WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface membrane chemistry

  1. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhan Nady

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled “green surface modification”. This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone (PES membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers—ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid—is presented.

  2. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nady, Norhan

    2016-04-18

    A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme) and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled "green surface modification". This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone) (PES) membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface) are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers-ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid)-is presented.

  3. Surface physical chemistry properties in coated bacterial cellulose membranes with calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Olyveira, Gabriel Molina; Basmaji, Pierre; Costa, Ligia Maria Manzine; Dos Santos, Márcio Luiz; Dos Santos Riccardi, Carla; Guastaldi, Fernando Pozzi Semeghini; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli; de Oliveira Capote, Ticiana Sidorenko; Pizoni, Elisabeth; Guastaldi, Antônio Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial cellulose has become established as a new biomaterial, and it can be used for medical applications. In addition, it has called attention due to the increasing interest in tissue engineering materials for wound care. In this work, the bacterial cellulose fermentation process was modified by the addition of chondroitin sulfate to the culture medium before the inoculation of the bacteria. The biomimetic process with heterogeneous calcium phosphate precipitation of biological interest was studied for the guided regeneration purposes on bacterial cellulose. FTIR results showed the incorporation of the chondroitin sulfate in the bacterial cellulose, SEM images confirmed the deposition of the calcium phosphate on the bacterial cellulose surface, XPS analysis showed a selective chemical group influences which change calcium phosphate deposition, besides, the calcium phosphate phase with different Ca/P ratios on bacterial cellulose surface influences wettability. XTT results concluded that these materials did not affect significantly in the cell viability, being non-cytotoxic. Thus, it was produced one biomaterial with the surface charge changes for calcium phosphate deposition, besides different wettability which builds new membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  5. Organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muetterties, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    The organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces is defined as a function of surface crystallography and of surface composition for a set of cyclic hydrocarbons that include benzene, toluene, cyclohexadienes, cyclohexene, cyclohexane, cyclooctatetraene, cyclooctadienes, cyclooctadiene, cycloheptatriene and cyclobutane. 12 figures

  6. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 6 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the progress in surface and membrane science; the solid state chemistry of the silver halide surface; and the experimental and theoretical aspects of the double layer at the mercury-solution interface. The text also describes contact-angle hysteresis; ion binding and ion transport produced by neutral lipid-soluble molecules; and the biophysical interactions of blood proteins with polymeric and artificial surfaces. Physical chemists, biophysicists, and phys

  7. Water at surfaces with tunable surface chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stephanie E.; Vanselous, Heather; Petersen, Poul B.

    2018-03-01

    Aqueous interfaces are ubiquitous in natural environments, spanning atmospheric, geological, oceanographic, and biological systems, as well as in technical applications, such as fuel cells and membrane filtration. Where liquid water terminates at a surface, an interfacial region is formed, which exhibits distinct properties from the bulk aqueous phase. The unique properties of water are governed by the hydrogen-bonded network. The chemical and physical properties of the surface dictate the boundary conditions of the bulk hydrogen-bonded network and thus the interfacial properties of the water and any molecules in that region. Understanding the properties of interfacial water requires systematically characterizing the structure and dynamics of interfacial water as a function of the surface chemistry. In this review, we focus on the use of experimental surface-specific spectroscopic methods to understand the properties of interfacial water as a function of surface chemistry. Investigations of the air-water interface, as well as efforts in tuning the properties of the air-water interface by adding solutes or surfactants, are briefly discussed. Buried aqueous interfaces can be accessed with careful selection of spectroscopic technique and sample configuration, further expanding the range of chemical environments that can be probed, including solid inorganic materials, polymers, and water immiscible liquids. Solid substrates can be finely tuned by functionalization with self-assembled monolayers, polymers, or biomolecules. These variables provide a platform for systematically tuning the chemical nature of the interface and examining the resulting water structure. Finally, time-resolved methods to probe the dynamics of interfacial water are briefly summarized before discussing the current status and future directions in studying the structure and dynamics of interfacial water.

  8. Surface chemistry theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bikerman, J J

    2013-01-01

    Surface Chemistry Theory and Applications focuses on liquid-gas, liquid-liquid, solid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-solid surfaces. The book first offers information on liquid-gas surfaces, including surface tension, measurement of surface tension, rate of capillarity rise, capillary attraction, bubble pressure and pore size, and surface tension and temperature. The text then ponders on liquid-liquid and solid-gas surfaces. Discussions focus on surface energy of solids, surface roughness and cleanness, adsorption of gases and vapors, adsorption hysteresis, interfacial tension, and interfacial t

  9. Surface Chemistry of Gold Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Nathan D; Lin, Wayne; Hinman, Joshua G; Dennison, Jordan M; Vartanian, Ariane M; Abadeer, Nardine S; Grzincic, Elissa M; Jacob, Lisa M; Li, Ji; Murphy, Catherine J

    2016-10-04

    Gold nanorods have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique optical properties, and they have the potential to greatly impact many areas of science and technology. Understanding the structure and chemical makeup of their surfaces as well as how to tailor them is of paramount importance in the development of their successful applications. This Feature Article reviews the current understanding of the surface chemistry of as-synthesized gold nanorods, methods of tailoring the surface chemistry of gold nanorods with various inorganic and organic coatings/ligands, and the techniques employed to characterize ligands on the surface of gold nanorods as well as the associated measurement challenges. Specifically, we address the challenges of determining how thick the ligand shell is, how many ligands per nanorod are present on the surface, and where the ligands are located in regiospecific and mixed-ligand systems. We conclude with an outlook on the development of the surface chemistry of gold nanorods leading to the development of a synthetic nanoparticle surface chemistry toolbox analogous to that of synthetic organic chemistry and natural product synthesis.

  10. Surface Chemistry in Nanoscale Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Jürgen; Wittstock, Arne; Baumann, Theodore F.; Weissmüller, Jörg; Bäumer, Marcus; Hamza, Alex V.

    2009-01-01

    Although surfaces or, more precisely, the surface atomic and electronic structure, determine the way materials interact with their environment, the influence of surface chemistry on the bulk of the material is generally considered to be small. However, in the case of high surface area materials such as nanoporous solids, surface properties can start to dominate the overall material behavior. This allows one to create new materials with physical and chemical properties that are no longer determined by the bulk material, but by their nanoscale architectures. Here, we discuss several examples, ranging from nanoporous gold to surface engineered carbon aerogels that demonstrate the tuneability of nanoporous solids for sustainable energy applications.

  11. Surface Chemistry in Nanoscale Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex V. Hamza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although surfaces or, more precisely, the surface atomic and electronic structure, determine the way materials interact with their environment, the influence of surface chemistry on the bulk of the material is generally considered to be small. However, in the case of high surface area materials such as nanoporous solids, surface properties can start to dominate the overall material behavior. This allows one to create new materials with physical and chemical properties that are no longer determined by the bulk material, but by their nanoscale architectures. Here, we discuss several examples, ranging from nanoporous gold to surface engineered carbon aerogels that demonstrate the tuneability of nanoporous solids for sustainable energy applications.

  12. Surface chemistry in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollinger, Mikkel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2000-01-01

    the usual single surface ('2D') process because indirect adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in the transition state are absent in the '3D' case. The prospects for STM-induced single molecule chemistry and for '3D' catalysts are discussed. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......Based on self-consistent density functional calculations it is shown that a new dissociation process for CO adsorbed on a Ru(0001) surface is made possible when the distance to a second Ru(0001) surface placed just above it is below some critical value. This '3D' process is more facile than...

  13. Low fouling polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane via click chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2014-10-13

    Hydrophilic surfaces are known to be less prone to fouling. Ultrafiltration membranes are frequently prepared from rather hydrophobic polymers like polysulfone (PSU). Strategies to keep the good pore forming characteristics of PSU, but with improved hydrophilicity are proposed here. PSU functionalized with 1,2,3-triazole ring substituents containing OH groups was successfully synthesized through click chemistry reaction. The structures of the polymers were confirmed using NMR spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). High thermal stability (>280°C) was observed by thermal gravimetric analysis. Elemental analysis showed the presence of nitrogen containing triazole group with different degrees of functionalization (23%, 49%, 56%, and 94%). The glass transition temperature shifted with the introduction of triazole pendant groups from 190°C (unmodified) to 171°C. Ultrafiltration membranes were prepared via phase inversion by immersion in different coagulation baths (NMP/water mixtures with volume ratios from 0/100 to 40/60). The morphologies of these membranes were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The optimized PSU bearing triazole functions membranes exhibited water permeability up to 187 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, which is 23 times higher than those prepared under the same conditions but with unmodified polysulfone (PSU; 8 L m-2 h-1 bar-1). Results of bovine serum albumin protein rejection test indicated that susceptibility to fouling decreased with the modification, due to the increased hydrophilicity, while keeping high protein rejection ratio (>99%).

  14. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D; Volmer, Dietrich A; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H](-)) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba(2+) have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba](+) precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH](+) and [BaOH](+)). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  15. Recent advances in quantum dot surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Douglas A; Kamat, Prashant V

    2014-03-12

    Quantum dot (QD) surface chemistry is an emerging field in semiconductor nanocrystal related research. Along with size manipulation, the careful control of QD surface chemistry allows modulation of the optical properties of a QD suspension. Even a single molecule bound to the surface can introduce new functionalities. Herein, we summarize the recent advances in QD surface chemistry and the resulting effects on optical and electronic properties. Specifically, this review addresses three main issues: (i) how surface chemistry affects the optical properties of QDs, (ii) how it influences the excited state dynamics, and (iii) how one can manipulate surface chemistry to control the interactions between QDs and metal oxides, metal nanoparticles, and in self-assembled QD monolayers.

  16. Printing-assisted surface modifications of patterned ultrafiltration membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardrip, Nathaniel C.; Dsouza, Melissa; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem; Snyder, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and restricting microbial surface attachment will enhance wastewater treatment with membranes. We report a maskless lithographic patterning technique for the generation of patterned polymer coatings on ultrafiltration membranes. Polyethylene glycol, zwitterionic, or negatively charged hydrophilic polymer compositions in parallel- or perpendicular-striped patterns with respect to feed flow were evaluated using wastewater. Membrane fouling was dependent on the orientation and chemical composition of the coatings. Modifications reduced alpha diversity in the attached microbial community (Shannon indices decreased from 2.63 to 1.89) which nevertheless increased with filtration time. Sphingomonas species, which condition membrane surfaces and facilitate cellular adhesion, were depleted in all modified membranes. Microbial community structure was significantly different between control, different patterns, and different chemistries. Lastly, this study broadens the tools for surface modification of membranes with polymer coatings and for understanding and optimization of antifouling surfaces.

  17. Surface Coordination Chemistry of Metal Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengxin; Qin, Ruixuan; Fu, Gang; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2017-02-15

    Surface coordination chemistry of nanomaterials deals with the chemistry on how ligands are coordinated on their surface metal atoms and influence their properties at the molecular level. This Perspective demonstrates that there is a strong link between surface coordination chemistry and the shape-controlled synthesis, and many intriguing surface properties of metal nanomaterials. While small adsorbates introduced in the synthesis can control the shapes of metal nanocrystals by minimizing their surface energy via preferential coordination on specific facets, surface ligands properly coordinated on metal nanoparticles readily promote their catalysis via steric interactions and electronic modifications. The difficulty in the research of surface coordination chemistry of nanomaterials mainly lies in the lack of effective tools to characterize their molecular surface coordination structures. Also highlighted are several model material systems that facilitate the characterizations of surface coordination structures, including ultrathin nanostructures, atomically precise metal nanoclusters, and atomically dispersed metal catalysts. With the understanding of surface coordination chemistry, the molecular mechanisms behind various important effects (e.g., promotional effect of surface ligands on catalysis, support effect in supported metal nanocatalysts) of metal nanomaterials are disclosed.

  18. Evolution and accumulation of organic foulants on hydrophobic and hydrophilic membrane surfaces in a submerged membrane bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald

    2015-09-07

    Membrane surface modification is attracting more attention to mitigate biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Five membranes differing in chemistry and hydrophobic/hydrophilic potential were run in parallel in a lab-scale MBR under the same conditions. Membranes were sampled after 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of MBR operation with synthetic wastewater. Subsequently, accumulated organic foulants were characterised using several chemical analytical tools. Results showed similar development of organic foulants with time, illustrating that membrane surface chemistry did not affect the selection of specific organic foulants. Multivariate analysis showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the day of sampling. The composition of organic foulants shifted from protein-like substances towards humics and polysaccharides-like substances. We propose that to control biofouling in MBRs, one should focus less on the membrane surface chemistry.

  19. Zwitterionic materials for antifouling membrane surface construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingrui; Gao, Kang; Zhou, Linjie; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; Cao, Jialin; You, Xinda; Cai, Ziyi; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane separation processes are often perplexed by severe and ubiquitous membrane fouling. Zwitterionic materials, keeping electric neutrality with equivalent positive and negative charged groups, are well known for their superior antifouling properties and have been broadly utilized to construct antifouling surfaces for medical devices, biosensors and marine coatings applications. In recent years, zwitterionic materials have been more and more frequently utilized for constructing antifouling membrane surfaces. In this review, the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials as well as their biomimetic prototypes in cell membranes will be discussed, followed by the survey of common approaches to incorporate zwitterionic materials onto membrane surfaces including surface grafting, surface segregation, biomimetic adhesion, surface coating and so on. The potential applications of these antifouling membranes are also embedded. Finally, we will present a brief perspective on the future development of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Membrane fouling is a severe problem hampering the application of membrane separation technology. The properties of membrane surfaces play a critical role in membrane fouling and antifouling behavior/performance. Antifouling membrane surface construction has evolved as a hot research issue for the development of membrane processes. Zwitterionic modification of membrane surfaces has been recognized as an effective strategy to resist membrane fouling. This review summarizes the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials inspired by cell membranes as well as the popular approaches to incorporate them onto membrane surfaces. It can help form a comprehensive knowledge about the principles and methods of modifying membrane surfaces with zwitterionic materials. Finally, we propose the possible future research directions of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  20. Switching surface chemistry with supramolecular machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, Timothy D.; Kelly, Michael James; Jeppesen, Jan O. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Matzke, Carolyn M.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Huber, Dale L.; Kushmerick, James G.; Flood, Amar H. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Perkins, Julie (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Cao, Jianguo (University of California, Los Angeles, CA)

    2005-07-01

    Tethered supramolecular machines represent a new class of active self-assembled monolayers in which molecular configurations can be reversibly programmed using electrochemical stimuli. We are using these machines to address the chemistry of substrate surfaces for integrated microfluidic systems. Interactions between the tethered tetracationic cyclophane host cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) and dissolved {pi}-electron-rich guest molecules, such as tetrathiafulvalene, have been reversibly switched by oxidative electrochemistry. The results demonstrate that surface-bound supramolecular machines can be programmed to adsorb or release appropriately designed solution species for manipulating surface chemistry.

  1. Introduction to Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kiil, Søren

    Colloid and Surface Chemistry is a subject of immense importance and implications both to our everyday life and numerous industrial sectors, ranging from coatings and materials to medicine and biotechnology. How do detergents really clean? (Why can’t we just use water ?) Why is milk “milky” Why do......, to the benefit of both the environment and our pocket. Cosmetics is also big business! Creams, lotions and other personal care products are really just complex emulsions. All of the above can be explained by the principles and methods of colloid and surface chemistry. A course on this topic is truly valuable...

  2. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A; Rosenberg, M D

    1974-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the applications of statistical mechanics to physical adsorption; the impact of electron spectroscopy and cognate techniques on the study of solid surfaces; and the ellipsometric studies of thin films. The text also describes the interfacial photochemistry of bilayer lipid membranes; cell junctions and their development; and the composition and function of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The role of the cell surface in contact inhibition of cell division

  3. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1972-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 5 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the Mössbauer effect in surface science; the surface functional groups on carbon and silica; and the wetting phenomena pertaining to adhesion. The text also describes the physical state of phospholipids and cholesterol in monolayers, bilayers, and membranes; the characteristics of heterocoagulation; and the effects of calcium on excitable membranes and neurotransmitter action. Chemists, physiologists, biophysicists, and civil engineers will find the book i

  4. RETENTION OF HUMIC ACID FROM WATER BY NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANE AND INFLUENCE OF SOLUTION CHEMISTRY ON MEMBRANE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zazouli, S. Nasseri, A. H. Mahvi, M. Gholami, A. R. Mesdaghinia, M. Younesian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to investigate the rejection efficiency of salt and hydrophobic fraction of natural organic matter, to study the flux decline behavior with a spiral wound nanofiltration membrane, and also to survey the influence of water chemistry on membrane performance. Experiments were conducted using a cross flow pilot-scale membrane unit with a full circulation mode. Humic acid was used as hydrophobic organic matter and NaCl as background electrolyte. Results showed that flux reduction increased with increasing ionic strength and humic acid concentration, and with lower pH. The rejection efficiency of organic and salt decreased with the decrease in pH and increase in ionic strength, because of osmotic pressure increase, leading to permeate flux decline and decrease in salt rejection. In addition, the improved salt rejection was likely due to Donnan exclusion by humic material close to membrane surfaces. The average rejection efficiency of humic acid and salt ranged between 91.2%-95.25% and 63.6%-80%, respectively. Dissolved organic carbon concentration was less than 0.57mg/L in permeate for all experiments. With increasing organic concentration, the charge of the membrane surface has become more negative due to the adsorption of organic foulants on the membrane surface, and thus increased the electrostatic repulsion. However, the increasing surface charge had the potential to result in a larger molecular weight cut-off of a fouled membrane due to membrane swelling which can lead to lower rejection solutes. Therefore, results of this study indicated that membrane fouling may significantly affect the rejection of organic and ion solute.

  5. Activation of interfacial enzymes at membrane surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Halperin, Avi

    2006-01-01

    A host of water-soluble enzymes are active at membrane surfaces and in association with membranes. Some of these enzymes are involved in signalling and in modification and remodelling of the membranes. A special class of enzymes, the phospholipases, and in particular secretory phospholipase A2 (s...

  6. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1976-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 10 covers the advances in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the selective changes of cellular particles influencing sedimentation properties; and the rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes in investigations of surface phenomena at the metal-electrolyte interface. The text also describes the membrane potential of phospholipid bilayer and biological membranes; the adsorption of surfactant monolayers at gas/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces; and the enzymes immobilized on glass. Chemists and people involved in electrochemistry will

  7. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1979-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 12 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the topographical differentiation of the cell surface; the NMR studies of model biological membrane system; and an irreversible thermodynamic approach to energy coupling in mitochondria and chloroplasts. The text also describes water at surfaces; the nature of microemulsions; and the energy principle in the stability of interfaces. Biochemists, physicists, chemical engineers, and people involved in surface and coatings research will find the book invaluable.

  8. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1971-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 4 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses waves at interfaces; recent investigations on the thickness of surface layers; and surface analysis by low-energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. The text also describes the anode electrolyte interface; the interactions of adsorbed proteins and polypeptides at interfaces; and peptide-induced ion transport in synthetic and biological membranes. The monolayer adsorption on crystalline surfaces is also considered. Chemists and metallurgi

  9. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A; Rosenberg, M D

    1975-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 9 covers the developments in surface and membrane science. The book discusses the physical adsorption of gases and vapors in micropores; the chemisorption theory; and the role of radioisotopes in the studies of chemisorption and catalysis. The text also describes the interaction of ions with monolayers; and the isolation and characterization of mycoplasma membranes. Chemists, physical chemists, and microbiologists will find the book useful.

  10. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1977-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 11 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the quantum theory of surface phenomena; some fundamental aspects of electrocrystallization; and exoelectric emission. The text also describes the surface of titanium dioxide; and the prospects for atomic resolution electron microscopy in membranology. Chemists, physicists, and people involved in the electrochemical power laboratory will find the book useful.

  11. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1981-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 14 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses statistical thermodynamics of monolayer adsorption from gas and liquid mixtures on homogeneous and heterogeneous solid surfaces; and the structure of the boundary layers of liquids and its influence on the mass transfer in fine pores. The text then describes the coupling of ionic and non-electrolyte fluxes in ion selective membranes; the electrocatalytic properties of matalloporphins at the interface; and the adsorption from binary gas and liquid phases. Phas

  12. Grain surface chemistry in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboussin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Planetary formation occurs in the protoplanetary disks of gas and dust. Although dust represents only 1% of the total disk mass, it plays a fundamental role in disk chemical evolution since it acts as a catalyst for the formation of molecules. Understanding this chemistry is therefore essential to determine the initial conditions from which planets form. During my thesis, I studied grain-surface chemistry and its impact on the chemical evolution of molecular cloud, initial condition for disk formation, and protoplanetary disk. Thanks to numerical simulations, using the gas-grain code Nautilus, I showed the importance of diffusion reactions and gas-grain interactions for the abundances of gas-phase species. Model results combined with observations also showed the effects of the physical structure (in temperature, density, AV) on the molecular distribution in disks. (author)

  13. Bio-Inspired Polymer Membrane Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Schulze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To generate polyethersulfone membranes with a biocatalytically active surface, pancreatin was covalently immobilized. Pancreatin is a mixture of digestive enzymes such as protease, lipase, and amylase. The resulting membranes exhibit self-cleaning properties after “switching on” the respective enzyme by adjusting pH and temperature. Thus, the membrane surface can actively degrade a fouling layer on its surface and regain initial permeability. Fouling tests with solutions of protein, oil, and mixtures of both, were performed, and the membrane’s ability to self-clean the fouled surface was characterized. Membrane characterization was conducted by investigation of the immobilized enzyme concentration, enzyme activity, water permeation flux, fouling tests, porosimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Operando chemistry of catalyst surfaces during catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jian; Sun, Zaicheng; Opalade, Adedamola A; Wang, Nan; Fu, Wensheng; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2017-04-03

    Chemistry of a catalyst surface during catalysis is crucial for a fundamental understanding of mechanism of a catalytic reaction performed on the catalyst in the gas or liquid phase. Due to the pressure- or molecular density-dependent entropy contribution of gas or liquid phase of the reactants and the potential formation of a catalyst surface during catalysis different from that observed in an ex situ condition, the characterization of the surface of a catalyst under reaction conditions and during catalysis can be significant and even necessary for understanding the catalytic mechanism at a molecular level. Electron-based analytical techniques are challenging for studying catalyst nanoparticles in the gas or liquid phase although they are necessary techniques to employ. Instrumentation and further development of these electron-based techniques have now made in situ/operando studies of catalysts possible. New insights into the chemistry and structure of catalyst nanoparticles have been uncovered over the last decades. Herein, the origin of the differences between ex situ and in situ/operando studies of catalysts, and the technical challenges faced as well as the corresponding instrumentation and innovations utilized for characterizing catalysts under reaction conditions and during catalysis, are discussed. The restructuring of catalyst surfaces driven by the pressure of reactant(s) around a catalyst, restructuring in reactant(s) driven by reaction temperature and restructuring during catalysis are also reviewed herein. The remaining challenges and possible solutions are briefly discussed.

  15. Criegee Chemistry on Aqueous Organic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enami, Shinichi; Colussi, A J

    2017-04-06

    In the troposphere, the fate of gas-phase Criegee intermediates (CIs) is deemed to be determined by their reactions with water molecules. Here it is shown that CIs produced in situ on the surface of water/acetonitrile (W/AN) solutions react competitively with millimolar carboxylic acids. Present experiments probe, via online electrospray mass spectrometry, CIs' chemistry on the surface of α-humulene and β-caryophyllene in W/AN microjets exposed to O 3 (g) for competitiveness being an increasing function of n. Present findings demonstrate that CIs can react with species other than H 2 O on the surface of aqueous organic aerosols due to the low water concentrations prevalent in the outermost interfacial layers.

  16. From helical to planar chirality by on-surface chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Švec, Martin; Vacek, Jaroslav; Vacek Chocholoušová, Jana; Jančařík, Andrej; Rybáček, Jiří; Kośmider, K.; Stará, Irena G.; Jelínek, Pavel; Starý, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2017), s. 213-218 ISSN 1755-4330 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC14-16963J; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29667S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : chirality * AFM * STM * helicene * on surface chemistry * DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Organic chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 25.870, year: 2016

  17. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Danielli, J F; Cadenhead, D A

    1973-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the theoretical and experimental aspects of the van der Waals forces; the electric double layer on the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; and the long-range and short-range order in adsorbed films. The text also describes the hydrodynamical theory of surface shear viscosity; the structure and properties of monolayers of synthetic polypeptides at the air-water interface; and the structure and molecular dynamics of water. The role of glycoproteins in cell

  18. Ferroelectric based catalysis: Switchable surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-03-01

    We describe a new class of catalysts that uses an epitaxial monolayer of a transition metal oxide on a ferroelectric substrate. The ferroelectric polarization switches the surface chemistry between strongly adsorptive and strongly desorptive regimes, circumventing difficulties encountered on non-switchable catalytic surfaces where the Sabatier principle dictates a moderate surface-molecule interaction strength. This method is general and can, in principle, be applied to many reactions, and for each case the choice of the transition oxide monolayer can be optimized. Here, as a specific example, we show how simultaneous NOx direct decomposition (into N2 and O2) and CO oxidation can be achieved efficiently on CrO2 terminated PbTiO3, while circumventing oxygen (and sulfur) poisoning issues. One should note that NOx direct decomposition has been an open challenge in automotive emission control industry. Our method can expand the range of catalytically active elements to those which are not conventionally considered for catalysis and which are more economical, e.g., Cr (for NOx direct decomposition and CO oxidation) instead of canonical precious metal catalysts. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  19. Analysis of heterogeneous oxygen exchange and fuel oxidation on the catalytic surface of perovskite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2013-10-01

    The catalytic kinetics of oxygen surface exchange and fuel oxidation for a perovskite membrane is investigated in terms of the thermodynamic state in the immediate vicinity of or on the membrane surface. Perovskite membranes have been shown to exhibit both oxygen perm-selectivity and catalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion. A fundamental description of their catalytic surface reactions is needed. In this study, we infer the kinetic parameters for heterogeneous oxygen surface exchange and catalytic fuel conversion reactions, based on permeation rate measurements and a spatially resolved physical model that incorporates detailed chemical kinetics and transport in the gas-phase. The conservation equations for surface and bulk species are coupled with those of the gas-phase species through the species production rates from surface reactions. It is shown that oxygen surface exchange is limited by dissociative/associative adsorption/desorption of oxygen molecules onto/from the membrane surface. On the sweep side, while the catalytic conversion of methane to methyl radical governs the overall surface reactions at high temperature, carbon monoxide oxidation on the membrane surface is dominant at low temperature. Given the sweep side conditions considered in ITM reactor experiments, gas-phase reactions also play an important role, indicating the significance of investigating both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry and their coupling when examining the results. We show that the local thermodynamic state at the membrane surface should be considered when constructing and examining models of oxygen permeation and heterogeneous chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Genki; Akiyama, Terunobu; Gautsch, Sebastian; Vettiger, Peter; Rohrer, Heinrich

    2011-03-09

    Nanomechanical cantilever sensors have been emerging as a key device for real-time and label-free detection of various analytes ranging from gaseous to biological molecules. The major sensing principle is based on the analyte-induced surface stress, which makes a cantilever bend. In this letter, we present a membrane-type surface stress sensor (MSS), which is based on the piezoresistive read-out integrated in the sensor chip. The MSS is not a simple "cantilever," rather it consists of an "adsorbate membrane" suspended by four piezoresistive "sensing beams," composing a full Wheatstone bridge. The whole analyte-induced isotropic surface stress on the membrane is efficiently transduced to the piezoresistive beams as an amplified uniaxial stress. Evaluation of a prototype MSS used in the present experiments demonstrates a high sensitivity which is comparable with that of optical methods and a factor of more than 20 higher than that obtained with a standard piezoresistive cantilever. The finite element analyses indicate that changing dimensions of the membrane and beams can substantially increase the sensitivity further. Given the various conveniences and advantages of the integrated piezoresistive read-out, this platform is expected to open a new era of surface stress-based sensing.

  1. Temporal Changes in Extracellular Polymeric Substances on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Membrane Surfaces in a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald Kamil

    2016-03-02

    Membrane surface hydrophilic modification has always been considered to mitigating biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Four hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membranes (pore sizes ∼0.1 μm) differing only in hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface characteristics were operated at a permeate flux of 10 L/m2.h in the same lab-scale MBR fed with synthetic wastewater. In addition, identical membrane modules without permeate production (0 L/m2.h) were operated in the same lab-scale MBR. Membrane modules were autopsied after 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of MBR operation, and total extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) accumulated on the membranes were extracted and characterized in detail using several analytical tools, including conventional colorimetric tests (Lowry and Dubois), liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), fluorescence excitation - emission matrices (FEEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The transmembrane pressure (TMP) quickly stabilized with higher values for the hydrophobic membranes than hydrophilic ones. The sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) membrane had the highest negatively charged membrane surface, accumulated the least amount of foulants and displayed the lowest TMP. The same type of organic foulants developed with time on the four membranes and the composition of biopolymers shifted from protein dominance at early stages of filtration (day 1) towards polysaccharides dominance during later stages of MBR filtration. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of LC-OCD data showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the sampling event (time) regardless of the membrane surface chemistry (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) or operating mode (with or without permeate flux). These results suggest that EPS composition may not be the dominant parameter for evaluating membrane performance and possibly other parameters such as biofilm thickness, porosity, compactness and structure should be considered

  2. Characterisation of the inorganic chemistry of surface waters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to determine a simple inorganic chemistry index that can be used for all surface waters in South Africa, in order to characterise the inorganic chemistry of surface waters. Water quality data collected up until 1999 from all sample monitoring stations (2 068 monitoring stations, 364 659 ...

  3. Surface Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Chromium in Inorganic Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the surface chemistry and spectroscopy of chromium in inorganic oxides. Characterization of the molecular structures of chromium; Mechanics of hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions; Mobility and reactivity on oxidic surfaces.

  4. Highly Hydrophilic Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membranes Functionalized with Surface-Tailored Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-09-26

    Thin-film composite polyamide membranes are state-of-the-art materials for membrane-based water purification and desalination processes, which require both high rejection of contaminants and high water permeabilities. However, these membranes are prone to fouling when processing natural waters and wastewaters, because of the inherent surface physicochemical properties of polyamides. The present work demonstrates the fabrication of forward osmosis polyamide membranes with optimized surface properties via facile and scalable functionalization with fine-tuned nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles are coated with superhydrophilic ligands possessing functional groups that impart stability to the nanoparticles and bind irreversibly to the native carboxyl moieties on the membrane selective layer. The tightly tethered layer of nanoparticles tailors the surface chemistry of the novel composite membrane without altering the morphology or water/solute permeabilities of the membrane selective layer. Surface characterization and interfacial energy analysis confirm that highly hydrophilic and wettable membrane surfaces are successfully attained. Lower intermolecular adhesion forces are measured between the new membrane materials and model organic foulants, indicating the presence of a bound hydration layer at the polyamide membrane surface that creates a barrier for foulant adhesion. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH 2 ) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  6. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing, E-mail: shisq@nwu.edu.cn; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH{sub 2}) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  7. Surface chemistry: Key to control and advance myriad technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field. PMID:21245359

  8. Variability in chemistry of surface and soil waters of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water chemistry is important for the maintenance of wetland structure and function. Interpreting ecological patterns in a wetland system therefore requires an in-depth understanding of the water chemistry of that system. We investigated the spatial distribution of chemical solutes both in soil pore water and surface water, ...

