal and white matter lesions. The 2323 participants, recruited from April 2011 to June 2014, were aged 71 years, on average (SD 8.7), and 62% were women. CDR was 0 in 40% of participants, and 30% carried at least one apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. We observed that more than half (52%) of participants had amnestic mild cognitive impairment (17% single-domain aMCI), 32% had non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (16.9% single-domain naMCI) and 16% had isolated SCCs. Multivariable analyses of neuroimaging markers associations with cognitive categories showed that participants with aMCI had worse levels of imaging biomarkers than the others, whereas participants with naMCI had markers at intermediate levels between SCC and aMCI. The burden of white matter lesions tended to be larger in participants with aMCI. Independently of CDR, all neuroimaging and neuropsychological markers

  4. Efficient Isolation and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Cancer Cell Plasma Membrane Proteins for Identification of Metastasis-Associated Cell Surface Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Jensen, Ole N

    2009-01-01

    Cell surface membrane proteins are involved in central processes such as cell signaling, cell-cell interactions, ion and solute transport, and they seem to play a pivotal role in several steps of the metastatic process of cancer cells. The low abundance and hydrophobic nature of cell surface...... membrane proteins complicate their purification and identification by MS. We used two isogenic cell lines with opposite metastatic capabilities in nude mice to optimize cell surface membrane protein purification and to identify potential novel markers of metastatic cancer. The cell surface membrane...... peptides of which 622 (300 at SL80) were membrane proteins. The quantitative proteomic analysis identified 16 cell surface proteins as potential markers of the ability of breast cancer cells to form distant metastases....

  5. Dynamic visual noise affects visual short-term memory for surface color, but not spatial location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments participants retained a single color or a set of four spatial locations in memory. During a 5 s retention interval participants viewed either flickering dynamic visual noise or a static matrix pattern. In Experiment 1 memory was assessed using a recognition procedure, in which participants indicated if a particular test stimulus matched the memorized stimulus or not. In Experiment 2 participants attempted to either reproduce the locations or they picked the color from a whole range of possibilities. Both experiments revealed effects of dynamic visual noise (DVN) on memory for colors but not for locations. The implications of the results for theories of working memory and the methodological prospects for DVN as an experimental tool are discussed.

  6. Isolation and differentiation of chondrocytic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells using dlk1/FA1 as a novel surface marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Mahmood, Amer

    2009-01-01

    Few surface markers are available to monitor lineage differentiation during chondrogenesis. Recently, delta-like1/fetal antigen1 (dlk1/FA1), a transmembrane protein of the Notch/Delta/Serrata family, was shown to be essential for inducing early chondrogenesis. Thus, we investigated the possible use...... of dlk1/FA1 as a novel surface marker for chondroprogenitor cells during hESC differentiation. We found that, Dlk1/FA1 is expressed specifically in cells undergoing transition from proliferating to prehypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification of the mouse limb. In hESC cells, dlk1/FA1...... was not expressed by undifferentiated hESC, but expressed during in vitro embryoid bodies (hEBs) formation upon down-regulation of undifferentiated markers e.g. Oct 3/4. Similarly, dlk1/FA1 was expressed in chondrocytic cells during in vivo teratoma formation. Interestingly, treatment of hEBs with Activin B...

  7. Effect of micro-arc oxidation surface modification on the properties of the NiTi shape memory alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J L; Zhong, Z C; Yu, D Z; Liu, F; Luo, J M

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) surface modification (alumina coatings) on the phase transformation behavior, shape memory characteristics, in vitro haemocopatibility and cytocompatibility of the biomedical NiTi alloy were investigated respectively by differential scanning calorimetry, bending test, hemolysis ratio test, dynamic blood clotting test, platelet adhesion test and cytotoxicity testing by human osteoblasts (Hobs). The results showed that there were no obvious changes of the phase transformation temperatures and shape memory characteristics of the NiTi alloy after the MAO surface modification and the coating could withstand the thermal shock and volume change caused by martensite-austenite phase transformation. Compared to the uncoated NiTi alloys, the MAO surface modification could effectively improve the haemocopatibility of the coated NiTi alloys by the reduced hemolysis ratio, the prolonged dynamic clotting time and the decreased number of platelet adhesion; and the rough and porous alumina coatings could obviously promote the adherence, spread and proliferation of the Hobs with the significant increase of proliferation number of Hobs adhered on the surface of the coated NiTi alloys (P < 0.05).

  8. Occurrence and suitability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as molecular markers for raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Li, Jinhua; Hu, Jiangyong; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to provide the first and comprehensive data on the occurrence of 17 target pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in urban water environment in Singapore. Meanwhile, this study also verified the suitability of these PPCPs as specific markers of raw wastewater contamination in receiving water bodies in highly urbanized areas where both surface water and groundwater are not impacted by the discharge of treated wastewater effluents. Analytical results of wastewater showed that among 17 target PPCPs examined, only 5 PPCPs were detected in 100 % of raw wastewater samples, including acetaminophen (ACT), carbamazepine (CBZ), caffeine (CF), diethyltoluamide (DEET), and salicylic acid (SA). Similarly, these PPCPs were found in most surface water and groundwater. Interestingly, the three PPCPs (ACT, CBZ, and SA) were only detected in surface water and groundwater in the sampling sites close to relatively older sewer systems, while they were absent in background samples that were collected from the catchment with no known wastewater sources. This suggests that ACT, CBZ, and SA can be used as specific molecular markers of raw wastewater in surface water and groundwater. This study also confirmed that CF and DEET were not really associated with wastewater sources, thus cannot serve well as specific molecular markers of wastewater contamination in receiving water bodies. To the best knowledge of the authors, the use of ACT and SA as specific molecular markers of raw wastewater contamination in urban surface waters and groundwater was first reported. Further studies on the use of ACT, CBZ, and SA along with other chemical/microbial markers are recommended to identify and differentiate contamination sources of surface waters/groundwater.

  9. A Stream Tilling Approach to Surface Area Estimation for Large Scale Spatial Data in a Shared Memory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Kang, Xiaochen; Dong, Chun; Xu, Shenghua

    2017-12-01

    Surface area estimation is a widely used tool for resource evaluation in the physical world. When processing large scale spatial data, the input/output (I/O) can easily become the bottleneck in parallelizing the algorithm due to the limited physical memory resources and the very slow disk transfer rate. In this paper, we proposed a stream tilling approach to surface area estimation that first decomposed a spatial data set into tiles with topological expansions. With these tiles, the one-to-one mapping relationship between the input and the computing process was broken. Then, we realized a streaming framework towards the scheduling of the I/O processes and computing units. Herein, each computing unit encapsulated a same copy of the estimation algorithm, and multiple asynchronous computing units could work individually in parallel. Finally, the performed experiment demonstrated that our stream tilling estimation can efficiently alleviate the heavy pressures from the I/O-bound work, and the measured speedup after being optimized have greatly outperformed the directly parallel versions in shared memory systems with multi-core processors.

  10. A Stream Tilling Approach to Surface Area Estimation for Large Scale Spatial Data in a Shared Memory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jiping

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface area estimation is a widely used tool for resource evaluation in the physical world. When processing large scale spatial data, the input/output (I/O can easily become the bottleneck in parallelizing the algorithm due to the limited physical memory resources and the very slow disk transfer rate. In this paper, we proposed a stream tilling approach to surface area estimation that first decomposed a spatial data set into tiles with topological expansions. With these tiles, the one-to-one mapping relationship between the input and the computing process was broken. Then, we realized a streaming framework towards the scheduling of the I/O processes and computing units. Herein, each computing unit encapsulated a same copy of the estimation algorithm, and multiple asynchronous computing units could work individually in parallel. Finally, the performed experiment demonstrated that our stream tilling estimation can efficiently alleviate the heavy pressures from the I/O-bound work, and the measured speedup after being optimized have greatly outperformed the directly parallel versions in shared memory systems with multi-core processors.

  11. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2Pc heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Khasan S.; Muqeet Rehman, M.; Zameer Abbas, S.; Ahmad, Zubair; Touati, Farid; Mahroof-Tahir, M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H 2 Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H 2 Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30–40 μm. For the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120–150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases ∼ 80–100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I–V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior. (paper)

  12. Low-power, high-uniform, and forming-free resistive memory based on Mg-deficient amorphous MgO film with rough surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiajun; Ren, Shuxia; Wu, Liqian; Kang, Xin; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Xu

    2018-03-01

    Saving energy and reducing operation parameter fluctuations remain crucial for enabling resistive random access memory (RRAM) to emerge as a universal memory. In this work, we report a resistive memory device based on an amorphous MgO (a-MgO) film that not only exhibits ultralow programming voltage (just 0.22 V) and low power consumption (less than 176.7 μW) but also shows excellent operative uniformity (the coefficient of variation is only 1.7% and 2.2% for SET and RESET voltage, respectively). Moreover, it also shows a forming-free characteristic. Further analysis indicates that these distinctive properties can be attributed to the unstable local structures and the rough surface of the Mg-deficient a-MgO film. These findings show the potential of using a-MgO in high-performance nonvolatile memory applications.

  13. Expression of surface markers on the human monocytic leukaemia cell line, THP-1, as indicators for the sensitizing potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Susun; Kim, Seoyoung; Huh, Yong; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Han-Kon; Park, Kui-Lea; Eun, Hee Chul

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of skin sensitization potential is an important part of the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and topical drugs. Recently, evaluation of changes in surface marker expression induced in dendritic cells (DC) or DC surrogate cell lines following exposure to chemicals represents one approach for in vitro test methods. The study aimed to test the change of expression patterns of surface markers on THP-1 cells by chemicals as a predictive in vitro method for contact sensitization. We investigated the expression of CD54, CD86, CD83, CD80, and CD40 after a 1-day exposure to sensitizers (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene; benzocaine; 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; hexyl cinnamic aldehyde; eugenol; nickel sulfate hexahydrate; potassium dichromate; cobalt sulfate; 2-mercaptobenzothiazole; and ammonium tetrachloroplatinate) and non-sensitizers (sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride, lactic acid, salicylic acid, isopropanol, and dimethyl sulphoxide). The test concentrations were 0.1x, 0.5x, and 1x of the 50% inhibitory concentration, and the relative fluorescence intensity was used as an expression indicator. By evaluating the expression patterns of CD54, CD86, and CD40, we could classify the chemicals as sensitizers or non-sensitizers, but CD80 and CD83 showed non-specific patterns of expression. These data suggest that the THP-1 cells are good model for screening contact sensitizers and CD40 could be a useful marker complementary to CD54 and CD86.

  14. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    KAUST Repository

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2015-05-26

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions.

  15. Rose or black-coloured glasses? Altered neural processing of positive events during memory formation is a trait marker of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, J.F.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Rinck, M.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Becker, E.S.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Tendolkar, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Valence-specific memory enhancement is one of the core cognitive functions that causes and maintains Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). While previous neuroimaging studies have elucidated the neural underpinnings of this emotional enhancement effect in depressed patients, this study aimed

  16. Rose or black-coloured glasses? Altered neural processing of positive events during memory formation is a trait marker of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, J.F.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Rinck, M.; Eling, P.A.; Becker, E.S.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Tendolkar, I.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Valence-specific memory enhancement is one of the core cognitive functions that causes and maintains Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). While previous neuroimaging studies have elucidated the neural underpinnings of this emotional enhancement effect in depressed patients, this study aimed

  17. The use of a spaceflight-compatible device to perform WBC surface marker staining and whole-blood mitogenic activation for cytokine detection by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Sams, C. F.

    1999-01-01

    Significant changes have recently been described regarding circulating peripheral immune cells immediately following spaceflight. Existing methods for immunophenotype staining of peripheral blood in terrestrial labs do not meet the constraints for flight on the Space Shuttle. We have recently described the development and use of the Whole Blood Staining Device (WBSD), a simple device for staining flow cytometry specimens during spaceflight. When preparing samples with the WBSD, all liquids are safely contained as the cells are moved through staining, lysis and fixation steps. Here we briefly review the use of the WBSD, and then describe another versatile adaptation, a modification to perform intracellular staining of cytokines for detection by flow cytometry. Alterations in cytokine production have been reported both in ground-based simulated microgravity culture and in astronaut samples returning from spaceflight. Data regarding microgravity effects on cytokine production for specific subpopulations of cells is lacking. Flow cytometric cytokine analysis offers the unique ability to perform simultaneous surface marker analysis and positively identity cytokine producing subsets of cells. The utilization of the WBSD provides the ability to perform rapid and routine mitogenic activation during spaceflight coupled with the ability to perform simultaneous surface marker analysis. The only external requirements for this procedure are an in-flight 37-degree incubator and the capacity for 4-degree storage.

  18. Enterococci in river Ganga surface waters: Propensity of species distribution, dissemination of antimicrobial-resistance and virulence-markers among species along landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker Rishi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surface waters quality has declined in developing countries due to rapid industrialization and population growth. The microbiological quality of river Ganga, a life-sustaining surface water resource for large population of northern India, is adversely affected by several point and non-point sources of pollution. Further, untreated surface waters are consumed for drinking and various household tasks in India making the public vulnerable to water-borne diseases and outbreaks. Enterococci, the 'indicator' of water quality, correlates best with the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases as well as prevalence of other pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this study aims to determine the distribution of species diversity, dissemination of antimicrobial-resistance and virulence-markers in enterococci with respect to rural-urban landscape along river Ganga in northern India. Results Enterococci density (χ2: 1900, df: 1; p 2: 100.4, df: 20; p E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. durans and E. hirae down the gradient. Statistically discernible (p: 0.0156 – Enterococcus spp. recovered from five sites in the up-to-down gradient landscape. A significant correlation was observed in the distribution of multiple-antimicrobial-resistance (viz., erythromycin-rifampicin-gentamicin-methicillin and vancomycin-gentamicin-streptomycin; rs: 0.9747; p: 0.0083 and multiple-virulence-markers (viz., gelE+esp+; rs: 0.9747; p: 0.0083; gelE+efaA+; rs: 0.8944; p: 0.0417 among different Enterococcus spp. Conclusion Our observations show prevalence of multiple-antimicrobial-resistance as well as multiple-virulence traits among different Enterococcus spp. The observed high background pool of resistance and virulence in enterococci in river waters of populous countries has the potential to disseminate more alarming antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic bacteria of same or other lineage in the environment. Therefore, the presence of elevated levels of virulent

  19. Hybrid a-CNH+TiO2+TiN-type surface layers produced on NiTi shape memory alloy for cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Justyna; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Płociński, Tomasz; Kamiński, Janusz; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2017-09-01

    The goal was to improve the properties of NiTi shape memory alloy to make it suitable for cardiac applications. For this purpose, a hybrid a-CNH+TiO 2 +TiN-type surface layer was produced on NiTi alloy and characterized. The NiTi alloy subjected to hybrid process combining low-temperature oxynitriding under glow discharge conditions and radio frequency chemical vapor deposition process was examined for microstructure, surface topography, corrosion resistance, wettability and surface-free energy, Ni ion release and platelets adhesion, aggregation and activation. The hybrid surface layers showed slightly increased surface roughness, better corrosion resistance, a more hydrophobic nature, decreased surface free energy, smaller release of nickel ions and reduced platelets activation. The produced layers could expand the range of NiTi medical applications.

  20. Characterizing the magnetic memory signals on the surface of plasma transferred arc cladding coating under fatigue loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haihong; Han, Gang; Qian, Zhengchun; Liu, Zhifeng

    2017-12-01

    The metal magnetic memory signals were measured during dynamic tension tests on the surfaces of the cladding coatings by plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding and the 0.45% C steel. Results showed that the slope of the normal component Hp(y) of magnetic signal and the average value of the tangential component Hp(x) reflect the magnetization of the specimens. The signals increased sharply in the few initial cycles; and then fluctuated around a constant value during fatigue process until fracture. For the PTA cladding coating, the slope of Hp(y) was steeper and the average of Hp(x) was smaller, compared with the 0.45% C steel. The hysteresis curves of cladding layer, bonding layer and substrate were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer testing, and then saturation magnetization, initial susceptibility and coercivity were further calculated. The stress-magnetization curves were also plotted based on the J-A model, which showed that the PTA cladding coating has smaller remanence and coercivity compared with the 0.45% C steel. The microstructures of cladding coating confirmed that the dendritic structure and second-phase of alloy hinder the magnetic domain motion, which was the main factor influencing the variation of magnetic signal during the fatigue tests.

  1. Changes in B Cell Populations and Merozoite Surface Protein-1-Specific Memory B Cell Responses after Prolonged Absence of Detectable P. falciparum Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Ayieko

    Full Text Available Clinical immunity to malaria declines in the absence of repeated parasite exposure. However, little is known about how B cell populations and antigen-specific memory B cells change in the absence of P. falciparum infection. A successful indoor residual insecticide spraying campaign in a highland area of western Kenya, led to an absence of blood-stage P. falciparum infection between March 2007 and April 2008. We assessed memory B cell responses in 45 adults at the beginning (April 2008 and end (April 2009 of a subsequent 12-month period during which none of the adults had evidence of asymptomatic parasitemia or clinical disease. Antibodies and memory B cells to the 42-kDa portion of the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-142 were measured using ELISA and ELISPOT assays, respectively. B cell populations were characterized by flow cytometry. From 2008 to 2009, the prevalence of MSP-142-specific memory B cells (45% vs. 55%, respectively, P = 0.32 or antibodies (91% vs. 82%, respectively, P = 0.32 did not differ significantly, although specific individuals did change from positive to negative and vice versa, particularly for memory B cells, suggesting possible low-level undetected parasitemia may have occurred in some individuals. The magnitude of MSP-142-specific memory B cells and levels of antibodies to MSP-142 also did not differ from 2008 to 2009 (P>0.10 for both. However, from 2008 to 2009 the proportions of both class-switched atypical (CD19+IgD-CD27-CD21-IgM- and class-switched activated (CD19+IgD-CD27+CD21-IgM- memory B cells decreased (both P<0.001. In contrast, class-switched resting classical memory B cells (CD19+IgD-CD27+CD21+IgM- increased (P<0.001. In this area of seasonal malaria transmission, a one- year absence of detectable P. falciparum infection was not associated with changes in the prevalence or level of MSP-142 specific memory B cells, but was associated with major changes in overall memory B cell subsets.

  2. Neural oscillations in auditory working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wilsch, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis investigated memory load and memory decay in auditory working memory. Alpha power as a marker for memory load served as the primary indicator for load and decay fluctuations hypothetically reflecting functional inhibition of irrelevant information. Memory load was induced by presenting auditory signals (syllables and pure-tone sequences) in noise because speech-in-noise has been shown before to increase memory load. The aim of the thesis was to assess with magnetoencephalog...

  3. Oral cancer risk and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Font-Costa, Imma; López-López, José

    2004-01-01

    The clinical appearance and, especially, the degree of dysplasia that may be shown by pre-cancerous lesions in the oral cavity suggest a potential for malignisation. An increasing number of studies are seeking new, more specific markers that would help to determine the degree of cell alteration and enable a better understanding of the degree of malignant degeneration of these cells. The present review considers the most recent findings for these markers, grouping them into families: tumour growth markers; markers of tumour suppression and anti-tumour response; angiogenesis markers; markers of tumour invasion and metastatic potential; cell surface markers; intracellular markers; markers derived from arachidonic acid; and enzymatic markers.

  4. The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 improves recovery of human embryonic stem cells after fluorescence-activated cell sorting with multiple cell surface markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Emre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the inherent sensitivity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs to manipulations, the recovery and survival of hESCs after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS can be low. Additionally, a well characterized and robust methodology for performing FACS on hESCs using multiple-cell surface markers has not been described. The p160-Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, previously has been identified as enhancing survival of hESCs upon single-cell dissociation, as well as enhancing recovery from cryopreservation. Here we examined the application of Y-27632 to hESCs after FACS to improve survival in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HESCs were sorted using markers for SSEA-3, TRA-1-81, and SSEA-1. Cells were plated after sorting for 24 hours in either the presence or the absence of Y-27632. In both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent conditions, cell survival was greater when Y-27632 was applied to the hESCs after sort. Specifically, treatment of cells with Y-27632 improved post-sort recovery up to four fold. To determine the long-term effects of sorting with and without the application of Y-27632, hESCs were further analyzed. Specifically, hESCs sorted with and without the addition of Y-27632 retained normal morphology, expressed hESC-specific markers as measured by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, and maintained a stable karyotype. In addition, the hESCs could differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The application of Y-27632 to hESCs after cell sorting improves cell recovery with no observed effect on pluripotency, and enables the consistent recovery of hESCs by FACS using multiple surface markers. This improved methodology for cell sorting of hESCs will aid many applications such as removal of hESCs from secondary cell types

  5. Marker-less reconstruction of dense 4-D surface motion fields using active laser triangulation for respiratory motion management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Berkels, Benjamin; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Hornegger, Joachim; Rumpf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    To manage respiratory motion in image-guided interventions a novel sparse-to-dense registration approach is presented. We apply an emerging laser-based active triangulation (AT) sensor that delivers sparse but highly accurate 3-D measurements in real-time. These sparse position measurements are registered with a dense reference surface extracted from planning data. Thereby a dense displacement field is reconstructed which describes the 4-D deformation of the complete patient body surface and recovers a multi-dimensional respiratory signal for application in respiratory motion management. The method is validated on real data from an AT prototype and synthetic data sampled from dense surface scans acquired with a structured light scanner. In a study on 16 subjects, the proposed algorithm achieved a mean reconstruction accuracy of +/- 0.22 mm w.r.t. ground truth data.

  6. Joint surface reconstruction and 4D deformation estimation from sparse data and prior knowledge for marker-less Respiratory motion tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkels, Benjamin; Bauer, Sebastian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Hornegger, Joachim; Rumpf, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The intraprocedural tracking of respiratory motion has the potential to substantially improve image-guided diagnosis and interventions. The authors have developed a sparse-to-dense registration approach that is capable of recovering the patient's external 3D body surface and estimating a 4D (3D + time) surface motion field from sparse sampling data and patient-specific prior shape knowledge. The system utilizes an emerging marker-less and laser-based active triangulation (AT) sensor that delivers sparse but highly accurate 3D measurements in real-time. These sparse position measurements are registered with a dense reference surface extracted from planning data. Thereby a dense displacement field is recovered, which describes the spatio-temporal 4D deformation of the complete patient body surface, depending on the type and state of respiration. It yields both a reconstruction of the instantaneous patient shape and a high-dimensional respiratory surrogate for respiratory motion tracking. The method is validated on a 4D CT respiration phantom and evaluated on both real data from an AT prototype and synthetic data sampled from dense surface scans acquired with a structured-light scanner. In the experiments, the authors estimated surface motion fields with the proposed algorithm on 256 datasets from 16 subjects and in different respiration states, achieving a mean surface reconstruction accuracy of ± 0.23 mm with respect to ground truth data-down from a mean initial surface mismatch of 5.66 mm. The 95th percentile of the local residual mesh-to-mesh distance after registration did not exceed 1.17 mm for any subject. On average, the total runtime of our proof of concept CPU implementation is 2.3 s per frame, outperforming related work substantially. In external beam radiation therapy, the approach holds potential for patient monitoring during treatment using the reconstructed surface, and for motion-compensated dose delivery using the estimated 4D surface motion field in

  7. Bryophyte diaspore bank: a genetic memory? Genetic structure and genetic diversity of surface populations and diaspore bank in the liverwort Mannia fragrans (Aytoniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hock, Z; Szövényi, P; Schneller, J J; Tóth, Z; Urmi, E

    2008-01-01

    Propagule banks are assumed to be able to store considerable genetic variability. Bryophyte populations are expected to rely more heavily on stored propagules than those of seed plants due to the vulnerability of the haploid gametophyte. This reliance has important implications for the genetic structure and evolutionary potential of surface populations. A liverwort, Mannia fragrans, was used to test whether the bryophyte diaspore bank functions as a "genetic memory." If a diaspore bank is cap...

  8. Cell surface marker profiling of human tracheal basal cells reveals distinct subpopulations, identifies MST1/MSP as a mitogenic signal, and identifies new biomarkers for lung squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Laar, Emily; Clifford, Monica; Hasenoeder, Stefan; Kim, Bo Ram; Wang, Dennis; Lee, Sharon; Paterson, Josh; Vu, Nancy M; Waddell, Thomas K; Keshavjee, Shaf; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Ailles, Laurie; Moghal, Nadeem

    2014-12-31

    The large airways of the lungs (trachea and bronchi) are lined with a pseudostratified mucociliary epithelium, which is maintained by stem cells/progenitors within the basal cell compartment. Alterations in basal cell behavior can contribute to large airway diseases including squamous cell carcinomas (SQCCs). Basal cells have traditionally been thought of as a uniform population defined by basolateral position, cuboidal cell shape, and expression of pan-basal cell lineage markers like KRT5 and TP63. While some evidence suggests that basal cells are not all functionally equivalent, few heterogeneously expressed markers have been identified to purify and study subpopulations. In addition, few signaling pathways have been identified that regulate their cell behavior. The goals of this work were to investigate tracheal basal cell diversity and to identify new signaling pathways that regulate basal cell behavior. We used flow cytometry (FACS) to profile cell surface marker expression at a single cell level in primary human tracheal basal cell cultures that maintain stem cell/progenitor activity. FACS results were validated with tissue staining, in silico comparisons with normal basal cell and lung cancer datasets, and an in vitro proliferation assay. We identified 105 surface markers, with 47 markers identifying potential subpopulations. These subpopulations generally fell into more (~ > 13%) or less abundant (~ < 6%) groups. Microarray gene expression profiling supported the heterogeneous expression of these markers in the total population, and immunostaining of large airway tissue suggested that some of these markers are relevant in vivo. 24 markers were enriched in lung SQCCs relative to adenocarcinomas, with four markers having prognostic significance in SQCCs. We also identified 33 signaling receptors, including the MST1R/RON growth factor receptor, whose ligand MST1/MSP was mitogenic for basal cells. This work provides the largest description to date of

  9. Assessing of organic content in surface sediments of Suez Gulf, Egypt depending on normal alkanes, terpanes and steranes biological markers indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedel Aziz Elfadly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Semi-enclosed Suez Gulf records various signals of high anthropic pressures from surrounding regions and the industrialized Suez countries. The sedimentary hydrocarbons have been studied in 6 coastal stations located in the Gulf of Suez. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS to assess organic content in surface sediments of Suez Gulf, Egypt depending on alkanes, terpanes and steranes biological markers indicators. The results showed that the hydrocarbons are originated from multiple terrestrial inputs, biogenic, pyrolytic. Several ratios of hydrocarbons indicated the predominance of petrogenic in combination with biogenic hydrocarbons. Al-Attaqa harbor, Suez oil processing company, Al-Nasr Oil Company, AL-Kabanon and EL-Sukhna of Loloha Beach are the main sources of petroleum contamination.