  9. Relating Silica Scaling in Reverse Osmosis to Membrane Surface Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tiezheng; Zhao, Song; Boo, Chanhee; Hashmi, Sara M; Elimelech, Menachem

    2017-04-18

    We investigated the relationship between membrane surface properties and silica scaling in reverse osmosis (RO). The effects of membrane hydrophilicity, free energy for heterogeneous nucleation, and surface charge on silica scaling were examined by comparing thin-film composite polyamide membranes grafted with a variety of polymers. Results show that the rate of silica scaling was independent of both membrane hydrophilicity and free energy for heterogeneous nucleation. In contrast, membrane surface charge demonstrated a strong correlation with the extent of silica scaling (R 2 > 0.95, p scaling, whereas a more negative membrane surface charge led to reduced scaling. This observation suggests that deposition of negatively charged silica species on the membrane surface plays a critical role in silica scale formation. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms governing silica scaling in reverse osmosis and highlight the potential of membrane surface modification as a strategy to reduce silica scaling.

  10. Free-radicals and advanced chemistries involved in cell membrane organization influence oxygen diffusion and pathology treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    A breakthrough has been discovered in pathology chemistry related to increasing molecular structure that can interfere with oxygen diffusion through cell membranes. Free radicals can crosslink unsaturated low-viscosity fatty acid oils by chain-growth polymerization into more viscous liquids and even solids. Free radicals are released by mitochondria in response to intermittent hypoxia that can increase membrane molecular organization to reduce fluidity and oxygen diffusion in a possible continuing vicious cycle toward pathological disease. Alternate computational chemistry demonstrates molecular bond dynamics in free energy for cell membrane physiologic movements. Paired electrons in oxygen and nitrogen atoms require that oxygen bonds rotate and nitrogen bonds invert to seek polar nano-environments and hide from nonpolar nano-environments thus creating fluctuating instability at a nonpolar membrane and polar biologic fluid interface. Subsequent mechanomolecular movements provide free energy to increase diffusion by membrane transport of molecules and oxygen into the cell, cell-membrane signaling/recognition/defense in addition to protein movements for enzyme mixing. In other chemistry calcium bonds to membrane phosphates primarily on the outer plasma cell membrane surface to influence the membrane firing threshold for excitability and better seal out water permeation. Because calcium is an excellent metal conductor and membrane phosphate headgroups form a semiconductor at the biologic fluid interface, excess electrons released by mitochondria may have more broad dissipation potential by safe conduction through calcium atomic-sized circuits on the outer membrane surface. Regarding medical conditions, free radicals are known to produce pathology especially in age-related disease in addition to aging. Because cancer cell membranes develop extreme polymorphism that has been extensively followed in research, accentuated easily-visualized free-radical models are

  11. Liquid flow along a solid surface reversibly alters interfacial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Dan; Backus, Ellen H G; Hunger, Johannes; Parekh, Sapun H; Bonn, Mischa

    2014-06-06

    In nature, aqueous solutions often move collectively along solid surfaces (for example, raindrops falling on the ground and rivers flowing through riverbeds). However, the influence of such motion on water-surface interfacial chemistry is unclear. In this work, we combine surface-specific sum frequency generation spectroscopy and microfluidics to show that at immersed calcium fluoride and fused silica surfaces, flow leads to a reversible modification of the surface charge and subsequent realignment of the interfacial water molecules. Obtaining equivalent effects under static conditions requires a substantial change in bulk solution pH (up to 2 pH units), demonstrating the coupling between flow and chemistry. These marked flow-induced variations in interfacial chemistry should substantially affect our understanding and modeling of chemical processes at immersed surfaces. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Effects of fractal roughness of membrane surfaces on interfacial interactions associated with membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shushu; Yu, Genying; Cai, Xiang; Eulade, Mahoro; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Bao-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Fractal roughness is one of the most important properties of a fractal surface. In this study, it was found that, randomly rough membrane surface was a fractal surface, which could be digitally modeled by a modified two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (WM) function. Fractal roughness of membrane surfaces has a typical power function relation with the statistical roughness of the modeled surface. Assessment of interfacial interactions showed that an increase in fractal roughness of membrane surfaces will strengthen and prolong the interfacial interactions between membranes and foulants, and under conditions in this study, will significantly increase the adhesion propensity of a foulant particle on membrane surface. This interesting result can be attributed to that increase in fractal roughness simultaneously improves separation distance and interaction surface area for adhesion of a foulant particle. This study gives deep insights into interfacial interactions and membrane fouling in MBRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CURVATURE-DRIVEN MOLECULAR FLOW ON MEMBRANE SURFACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikucki, Michael; Zhou, Y C

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model for the localization of multiple species of diffusion molecules on membrane surfaces. Morphological change of bilayer membrane in vivo is generally modulated by proteins. Most of these modulations are associated with the localization of related proteins in the crowded lipid environments. We start with the energetic description of the distributions of molecules on curved membrane surface, and define the spontaneous curvature of bilayer membrane as a function of the molecule concentrations on membrane surfaces. A drift-diffusion equation governs the gradient flow of the surface molecule concentrations. We recast the energetic formulation and the related governing equations by using an Eulerian phase field description to define membrane morphology. Computational simulations with the proposed mathematical model and related numerical techniques predict (i) the molecular localization on static membrane surfaces at locations with preferred mean curvatures, and (ii) the generation of preferred mean curvature which in turn drives the molecular localization.

  14. Surface chemistry: Single handedness in flatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2017-03-01

    Planar molecules may break mirror symmetry when aligned on a surface, but both right- and left-handed forms will be created. Starting with a single-handed precursor, chiral adsorbates of planar hydrocarbons with a single handedness are formed in on-surface reactions.

  15. Chemistry - Toward efficient hydrogen production at surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Christensen, Claus H.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy.......Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy....

  16. Impacts of operating conditions and solution chemistry on osmotic membrane structure and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Mavis C.Y.

    2012-02-01

    Herein, we report on changes in the performance of a commercial cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane, imparted by varied operating conditions and solution chemistries. Changes to feed and draw solution flow rate did not significantly alter the CTA membrane\\'s water permeability, salt permeability, or membrane structural parameter when operated with the membrane skin layer facing the draw solution (PRO-mode). However, water and salt permeability increased with increasing feed or draw solution temperature, while the membrane structural parameter decreased with increasing draw solution, possibly due to changes in polymer intermolecular interactions. High ionic strength draw solutions may de-swell the CTA membrane via charge neutralization, which resulted in lower water permeability, higher salt permeability, and lower structural parameter. This observed trend was further exacerbated by the presence of divalent cations which tends to swell the polymer to a greater extent. Finally, the calculated CTA membrane\\'s structural parameter was lower and less sensitive to external factors when operated in PRO-mode, but highly sensitive to the same factors when the skin layer faced the feed solution (FO-mode), presumably due to swelling/de-swelling of the saturated porous substructure by the draw solution. This is a first attempt aimed at systematically evaluating the changes in performance of the CTA membrane due to operating conditions and solution chemistry, shedding new insight into the possible advantages and disadvantages of this material in certain applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  18. Biofouling behavior and performance of forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification in osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Cheng, Qianxun; Tian, Qing; Yang, Bo; Chen, Qianyuan

    2016-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable interest for water and energy related applications in recent years. Biofouling behavior and performance of cellulose triacetate (CTA) forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification via polydopamine (PD) coating and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting (PD-g-PEG) in a submerged osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) were investigated in this work. The modified membranes exhibited lower flux decline than the pristine one in OMBR, confirming that the bioinspired surface modification improved the antifouling ability of the CTA FO membrane. The result showed that the decline of membrane flux related to the increase of the salinity and MLSS concentration of the mixed liquid. It was concluded that the antifouling ability of modified membranes ascribed to the change of surface morphology in addition to the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity. The bioinspired surface modifications might improve the anti-adhesion for the biopolymers and biocake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Covalent-Bond Formation via On-Surface Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Philipp Alexander; Fuchs, Harald; Studer, Armido

    2017-05-02

    In this Review article pioneering work and recent achievements in the emerging research area of on-surface chemistry is discussed. On-surface chemistry, sometimes also called two-dimensional chemistry, shows great potential for bottom-up preparation of defined nanostructures. In contrast to traditional organic synthesis, where reactions are generally conducted in well-defined reaction flasks in solution, on-surface chemistry is performed in the cavity of a scanning probe microscope on a metal crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The metal first acts as a platform for self-assembly of the organic building blocks and in many cases it also acts as a catalyst for the given chemical transformation. Products and hence success of the reaction are directly analyzed by scanning probe microscopy. This Review provides a general overview of this chemistry highlighting advantages and disadvantages as compared to traditional reaction setups. The second part of the Review then focuses on reactions that have been successfully conducted as on-surface processes. On-surface Ullmann and Glaser couplings are addressed. In addition, cyclodehydrogenation reactions and cycloadditions are discussed and reactions involving the carbonyl functionality are highlighted. Finally, the first examples of sequential on-surface chemistry are considered in which two different functionalities are chemoselectively addressed. The Review gives an overview for experts working in the area but also offers a starting point to non-experts to enter into this exciting new interdisciplinary research field. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Manganese phospate physical chemistry and surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najera R, N.; Romero G, E. T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for the manganese phosphate (III) synthesis (MnP0 4 H 2 0) from manganese chloride. The physicochemical characterization was carried out by: X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis. The surface characterization is obtained through the determination of surface area, point of zero charge and kinetics of moisture. As a phosphate compound of a metal with low oxidation state is a promising compound for removal pollutants from water and soil, can be used for the potential construction of containment barriers for radioactive wastes. (Author)

  1. Organic chemistry on Titan: Surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of Titan's organic sediments with the surface (solubility in nonpolar fluids) is discussed. How Titan's sediments can be exposed to an aqueous medium for short, but perhaps significant, periods of time is also discussed. Interactions with hydrocarbons and with volcanic magmas are considered. The alteration of Titan's organic sediments over geologic time by the impacts of meteorites and comets is discussed.

  2. Surface chemistry and microscopy of food powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgain, Jennifer; Petit, Jeremy; Scher, Joël; Rasch, Ron; Bhandari, Bhesh; Gaiani, Claire

    2017-12-01

    Despite high industrial and scientific interest, a comprehensive review of the surface science of food powders is still lacking. There is a real gap between scientific concerns of the field and accessible reviews on the subject. The global description of the surface of food powders by multi-scale microscopy approaches seems to be essential in order to investigate their complexity and take advantage of their high innovation potential. Links between these techniques and the interest to develop a multi-analytical approach to investigate scientific questions dealing with powder functionality are discussed in the second part of the review. Finally, some techniques used in others fields and showing promising possibilities in the food powder domain will be highlighted.

  3. Quantification of air plasma chemistry for surface disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew J.; Clark, Douglas S.; Graves, David B.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric-pressure air plasmas, created by a variety of discharges, are promising sources of reactive species for the emerging field of plasma biotechnology because of their convenience and ability to operate at ambient conditions. One biological application of ambient-air plasma is microbial disinfection, and the ability of air plasmas to decontaminate both solid surfaces and liquid volumes has been thoroughly established in the literature. However, the mechanism of disinfection and which reactive species most strongly correlate with antimicrobial effects are still not well understood. We describe quantitative gas-phase measurements of plasma chemistry via infrared spectroscopy in confined volumes, focusing on air plasma generated via surface micro-discharge (SMD). Previously, it has been shown that gaseous chemistry is highly sensitive to operating conditions, and the measurements we describe here extend those findings. We quantify the gaseous concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) throughout the established ‘regimes’ for SMD air plasma chemistry: the low-power, ozone-dominated mode; the high-power, nitrogen oxides-dominated mode; and the intermediate, unstable transition region. The results presented here are in good agreement with previously published experimental studies of aqueous chemistry and parameterized models of gaseous chemistry. The principal finding of the present study is the correlation of bacterial inactivation on dry surfaces with gaseous chemistry across these time and power regimes. Bacterial decontamination is most effective in ‘NOx mode’ and less effective in ‘ozone mode’, with the weakest antibacterial effects in the transition region. Our results underscore the dynamic nature of air plasma chemistry and the importance of careful chemical characterization of plasma devices intended for biological applications.

  4. Surface modification of polysulfone membranes applied for a membrane reactor with immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Silau, Harald; Pinelo, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Commercially available polysulfone (PSf) membranes with a polypropylene backing are used across a broad range of applications. However, the natural properties of the PSf surface sometimes limit their application. Here we present, how the surface of supported membranes can be heterogeneously...... activated by lithiation followed by functionalization with acid chlorides at 0 °C, permitting modification of commercial PSf membranes without compromising the mechanical integrity of the membrane. Post-functionalization polymer grafting was illustrated through both, a “grafting from” approach by surface...... initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and by a “grafting to” approach exploiting Cu(I) catalyzed 1,3-cycloadditions of alkynes with azides (CuAAC) introducing hydrophilic polymers onto the membrane surface. Poly(1-vinyl imidazole) (pVim) grafted membranes were exploited as support...

  5. The coupling effect of gas-phase chemistry and surface reactions on oxygen permeation and fuel conversion in ITM reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The effect of the coupling between heterogeneous catalytic reactions supported by an ion transport membrane (ITM) and gas-phase chemistry on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation in ITM reactors is examined. In ITM reactors, thermochemical reactions take place in the gas-phase and on the membrane surface, both of which interact with oxygen permeation. However, this coupling between gas-phase and surface chemistry has not been examined in detail. In this study, a parametric analysis using numerical simulations is conducted to investigate this coupling and its impact on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation rates. A thermochemical model that incorporates heterogeneous chemistry on the membrane surface and detailed chemical kinetics in the gas-phase is used. Results show that fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are strongly influenced by the simultaneous action of both chemistries. It is shown that the coupling somewhat suppresses the gas-phase kinetics and reduces fuel conversion, both attributed to extensive thermal energy transfer towards the membrane which conducts it to the air side and radiates to the reactor walls. The reaction pathway and products, in the form of syngas and C2 hydrocarbons, are also affected. In addition, the operating regimes of ITM reactors in which heterogeneous- or/and homogeneous-phase reactions predominantly contribute to fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are elucidated.

  6. Density functional theory in surface chemistry and catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørskov, Jens K.; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix; Bligaard, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of reactivity trends for chemistry at transition-metal surfaces have enabled in silico design of heterogeneous catalysts in a few cases. The current status of the field is discussed with an emphasis on the role of coupling theory and experiment and future challenges. PMID:21220337

  7. Density functional theory in surface chemistry and catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of reactivity trends for chemistry at transition-metal surfaces have enabled in silico design of heterogeneous catalysts in a few cases. The current status of the field is discussed with an emphasis on the role of coupling theory and experiment and future...

  8. Density Functional Theory in Surface Chemistry and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norskov, Jens

    2011-05-19

    Recent advances in the understanding of reactivity trends for chemistry at transition metal surfaces have enabled in silico design of heterogeneous catalysts in a few cases. Current status of the field is discussed with an emphasis on the role of coupling between theory and experiment and future challenges.

  9. Layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide on polypropylene macroporous membranes via click chemistry to improve antibacterial and antifouling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen-Bei, E-mail: 1021453457@qq.com [The Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Molecular-Based Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, East Beijing Rd. 1, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Wu, Jing-Jing, E-mail: 957522275@qq.com [The Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Molecular-Based Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, East Beijing Rd. 1, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Su, Yu, E-mail: 819388710@qq.com [The Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Molecular-Based Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, East Beijing Rd. 1, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Zhou, Jin, E-mail: zhoujin_ah@163.com [Department of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Chizhou University, Muzhi Rd. 199, Chizhou, Anhui 247000 (China); Gao, Yong, E-mail: 154682180@qq.com [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Yu, Hai-Yin, E-mail: yhy456@mail.ahnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Molecular-Based Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, East Beijing Rd. 1, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Gu, Jia-Shan, E-mail: jiashanG@mail.ahnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Molecular-Based Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, East Beijing Rd. 1, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Clickable membrane prepared by photo bromination and S{sub N}2 nucleophilic substitution. • Azide graphene oxide prepared by ring-opening reaction. • Alkyne graphene oxide was prepared via esterification reaction. • Layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide on membrane by click chemistry. • Antibacterial and antifouling characteristics were enhanced greatly. - Abstract: Polypropylene is an extensively used membrane material; yet, polypropylene membranes exhibit extremely poor resistance to protein fouling. To ameliorate this issue, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were used to modify macroporous polypropylene membrane (MPPM) via layer-by-layer assembly technique through click reaction. First, alkyne-terminated GO was prepared through esterification between carboxyl groups in GO and amide groups in propargylamine; azide-terminated GO was synthesized by the ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups in GO with sodium azide. Second, GO was introduced to the membrane by click chemistry. Characterizations of infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the modification. The sharply decreasing of static water contact angle indicated the improvement of the surface hydrophilicity for GO modified membrane. Introducing GO to the membrane results in a dramatic increase of water flux, improvements in the antifouling characteristics and antibacterial property for the membranes. The pure water flux through the 5-layered GO modified membrane is 1.82 times that through the unmodified one. The water flux restores to 43.0% for the unmodified membrane while to 79.8% for the modified membrane. The relative flux reduction decreases by 32.1% due to GO modification. The antibacterial property was also enhanced by two-thirds. These results demonstrate that the antifouling and antibacterial characteristics can be raised by tethering GO to the membrane surface.

  10. Smart Surface Chemistries of Conducting Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik

    In this thesis we investigate post-polymerization covalent modifications of poly(3,4-dioxythiophene (PEDOT)-type conducting polymers. The aim of the modifications is to gain specific control of the interaction between the material and living mammalian cells. The use of “click-chemistry” to modify...... film substrates. Complementing these findings, we introduce a novel technique for fabricating surface chemical gradients on PEDOT-N3 substrates. The technique is based on applying “electro-click chemistry” to locally induce covalent modifications. Further supplementing these results, we develop......-ethylene-glycol-coatings of the conducting polymer substrates. These coatings render the substrates resistant to protein adsorption. Hence, the choice of solvent is found to be a key parameter for achieving functional post-polymerization modifications of PEDOT-N3. The methods developed in this thesis are highly generic, and can therefore...

  11. Surface modification of reverse osmosis desalination membranes by thin-film coatings deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaydin-Ince, Gozde, E-mail: gozdeince@sabanciuniv.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Matin, Asif, E-mail: amatin@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Zafarullah, E-mail: zukhan@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Zaidi, S.M. Javaid, E-mail: zaidismj@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gleason, Karen K., E-mail: kkgleasn@mit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Thin-film polymeric reverse osmosis membranes, due to their high permeation rates and good salt rejection capabilities, are widely used for seawater desalination. However, these membranes are prone to biofouling, which affects their performance and efficiency. In this work, we report a method to modify the membrane surface without damaging the active layer or significantly affecting the performance of the membrane. Amphiphilic copolymer films of hydrophilic hydroxyethylmethacrylate and hydrophobic perfluorodecylacrylate (PFA) were synthesized and deposited on commercial RO membranes using an initiated chemical vapor deposition technique which is a polymer deposition technique that involves free-radical polymerization initiated by gas-phase radicals. Relevant surface characteristics such as hydrophilicity and roughness could be systematically controlled by varying the polymer chemistry. Increasing the hydrophobic PFA content in the films leads to an increase in the surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the surface morphology studies performed using the atomic force microscopy show that as the thickness of the coating increases average surface roughness increases. Using this knowledge, the coating thickness and chemistry were optimized to achieve high permeate flux and to reduce cell attachment. Results of the static bacterial adhesion tests show that the attachment of bacterial cells is significantly reduced on the coated membranes. - Highlights: • Thin films are deposited on reverse osmosis membranes. • Amphiphilic thin films are resistant to protein attachment. • The permeation performance of the membranes is not affected by the coating. • The thin film coatings delayed the biofouling.

  12. Preparation of poly(2-chloroaniline) membrane and plasma surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kir, E.; Oksuz, L.; Helhel, S.

    2006-01-01

    P2ClAn membranes were obtained from chemically synthesized poly(2-chloroaniline) (P2ClAn) by casting method. These membranes were cast from dimethyl formamide (DMF) and were in the undoped state. P2ClAn membranes were characterized by Fourier infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Measurements of water content capacity, membrane thickness and ion-exchange capacity of the cast membranes were carried out. P2ClAn membranes were treated by electron cylotron resonance (ECR) plasma for surface modification. Plasma treatment has been successfully utilized for improving the surface properties of P2ClAn membranes such as increasing pore diameters and number of pores for better anion or molecule transportation

  13. Heterogeneous catalytic materials solid state chemistry, surface chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Busca, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for cata

  14. The Effect of Membrane Material and Surface Pore Size on the Fouling Properties of Submerged Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungil Jeon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the relationship between membrane material and the development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR using membranes with different pore sizes and hydrophilicities. Batch filtration tests were performed using submerged single hollow fiber membrane ultrafiltration (UF modules with different polymeric membrane materials including cellulose acetate (CA, polyethersulfone (PES, and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF with activated sludge taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The three UF hollow fiber membranes were prepared by a non-solvent-induced phase separation method and had similar water permeabilities and pore sizes. The results revealed that transmembrane pressure (TMP increased more sharply for the hydrophobic PVDF membrane than for the hydrophilic CA membrane in batch filtration tests, even when membranes with similar permeabilities and pore sizes were used. PVDF hollow fiber membranes with smaller pores had greater fouling propensity than those with larger pores. In contrast, CA hollow fiber membranes showed good mitigation of membrane fouling regardless of pore size. The results obtained in this study suggest that the surface hydrophilicity and pore size of UF membranes clearly affect the fouling properties in MBR operation when using activated sludge.

  15. Magmatic and fragmentation controls on volcanic ash surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Diplas, Spyros; Damby, David E.; Hornby, Adrian J.; Cimarelli, Corrado; Delmelle, Pierre; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The chemical effects of silicate ash ejected by explosive volcanic eruptions on environmental systems are fundamentally mediated by ash particle surfaces. Ash surfaces are a composite product of magmatic properties and fragmentation mechanisms, as well as in-plume and atmospheric alteration processes acting upon those surfaces during and after the eruption. Recent attention has focused on the capacity of alteration processes to shape ash surfaces; most notably, several studies have utilised X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique probing the elemental composition and coordination state of atoms within the top 10 nm of ash surfaces, to identify patterns of elemental depletions and enrichments relative to bulk ash chemical composition. Under the presumption of surface and bulk equivalence, any disparities have been previously attributed to surface alteration processes, but the ubiquity of some depletions (e.g., Ca, Fe) across multiple ash studies, irrespective of eruptive origin, could suggest these to be features of the surface produced at the instant of magma fragmentation. To investigate this possibility further, we conducted rapid decompression experiments at different pressure conditions and at ambient and magmatic temperature on porous andesitic rocks. These experiments produced fragmented ash material untouched by secondary alteration, which were compared to particles produced by crushing of large clasts from the same experiments. We investigated a restricted size fraction (63-90 μm) from both fragmented and crushed materials, determining bulk chemistry and mineralogy via XRF, SEM-BSE and EPMA, and investigated the chemical composition of the ash surface by XPS. Analyses suggest that fragmentation under experimental conditions partitioned a greater fraction of plagioclase-rich particles into the selected size fraction, relative to particles produced by crushing. Trends in surface chemical composition in fragmented and crushed particles mirror that

  16. Characterization and effect of biofouling on polyamide reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin Md Taimur; Stewart, Philip S; Moll, David J; Mickols, William E; Nelson, Sara E; Camper, Anne K

    2011-02-01

    Biofouling is a major reason for flux decline in the performance of membrane-based water and wastewater treatment plants. Initial biochemical characterization of biofilm formation potential and biofouling on two commercially available membrane surfaces from FilmTec Corporation were investigated without filtration in laboratory rotating disc reactor systems. These surfaces were polyamide aromatic thin-film reverse osmosis (RO) (BW30) and semi-aromatic nanofiltration (NF270) membranes. Membrane swatches were fixed on removable coupons and exposed to water with indigenous microorganisms supplemented with 1.5 mg l(-1) organic carbon under continuous flow. After biofilms formed, the membrane swatches were removed for analyses. Staining and epifluorescence microscopy revealed more cells on the RO than on the NF surface. Based on image analyses of 5-μm thick cryo-sections, the accumulation of hydrated biofoulants on the RO and NF surfaces exceeded 0.74 and 0.64 μm day(-1), respectively. As determined by contact angle the biofoulants increased the hydrophobicity up to 30° for RO and 4° for NF surfaces. The initial difference between virgin RO and NO hydrophobicities was ∼5°, which increased up to 25° after biofoulant formation. The initial roughness of RO and NF virgin surfaces (75.3 nm and 8.2 nm, respectively) increased to 48 nm and 39 nm after fouling. A wide range of changes of the chemical element mass percentages on membrane surfaces was observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The initial chemical signature on the NF surface was better restored after cleaning than the RO membrane. All the data suggest that the semi-aromatic NF surface was more biofilm resistant than the aromatic RO surface. The morphology of the biofilm and the location of active and dead cell zones could be related to the membrane surface properties and general biofouling accumulation was associated with changes in the surface chemistry of the membranes, suggesting the validity of

  17. Recent advances in study of uranium surface chemistry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lizhu; Lai, Xinchun; Wang, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is very important in nuclear energy industry; however, uranium and its alloys corrode seriously in various atmospheres because of their chemical reactivities. In China, continuous investigations focused on surface chemistry have been carried out for a thorough understanding of uranium in order to provide technical support for its engineering applications. Oxidation kinetics of uranium and its alloys in oxidizing atmospheres are in good agreement with those in the literature. In addition to the traditional techniques, non-traditional methods have been applied for oxidation kinetics of uranium, and it has been verified that spectroscopic ellipsometry and X-ray diffraction are effective and nondestructive tools for in situ kinetic studies. The inhibition efficiency of oxidizing gas impurities on uranium hydrogenation is found to follow the order CO 2 > CO > O 2 , and the broadening of XPS shoulders with temperature in depth profile of hydrogenated uranium surface is discussed, which is not mentioned in the literature. Significant progress on surface chemistry of alloyed uranium (U-Nb and U-Ti) in hydrogen atmosphere is reported, and it is revealed that the hydrating nucleation and subsequent growth of alloyed uranium are closely connected with the surface states, underlying metal matrix, and it is microstructure-dependent. In this review, the recent advances in uranium surface chemistry in China, published so far mostly in Chinese language, are briefly summarized. Suggestions for further study are made. (orig.)

  18. Influence of surface structure and chemistry on water droplet splashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kerstin; Grichnik, Roland

    2016-08-06

    Water droplet splashing and aerosolization play a role in human hygiene and health systems as well as in crop culturing. Prevention or reduction of splashing can prevent transmission of diseases between animals and plants and keep technical systems such as pipe or bottling systems free of contamination. This study demonstrates to what extent the surface chemistry and structures influence the water droplet splashing behaviour. Smooth surfaces and structured replicas of Calathea zebrina (Sims) Lindl. leaves were produced. Modification of their wettability was done by coating with hydrophobizing and hydrophilizing agents. Their wetting was characterized by contact angle measurement and splashing behaviour was observed with a high-speed video camera. Hydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces generally showed fewer tendencies to splash than hydrophobic ones. Structuring amplified the underlying behaviour of the surface chemistries, increasing hydrophobic surfaces' tendency to splash and decreasing splash on hydrophilic surfaces by quickly transporting water off the impact point by capillary forces. The non-porous surface structures found in C. zebrina could easily be applied to technical products such as plastic foils or mats and coated with hydrophilizing agents to suppress splash in areas of increased hygiene requirements or wherever pooling of liquids is not desirable.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Direct quantification of negatively charged functional groups on membrane surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Surface charge plays an important role in membrane-based separations of particulates, macromolecules, and dissolved ionic species. In this study, we present two experimental methods to determine the concentration of negatively charged functional groups at the surface of dense polymeric membranes. Both techniques consist of associating the membrane surface moieties with chemical probes, followed by quantification of the bound probes. Uranyl acetate and toluidine blue O dye, which interact with the membrane functional groups via complexation and electrostatic interaction, respectively, were used as probes. The amount of associated probes was quantified using liquid scintillation counting for uranium atoms and visible light spectroscopy for the toluidine blue dye. The techniques were validated using self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols with known amounts of charged moieties. The surface density of negatively charged functional groups of hand-cast thin-film composite polyamide membranes, as well as commercial cellulose triacetate and polyamide membranes, was quantified under various conditions. Using both techniques, we measured a negatively charged functional group density of 20-30nm -2 for the hand-cast thin-film composite membranes. The ionization behavior of the membrane functional groups, determined from measurements with toluidine blue at varying pH, was consistent with published data for thin-film composite polyamide membranes. Similarly, the measured charge densities on commercial membranes were in general agreement with previous investigations. The relative simplicity of the two methods makes them a useful tool for quantifying the surface charge concentration of a variety of surfaces, including separation membranes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  20. The impact of surface chemistry on the performance of localized solar-driven evaporation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengtao; Zhang, Yao; Duan, Haoze; Liu, Yanming; Quan, Xiaojun; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    This report investigates the influence of surface chemistry (or wettability) on the evaporation performance of free-standing double-layered thin film on the surface of water. Such newly developed evaporation system is composed of top plasmonic light-to-heat conversion layer and bottom porous supporting layer. Under solar light illumination, the induced plasmonic heat will be localized within the film. By modulating the wettability of such evaporation system through the control of surface chemistry, the evaporation rates are differentiated between hydrophilized and hydrophobized anodic aluminum oxide membrane-based double layered thin films. Additionally, this work demonstrated that the evaporation rate mainly depends on the wettability of bottom supporting layer rather than that of top light-to-heat conversion layer. The findings in this study not only elucidate the role of surface chemistry of each layer of such double-layered evaporation system, but also provide additional design guidelines for such localized evaporation system in applications including desalination, distillation and power generation.

  1. The impact of surface chemistry on the performance of localized solar-driven evaporation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengtao; Zhang, Yao; Duan, Haoze; Liu, Yanming; Quan, Xiaojun; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao

    2015-09-04

    This report investigates the influence of surface chemistry (or wettability) on the evaporation performance of free-standing double-layered thin film on the surface of water. Such newly developed evaporation system is composed of top plasmonic light-to-heat conversion layer and bottom porous supporting layer. Under solar light illumination, the induced plasmonic heat will be localized within the film. By modulating the wettability of such evaporation system through the control of surface chemistry, the evaporation rates are differentiated between hydrophilized and hydrophobized anodic aluminum oxide membrane-based double layered thin films. Additionally, this work demonstrated that the evaporation rate mainly depends on the wettability of bottom supporting layer rather than that of top light-to-heat conversion layer. The findings in this study not only elucidate the role of surface chemistry of each layer of such double-layered evaporation system, but also provide additional design guidelines for such localized evaporation system in applications including desalination, distillation and power generation.

  2. Reduced fouling of ultrafiltration membranes via surface fluorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedath, R.H.; Yates, S.F.; Li, N.N.

    1993-03-01

    Surface fluorination can affect significantly the performance of an ultrafiltration membrane used to concentrate a food-related stream. Membranes fluorinated and tested as flat sheets exhibit higher initial fluxes, and do not foul as rapidly as untreated membranes. This improvement is linked to increased surface hydrophilicity, as shown in decreased contact angle with water. This increased hydrophilicity, in turn, is linked to the addition of fluorine and oxygen to the surface. The pilot plant study did-not show the difference in membrane flux and fouling observed in the flat sheet study. Instead, fluorinated and unfluorinated modules behaved similarly. Fouling by potato waste feed was severe and resulted in formation of an extensive gel layer within the module on the membrane surface. XPS, SEM and FTIR indicate that buildup of organic material occurred on both fluorinated and unfluorinated membranes, but SEM indicates that a fibrous mat of material was observed only on the nonfluorinated membrane. We conclude that in the pilot study, membrane fouling and gel formation were so extensive that the surface interaction effect was overwhelmed.

  3. Investigating Membranes: Using Artificial Membranes to Convey Chemistry and Biology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrelak, Yoshi; McCallister, Gary

    2009-01-01

    While not organic in nature, quick-"growing" artificial membranes can be a profound visual aid when teaching students about cellular processes and the chemical nature of membranes. Students are often intrigued when they see biological and chemical concepts come to life before their eyes. In this article, the authors share their approach to growing…

  4. Next Steps Forward in Understanding Martian Surface and Subsurface Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Brandi L.

    2017-09-01

    The presence of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and perchlorate (ClO4-), which have been detected on Mars, has significant implications for chemistry and astrobiology. These oxidants can increase the reactivity of the Martian soil, accelerate the decomposition of organic molecules, and depress the freezing point of water. The study by Crandall et al. "Can Perchlorates be Transformed to Hydrogen Peroxide Products by Cosmic Rays on the Martian Surface" reveals a new formation mechanism by which hydrogen peroxide and other potential oxidants can be generated via irradiation of perchlorate by cosmic rays. This study represents an important next step in developing a full understanding of Martian surface and subsurface chemistry, particularly with respect to degradation of organic molecules and potential biosignatures.

  5. Nanoscale Pillar-Enhanced Tribological Surfaces as Antifouling Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wansuk; Chan, Edwin P; Park, Jong-Hyun; Ahn, Won-Gi; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Jong Suk; Han, Ji-Young; Park, Sangpil; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2016-11-16

    We present a nonconventional membrane surface modification approach that utilizes surface topography to manipulate the tribology of foulant accumulation on water desalination membranes via imprinting of submicron titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) pillar patterns onto the molecularly structured, flat membrane surface. This versatile approach overcomes the constraint of the conventional approach relying on interfacial polymerization that inevitably leads to the formation of ill-defined surface topography. Compared to the nonpatterned membranes, the patterned membranes showed significantly improved fouling resistance for both organic protein and bacterial foulants. The use of hydrophilic TiO 2 as a pattern material increases the membrane hydrophilicity, imparting improved chemical antifouling resistance to the membrane. Fouling behavior was also interpreted in terms of the topographical effect depending on the relative size of foulants to the pattern dimension. In addition, computational fluid dynamics simulation suggests that the enhanced antifouling of the patterned membrane is attributed to the enhancement in overall and local shear stress at the fluid-TiO 2 pattern interface.

  6. Surface Chemistry of CWAs for Decon Enabling Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Ultraviolet and Visible Photochemistry of Methanol at 3D Mesoporous Networks: TiO, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, (07 2013): 15035. doi...A for none) Presentations since most recent interim report for this project: " Photochemistry of Methanol at 3-D Networked Aerogels of TiO2 and...evaporation • Studied the uptake, thermal, and photochemistry of agent simulants on TiO2 surfaces • Initiated experiments on the uptake and

  7. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors.

  8. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; van den Hurk, Remko; Cao, Yong; Du, Rongbing; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yiyu; McDermott, Mark T.; Evoy, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors. PMID:26985910

  9. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; van den Hurk, Remko; Cao, Yong; Du, Rongbing; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yiyu; McDermott, Mark T; Evoy, Stephane

    2016-03-14

    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors.

  10. Silicalite-1 zeolite membranes on unmodified and modified surfaces ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    (Algieri et al 2003). However, a higher value i.e. 20 × 10. –7 mol m. –2 s. –1. Pa. –1 of N2 permeance was found for the membrane prepared on the unmodified support surface. It indicates that the membrane prepared by surface modifi- cation technique has higher interlocking of the crystals and hence a lower degree of ...

  11. Membranes with Surface-Enhanced Antifouling Properties for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkaramipour, Nima; Tran, Thien N.; Ramanan, Sankara; Lin, Haiqing

    2017-01-01

    Membrane technology has emerged as an attractive approach for water purification, while mitigation of fouling is key to lower membrane operating costs. This article reviews various materials with antifouling properties that can be coated or grafted onto the membrane surface to improve the antifouling properties of the membranes and thus, retain high water permeance. These materials can be separated into three categories, hydrophilic materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol), polydopamine and zwitterions, hydrophobic materials, such as fluoropolymers, and amphiphilic materials. The states of water in these materials and the mechanisms for the antifouling properties are discussed. The corresponding approaches to coat or graft these materials on the membrane surface are reviewed, and the materials with promising performance are highlighted. PMID:28273869

  12. Surface Chemistry and Spectroscopic Study of a Cholera Toxin B Langmuir Monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv K; Seven, Elif S; Micic, Miodrag; Li, Shanghao; Leblanc, Roger M

    2018-02-20

    In this article, we explored the surface chemistry properties of a cholera toxin B (CTB) monolayer at the air-subphase interface and investigated the change in interfacial properties through in situ spectroscopy. The study showed that the impact of the blue shift was negligible, suggesting that the CTB molecules were minimally affected by the subphase molecules. The stability of the CTB monolayer was studied by maintaining the constant surface pressure for a long time and also by using the compression-decompression cycle experiments. The high stability of the Langmuir monolayer of CTB clearly showed that the driving force of CTB going to the amphiphilic membrane was its amphiphilic nature. In addition, no major change was detected in the various in situ spectroscopy results (such as UV-vis, fluorescence, and IR ER) of the CTB Langmuir monolayer with the increase in surface pressure. This indicates that no aggregation occurs in the Langmuir monolayer of CTB.

  13. Recyclable surfaces for amine conjugation chemistry via redox reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Inseong; Yeo, Woon Seok [Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio/Molecular Informatics Center, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Se Won [Green Materials and Process Group, Research Institute of Sustainable Manufacturing System, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In this study, we extended this strategy to present a switchable surface that allows surface functionalization and removal of functional groups repeatedly. The substrate presenting a benzoquinone acid group is first used to immobilize with an amine-containing (bio)molecule using well-known conjugation chemistry. The benzoquinone group is then converted to the corresponding hydroquinone by treating with a reducing agent. We have described a strategy for the dynamic control of surface properties with recyclability via a simple reduction/ oxidation reaction. A stimuli-responsive quinone derivative was harnessed for the repeated immobilization and release of (bio)molecules, and thus, for the repeated dynamic change of the surface properties according to the characteristics of the immobilized (bio)molecules.

  14. Allosteric activation of membrane-bound glutamate receptors using coordination chemistry within living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Kubota, Ryou; Michibata, Yukiko; Sakakura, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Numata, Tomohiro; Inoue, Ryuji; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-10-01

    The controlled activation of proteins in living cells is an important goal in protein-design research, but to introduce an artificial activation switch into membrane proteins through rational design is a significant challenge because of the structural and functional complexity of such proteins. Here we report the allosteric activation of two types of membrane-bound neurotransmitter receptors, the ion-channel type and the G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors, using coordination chemistry in living cells. The high programmability of coordination chemistry enabled two His mutations, which act as an artificial allosteric site, to be semirationally incorporated in the vicinity of the ligand-binding pockets. Binding of Pd(2,2‧-bipyridine) at the allosteric site enabled the active conformations of the glutamate receptors to be stabilized. Using this approach, we were able to activate selectively a mutant glutamate receptor in live neurons, which initiated a subsequent signal-transduction pathway.

  15. Neutron reflectivity study of substrate surface chemistry effects on supported phospholipid bilayer formation on (1120) sapphire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleson, Timothy A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Sahai, Nita [University of Akron; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Dura, Joseph A [ORNL; Majkrzak, Charles F [ORNL; Giuffre, Anthony J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Oxide-supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) used as biomimetric membranes are significant for a broad range of applications including improvement of biomedical devices and biosensors, and in understanding biomineralization processes and the possible role of mineral surfaces in the evolution of pre-biotic membranes. Continuous-coverage and/or stacjed SPBs retain properties (e.,g. fluidity) more similar to native biological membranes, which is desirable for most applications. Using neutron reflectivity, we examined face coverage and potential stacking of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers on the (1120) face of sapphire (a-Al2O3). Nearly full bilayers were formed at low to neutral pH, when the sapphire surface is positively charged, and at low ionic strength (l=15 mM NaCl). Coverage decreased at higher pH, close to the isoelectric point of sapphire, and also at high I>210mM, or with addition of 2mM Ca2+. The latter two effects are additive, suggesting that Ca2+ mitigates the effect of higher I. These trends agree with previous results for phospholipid adsorption on a-Al2O3 particles determined by adsorption isotherms and on single-crystal (1010) sapphire by atomic force microscopy, suggesting consistency of oxide surface chemistry-dependent effects across experimental techniques.

  16. Flavonoid-membrane Interactions: A Protective Role of Flavonoids at the Membrane Surface?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. Oteiza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the important, although not fully understood, capacity of flavonoids to interact with cell membranes. The interactions of polyphenols with bilayers include: (a the partition of the more non-polar compounds in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, and (b the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar head groups of lipids and the more hydrophilic flavonoids at the membrane interface. The consequences of these interactions are discussed. The induction of changes in membrane physical properties can affect the rates of membrane lipid and protein oxidation. The partition of certain flavonoids in the hydrophobic core can result in a chain breaking antioxidant activity. We suggest that interactions of polyphenols at the surface of bilayers through hydrogen bonding, can act to reduce the access of deleterious molecules (i.e. oxidants, thus protecting the structure and function of membranes.

  17. Antimicrobial membrane surfaces via efficient polyethyleneimine immobilization and cationization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wen-Ze; Zhao, Zi-Shu; Du, Yong; Hu, Meng-Xin; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2017-12-01

    Biofouling control is a major task in membrane separation processes for water treatment and biomedical applications. In this work, N-alkylated polyethylenimine (PEI) is facilely and efficiently introduced onto the membrane surfaces via the co-deposition of catechol (CCh) and PEI, followed by further grafting of PEIs (600 Da, 70 kDa and 750 kDa) and cationization with methyl iodide (CH3I). The physical and chemical properties of the constructed membrane surfaces are characterized with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential and water contact angle measurements. Antibacterial assay reveals that the optimized membrane surfaces possess around 95% antibacterial efficiency against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with weak adhesion of bacteria cells after 24 h of bacterial contact. Additionally, the membrane surfaces also exhibit much enhanced antifouling property during the filtration of opposite charged bovine serum albumin (BSA). These results demonstrate a useful strategy for the surface modification of separation membranes by a kind of antimicrobial and antifouling coating.

  18. The physics of water droplets on surfaces: exploring the effects of roughness and surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, K. F.; Panth, M.; Sommers, A. D.

    2018-03-01

    This paper explores the fluid property commonly called surface tension, its effect on droplet shape and contact angle, and the major influences of contact angle behaviour (i.e. surface roughness and surface chemistry). Images of water droplets placed on treated copper surfaces are used to measure the contact angles between the droplets and the surface. The surface wettability is manipulated either by growing a self-assembled monolayer on the surface to make it hydrophobic or by changing the surface roughness. The main activities in this experiment, then, are (1) preparing and studying surfaces with different surface wettability and roughness; (2) determining the shape and contact angles of water droplets on these surfaces; and (3) demonstrating the spontaneous motion of water droplets using surface tension gradients.

  19. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abednejad, Atiye Sadat; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Ghaee, Azadeh

    2014-09-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H2 and O2 plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37°C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface-modified silica colloidal crystals: nanoporous films and membranes with controlled ionic and molecular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharov, Ilya; Khabibullin, Amir

    2014-02-18

    Nanoporous membranes are important for the study of the transport of small molecules and macromolecules through confined spaces and in applications ranging from separation of biomacromolecules and pharmaceuticals to sensing and controlled release of drugs. For many of these applications, chemists need to gate the ionic and molecular flux through the nanopores, which in turn depends on the ability to control the nanopore geometry and surface chemistry. Most commonly used nanoporous membrane materials are based on polymers. However, the nanostructure of polymeric membranes is not well-defined, and their surface is hard to modify. Inorganic nanoporous materials are attractive alternatives for polymers in the preparation of nanoporous membranes. In this Account, we describe the preparation and surface modification of inorganic nanoporous films and membranes self-assembled from silica colloidal spheres. These spheres form colloidal crystals with close-packed face centered cubic lattices upon vertical deposition from colloidal solutions. Silica colloidal crystals contain ordered arrays of interconnected three dimensional voids, which function as nanopores. We can prepare silica colloidal crystals as supported thin films on various flat solid surfaces or obtain free-standing silica colloidal membranes by sintering the colloidal crystals above 1000 °C. Unmodified silica colloidal membranes are capable of size-selective separation of macromolecules, and we can surface-modify them in a well-defined and controlled manner with small molecules and polymers. For the surface modification with small molecules, we use silanol chemistry. We grow polymer brushes with narrow molecular weight distribution and controlled length on the colloidal nanopore surface using atom transfer radical polymerization or ring-opening polymerization. We can control the flux in the resulting surface-modified nanoporous films and membranes by pH and ionic strength, temperature, light, and small molecule

  1. Molecular Grafting of Fluorinated and Nonfluorinated Alkylsiloxanes on Various Ceramic Membrane Surfaces for the Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds Applying Vacuum Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Joanna; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Kujawski, Wojciech; Knozowska, Katarzyna

    2017-02-22

    Four main tasks were presented: (i) ceramic membrane functionalization (TiO 2 5 kDa and 300 kDa), (ii) extended material characterization (physicochemistry and tribology) of pristine and modified ceramic samples, (iii) evaluation of chemical and mechanical stability, and finally (iv) assessment of membrane efficiency in vacuum membrane distillation applied for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal from water. Highly efficient molecular grafting with four types of perfluoroalkylsilanes and one nonfluorinated agent was developed. Materials with controllable tribological and physicochemical properties were achieved. The most meaningful finding is associated with the applicability of fluorinated and nonfluorinated grafting agents. The results of contact angle, hysteresis of contact angle, sliding angle, and critical surface tension as well as Young's modulus, nanohardness, and adhesion force for grafting by these two modifiers are comparable. This provides insight into the potential applicability of environmental friendly hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces. The achieved hydrophobic membranes were very effective in the removal of VOCs (butanol, methyl-tert-butyl ether, and ethyl acetate) from binary aqueous solutions in vacuum membrane distillation. The correlation between membrane effectiveness and separated solvent polarity was compared in terms of material properties and resistance to the wetting (kinetics of wetting and in-depth liquid penetration). Material properties were interpreted considering Zisman theory and using Kao diagram. The significant influence of surface chemistry on the membrane performance was noticed (5 kDa, influence of hydrophobic nanolayer and separation controlled by solution-diffusion model; 300 kDa, no impact of surface chemistry and separation controlled by liquid-vapor equilibrium).

  2. Enhancing the formation and shear resistance of nitrifying biofilms on membranes by surface modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lackner, Susanne; Holmberg, Maria; Terada, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) membranes and polyethylene (PE) surfaces were modified to enhance formation and shear resistance of nitrifying biofilms for wastewater treatment applications. A combination of plasma polymerization and wet chemistry was employed to ultimately introduce poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG...... structure might be possible explanations of the superiority of the -PEG-NH2 modification. The success of the-PEG-NH2 modification was independent of the original surface and might, therefore, be used in wastewater treatment bioreactors to improve reactor performance by making biofilm formation more stable...... similar trends: biofilms on -PEG-NH2 modified surfaces were much stronger compared to the other modifications and the unmodified reference surfaces. Electrostatic interactions between the protonated amino group and negatively charged bacteria as well as PEG chain density which can affect the surface...

  3. A simple UV-ozone surface treatment to enhance photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 loaded polymer nanofiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dilpazir, S.

    2016-01-29

    Homogeneously dispersed titanium dioxide loaded polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membranes with increased active mass loading, Ti3+ surface defects and hydrophilicity were fabricated by combining electrospinning and UV-ozone surface treatment. The photocatalytic activity improved by a factor of ∼2 and the kinetics of photodegradation switched from pseudo-first order to pseudo-second order with increasing TiO2 content with a maximum rate constant of 20.7 h-1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  4. Understanding surface structure and chemistry of single crystal lanthanum aluminate

    KAUST Repository

    Pramana, Stevin S.

    2017-03-02

    The surface crystallography and chemistry of a LaAlO3 single crystal, a material mainly used as a substrate to deposit technologically important thin films (e.g. for superconducting and magnetic devices), was analysed using surface X-ray diffraction and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The surface was determined to be terminated by Al-O species, and was significantly different from the idealised bulk structure. Termination reversal was not observed at higher temperature (600 °C) and chamber pressure of 10−10 Torr, but rather an increased Al-O occupancy occurred, which was accompanied by a larger outwards relaxation of Al from the bulk positions. Changing the oxygen pressure to 10−6 Torr enriched the Al site occupancy fraction at the outermost surface from 0.245(10) to 0.325(9). In contrast the LaO, which is located at the next sub-surface atomic layer, showed no chemical enrichment and the structural relaxation was lower than for the top AlO2 layer. Knowledge of the surface structure will aid the understanding of how and which type of interface will be formed when LaAlO3 is used as a substrate as a function of temperature and pressure, and so lead to improved design of device structures.

  5. Spectral studies of Lanthanide interactions with membrane surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karukstis, K.K.; Kao, M.Y.; Savin, D.A.; Bittker, R.A.; Kaphengst, K.J.; Emetarom, C.M.; Naito, N.R.; Takamoto, D.Y. [Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA (United States)

    1995-03-23

    We have monitored the interactions of the series of trivalent lanthanide cations with the thylakoid membrane surface of spinach chloroplasts using two complementary spectral techniques. Measurements of the fluorescence emission of the extrinsic probe 2-p-toluidinonaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) and the absorbance of the intrinsic chromophore chlorophyll provide two sensitive means of characterizing the dependence of the cation-membrane interaction on the nature of the cation. In these systems, added lanthanide cations adsorb onto the membrane surface to neutralize exposed segments of membrane-embedded protein complexes. The lanthanide-induced charge neutralization increases the proximity of added TNS anion to the membrane surface as evidenced by variations in the TNS fluorescence level and wavelength of maximum emission. Our results reveal a strong dependence of TNS fluorescence parameters on both lanthanide size and total orbital angular momentum L value. Lanthanides with greater charge density (small size and/or low L value) enhance the TNS fluorescence level to a greater extent. A possible origin for the lanthanide-dependent TNS fluorescence levels is suggested in terms of a heterogeneity in the number and type of TNS binding sites. The data are consistent with the proposal that larger lanthanides with smaller enthalpies of hydration induce more significant membrane appression. 59 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Role of plasma membrane surface charges in dictating the feasibility of membrane-nanoparticle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Sachar, Harnoor Singh; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Receptor-ligand (R-L) binding mediated interactions between the plasma membrane (PM) and a nanoparticle (NP) require the ligand-functionalized NPs to come to a distance of separation (DOS) of at least dRL (length of the R-L complex) from the receptor-bearing membranes. In this letter, we establish that the membrane surface charges and the surrounding ionic environment dictate whether or not the attainment of such a critical DOS is possible. The negatively charged membrane invariably induces a negative electrostatic potential at the NP surface, repelling the NP from the membrane. This is countered by the attractive influences of the thermal fluctuations and van der Waals (vdw) interactions that drive the NP close to the membrane. For a NP approaching the membrane from a distance, the ratio of the repulsive (electrostatic) and attractive (thermal and vdW) effects balances at a critical NP-membrane DOS of dg,c. For a given set of parameters, there can be two possible values of dg,c, namely, dg,c,1 and dg,c,2 with dg,c,1 ≫ dg,c,2. We establish that any R-L mediated NP-membrane interaction is possible only if dRL > dg,c,1. Therefore, our study proposes a design criterion for engineering ligands for a NP that will ensure the appropriate length of the R-L complex in order to ensure the successful membrane-NP interaction in the presence of a given electrostatic environment. Finally, we discuss the manner in which our theory can help designing ligand-grafted NPs for targeted drug delivery, design biomimetics NPs, and also explain various experimental results.

  7. Modifying Thermal Transport in Colloidal Nanocrystal Solids with Surface Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minglu; Ma, Yuanyu; Wang, Robert Y

    2015-12-22

    We present a systematic study on the effect of surface chemistry on thermal transport in colloidal nanocrystal (NC) solids. Using PbS NCs as a model system, we vary ligand binding group (thiol, amine, and atomic halides), ligand length (ethanedithiol, butanedithiol, hexanedithiol, and octanedithiol), and NC diameter (3.3-8.2 nm). Our experiments reveal several findings: (i) The ligand choice can vary the NC solid thermal conductivity by up to a factor of 2.5. (ii) The ligand binding strength to the NC core does not significantly impact thermal conductivity. (iii) Reducing the ligand length can decrease the interparticle distance, which increases thermal conductivity. (iv) Increasing the NC diameter increases thermal conductivity. (v) The effect of surface chemistry can exceed the effect of NC diameter and becomes more pronounced as NC diameter decreases. By combining these trends, we demonstrate that the thermal conductivity of NC solids can be varied by an overall factor of 4, from ∼0.1-0.4 W/m-K. We complement these findings with effective medium approximation modeling and identify thermal transport in the ligand matrix as the rate-limiter for thermal transport. By combining these modeling results with our experimental observations, we conclude that future efforts to increase thermal conductivity in NC solids should focus on the ligand-ligand interface between neighboring NCs.

  8. Hollow fiber membranes with different external corrugated surfaces for desalination by membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Loreto; García-Payo, Carmen; Khayet, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) hollow fiber membranes were prepared using the phase inversion spinning technique under a wet gap mode. Different corrugated outer surfaces were obtained by means of a micro-engineered spinneret, spraying the external coagulant on the nascent fiber along gap, and different spinning parameters, namely, the gap distance and the external coagulant flow rate. A quantitative evaluation of the corrugation size and shape was carried out by electron scanning microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The effect of the corrugation size and shape on the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performance has been studied. The corrugated outer surface acted as micro-turbulence promoters mitigating the temperature polarization effect and enhanced the external effective surface area for condensation. Both factors improved the DCMD permeability of the hollow fiber membranes. However, corrugations with V-shaped valleys depths greater than about 30 μm did not always improve the DCMD permeate flux. It was found that the membrane prepared with the spray wetting mode exhibited the best desalination performance. The salt rejection factor of all prepared hollow fiber membranes was greater than 99.9% and the highest DCMD permeate flux of this study was greater than those reported so far for the PVDF-HFP hollow fiber membranes.

  9. Surface Functionalization of Thin-Film Composite Membranes with Copper Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Surface Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Sasson, Moshe

    2014-01-07

    Biofouling is a major operational challenge in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, motivating a search for improved biofouling control strategies. Copper, long known for its antibacterial activity and relatively low cost, is an attractive potential biocidal agent. In this paper, we present a method for loading copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on the surface of a thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide RO membrane. Cu-NPs were synthesized using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a capping agent, resulting in particles with an average radius of 34 nm and a copper content between 39 and 49 wt.%. The positive charge of the Cu-NPs imparted by the PEI allowed a simple electrostatic functionalization of the negatively charged RO membrane. We confirmed functionalization and irreversible binding of the Cu-NPs to the membrane surface with SEM and XPS after exposing the membrane to bath sonication. We also demonstrated that Cu-NP functionalization can be repeated after the Cu-NPs dissolve from the membrane surface. The Cu-NP functionalization had minimal impact on the intrinsic membrane transport parameters. Surface hydrophilicity and surface roughness were also maintained, and the membrane surface charge became positive after functionalization. The functionalized membrane exhibited significant antibacterial activity, leading to an 80-95% reduction in the number of attached live bacteria for three different model bacterial strains. Challenges associated with this functionalization method and its implementation in RO desalination are discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Proteomic analysis of the shistosome tegument and its surface membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Braschi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The tegument surface of the adult schistosome, bounded by a normal plasma membrane overlain by a secreted membranocalyx, holds the key to understanding how schistosomes evade host immune responses. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS, and the sequencing of the Schistosoma mansoni transcriptome/genome, have facilitated schistosome proteomics. We detached the tegument from the worm body and enriched its surface membranes by differential extraction, before subjecting the preparation to liquid chromatography-based proteomics to identify its constituents. The most exposed proteins on live worms were labelled with impearmeant biotinylation reagents, and we also developed methods to isolate the membranocalyx for analysis. We identified transporters for sugars, amino acids, inorganic ions and water, which confirm the importance of the tegument plasma membrane in nutrient acquisition and solute balance. Enzymes, including phosphohydrolases, esterases and carbonic anhydrase were located with their catalytic domains external to the plasma membrane, while five tetraspanins, annexin and dysferlin were implicated in membrane architecture. In contrast, few parasite proteins could be assigned to the membranocalyx but mouse immune response proteins, including three immunoglobulins and two complement factors, were detected, plus host membrane proteins such as CD44, integrin and a complement regulatory protein, testifying to the acquisitive properties of the secreted bilayer.

  11. Surface Modifications of Support Partitions for Stabilizing Biomimetic Membrane Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Mark; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius

    2011-01-01

    Black lipid membrane (BLM) formation across apertures in an ethylene tetra-fluoroethylene (ETFE) partition separating two aqueous compartments is an established technique for the creation of biomimetic membranes. Recently multi-aperture BLM arrays have attracted interest and in order to increase...... with a high signal-to-noise (s/n) ratio. We demonstratesd this by reconstituting gA and α-hemolysin (α-HL) into BLM arrays. The improvement in membrane array lifetime and s/n ratio demonstrates that surface plasma polymerization of the supporting partition can be used to increase the stability of biomimetic...... modified partitions were similar and significantly lower than for arrays formed using untreated ETFE partitions. For single side n-hexene modification average membrane array lifetimes were not significantly changed compared to untreated ETFE. Double-sided n-hexene modification greatly improved average...

  12. Electrokinetics of nanochannels and porous membranes with dynamic surface charges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo

    interesting because it relies on capillary filling, so it avoids the use of external forcing such as electric fields. Basically, during the filling of nanochannels by capillary action, the advancing electrolyte is titrated by deprotonation from the surface. This is observed using the pH-sensitive fluorescent....... Notably, we find that the conductance minimum is mainly caused by hydronium ions, and in our case almost exclusively due to carbonic acid generated from the dissolution of CO2 from the atmosphere. We carry out delicate experiments and measure the conductance of silica nanochannels as a function...... in the literature. Fourth, we use our model to predict a novel phenomenon called currentinduced membrane discharge (CIMD) to explain over-limiting current in ionexchange membranes. The model is based on dynamic surface charges in the membrane in equilibrium with the buffer. However, here we take the next step...

  13. Desalination by Membrane Distillation using Electrospun Polyamide Fiber Membranes with Surface Fluorination by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Servi, Amelia; Liu, Andong; Gleason, Karen K; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2015-04-22

    Fibrous membranes of poly(trimethyl hexamethylene terephthalamide) (PA6(3)T) were fabricated by electrospinning and rendered hydrophobic by applying a conformal coating of poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate) (PPFDA) using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). A set of iCVD-treated electrospun PA6(3)T fiber membranes with fiber diameters ranging from 0.25 to 1.8 μm were tested for desalination using the air gap membrane distillation configuration. Permeate fluxes of 2-11 kg/m2/h were observed for temperature differentials of 20-45 °C between the feed stream and condenser plate, with rejections in excess of 99.98%. The liquid entry pressure was observed to increase dramatically, from 15 to 373 kPa with reduction in fiber diameter. Contrary to expectation, for a given feed temperature the permeate flux was observed to increase for membranes of decreasing fiber diameter. The results for permeate flux and salt rejection show that it is possible to construct membranes for membrane distillation even from intrinsically hydrophilic materials after surface modification by iCVD and that the fiber diameter is shown to play an important role on the membrane distillation performance in terms of permeate flux, salt rejection, and liquid entry pressure.

  14. Probing chemistry within the membrane structure of wood with soft X-ray spectral microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cody, George D.