  10. Propranolol decreases retention of fear memory by modulating the stability of surface glutamate receptor GluA1 subunits in the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Jie-Ting; Li, Ming-Xing; Wang, Can-Ming; Guan, Xin-Lei; Wu, Peng-Fei; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Jin, You; Ni, Lan; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder with enhanced retention of fear memory and has profound impact on quality of life for millions of people worldwide. The β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol has been used in preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of PTSD, but the mechanisms underlying its potential efficacy on fear memory retention remain to be elucidated. We investigated the action of propranolol on the retention of conditioned fear memory, the surface expression of glutamate receptor GluA1 subunits of AMPA receptors and synaptic adaptation in the lateral amygdala (LA) of rats. Propranolol attenuated reactivation-induced strengthening of fear retention while reducing enhanced surface expression of GluA1 subunits and restoring the impaired long-term depression in LA. These effects of propranolol were mediated by antagonizing reactivation-induced enhancement of adrenergic signalling, which activates PKA and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and then regulates the trafficking of AMPA receptors via phosphorylation of GluA1 subunits at the C-terminus. Both i.p. injection and intra-amygdala infusion of propranolol attenuated reactivation-induced enhancement of fear retention. Reactivation strengthens fear retention by increasing the level of noradrenaline and promotes the surface expression of GluA1 subunits and the excitatory synaptic transmission in LA. These findings uncover one mechanism underlying the efficiency of propranolol on retention of fear memories and suggest that β-adrenoceptor antagonists, which act centrally, may be more suitable for the treatment of PTSD. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Multiphase chemical kinetics of OH radical uptake by molecular organic markers of biomass burning aerosols: humidity and temperature dependence, surface reaction, and bulk diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arangio, Andrea M; Slade, Jonathan H; Berkemeier, Thomas; Pöschl, Ulrich; Knopf, Daniel A; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2015-05-14

    Multiphase reactions of OH radicals are among the most important pathways of chemical aging of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Reactive uptake of OH by organic compounds has been observed in a number of studies, but the kinetics of mass transport and chemical reaction are still not fully understood. Here we apply the kinetic multilayer model of gas-particle interactions (KM-GAP) to experimental data from OH exposure studies of levoglucosan and abietic acid, which serve as surrogates and molecular markers of biomass burning aerosol (BBA). The model accounts for gas-phase diffusion within a cylindrical coated-wall flow tube, reversible adsorption of OH, surface-bulk exchange, bulk diffusion, and chemical reactions at the surface and in the bulk of the condensed phase. The nonlinear dependence of OH uptake coefficients on reactant concentrations and time can be reproduced by KM-GAP. We find that the bulk diffusion coefficient of the organic molecules is approximately 10(-16) cm(2) s(-1), reflecting an amorphous semisolid state of the organic substrates. The OH uptake is governed by reaction at or near the surface and can be kinetically limited by surface-bulk exchange or bulk diffusion of the organic reactants. Estimates of the chemical half-life of levoglucosan in 200 nm particles in a biomass burning plume increase from 1 day at high relative humidity to 1 week under dry conditions. In BBA particles transported to the free troposphere, the chemical half-life of levoglucosan can exceed 1 month due to slow bulk diffusion in a glassy matrix at low temperature.

  12. Surface markers for locating the pulleys and flexor tendon anatomy in the palm and fingers with reference to minimally invasive incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joshua A; Stone, Lindsay; Gordon, Leonard

    2012-05-01

    Palm and finger pulley anatomy has been well described in relation to osseous structures. The goal of this study was to describe skin surface markers that locate the underlying flexor tendon and pulley system. We describe the anatomic detail of these structures and provide a guide for the surgeon for making small incisions. Using this approach, extensile exposure can be avoided, and the integrity of the complex pulley system is maintained. We dissected 12 palms and 48 fingers in 12 cadaver hands. We marked the palm and finger creases with methylene blue before dissection. We removed palm skin, finger skin, and subcutaneous tissue over the flexor tendon sheath and retained a 2-mm strip of each skin crease in its native position. We divided the palm and palmar surface of the fingers into 4 distinct zones and measured the location of the proximal and distal extent of each pulley and the tendon anatomy relative to the proximal and distal skin crease. We documented the location of the proximal and distal extent of the annular and cruciate pulleys as well as the decussation of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon and Camper chiasm. The results allow us to establish a relationship between the skin creases and underlying anatomy by dividing the palm and finger into 4 zones. In zone A, in the palm, the A2 pulley is located in the distal third and the FDS decussation is at the proximal extent of the A2 pulley. Zone B is in the proximal phalanx and A2 lies in the proximal third of this zone, whereas the Camper chiasm lies in the middle third. Zone C is in the middle phalanx and A4 and the insertion of FDS lie in the middle third of this zone. Zone D lies in the distal phalanx and the flexor digitorum profundus tendon inserts into the middle third of this zone. Skin creases can be used as surface markers to accurately locate the underlying pulley and tendon system and plan for limited incisions. These anatomic descriptions can aid surgeons in preoperative planning

  13. Presence of antibodies against a cell-surface protein, cross-reactive with DNA, in systemic lupus erythrematosus: a marker of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, L.; Lety, M.A.; Choquette, D.; Viard, J.P.; Jacob, F.; Louvard, D.; Bach, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Antibodies against a cell-surface protein, cross-reactive with double-stranded DNA, were detected in the serum of 25 patients with active human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), defined on the basis of the revised American Rheumatism Association classification. Among these sera, two did not display anti-DNA antibodies, as shown by Farr assay, solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and Crithidia luciliae test. Five other SLE patients were consecutively studied in active and remission states. Antibodies against the protein were detected in the serum of the 5 SLE patients when they were in active phase but not in the serum of the same patients in inactive phase of the disease. The anti-protein antibodies were not found in the serum of 10 inactive SLE patients or in the sera of 10 normal human controls, 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 5 patients with scleroderma, and 4 patients with primary sicca syndrome. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that antibodies against this cell-surface protein could provide a better diagnosis marker and activity index than anti-DNA antibodies in SLE

  14. Presence of antibodies against a cell-surface protein, cross-reactive with DNA, in systemic lupus erythrematosus: a marker of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, L.; Lety, M.A.; Choquette, D.; Viard, J.P.; Jacob, F.; Louvard, D.; Bach, J.F.

    1987-05-01

    Antibodies against a cell-surface protein, cross-reactive with double-stranded DNA, were detected in the serum of 25 patients with active human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), defined on the basis of the revised American Rheumatism Association classification. Among these sera, two did not display anti-DNA antibodies, as shown by Farr assay, solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and Crithidia luciliae test. Five other SLE patients were consecutively studied in active and remission states. Antibodies against the protein were detected in the serum of the 5 SLE patients when they were in active phase but not in the serum of the same patients in inactive phase of the disease. The anti-protein antibodies were not found in the serum of 10 inactive SLE patients or in the sera of 10 normal human controls, 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 5 patients with scleroderma, and 4 patients with primary sicca syndrome. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that antibodies against this cell-surface protein could provide a better diagnosis marker and activity index than anti-DNA antibodies in SLE.

  15. One-chip biosensor for simultaneous disease marker/calibration substance measurement in human urine by electrochemical surface plasmon resonance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Kohei; Kurita, Ryoji; Niwa, Osamu

    2010-12-15

    We have developed a miniaturized electrochemical surface plasmon resonance biosensor for measuring two biomolecules that have very different molecular sizes, one is transferrin (MW=75 kDa) as a disease marker protein, the other is creatinine (MW=113) as a calibration marker for the accurate measurement of human urinary samples. The sensor has a PDMS based microchannel that is 2 mm wide and 20 μm deep. Two gold films were integrated in the microchannel; one was modified with anti-transferrin antibody for immuno-reaction, and the other was modified with osmium-poly-vinylpyridine wired horseradish peroxidase (Os-gel-HRP). We further immobilized a tri-enzyme layer of creatininase, creatinase and sarcosine oxidase in order to measure creatinine by converting it to hydrogen peroxide in the upstream channel. We measured the transferrin concentration from the refractive index change involved in an immuno-complex formation, and we were simultaneously able to measure creatinine by employing the refractive index change in the Os-gel-HRP caused by oxidation with the hydrogen peroxide produced from creatinine by the tri-enzyme. The effects of ascorbic acid and uric acid in urine samples were sufficiently eliminated by adding ascorbate oxidase and uricase to the urine samples during sampling. We were able to measure two analyte concentrations within 15 min by one simple injection of 50 μL of diluted human urine into our sensor. The detectable transferrin and creatinine ranges were 20 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL, and 10 μM to 10 mM, respectively, which are sufficient levels for clinical tests. Finally, we compared the results obtained using our sensor with those obtained with a conventional immunoassay and the Jaffe method. We obtained a similar trend that can reduce the fluctuation in the urinary transferrin concentration from three different samples by calibrating the creatinine concentration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... al., 2004; Lefebvre et al., 2001; Moon et al., 2003; Paran et al., 1998; Prince et al., 1992). These markers have proven to be very useful in assessing genetic diversity and phylogeny, characterization of germplasm and detection of duplicates, parental verification in crosses, gene tagging in marker assisted ...

  17. (RAPD) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... RAPD markers reveal polymorphism among some Iranian pomegranate genotypes. Sci. Hortic. 111: 24-29. Shasany AK, Darokar MP, Dhawan S, Gupta AK, Gupta S, Shukla AK,. Patra NK, Khanuja SPS (2005). Use of RAPD and AFLP Markers to. Identify Inter- and Intraspecific Hybrids of Mentha. J. Hered.

  18. Identification and validation of multiple cell surface markers of clinical-grade adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells as novel release criteria for good manufacturing practice-compliant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camilleri, Emily T.; Gustafson, Michael P.; Dudakovic, Amel; Riester, Scott M.; Garces, Catalina Galeano; Paradise, Christopher R.; Takai, Hideki; Karperien, Marcel; Cool, Simon; Sampen, Hee Jeong Im; Larson, A. Noelle; Qu, Wenchun; Smith, Jay; Dietz, Allan B.; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical translation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) necessitates basic characterization of the cell product since variability in biological source and processing of MSCs may impact therapeutic outcomes. Although expression of classical cell surface markers (e.g., CD90, CD73, CD105,

  19. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  20. Tumor Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only a small number of people will test positive for the disease who do not have it—in other words, it will result in very few false-positive results. Although tumor markers are extremely useful in ...

  1. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... Replacement or Calcium Supplementation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 82, No. 6 1904-1910, 1997. N. ...

  2. Effect of surface modification by nitrogen ion implantation on the electrochemical and cellular behaviors of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki-Ghaleh, H; Khalil-Allafi, J; Sadeghpour-Motlagh, M; Shakeri, M S; Masoudfar, S; Farrokhi, A; Beygi Khosrowshahi, Y; Nadernezhad, A; Siadati, M H; Javidi, M; Shakiba, M; Aghaie, E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to enhance the biological behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy while preserving its super-elastic behavior in order to facilitate its compatibility for application in human body. The surfaces of NiTi samples were bombarded by three different nitrogen doses. Small-angle X-ray diffraction was employed for evaluating the generated phases on the bombarded surfaces. The electrochemical behaviors of the bare and surface-modified NiTi samples were studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) using electrochemical impedance and potentio-dynamic polarization tests. Ni ion release during a 2-month period of service in the SBF environment was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrometry. The cellular behavior of nitrogen-modified samples was studied using fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the effect of surface modification on super-elasticity was investigated by tensile test. The results showed the improvement of both corrosion and biological behaviors of the modified NiTi samples. However, no significant change in the super-elasticity was observed. Samples modified at 1.4E18 ion cm(-2) showed the highest corrosion resistance and the lowest Ni ion release.

  3. Transforming Growth Factor-β2 Downregulates Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) I and MHC II Surface Expression on Equine Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Without Altering Other Phenotypic Cell Surface Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Alix K; Fisher, Matthew B; Cameron, Kristin A; Poole, Emma J; Schnabel, Lauren V

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source for treating musculoskeletal injuries in horses. Effective and safe allogeneic therapy may be hindered, however, by recipient immune recognition and rejection of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched MSCs. Development of strategies to prevent immune rejection of MHC-mismatched MSCs in vivo is necessary to enhance cell survival and potentially increase the efficacy and safety of allogeneic MSC therapy. The purposes of this study were to evaluate if transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) downregulated MHC expression on equine MSCs and to determine if TGF-β2 treatment altered the phenotype of MSCs. Equine bone marrow-derived MSCs from 12 horses were treated with 1, 5, or 10 ng/ml TGF-β2 from initial isolation until MHC expression analysis. TGF-β2-treated MSCs had reduced MHC I and MHC II surface expression compared to untreated controls. TGF-β2 treatment also partially blocked IFN-γ-induced upregulation of MHC I and MHC II. Constitutive and IFN-γ-induced MHC I and MHC II expression on equine MSCs was dynamic and highly variable, and the effect of TGF-β2 was significantly dependent on the donor animal and baseline MHC expression. TGF-β2 treatment did not appear to change morphology, surface marker expression, MSC viability, or secretion of TGF-β1, but did significantly increase the number of cells obtained from culture. These results indicate that TGF-β2 treatment has promise for regulating MHC expression on MSCs to facilitate allogeneic therapy, but further work is needed to maintain MHC stability when exposed to an inflammatory stimulus.

  4. Antigen-Induced but Not Innate Memory CD8 T Cells Express NKG2D and Are Recruited to the Lung Parenchyma upon Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Morgan; Valsesia, Séverine; Mafille, Julien; Djebali, Sophia; Tomkowiak, Martine; Mathieu, Anne-Laure; Laubreton, Daphné; de Bernard, Simon; Jouve, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ventre, Erwan; Buffat, Laurent; Walzer, Thierry; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline

    2018-04-09

    The pool of memory-phenotype CD8 T cells is composed of Ag-induced (AI) and cytokine-induced innate (IN) cells. IN cells have been described as having properties similar to those of AI memory cells. However, we found that pathogen-induced AI memory cells can be distinguished in mice from naturally generated IN memory cells by surface expression of NKG2D. Using this marker, we described the increased functionalities of AI and IN memory CD8 T cells compared with naive cells, as shown by comprehensive analysis of cytokine secretion and gene expression. However, AI differed from IN memory CD8 T cells by their capacity to migrate to the lung parenchyma upon inflammation or infection, a process dependent on their expression of ITGA1/CD49a and ITGA4/CD49d integrins. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Unknown. Unknown. V. vinifera L. 2000s. Chile. Stary goru. Ancient variety of Japan. V. vinifera L. 1980s. Japan. Medoc Noir. Unknown. V. vinifera L. 1980s. France. Vidal Blanc. Ugni blanc × seyval blanc. V. vinifera L. 1940s. France. Table 2. Summary of genetic variation statistics for the 19 simple sequence repeat markers ...

  6. (ISSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... Heredity, 65: 179-188. Galvan MZ, Bornet B, Balatti PA, Branchard M (2003). Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers as a tool for the assessment of both genetic diversity and gene pool origin in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Euphytica, 132: 297-301. Kojima T, Nagaoka T, Noda K, Ogihara Y ...

  7. Development of land use regression models for nitrogen dioxide, ultrafine particles, lung deposited surface area, and four other markers of particulate matter pollution in the Swiss SAPALDIA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeftens, Marloes; Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Phuleria, Harish; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Ducret-Stich, Regina; Keidel, Dirk; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Tsai, Ming-Yi

    2016-04-18

    Land Use Regression (LUR) is a popular method to explain and predict spatial contrasts in air pollution concentrations, but LUR models for ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration (PNC) are especially scarce. Moreover, no models have been previously presented for the lung deposited surface area (LDSA) of ultrafine particles. The additional value of ultrafine particle metrics has not been well investigated due to lack of exposure measurements and models. Air pollution measurements were performed in 2011 and 2012 in the eight areas of the Swiss SAPALDIA study at up to 40 sites per area for NO2 and at 20 sites in four areas for markers of particulate air pollution. We developed multi-area LUR models for biannual average concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, PMcoarse, PNC and LDSA, as well as alpine, non-alpine and study area specific models for NO2, using predictor variables which were available at a national level. Models were validated using leave-one-out cross-validation, as well as independent external validation with routine monitoring data. Model explained variance (R(2)) was moderate for the various PM mass fractions PM2.5 (0.57), PM10 (0.63) and PMcoarse (0.45), and was high for PM2.5 absorbance (0.81), PNC (0.87) and LDSA (0.91). Study-area specific LUR models for NO2 (R(2) range 0.52-0.89) outperformed combined-area alpine (R (2)  = 0.53) and non-alpine (R (2)  = 0.65) models in terms of both cross-validation and independent external validation, and were better able to account for between-area variability. Predictor variables related to traffic and national dispersion model estimates were important predictors. LUR models for all pollutants captured spatial variability of long-term average concentrations, performed adequately in validation, and could be successfully applied to the SAPALDIA cohort. Dispersion model predictions or area indicators served well to capture the between area variance. For NO2, applying study

  8. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  9. Nitrogen narcosis and tactile shape memory in low visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Charles H; Meintjes, W A J

    2014-01-01

    Commercial diving often occurs in low visibility, where divers are reliant on their tactile senses. This study examined the effect of nitrogen narcosis on tactile memory for shapes as well as the influence of psychological and biographical factors on this relationship. This crossover study tested 139 commercial divers in a dry hyperbaric chamber at 101.325 and 607.95 kPa (1 and 6 atmospheres absolute/atm abs). Divers memorized shapes while blindfolded, using their tactile senses only. Delayed recall was measured at the surface after each dive. Psychological and biographical data were also collected. A significant effect of hyperbaric pressure on tactile memory was demonstrated, and a further effect of sequence of testing found. Thus, divers' delayed shape recall deteriorated by 8% after learning material at depth, compared to learning on the surface. There were also significant but small effects of psychological and biographical markers on tactile memory performance, with lower trait anxiety associated with better recall, and lower education associated with poorer recall. The findings emphasize the importance of utilizing other forms of recording of events or objects at depth, particularly in conditions of low visibility during deeper diving, to aid memory encoding and subsequent recall at the surface.

  10. On the Ni-Ion release rate from surfaces of binary NiTi shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčíková, Jana; Bártková, Denisa; Goldbergová, Monika; Kuběnová, Monika; Čermák, Jiří; Frenzel, Jan; Weiser, Adam; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2018-01-01

    The study is focused on Ni-ion release rates from NiTi surfaces exposed in the cell culture media and human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture environments. The NiTi surface layers situated in the depth of 70 μm below a NiTi oxide scale are affected by interactions between the NiTi alloys and the bio-environments. The finding was proved with use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electron microscopy experiments. As the exclusive factor controlling the Ni-ion release rates was not only thicknesses of the oxide scale, but also the passivation depth, which was two-fold larger. Our experimental data strongly suggested that some other factors, in addition to the Ni concentration in the oxide scale, admittedly hydrogen soaking deep below the oxide scale, must be taken into account in order to rationalize the concentrations of Ni-ions released into the bio-environments. The suggested role of hydrogen as the surface passivation agent is also in line with the fact that the Ni-ion release rates considerably decrease in NiTi samples that were annealed in controlled hydrogen atmospheres prior to bio-environmental exposures.

  11. Memory Palaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  12. Low expression of activation marker CD69 and chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 on memory T cells after 2009 H1N1 influenza A antigen stimulation in vitro following H1N1 vaccination of HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawansuntati, Kriangkrai; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Aurpibul, Linda; Thetket, Sunida; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Supindham, Taweewat; Kaewthip, Oranitcha; Sroysuwan, Piyathida; Sirisanthana, Thira; Suparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Wipasa, Jiraprapa

    2015-01-01

    Unlike well-studied antibody responses to pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus vaccines in human immunodeficiency virus-infected (HIV+) individuals, less well understood are cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to this antigen in this susceptible population. We investigated such influenza-specific CMI responses in 61 HIV+ individuals and in 20 HIV-negative (HIV-) healthy controls. Each was vaccinated with a single licensed dose of inactivated, split-virion vaccine comprised of the influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) virus-like strain. Cells collected just prior to vaccination and at 1 and 3 months afterwards were stimulated in vitro with dialyzed vaccine antigen and assayed by flow cytometry for cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10, for degranulation marker CD107a, as well as phenotypes of memory T-cell subpopulations. Comparable increases of cytokine-producing and CD107a-expressing T cells were observed in both HIV+ subjects and healthy HIV-controls. However, by 3 months post-vaccination, in vitro antigen stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells induced greater expansion in controls of both CD4 and CD8 central memory and effector memory T cells, as well as higher expression of the activation marker CD69 and chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 than in HIV+ subjects. We concluded CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells produce cytokines at comparable levels in both groups, whereas the expression after in vitro stimulation of molecules critical for cell migration to infection sites are lower in the HIV+ than in comparable controls. Further immunization strategies against influenza are needed to improve the CMI responses in people living with HIV.

  13. Hoxb4 overexpression in CD4 memory phenotype T cells increases the central memory population upon homeostatic proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Frison

    Full Text Available Memory T cell populations allow a rapid immune response to pathogens that have been previously encountered and thus form the basis of success in vaccinations. However, the molecular pathways underlying the development and maintenance of these cells are only starting to be unveiled. Memory T cells have the capacity to self renew as do hematopoietic stem cells, and overlapping gene expression profiles suggested that these cells might use the same self-renewal pathways. The transcription factor Hoxb4 has been shown to promote self-renewal divisions of hematopoietic stem cells resulting in an expansion of these cells. In this study we investigated whether overexpression of Hoxb4 could provide an advantage to CD4 memory phenotype T cells in engrafting the niche of T cell deficient mice following adoptive transfer. Competitive transplantation experiments demonstrated that CD4 memory phenotype T cells derived from mice transgenic for Hoxb4 contributed overall less to the repopulation of the lymphoid organs than wild type CD4 memory phenotype T cells after two months. These proportions were relatively maintained following serial transplantation in secondary and tertiary mice. Interestingly, a significantly higher percentage of the Hoxb4 CD4 memory phenotype T cell population expressed the CD62L and Ly6C surface markers, characteristic for central memory T cells, after homeostatic proliferation. Thus Hoxb4 favours the maintenance and increase of the CD4 central memory phenotype T cell population. These cells are more stem cell like and might eventually lead to an advantage of Hoxb4 T cells after subjecting the cells to additional rounds of proliferation.

  14. Toolbox Approaches Using Molecular Markers and 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Data Sets for Identification of Fecal Pollution in Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Staley, C; Sadowsky, M J; Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Palmer, A; Beale, D J; Toze, S

    2015-10-01

    In this study, host-associated molecular markers and bacterial 16S rRNA gene community analysis using high-throughput sequencing were used to identify the sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters in Brisbane, Australia. A total of 92 fecal and composite wastewater samples were collected from different host groups (cat, cattle, dog, horse, human, and kangaroo), and 18 water samples were collected from six sites (BR1 to BR6) along the Brisbane River in Queensland, Australia. Bacterial communities in the fecal, wastewater, and river water samples were sequenced. Water samples were also tested for the presence of bird-associated (GFD), cattle-associated (CowM3), horse-associated, and human-associated (HF183) molecular markers, to provide multiple lines of evidence regarding the possible presence of fecal pollution associated with specific hosts. Among the 18 water samples tested, 83%, 33%, 17%, and 17% were real-time PCR positive for the GFD, HF183, CowM3, and horse markers, respectively. Among the potential sources of fecal pollution in water samples from the river, DNA sequencing tended to show relatively small contributions from wastewater treatment plants (up to 13% of sequence reads). Contributions from other animal sources were rarely detected and were very small (pollution in an urban river. This study is a proof of concept, and based on the results, we recommend using bacterial community analysis (where possible) along with PCR detection or quantification of host-associated molecular markers to provide information on the sources of fecal pollution in waterways. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Surface Characteristics of Machined NiTi Shape Memory Alloy: The Effects of Cryogenic Cooling and Preheating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynak, Y.; Huang, B.; Karaca, H. E.; Jawahir, I. S.

    2017-07-01

    This experimental study focuses on the phase state and phase transformation response of the surface and subsurface of machined NiTi alloys. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and differential scanning calorimeter techniques were utilized to measure the phase state and the transformation response of machined specimens, respectively. Specimens were machined under dry machining at ambient temperature, preheated conditions, and cryogenic cooling conditions at various cutting speeds. The findings from this research demonstrate that cryogenic machining substantially alters austenite finish temperature of martensitic NiTi alloy. Austenite finish ( A f) temperature shows more than 25 percent increase resulting from cryogenic machining compared with austenite finish temperature of as-received NiTi. Dry and preheated conditions do not substantially alter austenite finish temperature. XRD analysis shows that distinctive transformation from martensite to austenite occurs during machining process in all three conditions. Complete transformation from martensite to austenite is observed in dry cutting at all selected cutting speeds.

  16. 36 CFR 12.7 - Headstones and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “In Memory Of” are mandatory elements of such an inscription. (f) Except as may be authorized by the... vault or a headstone or marker determined by the superintendent not to be in keeping with the historic...

  17. Using memory-efficient algorithm for large-scale time-domain modeling of surface plasmon polaritons propagation in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirov, Andrey; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya; Levchenko, Vadim; Perepelkina, Anastasia; Zempo, Yasunari

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate an efficient approach to numerical modeling of optical properties of large-scale structures with typical dimensions much greater than the wavelength of light. For this purpose, we use the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method enhanced with a memory efficient Locally Recursive non-Locally Asynchronous (LRnLA) algorithm called DiamondTorre and implemented for General Purpose Graphical Processing Units (GPGPU) architecture. We apply our approach to simulation of optical properties of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), which is an essential step in the process of designing OLEDs with improved efficiency. Specifically, we consider a problem of excitation and propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a typical OLED, which is a challenging task given that SPP decay length can be about two orders of magnitude greater than the wavelength of excitation. We show that with our approach it is possible to extend the simulated volume size sufficiently so that SPP decay dynamics is accounted for. We further consider an OLED with periodically corrugated metallic cathode and show how the SPP decay length can be greatly reduced due to scattering off the corrugation. Ultimately, we compare the performance of our algorithm to the conventional FDTD and demonstrate that our approach can efficiently be used for large-scale FDTD simulations with the use of only a single GPGPU-powered workstation, which is not practically feasible with the conventional FDTD.

  18. Design, Manufacturing and Test of a High Lift Secondary Flight Control Surface with Shape Memory Alloy Post-Buckled Precompressed Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sinn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of morphing components on aerospace structures can greatly increase the versatility of an aircraft. This paper presents the design, manufacturing and testing of a new kind of adaptive airfoil with actuation through Shape Memory Alloys (SMA. The developed adaptive flap system makes use of a novel actuator that employs SMA wires in an antagonistic arrangement with a Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP mechanism. SMA actuators are usually used in an antagonistic arrangement or are arranged to move structural components with linearly varying resistance levels similar to springs. Unfortunately, most of this strain energy is spent doing work on the passive structure rather than performing the task at hand, like moving a flight control surface or resisting air loads. A solution is the use of Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP actuators that are arranged so that the active elements do not waste energy fighting passive structural stiffnesses. One major problem with PBP actuators is that the low tensile strength of the piezoelectric elements can often result in tensile failure of the actuator on the convex face. A solution to this problem is the use of SMA as actuator material due to their tolerance of tensile stresses. The power consumption to hold deflections is reduced by approximately 20% with the Post-Buckled Precompressed mechanism. Conventional SMAs are essentially non-starters for many classes of aircraft due to the requirement of holding the flight control surfaces in a given position for extremely long times to trim the vehicle. For the reason that PBP actuators balance out air and structural loads, the steady-state load on the SMAs is essentially negligible, when properly designed. Simulations and experiments showed that the SMAPBP actuator shows tip rotations on the order of 45°, which is nearly triple the levels achieved by piezoelectric PBP actuators. The developed SMAPBP actuator was integrated in a NACA0012 airfoil with a flexible skin

  19. Sharing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Nielsen, Emil Byskov; Nielsen, Jonathan Bernstorff

    2018-01-01

    For people suffering from aphasia, everyday verbal and bodily interpersonal communication is challenging. To increase aphasics' ability to share memories, an assistive technology (the MemoryBook) was conceptualized based on explicit, observable and tacit knowledge gathered from the practices...