    2000-01-01

    Scanning Transmission Soft X-ray spectral microscopy on Carbon's 1s absorption edge reveals the distribution of structural biopolymers within cell membrane regions of modern cedar and oak. Cellulose is extremely susceptible to beam damage. Spectroscopic studies of beam damage reveals that the chemical changes resulting from secondary electron impact may be highly selective and is consistent with hydroxyl eliminations and structural rearrangement of pyranose rings in alpha-cellulose to hydroxyl substituted γ pyrones. A study of acetylated cellulose demonstrates significantly different chemistry; principally massive decarboxylation. Defocusing the beam to a 2 μm spot size allows for the acquisition of 'pristine' cellulose spectra. Spectral deconvolution is used to assess the distribution of lignin and cellulose in the different regions of the cell membrane. Using the intensity of the hydroxylated aromatic carbons 1s-π * transition, the ratio of coniferyl and syringyl based lignin within the middle lamellae and secondary cell wall of oak, an angiosperm can be determined

  15. Surface glycosylation of polysulfone membrane towards a novel complexing membrane for boron removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianqiang; Yuan, Jing; Kang, Yinlin; Zhang, Yufeng; Du, Qiyun

    2012-02-15

    In this study, a novel complexing membrane was synthesized for boron removal from aqueous solution. A glycopolymer, poly(2-gluconamidoethyl methacrylate) (PGAMA), was grafted onto the chloromethylated polysulfone (CMPSF) microporous membrane via surface-initiated ATRP (SIATRP). The glycosylated PSF (GlyPSF) membrane was characterized by attenuated total refection-Flourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was demonstrated that PGAMA was successfully anchored onto the membrane surface and the grafting yield can be tuned in a wide range up to 5.9 mg/cm(2) by varying the polymerization time. The complexing membrane can adsorb boron rapidly with the equilibrium reached within 2h and has a remarkable high boron adsorption capacity higher than 2.0 mmol/g at optimized conditions. Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms were applied, and the data were best described by Langmuir model. Kinetic data were analyzed, and the data fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order rate expression. The optimal pH for boron uptake is in a wide range of 6-9, and the optimal initial boron concentration is over 300 mg/L. Studies of ionic strength effects indicated the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes. The complexed boron can be leached quantitatively under acid condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Silicalite-1 zeolite membranes on unmodified and modified surfaces ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    support was observed resulting in a relatively higher dense packing of the crystals during secondary crystal growth process compared to that obtained from the unmodified support. The membrane developed on surface modified support rendered lower permeance value i.e. 9 × 10. –7 mol m. –2 s. –1. Pa. –1 of N2 compared ...

  17. Intermonolayer friction and surface shear viscosity of lipid bilayer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, Wouter K.; Shkulipa, S.

    2007-01-01

    The flow behavior of lipid bilayer membranes is characterized by a surface viscosity for in-plane shear deformations, and an intermonolayer friction coefficient for slip between the two leaflets of the bilayer. Both properties have been studied for a variety of coarse-grained double-tailed model

  18. Effect of non-equilibrium flow chemistry and surface catalysis on surface heating to AFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.; Henline, William D.; Chen, Yih-Kanq

    1991-01-01

    The effect of nonequilibrium flow chemistry on the surface temperature distribution over the forebody heat shield on the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle was investigated using a reacting boundary-layer code. Computations were performed by using boundary-layer-edge properties determined from global iterations between the boundary-layer code and flow field solutions from a viscous shock layer (VSL) and a full Navier-Stokes solution. Surface temperature distribution over the AFE heat shield was calculated for two flight conditions during a nominal AFE trajectory. This study indicates that the surface temperature distribution is sensitive to the nonequilibrium chemistry in the shock layer. Heating distributions over the AFE forebody calculated using nonequilibrium edge properties were similar to values calculated using the VSL program.

  19. Surface chemistry governs cellular tropism of nanoparticles in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eric; Gaudin, Alice; King, Amanda R.; Seo, Young-Eun; Suh, Hee-Won; Deng, Yang; Cui, Jiajia; Tietjen, Gregory T.; Huttner, Anita; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2017-05-01

    Nanoparticles are of long-standing interest for the treatment of neurological diseases such as glioblastoma. Most past work focused on methods to introduce nanoparticles into the brain, suggesting that reaching the brain interstitium will be sufficient to ensure therapeutic efficacy. However, optimized nanoparticle design for drug delivery to the central nervous system is limited by our understanding of their cellular deposition in the brain. Here, we investigated the cellular fate of poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles presenting different surface chemistries, after administration by convection-enhanced delivery. We demonstrate that nanoparticles with `stealth' properties mostly avoid internalization by all cell types, but internalization can be enhanced by functionalization with bio-adhesive end-groups. We also show that association rates measured in cultured cells predict the extent of internalization of nanoparticles in cell populations. Finally, evaluating therapeutic efficacy in an orthotopic model of glioblastoma highlights the need to balance significant uptake without inducing adverse toxicity.

  20. The Impact of Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry on Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Angie Sue Morris

    because they are easy to synthesize and their properties (such as size, porosity and surface chemistry) can be fine-tuned. Silica nanoparticles can be found in thousands of commercially available products such as toothpastes, cosmetics and detergents and are currently being developed for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and biomedical imaging. Our findings herein indicate that the surface chemistry of silica nanoparticles can have an effect on lung inflammation after exposure. Specifically, amine-modified silica NPs are considered to be less toxic compared to bare silica nanoparticles. Together, these studies provide insight into the role that material properties have on toxicity and allow for a better understanding of their impact on human and environmental health. The final aim of this thesis was to develop surface-modified nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. For this, biodegradable, polymeric NPs were used due to their inert nature and biocompatibility. Furthermore, polymeric NPs are excellent for loading drugs and using them as drug delivery vehicles. In this work, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs were loaded with a therapeutic peptide. These NPs were then coated with chitosan (a mucoadhesive polymer) for the treatment of allergic asthma or coated with a small cationic mitochondrial targeting agent for the treatment of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Taken as a whole, this thesis sheds light on the impact of NPs on human health. First by providing useful toxological data for CuO and silica NPs as well as highlighting the potential of surface-modified polymeric NPs to be used in drug delivery-based applications.

  1. Gas-grain chemistry in cold interstellar cloud cores with a microscopic Monte Carlo approach to surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Q.; Cuppen, H. M.; Herbst, E.

    2007-07-01

    Aims:We have recently developed a microscopic Monte Carlo approach to study surface chemistry on interstellar grains and the morphology of ice mantles. The method is designed to eliminate the problems inherent in the rate-equation formalism to surface chemistry. Here we report the first use of this method in a chemical model of cold interstellar cloud cores that includes both gas-phase and surface chemistry. The surface chemical network consists of a small number of diffusive reactions that can produce molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, methanol and assorted radicals. Methods: The simulation is started by running a gas-phase model including accretion onto grains but no surface chemistry or evaporation. The starting surface consists of either flat or rough olivine. We introduce the surface chemistry of the three species H, O and CO in an iterative manner using our stochastic technique. Under the conditions of the simulation, only atomic hydrogen can evaporate to a significant extent. Although it has little effect on other gas-phase species, the evaporation of atomic hydrogen changes its gas-phase abundance, which in turn changes the flux of atomic hydrogen onto grains. The effect on the surface chemistry is treated until convergence occurs. We neglect all non-thermal desorptive processes. Results: We determine the mantle abundances of assorted molecules as a function of time through 2 × 105 yr. Our method also allows determination of the abundance of each molecule in specific monolayers. The mantle results can be compared with observations of water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methanol ices in the sources W33A and Elias 16. Other than a slight underproduction of mantle CO, our results are in very good agreement with observations.

  2. Surface Chemistry at Size-Selected Nano-Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    A method has been developed to conduct surface chemistry and extract surface kinetic rates from size-selected aerosol nanoparticles. The measurements encompass broad ranges of particle size, phase, and composition. Results will be presented on the uptake of water by aerosolized soot nanoparticles of radius between 10 and 40 nm. Water uptake was monitored by tandem differential mobility analysis (T-DMA), which is capable of measuring changes in particle diameter as little as 0.2 nm. Soot particles were produced in an ethene diffusion flame and extracted into an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube reactor. The particles were subjected to various thermal and oxidative treatments, and the effects of these treatments on the ability of soot to adsorb monolayer quantities of water was determined. The results are important because soot nucleates atmospheric cloud particles. More generally, the results represent one of the first kinetic and mechanistic studies of gas-phase nanoparticle reactivity. Co-author: Henry Ajo, University of Minnesota

  3. Solvent accessible surface area (ASA) of simulated phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuchsen, E.; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Westh, P.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane-solvent interface has been investigated through calculations of the solvent accessible surface area (ASA) for simulated membranes of DPPC and POPE. For DPPC at 52 degreesC we found an ASA of 126 +/- 8 Angstrom(2) per lipid molecule, equivalent to twice the projected lateral area......, even the most exposed parts of the PC head-group show average ASAs of less than half of its maximal or 'fully hydrated' value. The average ASA of a simulated POPE membrane was 96 +/- 7 Angstrom(2) per lipid. The smaller value than for DPPC reflects much lower ASA of the ammonium ion, which is partially...... compensated by increased exposure of the ethylene and phosphate moieties. The ASA of the polar moieties Of (PO4, NH3 and COO) constitutes 65% of the total accessible area for POPE, making this interface more polar than that of DPPC. It is suggested that ASA information can be valuable in attempts...

  4. Membrane mimetic surface functionalization of nanoparticles: Methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Jacob; Vabbilisetty, Pratima; Sun, Xue-Long

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have shown remarkable potential for a wide range of applications over the past decades. Particularly, the biological compatibilities and functions of NPs have been extensively studied for expanding their potential in areas of biomedical application such as bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery. In doing so, surface functionalization of NPs by introducing synthetic ligands and/or natural biomolecules has become a critical component in regards to the overall performance of the NP system for its intended use. Among known examples of surface functionalization, the construction of an artificial cell membrane structure, based on phospholipids, has proven effective in enhancing biocompatibility and has become a viable alternative to more traditional modifications, such as direct polymer conjugation. Furthermore, certain bioactive molecules can be immobilized onto the surface of phospholipid platforms to generate displays more reminiscent of cellular surface components. Thus, NPs with membrane-mimetic displays have found use in a range of bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery applications. This review herein describes recent advances in the preparations and characterization of integrated functional NPs covered by artificial cell membrane structures and their use in various biomedical applications. PMID:23688632

  5. A facile method for simulating randomly rough membrane surface associated with interface behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolu; Cai, Xiang; Zhang, Meijia; Lin, Hongjun; Leihong, Zhao; Liao, Bao-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Modeling rough surfaces has emerged as a distinct discipline of considerable research interest in interface behaviors including membrane fouling. In this paper, a facile method was proposed to simulate rough membrane surface morphology. Natural membrane surface was found to be randomly rough, and its height distribution obeys Gaussian distribution. A new method which combines spectrum method, Gaussian distribution and Fourier transform technique was deduced. Simulation of the rough membrane surface showed high similarity in terms of statistical roughness and height distribution between the simulated surface and the real membrane surface, indicating feasibility of the new method. It was found that, correlation length (l) and the number of superposed ridges (N) are key parameters affecting the simulated membrane surface morphology. This new method has evident advantages over conventional modeling methods The proposed method for randomly rough membrane surface modeling could be potentially used to quantify the interfacial interactions between two rough surfaces, giving implications for membrane fouling mitigation.

  6. Don Quixote Pond Sediments: Surface and Subsurface Chemistry and Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, P. A. J.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2014-12-01

    Don Quixote Pond, like Don Juan Pond in the South Fork of Wright Valley, Antarctica, is a model for calcium and chlorine weathering and distribution on Mars. It is located in the western part of the North Fork about 100 m above Mean Seawater Level; its brine is seasonally frozen [1]. Field observations show zones of discoloration which grow lighter with distance from the pond edges. Four sediment cores, a set of radial surface samples, special surface samples, and samples of local rocks were obtained [2]. We report on chemical and mineral analyses of traverse samples and on two cores. Core DQ20 is a northeastern shoreline core. Its soluble salt concentration exceeds 200 micromoles/g in the top 5 cm, and then falls to less than 70 micromoles/g at the permafrost depth of 15 cm. These concentrations are low when compared to similarly positioned locations at Don Juan Pond and to cores from Prospect Mesa close to Lake Vanda, Wright Valley. Halite, soda niter, tachyhydrite and/bischovite are suggested from the ionic molar relationships Measured halite concentrations of surface samples, collected along a traverse of 35 m from the pond outwards, range from over 5% to trace amounts, decreasing with distance. Gypsum is also present in almost all of these samples ranging from 0.2% to 2.6%, but does not exhibit a trend. However, in core DQ35, located at a distance of 15 m along the traverse, gypsum decreases from 2.5% to 0.6% from the surface to the permafrost depth of 12 cm. While DQ35 and radial samples show high quartz and albite abundance, samples that contained visible encrustations and evaporites are low in these minerals and rich in highly diverse alteration products. Don Juan Basin ponds may have formed by a complex surface water mobilization of weathering products [3] and local groundwater action [4,5]. In contrast, Don Quixote pond mineralogy and chemistry may be consistent with a less complex shallow and deep groundwater system origin [1]. [1] Harris H

  7. Surface pattern by nanoimprint for membrane fouling mitigation: Design, performance and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Luo, Wenhai; Gray, Stephen R

    2017-11-01

    Imparting water treatment membrane with surface pattern by nanoimprint offered a novel approach to fouling resistance. We employed nanoimprint to fabricate line-shape nanostructure on membrane distillation (MD) membrane surface. Patterned MD membrane exhibited strong antifouling property to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein during MD separation. Water flux decline and protein deposition were substantially minimized on the patterned MD membrane in comparison with the pristine one. Such lower fouling propensity on the patterned MD membrane was mainly driven by the weak hydrophobic interaction between BSA protein and patterned MD membrane surface. Weaker adhesion force mapping of the patterned MD membrane was quantified. Representative force-distance curve of pristine MD membrane showed a strong attractive depletion force comparing with that of patterned one. The simple, chemical-free, and scalable nanofabrication approach enables varying designs on membrane surface for special membrane properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genotoxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles with different surface chemistry on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jiang, Pengfei; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The surface chemistry of nanoparticles (NPs) is one of the critical factors determining their cellular responses. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of copper oxide (CuO) NPs with a similar size but different surface chemistry to rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were in...

  9. Influence of the carbon fiber surface microstructure on the surface chemistry generated by a thermo-chemical surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautard, F.; Ozcan, S.; Paulauskas, F.; Spruiell, J.E.; Meyer, H.; Lance, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Continuous thermo-chemical surface treatment used to functionalize different types of carbon fibers. ► Surface density of functional groups directly correlated to the size of the surface microstructure. ► Preferential creation of hydroxyls and carboxylic acids confirmed regardless of the type of carbon fiber. ► Effective surface treatment regardless of the fiber surface microstructure. ► Potential alternative to electro-chemical surface treatment. - Abstract: Carbon fibers made of textile and aerospace grade polyacrylonitrile precursor fibers were surface treated by a continuous gas phase thermochemical treatment. The surface chemistry generated by the surface treatment was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface and the average entire microstructure of the fibers were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Depending on the grade of the precursor, the final surface concentration of oxygen was comprised between 14% and 24%, whereas the typical commercial electrochemical surface treatments led to concentrations of around 8% with the same fibers. The final concentration of oxygen was directly correlated to the size of the crystallites which was a function of the grade of the polyacrylonitrile precursor and to the corresponding surface microstructure. The thermochemical surface treatment enabled a better control of the nature of the oxygen-containing functionalities as well. Whatever the grade of the precursor, desired hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid functionalities were preferably generated, which is observed to be difficult with electrochemical surface treatments.

  10. Surface chemistry of rare-earth oxide surfaces at ambient conditions: reactions with water and hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külah, Elçin; Marot, Laurent; Steiner, Roland; Romanyuk, Andriy; Jung, Thomas A; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Meyer, Ernst

    2017-03-22

    Rare-earth (RE) oxide surfaces are of significant importance for catalysis and were recently reported to possess intrinsic hydrophobicity. The surface chemistry of these oxides in the low temperature regime, however, remains to a large extent unexplored. The reactions occurring at RE surfaces at room temperature (RT) in real air environment, in particular, in presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were not addressed until now. Discovering these reactions would shed light onto intermediate steps occurring in automotive exhaust catalysts before reaching the final high operational temperature and full conversion of organics. Here we first address physical properties of the RE oxide, nitride and fluoride surfaces modified by exposure to ambient air and then we report a room temperature reaction between PAH and RE oxide surfaces, exemplified by tetracene (C 18 H 12 ) on a Gd 2 O 3 . Our study evidences a novel effect - oxidation of higher hydrocarbons at significantly lower temperatures (~300 K) than previously reported (>500 K). The evolution of the surface chemical composition of RE compounds in ambient air is investigated and correlated with the surface wetting. Our surprising results reveal the complex behavior of RE surfaces and motivate follow-up studies of reactions between PAH and catalytic surfaces at the single molecule level.

  11. Models of gas-grain chemistry in interstellar cloud cores with a stochastic approach to surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantcheva, T.; Herbst, E.

    2004-08-01

    We present a gas-grain model of homogeneous cold cloud cores with time-independent physical conditions. In the model, the gas-phase chemistry is treated via rate equations while the diffusive granular chemistry is treated stochastically. The two phases are coupled through accretion and evaporation. A small network of surface reactions accounts for the surface production of the stable molecules water, formaldehyde, methanol, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and methane. The calculations are run for a time of 107 years at three different temperatures: 10 K, 15 K, and 20 K. The results are compared with those produced in a totally deterministic gas-grain model that utilizes the rate equation method for both the gas-phase and surface chemistry. The results of the different models are in agreement for the abundances of the gaseous species except for later times when the surface chemistry begins to affect the gas. The agreement for the surface species, however, is somewhat mixed. The average abundances of highly reactive surface species can be orders of magnitude larger in the stochastic-deterministic model than in the purely deterministic one. For non-reactive species, the results of the models can disagree strongly at early times, but agree to well within an order of magnitude at later times for most molecules. Strong exceptions occur for CO and H2CO at 10 K, and for CO2 at 20 K. The agreement seems to be best at a temperature of 15 K. As opposed to the use of the normal rate equation method of surface chemistry, the modified rate method is in significantly better agreement with the stochastic-deterministic approach. Comparison with observations of molecular ices in dense clouds shows mixed agreement.

  12. DNA damage response to different surface chemistry of silver nanoparticles in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Karns, Michael; Goodson, Michael; Rowe, John; Hussain, Saber M.; Schlager, John J.; Hong Yiling

    2008-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have recently received much attention for their possible applications in biotechnology and life sciences. Ag NPs are of interest to defense and engineering programs for new material applications as well as for commercial purposes as an antimicrobial. However, little is known about the genotoxicity of Ag NPs following exposure to mammalian cells. This study was undertaken to examine the DNA damage response to polysaccharide surface functionalized (coated) and non-functionalized (uncoated) Ag NPs in two types of mammalian cells; mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Both types of Ag NPs up-regulated the cell cycle checkpoint protein p53 and DNA damage repair proteins Rad51 and phosphorylated-H2AX expression. Furthermore both of them induced cell death as measured by the annexin V protein expression and MTT assay. Our observations also suggested that the different surface chemistry of Ag NPs induce different DNA damage response: coated Ag NPs exhibited more severe damage than uncoated Ag NPs. The results suggest that polysaccharide coated particles are more individually distributed while agglomeration of the uncoated particles limits the surface area availability and access to membrane bound organelles

  13. Pyridine coordination chemistry for molecular assemblies on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Graham; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Since the first description of coordination complexes, many types of metal-ligand interactions have creatively been used in the chemical sciences. The rich coordination chemistry of pyridine-type ligands has contributed significantly to the incorporation of diverse metal ions into functional materials. Here we discuss molecular assemblies (MAs) formed with a variety of pyridine-type compounds and a metal containing cross-linker (e.g., PdCl2(PhCN2)). These MAs are formed using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition from solution that allows for precise fitting of the assembly properties through molecular programming. The position of each component can be controlled by altering the assembly sequence, while the degree of intermolecular interactions can be varied by the level of π-conjugation and the availability of metal coordination sites. By setting the structural parameters (e.g., bond angles, number of coordination sites, geometry) of the ligand, control over MA structure was achieved, resulting in surface-confined metal-organic networks and oligomers. Unlike MAs that are constructed with organic ligands, MAs with polypyridyl complexes of ruthenium, osmium, and cobalt are active participants in their own formation and amplify the growth of the incoming molecular layer. Such a self-propagating behavior for molecular systems is rare, and the mechanism of their formation will be discussed. These exponentially growing MAs are capable of storing metal salts that can be used during the buildup of additional molecular layers. Various parameters influencing the film growth mechanism will be presented, including (i) the number of binding sites and geometry of the organic ligands, (ii) the metal and the structure of the polypyridyl complexes, (iii) the influence of the metal cross-linker (e.g., second or third row transition metals), and (iv) the deposition conditions. By systematic variation of these parameters, switching between linear and exponential growth could

  14. Application of membrane-mimetic chemistry to environmental and energy related engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.; Chen, J.; Chen, J.R.; Lian, H.J.; Lin, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Membrane-mimetic chemistry principles can be applied to both decontamination and beneficiation processes where impurities must be separated from host molecules by a micellar change. These changes are dependent on the geometrical patterns and assemblages of micelles, vesicles or large liquid crystals (gels). They can be affected by radical transfer initiated by ultrasound irradiation or other microwave sources. Reactions proceed in a submicro environment of compression, rarefaction or cavitation with localized instantaneous high pressure and temperature flux or microstreaming. The following results are achieved through utilization of new technological concept: (1) decontamination of oily soils and upgrading of fossil fuels, (2) destruction of halogenated compounds in water, (3) desulfurization of coal by multiphase biocatalysis, (4) peptization and mesophase transition for geomacromolecules

  15. Click-assembling triazole membrane on copper surface via one-step or two-steps and their corrosion inhibition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yizhen; Yu, Yinzhe; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Lixin; Feng, Likui; Zhang, Daquan

    2018-01-01

    Triazole membrane was prepared on copper surface via one-step or two-steps click chemistry reaction of azide and alkyne compounds. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) suggests the formation of triazole membrane on copper surface through both of one-step and two-steps click-assembling. The electrochemical results indicate that the protection efficiency of triazole click-assembling membrane forming via one-step is better than that for two-steps. The surface film on copper via one-step click-assembling is mainly composed of the triazole membrane. As for two-steps click-assembling, the triazole membrane is mainly produced in the defect of the alkyne inhibition film.

  16. Studying the role of common membrane surface functionalities on adsorption and cleaning of organic foulants using QCM-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Alison E; Steiner, Zvi; Miao, Jing; Kasher, Roni; Li, Qilin

    2011-08-01

    Adsorption of organic foulants on nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane surfaces strongly affects subsequent fouling behavior by modifying the membrane surface. In this study, impact on organic foulant adsorption of specific chemistries including those in commercial thin-film composite membranes was investigated using self-assembled monolayers with seven different ending chemical functionalities (-CH(3), -O-phenyl, -NH(2), ethylene-glycol, -COOH, -CONH(2), and -OH). Adsorption and cleaning of protein (bovine serum albumin) and polysaccharide (sodium alginate) model foulants in two solution conditions were measured using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and were found to strongly depend on surface functionality. Alginate adsorption correlated with surface hydrophobicity as measured by water contact angle in air; however, adsorption of BSA on hydrophilic -COOH, -NH(2), and -CONH(2) surfaces was high and dominated by hydrogen bond formation and electrostatic attraction. Adsorption of both BSA and alginate was the fastest on -COOH, and adsorption on -NH(2) and -CONH(2) was difficult to remove by surfactant cleaning. BSA adsorption kinetics was shown to be markedly faster than that of alginate, suggesting its importance in the formation of the conditioning layer. Surface modification to render -OH or ethylene-glycol functionalities are expected to reduce membrane fouling.

  17. Chemistry and catalysis at the surface of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian Edward

    This thesis will delve into three main areas of nanomaterials research: (I) Designing, building, and utilizing a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system for the growth of CNTs; (II) Aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNT) solubilized by various surfactants, and the oxidative chemistry that can occur at CNT surfaces; (III) Catalytic CO oxidation over supported Cu2O nanoparticle systems. An introduction to nanomaterials in general, with a particular emphasis on carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles will be given in Chapter one. Chapter two provides a summary of common techniques used to grow carbon nanotubes, and introduces a new method we have developed. This method is based on previous chemical vapor deposition techniques, but uses liquids, specifically ethanol, as the carbon source. Using ethanol has several advantages, including ease of use and safety, as well as chemical benefits. Our new process affords long, aligned, single-walled nanotubes, with a relatively narrow diameter distribution. This method can also be used to grow CNTs across slits, which can then be studied spectroscopically. In Chapter three CNT-surfactant aqueous suspensions will be discussed in depth, including a new robust polymer surfactant. Poly(maleic acid/octyl vinyl ether) (PMAOVE) is stable over a large range of temperatures and pH values, and is well suited for the study of the oxidative chemistry that can occur on SWNT surfaces. Our aqueous suspensions were found to be quite stable by zeta potential studies and their emissive properties exhibited a pH dependence, quenching at higher concentrations of H+. We attribute this dependence to chemisorbed oxygen and its protonation at lower pH values. By heating the suspensions of SWNTs, O2 can be driven off, thus eliminating the dependence on pH. We also reproducibly add oxygen back into the system in the form of 1DeltaO2 , obtained from an endoperoxide. This method allows us to calculate the number of oxygen molecules needed for

  18. Molecular metal catalysts on supports: organometallic chemistry meets surface science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Pedro; Gates, Bruce C

    2014-08-19

    -support bonding and structure, which identify the supports as ligands with electron-donor properties that influence reactivity and catalysis. Each of the catalyst design variables has been varied independently, illustrated by mononuclear and tetranuclear iridium on zeolite HY and on MgO and by isostructural rhodium and iridium (diethylene or dicarbonyl) complexes on these supports. The data provide examples resolving the roles of the catalyst design variables and place the catalysis science on a firm foundation of organometallic chemistry linked with surface science. Supported molecular catalysts offer the advantages of characterization in the absence of solvents and with surface-science methods that do not require ultrahigh vacuum. Families of supported metal complexes have been made by replacement of ligands with others from the gas phase. Spectroscopically identified catalytic reaction intermediates help to elucidate catalyst performance and guide design. The methods are illustrated for supported complexes and clusters of rhodium, iridium, osmium, and gold used to catalyze reactions of small molecules that facilitate identification of the ligands present during catalysis: alkene dimerization and hydrogenation, H-D exchange in the reaction of H2 with D2, and CO oxidation. The approach is illustrated with the discovery of a highly active and selective MgO-supported rhodium carbonyl dimer catalyst for hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene to give butenes.

  19. The impact of membrane surface charges on the ion transport in MoS2 nanopore power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuo; Zhang, Yan; Hayashida, Tomoki; Ji, Ziwei; He, Yuhui; Tsutsui, Makusu; Miao, Xiang Shui; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2017-12-01

    Recent experiments demonstrated giant osmotic effects induced in a single-atomic-layer MoS2 nanopore by imposing a KCl concentration bias, thereby highlighting the prospect of ultrathin nanopores as power generators. In this work, we report on an electrokinetic analysis of the ionic transport in the MoS2 nanopore system. By taking membrane surface chemistry into account, we found profound roles of surface charges in and out of the nanopore on the cross-pore ion transport, which shed light on the intriguing experimental observations of a high pore conductance with a large open-circuit voltage in the MoS2 system. The present work establishes a theoretical model capable of dealing with ultrathin membrane surface charges for evaluating the energy conversion performance of nanopore power generators constructed with two-dimensional materials.

  20. Controlling the porosity of a polyethersulfone membrane surface with an XeCl laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazokian, Hedieh; Mehrabadi, Adeleh H P; Mollabashi, Mahmoud; Barzin, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Pure and polyvinyl pyrrolidone blend polyethersulfone (PES) membranes were irradiated by an XeCl laser with various numbers of pulses at different fluences to investigate the changes in the surface morphology and the porosity. The results show that the membrane pore size and distribution on the surface can be modified following irradiation dependent on the laser fluence, the number of pulses and the membrane composition. These changes are very attractive for improving the membrane surface in filtration processes and biological applications. (paper)

  1. Electrical conductivity of conductive carbon blacks: influence of surface chemistry and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantea, Dana; Darmstadt, Hans; Kaliaguine, Serge; Roy, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Conductive carbon blacks from different manufacturers were studied in order to obtain some insight into the relation between their electrical conductivity and their surface properties. The surface chemistry was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), whereas the topology of the carbon black surface was investigated using low-pressure nitrogen adsorption. All these techniques yield information on the graphitic character of the surface. In general, the electrical conductivity of the conductive blacks increases with the graphitic character of the surface. For low surface area conductive blacks, the electrical conductivity correlates well with the surface chemistry. In the case of the XPS and SIMS data, this correlation is also valid when other types of carbon blacks such as thermal and furnace blacks are included, confirming the determining influence of the carbon black surface chemistry on the electrical conductivity

  2. Rupture and Spreading Dynamics of Lipid Membranes on a Solid Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Antonio; Shin, Sangwoo; Colosqui, Carlos; Young, Yuan-Nan; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-11-01

    The spreading of lipid membranes on solid surfaces is a dynamic phenomenon relevant to drug delivery, endocytosis, biofouling, and the synthesis of supported lipid bilayers. Current technological developments are limited by an incomplete understanding of the spreading and adhesion dynamics of a lipid bilayer under different physicochemical conditions. Here, we present recent experimental and theoretical results for the spreading of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), where the vesicle shell consists of a lipid bilayer. In particular, we study the effect of different background ion concentrations, osmolarity mismatches between the interior and the exterior of the vesicles, and different surface chemistries of the glass substrate. In all of the studied cases, we observe a delay time before a GUV in contact with the solid surface eventually ruptures. The rupture kinetics and subsequent spreading dynamics is controlled by the ionic screening within the thin film of liquid between the vesicle and the surface. Different rupture mechanisms, mobilities of the spreading vesicle, and degrees of substrate coverage are observed by varying the electrolyte concentration, solid surface charge, and osmolarity mismatch.

  3. Bactericidal effects of plasma-modified surface chemistry of silicon nanograss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrikov, Kola; Macgregor-Ramiasa, Melanie; Cavallaro, Alex; (Ken Ostrikov, Kostya; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2016-08-01

    The surface chemistry and topography of biomaterials regulate the adhesion and growth of microorganisms in ways that are still poorly understood. Silicon nanograss structures prepared via inductively coupled plasma etching were coated with plasma deposited nanometer-thin polymeric films to produce substrates with controlled topography and defined surface chemistry. The influence of surface properties on Staphylococcus aureus proliferation is demonstrated and explained in terms of nanograss substrate wetting behaviour. With the combination of the nanograss topography; hydrophilic plasma polymer coatings enhanced antimicrobial activity while hydrophobic coatings reduced it. This study advances the understanding of the effects of surface wettability on the bactericidal properties of reactive nano-engineered surfaces.

  4. Bactericidal effects of plasma-modified surface chemistry of silicon nanograss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrikov, Kola; Macgregor-Ramiasa, Melanie; Cavallaro, Alex; Ostrikov, Kostya; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2016-01-01

    The surface chemistry and topography of biomaterials regulate the adhesion and growth of microorganisms in ways that are still poorly understood. Silicon nanograss structures prepared via inductively coupled plasma etching were coated with plasma deposited nanometer-thin polymeric films to produce substrates with controlled topography and defined surface chemistry. The influence of surface properties on Staphylococcus aureus proliferation is demonstrated and explained in terms of nanograss substrate wetting behaviour. With the combination of the nanograss topography; hydrophilic plasma polymer coatings enhanced antimicrobial activity while hydrophobic coatings reduced it. This study advances the understanding of the effects of surface wettability on the bactericidal properties of reactive nano-engineered surfaces. (paper)

  5. Anisotropic surface chemistry properties and adsorption behavior of silicate mineral crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Longhua; Tian, Jia; Wu, Houqin; Fang, Shuai; Lu, Zhongyuan; Ma, Caifeng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua

    2018-03-07

    Anisotropic surface properties of minerals play an important role in a variety of fields. With a focus on the two most intensively investigated silicate minerals (i.e., phyllosilicate minerals and pegmatite aluminosilicate minerals), this review highlights the research on their anisotropic surface properties based on their crystal structures. Four surface features comprise the anisotropic surface chemistry of minerals: broken bonds, energy, wettability, and charge. Analysis of surface broken bond and energy anisotropy helps to explain the cleavage and growth properties of mineral crystals, and understanding surface wettability and charge anisotropy is critical to the analysis of minerals' solution behavior, such as their flotation performance and rheological properties. In a specific reaction, the anisotropic surface properties of minerals are reflected in the adsorption strengths of reagents on different mineral surfaces. Combined with the knowledge of mineral crushing and grinding, a thorough understanding of the anisotropic surface chemistry properties and the anisotropic adsorption behavior of minerals will lead to the development of effective relational models comprising their crystal structure, surface chemistry properties, and targeted reagent adsorption. Overall, such a comprehensive approach is expected to firmly establish the connection between selective cleavage of mineral crystals for desired surfaces and designing novel reagents selectively adsorbed on the mineral surfaces. As tools to characterize the anisotropic surface chemistry properties of minerals, DLVO theory, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Grafted membranes and substrates having surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity and applications thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2013-10-10

    Disclosed herein are surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates exhibiting switchable oleophobicity and oleophilicity in aqueous media. These membranes and substrates may be used for variety of applications, including controllable oil/water separation processes, oil spill cleanup, and oil/water purification. Also provided are the making and processing of such surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates.

  7. Surface oxygen vacancy and oxygen permeation flux limits of perovskite ion transport membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hunt, Anton

    2015-09-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The mechanisms and quantitative models for how oxygen is separated from air using ion transport membranes (ITMs) are not well understood, largely due to the experimental complexity for determining surface exchange reactions at extreme temperatures (>800°C). This is especially true when fuels are present at the permeate surface. For both inert and reactive (fuels) operations, solid-state oxygen surface vacancies (δ) are ultimately responsible for driving the oxygen flux, JO2. In the inert case, the value of δ at either surface is a function of the local PO2 and temperature, whilst the magnitude of δ dictates both the JO2 and the inherent stability of the material. In this study values of δ are presented based on experimental measurements under inert (CO2) sweep: using a permeation flux model and local PO2 measurements, collected by means of a local gas-sampling probe in our large-scale reactor, we can determine δ directly. The ITM assessed was La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ (LCF); the relative resistances to JO2 were quantified using the pre-defined permeation flux model and local PO2 values. Across a temperature range from 825°C to 1056°C, δ was found to vary from 0.007 to 0.029 (<1%), safely within material stability limits, whilst the permeate surface exchange resistance dominates. An inert JO2 limit was identified owing to a maximum sweep surface δ, δmaxinert. The physical presence of δmaxinert is attributed to a rate limiting step shift from desorption to associative electron transfer steps on the sweep surface as PO2 is reduced. Permeate surface exchange limitations under non-reactive conditions suggest that reactive (fuel) operation is necessary to accelerate surface chemistry for future work, to reduce flux resistance and push δpast δmaxinert in a stable manner.

  8. On-Surface Synthesis by Click Chemistry Investigated by STM and XPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadapoo, Sundar Raja

    2014-01-01

    such as molecular electronics and surface functionalization. In this thesis, a well-defined click chemistry approach is followed, with the study of azide-alkyne cycloaddition on Cu(111) surface in UHV environment. A successful achievement of the click reaction product via on-surface synthesis has been shown, which...

  9. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  10. Seventh BES [Basic Energy Sciences] catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  11. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez G, H.

    1989-01-01

    A brief description about the development and activities executed in chemistry, in the Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares, during the last years is presented. The plans and feasibility of nuclear techniques in Colombia are also described

  12. Effect of membrane polymeric materials on relationship between surface pore size and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Taro; Yuasa, Kotaku; Ishigami, Toru; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Kamio, Eiji; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Saeki, Daisuke; Ni, Jinren; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of different membrane polymeric materials on the relationship between membrane pore size and development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Membranes with different pore sizes were prepared using three different polymeric materials, cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and the development of membrane fouling in each membrane was evaluated by batch filtration tests using a mixed liquor suspension obtained from a laboratory-scale MBR. The results revealed that the optimal membrane pore size to mitigate membrane fouling differed depending on membrane polymeric material. For PVDF membranes, the degree of membrane fouling decreased as membrane pore size increased. In contrast, CAB membranes with smaller pores had less fouling propensity than those with larger ones. Such difference can be attributed to the difference in major membrane foulants in each membrane; in PVDF, they were small colloids or dissolved organics in which proteins are abundant, and in CAB, microbial flocs. The results obtained in this study strongly suggested that optimum operating conditions of MBRs differ depending on the characteristics of the used membrane.

  13. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.W.; Li, J.X.; Gao, C.Y.; Chang, M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  14. Desorption of 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene from Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Impact of Solution Chemistry and Surface Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Uddin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The strong affinity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs to environmental contaminants has raised serious concern that CNTs may function as a carrier of environmental pollutants and lead to contamination in places where the environmental pollutants are not expected. However, this concern will not be realized until the contaminants are desorbed from CNTs. It is well recognized that the desorption of environmental pollutants from pre-laden CNTs varies with the environmental conditions, such as the solution pH and ionic strength. However, comprehensive investigation on the influence of solution chemistry on the desorption process has not been carried out, even though numerous investigations have been conducted to investigate the impact of solution chemistry on the adsorption of environmental pollutants on CNTs. The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of solution chemistry (e.g., pH, ionic strength and surface functionalization on the desorption of preloaded 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB from multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs. The results suggested that higher pH, ionic strength and natural organic matter in solution generally led to higher desorption of 1,3,5-TCB from MWNTs. However, the extent of change varied at different values of the tested parameters (e.g., pH 7. In addition, the impact of these parameters varied with MWNTs possessing different surface functional groups, suggesting that surface functionalization could considerably alter the environmental behaviors and impact of MWNTs.

  15. Functional surface chemistry of carbon-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdula, Daner

    The recently discovered abilities to synthesize single-walled carbon nanotubes and prepare single layer graphene have spurred interest in these sp2-bonded carbon nanostructures. In particular, studies of their potential use in electronic devices are many as silicon integrated circuits are encountering processing limitations, quantum effects, and thermal management issues due to rapid device scaling. Nanotube and graphene implementation in devices does come with significant hurdles itself. Among these issues are the ability to dope these materials and understanding what influences defects have on expected properties. Because these nanostructures are entirely all-surface, with every atom exposed to ambient, introduction of defects and doping by chemical means is expected to be an effective route for addressing these issues. Raman spectroscopy has been a proven characterization method for understanding vibrational and even electronic structure of graphene, nanotubes, and graphite, especially when combined with electrical measurements, due to a wealth of information contained in each spectrum. In Chapter 1, a discussion of the electronic structure of graphene is presented. This outlines the foundation for all sp2-bonded carbon electronic properties and is easily extended to carbon nanotubes. Motivation for why these materials are of interest is readily gained. Chapter 2 presents various synthesis/preparation methods for both nanotubes and graphene, discusses fabrication techniques for making devices, and describes characterization methods such as electrical measurements as well as static and time-resolved Raman spectroscopy. Chapter 3 outlines changes in the Raman spectra of individual metallic single-walled carbon nantoubes (SWNTs) upon sidewall covalent bond formation. It is observed that the initial degree of disorder has a strong influence on covalent sidewall functionalization which has implications on developing electronically selective covalent chemistries and

  16. Molecular dynamics study on mechanism of preformed particle gel transporting through nanopores: Surface chemistry and heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Ying; Hao, Qingquan; Liu, Gang; Sun, Jichao; Yuan, Shiling

    2017-10-01

    The translocation behavior of preformed particle gel (PPG) in porous media is crucial for its application in enhanced oil recovery. By means of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, the translocation mechanism of PPG confined in different silica nanopores were investigated. The influence of surface chemistry and chemical heterogeneity of silica nanopore on the translocation process was revealed. As the degree of surface hydroxylation increases and the heterogeneity decreases, the pulling force needed to drive PPG decreases. We infer that the nanopore's surface (i.e. surface chemistry and heterogeneity) affects the translocation of PPG indirectly by forming different hydration layers.

  17. The Role of Surface Chemistry in Adhesion and Wetting of Gecko Toe Pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badge, Ila; Stark, Alyssa Y.; Paoloni, Eva L.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-10-01

    An array of micron-sized setal hairs offers geckos a unique ability to walk on vertical surfaces using van der Waals interactions. Although many studies have focused on the role of surface morphology of the hairs, very little is known about the role of surface chemistry on wetting and adhesion. We expect that both surface chemistry and morphology are important, not only to achieve optimum dry adhesion but also for increased efficiency in self-cleaning of water and adhesion under wet conditions. Here, we used a plasma-based vapor deposition process to coat the hairy patterns on gecko toe pad sheds with polar and non-polar coatings without significantly perturbing the setal morphology. By a comparison of wetting across treatments, we show that the intrinsic surface of gecko setae has a water contact angle between 70-90°. As expected, under wet conditions, adhesion on a hydrophilic surface (glass) was lower than that on a hydrophobic surface (alkyl-silane monolayer on glass). Surprisingly under wet and dry conditions the adhesion was comparable on the hydrophobic surface, independent of the surface chemistry of the setal hairs. This work highlights the need to utilize morphology and surface chemistry in developing successful synthetic adhesives with desirable adhesion and self-cleaning properties.

  18. Biofouling in membrane bioreactors: nexus between polyacrylonitrile surface charge and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbelia, Lisendra; Hernalsteens, Marie-Aline; Ilyas, Shazia; Öztürk, Basak; Szymczyk, Anthony; Springael, Dirk; Vankelecom, Ivo

    2018-02-15

    The influence of membrane surface charge on biofouling community composition during activated sludge filtration in a membrane bioreactor was investigated in this study using polyacrylonitrile-based membranes. Membranes with different surface properties were synthesized by phase inversion followed by a layer-by-layer modification. Various characterization results showed that the membranes differed only in their surface chemical composition and charge, ie two of them were negative, one neutral and one positive. Membrane fouling experiments were performed for 40 days and the biofouling communities were analyzed. PCR-DGGE fingerprinting indicated selective enrichment of bacterial populations from the sludge suspension within the biofilms at any time point. The biofilm community composition seemed to change with time. However, no difference was observed between the biofilm community of differently charged membranes at specific time points. It could be concluded that membrane charges do not play a decisive role in the long-term selection of the key bacterial foulants.

  19. Hierarchical Composite Membranes with Robust Omniphobic Surface Using Layer-By-Layer Assembly Technique

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Yun Chul

    2018-01-17

    In this study, composite membranes were fabricated via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of negatively-charged silica aerogel (SiA) and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H – Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (FTCS) on a polyvinylidene fluoride phase inversion membrane, and interconnecting them with positively-charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) via electrostatic interaction. The results showed that the PDDA-SiA-FTCS coated membrane had significantly enhanced the membrane structure and properties. New trifluoromethyl and tetrafluoroethylene bonds appeared at the surface of the coated membrane, which led to lower surface free energy of the composite membrane. Additionally, the LBL membrane showed increased surface roughness. The improved structure and property gave the LBL membrane an omniphobic property, as indicated by its good wetting resistance. The membrane performed a stable air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) flux of 11.22 L/m2h with very high salt rejection using reverse osmosis brine from coal seam gas produced water as feed with the addition of up to 0.5 mM SDS solution. This performance was much better compared to those of the neat membrane. The present study suggests that the enhanced membrane properties with good omniphobicity via LBL assembly make the porous membranes suitable for long-term AGMD operation with stable permeation flux when treating challenging saline wastewater containing low surface tension organic contaminants.

  20. Analytical Chemistry of Surfaces: Part III. Ion Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercules, David M.; Hercules, Shirley H.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamentals of two surface techniques--secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and ion-scattering spectrometry (ISS)--are discussed. Examples of how these techniques have been applied to surface problems are provided. (JN)

  1. Cancer cell proliferation controlled by surface chemistry in its microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Ying; Qiao, Lin; He, Jin; Wang, Juan; Chen, Shuang-Feng; Lee, In-Seop; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2011-12-01

    Hepatoma cells (Hepg2s) as typical cancer cells cultured on hydroxyl (-OH) and methyl (-CH3) group surfaces were shown to exhibit different proliferation and morphological changes. Hepg2s cells on -OH surfaces grew much more rapidly than those on -CH3 surfaces. Hepg2s cells on -OH surfaces had the larger contact area and the more flattened morphology, while those on -CH3 surfaces exhibited the smaller contact area and the more rounded morphology. After 7 days of culture, the migration of Hepg2s cells into clusters on the -CH3 surfaces behaved significantly slower than that on the -OH surfaces. These chemically modified surfaces exhibited regulation of Hepg2s cells on proliferation, adhesion, and migration, providing a potential treatment of liver cancer.

  2. A Dry Membrane Protection Technique to Allow Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor Measurements of Biological Model Membrane Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Enachescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Model membrane approaches have attracted much attention in biomedical sciences to investigate and simulate biological processes. The application of model membrane systems for biosensor measurements is partly restricted by the fact that the integrity of membranes critically depends on the maintenance of an aqueous surrounding, while various biosensors require a preconditioning of dry sensors. This is for example true for the well-established surface acoustic wave (SAW biosensor SAM®5 blue. Here, a simple drying procedure of sensor-supported model membranes is introduced using the protective disaccharide trehalose. Highly reproducible model membranes were prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, transferred to SAW sensors and supplemented with a trehalose solution. Membrane rehydration after dry incorporation into the SAW device becomes immediately evident by phase changes. Reconstituted model membranes maintain their full functionality, as indicated by biotin/avidin binding experiments. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the morphological invariability of dried and rehydrated membranes. Approximating to more physiological recognition phenomena, the site-directed immobilization of the integrin VLA-4 into the reconstituted model membrane and subsequent VCAM-1 ligand binding with nanomolar affinity were illustrated. This simple drying procedure is a novel way to combine the model membrane generation by Langmuir-Blodgett technique with SAW biosensor measurements, which extends the applicability of SAM®5 blue in biomedical sciences.

  3. The surface chemistry of metal-oxygen interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Baroni, Stefano

    1997-01-01

    We report on a computational study of the clean and oxygen-covered Rh(110) surface, based on density-functional theory within the local-density approximation. We have used plane-wave basis sets and Vanderbilt ultra-soft pseudopotentials. For the clean surface, we present results for the equilibrium...... structure, surface energy and surface stress of the unreconstructed and (1 x 2) reconstructed structures. For the oxygen-covered surface we have performed a geometry optimization at 0.5, 1, and 2 monolayer oxygen coverages, and we present results for the equilibrium configurations, workfunctions and oxygen...

  4. THE INTEGRATED USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last decade three new techniques scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (YR) and computational chemistry ave emerged with the combined capability of a priori predicting the chemically reactivity of environmental surfaces. Computational chemistry provides the cap...

  5. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  6. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-12-31

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  7. Using advanced surface complexation models for modelling soil chemistry under forests: Solling forest, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonten, Luc T.C.; Groenenberg, Jan E.; Meesenburg, Henning; Vries, Wim de

    2011-01-01

    Various dynamic soil chemistry models have been developed to gain insight into impacts of atmospheric deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and other elements on soil and soil solution chemistry. Sorption parameters for anions and cations are generally calibrated for each site, which hampers extrapolation in space and time. On the other hand, recently developed surface complexation models (SCMs) have been successful in predicting ion sorption for static systems using generic parameter sets. This study reports the inclusion of an assemblage of these SCMs in the dynamic soil chemistry model SMARTml and applies this model to a spruce forest site in Solling Germany. Parameters for SCMs were taken from generic datasets and not calibrated. Nevertheless, modelling results for major elements matched observations well. Further, trace metals were included in the model, also using the existing framework of SCMs. The model predicted sorption for most trace elements well. - Highlights: → Surface complexation models can be well applied in field studies. → Soil chemistry under a forest site is adequately modelled using generic parameters. → The model is easily extended with extra elements within the existing framework. → Surface complexation models can show the linkages between major soil chemistry and trace element behaviour. - Surface complexation models with generic parameters make calibration of sorption superfluous in dynamic modelling of deposition impacts on soil chemistry under nature areas.

  8. Complex Surface Concentration Gradients by Stenciled "Electro Click Chemistry"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Lind, Johan Ulrik; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2010-01-01

    Complex one- or two-dimensional concentration gradients of alkynated molecules are produced on azidized conducting polymer substrates by stenciled "electro click chemistry". The latter describes the local electrochemical generation of catalytically active Cu(I) required to complete a "click...... reaction" between alkynes and azides at room temperature. A stencil on the counter electrode defines the shape and multiplicity of the gradient(s) on the conducting polymer substrate, while the specific reaction conditions control gradient steepness and the maximum concentration deposited. Biologically...

  9. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  10. NOx Binding and Dissociation: Enhanced Ferroelectric Surface Chemistry by Catalytic Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2013-03-01

    NOx molecules are regulated air pollutants produced during automotive combustion. As part of an effort to design viable catalysts for NOx decomposition operating at higher temperatures that would allow for improved fuel efficiency, we examine NOx chemistry on ferroelectric perovskite surfaces. Changing the direction of ferroelectric polarization can modify surface electronic properties and may lead to switchable surface chemistry. Here, we describe our recent work on potentially enhanced surface chemistry using catalytic RuO2 monolayers on perovskite ferroelectric substrates. In addition to thermodynamic stabilization of the RuO2 layer, we present results on the polarization-dependent binding of NO, O2, N2, and atomic O and N. We present results showing that one key problem with current catalysts, involving the difficulty of releasing dissociation products (especially oxygen), can be ameliorated by this method. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  11. Investigations of nitrogen oxide plasmas: Fundamental chemistry and surface reactivity and monitoring student perceptions in a general chemistry recitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechle, Joshua M.

    Part I of this dissertation focuses on investigations of nitrogen oxide plasma systems. With increasing concerns over the environmental presence of NxOy species, there is growing interest in utilizing plasma-assisted conversion techniques. Advances, however, have been limited because of the lack of knowledge regarding the fundamental chemistry of these plasma systems. Understanding the kinetics and thermodynamics of processes in these systems is vital to realizing their potential in a range of applications. Unraveling the complex chemical nature of these systems, however, presents numerous challenges. As such, this work serves as a foundational step in the diagnostics and assessment of these NxOy plasmas. The partitioning of energy within the plasma system is essential to unraveling these complications as it provides insight into both gas and surface reactivity. To obtain this information, techniques such as optical emission spectroscopy (OES), broadband absorption spectroscopy (BAS), and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) were utilized to determine species energetics (vibrational, rotational, translational temperatures). These temperature data provide mechanistic insight and establish the relationships between system parameters and energetic outcomes. Additionally, these data are also correlated to surface reactivity data collected with the Imaging of Radicals Interacting with Surfaces (IRIS) technique. IRIS data demonstrate the relationship between internal temperatures of radicals and their observed surface scatter coefficients (S), the latter of which is directly related to surface reactivity (R) [R = 1-S]. Furthermore, time-resolved (TR) spectroscopic techniques, specifically TR-OES, revealed kinetic trends in NO and N2 formation from a range of precursors (NO, N2O, N2/O2). By examining the rate constants associated with the generation and destruction of various plasma species we can investigate possible mechanistic implications. All told, such data provides

  12. 3D Printed Potential and Free Energy Surfaces for Teaching Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakin, Danil S.; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fundamental physical chemistry concepts such as the potential energy surface, transition state, and reaction path is a challenging task. The traditionally used oversimplified 2D representation of potential and free energy surfaces makes this task even more difficult and often confuses students. We show how this 2D representation can be…

  13. The role of electron scattering in electron-induced surface chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, Willem F.

    2012-01-01

    Electron-induced chemistry on surfaces plays a key role in focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP), a single-step lithography technique that has increasingly gained interest in the past decade. It is crucial for the understanding and modelling of this process to know the role of the surface

  14. Flame Treatment of Low-Density Polyethylene: Surface Chemistry Across the Length Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Jing; Gunst, Ullrich; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between surface chemistry and morphology of flame treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was studied by various characterization techniques across different length scales. The chemical composition of the surface was determined on the micrometer scale by X-ray photoelectron

  15. Enhanced biofouling resistance of polyethersulfone membrane surface modified with capsaicin derivative and itaconic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian; Gao, Xueli; Wang, Qun; Sun, Haijing; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gao, Congjie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PES membrane was modified with a capsaicin derivative. • UV-assisted graft polymerization was carried out on membrane surface. • The capsaicin derivative modified membrane shows better antibiofouling property. - Abstract: The culprit of biofouling is the reproduction of viable microorganisms on the membrane surface. Recently, functionalization of membrane surface with natural antibacterial agents has drawn great attention. This work presents the fabrication of antibiofouling polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes by UV-assisted photo grafting of capsaicin derivative (N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-acrylamide, HMBA) and itaconic acid (IA) on the surface of PES membrane. Results of FTIR-ATR, water static contact angle (WSCA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis confirmed the successful grafting of HMBA and IA on the membrane surface. We investigated the antifouling and antibacterial properties of these membranes using BSA and Escherichia coli as the test model, respectively. During a 150-min test, the modified membranes show much lower flux decline (42.7% for PES-g-1H0I, 22.2% for PES-g-1H1I and 7.7% for PES-g-1H5I) when compared with the pristine membrane (flux declined by 77%). The modified membranes exhibit excellent antibacterial activity (nearly 100%) when UV irradiation time was 6 min. The morphological study suggested that the E. coli on the pristine membrane showed a regular and smooth surface while that on the modified membrane was disrupted, which validated the antibacterial activity of the modified membranes.

  16. Enhanced biofouling resistance of polyethersulfone membrane surface modified with capsaicin derivative and itaconic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Gao, Xueli, E-mail: gxl_ouc@126.com [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Wang, Qun; Sun, Haijing; Wang, Xiaojuan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Gao, Congjie, E-mail: gaocjie@ouc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PES membrane was modified with a capsaicin derivative. • UV-assisted graft polymerization was carried out on membrane surface. • The capsaicin derivative modified membrane shows better antibiofouling property. - Abstract: The culprit of biofouling is the reproduction of viable microorganisms on the membrane surface. Recently, functionalization of membrane surface with natural antibacterial agents has drawn great attention. This work presents the fabrication of antibiofouling polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes by UV-assisted photo grafting of capsaicin derivative (N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-acrylamide, HMBA) and itaconic acid (IA) on the surface of PES membrane. Results of FTIR-ATR, water static contact angle (WSCA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis confirmed the successful grafting of HMBA and IA on the membrane surface. We investigated the antifouling and antibacterial properties of these membranes using BSA and Escherichia coli as the test model, respectively. During a 150-min test, the modified membranes show much lower flux decline (42.7% for PES-g-1H0I, 22.2% for PES-g-1H1I and 7.7% for PES-g-1H5I) when compared with the pristine membrane (flux declined by 77%). The modified membranes exhibit excellent antibacterial activity (nearly 100%) when UV irradiation time was 6 min. The morphological study suggested that the E. coli on the pristine membrane showed a regular and smooth surface while that on the modified membrane was disrupted, which validated the antibacterial activity of the modified membranes.

  17. Surface Modification of Ceramic Membranes with Thin-film Deposition Methods for Wastewater Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jahangir, Daniyal

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling, which is caused by deposition/adsorption of foulants on the surface or within membrane pores, still remains a bottleneck that hampers the widespread application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment. Recently membrane surface modification has proved to be a useful method in water/wastewater treatment to improve the surface hydrophilicity of membranes to obtain higher water fluxes and to reduce fouling. In this study, membrane modification was investigated by depositing a thin film of same thickness of TiO2 on the surface of an ultrafiltration alumina membrane. Various thin-film deposition (TFD) methods were employed, i.e. electron-beam evaporation, sputter and atomic layer deposition (ALD), and a comparative study of the methods was conducted to assess fouling inhibition performance in a lab-scale anaerobic MBR (AnMBR) fed with synthetic municipal wastewater. Thorough surface characterization of all modified membranes was carried out along with clean water permeability (CWP) tests and fouling behavior by bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption tests. The study showed better fouling inhibition performance of all modified membranes; however the effect varied due to different surface characteristics obtained by different deposition methods. As a result, ALD-modified membrane showed a superior status in terms of surface characteristics and fouling inhibition performance in AnMBR filtration tests. Hence ALD was determined to be the best TFD method for alumina membrane surface modification for this study. ALD-modified membranes were further characterized to determine an optimum thickness of TiO2-film by applying different ALD cycles. ALD treatment significantly improved the surface hydrophilicity of the unmodified membrane. Also ALD-TiO2 modification was observed to reduce the surface roughness of original alumina membrane, which in turn enhanced the anti-fouling properties of modified membranes. Finally, a same thickness of ALD

  18. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics, using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 1. 1. Atomic and molecular physics. 2. Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  19. Geochemistry and Organic Chemistry on the Surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Beauchamp, P.; Beauchamp, J.; Dougherty, D.; Welch, C.; Raulin, F.; Shapiro, R.; Smith, M.

    2001-01-01

    Titan's atmosphere produces a wealth of organic products from methane and nitrogen. These products, deposited on the surface in liquid and solid form, may interact with surface ices and energy sources to produce compounds of exobiological interest. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Analytical Chemistry of Surfaces: Part II. Electron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercules, David M.; Hercules, Shirley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two surface techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Focuses on fundamental aspects of each technique, important features of instrumentation, and some examples of how ESCA and AES have been applied to analytical surface problems. (JN)

  1. Sampling procedure for lake or stream surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Musselman

    2012-01-01

    Surface waters collected in the field for chemical analyses are easily contaminated. This research note presents a step-by-step detailed description of how to avoid sample contamination when field collecting, processing, and transporting surface water samples for laboratory analysis.

  2. O-(carboxymethyl)-chitosan nanofiltration membrane surface functionalized with graphene oxide nanosheets for enhanced desalting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Gao, Xueli; Wang, Jian; Wei, Yi; Li, Zhaokui; Gao, Congjie

    2015-02-25

    A novel O-(carboxymethyl)-chitosan (OCMC) nanofiltration (NF) membrane is developed via surface functionalization with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets to enhance desalting properties. Using ring-opening polymerization between epoxy groups of GO nanosheets and amino groups of OCMC active layer, GO nanosheets are irreversibly bound to the membrane. The OCMC NF membranes surface-functionalized with GO nanosheets are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle analyzer, and zeta potential analyzer. The membranes exhibit not only higher permeability but also better salt rejections than the pristine membranes and the commercial NF membranes; besides, the desalting properties are enhanced with the concentration of GO nanosheets increasing. Furthermore, the transport mechanism of GO-OCMC NF membranes reveals that the nanoporous structure of GO-OCMC functional layer and size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion of water nanochannels formed by GO nanosheets lead to the membranes possessing enhanced desalting properties.

  3. Molecular Filtration in Nanotubule Membranes: Sorting Molecules on the Basis of Size and Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jirage, Kshama

    1998-01-01

    Membrane based chemical separations is an emerging field of research. This is because membrane-based separations are potentially less energy intensive and more cost effective than competing separation methods...

  4. Surface chemistry of a hydrogenated mesoporous p-type silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Media, El-Mahdi, E-mail: belhadidz@tahoo.fr; Outemzabet, Ratiba, E-mail: oratiba@hotmail.com

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Due to its large specific surface porous silicon is used as substrate for drug therapy and biosensors. • We highlight the evidency of the contribution of the hydrides (SiHx) in the formation of the porous silicon. • The responsible species in the porous silicon formation are identified and quantified at different conditions. • By some chemical treatments we show that silicon surface can be turn from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. - Abstract: The finality of this work is devoted to the grafting of organic molecules on hydrogen passivated mesoporous silicon surfaces. The study would aid in the development for the formation of organic monolayers on silicon surface to be exploited for different applications such as the realisation of biosensors and medical devices. The basic material is silicon which has been first investigated by FTIR at atomistic plane during the anodic forward and backward polarization (i.e. “go” and “return”). For this study, we applied a numerical program based on least squares method to infrared absorbance spectra obtained by an in situ attenuated total reflection on p-type silicon in diluted HF electrolyte. Our numerical treatment is based on the fitting of the different bands of IR absorbance into Gaussians corresponding to the different modes of vibration of molecular groups such as siloxanes and hydrides. An adjustment of these absorbance bands is done systematically. The areas under the fitted bands permit one to follow the intensity of the different modes of vibration that exist during the anodic forward and backward polarization in order to compare the reversibility of the phenomenon of the anodic dissolution of silicon. It permits also to follow the evolution between the hydrogen silicon termination at forward and backward scanning applied potential. Finally a comparison between the states of the initial and final surface was carried out. We confirm the presence of clearly four and three distinct vibration modes

  5. Surface chemistry interventions to control boiler tube fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Guzonas, D.A.; Klimas, S.J

    2000-06-01

    The adsorption of ammonia, morpholine, ethanolamine, and dimethylamine onto the surfaces of colloidal magnetite and hematite was measured at 25{sup o}C. The effect of the adsorption on the surface potential was quantified by measuring the resulting shift in the isoelectric point of the corrosion products and by the direct measurement of the surface interaction force between the corrosion products and Inconel 600. These measurements have served to support the hypothesis that adsorption of amine affects the magnetite deposition rate by lowering the force of repulsion between magnetite and the surface of Inconel 600. The deposition rate of hematite increased as the oxygen concentration increased. A mechanism to account for enhanced deposition rates at high mixture qualities (> 0.35) has been identified and shown to predict behaviour that is consistent with both experimental and plant data. As a result of this investigation, several criteria are proposed to reduce the extent of corrosion product deposition on the tube bundle. Low hematite deposition is favoured by a low concentration of dissolved oxygen, and low magnetite deposition is favoured by choosing an amine for pH control that has little tendency to adsorb onto the surface of magnetite. To minimize adsorption the amine should have a high base strength and a large 'footprint' on the surface of magnetite. To prevent enhanced deposition at high mixture qualities, it is proposed that a modified amine be used that will reduce the surface tension or the elasticity of the steam-water interface or both.

  6. Surface chemistry interventions to control boiler tube fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Guzonas, D.A.; Klimas, S.J.