  20. Cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  1. Death of effector memory T cells characterizes AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireille, Laforge; Anna, Senik; Marie-Christine, Cumont; Valerie, Monceaux; Bruno, Hurtrel; Jerome, Estaquier

    2009-01-01

    The adaptive effector CD4+ T helper-mediated immune response is highly heterogeneous, based on the development of distinct subsets that are characterized by the expression of different profiles of cell surface markers. Functional impairment of T cells is characteristic of many chronic mouse and human viral infections. Excessive induction of apoptosis in infected and uninfected CD4+ T cells has been proposed as one of the pathogenic mechanisms that may impair the immune response and cause the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Thus, the death of effector/memory CD4+ T cells during both the acute and chronic phase represents one the main characteristic of such viral infection that predicts disease outcome. Improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to the death of memory CD4+ T cells should enable us to improve vaccination protocols and treatments, by combining them with antiretroviral drugs and molecules designed to decrease apoptotic phenomena.

  2. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  3. Optical sensing of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid as a pyrethroid pesticides exposure marker by surface imprinting polymer capped on manganese-doped zinc sulfide quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Pandey; Abhishek Chauhan; Gajanan Pandey; Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam

    2015-01-01

    The present communication deals with the synthesis of luminescent Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) anchored to surface imprinted polymer for the optical sensing of 3-phenoxy benzoic acid (3-PBA) in urine samples. The combination of sensing and surface functionalization not only improves the selectivity of the method, but also increases the optosensing ability of the material for non-phosphorescent substances. The developed material was utilized for the selective and sensitive detection of 3-PB...

  4. Emerging memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  5. Memory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  6. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  7. Declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  8. Adhesion, growth and differentiation markers in human osteoblast-like cells cultured on surface-modified metallic materials designed for bone implants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bačáková, Lucie; Kabátová, J.; Lisá, Věra; Starý, V.; Fencl, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 58-60 (2006), s. 1-3 ISSN 1429-7248 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/06/0226 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bone tissue engineering * metals * surface modifications Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  9. CPM Is a Useful Cell Surface Marker to Isolate Expandable Bi-Potential Liver Progenitor Cells Derived from Human iPS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Taketomo; Koui, Yuta; Suzuki, Kaori; Kobayashi, Ayaka; Miura, Yasushi; Chern, Edward Y.; Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Summary To develop a culture system for large-scale production of mature hepatocytes, liver progenitor cells (LPCs) with a high proliferation potential would be advantageous. We have found that carboxypeptidase M (CPM) is highly expressed in embryonic LPCs, hepatoblasts, while its expression is decreased along with hepatic maturation. Consistently, CPM expression was transiently induced during hepatic specification from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). CPM+ cells isolated from differentiated hiPSCs at the immature hepatocyte stage proliferated extensively in vitro and expressed a set of genes that were typical of hepatoblasts. Moreover, the CPM+ cells exhibited a mature hepatocyte phenotype after induction of hepatic maturation and also underwent cholangiocytic differentiation in a three-dimensional culture system. These results indicated that hiPSC-derived CPM+ cells share the characteristics of LPCs, with the potential to proliferate and differentiate bi-directionally. Thus, CPM is a useful marker for isolating hiPSC-derived LPCs, which allows development of a large-scale culture system for producing hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. PMID:26365514

  10. Maturation of dendritic cells by recombinant human CD40L-trimer leads to a homogeneous cell population with enhanced surface marker expression and increased cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, P A; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claesson, M H

    2001-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) have been shown to be potent inducers of specific cytotoxic T-cell responses both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, exposure to cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or CD40 triggering changes DC phenotype and cytokine production and may enhance the T-cell act...... marker expression and high production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, the induction of responses to allo or recall antigens presented by huCD40LT maturated DC was comparable to the responses obtained with the DC maturated through TNF-alpha exposure.......Dendritic cells (DC) have been shown to be potent inducers of specific cytotoxic T-cell responses both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, exposure to cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or CD40 triggering changes DC phenotype and cytokine production and may enhance the T......-cell activating capacity of the DC. We studied DC phenotype and cytokine production as well as the T-cell proliferation and cytotoxic T lympocyte (CTL) activation induced by DC generated in vitro. In addition, the effect of exposure to recombinant human CD40L-trimer (huCD40LT) on these parameters was investigated...

  11. Measuring memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1988-01-01

    Three broad approaches to the measurement of memory functioning will be described. The first of these involves using memory as a general indicator of any dysfunction in the central nervous system. This approach will be illustrated using Sternberg's short-term memory scanning paradigm. Its strengths are that such tests are often very sensitive, but they are often very difficult to interpret both theoretically and in practical terms. A second approach is to use a range of tasks selected so as to tap different aspects of human memory. Such an approach is of considerably more theoretical interest, and is discussed in more detail by Eysenck (this volume). Its weaknesses are that theories of memory are still changing relatively quickly, and that mapping such results onto memory outside the laboratory is often complex. A third approach is to attempt a more direct measure of everyday memory. The use of questionnaires for this purpose will be critically discussed, and a new test of everyday memory will be described. This test, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, correlates well with observations of memory lapses in patients, and appears to offer a promising new line of development.

  12. Use of MRI to assess the prediction of heart motion with gross body motion in myocardial perfusion imaging by stereotracking of markers on the body surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael A; Dey, Joyoni; Johnson, Karen; Dasari, Paul; Mukherjee, Joyeeta M; McNamara, Joseph E; Konik, Arda; Lindsay, Cliff; Zheng, Shaokuan; Coughlin, Dennis

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine using MRI in volunteers whether the rigid-body-motion (RBM) model can be approximately used to estimate the gross body-motion of the heart from that of external markers on patient's chest. Our target clinical application is to use a visual-tracking-system (VTS) which employs stereoimaging to estimate heart motion during SPECT/CT and PET∕CT myocardial perfusion imaging. To investigate body-motion separate from the respiration the authors had the volunteers hold their breath during the acquisition of a sequence of two sets of EKG-triggered MRI sagittal slices. The first set was acquired pre-motion, and the second postmotion. The motion of the heart within each breath-hold set of slices was estimated by registration to the semiautomatic 3D segmentation of the heart region in a baseline set acquired using the Navigator technique. The motion of the heart between the pre- and postmotion sets was then determined as the difference in the individual motions in comparison to the Navigator sets. An analysis of the combined motion of the individual markers on the chest was used to obtain an estimate of the six-degree-of-freedom RBM from the VTS system. The metric for judging agreement between the motion estimated by MRI and the VTS was the average error. This was defined as the average of the magnitudes of the differences in the vector displacements of all voxels in the heart region. Studies with the Data Spectrum Anthropomorphic Phantom and "No-Motion" studies in which the volunteer did not intentionally move were used to establish a baseline for agreement. With volunteer studies a t-test was employed to determine when statistically significant differences in Average Errors occurred compared to the No-motion studies. For phantom acquisitions, the Average Error when the motion was just translation was 0.1 mm. With complex motions, which included a combination of rotations and translations, the Average Error increased to 3.6 mm. In the

  13. Disputed Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The world wars, genocides and extremist ideologies of the 20th century are remembered very differently across Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, resulting sometimes in fierce memory disputes. This book investigates the complexity and contention of the layers of memory of the troubled 20th...... century in the region. Written by an international group of scholars from a diversity of disciplines, the chapters approach memory disputes in methodologically innovative ways, studying representations and negotiations of disputed pasts in different media, including monuments, museum exhibitions......, individual and political discourse and electronic social media. Analyzing memory disputes in various local, national and transnational contexts, the chapters demonstrate the political power and social impact of painful and disputed memories. The book brings new insights into current memory disputes...

  14. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  15. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    over time. Memory is bonded with story telling. Both in the way the designer tells a story through his design and in the way the user recognizes the story in his perception of design. Memory design first requires recognition and then cognition. AIM The purpose of my research is to investigate the use......Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds...

  16. Mucosal BCG Vaccination Induces Protective Lung-Resident Memory T Cell Populations against Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, Carolina; Zedler, Ulrike; Kühl, Anja A.; Lozza, Laura; Saikali, Philippe; Sander, Leif E.; Vogelzang, Alexis; Kupz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), yet its moderate efficacy against pulmonary TB calls for improved vaccination strategies. Mucosal BCG vaccination generates superior protection against TB in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been implicated in protective immune responses against viral infections, but the role of TRM cells following mycobacterial infection is unknown. Using a mouse model of TB, we compared protection and lung cellular infiltrates of parenteral and mucosal BCG vaccination. Adoptive transfer and gene expression analyses of lung airway cells were performed to determine the protective capacities and phenotypes of different memory T cell subsets. In comparison to subcutaneous vaccination, intratracheal and intranasal BCG vaccination generated T effector memory and TRM cells in the lung, as defined by surface marker phenotype. Adoptive mucosal transfer of these airway-resident memory T cells into naive mice mediated protection against TB. Whereas airway-resident memory CD4+ T cells displayed a mixture of effector and regulatory phenotype, airway-resident memory CD8+ T cells displayed prototypical TRM features. Our data demonstrate a key role for mucosal vaccination-induced airway-resident T cells in the host defense against pulmonary TB. These results have direct implications for the design of refined vaccination strategies. PMID:27879332

  17. What works in auditory working memory? A neural oscillations perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsch, Anna; Obleser, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is a limited resource: brains can only maintain small amounts of sensory input (memory load) over a brief period of time (memory decay). The dynamics of slow neural oscillations as recorded using magneto- and electroencephalography (M/EEG) provide a window into the neural mechanics of these limitations. Especially oscillations in the alpha range (8-13Hz) are a sensitive marker for memory load. Moreover, according to current models, the resultant working memory load is determined by the relative noise in the neural representation of maintained information. The auditory domain allows memory researchers to apply and test the concept of noise quite literally: Employing degraded stimulus acoustics increases memory load and, at the same time, allows assessing the cognitive resources required to process speech in noise in an ecologically valid and clinically relevant way. The present review first summarizes recent findings on neural oscillations, especially alpha power, and how they reflect memory load and memory decay in auditory working memory. The focus is specifically on memory load resulting from acoustic degradation. These findings are then contrasted with contextual factors that benefit neural as well as behavioral markers of memory performance, by reducing representational noise. We end on discussing the functional role of alpha power in auditory working memory and suggest extensions of the current methodological toolkit. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Optical sensing of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid as a pyrethroid pesticides exposure marker by surface imprinting polymer capped on manganese-doped zinc sulfide quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Pandey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present communication deals with the synthesis of luminescent Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs anchored to surface imprinted polymer for the optical sensing of 3-phenoxy benzoic acid (3-PBA in urine samples. The combination of sensing and surface functionalization not only improves the selectivity of the method, but also increases the optosensing ability of the material for non-phosphorescent substances. The developed material was utilized for the selective and sensitive detection of 3-PBA in urine samples. The proposed method shows good linearity with a regression coefficient (R2 of 0.98. The limit of detection was found to be 0.117 μM. The method has an acceptable precision and accuracy which are found to be less than 8% and 80–90% respectively at three different concentrations. The quenching constant of quantum dot-molecular imprinted polymer was found to be 3.4 times higher to that of the quantum dot-non imprinted polymer (QD-NIP as calculated by Stern–Volmer equation. The sensing method developed has shown immense utility to detect 3-PBA in complex biological samples like urine.

  19. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  20. Random Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Martos Forniés, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Desarrollo de una nueva versión del juego Memory para dispositivos móviles Android. Desenvolupament d'una nova versió del joc Memory per a dispositius mòbils Android. Bachelor thesis for the Computer Science program on Educational video games.

  1. Shared Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question of restit...... identifies what seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right; and it shows that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory.......This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question...... of restitution universalised the memory of the Holocaust and made it present. The 2004 enlargement brought the memory of Soviet Communism into the Union and made it a central task to construct a community of memory that includes both the memory of the Holocaust and of Soviet Communism. The analysis also...

  2. Memory Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  3. Episodic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  4. Collaging Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  5. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ...

  6. Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Nicole F. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Maurer, Jochen [Sanford-Burnham, Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sheng, Huiming [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Bensussan, Armand [INSERM U976, Hôpital Saint Louis, F-75475 Paris (France); Department of Immunology, Dermatology and Oncology, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMRS976 F-75475 Paris (France); Maricic, Igor; Kumar, Vipin [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Laboratory of Autoimmunity, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Braciak, Todd A., E-mail: tbraciak@tpims.org [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2011-07-13

    Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells.

  7. Accessing memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  8. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  9. Performance evaluation of new automated hepatitis B viral markers in the clinical laboratory: two quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen assays and an HBV core-related antigen assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongjung; Hong, Duck Jin; Shin, Saeam; Cho, Yonggeun; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) assays and a hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) assay. A total of 529 serum samples from patients with hepatitis B were tested. HBsAg levels were determined by using the Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) and Architect (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) qHBsAg assays. HBcrAg was measured by using Lumipulse HBcrAg assay (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan). Serum aminotransferases and HBV DNA were respectively quantified by using the Hitachi 7600 analyzer (Hitachi High-Technologies, Tokyo, Japan) and the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan test (Roche). Precision of the qHBsAg and HBcrAg assays was assessed, and linearity of the qHBsAg assays was verified. All assays showed good precision performance with coefficients of variation between 4.5% and 5.3% except for some levels. Both qHBsAg assays showed linearity from 0.1 to 12,000.0 IU/mL and correlated well (r = 0.9934). HBsAg levels correlated with HBV DNA (r = 0.3373) and with HBcrAg (r = 0.5164), and HBcrAg also correlated with HBV DNA (r = 0.5198; P < .0001). This observation could provide impetus for further research to elucidate the clinical usefulness of the qHBsAg and HBcrAg assays.

  10. The Suitability of P. falciparum Merozoite Surface Proteins 1 and 2 as Genetic Markers for In Vivo Drug Trials in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abd, Nazeh M.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M. Q.; Snounou, Georges; Abdul-Majid, Nazia B.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Fong, Mun Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background The accuracy of the conclusions from in vivo efficacy anti-malarial drug trials depends on distinguishing between recrudescences and re-infections which is accomplished by genotyping genes coding P. falciparum merozoite surface 1 (MSP1) and MSP2. However, the reliability of the PCR analysis depends on the genetic markers’ allelic diversity and variant frequency. In this study the genetic diversity of the genes coding for MSP1 and MSP2 was obtained for P. falciparum parasites circulating in Yemen. Methods Blood samples were collected from 511 patients with fever and screened for malaria parasites using Giemsa-stained blood films. A total 74 samples were infected with P. falciparum, and the genetic diversity was assessed by nested PCR targeting Pfmsp1 (Block2) and Pfmsp2 (block 3). Results Overall, 58%, 28% and 54% of the isolates harboured parasites of the Pfmsp1 K1, MAD20 and RO33 allelic families, and 55% and 89% harboured those of the Pfmsp2 FC27 and 3D7 allelic families, respectively. For both genetic makers, the multiplicity of the infection (MOI) was significantly higher in the isolates from the foothills/coastland areas as compared to those from the highland (PYemen Pfmsp1 should not be used for PCR correction of in vivo clinical trials outcomes, and that caution should be exercised when employing Pfmsp2. PMID:23861823

  11. QRS duration and QRS fractionation on surface electrocardiogram are markers of right ventricular dysfunction and atrialization in patients with Ebstein anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidy Assenza, Gabriele; Valente, Anne Marie; Geva, Tal; Graham, Dionne; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Romana Pluchinotta, Francesca; Sanders, Stephen P; Autore, Camillo; Volpe, Massimo; Landzberg, Michael J; Cecchin, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Ebstein anomaly is a rare and heterogeneous congenital heart defect affecting the tricuspid valve and right ventricular (RV) myocardium. Few studies have analysed the electrocardiographic features of Ebstein anomaly and none has addressed correlations with disease severity. Patients with Ebstein anomaly who had undergone electrocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) within 6 weeks between 2001 and 2009 were included. Exclusion criteria were: associated congenital cardiac defect, previous RV myoplasty and/or reduction surgery, class I anti-arrhythmic drug therapy, and paced/pre-excited QRS. Standard electrocardiogram (ECG) findings were correlated with CMR-based RV measures and clinical profile. The mean age of the 63 study patients was 22 ± 13 years. An RV conduction delay (rsR' pattern in right precordial leads) was present in 45 patients (71%). The QRS duration correlated with anatomic RV diastolic volume (r = +0.56, P surface ECG identifies a subset of patients with Ebstein anomaly with mild morphological and functional abnormalities and better clinical profile.

  12. Immunogenetic markers associated with a naturally acquired humoral immune response against an N-terminal antigen of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; Furini, Adriana A C; Capobianco, Marcela P; Storti-Melo, Luciane M; Almeida, Maria E; Barbosa, Danielle R L; Póvoa, Marinete M; Nogueira, Paulo A; Machado, Ricardo L D

    2016-06-03

    Humoral immune responses against proteins of asexual blood-stage malaria parasites have been associated with clinical immunity. However, variations in the antibody-driven responses may be associated with a genetic component of the human host. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of co-stimulatory molecule gene polymorphisms of the immune system on the magnitude of the humoral immune response against a Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate antigen. Polymorphisms in the CD28, CTLA4, ICOS, CD40, CD86 and BLYS genes of 178 subjects infected with P. vivax in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The levels of IgM, total IgG and IgG subclasses specific for ICB2-5, i.e., the N-terminal portion of P. vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP-1), were determined by enzyme-linked immuno assay. The associations between the polymorphisms and the antibody response were assessed by means of logistic regression models. After correcting for multiple testing, the IgG1 levels were significantly higher in individuals recessive for the single nucleotide polymorphism rs3116496 in CD28 (p = 0.00004). Furthermore, the interaction between CD28 rs35593994 and BLYS rs9514828 had an influence on the IgM levels (p = 0.0009). The results of the present study support the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the genes of co-stimulatory components of the immune system can contribute to a natural antibody-driven response against P. vivax antigens.

  13. Measurement of waist and hip circumference with a body surface scanner: feasibility, validity, reliability, and correlations with markers of the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jaeschke

    Full Text Available Body surface scanners (BS, which visualize a 3D image of the human body, facilitate the computation of numerous body measures, including height, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC. However, limited information is available regarding validity and reliability of these automated measurements (AM and their correlation with parameters of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS compared to traditional manual measurements (MM.As part of a cross-sectional feasibility study, AM of WC, HC and height were assessed twice in 60 participants using a 3D BS (VitussmartXXL. Additionally, MM were taken by trained personnel according to WHO guidelines. Participants underwent an interview, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and blood pressure measurement. Blood samples were taken to determine HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Validity was assessed based on the agreement between AM and MM, using Bland-Altman-plots, correlation analysis, and paired t-tests. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC based on two repeated AM. Further, we calculated age-adjusted Pearson correlation for AM and MM with fat mass, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid.Body measures were higher in AM compared to MM but both measurements were strongly correlated (WC, men, difference = 1.5 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 4.7 cm, r = 0.96; HC, men, d = 2.3 cm, r = 0.97; women, d = 3.0 cm; r = 0.98. Reliability was high for all AM (nearly all ICC>0.98. Correlations of WC, HC, and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with parameters of MetS were similar between AM and MM; for example the correlation of WC assessed by AM with HDL-cholesterol was r = 0.35 in men, and r = -0.48 in women, respectively whereas correlation of WC measured manually with HDL cholesterol was r = -0.41 in men, and r = -0.49 in women, respectively.Although AM of WC, HC, and WHR are higher when compared to MM based on WHO guidelines, our data

  14. Memory B and T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitetta, E S; Berton, M T; Burger, C; Kepron, M; Lee, W T; Yin, X M

    1991-01-01

    Three remarkable and unique features of the immune system are specificity, diversity, and memory. Immunological memory involves both T and B cells and results in a secondary antibody response that is faster, of higher affinity, and results in the secretion of non-IgM isotypes of Ig. In this review we discuss the properties of memory T and B cells, their specific receptors, and the events which occur both in the nucleus and on the cell surface during generation and activation of these cells. Although memory T and B cells use different mechanisms to elaborate memory, there are a number of interesting analogies: lymphokines vs antibodies and affinity maturation of B cell antigen receptors vs upregulation of adhesion molecules on T cells. Finally, we discuss the importance of these cells in health and disease and suggest what impact additional information about these cells might have on the manipulation of the immune response.

  15. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person with memory loss needs a lot of support. It helps to show the person familiar objects, music, or and photos or play familiar music. Write down when the person should take any medicine or do other ...

  16. Multiferroic Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritendu Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroism implies simultaneous presence of more than one ferroic characteristics such as coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. This phenomenon has led to the development of various kinds of materials and conceptions of many novel applications such as development of a memory device utilizing the multifunctionality of the multiferroic materials leading to a multistate memory device with electrical writing and nondestructive magnetic reading operations. Though, interdependence of electrical- and magnetic-order parameters makes it difficult to accomplish the above and thus rendering the device to only two switchable states, recent research has shown that such problems can be circumvented by novel device designs such as formation of tunnel junction or by use of exchange bias. In this paper, we review the operational aspects of multiferroic memories as well as the materials used for these applications along with the designs that hold promise for the future memory devices.

  17. Concrete Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the presence of Atlantikwall bunkers in amateur holiday snapshots and discusses the ambiguous role of the bunker site in visual cultural memory. Departing from my family’s private photo collection from twenty years of vacationing at the Danish West coast, the different mundane...... the bunkers’ changing visuality and the cultural topography they both actively transform and are being transformed by through juxtaposing different acts and objects of memory over time and in different visual articulations....

  18. Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, C.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Richland, WA (United States). Rockwell Hanford Operations

    1985-05-02

    The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

  19. On the properties of two binary NiTi shape memory alloys. Effects of surface finish on the corrosion behaviour and in vitro biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Souni, Mohammed; Es-Souni, Martha; Fischer-Brandies, Helge

    2002-07-01

    The present paper compares the transformation behaviour and mechanical properties of two orthodontic wires of close chemical compositions. The effects of surface topography and surface finish residues on the potentiodynamic corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility are also reported. The cytotoxicity tests were performed on both alloys in fibroblast cell cultures from human gingiva using the MTT test. It is shown that the surface finish and the amounts of surface finish residues affect dramatically the corrosion resistance. Bad surface finish results in lower corrosion resistance. The in vitro biocompatibility, though not affected to the extent of corrosion resistance, is also reduced as the surface roughness and the amounts of residues increase. This is thought to be due to surface effects on corrosion and metallic ions release.

  20. Influenza vaccine induces intracellular immune memory of human NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yaling; Fu, Binqing; Sun, Rui; Li, Wenting; Hu, Wanfu; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2015-01-01

    Influenza vaccines elicit antigen-specific antibodies and immune memory to protect humans from infection with drift variants. However, what supports or limits vaccine efficacy and duration is unclear. Here, we vaccinated healthy volunteers with annual vaccine formulations and investigated the dynamics of T cell, natural killer (NK) cell and antibody responses upon restimulation with heterologous or homologous influenza virus strains. Influenza vaccines induced potential memory NK cells with increased antigen-specific recall IFN-γ responses during the first 6 months. In the absence of significant changes in other NK cell markers (CD45RO, NKp44, CXCR6, CD57, NKG2C, CCR7, CD62L and CD27), influenza vaccines induced memory NK cells with the distinct feature of intracellular NKp46 expression. Indeed, surface NKp46 was internalized, and the dynamic increase in NKp46(intracellular)+CD56dim NK cells positively correlated with increased IFN-γ production to influenza virus restimulation after vaccination. In addition, anti-NKp46 antibodies blocked IFN-γ responses. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism underlying vaccine-induced immunity and NK-related diseases, which may help to design persisting and universal vaccines in the future.

  1. Working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1992-01-31

    The term working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning. This definition has evolved from the concept of a unitary short-term memory system. Working memory has been found to require the simultaneous storage and processing of information. It can be divided into the following three subcomponents: (i) the central executive, which is assumed to be an attentional-controlling system, is important in skills such as chess playing and is particularly susceptible to the effects of Alzheimer's disease; and two slave systems, namely (ii) the visuospatial sketch pad, which manipulates visual images and (iii) the phonological loop, which stores and rehearses speech-based information and is necessary for the acquisition of both native and second-language vocabulary.

  2. Vial Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Vial Memory is the final part in the Collected trilogy. Following Still Life and Future Nature, the work marks a return to the medical archive and the body on display. The project is an art and science collaboration with the Mütter Museum and the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, U.S.A. Vial Memory explicitly invokes scientific process and human consciousness. On one level functioning as a form of memento mori with their intimations of mortality, yet the vivid spectacular of the images a...

  3. Inventing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    on the Internet facilitating the process of mourning for people who have lost loved ones (children, lovers, siblings, parents etc), websites like e.g. Letters to Heaven. In this paper we analyze the Danish mourning website, mindet.dk (mindet means memory). On this website participants perform their grief...... by designing online memory spaces for their loved one(s) displaying photographs, poetry, stories and expressions of grief and longing. They take part in expressions of empathy for others by lighting candles for other people's loved ones, they share their personal experiences in different chatrooms...

  4. Memory disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial

    2013-01-01

    Memory disorders are a frequent consequence of a variety of childhood neurological conditions. We will review the characteristics of memory disorders as a function of the main four memory systems: short-term memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, and procedural memory. For each system, we will identify the most typical cerebral and/or genetic correlates, and we will discuss the impact of impairment of each memory system on everyday life functioning. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Tantalum markers in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, A.S.; Jonsson, N.; Alberius, P.

    1985-01-01

    The biocompatibility of two types of radiopaque tantalum markers was evaluated histologically. Reactions to pin markers (99.9% purity) and spherical markers (95.2% purity) were investigated after 3-6 weeks in rabbits and 5-48 weeks in children with abnormal growth. Both marker types were firmly attached to bone trabeculae; this was most pronounced in rabbit bone, and no adverse macroscopic reactions were observed. Microscopically, no reactions or only slight fibrosis of bone tissue were detected, while soft tissues only demonstrated a minor inflammatory reaction. Nevertheless, the need for careful preparation and execution of marker implantations is stressed, and particularly avoidance iof the use of emery in sharpening of cannulae. The bioinertness of tantalum was reconfirmed as was its suitability for use as skeletal and soft tissue radiographic markers. (orig.)

  6. Memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takashima, A.; Bakker, I.; Schmid, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to make use of novel experiences and knowledge to guide our future behavior, we must keep large amounts of information accessible for retrieval. The memory system that stores this information needs to be flexible in order to rapidly incorporate incoming information, but also requires that

  7. Holographic memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Berg, R.H.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    A Two-dimensional holographic memory for archival storage is described. Assuming a coherent transfer function, an A4 page can be stored at high resolution in an area of 1 mm(2). Recently developed side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyesters are found to be suitable media for holographic s...