    2000-06-01

    The adsorption of ammonia, morpholine, ethanolamine, and dimethylamine onto the surfaces of colloidal magnetite and hematite was measured at 25 o C. The effect of the adsorption on the surface potential was quantified by measuring the resulting shift in the isoelectric point of the corrosion products and by the direct measurement of the surface interaction force between the corrosion products and Inconel 600. These measurements have served to support the hypothesis that adsorption of amine affects the magnetite deposition rate by lowering the force of repulsion between magnetite and the surface of Inconel 600. The deposition rate of hematite increased as the oxygen concentration increased. A mechanism to account for enhanced deposition rates at high mixture qualities (> 0.35) has been identified and shown to predict behaviour that is consistent with both experimental and plant data. As a result of this investigation, several criteria are proposed to reduce the extent of corrosion product deposition on the tube bundle. Low hematite deposition is favoured by a low concentration of dissolved oxygen, and low magnetite deposition is favoured by choosing an amine for pH control that has little tendency to adsorb onto the surface of magnetite. To minimize adsorption the amine should have a high base strength and a large 'footprint' on the surface of magnetite. To prevent enhanced deposition at high mixture qualities, it is proposed that a modified amine be used that will reduce the surface tension or the elasticity of the steam-water interface or both

  7. Plasma Processing with Fluorine Chemistry for Modification of Surfaces Wettability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Satulu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using plasma in conjunction with fluorinated compounds is widely encountered in material processing. We discuss several plasma techniques for surface fluorination: deposition of fluorocarbon thin films either by magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene targets, or by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition using tetrafluoroethane as a precursor, and modification of carbon nanowalls by plasma treatment in a sulphur hexafluoride environment. We showed that conformal fluorinated thin films can be obtained and, according to the initial surface properties, superhydrophobic surfaces can be achieved.

  8. Surface chemistry controls crystallinity of ZnS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Huang, Feng; Lin, Zhang; Goodell, Carmen; Zhang, Hengzhong; Banfield, Jillian F

    2006-04-01

    Combined small-angle and high energy wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements of nanoparticle size and structure permit interior strain and disorder to be observed directly in the real-space pair distribution function (PDF). PDF analysis showed that samples of ZnS nanoparticles with similar mean diameters (3.2-3.6 nm) but synthesized and treated with different low-temperature procedures possess a dramatic range of interior disorder. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to detect the surface species and the nature of surface chemical interactions. Our results suggest that there is a direct correlation between the strength of surface-ligand interactions and interior crystallinity.

  9. Reaction chemistry and ligand exchange at cadmium selenide nanocrystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan; Park, Jungwon; Trudeau, Paul-Emile; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-12-02

    Chemical modification of nanocrystal surfaces is fundamentally important to their assembly, their implementation in biology and medicine, and greatly impacts their electrical and optical properties. However, it remains a major challenge owing to a lack of analytical tools to directly determine nanoparticle surface structure. Early nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies of CdSe nanocrystals prepared in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (1) and tri-n-octylphosphine (2), suggested these coordinating solvents are datively bound to the particle surface. However, assigning the broad NMR resonances of surface-bound ligands is complicated by significant concentrations of phosphorus-containing impurities in commercial sources of 1, and XPS provides only limited information about the nature of the phosphorus containing molecules in the sample. More recent reports have shown the surface ligands of CdSe nanocrystals prepared in technical grade 1, and in the presence of alkylphosphonic acids, include phosphonic and phosphinic acids. These studies do not, however, distinguish whether these ligands are bound datively, as neutral, L-type ligands, or by X-type interaction of an anionic phosphonate/phosphinate moiety with a surface Cd{sup 2+} ion. Answering this question would help clarify why ligand exchange with such particles does not proceed generally as expected based on a L-type ligand model. By using reagents with reactive silicon-chalcogen and silicon-chlorine bonds to cleave the ligands from the nanocrystal surface, we show that our CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystal surfaces are likely terminated by X-type binding of alkylphosphonate ligands to a layer of Cd{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} ions, rather than by dative interactions. Further, we provide spectroscopic evidence that 1 and 2 are not coordinated to our purified nanocrystals.

  10. Attachment chemistry of aromatic compounds on a Silicon(100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Anders; Nishiori, Daiki; Maeda, Hiroaki; Miyachi, Mariko; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    A mild method was developed for the chemical attachment of aromatic compounds directly onto a hydrogen-terminated Si(100) (H-Si(100)) surface. In the presence of palladium catalyst and base, 4-iodophenylferrocene and a π-conjugated iron complex were attached to H-Si(100) electrodes and hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs), both of which have predominant dihydride species on their surfaces. The reactions were conducted in 1,4-dioxane at 100 °C and the immobilization of both 4-ferrocenylphenyl group and π-conjugated molecular wires were confirmed and quantified by XPS and electrochemical measurements. We reported densely packed monolayer whose surface coverage (Γ), estimated from the electrochemical measurements are in analogue to similar monolayers prepared via thermal or light induced hydrosilylation reactions with alkenes or alkynes. The increase in electrochemical response observed on nanostructured silicon surfaces corresponds well to the increase in surface area, those strongly indicating that this method may be applied for the functionalization of electrodes with a variety of surface topographies.

  11. Affinity Induced Surface Functionalization of Liposomes Using Cu-Free Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Eliasen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    be used for functionalization of other nanoparticles or solid surfaces. The method exploits a synergistic effect of having both affinity and covalent anchoring tags on the surface of the liposome. This was achieved by synthesizing a peptide linker system that uses Cu-free strain-promoted click chemistry.......2%. The reaction kinetics and overall yield were quantified by HPLC. The results presented here open new possibilities for constructing complex nanostructures and functionalized surfaces....

  12. Surface chemistry and morphology in single particle optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz-Kanik, Fulya; Sevenler, Derin Deniz; Ünlü, Neşe Lortlar; Chiari, Marcella; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2017-05-01

    Biological nanoparticles such as viruses and exosomes are important biomarkers for a range of medical conditions, from infectious diseases to cancer. Biological sensors that detect whole viruses and exosomes with high specificity, yet without additional labeling, are promising because they reduce the complexity of sample preparation and may improve measurement quality by retaining information about nanoscale physical structure of the bio-nanoparticle (BNP). Towards this end, a variety of BNP biosensor technologies have been developed, several of which are capable of enumerating the precise number of detected viruses or exosomes and analyzing physical properties of each individual particle. Optical imaging techniques are promising candidates among broad range of label-free nanoparticle detectors. These imaging BNP sensors detect the binding of single nanoparticles on a flat surface functionalized with a specific capture molecule or an array of multiplexed capture probes. The functionalization step confers all molecular specificity for the sensor's target but can introduce an unforeseen problem; a rough and inhomogeneous surface coating can be a source of noise, as these sensors detect small local changes in optical refractive index. In this paper, we review several optical technologies for label-free BNP detectors with a focus on imaging systems. We compare the surface-imaging methods including dark-field, surface plasmon resonance imaging and interference reflectance imaging. We discuss the importance of ensuring consistently uniform and smooth surface coatings of capture molecules for these types of biosensors and finally summarize several methods that have been developed towards addressing this challenge.

  13. Influence of the surface structure on the filtration performance of UV-modified PES membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kæselev, Bozena Alicja; Kingshott, P.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    Poly (ether sulfone) (PES) 50 kDa membranes were surface modified by irradiation with UV light (254 nm) in the presence of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidine (NVP), 2-acrylamidoglycolic acid monohydrate (AAG) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AAP). The surfaces of the modified membranes were c...

  14. Properties of proton-conducting nafion-type membranes with nanometer-thick polyaniline surface layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sapurina, I.; Kompan, M.; Malyshkin, V.; Rosanov, V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 6 (2009), s. 697-706 ISSN 1023-1935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 847 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : proton-conducting membranes * Nafion * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.347, year: 2009

  15. PAN composite membrane with different solvent affinities controlled by surface modification methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dragan, E. S.; Mihai, M.; Schauer, Jan; Ghimici, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 18 (2005), s. 4161-4171 ISSN 0887-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : composite membrane * functionalization of polymers * polyelectrolytes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.027, year: 2005

  16. Surface and permeability properties of membranes from polyelectrolyte complexes and polyelectrolyte surfactant complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, H. H.; Lukáš, Jaromír; Richau, K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 218, 1-2 (2003), s. 1-9 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Keywords : polyelectrolyte complex membranes * pervaporation * dehydration of organics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2003

  17. Importance of the carbon surface chemistry: methods of characterization; Importance de la chimie de surface des materiaux carbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, Ph. [Universite Paul Verlaine, Lab. de Chimie et Applications, UFR Sciences, 57 - Metz (France); Vix-Guterl, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces (ICSI) UPR CNRS 9069, 68 - Mulhouse (France)

    2006-03-15

    The diversity of the carbonaceous materials in terms of chemical composition and porous texture explains their large field of applications. The performances of such materials are often influenced by their surface chemistry that is not easy to investigate. Thus a large range of complementary analytical methods is necessary. (authors)

  18. Co-deposition of tannic acid and diethlyenetriamine for surface hydrophilization of hydrophobic polymer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Ren, Peng-Fei; Yang, Hao-Cheng; Wan, Ling-Shu; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel approach toward the surface modification of commercial polymer membranes via co-deposition of tannic acid (TA) and diethlyenetriamine (DETA). Particle-free, superhydrophilic, and almost colorless coatings are fabricated on the surfaces of polypropylene, poly(vinylidene fluoride), and poly(tetrafluoroethlene) microfiltration membranes. Cross-linking between TA and DETA plays a crucial role during the co-deposition process, as well as the adhesion of TA on the hydrophobic membrane surfaces. Both the surface wettability and water permeation flux are dramatically improved for the studied membranes after the co-deposition. The results indicate that co-deposition of TA and DETA is great potential for the surface modification of hydrophobic membranes.

  19. Understanding colloidal charge renormalization from surface chemistry: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, T.; Schulz, S. F.; Borkovec, M.; Sticher, H.; Schurtenberger, P.; D'Aguanno, B.; Klein, R.

    1994-12-01

    In this paper we report on the charging behavior of latex particles in aqueous suspensions. We use static light scattering and acid-base titrations as complementary techniques to observe both effective and bare particle charges. Acid-base titrations at various ionic strengths provide the pH dependent charging curves. The surface chemical parameters (dissociation constant of the acidic carboxylic groups, total density of ionizable sites and Stern capacitance) are determined from fits of a Stern layer model to the titration data. We find strong evidence that the dissociation of protons is the only specific adsorption process. Effective particle charges are determined by fits of integral equation calculations of the polydisperse static structure factor to the static light scattering data. A generalization of the Poisson-Boltzmann cell model including the dissociation of the acidic surface groups and the autodissociation of water is used to predict effective particle charges from the surface chemical parameters determined by the titration experiments. We find that the light scattering data are best described by a model where a small fraction of the ionizable surface sites are sulfate groups which are completely dissociated at moderate pH. These effective charges are comparable to the predictions by a basic cell model where charge regulation is absent.

  20. Amino-functionalized surface modification of polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber-supported polydimethylsiloxane membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Leiqing; Cheng, Jun, E-mail: juncheng@zju.edu.cn; Li, Yannan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Amino group was introduced to improve surface polarity of PDMS membrane. • The water contact angle of PDMS membrane decreased after the modification. • The concentration of N atom on surface of PDMS membrane reached up to ∼6%. • The density of PDMS membrane decreased while the swelling degree increased. • CO{sub 2} permeability increased while selectivity decreased after the modification. - Abstract: This study aimed to improve surface polarity of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes and provide surface active sites which were easy to react with other chemicals. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) containing an amino group was introduced into a PDMS membrane by crosslinking to prepare polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber-supported PDMS membranes with an amino-functionalized surface. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses proved the existence of APTES and its amino group in the PDMS membrane. The concentration of N atoms on the PDMS membrane surface reached ∼6% when the mass ratio of APTES/PDMS oligomer in the PDMS coating solution was increased to 4/3. The water contact angle decreased from ∼114° to ∼87.5°, indicating the improved surface polarization of the PDMS membrane. The density and swelling degree of the PDMS membrane decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing APTES content in PDMS. This phenomenon increased CO{sub 2} permeability and decreased CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} selectivity, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity, and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. When the mass ratio of APTES/PDMS oligomer was increased from 0 to 4/3, the CO{sub 2} permeation rate of the hollow fiber-supported PDMS membranes initially decreased from ∼2370 GPU to ∼860 GPU and then increased to ∼2000 GPU due to the change in coating solution viscosity.

  1. Amino-functionalized surface modification of polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber-supported polydimethylsiloxane membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Leiqing; Cheng, Jun; Li, Yannan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Amino group was introduced to improve surface polarity of PDMS membrane. • The water contact angle of PDMS membrane decreased after the modification. • The concentration of N atom on surface of PDMS membrane reached up to ∼6%. • The density of PDMS membrane decreased while the swelling degree increased. • CO 2 permeability increased while selectivity decreased after the modification. - Abstract: This study aimed to improve surface polarity of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes and provide surface active sites which were easy to react with other chemicals. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) containing an amino group was introduced into a PDMS membrane by crosslinking to prepare polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber-supported PDMS membranes with an amino-functionalized surface. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses proved the existence of APTES and its amino group in the PDMS membrane. The concentration of N atoms on the PDMS membrane surface reached ∼6% when the mass ratio of APTES/PDMS oligomer in the PDMS coating solution was increased to 4/3. The water contact angle decreased from ∼114° to ∼87.5°, indicating the improved surface polarization of the PDMS membrane. The density and swelling degree of the PDMS membrane decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing APTES content in PDMS. This phenomenon increased CO 2 permeability and decreased CO 2 /H 2 selectivity, CO 2 /CH 4 selectivity, and CO 2 /N 2 selectivity. When the mass ratio of APTES/PDMS oligomer was increased from 0 to 4/3, the CO 2 permeation rate of the hollow fiber-supported PDMS membranes initially decreased from ∼2370 GPU to ∼860 GPU and then increased to ∼2000 GPU due to the change in coating solution viscosity.

  2. Study of the Effect of Nanoparticles and Surface Morphology on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membrane Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Duranceau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the significance of reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF surface morphology on membrane performance, productivity experiments were conducted using flat-sheet membranes and three different nanoparticles, which included SiO2, TiO2 and CeO2. In this study, the productivity rate was markedly influenced by membrane surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis of membrane surfaces revealed that the higher productivity decline rates associated with polyamide RO membranes as compared to that of a cellulose acetate NF membrane was due to the inherent ridge-and-valley morphology of the active layer. The unique polyamide active layer morphology was directly related to the surface roughness, and was found to contribute to particle accumulation in the valleys causing a higher flux decline than in smoother membranes. Extended RO productivity experiments using laboratory grade water and diluted pretreated seawater were conducted to compare the effect that different nanoparticles had on membrane active layers. Membrane flux decline was not affected by particle type when the feed water was laboratory grade water. On the other hand, membrane productivity was affected by particle type when pretreated diluted seawater served as feed water. It was found that CeO2 addition resulted in the least observable flux decline, followed by SiO2 and TiO2. A productivity simulation was conducted by fitting the monitored flux data into a cake growth rate model, where the model was modified using a finite difference method to incorporate surface thickness variation into the analysis. The ratio of cake growth term (k1 and particle back diffusion term (k2 was compared in between different RO and NF membranes. Results indicated that k2 was less significant for surfaces that exhibited a higher roughness. It was concluded that the valley areas of thin-film membrane surfaces have the ability to capture particles, limiting particle back diffusion.

  3. Enhancing performance and surface antifouling properties of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes with salicylate-alumoxane nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Samaneh; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Shamsabadi, Ahmad Arabi; Habibzadeh, Setareh; Soroush, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    To improve the hydrophilicity and antifouling properties of polysulfone (PS) ultrafiltration membranes, we studied the use of salicylate-alumoxane (SA) nanoparticles as a novel hydrophilic additive. The effects of SA nanoparticles on the membrane characteristics and performance were investigated in terms of membrane structure, permeation flux, solute rejection, hydrophilicity, and antifouling ability. The new mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) possess asymmetric structures. They have smaller finger-like pores and smoother surfaces than the neat PS membranes. The embedment of SA nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and the improvement of surface hydrophilicity were investigated. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated that the pure-water flux of the new MMMs initially increases with SA nanoparticles loading followed by a decrease at high loadings. Higher BSA solution flux was achieved for the MMMs compared to the neat PS membranes. Membranes with 1 wt.% SA nanoparticles exhibit the highest flux recovery ratio of 87% and the lowest irreversible fouling of 13%.

  4. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusworo, T. D.; Aryanti, N.; Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H.

    2015-12-01

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second.

  5. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusworo, T. D., E-mail: tdkusworo@che.undip.ac.id; Aryanti, N., E-mail: nita.aryanti@gmail.com; Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H. [Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Prof. Soedarto Street, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239, Phone/Fax : (024)7460058 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second.

  6. Design and simulation of the surface shape control system for membrane mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gengsheng; Tang, Minxue

    2009-11-01

    The surface shape control is one of the key technologies for the manufacture of membrane mirror. This paper presents a design of membrane mirror's surface shape control system on the basis of fuzzy logic control. The system contains such function modules as surface shape design, surface shape control, surface shape analysis, and etc. The system functions are realized by using hybrid programming technology of Visual C# and MATLAB. The finite element method is adopted to simulate the surface shape control of membrane mirror. The finite element analysis model is established through ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). ANSYS software kernel is called by the system in background running mode when doing the simulation. The controller is designed by means of controlling the sag of the mirror's central crosssection. The surface shape of the membrane mirror and its optical aberration are obtained by applying Zernike polynomial fitting. The analysis of surface shape control and the simulation of disturbance response are performed for a membrane mirror with 300mm aperture and F/2.7. The result of the simulation shows that by using the designed control system, the RMS wavefront error of the mirror can reach to 142λ (λ=632.8nm), which is consistent to the surface accuracy of the membrane mirror obtained by the large deformation theory of membrane under the same condition.

  7. Surface analysis of an encapsulation membrane after its implantation in mini-pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Marie [Universite Catholique de Louvain, PCPM, Croix du Sud 1, B1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Ulrichs, Karin [University of Wuerzburg Hospital (Germany); Moskalenko, Vasily [University of Wuerzburg Hospital (Germany); Bonneau, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris (France); Kang, Chantal [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris (France); Belcourt, Alain [Centre Europeen d' Etude du Diabete, Strasbourg (France); Bertrand, Patrick [Universite Catholique de Louvain, PCPM, Croix du Sud 1, B1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    2007-03-01

    The biocompatibility of membranes aiming at being a part of a bioartificial pancreas has been tested. For that purpose, we have studied a polycarbonate membrane surface after its implantation in mini-pigs. The membranes were made hydrophilic by an argon plasma surface treatment followed by a dipping in a hydrophilic polymer solution. Two polymers were tested: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). To test their biocompatibility, an encapsulation device for pig Langerhans islets, with external membranes treated as described above, was implanted in different mini-pigs. The pigs received no further treatment. The devices were explanted after in vivo exposure and the membranes were analysed by XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and ToF-SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry). After this time, the substrate with the PVP or HPMC treatment was still detected on the different samples. The surface treatment signal, however, was attenuated. This is explained by the detection of other components partly covering the surface. XPS and ToF-SIMS analyses revealed the presence of biological molecules on the two faces of the membrane: the outside face in contact with the biological environment and the inside face in contact with the device. ToF-SIMS images show the inhomogeneity of the biological molecules on the membrane surface. In conclusion, biological molecules adhered to the encapsulation membrane surface after implantation but the surface treatments remained unaltered.

  8. Surface modification of cation exchange membranes by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemati, Mahsa; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Bagheripour, Ehsan [Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Madaeni, Sayed Siavash [Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Surface modification of polyvinylchloride based heterogeneous cation exchange membrane was performed by graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles. The ion exchange membranes were prepared by solution casting technique. Spectra analysis confirmed graft polymerization clearly. SEM images illustrated that graft polymerization covers the membranes by simple gel network entanglement. The membrane water content was decreased by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles on membrane surface. Membrane transport number and selectivity declined initially by PAA graft polymerization and then began to increase by utilizing of composite nanoparticles in modifier solution. The sodium and barium flux was improved sharply by PAA and PAAco- 0.01%wt PANI/MWCNTs graft polymerization on membrane surface and then decreased again by more increase of PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles content ratio in modifier solution. The electrodialysis experiment results in laboratory scale showed higher dialytic rate in heavy metals removal for grafted-PAA and grafted-PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs modified membrane compared to pristine one. Membrane areal electrical resistance was also decreased by introducing graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs NPs on membrane surface.

  9. Understanding colloidal charge renormilization from surface chemistry : experiment and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gisler, Thomas; Schulz, S. F.; Borkovec, Michal; Sticher, Hans; Schurtenberger, Peter; D'Aguanno, Bruno; Klein, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we report on the charging behavior of latex particles in aqueous suspensions. We use static light scattering and acid-base titrations as complementary techniques to observe both effective and bare particle charges. Acid-base titrations at various ionic strengths provide the pH dependent charging curves. The surface chemical parameters (dissociation constant of the acidic carboxylic groups, total density of ionizable sites and Stem capacitance) are determined from tits of a Stem ...

  10. Silicalite-1 zeolite membranes on unmodified and modified surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicalite-1 zeolite membranes were prepared hydrothermally on the porous ceramic supports, both unmodified and modified with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a coupling agent following ex situ (secondary) crystal growth process. The microstructure of the membranes was examined by scanning electron ...

  11. Highly Hydrophilic Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Ultrafiltration Membranes via Postfabrication Grafting of Surface-Tailored Silica Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Shuai

    2013-07-24

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) has drawn much attention as a predominant ultrafiltration (UF) membrane material due to its outstanding mechanical and physicochemical properties. However, current applications suffer from the low fouling resistance of the PVDF membrane due to the intrinsic hydrophobic property of the membrane. The present study demonstrates a novel approach for the fabrication of a highly hydrophilic PVDF UF membrane via postfabrication tethering of superhydrophilic silica nanoparticles (NPs) to the membrane surface. The pristine PVDF membrane was grafted with poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) by plasma induced graft copolymerization, providing sufficient carboxyl groups as anchor sites for the binding of silica NPs, which were surface-tailored with amine-terminated cationic ligands. The NP binding was achieved through a remarkably simple and effective dip-coating technique in the presence or absence of the N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linking process. The properties of the membrane prepared from the modification without EDC/NHS cross-linking were comparable to those for the membrane prepared with the EDC/NHS cross-linking. Both modifications almost doubled the surface energy of the functionalized membranes, which significantly improved the wettability of the membrane and converted the membrane surface from hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. The irreversibly bound layer of superhydrophilic silica NPs endowed the membranes with strong antifouling performance as demonstrated by three sequential fouling filtration runs using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model organic foulant. The results suggest promising applications of the postfabrication surface modification technique in various membrane separation areas. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with organic-inorganic hybrid material for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Yan, Hao; Yao, Xuerong; Shi, Hongwei; Tang, Yujing; Wei, Xiangrong; Liu, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    A series of thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes based on polyamide have been modified by coating the polyvinyl alcohol and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel process on the membrane surface, followed by thermal crosslinking treatment. In order to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified TFC membranes, the membranes were then immersed into H2O2 aqueous solution to convert -SH into -SO3H. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, streaming potential, XPS as well as static contact angle. After surface modification with the organic-inorganic hybrid material, the TFC membranes show increased NaCl rejection and decreased water flux with increasing 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane content in coating solution. The optimal modification membrane (PA-SMPTES-0.8) exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.29%, higher than that (97.20%) of the virgin PA membrane, and a comparable water flux to virgin PA membrane (41.7 L/m2 h vs 47.9 L/m2 h). More importantly, PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA than virgin PA and PVA modified PA (PA-PVA-1.0) membranes. PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane loses about 13% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is lower than that of virgin PA and PA-PVA-1.0 membranes (42% and 18%). Furthermore, the flux recovery of PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane reaches 94% after cleaning. Thus the TFC membranes modified by this organic-inorganic hybrid technology show potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  13. Surface and charge transport characterization of polyaniline-cellulose acetate composite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Asif A; Hyland, Margaret M; Patterson, Darrell A

    2011-02-24

    This study elucidates the charge transport processes of polyaniline (PANI) composite membranes and correlates them to the PANI deposition site and the extent of PANI surface layering on the base microporous membranes. PANI was deposited either as a surface layer or inside the pores of cellulose acetate microporous membranes using various in situ chemical polymerization techniques. The extent of PANI layering at the surface of the base membrane and its oxidation and doping states were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). PANI deposition on the membranes showed a strong dependence on the polymerization technique and polymerization time within a single technique. In XPS, the deconvolution of C 1s and N 1s core-level spectra of the composite membranes was used to quantify the extent of PANI layering at the surface along with its oxidation and doping states. PANI incompletely covered the surface of the base microporous membranes for all the employed techniques. However, the extent of the layering increased with the polymerization time in a particular technique. The charge transport through the bulk membrane and charge transfer at the membrane/electrode interface were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The data were analyzed using the equivalent circuit modeling technique. The modeling parameters revealed that PANI deposition at the surface enhanced the interfacial charge transfer but the process depended on the extent of the surface coverage of the membrane. In addition, the charge transport in the bulk membrane depended on the PANI intercalation level, which varied depending on the polymerization technique employed. In addition, the EIS of electrolyte-soaked membranes was also conducted to evaluate the effects of PANI deposition site on charge transport in the presence of an electrolyte. PANI layering at the pore walls of the base membrane from diaphragmatic polymerization

  14. Surface modification of model hydrogel contact lenses with hyaluronic acid via thiol-ene "click" chemistry for enhancing surface characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korogiannaki, Myrto; Zhang, Jianfeng; Sheardown, Heather

    2017-10-01

    Discontinuation of contact lens wear as a result of ocular dryness and discomfort is extremely common; as many as 26% of contact lens wearers discontinue use within the first year. While patients are generally satisfied with conventional hydrogel lenses, improving on-eye comfort continues to remain a goal. Surface modification with a biomimetic, ocular friendly hydrophilic layer of a wetting agent is hypothesized to improve the interfacial interactions of the contact lens with the ocular surface. In this work, the synthesis and characterization of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) surfaces grafted with a hydrophilic layer of hyaluronic acid are described. The immobilization reaction involved the covalent attachment of thiolated hyaluronic acid (20 kDa) on acrylated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) via nucleophile-initiated Michael addition thiol-ene "click" chemistry. The surface chemistry of the modified surfaces was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The appearance of N (1s) and S (2p) peaks on the low resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra confirmed successful immobilization of hyaluronic acid. Grafting hyaluronic acid to the poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) surfaces decreased the contact angle, the dehydration rate, and the amount of nonspecific sorption of lysozyme and albumin in comparison to pristine hydrogel materials, suggesting the development of more wettable surfaces with improved water-retentive and antifouling properties, while maintaining optical transparency (>92%). In vitro testing also showed excellent viability of human corneal epithelial cells with the hyaluronic acid-grafted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) surfaces. Hence, surface modification with hyaluronic acid via thiol-ene "click" chemistry could be useful in improving contact lens surface properties, potentially alleviating symptoms of contact lens related dryness and discomfort during

  15. Block copolymer-templated chemistry on Si, Ge, InP, and GaAs surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Masato; Buriak, Jillian M

    2005-06-29

    Patterning of semiconductor surfaces is an area of intense interest, not only for technological applications, such as molecular electronics, sensing, cellular recognition, and others, but also for fundamental understanding of surface reactivity, general control over surface properties, and development of new surface reactivity. In this communication, we describe the use of self-assembling block copolymers to direct semiconductor surface chemistry in a spatially defined manner, on the nanoscale. The proof-of-principle class of reactions evaluated here is galvanic displacement, in which a metal ion, M+, is reduced to M0 by the semiconductor, including Si, Ge, InP, and GaAs. The block copolymer chosen has a polypyridine block which binds to the metal ions and brings them into close proximity with the surface, at which point they undergo reaction; the pattern of resulting surface chemistry, therefore, mirrors the nanoscale structure of the parent block copolymer. This chemistry has the added advantage of forming metal nanostructures that result in an alloy or intermetallic at the interface, leading to strongly bound metal nanoparticles that may have interesting electronic properties. This approach has been shown to be very general, functioning on a variety of semiconductor substrates for both silver and gold deposition, and is being extended to organic and inorganic reactions on a variety of conducting, semiconducting, and insulating substrates.

  16. Deconvoluting the effects of surface chemistry and nanoscale topography: Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm nucleation on Si-based substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Huang, Jinglin; Say, Carmen; Dorit, Robert L; Queeney, K T

    2018-06-01

    The nucleation of biofilms is known to be affected by both the chemistry and topography of the underlying substrate, particularly when topography includes nanoscale (topography vs. chemistry is complicated by concomitant variation in both as a result of typical surface modification techniques. Analyzing the behavior of biofilm-forming bacteria exposed to surfaces with systematic, independent variation of both topography and surface chemistry should allow differentiation of the two effects. Silicon surfaces with reproducible nanotopography were created by anisotropic etching in deoxygenated water. Surface chemistry was varied independently to create hydrophilic (OH-terminated) and hydrophobic (alkyl-terminated) surfaces. The attachment and proliferation of Psuedomonas aeruginosa to these surfaces was characterized over a period of 12 h using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. The number of attached bacteria as well as the structural characteristics of the nucleating biofilm were influenced by both surface nanotopography and surface chemistry. In general terms, the presence of both nanoscale features and hydrophobic surface chemistry enhance bacterial attachment and colonization. However, the structural details of the resulting biofilms suggest that surface chemistry and topography interact differently on each of the four surface types we studied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Color and surface chemistry changes of extracted wood flour after heating at 120 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of heat on color and surface chemistry of wood flour (WF), unextracted, extracted and delignified samples of commercial WF were heated at 120 °C for 24 h and analyzed by colorimetry, diffuse reflectance visible (DRV), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopies....

  18. Challenges in Teaching "Colloid and Surface Chemistry"--A Danish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Vigild, Martin E.

    2009-01-01

    Seven years ago we were asked, as one of our first teaching duties at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), to teach a 5 ECTS point course on "Colloid and Surface Chemistry". The topic is itself at the same time exciting and demanding, largely due to its multidisciplinary nature. Several "local" requirements posed…

  19. Surface Geometry and Chemistry of Hydrothermally Synthesized Single Crystal Thorium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Member Alex G. Li, PhD Member iv AFIT-ENP-MS-15-M-87 Abstract The surface chemistry and geometry of hydrothermally grown, single...Interactions with Materials and Atoms 268(9), pp. 1482-1485. 2010. . DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2010.01.027. [4] J. A. Felix , D. M. Fleetwood, R. D. Schrimpf, J. G

  20. On surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization using diazonium chemistry to introduce the initiator layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iruthayaraj, Joseph; Chernyy, Sergey; Lillethorup, Mie

    2011-01-01

    This work features the controllability of surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of methyl methacrylate, initiated by a multilayered 2-bromoisobutyryl moiety formed via diazonium chemistry. The thickness as a function of polymerization time has been studied by varying...

  1. Laboratory Activity Worksheet to Train High Order Thinking Skill of Student on Surface Chemistry Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonata, B.; Nasrudin, H.

    2018-01-01

    A worksheet has to be a set with activity which is help students to arrange their own experiments. For this reason, this research is focused on how to train students’ higher order thinking skills in laboratory activity by developing laboratory activity worksheet on surface chemistry lecture. To ensure that the laboratory activity worksheet already contains aspects of the higher order thinking skill, it requires theoretical and empirical validation. From the data analysis results, it shows that the developed worksheet worth to use. The worksheet is worthy of theoretical and empirical feasibility. This conclusion is based on the findings: 1) Assessment from the validators about the theoretical feasibility aspects in the category is very feasible with an assessment range of 95.24% to 97.92%. 2) students’ higher thinking skill from N Gain values ranges from 0.50 (enough) to 1.00 (high) so it can be concluded that the laboratory activity worksheet on surface chemistry lecture is empirical in terms of worth. The empirical feasibility is supported by the responses of the students in very reasonable categories. It is expected that the laboratory activity worksheet on surface chemistry lecture can train students’ high order thinking skills for students who program surface chemistry lecture.

  2. Dense inorganic membranes - studies on transport properties, defect chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen separation with dense oxide membranes may be an attractive method for the production of oxygen from air. Another possible application is the direct supply of oxygen in membrane reactors for the (partial) oxidation of hydrocarbons. The driving force for oxygen permeation through dense mixed

  3. Study on surface adhesion of Plasma modified Polytetrafluoroethylene hollow fiber membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangrong; Zhang, Huifeng; Liu, Guochang; Guo, Chungang; Lv, Jinglie; Zhangb, Yushan

    2018-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is popular membrane material because of its excellent thermal stability, chemical stability and mechanical stability. However, the low surface energy and non-sticky property of PTFE present challenges for modification. In the present study, plasma treatment was performed to improve the surface adhesion of PTFE hollow fiber membrane. The effect of discharge voltage, treatment time on the adhesion of PTFE hollow fiber membrane was symmetrically evaluated. Results showed that the plasma treatment method contributed to improve the surface activity and roughness of PTFE hollow fiber membrane, and the adhesion strength depend significantly on discharge voltage, which was beneficial to seepage pressure of PTFE hollow fiber membrane module. The adhesion strength of PTFE membrane by plasma treated at 220V for 3min reached as high as 86.2 N, far surpassing the adhesion strength 12.7 N of pristine membrane. Furthermore, improvement of content of free radical and composition analysis changes of the plasma modified PTFE membrane were investigated. The seepage pressure of PTFE membrane by plasma treated at 220V for 3min was 0.375 MPa, which means that the plasma treatment is an effective technique to improve the adhesion strength of membrane.

  4. Preparation of PES ultrafiltration membranes with natural amino acids based zwitterionic antifouling surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Xiaojiu; Xie, Binbin; Yao, Chen; Hu, Wenhan; Li, Yi; Li, Xinsong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Amino acids have been successfully grafted onto the surface of PES membranes via amino groups induced epoxy ring opening. • Zwitterionic PES ultrafiltration membranes exhibit excellent antifouling performance and improved permeation properties. • A facile strategy to combat fouling of PES ultrafiltration membranes is developed by grafting natural amino acids. - Abstract: In this report, a simple and facile approach to enhance the antifouling property of poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membrane was developed by grafting natural amino acids onto surface. First of all, poly(ether sulfone) composite membranes blended with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) were fabricated by phase inversion method followed by grafting of different types of natural amino acids onto the membrane surface through epoxy ring opening reaction. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified the substantial enrichment of amino acids onto the surface of PES membranes. The hydrophilicity of the PES membranes was improved after grafting amino acids. The mechanical property and morphologies of the PES membranes proved that their basic performances were not obviously affected by grafting reaction, and these parameters were all still in the typical range for ultrafiltration membranes. The antifouling property of the grafted PES membranes against bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (Lyz) was investigated in detail. It was found that PES membranes incorporated with neutral amino acids exhibited higher fouling resistance to both BSA and Lyz than the parent PES membrane. It can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic structure on the surface consisting of protonated secondary amino cations and carboxyl anions. Meanwhile, PES membranes grafted with charged amino acids had better antifouling properties against protein with same electric charges and improved adsorption

  5. Preparation of PES ultrafiltration membranes with natural amino acids based zwitterionic antifouling surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Xiaojiu; Xie, Binbin; Yao, Chen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Hu, Wenhan; Li, Yi [Suzhou Faith & Hope Membrane Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou, 215000 (China); Li, Xinsong, E-mail: lixs@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Amino acids have been successfully grafted onto the surface of PES membranes via amino groups induced epoxy ring opening. • Zwitterionic PES ultrafiltration membranes exhibit excellent antifouling performance and improved permeation properties. • A facile strategy to combat fouling of PES ultrafiltration membranes is developed by grafting natural amino acids. - Abstract: In this report, a simple and facile approach to enhance the antifouling property of poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membrane was developed by grafting natural amino acids onto surface. First of all, poly(ether sulfone) composite membranes blended with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) were fabricated by phase inversion method followed by grafting of different types of natural amino acids onto the membrane surface through epoxy ring opening reaction. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified the substantial enrichment of amino acids onto the surface of PES membranes. The hydrophilicity of the PES membranes was improved after grafting amino acids. The mechanical property and morphologies of the PES membranes proved that their basic performances were not obviously affected by grafting reaction, and these parameters were all still in the typical range for ultrafiltration membranes. The antifouling property of the grafted PES membranes against bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (Lyz) was investigated in detail. It was found that PES membranes incorporated with neutral amino acids exhibited higher fouling resistance to both BSA and Lyz than the parent PES membrane. It can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic structure on the surface consisting of protonated secondary amino cations and carboxyl anions. Meanwhile, PES membranes grafted with charged amino acids had better antifouling properties against protein with same electric charges and improved adsorption

  6. Polydopamine/Cysteine surface modified isoporous membranes with self-cleaning properties

    KAUST Repository

    Shevate, Rahul

    2017-02-03

    The major challenge in membrane filtration is fouling which reduces the membrane performance. Fouling is mainly due to the adhesion of foulants on the membrane surfaces. In this work, we studied the fouling behaviour of polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) isoporous membrane and the mussel inspired polydopamine/L-cysteine isoporous zwitterionic membrane. Polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) isoporous membranes were fabricated via self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation method. Subsequently, the isoporous membrane was modified by a mild mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) coating; the isoporous surface structure and the water flux was retained. Zwitterionic L-cysteine was further anchored on the PDA coated membranes via Michael addition reaction at pH 7 and 50 °C to alleviate their antifouling ability with foulants solution. The membranes were thoroughly characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and zeta potential measurements. Contact angle and dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were carried out to examine the hydrophilicity. The pH-responsive behaviour of the modified membrane remains unchanged and antifouling ability after PDA/L-cysteine functionalization was improved. The modified and unmodified isoporous membranes were tested using humic acid and natural organic matter model solutions at 0.5 bar feed pressure.

  7. Surface chemistry of tribochemical reactions explored in ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara-Romero, Javier; Maya-Yescas, Rafael; Rico-Cerda, Jose Luis; Rivera-Rojas, Jose Luis; Castillo, Fernando Chinas; Kaltchev, Matey; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of model extreme-pressure lubricant additives on clean iron was studied in ultrahigh vacuum conditions using molecular beam strategies. Methylene chloride and chloroform react to deposit a solid film consisting of FeCl 2 and carbon, and evolve only hydrogen into the gas phase. No gas-phase products and less carbon on the surface are detected in the case of carbon tetrachloride. Dimethyl and diethyl disulfide react on clean iron to deposit a saturated sulfur plus carbon layer at low temperatures (∼600 K) and an iron sulfide film onto a Fe + C underlayer at higher temperatures (∼950 K). Methane is the only gas-phase product when dimethyl disulfide reacts with iron. Ethylene and hydrogen are detected when diethyl disulfide is used

  8. Surface Chemistry Involved in Epitaxy of Graphene on 3C-SiC(111)/Si(111)

    OpenAIRE

    Abe Shunsuke; Handa Hiroyuki; Takahashi Ryota; Imaizumi Kei; Fukidome Hirokazu; Suemitsu Maki

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Surface chemistry involved in the epitaxy of graphene by sublimating Si atoms from the surface of epitaxial 3C-SiC(111) thin films on Si(111) has been studied. The change in the surface composition during graphene epitaxy is monitored by in situ temperature-programmed desorption spectroscopy using deuterium as a probe (D2-TPD) and complementarily by ex situ Raman and C1s core-level spectroscopies. The surface of the 3C-SiC(111)/Si(111) is Si-terminated before the graphitization, and ...

  9. Surface modification of seawater desalination reverse osmosis membranes: Characterization studies & performance evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Matin, Asif

    2014-06-01

    In this work we report surface modification of commercial reverse osmosis membranes by depositing ultrathin copolymer coatings, which could potentially enhance the biofouling resistance of RO membranes. Hydrophilic monomer hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and a hydrophobic monomer, perfluorodecyl acrylate (PFDA) were copolymerized directly on the active layer of commercial aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes using an initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) technique. Attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectra (ATR-FTIR) verified the successful modification of the membrane surfaces as a new FTIR adsorption band around 1730cm-1 corresponding to carbonyl groups in the copolymer film appeared after the deposition. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis also confirmed the presence of the copolymer film on the membrane surface by showing strong fluorine peaks emanating from the fluorinated alkyl side chains of the PFA molecules. Contact angle measurements with deionized water showed the modified membrane surfaces to be initially very hydrophobic but quickly assumed a hydrophilic character within few minutes. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed that the deposited films were smooth and conformal as the surface topology of the underlying membrane surface remained virtually unchanged after the deposition. FESEM images of the top surface also showed that the typical ridge-and-valley structure associated with polyamide remained intact after the deposition. Short-term permeation tests using DI water and 2000ppm NaCl water showed that the deposited copolymer coatings had negligible effect on permeate water flux and salt rejection. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Evaluation of the In Vitro Effect of Gold Nanorod Aspect Ratio, Surface Charge and Chemistry on Cellular Association and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Nanorods. Analytical Chemistry , 79(2), 572-579. doi: 10.1021/ac061730d 22 LIST OF ACRONYMS ATCC American Type Culture Collection AR Aspect...EVALUATION OF THE IN VITRO EFFECTOF GOLD NANOROD ASPECT RATIO, SURFACE CHARGE AND CHEMISTRY ON CELLULAR ASSOCIATION AND CYTOTOXICITY...July 2012 – Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EVALUATION OF THE IN VITRO EFFECT OF GOLD NANOROD ASPECT RATIO, SURFACE CHARGE AND CHEMISTRY ON

  11. Modular "click" chemistry for electrochemically and photoelectrochemically active molecular interfaces to tin oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michelle C; Ruther, Rose E; Gerken, James B; Rigsby, Matthew L; Bishop, Lee M; Tan, Yizheng; Stahl, Shannon S; Hamers, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of "click" chemistry to form electrochemically and photoelectrochemically active molecular interfaces to SnO(2) nanoparticle thin films. By using photochemical grafting to link a short-chain alcohol to the surface followed by conversion to a surface azide group, we enable use of the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, a form of "click" chemistry, on metal oxide surfaces. Results are shown with three model compounds to test the surface chemistry and subsequent ability to achieve electrochemical and photoelectrochemical charge transfer. Surface-tethered ferrocene groups exhibit good electron-transfer characteristics with thermal rates estimated at >1000 s(-1). Time-resolved surface photovoltage measurements using a ruthenium terpyridyl coordination compound demonstrate photoelectron charge transfer on time scales of nanoseconds or less, limited by the laser pulse width. The results demonstrate that the CuAAC "click" reaction can be used to form electrochemically and photoelectrochemically active molecular interfaces to SnO(2) and other metal oxide semiconductors.

  12. Amino-functionalized surface modification of polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber-supported polydimethylsiloxane membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Leiqing; Cheng, Jun; Li, Yannan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to improve surface polarity of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes and provide surface active sites which were easy to react with other chemicals. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) containing an amino group was introduced into a PDMS membrane by crosslinking to prepare polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber-supported PDMS membranes with an amino-functionalized surface. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses proved the existence of APTES and its amino group in the PDMS membrane. The concentration of N atoms on the PDMS membrane surface reached ∼6% when the mass ratio of APTES/PDMS oligomer in the PDMS coating solution was increased to 4/3. The water contact angle decreased from ∼114° to ∼87.5°, indicating the improved surface polarization of the PDMS membrane. The density and swelling degree of the PDMS membrane decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing APTES content in PDMS. This phenomenon increased CO2 permeability and decreased CO2/H2 selectivity, CO2/CH4 selectivity, and CO2/N2 selectivity. When the mass ratio of APTES/PDMS oligomer was increased from 0 to 4/3, the CO2 permeation rate of the hollow fiber-supported PDMS membranes initially decreased from ∼2370 GPU to ∼860 GPU and then increased to ∼2000 GPU due to the change in coating solution viscosity.

  13. Application of Nano PAC on Mitigating Membrane Fouling by Surface Properties Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Hairong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane material has been widely accepted owing to the ability in water treatment, but the membrane fouling problem in using process is seriously restricted the promotion of membrane technology. So in this research nano PAC flocculant is added into the raw water to reach the goals of strengthening treatment efficiency and mitigating membrane fouling. According to the TMP change, it results that the PAC dosage of 45mg/L can realize the purpose to mitigate membrane fouling best. Compared with MBR, the MCBR is 16 days tardiness at the change of TMP, 1/3 gel layer filtration resistance less and 3.5% C element content fewer. The sum of C, O and N elements content, in addition, in the gel layer pollutants is more than 95%. That means membrane pollution is mainly caused by organic matter and nano PAC has the effect on surface properties optimization and membrane fouling mitigating.

  14. [Effects of surface roughness of bone cements on histological characteristics of induced membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Hua-Zi; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Gang; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Peng, Lei

    2012-08-01

    To explore surface roughness of bone cement and surround tissue on histological characteristic of induced membranes. Bone cements with smooth and rough surface were implanted in radius bone defect, intramuscular and subcutaneous sites of rabbits, and formed induced membranes. Membranes were obtained and stained (HE) 6 weeks later. Images of membrane tissue were obtained and analyzed with an automated image analysis system. Five histological parameters of membranes were measured with thickness,area,cell density,ECM density and microvessel density. Double factor variance analysis was used to evaluate the effect of the two factors on histological characteristics of induced membranes. Membranes can be induced by each kind of bone cement and at all the three tissue sites. In histological parameters of thickness,area and micro vessel,there were significant differences among the membranes induced at different tissue sites (P = 0.000, P = 0.000, P = 0.000); whereas, there were no significant differences in histological parameters of cell density and ECM density (P = 0.734, P = 0.638). In all five histological parameters of membranes, there were no significant differences between the membranes induced by bone cements with different surface roughness (P = 0.506, P = 0.185, P = 0.883, P = 0.093, P = 0.918). Surround tissue rather than surface roughness of bone cements can affect the histological characteristics of induced membranes. The fibrocystic number, vascularity, mechanical tension and micro motion of the surround tissue may be closely correlated with the histological characteristics of induced membranes.

  15. High-productivity membrane adsorbers: Polymer surface-modification studies for ion-exchange and affinity bioseparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenette, Heather C. S.

    This dissertation centers on the surface-modification of macroporous membranes to make them selective adsorbers for different proteins, and the analysis of the performance of these membranes relative to existing technology. The common approach used in these studies, which is using membrane technology for chromatographic applications and using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) as a surface modification technique, will be introduced and supported by a brief review in Chapter 1. The specific approaches to address the unique challenges and motivations of each study system are given in the introduction sections of the respective dissertation chapters. Chapter 2 describes my work to develop cation-exchange membranes. I discuss the polymer growth kinetics and characterization of the membrane surface. I also present an analysis of productivity, which measures the mass of protein that can bind to the stationary phase per volume of stationary phase adsorbing material per time. Surprisingly and despite its importance, this performance measure was not described in previous literature. Because of the significantly shorter residence time necessary for binding to occur, the productivity of these cation-exchange membrane adsorbers (300 mg/mL/min) is nearly two orders of magnitude higher than the productivity of a commercial resin product (4 mg/mL/min). My work studying membrane adsorbers for affinity separations was built on the productivity potential of this approach, as articulated in the conclusion of Chapter 2. Chapter 3 focuses on the chemical formulation work to incorporate glycoligands into the backbone of polymer tentacles grown from the surface of the same membrane stationary phase. Emphasis is given to characterizing and testing the working formulation for ligand incorporation, and details about how I arrived at this formulation are given in Appendix B. The plant protein, or lectin, Concanavalin A (conA) was used as the target protein. The carbohydrate affinity

  16. New Highly-Sensitive Methods for Electroanalytical Chemistry Based on Nanotubule Membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobayashi, Yoshio

    1999-01-01

    Two new methods of electroanalysis are described. These methods are based on membranes containing monodisperse Au nanotubules with inside diameters approaching molecular dimensions (approx. 1 to approx. 3 nm...

  17. Interaction between carbon fibers and polymer sizing: Influence of fiber surface chemistry and sizing reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosburger-Will, Judith; Bauer, Matthias; Laukmanis, Eva; Horny, Robert; Wetjen, Denise; Manske, Tamara; Schmidt-Stein, Felix; Töpker, Jochen; Horn, Siegfried

    2018-05-01

    Different aspects of the interaction of carbon fibers and epoxy-based polymer sizings are investigated, e.g. the wetting behavior, the strength of adhesion between fiber and sizing, and the thermal stability of the sizing layer. The influence of carbon fiber surface chemistry and sizing reactivity is investigated using fibers of different degree of anodic oxidation and sizings with different number of reactive epoxy groups per molecule. Wetting of the carbon fibers by the sizing dispersion is found to be specified by both, the degree of fiber activation and the sizing reactivity. In contrast, adhesion strength between fibers and sizing is dominated by the surface chemistry of the carbon fibers. Here, the number of surface oxygen groups seems to be the limiting factor. We also find that the sizing and the additional functionalities induced by anodic oxidation are removed by thermal treatment at 600 °C, leaving the carbon fiber in its original state after carbonization.

  18. Surface pH controls purple-to-blue transition of bacteriorhodopsin. A theoretical model of purple membrane surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szundi, I; Stoeckenius, W

    1989-08-01

    We have developed a surface model of purple membrane and applied it in an analysis of the purple-to-blue color change of bacteriorhodopsin which is induced by acidification or deionization. The model is based on dissociation and double layer theory and the known membrane structure. We calculated surface pH, ion concentrations, charge density, and potential as a function of bulk pH and concentration of mono- and divalent cations. At low salt concentrations, the surface pH is significantly lower than the bulk pH and it becomes independent of bulk pH in the deionized membrane suspension. Using an experimental acid titration curve for neutral, lipid-depleted membrane, we converted surface pH into absorption values. The calculated bacteriohodopsin color changes for acidification of purple, and titrations of deionized blue membrane with cations or base agree well with experimental results. No chemical binding is required to reproduce the experimental curves. Surface charge and potential changes in acid, base and cation titrations are calculated and their relation to the color change is discussed. Consistent with structural data, 10 primary phosphate and two basic surface groups per bacteriorhodopsin are sufficient to obtain good agreement between all calculated and experimental curves. The results provide a theoretical basis for our earlier conclusion that the purple-to-blue transition must be attributed to surface phenomena and not to cation binding at specific sites in the protein.

  19. Colloid Surface Chemistry Critically Affects Multiple Particle Tracking Measurements of Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, M. T.; Perlman, Z. E.; Gardel, M. L.; Shin, J. H.; Matsudaira, P.; Mitchison, T. J.; Weitz, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of complex biomaterials using microrheological techniques has the promise of providing fundamental insights into their biomechanical functions; however, precise interpretations of such measurements are hindered by inadequate characterization of the interactions between tracers and the networks they probe. We here show that colloid surface chemistry can profoundly affect multiple particle tracking measurements of networks of fibrin, entangled F-actin solutions, and networks of cross-linked F-actin. We present a simple protocol to render the surface of colloidal probe particles protein-resistant by grafting short amine-terminated methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) to the surface of carboxylated microspheres. We demonstrate that these poly(ethylene glycol)-coated tracers adsorb significantly less protein than particles coated with bovine serum albumin or unmodified probe particles. We establish that varying particle surface chemistry selectively tunes the sensitivity of the particles to different physical properties of their microenvironments. Specifically, particles that are weakly bound to a heterogeneous network are sensitive to changes in network stiffness, whereas protein-resistant tracers measure changes in the viscosity of the fluid and in the network microstructure. We demonstrate experimentally that two-particle microrheology analysis significantly reduces differences arising from tracer surface chemistry, indicating that modifications of network properties near the particle do not introduce large-scale heterogeneities. Our results establish that controlling colloid-protein interactions is crucial to the successful application of multiple particle tracking techniques to reconstituted protein networks, cytoplasm, and cells. PMID:15189896

  20. Surface modification of PTMSP membranes by plasma treatment: Asymmetry of transport in organic solvent nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, A V; Tsarkov, S E; Gilman, A B; Khotimsky, V S; Roldughin, V I; Volkov, V V

    2015-08-01

    For the first time, the effect of asymmetry of the membrane transport was studied for organic solvents and solutes upon their nanofiltration through the plasma-modified membranes based on poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP). Plasma treatment is shown to provide a marked hydrophilization of the hydrophobic PTMSP surface (the contact angle of water decreases from 88 down to 20°) and leads to the development of a negative charge of -5.2 nC/cm(2). The XPS measurements prove the formation of the oxygen-containing groups (Si-O and C-O) due to the surface modification. The AFM images show that the small-scale surface roughness of the plasma-treated PTMSP sample is reduced but the large-scale surface heterogeneities become more pronounced. The modified membranes retain their hydrophilic surface properties even after the nanofiltration tests and 30-day storage under ambient conditions. The results of the filtration tests show that when the membrane is oriented so that its modified layer contacts the feed solution, the membrane permeability for linear alcohols (methanol-propanol) and acetone decreases nearly two times. When the modified membrane surface faces the permeate, the membrane is seen to regain its transport characteristics: the flux becomes equal to that of the unmodified PTMSP. The well-pronounced effect of the transport asymmetry is observed for the solution of the neutral dye Solvent Blue 35 in methanol, ethanol, and acetone. For example, the initial membrane shows the negative retention for the Solvent Blue 35 dye (-16%) upon its filtration from the ethanol solution whereas, for the modified PTMSP membrane, the retention increases up to 17%. Various effects contributing to the asymmetry of the membrane transport characteristics are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of surface microstructure and chemistry on osteoinduction and osteoclastogenesis by biphasic calcium phosphate discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, N L; Su, J; Yuan, H; van den Beucken, J J J P; de Bruijn, J D; Barrère-de Groot, F

    2015-06-20

    It has been reported that surface microstructural dimensions can influence the osteoinductivity of calcium phosphates (CaPs), and osteoclasts may play a role in this process. We hypothesised that surface structural dimensions of ≤ 1 μm trigger osteoinduction and osteoclast formation irrespective of macrostructure (e.g., concavities, interconnected macropores, interparticle space) or surface chemistry. To test this, planar discs made of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP: 80% hydroxyapatite, 20% tricalcium phosphate) were prepared with different surface structural dimensions - either ~ 1 μm (BCP1150) or ~ 2-4 μm (BCP1300) - and no macropores or concavities. A third material was made by sputter coating BCP1150 with titanium (BCP1150Ti), thereby changing its surface chemistry but preserving its surface structure and chemical reactivity. After intramuscular implantation in 5 dogs for 12 weeks, BCP1150 formed ectopic bone in 4 out of 5 samples, BCP1150Ti formed ectopic bone in 3 out of 5 samples, and BCP1300 formed no ectopic bone in any of the 5 samples. In vivo, large multinucleated osteoclast-like cells densely colonised BCP1150, smaller osteoclast-like cells formed on BCP1150Ti, and osteoclast-like cells scarcely formed on BCP1300. In vitro, RAW264.7 cells cultured on the surface of BCP1150 and BCP1150Ti in the presence of osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL (receptor activator for NF-κB ligand) proliferated then differentiated into multinucleated osteoclast-like cells with positive tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. However, cell proliferation, fusion, and TRAP activity were all significantly inhibited on BCP1300. These results indicate that of the material parameters tested - namely, surface microstructure, macrostructure, and surface chemistry - microstructural dimensions are critical in promoting osteoclastogenesis and triggering ectopic bone formation.

  2. Effects of wood fiber surface chemistry on strength of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migneault, Sébastien; Koubaa, Ahmed; Perré, Patrick; Riedl, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Because wood-plastic composites (WPC) strength relies on fiber-matrix interaction at fiber surface, it is likely that fiber surface chemistry plays an important role in WPC strength development. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between fiber surface chemical characteristics and WPC mechanical properties. Different fibers were selected and characterized for surface chemical characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). WPC samples were manufactured at 40% fiber content and with six different fibers. High density polyethylene was used as matrix and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibility agent. WPC samples were tested for mechanical properties and fiber-matrix interface was observed with scanning electron microscope. It was found WPC strength decreases as the amount of unoxidized carbon (assigned to lignin and extractives) measured with XPS on fiber surface increases. In the opposite case, WPC strength increases with increasing level of oxidized carbon (assigned to carbohydrates) on fiber surface. The same conclusions were found with FTIR where WPC strength decreases as lignin peaks intensity increases. Esterification reaction of fibers with MAPE occurs on polar sites of carbohydrates, such as hydroxyls (Osbnd H). Thus, fibers with carbohydrates-rich surface, such as cellulose pulp, produced stronger WPC samples. Other factors such as mechanical interlocking and fiber morphology interfered with the effects of fiber surface chemistry.

  3. Calcium phosphate scaling during wastewater desalination on oligoamide surfaces mimicking reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinam, Karthik; Oren, Yoram; Petry, Winfried; Schwahn, Dietmar; Kasher, Roni

    2018-01-01

    Desalinated domestic wastewater is an indispensable water resource in arid regions; however, its recovery can be limited by calcium phosphate scaling and fouling of the membrane. Here we investigated calcium phosphate mineralization on oligoamide surfaces that mimics reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane surfaces. We used a solution that simulates desalination of secondary treated domestic wastewater effluents for calcium phosphate mineralization experiments with oligoamide-coated gold surfaces. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry showed that calcium phosphate and carbonate precipitated on RO mimetic surfaces. The rate of precipitation on oligoamide sensors was monitored by a quartz crystal microbalance, showing that scaling was more intense on the RO than the NF mimetic surface and that excessive carboxyl functional groups on both surfaces promoted scaling. Filtration experiments of similar solutions with commercial membranes showed that scaling was more intense on the RO membranes than on the NF membranes, which supported the results obtained with the oligoamide model surfaces. The results of this study can be implemented in developing RO and NF membranes to prevent calcium phosphate scaling and consequently lower water-treatment costs of domestic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cells and In Vivo using Targeted Click Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Angela; Pell, Victoria R; Shaffer, Karl J; Evans, Cameron; Stanley, Nathan J; Robb, Ellen L; Prime, Tracy A; Chouchani, Edward T; Cochemé, Helena M; Fearnley, Ian M; Vidoni, Sara; James, Andrew M; Porteous, Carolyn M; Partridge, Linda; Krieg, Thomas; Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P

    2016-02-09

    The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) is a major determinant and indicator of cell fate, but it is not possible to assess small changes in Δψm within cells or in vivo. To overcome this, we developed an approach that utilizes two mitochondria-targeted probes each containing a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) lipophilic cation that drives their accumulation in response to Δψm and the plasma membrane potential (Δψp). One probe contains an azido moiety and the other a cyclooctyne, which react together in a concentration-dependent manner by "click" chemistry to form MitoClick. As the mitochondrial accumulation of both probes depends exponentially on Δψm and Δψp, the rate of MitoClick formation is exquisitely sensitive to small changes in these potentials. MitoClick accumulation can then be quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This approach enables assessment of subtle changes in membrane potentials within cells and in the mouse heart in vivo. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanoporous Membrane Technologies for Pathogen Collection, Separation, and Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sang W; Shang, Hao; Lee, Gil U; Griffin, Matthew T; Fulton, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Partial contents: Nanoporous Membranes, Membrane Chemistries, Characterization of Membrane Chemistries,Protein Fouling, Collector,Gas and Liquid Permeabilities, Membrane Permeabilities in the Presence of Water...

  6. Major Successes of Theory-and-Experiment-Combined Studies in Surface Chemistry and Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2009-11-21

    Experimental discoveries followed by theoretical interpretations that pave the way of further advances by experimentalists is a developing pattern in modern surface chemistry and catalysis. The revolution of modern surface science started with the development of surface-sensitive techniques such as LEED, XPS, AES, ISS and SIMS, in which the close collaboration between experimentalists and theorists led to the quantitative determination of surface structure and composition. The experimental discovery of the chemical activity of surface defects and the trends in the reactivity of transitional metals followed by the explanations from the theoretical studies led to the molecular level understanding of active sites in catalysis. The molecular level knowledge, in turn, provided a guide for experiments to search for new generation of catalysts. These and many other examples of successes in experiment-and-theory-combined studies demonstrate the importance of the collaboration between experimentalists and theorists in the development of modern surface science.

  7. Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Saeui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life—a single cell—and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate “functional biomaterial”. To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies—as they rapidly mature—hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

  8. Surface pH controls purple-to-blue transition of bacteriorhodopsin. A theoretical model of purple membrane surface

    OpenAIRE

    Szundi, I.; Stoeckenius, W.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a surface model of purple membrane and applied it in an analysis of the purple-to-blue color change of bacteriorhodopsin which is induced by acidification or deionization. The model is based on dissociation and double layer theory and the known membrane structure. We calculated surface pH, ion concentrations, charge density, and potential as a function of bulk pH and concentration of mono- and divalent cations. At low salt concentrations, the surface pH is significantly lowe...