  8. (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    age groups of both maternal and paternal maps. The segre- gating markers were classified into two classes; for DArT class 1 consensus marker the selection criterion were of very high stringency parameters with clustering settings; Q >. 70; P > 75; call rate > 90, 100% reproducibility, no dis- cordance, and probability > 0.001 ...

  9. Radiopaque anastomosis marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.P.; Halseth, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to split ring markers fabricated in whole or in part from a radiopaque material, usually metal, having the terminal ends thereof and a medial portion formed to define eyelets by means of which said marker can be sutured to the tissue at the site of an anastomosis to provide a visual indication of its location when examined fluoroscopically

  10. Inventing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    describes the long term process through which instutions and interaction modes are being changed in culture and society due to the media's increasing influence. Mediatization defines and frames the way we experience and how we define ourselves and the roles we play in connection to this experience. Web 2...... on the Internet facilitating the process of mourning for people who have lost loved ones (children, lovers, siblings, parents etc), websites like e.g. Letters to Heaven. In this paper we analyze the Danish mourning website, mindet.dk (mindet means memory). On this website participants perform their grief...... by designing online memory spaces for their loved one(s) displaying photographs, poetry, stories and expressions of grief and longing. They take part in expressions of empathy for others by lighting candles for other people's loved ones, they share their personal experiences in different chatrooms...

  11. Reality of near-death-experience memories: Evidence from a psychodynamic and electrophysiological integrated study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna ePalmieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature of near-death experiences (NDEs is largely unknown but recent evidence suggests the intriguing possibility that NDEs may refer to actually perceived, and stored, experiences (although not necessarily in relation to the external physical world. We adopted an integrated approach involving a hypnosis-based clinical protocol to improve recall and decrease memory inaccuracy together with Electroencephalography (EEG recording in order to investigate the characteristics of NDE memories and their neural markers compared to memories of both real and imagined events. We included 10 participants with NDEs, defined by the Greyson NDE scale, and 10 control subjects without NDE. Memories were assessed using the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire.Our hypnosis-based protocol increased the amount of details in the recall of all kind of memories considered (NDE, real, and imagined events. Findings showed that NDE memories were similar to real memories in terms of detail richness, self-referential, and emotional information. Moreover, NDE memories were significantly different from memories of imagined events. The pattern of EEG results indicated that real memories recall was positively associated with two memory-related frequency bands, i.e., high alpha and gamma. NDE memories were linked with theta band, a well-known marker of episodic memory. The recall of NDE memories was also related to delta band, which indexes processes such as the recollection of the past, as well as trance states, hallucinations, and other related portals to transpersonal experience. It is notable that the EEG pattern of correlations for NDE memories recall differed from the pattern for memories of imagined events. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, at a phenomenological level, NDE memories cannot be considered equivalent to imagined memories, and at a neural level, NDE memories are stored as episodic memories of events experienced in a peculiar state of consciousness.

  12. "Reality" of near-death-experience memories: evidence from a psychodynamic and electrophysiological integrated study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Arianna; Calvo, Vincenzo; Kleinbub, Johann R; Meconi, Federica; Marangoni, Matteo; Barilaro, Paolo; Broggio, Alice; Sambin, Marco; Sessa, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The nature of near-death-experiences (NDEs) is largely unknown but recent evidence suggests the intriguing possibility that NDEs may refer to actually "perceived," and stored, experiences (although not necessarily in relation to the external physical world). We adopted an integrated approach involving a hypnosis-based clinical protocol to improve recall and decrease memory inaccuracy together with electroencephalography (EEG) recording in order to investigate the characteristics of NDE memories and their neural markers compared to memories of both real and imagined events. We included 10 participants with NDEs, defined by the Greyson NDE scale, and 10 control subjects without NDE. Memories were assessed using the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire. Our hypnosis-based protocol increased the amount of details in the recall of all kind of memories considered (NDE, real, and imagined events). Findings showed that NDE memories were similar to real memories in terms of detail richness, self-referential, and emotional information. Moreover, NDE memories were significantly different from memories of imagined events. The pattern of EEG results indicated that real memory recall was positively associated with two memory-related frequency bands, i.e., high alpha and gamma. NDE memories were linked with theta band, a well-known marker of episodic memory. The recall of NDE memories was also related to delta band, which indexes processes such as the recollection of the past, as well as trance states, hallucinations, and other related portals to transpersonal experience. It is notable that the EEG pattern of correlations for NDE memory recall differed from the pattern for memories of imagined events. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, at a phenomenological level, NDE memories cannot be considered equivalent to imagined memories, and at a neural level, NDE memories are stored as episodic memories of events experienced in a peculiar state of consciousness.

  13. Effect of chemical treatment on surface characteristics of sputter deposited Ti-rich NiTi shape memory alloy thin-films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.K.; Mohan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: FTIR spectra recorded for sputter deposited (a) untreated and (b) chemically treated NiTi SMA thin-films. - Highlights: • The effect of chemical treatment on surface properties of NiTi films demonstrated. • Chemically treated films offer strong ability to form protective TiO 2 layer. • TiO 2 layer formation offer great application prospects in biomedical fields. - Abstract: NiTi thin-films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering from single alloy target (Ni/Ti:45/55 at.%). The rate of deposition and thickness of sputter deposited films were maintained to ∼35 nm min −1 and 4 μm respectively. A set of sputter deposited NiTi films were selected for specific chemical treatment with the solution comprising of de-ionized water, HF and HNO 3 respectively. The influence of chemical treatment on surface characteristics of NiTi films before and after chemical treatment was investigated for their structure, micro-structure and composition using different analytical techniques. Prior to chemical treatment, the composition of NiTi films using energy dispersive X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), were found to be 51.8 atomic percent of Ti and 48.2 atomic percent of Ni. The structure and morphology of these films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD investigations, demonstrated the presence of dominant Austenite (1 1 0) phase along with Martensite phase, for untreated NiTi films whereas some additional diffraction peaks viz. (1 0 0), (1 0 1), and (2 0 0) corresponding to Rutile and Anatase phase of Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) along with parent Austenite (1 1 0) phase were observed for chemically treated NiTi films. FTIR studies, it can be concluded that chemically treated films have higher tendency to form metal oxide/hydroxide than the untreated NiTi films. XPS investigations, demonstrated the presence of Ni-free surface and formation of a protective metal oxide (TiO 2 ) layer on the surface of

  14. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  15. Transactional Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tim; Rajwar, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The advent of multicore processors has renewed interest in the idea of incorporating transactions into the programming model used to write parallel programs.This approach, known as transactional memory, offers an alternative, and hopefully better, way to coordinate concurrent threads. The ACI(atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties of transactions provide a foundation to ensure that concurrent reads and writes of shared data do not produce inconsistent or incorrect results. At a higher level, a computation wrapped in a transaction executes atomically - either it completes successfullyand

  16. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  17. STRUKTUR DAN PROSES MEMORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bhinnety

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes structures and processes of human memory system according to the modal model. Sensory memory is described as the first system to store information from outside world. Short‐term memory, or now called working memory, represents a system characterized by limited ability in storing as well as retrieving information. Long‐term memory on the hand stores information larger in amount and longer than short‐term memory

  18. Electroconvulsive therapy and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R G; Wiens, A N

    1975-10-01

    Recent research on the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on memory is critically reviewed. Despite some inconsistent findings, unilateral nondominant ECT appears to affect verbal memory less than bilateral ECT. Adequate research on multiple monitored ECT is lacking. With few exceptions, the research methodologies for assessing memory have been inadequate. Many studies have confounded learning with retention, and only very recently has long term memory been adequately studied. Standardized assessment procedures for short term and long term memory are needed, in addition to more sophisticated assessment of memory processes, the duration of memory loss, and qualitative aspects of memories.

  19. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, I.G.; Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity

  20. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.; Fornara, P.; Fabricius, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.) [de

  1. Markers of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin P Davies

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED, the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients.

  2. Optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  3. 30 CFR 715.12 - Signs and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or by other means approved by the regulatory authority. (d) Buffer zone markers. Buffer zones as... boundary of the buffer zone. (e) Blasting signs. If blasting is necessary to conduct surface coal mining...

  4. Human spermatogonial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kopylow, Kathrein; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai

    2017-12-01

    In this review, we provide an up-to-date compilation of published human spermatogonial markers, with focus on the three nuclear subtypes A dark , A pale and B. In addition, we have extended our recently published list of putative spermatogonial markers with protein expression and RNA-sequencing data from the Human Protein Atlas and supported these by literature evidence. Most importantly, we have put substantial effort in acquiring a comprehensive list of new and potentially interesting markers by refiltering the raw data of 15 published germ cell expression datasets (four human, eleven rodent) and subsequent building of intersections to acquire a robust, cross-species set of spermatogonia-enriched or -specific transcripts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Human spermatogonial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrein von Kopylow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we provide an up-to-date compilation of published human spermatogonial markers, with focus on the three nuclear subtypes Adark, Apale and B. In addition, we have extended our recently published list of putative spermatogonial markers with protein expression and RNA-sequencing data from the Human Protein Atlas and supported these by literature evidence. Most importantly, we have put substantial effort in acquiring a comprehensive list of new and potentially interesting markers by refiltering the raw data of 15 published germ cell expression datasets (four human, eleven rodent and subsequent building of intersections to acquire a robust, cross-species set of spermatogonia-enriched or -specific transcripts.

  6. [Markers of brain tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, R; Pezzotta, S; Bernini, F; Racagni, G

    1984-05-19

    Biological markers of tumors are compounds or enzymatic activities measurable in body fluids. Their presence or concentration must be linked to tumoral growth. The markers of the central nervous system tumors are detected in CSF. Alpha-feto-protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, adenohypophyseal peptide hormones, enzymes, etc., have found some application in the early diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis. Other applications involve the early detection and recurrency of primary brain tumors, as well as the evaluation of efficacy of their therapy. The tests based on the CSF content of desmosterol and polyamines have been studied extensively. Their rationale is discussed and specificity, sensitivity, efficiency and predictive value are considered. Experimental results concerning a new possible biochemical marker, based on CSF concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, are reported.

  7. Memory, microprocessor, and ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    System Timing. ROM/PROM/EPROM. SRAM. Embedded Memory. Flash Memories. Dynamic Random Access Memory. Low-Power Memory Circuits. Timing and Signal Integrity Analysis. Microprocessor Design Verification. Microprocessor Layout Method. Architecture. ASIC Design. Logic Synthesis for Field Programmable Gate Array (EPGA) Technology. Testability Concepts and DFT. ATPG and BIST. CAD Tools for BIST/DFT and Delay Faults.

  8. Nanoscale memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO 2 . (topical review)

  9. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  10. (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wilt and sterility mosaic disease, etc.) stresses. Despite past. ∗For correspondence. E-mail: r.k.varshney@cgiar.org .... Shi Ying Yang et al. Table 2. Details on 466 polymorphic DArT markers. Female specific. Male specific. Total. 198. 268. Class I. 142. 203. Class II. 27. 16. Others. 29. 49. Mapped. 122. 172. Linkage mapping.

  11. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  12. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  13. Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lange

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC. Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

  14. Synthesis of the Constructing Memory Conference. Conclusions from the Constructing Memory Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    possible and that there should be provisions to help society go back to an indirect oversight regime (like it will be in the medium term), in case oversight was lost at one time (long-term period). In this sense, the RK and M initiative is on the right track in terms of raising the issue of the transfer of responsibilities for both RK and M preservation and for repository oversight. The need for further attention to the area of knowledge reconstruction was also noted. The RK and M initiative's work in the area of creating a key information file (KIF), with a table of contents that is standardised internationally, was supported as was the work in the area of international mechanisms in general. Participants agreed that these mechanisms can improve not only RK and M preservation but also favour transparency. The role of national and local archives was highlighted, and new information was provided on the practical challenges to their continued existence. Local stakeholders, it was underlined, can contribute to their durability and resilience. Examples were given of markers in association with art to address short-term memory needs, but also of small discovery markers that surface erosion could expose to suggest, thousands of years from now, that 'something happened here'. Surface traces of large projects are liable to survive for centuries and millennia, and they could acquire or be given cultural significance, which would extend memory in relation to the place. Examples were also given of how added cultural value could help preserve memory in the short term and prepare for the medium term. However, one example also showed that memory is easily lost if there is no willingness to remember. Overall, there is worldwide interest in the topic of RK and M preservation across generations. It is an issue that cuts across many other fields in addition to radioactive waste management. Twenty-five per cent of the participants in the conference came from local communities

  15. “Reality” of near-death-experience memories: evidence from a psychodynamic and electrophysiological integrated study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Arianna; Calvo, Vincenzo; Kleinbub, Johann R.; Meconi, Federica; Marangoni, Matteo; Barilaro, Paolo; Broggio, Alice; Sambin, Marco; Sessa, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The nature of near-death-experiences (NDEs) is largely unknown but recent evidence suggests the intriguing possibility that NDEs may refer to actually “perceived,” and stored, experiences (although not necessarily in relation to the external physical world). We adopted an integrated approach involving a hypnosis-based clinical protocol to improve recall and decrease memory inaccuracy together with electroencephalography (EEG) recording in order to investigate the characteristics of NDE memories and their neural markers compared to memories of both real and imagined events. We included 10 participants with NDEs, defined by the Greyson NDE scale, and 10 control subjects without NDE. Memories were assessed using the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire. Our hypnosis-based protocol increased the amount of details in the recall of all kind of memories considered (NDE, real, and imagined events). Findings showed that NDE memories were similar to real memories in terms of detail richness, self-referential, and emotional information. Moreover, NDE memories were significantly different from memories of imagined events. The pattern of EEG results indicated that real memory recall was positively associated with two memory-related frequency bands, i.e., high alpha and gamma. NDE memories were linked with theta band, a well-known marker of episodic memory. The recall of NDE memories was also related to delta band, which indexes processes such as the recollection of the past, as well as trance states, hallucinations, and other related portals to transpersonal experience. It is notable that the EEG pattern of correlations for NDE memory recall differed from the pattern for memories of imagined events. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, at a phenomenological level, NDE memories cannot be considered equivalent to imagined memories, and at a neural level, NDE memories are stored as episodic memories of events experienced in a peculiar state of consciousness. PMID:24994974

  16. Verbal memory and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Pauline M

    2015-11-01

    Midlife women frequently report memory problems during the menopausal transition. Recent studies validate those complaints by showing significant correlations between memory complaints and performance on validated memory tasks. Longitudinal studies demonstrate modest declines in verbal memory during the menopausal transition and a likely rebound during the postmenopausal stage. Clinical studies that examine changes in memory following hormonal withdrawal and add-back hormone therapy (HT) demonstrate that estradiol plays a critical role in memory. Although memory changes are frequently attributed to menopausal symptoms, studies show that the memory problems occur during the transition even after controlling for menopausal symptoms. It is well established that self-reported vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are unrelated to objective memory performance. However, emerging evidence suggests that objectively measured VMS significantly correlate with memory performance, brain activity during rest, and white matter hyperintensities. This evidence raises important questions about whether VMS and VMS treatments might affect memory during the menopausal transition. Unfortunately, there are no clinical trials to inform our understanding of how HT affects both memory and objectively measured VMS in women in whom HT is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe VMS. In clinical practice, it is helpful to normalize memory complaints, to note that evidence suggests that memory problems are temporary, and to counsel women with significant VMS that memory might improve with treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Salam Memorial

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    by T.W.B. KIBBLE / Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London. Recollections of Abdus Salam at Imperial College I shall give a personal account of Professor Salam's life and work from the perspective of a colleague at Imperial College, concentrating particularly but not exclusively on the period leading up to the discovery of the electro-weak theory. If necessary I could perhaps give more detail, but only once I have given more thought to what ground I shall cover. by Sheldon Lee GLASHOW / Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. Memories of Abdus Salam. My interactions with Abdus Salam, weak as they have been, extended over five decades. I regret that we never once collaborated in print or by correspondence. I visited Abdus only twice in London and twice again in Trieste, and met him at the occasional conference or summer school. Our face-to-face encounters could be counted on one's fingers and toes, but we became the best of friends. Others will discuss Abdus as an inspiring teacher, as a great scientist,...

  18. True and intentionally fabricated memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, L.V.; Morrison, C.M.; Conway, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the experiment reported here was to investigate the processes underlying the construction of truthful and deliberately fabricated memories. Properties of memories created to be intentionally false - fabricated memories - were compared to properties of memories believed to be true - true memories. Participants recalled and then wrote or spoke true memories and fabricated memories of everyday events. It was found that true memories were reliably more vivid than fabricated memories an...

  19. Organizational memory: from expectations memory to procedural memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational memory is not just the stock of knowledge about how to do things, but also of expectations of organizational members vis-à-vis each other and the organization as a whole. The central argument of this paper is that this second type of organizational memory -organizational expectations

  20. Stochastic memory: getting memory out of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2011-03-01

    Memory circuit elements, namely memristors, memcapacitors and meminductors, can store information without the need of a power source. These systems are generally defined in terms of deterministic equations of motion for the state variables that are responsible for memory. However, in real systems noise sources can never be eliminated completely. One would then expect noise to be detrimental for memory. Here, we show that under specific conditions on the noise intensity memory can actually be enhanced. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of a memristor in which the addition of white noise into the state variable equation improves the memory and helps the operation of the system. We discuss under which conditions this effect can be realized experimentally, discuss its implications on existing memory systems discussed in the literature, and also analyze the effects of colored noise. Work supported in part by NSF.

  1. Exploring history and memory through autobiographical memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor Goodson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the role of autobiographical memory as a site of narrative construction. Far from being a place of liberal retrospective recall it is a site of active recapitulation and reconstruction. The article provides examples of how history and memory are intermingled. It also draws in the author’s autobiographical vignettes to explore the underpinning desires for historical reconstruction in autobiographical memory work

  2. Detailed Sensory Memory, Sloppy Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sligte, Ilja G.; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R. E.; Scholte, H. Steven; Lamme, Victor A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a...

  3. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  4. Memories that last forever: strategies for optimizing vaccine T-cell memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    For acute self-limiting infections a vaccine is successful if it elicits memory at least as good as the natural experience; however, for persistent and chronic infections such as HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and human herpes viruses, this paradigm is not applicable. At best, during persistent virus infection the person must be able to maintain the integrity of the immune system in equilibrium with controlling replicating virus. New vaccine strategies are required that elicit both potent high-avidity CD8+ T-cell effector/memory and central memory responses that can clear the nidus of initial virus-infected cells at mucosal surfaces to prevent mucosal transmission or significantly curtail development of disease. The objective of an HIV-1 T-cell vaccine is to generate functional CD8+ effector memory cells at mucosal portals of virus entry to prevent viral transmission. In addition, long-lived CD8+ and CD4+ central memory cells circulating through secondary lymphoid organs and resident in bone marrow, respectively, are needed to provide a concerted second wave of defense that can contain virus at mucosal surfaces and prevent systemic dissemination. Further understanding of factors which can influence long-lived effector and central memory cell differentiation will significantly contribute to development of effective T-cell vaccines. In this review we will focus on discussing mechanisms involved in T-cell memory and provide promising new approaches toward expanding current vaccine strategies to enhance antiviral memory. PMID:19903895

  5. Tissue-resident memory T cells play a key role in the efficacy of cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, C; Blanc, C; Karaki, S; Tran, T; Roussel, H; Tartour, E

    2017-01-01

    Resident memory CD8 + T cells (T RM ) usually defined by the CD103 marker represent a new subset of long-lived memory T cells that remain in the tissues. We directly demonstrate their specific role in cancer vaccine-induced tumor regression. In human, they also seem to play a major role in tumor immunosurveillance.

  6. Drawing organic photovoltaics using paint marker pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kaori; Izawa, Seiichiro; Chen, Yujiao; Nakano, Kyohei; Tajima, Keisuke

    2017-11-01

    Active layers for organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) were prepared by hand drawing with paint marker pens containing solutions of the materials. Although the pen-coated organic films were visually non-uniform with quite high surface roughness, OPV devices using these films exhibited similar or slightly better performances than those using spin-coated films. As such, the pen-coating technique represents an easily accessible, inexpensive, and highly material-efficient method for fabricating OPVs.

  7. Reduced representations capacity in visual working memory in trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Senqing; Chen, Jie; Hitchman, Glenn; Zeng, Qinghong; Ding, Cody; Li, Hong; Hu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    Neural processes that support individual differences in trait anxiety and the amount of representations in visual-spatial working memory (WM) are currently unclear. We measured the contralateral delay activity (CDA) in a lateralized change detection task to explore this question. Different levels of memory load were varied within each block. Despite their unimpaired behavioral performance, individuals with high traitanxious(HTA) displayed several changes in the neuronal markers of the memory processes. The CDA amplitudes reached asymptote at loads of three and four items for HTA and low traitanxious(LTA) individuals, respectively. This result indicates that HTA individuals reach the upper limit of representation capacity with a smaller memory load than LTA individuals. Furthermore, the smaller CDA amplitudes in HTA individuals under high memory loads could be attributed to less contralateral cortical activity, which further indicates that HTA individuals are associated with reduced representations of taskrelevantitems in WM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established industrial host for production of recombinant proteins, fuels and chemicals. To enable stable integration of multiple marker-free overexpression cassettes in the genome of S. cerevisiae, we have developed a vector toolkit EasyClone-MarkerFree. The integr...... standardized genome engineering, and should be of particular interest to researchers working on yeast chassis with limited markers available....

  9. The contributions of color to recognition memory for natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Felix A; Sharpe, Lindsay T; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2002-05-01

    The authors used a recognition memory paradigm to assess the influence of color information on visual memory for images of natural scenes. Subjects performed 5%-10% better for colored than for black-and-white images independent of exposure duration. Experiment 2 indicated little influence of contrast once the images were suprathreshold, and Experiment 3 revealed that performance worsened when images were presented in color and tested in black and white, or vice versa, leading to the conclusion that the surface property color is part of the memory representation. Experiments 4 and 5 exclude the possibility that the superior recognition memory for colored images results solely from attentional factors or saliency. Finally, the recognition memory advantage disappears for falsely colored images of natural scenes: The improvement in recognition memory depends on the color congruence of presented images with learned knowledge about the color gamut found within natural scenes. The results can be accounted for within a multiple memory systems framework.

  10. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  11. Music, memory and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  12. Generation and Context Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  13. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  14. Music, memory and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  15. Attending to auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  17. Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of Depression Vulnerability in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Sapotichne, Brenna; Klostermann, Susan; Battista, Deena; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), the tendency to recall categories of events when asked to provide specific instances from one's life, is purported to be a marker of depression vulnerability that develops in childhood. Although early adolescence is a period of risk for depression onset especially among girls, prospective examination of…

  18. Relationship of plasma cytokines and clinical biomarkers to memory performance in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Stephen; Cohen, Ronald; Gongvatana, Assawin; Ross, Skye; Olchowski, James; Devlin, Kathryn; Tashima, Karen; Navia, Bradford; Delamonte, Suzanne

    2013-12-15

    Chronic systemic immune activation and inflammatory processes have been linked to brain dysfunction in medically stable HIV-infected people. We investigated the association between verbal memory performance and plasma concentrations of 13 cytokines measured using multiplexed bead array immunoassay in 74 HIV-seropositive individuals and 50 HIV-seronegative controls. Memory performance was positively related to levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ, and negatively related to IL-10 and IL-18 and to hepatitis C infection. Memory performance was not significantly related to HIV disease markers. The results indicate the importance of systemic immune and inflammatory markers to neurocognitive function in chronic and stable HIV disease. © 2013.

  19. Quantum random access memory

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially l...

  20. Pervasive Theory of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenbaev, Ulan; Paul, Wolfgang J.; Schirmer, Norbert

    For many aspects of memory theoretical treatment already exists, in particular for: simple cache construction, store buffers and store buffer forwarding, cache coherence protocols, out of order access to memory, segmentation and paging, shared memory data structures (e.g. for locks) as well as for memory models of multi-threaded programming languages. It turns out that we have to unite all of these theories into a single theory if we wish to understand why parallel C compiled by an optimizing compiler runs correctly on a contemporary multi core processor. This pervasive theory of memory is outlined here.

  1. ECT and memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R

    1977-09-01

    The author reviews several studies that clarify the nature of the memory loss associated with ECT. Bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT and more extensive retrograde amnesia than unilateral ECT. Reactivating memories just before ECT did not produce amnesia. Capacity for new learning recovered substantially by several months after ECT, but memory complaints were common in individuals who had received bilateral ECT. Other things being equal, right unilateral ECT seems preferable to bilateral ECT because the risks to memory associated with unilateral ECT are smaller.

  2. A multiplexed quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, S-Y; Radnaev, A G; Collins, O A; Matsukevich, D N; Kennedy, T A; Kuzmich, A

    2009-08-03

    A quantum repeater is a system for long-distance quantum communication that employs quantum memory elements to mitigate optical fiber transmission losses. The multiplexed quantum memory (O. A. Collins, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060502 (2007)) has been shown theoretically to reduce quantum memory time requirements. We present an initial implementation of a multiplexed quantum memory element in a cold rubidium gas. We show that it is possible to create atomic excitations in arbitrary memory element pairs and demonstrate the violation of Bell's inequality for light fields generated during the write and read processes.

  3. Familiarity in Source Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered. PMID:22789677

  4. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja G Sligte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual short-term memory (VSTM enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the pre-change object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the pre-change object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88 percent of the iconic memory trials, on 71 percent of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53 percent of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory.

  5. Memory dynamics under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.

  6. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  7. Tracing Cultural Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    to Soweto’s Regina Mundi Church, this thesis analyses tourists’ snapshots at sites of memory and outlines their tracing activity in cultural memory. It draws on central concepts of actor - network theory and visual culture studies for a cross - disciplinary methodology to comprehend the collective...... of memory. They highlight the role of mundane uses of the past and indicate the need for cross - disciplinary research on the visual and on memory......We encounter, relate to and make use of our past and that of others in multifarious and increasingly mobile ways. Tourism is one of the main paths for encountering sites of memory. This thesis examines tourists’ creative appropriations of sites of memory – the objects and future memories inspired...

  8. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  9. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  10. Episodic memory in frontotemporal dementia: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Michael; Piguet, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This review offers a critical appraisal of the literature on episodic memory performance in frontotemporal dementia. Historically, description of patients diagnosed with what was then known as Pick's disease included the presence of memory deficits and an underlying amnestic syndrome was noted in some of these patients. Over the last 20 years, however, the clinical view has been that episodic memory processing is relatively intact in the frontotemporal dementia syndrome. In particular, patients with the subtypes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and progressive non-fluent aphasia are reported to perform within normal limits on standard memory tests. In the third clinical presentation of frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia, relatively intact episodic memory against a significantly impaired semantic memory was regarded as the hallmark. This position was instrumental in the development of clinical diagnostic criteria for frontotemporal dementia in which amnesia was explicitly listed as an exclusion criterion for the disease. The relative intactness of episodic memory, therefore, appeared to be a useful diagnostic marker to distinguish early frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer's disease, in which early episodic memory disturbance remains the most common clinical feature. We argue that recent evidence questions the validity of preserved episodic memory in frontotemporal dementia, particularly in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. In semantic dementia, a complex picture emerges with preservation of some components of episodic memory, notably recognition-based visual memory and recall of recent autobiographical events. We propose a critical synthesis of recent neuropsychological evidence on retrograde and anterograde memory in light of neuroimaging and neuropathological findings, demonstrating involvement of medial temporal structures in frontotemporal dementia, structures known to be critical for episodic memory processing. We further

  11. Mucosal-associated invariant T cell is a potential marker to distinguish fibromyalgia syndrome from arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Chie; Konno, Takahiko; Wakao, Rika; Fujita, Hiroko; Fujita, Hiroyoshi; Wakao, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined as a widely distributed pain. While many rheumatologists and pain physicians have considered it to be a pain disorder, psychiatry, psychology, and general medicine have deemed it to be a syndrome (FMS) or psychosomatic disorder. The lack of concrete structural and/or pathological evidence has made patients suffer prejudice that FMS is a medically unexplained symptom, implying inauthenticity. Furthermore, FMS often exhibits comorbidity with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondyloarthritis (SpA), both of which show similar indications. In this study, disease specific biomarkers were sought in blood samples from patients to facilitate objective diagnoses of FMS, and distinguish it from RA and SpA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and healthy donors (HD) were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in PBMCs and the mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of cell surface antigen expression in MAIT cells were analyzed. There was a decrease in the MAIT cell population in FMS, RA, and SpA compared with HD. Among the cell surface antigens in MAIT cells, three chemokine receptors, CCR4, CCR7, and CXCR1, a natural killer (NK) receptor, NKp80, a signaling lymphocyte associated molecule (SLAM) family, CD150, a degrunulation marker, CD107a, and a coreceptor, CD8β emerged as potential biomarkers for FMS to distinguish from HD. Additionally, a memory marker, CD44 and an inflammatory chemokine receptor, CXCR1 appeared possible markers for RA, while a homeostatic chemokine receptor, CXCR4 deserved for SpA to differentiate from FMS. Furthermore, the drug treatment interruption resulted in alternation of the expression of CCR4, CCR5, CXCR4, CD27, CD28, inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS), CD127 (IL-7 receptor α), CD94, NKp80, an activation marker, CD69, an integrin family member, CD49d, and a dipeptidase, CD26, in FMS. Combined with the currently available

  12. Mucosal-associated invariant T cell is a potential marker to distinguish fibromyalgia syndrome from arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Sugimoto

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is defined as a widely distributed pain. While many rheumatologists and pain physicians have considered it to be a pain disorder, psychiatry, psychology, and general medicine have deemed it to be a syndrome (FMS or psychosomatic disorder. The lack of concrete structural and/or pathological evidence has made patients suffer prejudice that FMS is a medically unexplained symptom, implying inauthenticity. Furthermore, FMS often exhibits comorbidity with rheumatoid arthritis (RA or spondyloarthritis (SpA, both of which show similar indications. In this study, disease specific biomarkers were sought in blood samples from patients to facilitate objective diagnoses of FMS, and distinguish it from RA and SpA.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from patients and healthy donors (HD were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells in PBMCs and the mean fluorescent intensity (MFI of cell surface antigen expression in MAIT cells were analyzed.There was a decrease in the MAIT cell population in FMS, RA, and SpA compared with HD. Among the cell surface antigens in MAIT cells, three chemokine receptors, CCR4, CCR7, and CXCR1, a natural killer (NK receptor, NKp80, a signaling lymphocyte associated molecule (SLAM family, CD150, a degrunulation marker, CD107a, and a coreceptor, CD8β emerged as potential biomarkers for FMS to distinguish from HD. Additionally, a memory marker, CD44 and an inflammatory chemokine receptor, CXCR1 appeared possible markers for RA, while a homeostatic chemokine receptor, CXCR4 deserved for SpA to differentiate from FMS. Furthermore, the drug treatment interruption resulted in alternation of the expression of CCR4, CCR5, CXCR4, CD27, CD28, inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS, CD127 (IL-7 receptor α, CD94, NKp80, an activation marker, CD69, an integrin family member, CD49d, and a dipeptidase, CD26, in FMS.Combined with the currently available

  13. Markers of hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballería, Llorenç; Torán, Pere; Caballería, Joan

    2017-10-18

    Chronic liver diseases constitute a major health problem. Chronic liver inflammation, defined by the degree of hepatic fibrosis, is asymptomatic in a significant percentage of patients; hence, the disease often remains undiagnosed until it has reached very advanced phases and, frequently, when the damage is irreversible. Ideally, patients should be screened during the initial phases of chronic inflammation, thus allowing for the effective management of the natural evolution of the disease by stopping or delaying its course. Standard diagnostic methods (transaminase determination or abdominal ultrasonography) do not allow for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis. A liver biopsy is the invasive method of choice to screen for fibrosis, however, due to its limitations, non-invasive diagnostic methods such as elastography or serological markers are increasingly used as a good alternative for the early diagnosis of the degree of fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  15. Memory for speech and speech for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J L; Kutz, K J

    1975-03-01

    Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation, received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. Although both groups had nearly perfect perception of the experimenter's productions of /w/ and /r/, misarticulating subjects perceived their own tape-recorded w/r productions as /w/. In the memory task these same misarticulating subjects committed significantly more /w/-/r/ confusions in unspoken recall. The discussion considers why people subvocally rehearse; a developmental period in which children do not rehearse; ways subvocalization may aid recall, including motor and acoustic encoding; an echoic store that provides additional recall support if subjects rehearse vocally, and perception of self- and other- produced phonemes by misarticulating children-including its relevance to a motor theory of perception. Evidence is presented that speech for memory can be sufficiently impaired to cause memory disorder. Conceptions that restrict speech disorder to an impairment of communication are challenged.

  16. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  17. Molecular marker applications in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Alice C; Tollenaere, Reece; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Batley, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Individuals within a population of a sexually reproducing species will have some degree of heritable genomic variation caused by mutations, insertion/deletions (INDELS), inversions, duplications, and translocations. Such variation can be detected and screened using molecular, or genetic, markers. By definition, molecular markers are genetic loci that can be easily tracked and quantified in a population and may be associated with a particular gene or trait of interest. This chapter will review the current major applications of molecular markers in plants.

  18. The contributions of handedness and working memory to episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aparna; Christman, Stephen D; Propper, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    Past studies have independently shown associations of working memory and degree of handedness with episodic memory retrieval. The current study takes a step ahead by examining whether handedness and working memory independently predict episodic memory. In agreement with past studies, there was an inconsistent-handed advantage for episodic memory; however, this advantage was absent for working memory tasks. Furthermore, regression analyses showed handedness, and complex working memory predicted episodic memory performance at different times. Results are discussed in light of theories of episodic memory and hemispheric interaction.

  19. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  20. Specificity in autobiographical memory narratives correlates with performance on the Autobiographical Memory Test and prospectively predicts depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Mineka, Susan; McAdams, Dan P.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive marker in depression that is typically measured with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). The AMT is widely used, but the overreliance on a single methodology for assessing AMS is a limitation in the field. The current study investigated memory narratives as an alternative measure of AMS in an undergraduate student sample selected for being high or low on a measure of depressive symptoms (N = 55). We employed a multi-method design to compare narrative- and AMT-based measures of AMS. Participants generated personally significant self-defining memory narratives, and also completed two versions of the AMT (with and without instructions to retrieve specific memories). Greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives correlated with greater AMS in performance on both versions of the AMT in the full sample, and the patterns of relationships between the different AMS measures were generally similar in low and high dysphoric participants. Furthermore, AMS in self-defining memory narratives was prospectively associated with depressive symptom levels. Specifically, greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives predicted fewer depressive symptoms at a 10-week follow-up over and above baseline symptom levels. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:23240988

  1. Specificity in autobiographical memory narratives correlates with performance on the autobiographical memory test and prospectively predicts depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Mineka, Susan; McAdams, Dan P

    2013-01-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive marker in depression that is typically measured with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). The AMT is widely used, but the over-reliance on a single methodology for assessing AMS is a limitation in the field. The current study investigated memory narratives as an alternative measure of AMS in an undergraduate student sample selected for being high or low on a measure of depressive symptoms (N=55). We employed a multi-method design to compare narrative- and AMT-based measures of AMS. Participants generated personally significant self-defining memory narratives, and also completed two versions of the AMT (with and without instructions to retrieve specific memories). Greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives correlated with greater AMS in performance on both versions of the AMT in the full sample, and the patterns of relationships between the different AMS measures were generally similar in low and high dysphoric participants. Furthermore, AMS in self-defining memory narratives was prospectively associated with depressive symptom levels. Specifically, greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives predicted fewer depressive symptoms at a 10-week follow-up over and above baseline symptom levels. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  2. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  3. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays.

  4. Tumor markers in clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subtle differences between normal and tumor cells are exploited in the detection and treatment of cancer. These differences are designated as tumor markers and can be either qualitative or quantitative in their nature. That means that both the structures that are produced by tumor cells as well as the structures that are produced in excessive amounts by host tissues under the influence of tumor cells can function as tumor markers. Speaking in general, the tumor markers are the specific molecules appearing in the blood or tissues and the occurrence of which is associated with cancer. According to their application, tumor markers can be roughly divided as markers in clinical oncology and markers in pathology. In this review, only tumor markers in clinical oncology are going to be discussed. Current tumor markers in clinical oncology include (i) oncofetal antigens, (ii) placental proteins, (iii) hormones, (iv) enzymes, (v) tumor-associated antigens, (vi) special serum proteins, (vii) catecholamine metabolites, and (viii) miscellaneous markers. As to the literature, an ideal tumor marker should fulfil certain criteria - when using it as a test for detection of cancer disease: (1) positive results should occur in the early stages of the disease, (2) positive results should occur only in the patients with a specific type of malignancy, (3) positive results should occur in all patients with the same malignancy, (4) the measured values should correlate with the stage of the disease, (5) the measured values should correlate to the response to treatment, (6) the marker should be easy to measure. Most tumor markers available today meet several, but not all criteria. As a consequence of that, some criteria were chosen for the validation and proper selection of the most appropriate marker in a particular malignancy, and these are: (1) markers' sensitivity, (2) specificity, and (3) predictive values. Sensitivity expresses the mean probability of determining an elevated tumor

  5. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  6. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lucy V; Morrison, Catriona M; Conway, Martin A

    2018-02-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation times; however, IFAMs always took longer to construct than AMs. Finally, replicating previous findings, fewer IFAMs had a field perspective than AMs, IFAMs were less vivid than AMs, and IFAMs contained more motion words (indicative of increased cognitive load). Taken together, these findings show a pattern of systematic differences that mark out IFAMs, and they also show that IFAMs can be identified indirectly by lowered performance on concurrent tasks that increase cognitive load.

  7. What memory is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley B

    2015-01-01

    I argue that our current practice of ascribing the term 'memory' to mental states and processes lacks epistemic warrant. Memory, according to the 'received view', is any state or process that results from the sequential stages of encoding, storage, and retrieval. By these criteria, memory, or its footprint, can be seen in virtually every mental state we are capable of having. This, I argue, stretches the term to the breaking point. I draw on phenomenological, historical, and conceptual considerations to make the case that an act of memory entails a direct, non-inferential feeling of reacquaintance with one's past. It does so by linking content retrieved from storage with autonoetic awareness during retrieval. On this view, memory is not the content of experience, but the manner in which that content is experienced. I discuss some theoretical and practical implications and advantages of adopting this more circumscribed view of memory. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Marker Detection in Aerial Images

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Yazeed

    2017-04-09

    The problem that the thesis is trying to solve is the detection of small markers in high-resolution aerial images. Given a high-resolution image, the goal is to return the pixel coordinates corresponding to the center of the marker in the image. The marker has the shape of two triangles sharing a vertex in the middle, and it occupies no more than 0.01% of the image size. An improvement on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is proposed, eliminating the majority of baseline HOG false positives for marker detection. The improvement is guided by the observation that standard HOG description struggles to separate markers from negatives patches containing an X shape. The proposed method alters intensities with the aim of altering gradients. The intensity-dependent gradient alteration leads to more separation between filled and unfilled shapes. The improvement is used in a two-stage algorithm to achieve high recall and high precision in detection of markers in aerial images. In the first stage, two classifiers are used: one to quickly eliminate most of the uninteresting parts of the image, and one to carefully select the marker among the remaining interesting regions. Interesting regions are selected by scanning the image with a fast classifier trained on the HOG features of markers in all rotations and scales. The next classifier is more precise and uses our method to eliminate the majority of the false positives of standard HOG. In the second stage, detected markers are tracked forward and backward in time. Tracking is needed to detect extremely blurred or distorted markers that are missed by the previous stage. The algorithm achieves 94% recall with minimal user guidance. An average of 30 guesses are given per image; the user verifies for each whether it is a marker or not. The brute force approach would return 100,000 guesses per image.

  9. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Sarp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Self and mind are constituted with the cumulative effects of significant life events. This description is regarded as a given explicitly or implicitly in vari-ous theories of personality. Such an acknowledgment inevitably brings together these theories on two basic concepts. The first one is the emotions that give meaning to experiences and the second one is the memory which is related to the storage of these experiences. The part of the memory which is responsible for the storage and retrieval of life events is the autobiographical memory. Besides the development of personality, emotions and autobiographical memory are important in the development of and maintenance of psychopathology. Therefore, these two concepts have both longitudinal and cross-sectional functions in understanding human beings. In case of psychopathology, understanding emotions and autobiographical memory developmentally, aids in understanding the internal susceptibility factors. In addition, understanding how these two structures work and influence each other in an acute event would help to understand the etiological mechanisms of mental disorders. In the literature, theories that include both of these structures and that have clinical implications, are inconclusive. Theories on memory generally focus on cognitive and semantic structures while neglecting emotions, whereas theories on emotions generally neglect memory and its organization. There are only a few theories that cover both of these two concepts. In the present article, these theories that include both emotions and autobiographical memory in the same framework (i.e. Self Memory System, Associative Network Theory, Structural and Contextual theories and Affect Regulation Theory were discussed to see the full picture. Taken together, these theories seem to have the potential to suggest data-driven models in understanding and explaining symptoms such as flashbacks, dissociation, amnesia, over general memory seen in

  10. Coding for flash memories

    OpenAIRE

    Yaakobi, Eitan

    2011-01-01

    Flash memories are, by far, the most important type of non -volatile memory in use today. They are employed widely in mobile, embedded, and mass-storage applications, and the growth in this sector continues at a staggering pace. Moreover, since flash memories do not suffer from the mechanical limitations of magnetic disk drives, solid- state drives have the potential to upstage the magnetic recording industry in the foreseeable future. The research goal of this dissertation is the discovery o...

  11. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    J?ncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  12. Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

  13. Transcription Factor Bcl11b Controls Effector and Memory CD8 T cell Fate Decision and Function During Poxvirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Abboud

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cells play an important role in host resistance to many viral infections, but the underlying transcriptional mechanisms governing their differentiation and functionality remain poorly defined. By using a highly virulent systemic and respiratory poxvirus infection in mice, we show that the transcription factor Bcl11b provides a dual trigger that sustains the clonal expansion of virus-specific effector CD8+ T cells, while simultaneously suppressing the expression of surface markers associated with short-lived effector cell (SLEC differentiation. Additionally, we demonstrate that Bcl11b supports the acquisition of memory precursor effector cell (MPEC phenotype, and thus its absence causes near complete loss of lymphoid and lung-resident memory cells. Interestingly, despite having normal levels of T-bet and Eomesodermin, Bcl11b-deficient CD8+ T cells failed to execute effector differentiation needed for anti-viral cytokine production and degranulation, suggesting a non-redundant role of Bcl11b in regulation of this program. Thus, Bcl11b is a critical player in fate decision of SLECs and MPECs, as well as effector function and memory formation.

  14. Memory CD4 T cells in influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zens, Kyra D; Farber, Donna L

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly among young children and the elderly. Current vaccines induce neutralizing antibody responses directed toward highly variable viral surface proteins, resulting in limited heterosubtypic protection to new viral serotypes. By contrast, memory CD4 T cells recognize conserved viral proteins and are cross-reactive to multiple influenza strains. In humans, virus-specific memory CD4 T cells were found to be the protective correlate in human influenza challenge studies, suggesting their key role in protective immunity. In mouse models, memory CD4 T cells can mediate protective responses to secondary influenza infection independent of B cells or CD8 T cells, and can influence innate immune responses. Importantly, a newly defined, tissue-resident CD4 memory population has been demonstrated to be retained in lung tissue and promote optimal protective responses to an influenza infection. Here, we review the current state of results regarding the generation of memory CD4 T cells following primary influenza infection, mechanisms for their enhanced efficacy in protection from secondary challenge including their phenotype, localization, and function in the context of both mouse models and human infection. We also discuss the generation of memory CD4 T cells in response to influenza vaccines and its future implications for vaccinology.

  15. Molecular wires, switches and memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia

    Molecular electronics, an emerging field, makes it possible to build individual molecules capable of performing functions identical or analogous to present- day conductors, switches, or memories. These individual molecules, with a nano-meter scale characteristic length, can be designed and chemically synthesized with specific atoms, geometries and charge distribution. This thesis focuses on the design, and measurements of molecular wires, and related strategically engineered structures-molecular switches and memories. The experimental system relies on a thermodynamically driven self-assembling process to attach molecules onto substrate surfaces without intervention from outside. The following topics will be discussed: directed nanoscale manipulation of self-assembled molecules using scanning tunneling microscope; investigation on through-bond transport of nanoscale symmetric metal/conjugated self- assembled monolayers (SAM)/metal junctions, where non- Ohmic thermionic emission was observed to be the dominant process, with isocyanide-Pd contacts showing the lowest thermionic barrier of 0.22 eV; the first realization of robust and large reversible switching behavior in an electronic device that utilizes molecules containing redox centers as the active component, exhibiting negative differential resistance (NDR) and large on-off peak-to-valley ratio (PVR); observation of erasable storage of higher conductivity states in these redox- center containing molecular devices, and demonstration of a two-terminal electronically programmable and erasable molecular memory cell with long bit retention time.

  16. CD8 T cell memory: it takes all kinds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Christopher Jameson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and maintenance of CD8+ memory T cells is fundamental to the development of effective T cell based vaccines. Memory cell differentiation is influenced by the cytokines that accompany T cell priming, the history of previous antigen encounters, and the tissue sites into which memory cells migrate. These cues combine to influence the developing CD8+ memory pool, and recent work has revealed the importance of multiple transcription factors, metabolic molecules, and surface receptors in revealing the type of memory cell that is generated. Paired with increasingly meticulous subsetting and sorting of memory populations, we now know the CD8+ memory pool to be phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous in nature. This includes both recirculating and tissue resident memory populations, and cells with varying degrees of inherent longevity and protective function. These data point to the importance of tailored vaccine design. Here we discuss how the diversity of the memory CD8+ T cell pool challenges the notion that ‘one size fits all’ for pathogen control, and how distinct memory subsets may be suited for distinct aspects of protective immunity.

  17. Models of Working Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Akira

    1997-01-01

    .... Understanding the mechanisms and structures underlying working memory is, hence, one of the most important scientific issues that need to be addressed to improve the efficiency and performance...

  18. Phase change memory

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Moinuddin K

    2011-01-01

    As conventional memory technologies such as DRAM and Flash run into scaling challenges, architects and system designers are forced to look at alternative technologies for building future computer systems. This synthesis lecture begins by listing the requirements for a next generation memory technology and briefly surveys the landscape of novel non-volatile memories. Among these, Phase Change Memory (PCM) is emerging as a leading contender, and the authors discuss the material, device, and circuit advances underlying this exciting technology. The lecture then describes architectural solutions t

  19. [Sleep, memory, and learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallinen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between sleep and memory and learning has proved multifilament. Besides supporting cognitive functions needed to encode, storage and retrieve materials while awake, sleep is a state during which some of the memory traces are reactivated and consolidated. Also, sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea and insufficient sleep in children and adolescents are accompanied with impairments of memory and learning as well as work and school performance. There are treatments for these disorders such as congnitive-behavioural therapy and continuous positive airway pressure, which, at least to some extent, mitigate cognitive impairments and consequently support memory and learning.

  20. Literary exercise on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tununa Mercado Baigorria

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present text unfolds images and ideas about memory. It is always composed by fragments. The article mentions forms of memory, going from the involuntary specific souvenirs to the link between memory and dreams. Additionally, memory is related to the power against oblivion and resistance. The voice of enunciation collects acts that preserved histories in the most unexpected places. Specific and collective cases of exile are mentioned and it is presented as a material of literature. It is connected with language and writing.

  1. Memories Persist in Silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Arenas Grisales

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the hypothesis that memory artifacts, created to commemorate the victims of armed conflict in Colombia, are an expression of the underground memories and a way of political action in the midst of war. We analyze three cases of creations of memory artifacts in Medellín, Colombia, as forms of suffering, perceiving and resisting the power of armed groups in Medellín. The silence, inherent in these objects, should not be treated as an absence of language, but as another form of expression of memory. Silence is a tactic used to overcome losses and reset everyday life in contexts of protracted violence.

  2. The future of memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  3. Memories united in diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    During the 1990s the memory of the Holocaust became the negative core event (Diner 2003) for the European Union (EU). The Holocaust has turned into a symbol of a diseased past for which the EU is the cure. However, since the eastward enlargement of the EU the memory of the Holocaust has been...... challenged by the memory of Soviet Communism. Thus, when the EU-members from the former Eastern Bloc entered the EU they brought with them their memory of another diseased past. A past for which the Western members of the EU seems to have little understanding....

  4. Memories in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomi Brea, A; Mizraji, E

    1999-06-01

    Context-dependent associative memories are models that allow the retrieval of different vectorial responses given a same vectorial stimulus, depending on the context presented to the memory. The contextualization is obtained by doing the Kronecker product between two vectorial entries to the associative memory: the key stimulus and the context. These memories are able to display a wide variety of behaviors that range from all the basic operations of the logical calculus (including fuzzy logics) to the selective extraction of features from complex vectorial patterns. In the present contribution, we show that a context-dependent memory matrix stores a large amount of possible virtual associative memories, that awaken in the presence of a context. We show how the vectorial context allows a memory matrix to be representable in terms of its singular-value decomposition. We describe a neural interpretation of the model in which the Kronecker product is performed on the same neurons that sustain the memory. We explored, with numerical experiments, the reliability of chains of contextualized associations. In some cases, random disconnection produces the emergence of oscillatory behaviors of the system. Our results show that associative chains retain their performances for relatively large dimensions. Finally, we analyze the properties of some modules of context-dependent autoassociative memories inserted in recursive nets: the perceptual autoorganization in the presence of ambiguous inputs (e.g. the disambiguation of the Necker's cube figure), the construction of intersection filters, and the feature extraction capabilities.

  5. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living...... speakers. Taken together, the results suggest that humans utilize ethnic markers of unfamiliar individuals to coordinate behavior rather than to cooperate....

  6. High Temperature Memories in SiC Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is part of the Working On Venus (WOV) project. The aim of the project is to design electronics in silicon carbide (SiC) that can withstand the extreme surface environmen  of Venus. This thesis investigates some possible computer memory technologies that could survive on the surface of Venus. A memory must be able to function at 460 °C and after a total radiation dose of at least 200 Gy (SiC). This thesis is a literature survey. The thesis covers several Random-Access Memory (RAM) ...

  7. Memory T follicular helper CD4 T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott eHale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available T follicular helper (Tfh cells are the subset of CD4 T helper cells that are required for generation and maintenance of germinal center reactions and the generation of long-lived humoral immunity. This specialized T helper subset provides help to cognate B cells via their expression of CD40 ligand, IL-21, IL-4, and other molecules. Tfh cells are characterized by their expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR5, expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6, and their capacity to migrate to the follicle and promote germinal center B cell responses. Until recently, it remained unclear whether Tfh cells differentiated into memory cells and whether they maintain their Tfh commitment at the memory phase. This review will highlight several recent studies that support the idea of Tfh-committed CD4 T cells at the memory stage of the immune response. The implication of these findings is that memory Tfh cells retain their capacity to recall their Tfh-specific effector functions upon reactivation to provide help for B cell responses and play an important role in prime and boost vaccination or during recall responses to infection. The markers that are useful for distinguishing Tfh effector and memory cells, as well as the limitations of using these markers will be discussed. Tfh effector and memory generation, lineage maintenance, and plasticity relative to other T helper lineages (Th1, Th2, Th17, etc will also be discussed. Ongoing discoveries regarding the maintenance and lineage stability versus plasticity of memory Tfh cells will improve strategies that utilize CD4 T cell memory to modulate antibody responses during prime and boost vaccination.

  8. Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and ne...

  9. GF-GC Theory of Human Cognition: Differentiation of Short-Term Auditory and Visual Memory Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Ron; Lieberman, Lewis

    1994-01-01

    Study sought to determine whether separate short-term auditory and visual memory factors would emerge given a sufficient number of markers in a factor matrix. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Short-term visual and short-term auditory memory factors emerged as expected. (RJM)

  10. Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…

  11. Contributions of children's linguistic and working memory proficiencies to their judgments of grammaticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Nicolette B; Redmond, Sean M; Archibald, Lisa M D

    2014-06-01

    The authors explored the cognitive mechanisms involved in language processing by systematically examining the performance of children with deficits in the domains of working memory and language. From a database of 370 school-age children who had completed a grammaticality judgment task, groups were identified with a co-occurring language and working memory impairment (LI-WMI; n = 18) or specific language impairment (SLI) with typical working memory skills ( n = 60) and matched control groups. Correct and incorrect use of grammatical markers occurred either early or late in sentence stimuli, imposing a greater working memory load for late-marker sentences. Children with SLI showed a lower preference for grammatical items than typically developing controls, regardless of error marker position. Children with LI-WMI demonstrated a performance pattern modulated by error marker position: Their preference for grammatical items was lower than typically developing controls for late but not early marker sentences. This pattern of results suggests that there are distinct and dissociable impacts of working memory and linguistic skills on metalinguistic functioning through a grammatical judgment task.

  12. Do Overgeneral Autobiographical Memories Predict Increased Psychopathological Symptoms in Community Youth? A 3-Year Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Salmon, Karen; Jose, Paul E

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests that an overgeneral autobiographical memory style (i.e., retrieval of general memories when instructed to retrieve a specific episodic memory) represents a vulnerability marker for depression. Although adolescence is a period of high risk for the emergence of depression, little research has investigated the associations among overgeneral memory, psychopathology, and risk factors longitudinally in a community sample in this age group. We, therefore, investigated overgeneral memory, psychopathology (depression and anxiety), and rumination (an established risk factor for psychopathology) longitudinally in 269 typically-developing youth (125 females, 144 males) across 3 annual assessment points. We sought to determine whether 1) overgeneral memory would predict psychopathology across the entire sample, and 2) whether associations would vary as a function of longitudinal rumination growth. Across the entire sample, overgeneral memory did not predict psychopathology. For youth who reported elevated, and increasing, patterns of rumination over time, transient relationships between overgeneral memory and subsequent increases in anxiety were found. We conclude that overgeneral memory may represent a vulnerability marker for adverse psychological outcomes only for youth at risk for psychopathology.

  13. Episodic Memory for Dynamic Social Interaction Across Phase of Illness in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Knowlton, Barbara J; Bearden, Carrie E; Cannon, Tyrone D; Fiske, Alan P; Ghermezi, Livon; Hayata, Jacqueline N; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Horan, William P; Kee, Kimmy; Kern, Robert S; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Sugar, Catherine A; Ventura, Joseph; Yee, Cindy M; Green, Michael F

    2017-07-06

    Although a number of studies examined recollection and familiarity memory in schizophrenia, most of studies have focused on nonsocial episodic memory. Little is known about how schizophrenia patients remember social information in everyday life and whether social episodic memory changes over the course of illness. This study aims to examine episodic memory for dynamic social interaction with multimodal social stimuli in schizophrenia across phase of illness. Within each phase of illness, probands and demographically matched controls participated: 51 probands at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis and 36 controls, 80 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 49 controls, and 50 chronic schizophrenia patients and 39 controls. The participants completed the Social Remember-Know Paradigm that assessed overall social episodic memory, social recollection and familiarity memory, and social context memory, in addition to social cognitive measures and measures on community functioning. Probands showed impairment for recollection but not in familiarity memory and this pattern was similar across phase of illness. In contrast, impaired social context memory was observed in the first-episode and chronic schizophrenia samples, but not in CHR samples. Social context memory was associated with community functioning only in the chronic sample. These findings suggest that an impaired recollection could be a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia whereas impaired social context memory could be a disease-related marker. Further, a pattern of impaired recollection with intact familiarity memory for social stimuli suggests that schizophrenia patients may have a different pattern of impaired episodic memory for social vs nonsocial stimuli. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Markers of T Cell Senescence in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are facing the aging of their population, and many more will face a similar obstacle in the near future, which could be a burden to many healthcare systems. Increased susceptibility to infections, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease, cancer as well as reduced efficacy of vaccination are important matters for researchers in the field of aging. As older adults show higher prevalence for a variety of diseases, this also implies higher risk of complications, including nosocomial infections, slower recovery and sequels that may reduce the autonomy and overall quality of life of older adults. The age-related effects on the immune system termed as “immunosenescence” can be exemplified by the reported hypo-responsiveness to influenza vaccination of the elderly. T cells, which belong to the adaptive arm of the immune system, have been extensively studied and the knowledge gathered enables a better understanding of how the immune system may be affected after acute/chronic infections and how this matters in the long run. In this review, we will focus on T cells and discuss the surface and molecular markers that are associated with T cell senescence. We will also look at the implications that senescent T cells could have on human health and diseases. Finally, we will discuss the benefits of having these markers for investigators and the future work that is needed to advance the field of T cell senescence markers.

  15. Effect of recombinant erythropoietin on inflammatory markers in patients with affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Weikop, Pia; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the effect of repeated infusions of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) on markers of inflammation in patients with affective disorders and whether any changes in inflammatory markers were associated with improvements on verbal memory. Methods: In total, 83 patients...... measured at week 1 (baseline) and weeks 5, 9 and 14. HDRS-17 and neuropsychological function was assessed at weeks 1, 9 and 14 using a test battery including the RAVLT Auditory Verbal Learning Test (primary depression and primary cognition outcomes in the original trial). Results: EPO had no cumulative...... and change in verbal memory. Conclusions: Repeated EPO infusions had no effect on IL-6 and IL-18 levels but produced a modest increase in hsCRP levels in patients with TRD. Changes over time in inflammatory markers were not correlated with changes in cognition suggesting that modulation of the inflammatory...

  16. Formation and suppression of acoustic memories during human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrillon, Thomas; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Léger, Damien; Kouider, Sid

    2017-08-08

    Sleep and memory are deeply related, but the nature of the neuroplastic processes induced by sleep remains unclear. Here, we report that memory traces can be both formed or suppressed during sleep, depending on sleep phase. We played samples of acoustic noise to sleeping human listeners. Repeated exposure to a novel noise during Rapid Eye Movements (REM) or light non-REM (NREM) sleep leads to improvements in behavioral performance upon awakening. Strikingly, the same exposure during deep NREM sleep leads to impaired performance upon awakening. Electroencephalographic markers of learning extracted during sleep confirm a dissociation between sleep facilitating memory formation (light NREM and REM sleep) and sleep suppressing learning (deep NREM sleep). We can trace these neural changes back to transient sleep events, such as spindles for memory facilitation and slow waves for suppression. Thus, highly selective memory processes are active during human sleep, with intertwined episodes of facilitative and suppressive plasticity.Though memory and sleep are related, it is still unclear whether new memories can be formed during sleep. Here, authors show that people could learn new sounds during REM or light non-REM sleep, but that learning was suppressed when sounds were played during deep NREM sleep.

  17. Atypical memory B cells in human chronic infectious diseases: An interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Silvia; Obeng-Adjei, Nyamekye; Moir, Susan; Crompton, Peter D; Pierce, Susan K

    2017-11-01

    Immunological memory is a remarkable phenomenon in which survival of an initial infection by a pathogen leads to life-long protection from disease upon subsequent exposure to that same pathogen. For many infectious diseases, long-lived protective humoral immunity is induced after only a single infection in a process that depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells. However, over the past decade it has become increasingly evident that many chronic human infectious diseases to which immunity is not readily established, including HIV-AIDS, malaria and TB, are associated with fundamental alterations in the composition and functionality of MBC compartments. A common feature of these diseases appears to be a large expansion of what have been termed exhausted B cells, tissue-like memory B cells or atypical memory B cells (aMBCs) that, for simplicity's sake, we refer to here as aMBCs. It has been suggested that chronic immune activation and inflammation drive the expansion of aMBCs and that in some way aMBCs contribute to deficiencies in the acquisition of immunity in chronic infectious diseases. Although aMBCs are heterogeneous both within individuals and between diseases, they have several features in common including low expression of the cell surface markers that define classical MBCs in humans including CD21 and CD27 and high expression of genes not usually expressed by classical MBCs including T-bet, CD11c and a variety of inhibitory receptors, notably members of the FcRL family. Another distinguishing feature is their greatly diminished ability to be stimulated through their B cell receptors to proliferate, secrete cytokines or produce antibodies. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the phenotypic markers of aMBCs, their specificity in relation to the disease-causing pathogen, their functionality, the drivers of their expansion in chronic infections and their life span. We briefly summarize the features of a

  18. Memories of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  19. The memory of volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai R. Wenger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the volatility literature on forecasting and the predominance of theconceptually simpler HAR model over long memory stochastic volatility models has led to the factthat the actual degree of memory estimates has rarely been considered. Estimates in the literaturerange roughly between 0.4 and 0.6 - that is from the higher stationary to the lower non-stationaryregion. This difference, however, has important practical implications - such as the existence or nonexistenceof the fourth moment of the return distribution. Inference on the memory order is complicatedby the presence of measurement error in realized volatility and the potential of spurious long memory.In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the memory in variances of international stockindices and exchange rates. On the one hand, we find that the variance of exchange rates is subject tospurious long memory and the true memory parameter is in the higher stationary range. Stock indexvariances, on the other hand, are free of low frequency contaminations and the memory is in the lowernon-stationary range. These results are obtained using state of the art local Whittle methods that allowconsistent estimation in presence of perturbations or low frequency contaminations.

  20. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  1. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  2. Memory and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Niglio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "memory" has different meanings when analyzed within specific cultural contexts. In general, the memory expresses the ability of man to keep track of events, information, sensations, ideas, experiences, and recall this consciousness as soon as certain motivations make necessary the contribution of past experience.

  3. Memory as a Life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 7. Memory as a Life - Walking down Memory Lanes. S Krishnaswamy. Book Review Volume 1 Issue 7 July 1996 pp 79-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/07/0079-0081 ...

  4. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  5. When Forgetting Preserves Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut

    2013-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in defining the circumstances leading to memory modifications. Studies have shown that reactivating a supposedly stable memory re-introduces a time-limited window of plasticity during which presentation of interfering material can cause long-term memory changes. The present study asks whether such memory changes can be prevented if people are instructed to forget the memory before the new material is encoded. Participants learned a set of objects. After 48 h, they were reminded of this learning episode, and learned another set of objects. Again 48 h later, they recalled the first (Exp. 1) or second set (Exp. 3). As shown previously, a reminder caused intrusions from the second set into recall of the first set. Here I show that the instruction to forget the first set significantly diminished intrusions from the second set, especially when the instruction was given before the new set was encoded in the second session. Experiment 2 suggests that the reduced intrusions were due to list segregation/isolation, rather than temporarily inhibited access to Set 1. Taken together, the study shows that the attempt to forget a memory can immunize it such that the presentation of interfering material has limited effects, and the memory can be recalled unchanged in the future. This is important when veridical memory is essential, such as in eyewitness testimonies. PMID:23382724

  6. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

  7. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  8. Shape memory effect and superelasticity of titanium nickelide alloys implanted with high ion doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnjak, A D; Bratushka, S N; Beresnev, V M; Levintant-Zayonts, N

    2013-01-01

    The state of the art in ion implantation of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloys is analyzed. Various technological applications of the shape memory effect are outlined. The principles and techiques of ion implantation are described. Specific features of its application for modification of surface layers in surface engineering are considered. Key properties of shape memory alloys and problems in utilization of ion implantation to improve the surface properties of shape memory alloys, such as corrosion resistance, friction coefficient, wear resistance, etc. are discussed. The bibliography includes 162 references

  9. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  10. Making memories matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Gold

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem.

  11. Time for memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    This article is a continuous dialogue on memory triggered by Brockmeier’s (2010) article. I drift away from the conventionalization of the archive as a spatial metaphor for memory in order to consider the greater possibility of “time” for conceptualizing memory. The concept of time is central...... to understanding the nature of human experience as a process in which a constant flux of change in organism, cultural and social practices is observed. Two categories of time have been explored, firstly the Aristotelian, physical time for an experimental paradigm, and secondly, the way in which we experience time...... in terms of autobiographical memory. The second category of time is discussed, drawing on Augustine and Bergson amongst others. Bergson’s notion of duration has been considered as a promising concept for a better understanding of autobiographical memory. Psychological phenomena such as autobiographical...

  12. Optical quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvovsky, Alexander I.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Quantum memory is essential for the development of many devices in quantum information processing, including a synchronization tool that matches various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a mechanism to convert heralded photons to on-demand photons. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory will be instrumental for implementing long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied, such as optical delay lines, cavities and electromagnetically induced transparency, as well as schemes that rely on photon echoes and the off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here, we report on state-of-the-art developments in the field of optical quantum memory, establish criteria for successful quantum memory and detail current performance levels.

  13. Relationships between default-mode network connectivity, medial temporal lobe structure, and age-related memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Andrew M; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Huijbers, Willem; Schultz, Aaron P; Hedden, Trey; Sperling, Reisa A

    2015-01-01

    Advanced aging negatively impacts memory performance. Brain aging has been associated with shrinkage in medial temporal lobe structures essential for memory--including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex--and with deficits in default-mode network connectivity. Yet, whether and how these imaging markers are relevant to age-related memory deficits remains a topic of debate. Using a sample of 182 older (age 74.6 ± 6.2 years) and 66 young (age 22.2 ± 3.6 years) participants, this study examined relationships among memory performance, hippocampus volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, and default-mode network connectivity across aging. All imaging markers and memory were significantly different between young and older groups. Each imaging marker significantly mediated the relationship between age and memory performance and collectively accounted for most of the variance in age-related memory performance. Within older participants, default-mode connectivity and hippocampus volume were independently associated with memory. Structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data within older participants suggest that entorhinal thinning may occur before reduced default-mode connectivity and hippocampal volume loss, which in turn lead to deficits in memory performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic analysis of CD127 expression on memory CD8 T cells from patients with chronic hepatitis B during telbivudine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Guocai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence supports the theory that expression of CD127 on CD8 T cells during the process of antiviral immune response indicates a subset of effect CD8 T cells that successfully develop into fully protective memory. CD8 T cells expression of CD127 may be used as a predictor to evaluate disease status in chronic viral infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the CD127 expression level on different subsets of CD8 T cell and explore the relationship between CD127 expression on CD8 memory T cells and serum hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. We also aimed to investigate the CD127 expression pattern on CD8 memory T cells of CHB patients who were treated with Telbivudine. Methods/Results Twenty HBeAg-positive CHB patients were selected and treated with telbivudine 600 mg/day for 48 weeks. The memory CD8 T cells were characterized by expression of CD45RA and CD27 markers. CD127 expression on the CD8 T-cell surface was measured by four-colour flow cytometry. Our results showed that CD127 expression on memory CD8 T cells was reduced in CHB patients. There was a strong negative correlation between CD127 expression on memory CD8 T cells and serum HBV DNA and HBeAg levels in CHB patients. Moreover, successful antiviral therapy increased CD127 expression on CD8 memory T cells as well as on HBV-specific CD8 T cells in CHB patients. Conclusion These results suggest that diminished CD127 expression on CD8 memory T cells of CHB patients is a potential mechanism explaining cellular immune function impairment in CHB infection, and that CD127 expression on CD8 memory T cells is a useful indicator for evaluating the effects of anti-HBV therapy.

  15. Target organ localization of memory CD4(+) T cells in patients with chronic beryllium disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Andrew P; Canavera, Scott J; Gharavi, Laia; Newman, Lee S; Kotzin, Brian L

    2002-11-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is caused by exposure to beryllium in the workplace, and it remains an important public health concern. Evidence suggests that CD4(+) T cells play a critical role in the development of this disease. Using intracellular cytokine staining, we found that the frequency of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells in the lungs (bronchoalveolar lavage) of 12 CBD patients ranged from 1.4% to 29% (mean 17.8%), and these T cells expressed a Th1-type phenotype in response to beryllium sulfate (BeSO(4)). Few, if any, beryllium-specific CD8(+) T cells were identified. In contrast, the frequency of beryllium-responsive CD4(+) T cells in the blood of these subjects ranged from undetectable to 1 in 500. No correlation was observed between the frequency of beryllium-responsive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) CD4(+) T cells as detected by intracellular staining and lymphocyte proliferation in culture after BeSO(4) exposure. Staining for surface marker expression showed that nearly all BAL T cells exhibit an effector memory cell phenotype. These results demonstrate a dramatically high frequency and compartmentalization of antigen-specific effector memory CD4(+) cells in the lungs of CBD patients. These studies provide insight into the phenotypic and functional characteristics of antigen-specific T cells invading other inaccessible target organs in human disease.

  16. ADHD symptoms in healthy adults are associated with stressful life events and negative memory bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijsen, Janna N; Tendolkar, Indira; Onnink, Marten; Hoogman, Martine; Schene, Aart H; Fernández, Guillén; van Oostrom, Iris; Franke, Barbara

    2017-10-28

    Stressful life events, especially Childhood Trauma, predict ADHD symptoms. Childhood Trauma and negatively biased memory are risk factors for affective disorders. The association of life events and bias with ADHD symptoms may inform about the etiology of ADHD. Memory bias was tested using a computer task in N = 675 healthy adults. Life events and ADHD symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. The mediation of the association between life events and ADHD symptoms by memory bias was examined. We explored the roles of different types of life events and of ADHD symptom clusters. Life events and memory bias were associated with overall ADHD symptoms as well as inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom clusters. Memory bias mediated the association of Lifetime Life Events, specifically Childhood Trauma, with ADHD symptoms. Negatively biased memory may be a cognitive marker of the effects of Childhood Trauma on the development and/or persistence of ADHD symptoms.

  17. Use of wand markers on the pelvis in three dimensional gait analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Martin; Curtis, Derek; Bencke, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    During clinical gait analysis, surface markers are placed over the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) of the pelvis. However, this can be problematic in overweight or obese subjects, where excessive adipose tissue can obscure the markers and prevent accurate tracking. A novel solution to this ......During clinical gait analysis, surface markers are placed over the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) of the pelvis. However, this can be problematic in overweight or obese subjects, where excessive adipose tissue can obscure the markers and prevent accurate tracking. A novel solution...... to this problem has previously been proposed and tested on a limited sample of healthy, adult subjects. This involves use of wand markers on the pelvis, to virtually recreate the ASIS markers. The method was tested here on 20 typical subjects presenting for clinical gait analysis (adults and children, including...

  18. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  19. Vacuum Plasma Spray Formed High Transition Temperature Shape Memory Alloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Smart materials control of aero-surfaces based on shape memory alloys (SMA) is seeing increased use for improving of future subsonic fixed wing aircraft aero-surface...

  20. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Guzman-Flores, Belinda; Perez Zempoaltecalt, Cintia; Patricia Sanchez Torres, Ana; Ramirez Rosete, Leticia; Bernal-Soto, Maribel; Marquez-Dominguez, Luis; Melendez-Mena, Daniel; Angel Mendoza Torres, Miguel; Teresa Lopez Delgado, Maria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the "a" determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003-2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA) or chemiluminescent (CMIA)) were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26) were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079) were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1). Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some "a" determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing positive for HBV-DNA were seen to exhibit a ten-fold higher presence of anti

  1. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Guzman-Flores, Belinda; Perez Zempoaltecalt, Cintia; Patricia Sanchez Torres, Ana; Ramirez Rosete, Leticia; Bernal-Soto, Maribel; Marquez-Dominguez, Luis; Melendez-Mena, Daniel; Angel Mendoza Torres, Miguel; Teresa Lopez Delgado, Maria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the “a” determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. Patients and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003–2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA) or chemiluminescent (CMIA)) were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Results Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26) were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079) were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1). Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some “a” determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. Conclusions We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing positive

  2. Memory, collective memory, orality and the gospels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... reframe the antagonism between individualist and collectivist approaches to memory more productively as a matter of moments in a dynamic process. This, to me, is the real message of Halbwachs' diverse insights. (Olick 2006:8b). In summary, Halbwachs' legacy is found in a number of different fields and ...

  3. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...

  4. Memory decreases for prose, but not for poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Dowling, W Jay

    2007-06-01

    Memory for details of text generally declines relatively rapidly, whereas memory for propositional and context-based meanings is generally more resilient over time. In the present study, we investigated short-term memory for two kinds of verbal material: prose and poetry. Participants heard or read prose stories or poems in which aphrase near the start of the passage served as a target. The text continued, and after various delays, memory was tested with a repetition of the target (old verbatim; O), a paraphrased lure (P), or a lure in which the meaning was changed. For prose, memory for surface details (as measured by O/P discrimination) declined over time (Experiments 2-4), as was expected. For poetry, memory for surface details (O/P discrimination) did not decline with increasing delay (Experiments 1, 3, and 4). This lack of decline in memory for the surface details of poetry is discussed in relation to similar results previously observed for musical excerpts (Dowling, Tillmann, & Ayers, 2001), suggesting that a particular role is played by the temporal organization and rhythmic structure of poetry andmusic.

  5. Constructing memory through artistic practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massart, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    Cecile Massart is a visual artist who lives and works in Brussels, Belgium. Her teaching career includes Academy of Ixelles, Ecole Superieure des Arts Plastiques et Visuels in Mons, and Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts Visuels La Cambre in Brussels. Cecile Massart has presented her extensive artistic research at numerous international conferences. Her works are featured in private and public collections. Since 1994, Cecile Massart has been investigating international sites for radioactive waste storage, exploring how this 21. century archaeological stratum is being inscribed in the landscape. Researching radioactive waste sites around the world for over 20 years, her main focus has become their identification in the landscape. Her ideas are communicated through her visual research and writings that aim to raise the awareness of radioactive disposal sites and to study their life within their surroundings for future generations. Her drawings, films, books and exhibitions investigate a new kind of architecture of the sites that become research platforms. Her first graphic research, edited under the title Un site archive pour Alpha, Beta, Gamma, helps in revealing their true nature. Her photographs, silk-screen prints, installations and pictures testify to the need to preserve the memory and knowledge of such sites across generations ensuring the safety of the living world. With this objective in mind, to build a memory, she has developed an architectural vocabulary functioning as warning sculptures to identify the nuclear repositories in the landscape: markers or archi-sculptures. In the following sections, Cecile Massart describes her work in her own words. For more details on her work, see www.cecilemassart.com

  6. Aging memories: differential decay of episodic memory components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Lucia M; Gorree, Eva

    2012-05-17

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a preferential loss of hippocampus-dependent, configurational information over more cortically based memory components, including memory for individual objects. The current study systematically tests this hypothesis, using a new paradigm that allows the contemporaneous assessment of memory for objects, object pairings, and object-position conjunctions. Retention of each memory component was tested, at multiple intervals, up to 3 mo following encoding. The three memory subtasks adopted the same retrieval paradigm and were matched for initial difficulty. Results show differential decay of the tested episodic memory components, whereby memory for configurational aspects of a scene (objects' co-occurrence and object position) decays faster than memory for featured objects. Interestingly, memory requiring a visually detailed object representation decays at a similar rate as global object recognition, arguing against interpretations based on task difficulty and against the notion that (visual) detail is forgotten preferentially. These findings show that memories undergo qualitative changes as they age. More specifically, event memories become less configurational over time, preferentially losing some of the higher order associations that are dependent on the hippocampus for initial fast encoding. Implications for theories of long-term memory are discussed.

  7. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  8. Associative working memory and subsequent episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Konings, E.P.C.; Tilborg, I.A.D.A. van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate deficits in associative working memory in patients with medial-temporal lobe amnesia. However, it is unclear whether these deficits reflect working memory processing or are due to hippocampally mediated long-term memory impairment. We investigated associative working memory

  9. Associative working memory and subsequent episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Konings, E.P.; Tilborg, I.A. Van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate deficits in associative working memory in patients with medial-temporal lobe amnesia. However, it is unclear whether these deficits reflect working memory processing or are due to hippocampally mediated long-term memory impairment. We investigated associative working memory

  10. Emotional memory expression is misleading : delineating transitions between memory processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faliagkas, L.; Rao-Ruiz, P.; Kindt, M.

    The hypothesis that fear memory is not necessarily permanent but can change when retrieved opens avenues to develop revolutionary treatments for emotional memory disorders. Memory reconsolidation is however only one of several mnemonic processes that may be triggered by memory reactivation and

  11. Tumor Markers: At a Glance

    OpenAIRE

    NS Manikantan; Dhanya Balakrishnan; AD Manoj Kumar; Brijesh Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Tumor markers are biochemical substances elaborated by tumor cells due to either the cause or effect of malignant process. produced by host in response to a tumor that can be used to differentiate a tumor from normal tissue or to determine the presence of a tumor based on measurements in blood or secretions.1 These markers can be normal endogenous products that are produced at a greater rate in cancer cells or the products of newly switched on genes th...

  12. Profile of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Markers in Asymptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim/Background: The objective of the study was to determine the profile of viral markers of HBV and HCV among asymptomatic individuals with chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Methods: Seventy one subjects who were chronic HBsAg positive were recruited as cases and thirty three apparently normal ...

  13. Traces of Drosophila Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Studies using functional cellullar imaging of living flies have identified six memory traces that form in the olfactory nervous system after conditioning with odors. These traces occur in distinct nodes of the olfactory nervous system, form and disappear across different windows of time, and are detected in the imaged neurons as increased calcium influx or synaptic release in response to the conditioned odor. Three traces form at, or near acquisition and co-exist with short-term behavioral memory. One trace forms with a delay after learning and co-exists with intermediate-term behavioral memory. Two traces form many hours after acquisition and co-exist with long-term behavioral memory. The transient memory traces may support behavior across the time-windows of their existence. The experimental approaches for dissecting memory formation in the fly, ranging from the molecular to the systems, make it an ideal system for dissecting the logic by which the nervous system organizes and stores different temporal forms of memory. PMID:21482352

  14. Documenting a Contested Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at how symbols in the urban environment are intentionally produced and modified to regulate a community’s collective memory. Our urban environment is filled with symbols in the form of images, text, and structures that embody certain narratives about the past. Once those symbols...... to preserve the memory of the revolution through graffiti murals and the utilization of public space, and from the other, the authority’s efforts to replace those initiatives with its own official narrative. Building on the concept of collective memory, as well as Bartlett’s studies of serial reproductions...

  15. Memory, Meaning, and Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    occasion searching memory for question concept searching directly for input -- sM- SOCIAL -OCC found (GN590) The answer is: (CON233) yes, most recently at...UNCLASSIFIED TR-189 NL*° uuuuuuum I IuuIIInl --- I--I I/ MEMORY , MEANING, AND SYNTAX Roger C. Schank and Lawrence Birnbaum Research Report #189 November...1980 Appf ,r𔄃! f𔄁" * ,P,?, .- , lei so;ict ~YALE UNIVERSITY IDEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE 812 24 0Ot MEMORY , MEANING, AND SYNTAX Roger C. Schank

  16. Memories Persist in Silence

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Patricia Arenas Grisales

    2012-01-01

    This article exposes the hypothesis that memory artifacts, created to commemorate the victims of armed conflict in Colombia, are an expression of the underground memories and a way of political action in the midst of war. We analyze three cases of creations of memory artifacts in Medellín, Colombia, as forms of suffering, perceiving and resisting the power of armed groups in Medellín. The silence, inherent in these objects, should not be treated as an absence of language, but as another form ...

  17. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  18. History, Memory and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    In this paper I discuss history and memory from a theoretical and philosophical point of view and the non-fiction and fiction aspects of historical representation. I use Edgar Reitz’ monumental work Heimat 1-3 (and his recent film Die Andere Heimat) as examples of very different transformative...... historical narratives. In terms of narrative construction and aesthetic form the Heimat-project challenges the dominant forms of historical fiction. By combining personal memory, everyday life and collective memory and a more indirect way of representing factual history Reitz wants to transform our look...

  19. Memory complaints and prospective memory performance across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Eschen, A; Mattli, F; Sutter, C; Zöllig, J

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of prospective and retrospective memory failures from six age groups was gathered using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). Objective performance measures were obtained with a laboratory prospective memory task. Findings revealed more prospective than retrospective memory complaints in all age groups except in young children. While overall reported memory failures were similar in the adult groups, fewer failures were reported for the two children group...

  20. Context memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of memory. Specifically, context aspects of memory are impaired in AD. Our review sheds light on the neurocognitive mechanisms of this memory component that forms the core of episodic memory function.

  1. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  2. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  3. Memories are made of this

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, George

    2001-01-01

    Traditional semiconductor memory falls into two categories—volatile and non-volatile. Volatile memories, such as SRAM (static random access memory) and DRAM (dynamic random access memory), lose their contents when power is rémoved. RAM memories are easy to use and perform well, but require a continuous power source—not ideal for battery-powered portable devices. Non-volatile memories retain their contents when power is removed and those in current use are derived from ROM (read-only memory). ...

  4. Associations between olfactory identification and verbal memory in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives, and non-psychiatric controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; McKenzie Mack, LaTasha; Esterberg, Michelle L; Bercu, Zachary; Kryda, Aimee D; Quintero, Luis; Weiss, Paul S; Walker, Elaine F

    2006-09-01

    Olfactory identification deficits and verbal memory impairments may represent trait markers for schizophrenia. The aims of this study were to: (1) assess olfactory identification in patients, first-degree relatives, and non-psychiatric controls, (2) determine differences in verbal memory functioning in these three groups, and (3) study correlations between olfactory identification and three specific verbal memory domains. A total of 106 participants-41 patients with schizophrenia or related disorders, 27 relatives, and 38 controls-were assessed with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition. Linear mixed models, accounting for clustering within families and relevant covariates, were used to compare scores across groups and to examine associations between olfactory identification ability and the three verbal memory domains. A group effect was apparent for all four measures, and relatives scored midway between patients and controls on all three memory domains. UPSIT scores were significantly correlated with all three forms of verbal memory. Age, verbal working memory, and auditory recognition delayed memory were independently predictive of UPSIT scores. Impairments in olfactory identification and verbal memory appear to represent two correlated risk markers for schizophrenia, and frontal-temporal deficits likely account for both impairments.

  5. Synthetic vision and memory model for virtual human - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Kang, Jinsheng; Wright, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and case studies of a novel synthetic vision and memory model for virtual human. The synthetic vision module simulates the biological / optical abilities and limitations of the human vision. The module is based on a series of collision detection between the boundary of virtual humans field of vision (FOV) volume and the surface of objects in a recreated 3D environment. The memory module simulates a short-term memory capability by employing a simplified memory structure (first-in-first-out stack). The synthetic vision and memory model has been integrated into a virtual human modelling project, Intelligent Virtual Modelling. The project aimed to improve the realism and autonomy of virtual humans.

  6. Effects of timbre and tempo change on memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrea R; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the effects of different encoding tasks and of manipulations of two supposedly surface parameters of music on implicit and explicit memory for tunes. In two experiments, participants were first asked to either categorize instrument or judge familiarity of 40 unfamiliar short tunes. Subsequently, participants were asked to give explicit and implicit memory ratings for a list of 80 tunes, which included 40 previously heard. Half of the 40 previously heard tunes differed in timbre (Experiment 1) or tempo (Experiment 2) in comparison with the first exposure. A third experiment compared similarity ratings of the tunes that varied in timbre or tempo. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results suggest first that the encoding task made no difference for either memory mode. Secondly, timbre and tempo change both impaired explicit memory, whereas tempo change additionally made implicit tune recognition worse. Results are discussed in the context of implicit memory for nonsemantic materials and the possible differences in timbre and tempo in musical representations.

  7. Memory Circuit Fault Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

  8. Working Memory and Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YuLeung To, Eric; Abbott, Kathy; Foster, Dale S; Helmer, D'Arcy

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in working memory are typically associated with impairments in other cognitive faculties such as attentional processes and short-term memory. This paper briefly introduces neurofeedback as a treatment modality in general, and, more specifically, we review several of the current modalities successfully used in neurofeedback (NF) for the treatment of working memory deficits. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how neurofeedback is applied in treatment. The development of Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) and its application in neurofeedback now makes it possible to specifically target deep cortical/subcortical brain structures. Developments in neuroscience concerning neural networks, combined with highly specific yet practical NF technologies, makes neurofeedback of particular interest to neuropsychological practice, including the emergence of specific methodologies for treating very difficult working memory (WM) problems.

  9. Memory and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the rainbow in order of their wave lengths: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.) Don’t buy into ageist stereotypes about memory decline. Studies have shown that having positive beliefs ...

  10. Network Memory Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilcox, D

    1997-01-01

    This report presents initial research into the design of a new computer system local area network transport layer protocol, designated the network memory protocol, which provides clients with direct...

  11. Islamic Myths and Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and globalization and to the study of the place of the mass media in the contemporary Islamic resurgence. It explores the annulment of spatial and temporal distance by globalization and by the communications revolution underlying it, and how this has affected the cherished myths and memories of the Muslim community......Islamic myths and collective memory are very much alive in today’s localized struggles for identity, and are deployed in the ongoing construction of worldwide cultural networks. This book brings the theoretical perspectives of myth-making and collective memory to the study of Islam....... It shows how contemporary Islamic thinkers and movements respond to the challenges of globalization by preserving, reviving, reshaping, or transforming myths and memories....

  12. Memory mass storage

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni; Iaculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Covering all the fundamental storage technologies such as semiconductor, magnetic, optical and uncommon, this volume details their core characteristics. In addition, it includes an overview of the 'biological memory' of the human brain and its organization.

  13. Josephson Thermal Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarcello, Claudio; Solinas, Paolo; Braggio, Alessandro; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Giazotto, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    We propose a superconducting thermal memory device that exploits the thermal hysteresis in a flux-controlled temperature-biased superconducting quantum-interference device (SQUID). This system reveals a flux-controllable temperature bistability, which can be used to define two well-distinguishable thermal logic states. We discuss a suitable writing-reading procedure for these memory states. The time of the memory writing operation is expected to be on the order of approximately 0.2 ns for a Nb-based SQUID in thermal contact with a phonon bath at 4.2 K. We suggest a noninvasive readout scheme for the memory states based on the measurement of the effective resonance frequency of a tank circuit inductively coupled to the SQUID. The proposed device paves the way for a practical implementation of thermal logic and computation. The advantage of this proposal is that it represents also an example of harvesting thermal energy in superconducting circuits.

  14. Models of Working Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyake, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Working memory is a basic cognitive mechanism (or set of mechanisms) that is responsible for keeping track of multiple task related goals and subgoals, or integrating multiple sources of information...

  15. Conglomerate memory and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under what conditions do countries and cultures considered radically different find a basis for allegiance and kinship? What part does memory play in this process? This article responds to these questions in two ways: 1 Through Emmanuel Levinas and Hannah Arendt, I propose that when an other appears in empathetic discourses that both honor difference and cite shared human experiences, seemingly irreconcilable people can develop a sense of mutual responsibility and 2 Conglomerate memory, memories that fuse together others through common pains, contributes to such an appearance. To illustrate this point, I turn to Congolese voices as they are articulated in online American discourses; although currently, authors of online texts typically rely on traditional narrative forms that position Central Africa as incommensurate to Western civilizations, the Internet's worldwide accessibility and intertextual capacities render it a place primed for developing international collectives by connecting memories while maintaining difference.

  16. Sleep loss produces false memories

    OpenAIRE

    Diekelmann, S; Landolt, H P; Lahl, O; Born, J; Wagner, U

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representa...

  17. Tunable and Memory Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0402 TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS Dimitri Basov UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/02/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-08-2010 to 14-08-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550...common limitations of infrared metamaterials in order to achieve low electromagnetic losses and broad tunability of the electromagnetic response. One

  18. Nucleoelectric plants technical memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Pereira, Alvaro de

    1991-01-01

    The work explains the basic norms that establish the guidelines to the Technical Memory elaboration of this electrical energy sector - the nucleoelectric plants. It guides the technicians who execute the Technical Memory of the plants, exposing the items that may compose the work: contents: introduction, planning, proposition, equipment and materials supply, construction, commissioning, commercial actions, budget, financing and costs; generalities: drawings and photographies, monetary references, terminology, system units, management, graphic guide project, responsible staff, a summarized technical card and illustrations

  19. Music and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Haefliger, Anna Berenika

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Music and its different forms of use seem to benefit people in a number of ways. Research has suggested that extensive musical practice and musical listening enhances mental functioning in healthy adults and patients with neurodegenerative disease. Yet, the findings presented have not yet examined the effects both musical training and stimuli enhancement have on episodic memory recognition. 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians took part in an episodic memory task which evaluated m...

  20. Optical quantum memory

    OpenAIRE

    Lvovsky, A. I.; Sanders, B. C.; Tittel, W.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum memory is important to quantum information processing in many ways: a synchronization device to match various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a tool to convert heralded photons to photons-on-demand. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory would be instrumental for the implementation of long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the m...

  1. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN WORKING MEMORY AND CREATIVITY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Taís Crema Remoli; Flávia Heloísa Santos

    2017-01-01

    Creativity and working memory are academic and professional success markers. Paradoxically, correlational studies do not always find associations between these constructs; some studies show positive associations between them and others show negative associations. Probably, the contradictory findings arise from different parameters, because of that it is important to identify them in order to have a more coherent understanding of this relationship. Thus, this systematic literature review aimed...

  2. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-01-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications. - Highlights: • Advance fundamental knowledge of current-driven magnetic vortex phenomena. • Report appealing new magnetic racetrack memory based on current-controlled magnetic vortices in nanowires. • Provide a novel approach to adjust current magnitude for data propagation. • Overcome the limitations of domain wall racetrack memory.

  3. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Under various circumstances and in different species the outward expression of learning varies considerably, and this has led to the classification of different categories of learning. Just as there is no generally agreed on definition of learning, there is no one system of classification. Types of learning commonly recognized are: Habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, trial and error, taste aversion, latent learning, cultural learning, imprinting, insight learning, learning-set learning and instinct. The term memory must include at least two separate processes. It must involve, on the one hand, that of learning something and on the other, at some later date, recalling that thing. What lies between the learning and (he remembering must be some permanent record — a memory trace — within the brain. Memory exists in at least two forms: memory for very recent events (short-term which is relatively labile and easily disruptable; and long-term memory, which is much more stable. Not everything that gets into short-term memory becomes fixed in the long-term store; a filtering mechanism selects things that might be important and discards the rest.

  5. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  6. Laser memory (hologram) and coincident redundant multiplex memory (CRM-memory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostojic, Branko

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that besides the memory which remembers the object by memorising of the phases of the interferenting waves of the light (i.e. hologram) it is possible to construct the memory which remembers the object by memorising of the phases of the interferenting impulses (CFM-memory). It is given the mathematical description of the memory, based on the experimental model. Although in the paper only the technical aspect of CRM memory is given. It is mentioned the possibility that the human memory has the same principle and that the invention of CRM memory is due to cybernetical analysis of the system human eye-visual cortex

  7. Memory phenomenon in a lanthanum based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ye; Huang, Wei Min; Zhao, Yong; Ding, Zhen; Li, Yan; Tor, Shu Beng; Liu, Erjia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate two memory phenomena in a lanthanum based bulk metallic glass (BMG). While the temperature memory effect (TME) is not found by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) test, shape recovery is observed in samples indented at both low and high temperatures. In terms of shape memory related characteristics, this BMG shares some features of shape memory alloys (SMAs) due to its metal nature, and some other features of shape memory polymers (SMPs) owing to its glassy–rubbery transition. The formation of protrusion in the polished sample after heating to super-cooled liquid region (SCLR) indicates that surface tension is not a necessarily positive contributor for shape recovery. Release of internal elastic stress is concluded as the major player. Although the amorphous nature of BMGs enables for storing appreciable amount of internal elastic stress upon deformation, without the presence of cross-linker as in typical SMPs, the shape recovery in BMGs is rather limited. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of shape recovery in BMG. • Surface tension is not the major reason for shape recovery in BMG. • Release of internal stress is the major contributor for shape recovery. • Comparison of shape memory features of BMG with other shape memory materials.

  8. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a central histological feature of chronic liver diseases and is characterized by the accumulation and reorganization of the extracellular matrix. The gold standard for assessment of fibrosis is histological evaluation of a percutaneous liver biopsy. Albeit a considerable......-epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  9. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome......This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  10. Hepatitis B Viral Markers in Surface Antigen Negative Blood Donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    lymphoma and HIV positive patients,. Koo et al22 found 3.2% of lymphoma patients with positive anti-HBs to have detectable HBV DNA in their serum. Awerkiew et al12 and Wu et al14 have also reported the case of anti-HBs positive but negative for anti-HBc lymphoma patient who had reactivation of occult HBV infection on ...

  11. Multidimensional profiling of cell surface proteins and nuclear markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Andarawewa, Kumari; Yaswen, Paul; Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Mary; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-01-30

    Cell membrane proteins play an important role in tissue architecture and cell-cell communication. We hypothesize that segmentation and multidimensional characterization of the distribution of cell membrane proteins, on a cell-by-cell basis, enable improved classification of treatment groups and identify important characteristics that can otherwise be hidden. We have developed a series of computational steps to (i) delineate cell membrane protein signals and associate them with a specific nucleus; (ii) compute a coupled representation of the multiplexed DNA content with membrane proteins; (iii) rank computed features associated with such a multidimensional representation; (iv) visualize selected features for comparative evaluation through heatmaps; and (v) discriminate between treatment groups in an optimal fashion. The novelty of our method is in the segmentation of the membrane signal and the multidimensional representation of phenotypic signature on a cell-by-cell basis. To test the utility of this method, the proposed computational steps were applied to images of cells that have been irradiated with different radiation qualities in the presence and absence of other small molecules. These samples are labeled for their DNA content and E-cadherin membrane proteins. We demonstrate that multidimensional representations of cell-by-cell phenotypes improve predictive and visualization capabilities among different treatment groups, and identify hidden variables.

  12. Viral inoculum dose impacts memory T-cell inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redeker, Anke; Welten, Suzanne P M; Arens, Ramon

    2014-04-01

    Memory T-cell inflation develops during certain persistent viral infections and is characterized by the accumulation and maintenance of large numbers of effector-memory T cells, albeit with varying degrees in size and phenotype among infected hosts. The underlying mechanisms that control memory T-cell inflation are not yet fully understood. Here, we dissected CMV-specific memory T-cell formation and its connection to the initial infectious dose by varying the inoculum size. After low dose inoculum with mouse CMV, the accumulation of inflationary memory T cells was severely hampered and correlated with reduced reservoirs of latent virus in nonhematopoietic cells and diminished antigen-driven T-cell proliferation. Moreover, lowering of the initial viral dose turned the characteristic effector memory-like inflationary T cells into more central memory-like cells as evidenced by the cell-surface phenotype of CD27(high) , CD62L(+) , CD127(+) , and KLRG1(-) , and by improved secondary expansion potential. These data show the impact of the viral inoculum on the degree of memory T-cell inflation and provide a rationale for the observed variation of human CMV-specific T-cell responses in terms of magnitude and phenotype. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Infinitive Marker across Scandinavian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the base-position of the infinitive marker in the Scandinavian languages and English share a common origin site. It is inserted as the top-most head in the VP-domain. The cross-linguistic variation in the syntactic distribution of the infinitive marker can be accounted...... for by assuming that it undergoes head movement. This movement is optional in Danish, English, Norwegian, and Early Modern Danish and is not feature-driven. In Faroese, Icelandic, and Swedish, on the other hand, it is triggered by φ-feature checking on Finº. In Icelandic and Swedish these φ-features are strong...

  14. Long-term working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K A; Kintsch, W

    1995-04-01

    To account for the large demands on working memory during text comprehension and expert performance, the traditional models of working memory involving temporary storage must be extended to include working memory based on storage in long-term memory. In the proposed theoretical framework cognitive processes are viewed as a sequence of stable states representing end products of processing. In skilled activities, acquired memory skills allow these end products to be stored in long-term memory and kept directly accessible by means of retrieval cues in short-term memory, as proposed by skilled memory theory. These theoretical claims are supported by a review of evidence on memory in text comprehension and expert performance in such domains as mental calculation, medical diagnosis, and chess.

  15. False memories for aggressive acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Marker-assisted selection using ridge regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, J C; Thompson, R; Denham, M C

    2000-04-01

    In cross between inbred lines, linear regression can be used to estimate the correlation of markers with a trait of interest; these marker effects then allow marker assisted selection (MAS) for quantitative traits. Usually a subset of markers to include in the model must be selected: no completely satisfactory method of doing this exists. We show that replacing this selection of markers by ridge regression can improve the mean response to selection and reduce the variability of selection response.

  17. Memory for future generations. To preserve and to transmit the memory of radioactive wastes. Press file - September 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This publication by the ANDRA describes the approach adopted to develop, to preserve and to transmit the memory about radioactive wastes. This approach comprises three components: messages (texts, archives, drawings...), physical supports (paper, disk, markers), and relays (institutions, companies, etc.). The publication describes how these components are already used or implemented for the different radioactive waste storage centres managed by the ANDRA. It also outlines that this memory is an issue of international concern. It evokes issues related to linguistics (how future generations will understand our messages?), to the ageing of materials used as physical support, to archaeology because of the evolution of landscapes, and to the evolution of archival systems. Some simple ideas and projects are briefly indicated which can be a support in memory building

  18. Short-term memory affects color perception in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Maria; Allred, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Color-based object selection - for instance, looking for ripe tomatoes in the market - places demands on both perceptual and memory processes: it is necessary to form a stable perceptual estimate of surface color from a variable visual signal, as well as to retain multiple perceptual estimates in memory while comparing objects. Nevertheless, perceptual and memory processes in the color domain are generally studied in separate research programs with the assumption that they are independent. Here, we demonstrate a strong failure of independence between color perception and memory: the effect of context on color appearance is substantially weakened by a short retention interval between a reference and test stimulus. This somewhat counterintuitive result is consistent with Bayesian estimation: as the precision of the representation of the reference surface and its context decays in memory, prior information gains more weight, causing the retained percepts to be drawn toward prior information about surface and context color. This interaction implies that to fully understand information processing in real-world color tasks, perception and memory need to be considered jointly.

  19. Short-term memory affects color perception in context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olkkonen

    Full Text Available Color-based object selection - for instance, looking for ripe tomatoes in the market - places demands on both perceptual and memory processes: it is necessary to form a stable perceptual estimate of surface color from a variable visual signal, as well as to retain multiple perceptual estimates in memory while comparing objects. Nevertheless, perceptual and memory processes in the color domain are generally studied in separate research programs with the assumption that they are independent. Here, we demonstrate a strong failure of independence between color perception and memory: the effect of context on color appearance is substantially weakened by a short retention interval between a reference and test stimulus. This somewhat counterintuitive result is consistent with Bayesian estimation: as the precision of the representation of the reference surface and its context decays in memory, prior information gains more weight, causing the retained percepts to be drawn toward prior information about surface and context color. This interaction implies that to fully understand information processing in real-world color tasks, perception and memory need to be considered jointly.

  20. Short-Term Memory Affects Color Perception in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Maria; Allred, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    Color-based object selection — for instance, looking for ripe tomatoes in the market — places demands on both perceptual and memory processes: it is necessary to form a stable perceptual estimate of surface color from a variable visual signal, as well as to retain multiple perceptual estimates in memory while comparing objects. Nevertheless, perceptual and memory processes in the color domain are generally studied in separate research programs with the assumption that they are independent. Here, we demonstrate a strong failure of independence between color perception and memory: the effect of context on color appearance is substantially weakened by a short retention interval between a reference and test stimulus. This somewhat counterintuitive result is consistent with Bayesian estimation: as the precision of the representation of the reference surface and its context decays in memory, prior information gains more weight, causing the retained percepts to be drawn toward prior information about surface and context color. This interaction implies that to fully understand information processing in real-world color tasks, perception and memory need to be considered jointly. PMID:24475131

  1. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  2. Understanding and Exploiting the T - Cell Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshipra Chandrashekhar1

    Full Text Available Immunological memory is one of the lesser understood aspects of adaptive immunity which protects organisms from recurrent and persistent attack by pathogens. The central event in the generation of both humoral and cell mediated immune responses is the activation and clonal expansion of T cells. T cell activation is initiated by interaction of the TCR-CD3 complex with processed antigenic peptide bound to either a class I (CD8+cells or class II (CD 4+cells MHC molecule on the surface of antigen presenting cell (APC. On interaction of a naïve T cell with the processed antigen initiates a cascade of events which activates the resting T cell to enter the cell cycle, proliferating and developing into a clone of progeny cells, which differentiate into memory or effector T cells. Memory T cells are generated by antigen interaction and remain long but quiescent in nature, however responding with greater reactivity to a subsequent challenge with the same antigen, generating a secondary response. Memory cells, though in the G0 stage of the cell cycle require a lower level of activation than so naïve cells. A lot of work in this direction can yield a whole lot of interesting findings which will help us develop better vaccines for chronic animal diseases like Tuberculosis, Johne’s disease using suitable animal models. A better understanding of these issues may lead to improvements in the design of vaccines which can be used to generate potent protective T cell memory against pathogens. In the present article various properties of memory T cells along with their implications to vaccine development have been reviewed. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(7.000: 343-345

  3. A lipidated peptide of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resuscitates the protective efficacy of BCG vaccine by evoking memory T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pradeep K; Chodisetti, Sathi Babu; Zeng, Weiguang; Nadeem, Sajid; Maurya, Sudeep K; Pahari, Susanta; Janmeja, Ashok K; Jackson, David C; Agrewala, Javed N

    2017-10-06

    The current BCG vaccine induces only short-term protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), suggesting its failure to generate long-lasting memory T cells. Previously, we have demonstrated that a self-adjuvanting peptide of Mtb (L91), successfully generated enduring memory Th1 cells. Consequently, we investigated if L91 was able to recuperate BCG potency in perpetuating the generation of memory T cells and protection against Mtb infected mice. In the present study, we evaluated the potency of a self adjuvanting Mtb peptide vaccine L91 in invigorating BCG immune response against Mtb in mice. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with BCG. Later, they were boosted twice with L91 or an antigenically irrelevant lipidated influenza virus hemagglutinin peptide (LH). Further, PBMCs obtained from BCG vaccinated healthy subjects were cultured in vitro with L91. T cell responses were determined by surface markers and intracellular cytokine staining. Secretion of cytokines was estimated in the culture supernatants (SNs) by ELISA. Compared to the BCG-vaccinated controls, L91 booster significantly enhanced the percentage of memory Th1 cells and Th17 cells and reduced the mycobacterial burden in BCG primed and L91-boosted (BCG-L91) group, even after 229 days of BCG vaccination. Further, substantial augmentation in the central (CD44 hi CD62L hi CD127 hi ) and effector memory (CD44 hi CD62L lo CD127 lo ) CD4 T cells was detected. Furthermore, greater frequency of polyfunctional Th1 cells (IFN-γ + TNF-α + ) and Th17 cells (IFN-γ + IL-17A + ) was observed. Importantly, BCG-L91 successfully prevented CD4 T cells from exhaustion by decreasing the expression of PD-1 and Tim-3. Additionally, augmentation in the frequency of Th1 cells, Th17 cells and memory CD4 T cells was observed in the PBMCs of the BCG-vaccinated healthy individuals following in vitro stimulation with L91. Our study demonstrated that L91 robustly reinvigorate BCG potency to invoke enduring protection against

  4. Distributed and associative working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong-Di; Ardestani, Allen; Fuster, Joaquín M

    2007-09-01

    This study explores the cortical cell dynamics of unimodal and cross-modal working memory (WM). Neuronal activity was recorded from parietal areas of monkeys performing delayed match-to-sample tasks with tactile or visual samples. Tactile memoranda (haptic samples) consisted of rods with differing surface features (texture or orientation of ridges) perceived by active touch. Visual memoranda (icons) consisted of striped patterns of differing orientation. In a haptic-haptic task, the animal had to retain through a period of delay the surface feature of the sample rod to select a rod that matched it. In a visual-haptic task, the animal had to retain the icon for the haptic choice of a rod with ridges of the same orientation as the icon's stripes. Units in all areas responded with firing change to one or more task events. Also in all areas, cells responded differently to different sample memoranda. Differential sample coherent firing was present in most areas during the memory period (delay). It is concluded that neurons in somatosensory and association areas of parietal cortex participate in broad networks that represent various task events and stimuli (auditory, motor, proprioceptive, tactile, and visual). Neurons in the same networks take part in retaining in WM the memorandum for each trial, whether it is encoded haptically or visually. The VH association by parietal cells in WM is analogous to the auditory-visual association previously observed in prefrontal cortex. Both illustrate the capacity of cortical neurons to associate sensory information across time and across modalities in accord with the rules of a behavioral task.

  5. Neurocognitive architecture of working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan; Vogel, Edward K.; Lansner, Anders; Bergström, Fredrik; Nyberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The crucial role of working memory for temporary information processing and guidance of complex behavior has been recognized for many decades. There is emerging consensus that working memory maintenance results from the interactions among long-term memory representations and basic processes, including attention, that are instantiated as reentrant loops between frontal and posterior cortical areas, as well as subcortical structures. The nature of such interactions can account for capacity limitations, lifespan changes, and restricted transfer after working-memory training. Recent data and models indicate that working memory may also be based on synaptic plasticity, and that working memory can operate on non-consciously perceived information. PMID:26447571

  6. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  7. Glycan Markers as Potential Immunological Targets in Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Denong; Wu, Lisa; Liu, Xiaohe

    2017-01-01

    We present here an experimental approach for exploring a new class of tumor biomarkers that are overexpressed by circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and are likely targetable in immunotherapy against tumor metastasis. Using carbohydrate microarrays, anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were scanned against a large panel of carbohydrate antigens to identify potential tumor glycan markers. Subsequently, flow cytometry and fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST) were applied to determine whether the identified targets are tumor-specific cell-surface markers and are, therefore, likely suitable for targeted immunotherapy. Finally, the tumor glycan-specific antibodies identified were validated using cancer patients' blood samples for their performance in CTC-detection and immunotyping analysis. In this article, identifying breast CTC-specific glycan markers and targeting mAbs serve as examples to illustrate this tumor biomarker discovery strategy.

  8. Application of tumor markers in the immunodiagnosis of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelder, F.B.; Barr, L.H.; Goldman, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, research directed toward the detection of both tumor-specific and tumor-related products has intensified for several reasons. 1. The growing knowledge of tumor metabolism has lead some investigators to hypothesize that most, if not all, malignant tumors produce these substances. 2. The use of multiple tumor markers appears more valuable than application of single markers. 3. The availability of highly sensitive and specific immunological methods provides the tools to measure substances which previously could not be assayed. 4. As additional information evolves, the events associated with malignant transformation and tumor behaviour may become clear. Tumor-related products include immune markers, altered cell surface membranes, as well as fetal and/or ectopic proteins, to name but a few. The synthesis of fetal and/or ectopic proteins occurs in several cancers. These have served as the basis for most immunodiagnostic tests and comprise the major thrust of this review

  9. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  10. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewole, I.F.

    1999-02-01

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  11. Dermatoglyphics--a marker for malocclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikare, S; Rajesh, G; Prasad, K W; Thippeswamy, V; Javali, S B

    2010-08-01

    Dermatoglyphics is the study of dermal ridge configurations on palmar and plantar surfaces of hands and feet. Dermal ridges and craniofacial structures are both formed during 6-7th week of intra-uterine life. It is believed that hereditary and environmental factors leading to malocclusion may also cause peculiarities in fingerprint patterns. To study and assess the relationship between fingerprints and malocclusion among a group of high school children aged 12-16 years in Dharwad, Karnataka, India. A total of 696 high school children aged 12-16 years were randomly selected. Their fingerprints were recorded using duplicating ink and malocclusion status was clinically assessed using Angle's classification. Chi-square analysis revealed statistical association between whorl patterns and classes 1 and 2 malocclusion (p fingerprint patterns and malocclusion (p > 0.05). Dermatoglyphics might be an appropriate marker for malocclusion and further studies are required to elucidate an association between fingerprint patterns and malocclusion.

  12. Sensory-perceptual episodic memory and its context: autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, M A

    2001-01-01

    Episodic memory is reconceived as a memory system that retains highly detailed sensory perceptual knowledge of recent experience over retention intervals measured in minutes and hours. Episodic knowledge has yet to be integrated with the autobiographical memory knowledge base and so takes as its context or referent the immediate past of the experiencing self (or the 'I'). When recalled it can be accessed independently of content and is recollectively experienced. Autobiographical memory, in contrast, retains knowledge over retention intervals measured in weeks, months, years, decades and across the life span. Autobiographical knowledge represents the experienced self (or the 'me'), is always accessed by its content and, when accessed, does not necessarily give rise to recollective experience. Instead, recollective experience occurs when autobiographical knowledge retains access to associated episodic memories. In this reworking of the 'episodic memory' concept autobiographical memory provides the instantiating context for sensory-perceptual episodic memory. PMID:11571029

  13. Behavioural memory reconsolidation of food and fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Charlotte R; Barber, David J; Lee, Jonathan L C

    2011-10-18

    The reactivation of a memory through retrieval can render it subject to disruption or modification through the process of memory reconsolidation. In both humans and rodents, briefly reactivating a fear memory results in effective erasure by subsequent extinction training. Here we show that a similar strategy is equally effective in the disruption of appetitive pavlovian cue-food memories. However, systemic administration of the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine, under the same behavioural conditions, did not potentiate appetitive memory extinction, suggesting that reactivation does not enhance subsequent extinction learning. To confirm that reactivation followed by extinction reflects a behavioural analogue of memory reconsolidation, we show that prevention of contextual fear memory reactivation by the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker nimodipine interferes with the amnestic outcome. Therefore, the reconsolidation process can be manipulated behaviourally to disrupt both aversive and appetitive memories. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Working Memory Influences on Long-Term Memory and Comprehension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radvansky, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    .... This study looked at how comprehension and memory processing at the mental model level is related to traditional measures of working memory capacity, including the word span, reading span, operation...

  15. Phenylethanoid glycosides of Pedicularis muscicola Maxim ameliorate high altitude-induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Baozhu; Li, Maoxing; Cao, Xinyuan; Zhang, Quanlong; Liu, Yantong; Ma, Qiang; Qiu, Yan; Luan, Fei; Wang, Xianmin

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative stress, neuronal degeneration and apoptosis that leads to memory impairment. Though oxidative stress contributes to neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in hypobaric hypoxia, the ability for phenylethanoid glycosides of Pedicularis muscicola Maxim (PhGs) to reverse high altitude memory impairment has not been studied. Rats were supplemented with PhGs orally for a week. After the fourth day of drug administration, rats were exposed to a 7500 m altitude simulation in a specially designed animal decompression chamber for 3 days. Spatial memory was assessed by the 8-arm radial maze test before and after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Histological assessment of neuronal degeneration was performed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Changes in oxidative stress markers and changes in the expression of the apoptotic marker, caspase-3, were assessed in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, PhGs ameliorated high altitude memory impairment, as shown by the decreased values obtained for reference memory error (RME), working memory error (WME), and total error (TE). Meanwhile, administration of PhGs decreased hippocampal reactive oxygen species levels and consequent lipid peroxidation by elevating reduced glutathione levels and enhancing the free radical scavenging enzyme system. There was also a decrease in the number of pyknotic neurons and a reduction in caspase-3 expression in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that PhGs may be used therapeutically to ameliorate high altitude memory impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, T

    1989-01-01

    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  17. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  18. Functional memory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The field of shape memory phenomena in metals and alloys has developed in a sporadic fashion from a scientific curiosity to a vigorously growing niche industry, over a period close to a full working lifetime. Memory metal research and development is replete with scientist and engineer 'true believers', who can finally feel content that their longstanding confidence in the potential of these unusual functional materials has not been misplaced. This paper reviews the current range of medical and non-medical systems and devices which are based on memory metals and attempts to predict trends in applications over the next decade. The market is dominated by Ni Ti alloys which have proved to exhibit the best and most reproducible properties for application in a wide range of medical and non-medical devices

  19. Albert Einstein memorial lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Mechoulam, Raphael; The Israel Academy for Sciences and Humanities

    2012-01-01

    This volume consists of a selection of the Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures presented annually at the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Delivered by eminent scientists and scholars, including Nobel laureates, they cover a broad spectrum of subjects in physics, chemistry, life science, mathematics, historiography and social issues. This distinguished memorial lecture series was inaugurated by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities following an international symposium held in Jerusalem in March 1979 to commemorate the centenary of Albert Einstein's birth. Considering that Einstein's interests, activities and influence were not restricted to theoretical physics but spanned broad fields affecting society and the welfare of humankind, it was felt that these memorial lectures should be addressed to scientists, scholars and erudite laypersons rather than to physicists alone.

  20. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  1. Memory, Conviviality and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duru, Deniz Neriman

    2016-01-01

    that postulates cohesion and conflict as rooted in ethnic and religious differences. It suggests ‘conviviality’ as the production of space, by arguing that hard times, tensions as well as sensorial pleasures produce a sense of belonging in a place, through shared ways of living. While memories of ‘coexistence......The article explores the narratives and memories of past diversity and current practices of conviviality to investigate how class, lifestyle and tastes affect the daily interactions between people belonging to different ethno-religious backgrounds. This chapter critiques ‘coexistence’ as a concept......’ emphasize the fragmentation of people into ethnic and religious groups as a consequence of the homogenization process in the post-Ottoman Turkish context, bitter sweet memories of conviviality create a sense of belonging to Burgaz....

  2. Memory and the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Cesar; Letschka, Raoul

    2017-10-01

    Memory effects in scattering processes are described in terms of the asymptotic retarded fields. These fields are completely determined by the scattering data and the zero mode part is set by the soft photon theorem. The dressed asymptotic states defining an infrared finite S-matrix for charged particles can be defined as quantum coherent states using the corpuscular resolution of the asymptotic retarded fields. Imposing that the net radiated energy in the scattering is zero leads to the new set of conservation laws for the scattering S-matrix which are equivalent to the decoupling of the soft modes. The actual observability of the memory requires a non-vanishing radiated energy and could be described using the infrared part of the differential cross section that only depends on the scattering data and the radiated energy. This is the IR safe cross section with any number of emitted photons carrying total energy equal to the energy involved in the actual memory detection.

  3. Noradrenergic System and Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Zenger, Manuel

    2017-07-22

    There is ample evidence indicating that noradrenaline plays an important role in memory mechanisms. Noradrenaline is thought to modulate these procsses through activation of adrenergic receptors in neurons. Astrocytes that form essential partners for synaptic function, also express alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. In astrocytes, noradrenaline triggers metabolic actions such as the glycogenolysis leading to an increase in l-lactate formation and release. l-Lactate can be used by neurons as a sourc of energy during memory tasks and can also induc transcription of plasticity genes in neurons. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors can also trigger gliotransmitter release resulting of intracllular calcium waves. These gliotransmitters modulate the synaptic activity and thereby can modulate long-term potentiation mechanisms. In summary, recnt evidencs indicate that noradrenaline exerts its memory-promoting effects through different modes of action both on neurons and astrocytes.

  4. Echoic memory in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Christina; Kalenscher, Tobias; Güntürkün, Onur; Kaernbach, Christian

    2008-10-01

    It is unknown whether birds are able to retain the memory of purely sensory auditory information such as white noise over an extended period of time. In a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, four pigeons were trained to associate a mild electric shock with periodic random waveforms, and no shock with aperiodic noise. Periodic waveform detection requires echoic memory, i.e., the online retention of a waveform pattern over a limited time. Starting with 40ms, the waveform period was increased after successful learning until no significant stimulus discrimination could be found. Significant discrimination was achieved at periods of up to 2560ms. This is the first demonstration that echoic memory performance in birds is clearly superior to cats and gerbils, and comparable to naive human performance.

  5. Eavesdropping on Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2017-01-03

    For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. In my writings, classes, and public speeches, I've tried to convey one important take-home message: Just because someone tells you something in great detail, with much confidence, and with emotion, it doesn't mean that it is true. Here I describe my professional life as an experimental psychologist, in which I've eavesdropped on this process, as well as many personal experiences that may have influenced my thinking and choices.

  6. Mediated Cultural Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    (A revised, full paper will be published in the journal Mediekultur, spring 2014) This paper explores two examples of narratives representing memories of acts of mass violence: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester) about 1990’s Kosovo, and The Act of Killing (Denmark, 2012, director...... perspectives of semiosis (meaning-making) in relation to the films as redefining genres and what sorts of meanings different audiences create about the films. Acts of mass violence, including murder on civilians, genocide, and wars, can be seen as seeds for memories of the involved persons and following...... generations. Acts of mass violence also construct a sort of looking glass of culturally dominant memories that are mediated through stories: retold as oral stories through generations, as myths or sagas, or remediated in contemporary documentary or fiction films. In these processes of retelling acts...

  7. Matter and memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergson, Henri

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of the last century," Walter Benjamin wrote, "philosophy has made a series of attempts to lay hold of the 'true' experience as opposed to the kind that manifests itself in the standardized, denatured life of the civilized masses. It is customary to classify these efforts under the heading of a philosophy of life. Towering above this literature is Henri Bergson's early monumental work, Matter and Memory."Along with Husserl's Ideas and Heidegger's Being and Time, Bergson's work represents one of the great twentieth-century investigations into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Arguably Bergson's most significant book, Matter and Memory is essential to an understanding of his philosophy and its legacy.This new edition includes an annotated bibliography prepared by Bruno Paradis.Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927. His works include Time and Free Will, An Introduction to Metaphysics, Creative Evolution, and The Creative Mind.

  8. Transistor and memory devices based on novel organic and biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jia-Hung

    Organic semiconductor devices have aroused considerable interest because of the enormous potential in many technological applications. Organic electroluminescent devices have been extensively applied in display technology. Rapid progress has also been made in transistor and memory devices. This thesis considers aspects of the transistor based on novel organic single crystals and memory devices using hybrid nanocomposites comprising polymeric/inorganic nanoparticles, and biomolecule/quantum dots. Organic single crystals represent highly ordered structures with much less imperfections compared to amorphous thin films for probing the intrinsic charge transport in transistor devices. We demonstrate that free-standing, thin organic single crystals with natural flexing ability can be fabricated as flexible transistors. We study the surface properties of the organic crystals to determine a nearly perfect surface leading to high performance transistors. The flexible transistors can maintain high performance under reversible bending conditions. Because of the high quality crystal technique, we further develop applications on organic complementary circuits and organic single crystal photovoltaics. In the second part, two aspects of memory devices are studied. We examine the charge transfer process between conjugated polymers and metal nanoparticles. This charge transfer process is essential for the conductance switching in nanoseconds to induce the memory effect. Under the reduction condition, the charge transfer process is eliminated as well as the memory effect, raising the importance of coupling between conjugated systems and nanoparticle accepters. The other aspect of memory devices focuses on the interaction of virus biomolecules with quantum dots or metal nanoparticles in the devices. We investigate the impact of memory function on the hybrid bio-inorganic system. We perform an experimental analysis of the charge storage activation energy in tobacco mosaic virus with

  9. The correlation between internal and external markers for abdominal tumors: Implications for respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierga, David P.; Brewer, Johanna; Sharp, Gregory C.; Betke, Margrit; Willett, Christopher G.; Chen, George T.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The correlation of the respiratory motion of external patient markers and abdominal tumors was examined. Data of this type are important for image-guided therapy techniques, such as respiratory gating, that monitor the movement of external fiducials. Methods and Materials: Fluoroscopy sessions for 4 patients with internal, radiopaque tumor fiducial clips were analyzed by computer vision techniques. The motion of the internal clips and the external markers placed on the patient's abdominal skin surface were quantified and correlated. Results: In general, the motion of the tumor and external markers were well correlated. The maximum amount of peak-to-peak craniocaudal tumor motion was 2.5 cm. The ratio of tumor motion to external-marker motion ranged from 0.85 to 7.1. The variation in tumor position for a given external-marker position ranged from 2 to 9 mm. The period of the breathing cycle ranged from 2.7 to 4.5 seconds, and the frequency patterns for both the tumor and the external markers were similar. Conclusions: Although tumor motion generally correlated well with external fiducial marker motion, relatively large underlying tumor motion can occur compared with external-marker motion and variations in the tumor position for a given marker position. Treatment margins should be determined on the basis of a detailed understanding of tumor motion, as opposed to relying only on external-marker information

  10. Psychobiology of Active and Inactive Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Donald J.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the distinction between short-term memory and long-term memory is no longer adequate for either human or animal memory data. Recommends additional research on the physiological brain processes underlying memory interference and retrieval. (MP)

  11. Aging memories: differential decay of episodic memory components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Gorree, E.

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent

  12. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  13. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  14. NABIC marker database: A molecular markers information network of agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kug; Seol, Young-Joo; Lee, Dong-Jun; Jeong, In-Seon; Yoon, Ung-Han; Lee, Gang-Seob; Hahn, Jang-Ho; Park, Dong-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) reconstructs a molecular marker database for useful genetic resources. The web-based marker database consists of three major functional categories: map viewer, RSN marker and gene annotation. It provides 7250 marker locations, 3301 RSN marker property, 3280 molecular marker annotation information in agricultural plants. The individual molecular marker provides information such as marker name, expressed sequence tag number, gene definition and general marker information. This updated marker-based database provides useful information through a user-friendly web interface that assisted in tracing any new structures of the chromosomes and gene positional functions using specific molecular markers. The database is available for free at http://nabic.rda.go.kr/gere/rice/molecularMarkers/

  15. Shape memory effect alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.

    1992-01-01

    Although the pseudo- or super-elasticity phenomena and the shape memory effect were known since the 1940's, the enormous curiosity and the great interest to their practical applications emerged with the development of the NITINOL alloy (Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordance Laboratory) by the NASA during the 1960's. This fact marked the appearance of a new class of materials, popularly known as shape memory effect alloys (SMEA). The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art of the development and applications for the SMEA. (E.O.)

  16. Entropic memory erasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moupriya

    2014-03-01

    We have considered a Brownian particle confined in a two-dimensional bilobal enclosure where the state of the particle represents a bit of information having binary value 0 (left lobe) or 1 (right lobe). A time linear force is applied on the particle, driving it selectively to a particular lobe, and thus erasing one bit of information. We explore the statistics of heat and work associated with memory erasure to realize the Landauer limit in the entropic domain. Our results suggest that the mean value of work done associated with the complete erasure procedure satisfies the Landauer bound even when the memory is purely entropic in nature.

  17. Bifurcation with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmstead, W.E.; Davis, S.H.; Rosenblat, S.; Kath, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A model equation containing a memory integral is posed. The extent of the memory, the relaxation time lambda, controls the bifurcation behavior as the control parameter R is increased. Small (large) lambda gives steady (periodic) bifurcation. There is a double eigenvalue at lambda = lambda 1 , separating purely steady (lambda 1 ) from combined steady/T-periodic (lambda > lambda 1 ) states with T → infinity as lambda → lambda + 1 . Analysis leads to the co-existence of stable steady/periodic states and as R is increased, the periodic states give way to the steady states. Numerical solutions show that this behavior persists away from lambda = lambda 1

  18. The effect of rotational viscosity on the memory effect in ferroelectric liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, S.; Thakur, A.K.; Chauhan, R.; Bawa, S.S.; Biradar, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Memory effect in deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) is not a new phenomenon. Although it was reported 12 years ago yet its exact physical behavior is not explained. It has been thought by various researchers all over the world that it might be a transient memory effect. In the present study, it has been observed and predicted that memory effect is of long duration and shows remarkable dependencies on the voltage and frequency of the driving electrical pulse, which is entirely different from the memory effect in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (SSFLC). The memory effect in SSFLC is primarily due to surface effect but in DHFLC, its ultra-short pitch plays a dominant role. So, it has been observed that the memory effect in DHFLC is due to its high viscosity and inter/intra layer dipolar interactions

  19. Emotional organization of autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D; Woldorf, Gillian M

    2005-09-01

    The emotional organization of autobiographical memory was examined by determining whether emotional cues would influence autobiographical retrieval in younger and older adults. Unfamiliar musical cues that represented orthogonal combinations of positive and negative valence and high and low arousal were used. Whereas cue valence influenced the valence of the retrieved memories, cue arousal did not affect arousal ratings. However, high-arousal cues were associated with reduced response latencies. A significant bias to report positive memories was observed, especially for the older adults, but neither the distribution of memories across the life span nor response latencies varied across memories differing in valence or arousal. These data indicate that emotional information can serve as effective cues for autobiographical memories and that autobiographical memories are organized in terms of emotional valence but not emotional arousal. Thus, current theories of autobiographical memory must be expanded to include emotional valence as a primary dimension of organization.

  20. Time-Predictable Virtual Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Virtual memory is an important feature of modern computer architectures. For hard real-time systems, memory protection is a particularly interesting feature of virtual memory. However, current memory management units are not designed for time-predictability and therefore cannot be used...... in such systems. This paper investigates the requirements on virtual memory from the perspective of hard real-time systems and presents the design of a time-predictable memory management unit. Our evaluation shows that the proposed design can be implemented efficiently. The design allows address translation...... and address range checking in constant time of two clock cycles on a cache miss. This constant time is in strong contrast to the possible cost of a miss in a translation look-aside buffer in traditional virtual memory organizations. Compared to a platform without a memory management unit, these two additional...

  1. Neuroepigenetic regulation of pathogenic memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Sillivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain’s emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on 2 neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  2. Memory and Forgetfulness: NIH Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness NIH Research Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... agency for research on Alzheimer's disease and related memory research. An analysis funded by the NIA finds ...

  3. Involuntary memories and restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Christopher T

    2015-05-01

    Most involuntary memories are elicited by external cues (e.g., smells, sounds) that have unique associations with specific memories (Berntsen's cue-retrieval hypothesis), but involuntary memories can sometimes be elicited by weak, even imperceptible, cues that raise the activation level of an already primed memory (Berntsen's motivation-priming hypothesis) to also reach conscious awareness during times of low attentional focus. The current study examined the effects of a motivation bias (restrained eating) on the involuntary memories recorded in daily diaries for seven days by 56 female participants. A large proportion of the involuntary memories were elicited by food-related cues and occurred in food-related contexts. A significant correlation was found between the participants' scores on a restrained eating scale and the percentage of involuntary memories involving cooking and eating content. These results parallel previous research involving voluntary memory retrievals during restrained eating. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein–particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges

  5. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein-particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges.

  6. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei, E-mail: kwng@ntu.edu.sg; Loo, Say Chye Joachim, E-mail: joachimloo@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore)

    2015-01-15

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein–particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges.

  7. Self, Nation, and Generational Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss/Bøss, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A study of the former Irish president Eamon de Valera's self-narrative in his official autobiography as an illustration Alistair Thomson's theory of memory as 'composure' and as reflecting generational memory........A study of the former Irish president Eamon de Valera's self-narrative in his official autobiography as an illustration Alistair Thomson's theory of memory as 'composure' and as reflecting generational memory.....

  8. Memory-Based Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    relevant cases quickly from a large memory -plus the requirement for an explicit theory of index content in the complex social domain where relevance often...Sep 89 - 31 Jan 92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS " MEMORY -BASED EXPERT SYSTEMS" (U) 61102F 2304/A7 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Roger C. Schank 7...three problems: (1) The development of a robust memory -based parsing technology (Direct Memory Access Parsing, or DMP), (2) The development of case

  9. Category Accessibility as Implicit Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-06

    necessary and identify by block number) FIELD j GROUP SUB-GROUP category accessibility, social cognition, social or) In categorization, memory 19 ABSTRACT...and explicit memory in a common theoretical framework. Several types of social phenomena may usefully be conceptualized as involving implicit memory ...NO ACCESSION NO 61153N 1I TITLE (Include Security Classification) Category accessibility as implicit memory 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Smith, Eliot R

  10. About sleep's role in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

  11. Constructive Memory: Past and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adapti...

  12. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  13. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  14. Early bichemical markers of effects: Enzyme induction, oncogene activation and markers of oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E.; Loft, Steffen

    1995-01-01

    Early bichemical marker, enzyme induction, oncogene activation, oxidative damage, low-density lipoprotein......Early bichemical marker, enzyme induction, oncogene activation, oxidative damage, low-density lipoprotein...

  15. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN WORKING MEMORY AND CREATIVITY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Crema Remoli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Creativity and working memory are academic and professional success markers. Paradoxically, correlational studies do not always find associations between these constructs; some studies show positive associations between them and others show negative associations. Probably, the contradictory findings arise from different parameters, because of that it is important to identify them in order to have a more coherent understanding of this relationship. Thus, this systematic literature review aimed to answer the questions: “What is the relationship between working memory and creativity? Do update and serial recall mnemonic processes also interfere in the production of convergent or divergent thinking?” For this purpose, a survey of specific descriptors generated 384 articles found in Scopus, Web of Science and Pubmed databases, from which fifteen studies were selected. Despite the methodological variability between the selected studies, the results found suggest associations between working memory and creativity, which are explained by the attentional, inhibitory, analytical and motivational processes involved. A systematic review of these studies concluded that the characteristics of experimental tasks to study creativity and working memory used can influence the results of this association. It is also possible to infer that working memory overload can impair creative performance.

  16. Examining the long-term stability of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Epstein, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a proposed trait-marker for vulnerability to depression, but relatively little work has examined its long-term stability. This study investigated the stability of OGM over several years in 271 late adolescents and young adults participating in a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders. The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) was administered twice, with test-retest intervals ranging from approximately 3 to 6 years. There was evidence of significant but modest stability in OGM over several years. Specifically, Spearman rank correlations (ρs) between the proportions of specific and categoric memories generated on the two AMTs were .31 and .32, respectively. We did not find evidence that the stability of OGM was moderated by the length of the test-retest interval. Furthermore, the stability coefficients for OGM for individuals with and without a lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD) were relatively similar in magnitude and not significantly different from one another (ρs=.34 and .42 for the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those with a history of MDD; ρs=.31 for both the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those without a history of MDD). Implications for the conceptualisation of OGM are discussed.

  17. Improving Memory in the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Linda M.; Pratt, Mary Alice

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of a didactic-experiential program designed to improve memory functioning in healthy older adults with memory complaints, and to allay their concerns (in this case, largely unfounded) about the decline of their memory. The 7-week workshop met weekly for 2 hours, each session consisting of a lecture…

  18. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  19. NUMA obliviousness through memory mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawade, M.; Kersten, M.; Pandis, I.; Kersten, M.

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of multi-socket multi-core CPUs a lot of effort is being put into how to best exploit their abundant CPU power. In a shared memory setting the multi-socket CPUs are equipped with their own memory module, and access memory modules across sockets in a non-uniform access pattern (NUMA).

  20. NUMA obliviousness through memory mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gawade (Mrunal); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWith the rise of multi-socket multi-core CPUs a lot of effort is being put into how to best exploit their abundant CPU power. In a shared memory setting the multi-socket CPUs are equipped with their own memory module, and access memory modules across sockets in a non-uniform

  1. Episodic memory in nonhuman animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-09-09

    Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of 'having been there', has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhuman species. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhuman animals and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap; however, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question "do nonhuman animals have episodic memory" to instead asking "what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans" are making progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Context Memory in Korsakoff's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kopelman, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for contextual information and target-context integration are crucial for successful episodic memory formation and are impaired in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. In this paper we review the evidence for the notion that a context memory deficit makes an important contribution to the

  3. Context memory in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kopelman, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for contextual information and target-context integration are crucial for successful episodic memory formation and are impaired in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. In this paper we review the evidence for the notion that a context memory deficit makes an important contribution to the

  4. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  5. Transacted Memory for Smart Cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Butler, Michael J.; de Jong, Eduard; Longley, Mark; Olivieira, J.N.; Zave, P.

    A transacted memory that is implemented using EEPROM technology offers persistence, undoability and auditing. The transacted memory system is formally specified in Z, and refined in two steps to a prototype C implementation / SPIN model. Conclusions are offered both on the transacted memory system

  6. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  7. Memory blindness: Altered memory reports lead to distortion in eyewitness memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Kevin J; Greenspan, Rachel L; Bogart, Daniel F; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2016-07-01

    Choice blindness refers to the finding that people can often be misled about their own self-reported choices. However, little research has investigated the more long-term effects of choice blindness. We examined whether people would detect alterations to their own memory reports, and whether such alterations could influence participants' memories. Participants viewed slideshows depicting crimes, and then either reported their memories for episodic details of the event (Exp. 1) or identified a suspect from a lineup (Exp. 2). Then we exposed participants to manipulated versions of their memory reports, and later tested their memories a second time. The results indicated that the majority of participants failed to detect the misinformation, and that exposing witnesses to misleading versions of their own memory reports caused their memories to change to be consistent with those reports. These experiments have implications for eyewitness memory.

  8. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...

  9. The Memory of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Houlind

    The thematic aim of the present dissertation is twofold: To contribute to the contemporary discussion within philosophy of religion, which revolves around ‘the death and (alleged) return of God’; more specifically, I want to rethink God through the concept memory, drawing on selected writings from...

  10. The Memory Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen-Bagneux, Ole

    2014-01-01

    of classification and retrieval processes is presented. The key element is to understand the library both as a physical structure and as a structure in the memory of the Alexandrian scholars. In this article, these structures are put together so to propose a new interpretation of the library....

  11. Memory Loss and Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Underlying the generally oblivious attitude of teachers and learners towards the past is insufficient respect for the role of memory in giving meaning to experience and access to knowledge. We shape our identity by making sense of our past and its relationship to present and future selves, a process that should be intensively cultivated when we…

  12. THE MEMORY OF JUDGMENT:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    category of trials, the Nuremburg, Eichmann, Demjanjuk and Barbie trials, deal with major Nazi criminals who perpetrated the crimes named under the. Nuremberg Charter, the laws of France and Israel. The second category of trials is a trial aimed at policing institutionally-sanctioned memory through the criminal law by ...

  13. Dreams Memories & Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  14. History, Memory and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    In this paper I discuss history and memory from a theoretical and philosophical point of view and the non-fiction and fiction aspects of historical representation. I use Edgar Reitz’ monumental work Heimat 1-3 (and his recent film Die Andere Heimat) as examples of very different transformative...

  15. Shape memory alloy engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a shape memory alloy engine, developed for the purpose of extracting the mechanical energy from a small difference in temperature. The engine is mainly composed of two pulleys (high temperature and low temperature) and single belt made of the nickel titanium shape memory alloy. The alloy memorizes a shape arcing in the direction opposite to the direction of the belt arc around the pulleys. When the temperature of the belt which is in contact with the high temperature pulley rises above the transformation temperature, a return to the memorized shape generates a force which rotates the pulleys. To make the heat transfer more effective, the engine was designed so that the lower part of the two pulleys are embedded in hot and cold water, respectively. To predict the performance of the shape memory alloy engine, the stress change of the shape memory alloy caused by temperature change has been also investigated with the bending stress test, and a torque loss of the engine system was measured. The predicted results were coincident with the output power experiment

  16. The Grammar of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This essay focuses on two sites of memory in my professional life. One is from my very early years of teaching, the second from about 10 years later. Each is centred on a moment of controversy in English curriculum in New South Wales, Australia, and each is to do with the teaching of writing and the supposed neglect of language study, including…

  17. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...

  18. Memory Mechanisms in Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Constanze; Franz, Volker H.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of visual information influences the execution of goal-directed movements. This is very prominent in memory conditions, where a delay is introduced between stimulus presentation and execution of the movement. The corresponding effects could be due to a decay of the visual information or to different processing mechanisms used for…

  19. Radiation Tolerant Embedded Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Brian

    2003-01-01

    ... event effects, and will scale to smaller geometries to provide the same performance. we then designed arrays of that memory to build up blocks to be used in complex Cool-RAD(tm) parts such as microprocessors and digital signal processors.

  20. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forgetting whole conversations could signal a problem. Other red flags: forgetting the name of a close friend or relative, frequently repeating yourself or asking the same questions in the same conversation. Are there signs of confusion? Serious memory lapses may cause individuals to get lost in ...