  9. Gas Phase Transport, Adsorption and Surface Diffusion in Porous Glass Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, J.; Čermáková, Jiřina; Uchytil, Petr; Hamel, Ch.; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 104, 2-4 (2005), s. 344-351 ISSN 0920-5861. [International Conference on Catalysis in Membrane Reactors /6./. Lahnstein, 06.07.2004-09.07.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : gas phase transport * vycor glass * adsorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2005

  10. Corona-induced graft polymerization for surface modification of porous polyethersulfone membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liping; Zhu Baoku; Xu Li; Feng Yongxiang; Liu Fu; Xu Youyi

    2007-01-01

    Graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto porous polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surfaces was developed using corona discharge in atmospheric ambience as an activation process followed by polymerization of AA in aqueous solution. The effects of the corona parameters and graft polymerization conditions on grafting yield (GY) of AA were investigated. The grafting of AA on the PES membranes was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Porosimetry measurements indicate the average pore diameters and porosities of the modified membranes decrease with the increase of the GY. The hydrophilicity and surface wetting properties of the original and modified membranes were evaluated by observing the dynamic changes of water contact angles. It is found that the grafting of AA occurs not only on the membrane surfaces, but also on the pore walls of the cells inside the membrane. The permeability experiments of protein solution reveal that the grafting of PAA endows the modified membranes with enhanced fluxes and anti-fouling properties. The optimized GY of AA is in the range of 150-200 μg/cm 2 . In addition, the tensile experiments show the corona discharge treatment with the power lower than 150 W yields little damage to the mechanical strength of the membranes

  11. Surface characterization of the chitosan membrane after oxygen plasma treatment and its aging effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yingjun; Yin Shiheng; Ren Li; Zhao Lianna

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan has received considerable attention for biomedical applications in recent years because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this paper, angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) was carried out to investigate the chemical groups' spatial orientation on the chitosan membrane surface. Oxygen plasma treatment was also employed to improve the surface hydrophilicity of the chitosan membrane. The results of ARXPS revealed the distribution of surface polar groups, such as-OH and O=CNH 2 toward the membrane bulk, which was the origin of the chitosan membrane surface hydrophobicity. The contact angle measurements and XPS results indicated that oxygen plasma treatment can markedly improve the surface hydrophilicity and surface energy of the chitosan membrane by incorporating oxygen-containing polar groups. With the existence of the aging process, the influence of plasma treatment was not permanent, it faded with storage time. The ARXPS result discovered that the reorientation of polar functional groups generated by plasma treatment toward the membrane bulk was primarily responsible for the aging effect.

  12. Surface and protein analyses of normal human cell attachment on PIII-modified chitosan membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saranwong, N. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Inthanon, K. [Human and Animal Cell Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W., E-mail: weerah@chiangmai.ac.th [Human and Animal Cell Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Nanotechnology Center of Excellence and Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90110 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-02-01

    Surface of chitosan membrane was modified with argon (Ar) and nitrogen (N) plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) for human skin fibroblasts F1544 cell attachment. The modified surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell attachment patterns were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantify levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The results showed that Ar PIII had an enhancement effect on the cell attachment while N-PIII had an inhibition effect. Filopodial analysis revealed more microfilament cytoplasmic spreading on the edge of cells attached on the Ar-treated membranes than N-treated membranes. Higher level FAK was found in Ar-treated membranes than that in N-treated membranes.

  13. Atmospheric-pressure plasma activation and surface characterization on polyethylene membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    The surface hydrophilic activation of a polyethylene membrane separator was achieved using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. The surface of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator was found to be highly hydrophilic realized by adjusting the plasma power input. The variations in membrane separator chemical structure were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical analysis showed newly formed carbonyl-containing groups and high surface concentrations of oxygen-containing species on the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated polymeric separator surface. It also showed that surface hydrophilicity primarily increased from the polar component after atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The surface and pore structures of the polyethylene membrane separator were examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a slight alteration in the pore structure. As a result of the incorporation of polar functionalities by atmospheric-pressure plasma activation, the electrolyte uptake and electrochemical impedance of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator improved. The investigational results show that the separator surface can be controlled by atmospheric-pressure plasma surface treatment to tailor the hydrophilicity and enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  14. Surface characterization of dialyzer polymer membranes by imaging ToF-SIMS and quantitative XPS line scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzweber, Markus; Lippitz, Andreas; Krueger, Katharina; Jankowski, Joachim; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2015-03-24

    The surfaces of polymeric dialyzer membranes consisting of polysulfone and polyvinylpyrrolidone were investigated regarding the lateral distribution and quantitative surface composition using time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Knowledge of the distribution and composition on the outer surface region is of utmost importance for understanding the biocompatibility of such dialyzer membranes. Both flat membranes and hollow fiber membranes were studied.

  15. Surface modification of a proton exchange membrane and hydrogen storage in a metal hydride for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Lisa

    Interest in fuel cell technology is rising as a result of the need for more affordable and available fuel sources. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells involve the catalysis of a fuel to release protons and electrons. It requires the use of a polymer electrolyte membrane to transfer protons through the cell, while the electrons pass through an external circuit, producing electricity. The surface modification of the polymer, NafionRTM, commonly researched as a proton exchange membrane, may improve efficiency of a fuel cell. Surface modification can change the chemistry of the surface of a polymer while maintaining bulk properties. Plasma modification techniques such as microwave discharge of an argon and oxygen gas mixture as well as vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis may cause favorable chemical and physical changes on the surface of Nafion for improved fuel cell function. A possible increase in hydrophilicity as a result of microwave discharge experiments may increase proton conductivity. Grafting of acrylic acid from the surface of modified Nafion may decrease the permeation of methanol in a direct methanol fuel cell, a process which can decrease efficiency. Modification of the surface of Nafion samples were carried out using: 1) An indirect Ar/O2 gas mixture plasma investigating the reaction of oxygen radicals with the surface, 2) A direct Ar/O2 gas mixture plasma investigating the reaction of oxygen radicals and VUV radiation with the surface and, 3) VUV photolysis investigating exclusively the interaction of VUV radiation with the surface and any possible oxidation upon exposure to air. Acrylic acid was grafted from the VUV photolysed Nafion samples. All treated surfaces were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the grafted Nafion samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements were used to analyze experiments 2 and 3. Using hydrogen as fuel is a

  16. Modelling interstellar physics and chemistry: implications for surface and solid-state processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Viti, Serena

    2013-07-13

    We discuss several types of regions in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and other galaxies in which the chemistry appears to be influenced or dominated by surface and solid-state processes occurring on or in interstellar dust grains. For some of these processes, for example, the formation of H₂ molecules, detailed experimental and theoretical approaches have provided excellent fundamental data for incorporation into astrochemical models. In other cases, there is an astrochemical requirement for much more laboratory and computational study, and we highlight these needs in our description. Nevertheless, in spite of the limitations of the data, it is possible to infer from astrochemical modelling that surface and solid-state processes play a crucial role in astronomical chemistry from early epochs of the Universe up to the present day.

  17. Surface Modification of Nanoporous 1,2-Polybutadiene by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization or Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Schulte, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and click chemistry were used to obtain functional nanoporous polymers based oil nanoporous 1,2-polybutadiene (PB) with gyroid morphology. The ATRP monolith initiator was prepared by immobilizing bromoester initiators onto the pore walls...... ATRP-grafting of hydrophilic polyacrylates and click of MPEG, the originally hydrophobic samples transformed into hydrophilic nanoporous materials. The successful modification was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements and measurements of spontaneous water uptake, while...

  18. Proton migration along the membrane surface in the absence of charged or titratable groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Proton diffusion along membrane surfaces is thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as energy transduction. For example, proton diffusion along membrane surfaces is considered to be the dominant mechanism of proton exchange between membrane sites of high and low proton concentrations. For the investigation of this mechanism, kinetic experiments on proton diffusion are evaluated to determine the ability of lipid membranes to retain protons on their surfaces. Experiments on different lipid bilayer membranes (DPhPC, DPhPE and GMO) are performed under the influence of two types of mobile buffer molecules (Capso, NH4CL). During these experiments the surface diffusion of photolytically released protons is visualized in terms of fluorescence changes of a lipid bound pH-sensitive dye (DHPE +fluorescein). The protons under investigation are released by flash photolysis of a hydrophobic caged compound (DMCM, caged diethyl phosphate). The experimental data confirm the existence of an energy barrier, which prevents the protons from escaping into the bulk. So far this effect was attributed to the proton binding to titrateable groups (e.g. ethanolamine) or electrostatic forces created by charged moieties (e.g. phosphate groups) on the membrane/water interface. However, upon removal of the titrateable groups and charged moieties from the membrane surface, a significant energy barrier remained as indicated by the experiments with glycerol monooleate (GMO) bilayers. To estimate the size of the barrier a semi-analytical model is presented that describes the two and three dimensional proton diffusion and the related physical and chemical processes. Common models describe surface proton diffusion as a series of subsequent hopping processes between membrane-anchored buffer molecules. Our experiments provide evidence for an alternative model. We released membrane-bound caged protons by UV flashes and monitored their arrival at distant sites s by fluorescence

  19. Effects of wood fiber surface chemistry on strength of wood–plastic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migneault, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.migneault@uqat.ca [University of Quebec in Abitibi-Temiscamingue (UQAT), 445 boulevard de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); Koubaa, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.koubaa@uqat.ca [UQAT (Canada); Perré, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.perre@ecp.fr [École centrale de Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, F-92 295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Riedl, Bernard, E-mail: Bernard.Riedl@sbf.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, 2425 rue de la Terrasse, Québec City, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed variations of surface chemical characteristics according to fiber origin. • Surface chemical characteristics of fibers could partly explain the differences in mechanical properties of the wood–plastic composites. • Fibers with carbohydrate rich surface led to stronger wood–plastic composites because the coupling between the matrix and fibers using coupling agent is achieved with polar sites mostly available on carbohydrates. • Conversely, lignin or extractives rich surface do not have oxidized functions for the esterification reaction with coupling agent and thus led to wood–plastic composites with lower mechanical properties. • Other factors such as mechanical interlocking and fiber morphology interfere with the effects of fiber surface chemistry. - Abstract: Because wood–plastic composites (WPC) strength relies on fiber-matrix interaction at fiber surface, it is likely that fiber surface chemistry plays an important role in WPC strength development. The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between fiber surface chemical characteristics and WPC mechanical properties. Different fibers were selected and characterized for surface chemical characteristics using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). WPC samples were manufactured at 40% fiber content and with six different fibers. High density polyethylene was used as matrix and maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibility agent. WPC samples were tested for mechanical properties and fiber-matrix interface was observed with scanning electron microscope. It was found WPC strength decreases as the amount of unoxidized carbon (assigned to lignin and extractives) measured with XPS on fiber surface increases. In the opposite case, WPC strength increases with increasing level of oxidized carbon (assigned to carbohydrates) on fiber surface. The same

  20. Microstructure and surface chemistry of amorphous alloys important to their friction and wear behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the microstructure and surface chemistry of amorphous alloys, and their effects on tribological behavior. The results indicate that the surface oxide layers present on amorphous alloys are effective in providing low friction and a protective film against wear in air. Clustering and crystallization in amorphous alloys can be enhanced as a result of plastic flow during the sliding process at a low sliding velocity, at room temperature. Clusters or crystallines with sizes to 150 nm and a diffused honeycomb-shaped structure are produced on sizes to 150 nm and a diffused honeycomb-shaped structure are produced on the wear surface. Temperature effects lead to drastic changes in surface chemistry and friction behavior of the alloys at temperatures to 750 C. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the alloys to the surface upon heating and impart to the surface oxides at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The oxides increase friction while the boron nitride reduces friction drastically in vacuum.

  1. Adsorption of Dyes in Studying the Surface Chemistry of Ultradispersed Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, T. D.; Yunusova, G. R.; Lanin, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    The effect the surface chemistry of ultradispersed diamond (UDD) has on the adsorption of watersoluble dyes is considered. A comparison is made to adsorption on graphitized thermal carbon black (GTCB), which has a homogeneous and nonporous surface. The adsorption isotherms of dyes and the dependence of the adsorption on the pH of solutions are measured. It is found that UDD adsorbs acid (anionic) dyes—acid orange (AO) and acid anthraquinone blue (AAB)—but barely adsorbs a basic (cationic) dye, methylene blue (MB), because of the predominance of positively charged basic groups on the surface of UDD. The maximum adsorption of AO is much lower on UDD than on GTCB, while the maximum adsorption of AAB is similar for both surfaces. The adsorption of AO on UDD depends strongly on the pH of the solution, while the adsorption of AAB is independent of this parameter. It is suggested that the adsorption of AAB is determined not only by ionic and hydrophobic interactions but also by coordination interactions with impurity metal ions on a UDD surface. It is concluded that the adsorption of dyes characterizes the chemistry of a UDD surface with high sensitivity.

  2. The contribution of inflammasome components on macrophage response to surface nanotopography and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Susan; Bachhuka, Akash; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Implantable devices have become an established part of medical practice. However, often a negative inflammatory host response can impede the integration and functionality of the device. In this paper, we interrogate the role of surface nanotopography and chemistry on the potential molecular role of the inflammasome in controlling macrophage responses. To achieve this goal we engineered model substrata having precisely controlled nanotopography of predetermined height and tailored outermost surface chemistry. Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were harvested from genetically engineered mice deficient in the inflammasome components ASC, NLRP3 and AIM2. These cells were then cultured on these nanoengineered substrata and assessed for their capacity to attach and express pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our data provide evidence that the inflammasome components ASC, NLRP3 and AIM2 play a role in regulating macrophage adhesion and activation in response to surface nanotopography and chemistry. The findings of this paper are important for understanding the inflammatory consequences caused by biomaterials and pave the way to the rational design of future implantable devices having controlled and predictable inflammatory outcomes.

  3. The role of surface chemistry in the cytotoxicity profile of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Waqar; Bourdo, Shawn; Petibone, Dayton M; Saini, Viney; Vang, Kieng Bao; Nima, Zeid A; Alghazali, Karrer M; Darrigues, Emilie; Ghosh, Anindya; Watanabe, Fumiya; Casciano, Daniel; Ali, Syed F; Biris, Alexandru S

    2017-04-01

    Graphene and its derivative, because of their unique physical, electrical and chemical properties, are an important class of nanomaterials being proposed as foundational materials in nanomedicine as well as for a variety of industrial applications. A major limitation for graphene, when used in biomedical applications, is its poor solubility due to its rather hydrophobic nature. Therefore, chemical functionalities are commonly introduced to alter both its surface chemistry and biochemical activity. Here, we show that surface chemistry plays a major role in the toxicological profile of the graphene structures. To demonstrate this, we chemically increased the oxidation level of the pristine graphene and compared the corresponding toxicological effects along with those for the graphene oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that pristine graphene had the lowest amount of surface oxygen, while graphene oxide had the highest at 2.5% and 31%, respectively. Low and high oxygen functionalized graphene samples were found to have 6.6% and 24% surface oxygen, respectively. Our results showed a dose-dependent trend in the cytotoxicity profile, where pristine graphene was the most cytotoxic, with decreasing toxicity observed with increasing oxygen content. Increased surface oxygen also played a role in nanomaterial dispersion in water or cell culture medium over longer periods. It is likely that higher dispersity might result in graphene entering into cells as individual flakes ~1 nm thick rather than as more cytotoxic aggregates. In conclusion, changes in graphene's surface chemistry resulted in altered solubility and toxicity, suggesting that a generalized toxicity profile would be rather misleading. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Industrial applications of membrane processes in chemistry and energy generation; Applications industrielles des procedes membranaires en chimie et production d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The French membranes club (CFM), with the sustain of the French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized this meeting which aims to present the most recent industrial realizations in the domain of membrane processes in the chemistry and energy generation sectors. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations: 1 - hydrogen purification and CO{sub 2} extraction: development of polymer matrix and metal nano-particulate hybrid membranes for selective membrane applications; study of silicone-based mixed matrix membranes for hydrogen purification via inverse selectivity principle; CO{sub 2} capture from gaseous effluents for its sequestration: role and limitations of membrane processes; membranes and processes for the abatement of the acid gas content of smokes; new structural model for Nafion{sup R} membranes, the benchmark polymer for low temperature fuel cells; 2 - molecular screen-based membranes: MFI-alumina nano-composite ceramic membranes: preparation and characterization, gaseous transport and separation; characterization and permeation properties of supported MFI membranes; in-situ measurement of butane isomers diffusion in MFI zeolite membranes through transient permeation tests; 3 - vapors separation: stability of silver particulates in PA12-PTMO/AgBF{sub 4} composite membranes and its effect on the easier ethylene transport inside these membranes; 4 - separation of liquid organic mixtures: isomers separation using cyclo-dextrins bearing membranes: application to the extraction and separation of xylene isomers; electrodialysis in organic environment: application to the electro-synthesis; study of polymer materials permeability; 5 - treatment of industrial waters: use of NanoFlux software in the modeling of nano-filtration membrane processes in the chemical industry: elimination of sulfate impurities from 'Chloralkali' brines; ultra-filtration of a wastewater containing partially emulsified oil; efficiency of a hybrid membrane separation

  5. Organic fouling behavior of superhydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membranes functionalized with surface-tailored nanoparticles: Implications for organic fouling in membrane bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Shuai

    2014-08-01

    This study systematically investigates the organic fouling behavior of a superhydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membrane functionalized via post-fabrication tethering of surface-tailored silica nanoparticles to poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted PVDF membrane surface. Sodium alginate (SA), Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as model organic foulants to investigate the antifouling behavior of the superhydrophilic membrane with combined-fouling (mixture of foulants) and individual-fouling (single foulant) tests. A membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant supernatant was also used to verify the organic antifouling property of the superhydrophilic membrane under realistic conditions. Foulant size distributions and foulant-membrane interfacial forces were measured to interpret the observed membrane fouling behavior. Molecular weight cutoff measurements confirmed that membrane functionalization did not adversely affect the intrinsic membrane selectivity. Both filtration tests with the synthetic foulant-mixture solution (containing SA, SRNOM, and BSA) and MBR plant supernatant demonstrated the reliability and durability of the antifouling property of the superhydrophilic membrane. The conspicuous reduction in foulant-membrane interfacial forces for the functionalized membrane further verified the antifouling properties of the superhydrophilic membrane, suggesting great potential for applications in wastewater treatment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Polyamide desalination membrane characterization and surface modification to enhance fouling resistance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mukul M. (Univeristy of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Freeman, Benny D. (Univeristy of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Van Wagner, Elizabeth M. (Univeristy of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Hickner, Michael A. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-08-01

    The market for polyamide desalination membranes is expected to continue to grow during the coming decades. Purification of alternative water sources will also be necessary to meet growing water demands. Purification of produced water, a byproduct of oil and gas production, is of interest due to its dual potential to provide water for beneficial use as well as to reduce wastewater disposal costs. However, current polyamide membranes are prone to fouling, which decreases water flux and shortens membrane lifetime. This research explored surface modification using poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) to improve the fouling resistance of commercial polyamide membranes. Characterization of commercial polyamide membrane performance was a necessary first step before undertaking surface modification studies. Membrane performance was found to be sensitive to crossflow testing conditions. Concentration polarization and feed pH strongly influenced NaCl rejection, and the use of continuous feed filtration led to higher water flux and lower NaCl rejection than was observed for similar tests performed using unfiltered feed. Two commercial polyamide membranes, including one reverse osmosis and one nanofiltration membrane, were modified by grafting PEGDE to their surfaces. Two different PEG molecular weights (200 and 1000) and treatment concentrations (1% (w/w) and 15% (w/w)) were studied. Water flux decreased and NaCl rejection increased with PEGDE graft density ({micro}g/cm{sup 2}), although the largest changes were observed for low PEGDE graft densities. Surface properties including hydrophilicity, roughness and charge were minimally affected by surface modification. The fouling resistance of modified and unmodified membranes was compared in crossflow filtration studies using model foulant solutions consisting of either a charged surfactant or an oil in water emulsion containing n-decane and a charged surfactant. Several PEGDE-modified membranes demonstrated improved

  7. Plasma surface modification of chitosan membranes : characterization and preliminary cell response studies

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Simone Santos; Luna, Sandra M.; Gomes, Manuela E.; Benesch, Johan; Pashkuleva, I.; Mano, J. F.; Reis, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Surface modification of biomaterials is a way to tailor cell responses whilst retaining the bulk properties. In this work, chitosan membranes were prepared by solvent casting and treated with nitrogen or argon plasma at 20Wfor 10–40 min. AFM indicated an increase in the surface roughness as a result of the ongoing etching process. XPS and contact angle measurements showed different surface elemental compositions and higher surface free energy. The MTS test and direct contact...

  8. Design of UV-absorbing PVDF membrane via surface-initiated AGET ATRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Liu, Xiangdong; Xiong, Zhengrong; Sheng, Dekun; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Changhong; Yang, Yuming

    2018-03-01

    Herein, PVDF membranes with excellent UV-absorbing property were first synthesized through grafting the polymerizable low-molecular-weight organic UV-absorber 2-hydroxy-4-(3-methacryloxy-2-hydroxylpropoxy) benzophenone (BPMA) onto α-bromoester-functionalized PVDF membranes via the surface-initiated activator generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-AGET ATRP). The surface initiators were immobilized by the reaction between 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB) and the hydroxylated PVDF membranes. PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes with different grafting densities were obtained by tuning the polymerization time and the modified membranes were characterized by 1H-NMR, FT-IR, XPS, SEM, UV-vis Spectrophotometer, TGA and DSC. The experimental results indicated that PBPMA chains were successfully introduced onto PVDF membranes. Most importantly, the PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes exhibited outstanding UV-shielding property. UV-vis transmittance spectra showed that most UV light below 360 nm could be absorbed by PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes and the whole UV light region (200-400 nm) can be blocked with the reaction time increased.

  9. Surface Modification of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membranes by Low-Temperature Plasma with Grafting Styrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Li, Jiding; Chen, Cuixian

    2009-02-01

    In order to control the surface pore sizes of polyvinylidene fluoride membranes and their distribution, low temperature plasma-induced grafting modifications of PVDF were studied to prepare hydrophobe membranes. By argon (Ar) treating and subsequent grafting reaction, a hydrophobe monomer, styrene, was introduced into the PVDF membrane. Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) was utilized to characterize the chemical and physical changes in the Ar plasma modified membrane. The surface modifications of PVDF membranes were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The water permeability and the solute rejection were measured by PVDF membrane modified in different graft conditions. Results demonstrated that the pores in the modified membranes get smaller and the distribution of pores gets narrowed with the increase in grafting reaction duration. Longer graft time caused the water flux of PVDF membrane to decrease from 578 kg/(m2·h) to 23 kg/(m2·h) and the solute rejection to increase from 73% to 92%.

  10. Contact studies of weak adhesive interactions in water with membrane enhanced surface acoustic wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, David Alan

    The measurement of weak adhesive energies has previously been difficult to obtain. To measure these energies, I designed a technique that uses the combined sensitivities of both a quartz crystal resonator and the inflation of an elastomeric polymer membrane. The surfaces of the quartz crystal and/or the membrane are modified with water swollen polymer brushes, which are used to eliminate nonspecific adhesion. These brushes are then end-modified with adhesive functional groups. An analysis is developed for the frequency response of a quartz crystal resonator as the membrane layer is placed in contact with the surface of these swollen brushes. The shear wave generated at the resonator surface couples into the membrane layer with an efficiency that is strongly dependent on the thickness of the swollen brush layer. The calculated shift decreases substantially for increases in the brush thickness of ten to twenty nanometers, giving a net frequency response that is extremely sensitive to the degree of swelling of the brush. An optimum capping layer thickness is determined by balancing the resonant frequency shift against dissipative effects that weaken the crystal resonance. Detailed calculations are presented for the specific case of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brushes swollen by water and capped by a poly(styrene-ethylene/butene-styrene) (SEBS) elastomeric, water-permeable membrane. These calculations show that the method is sensitive to the properties of the brush layer. This surface acoustic wave technique was coupled with an inflation method that enabled quantification of the adhesion between the membrane and the brush coated surface. This adhesive interaction is obtained from the contact angle made between the quartz and membrane surfaces and the tension on the membrane. An analysis of the membrane profile based on the numerical solution of the axisymmetric Laplace equation is developed and used to investigate both adhesive and non-adhesive situations with both an

  11. Hydrophilic modification of polyethersulfone porous membranes via a thermal-induced surface crosslinking approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Lijun; Zhao Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    A thermal-induced surface crosslinking process was employed to perform a hydrophilic surface modification of PES porous membranes. Difunctional poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) was used as the main crosslinking modifier. The addition of trifunctional trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate (TMPTMA) into the reaction solutions accelerated the crosslinking progress of PEGDA on PES membranes. The membrane surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. The mass gains (MG) of the modified membranes could be conveniently modulated by varying the PEGDA concentration and crosslinking time. The measurements of water contact angle showed that the hydrophilicity of PES membranes was remarkably enhanced by the coating of crosslinked PEGDA layer. When a moderate mass gain of about 150 μg/cm 2 was reached, both the permeability and anti-fouling ability of PES membranes could be significantly improved. Excessive mass gain not only contributed little to the anti-fouling ability, but also brought a deteriorated permeability to PES membranes.

  12. Bioadhesion of mussels and geckos: Molecular mechanics, surface chemistry, and nanoadhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeshin

    The adhesive strategies of living creatures are diverse, ranging from temporary to permanent adhesions with various functions such as locomotion, self-defense, communication, colony formation, and so on. The classic example of temporary adhesion is the gecko, which is known for its ability to walk along vertical and even inverted surfaces; this remarkable adhesion arises from the interfacial weak interactions of van der Waals and capillary forces. In contrast, a celerbrated example of permanent adhesion is found in marine mussels which secrete protein adhesives that function in aqueous environments without mechanical failure against turbulent conditions on the seashore. In addition, mussel adhesives stick to virtually all inorganic and organic surfaces. However, most commonly used man-made adhesives lack such unique adhesion properties compared to their natural counterparts. For example, many commercial adhesives quickly lose their adhesive strength when exposed to solvents, particularly water. The first part of this thesis focused on adhesion mechanics of mussels at a single-molecule level, in which the adhesive molecule showed surprisingly strong yet reversible adhesion on inorganic surfaces but exhibited irreversible covalent bond formation on organic surfaces. Strong and reversible adhesion on mucin surfaces was found, indicating potential application for drug delivery via mucus layers. Next, inspired by the mussel's versatile adhesion on a wide variety of material surfaces, a material-independent surface modification chemistry called 'polydopamine coating' is described. This concept was subsequently adapted to develop a surface-independent polymeric primer for layer-by-layer assembly of multifunctional coatings. Finally, a new bio-hybrid adhesive 'geckel' was developed by the functional combination of adhesion strategies of geckos and mussels. The new bio-inspired adhesive and material-independent surface chemistry can revolutionize the research areas such as

  13. Fractal analysis of AFM images of the surface of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Stach, Sebastian; Sueiras, Vivian; Ziebarth, Noël Marysa

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to further investigate the ultrastructural details of the surface of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. One representative image acquired of Bowman's membrane of a human cornea was investigated. The three-dimensional (3-D) surface of the sample was imaged using AFM in contact mode, while the sample was completely submerged in optisol solution. Height and deflection images were acquired at multiple scan lengths using the MFP-3D AFM system software (Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA), based in IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics, Lake Oswego, OR). A novel approach, based on computational algorithms for fractal analysis of surfaces applied for AFM data, was utilized to analyze the surface structure. The surfaces revealed a fractal structure at the nanometer scale. The fractal dimension, D, provided quantitative values that characterize the scale properties of surface geometry. Detailed characterization of the surface topography was obtained using statistical parameters, in accordance with ISO 25178-2: 2012. Results obtained by fractal analysis confirm the relationship between the value of the fractal dimension and the statistical surface roughness parameters. The surface structure of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea is complex. The analyzed AFM images confirm a fractal nature of the surface, which is not taken into account by classical surface statistical parameters. Surface fractal dimension could be useful in ophthalmology to quantify corneal architectural changes associated with different disease states to further our understanding of disease evolution.

  14. Surface microstructure and chemistry of polyimide by single pulse ablation of picosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qifeng; Chen, Ting; Liu, Jianguo; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-03-01

    Polyimide (PI) surface was ablated by the single pulse of picosecond laser, and the effects of laser wavelength (λ= 355 nm and 1064 nm) and fluence on surface microstructure and chemistry were explored. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis found that different surface microstructures, i.e., the concave of concentric ring and the convex of porous circular disk, were generated by 355 nm and 1064 nm picosecond laser ablation, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicated that due to the high peak energy density of picosecond laser, oxygen and nitrogen from the ambient were incorporated into the PI surface mainly in the form of Cdbnd O and Csbnd Nsbnd C groups. Thus, both of the O/C and N/C atomic content ratios increased, but the increase caused by 1064 nm wavelength laser was larger. It inferred that the differences of PI surface microstructures and chemistry resulted from different laser parameters were related to different laser-matter interaction effects. For 355 nm picosecond laser, no obvious thermal features were observed and the probable ablation process of PI was mainly governed by photochemical effect; while for 1064 nm picosecond laser, obvious thermal feature appeared and photothermal effect was thought to be dominant.

  15. The Influence of Surface Chemistry on the Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rachel Dory

    This dissertation describes the relationship between the surface chemistry of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, QDs) and their optoelectronic properties, such as photoluminescence and degree of quantum confinement. We primarily focus our efforts on one particular subset of ligands known to couple strongly to the inorganic core of the QD to decrease its quantum confinement, phenyldithiocarbamates (PTCs). We focus first on the development of quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques to characterize the identity and quantity of ligands (such as PTCs and oleic acid) bound to nanocrystal surfaces. When we correlate the surface chemistry information obtained from NMR with the optical spectra of our QDs, we find that for strongly-delocalizing ligands like PTC, the spatial distribution of ligands on the QD surface affects the overall degree of delocalization. In the later chapters of this thesis, we describe two avenues for exploiting the relationship between surface coverage of exciton-delocalizing ligands and quantum confinement to design strongly coupled, hierarchical nanomaterials for efficient charge transport in films or in solution. We explore the treatment of thin lead sulfide QD films with a PTC derivative to improve their overall conductivity relative to benzoic acid, a similar molecule that does not affect confinement. Finally, we describe a potential strategy to improve the yield and rate of hole transfer to a tethered phthalocyanine molecule using dithiocarbamate and thiolate linkers.

  16. Perchlorate formation on Mars through surface radiolysis-initiated atmospheric chemistry: A potential mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2016-08-01

    Recent observations of the Martian surface by the Phoenix lander and the Sample Analysis at Mars indicate the presence of perchlorate (ClO4-). The abundance and isotopic composition of these perchlorates suggest that the mechanisms responsible for their formation in the Martian environment may be unique in our solar system. With this in mind, we propose a potential mechanism for the production of Martian perchlorate: the radiolysis of the Martian surface by galactic cosmic rays, followed by the sublimation of chlorine oxides into the atmosphere and their subsequent synthesis to form perchloric acid (HClO4) in the atmosphere, and the surface deposition and subsequent mineralization of HClO4 in the regolith to form surface perchlorates. To evaluate the viability of this mechanism, we employ a one-dimensional chemical model, examining chlorine chemistry in the context of Martian atmospheric chemistry. Considering the chlorine oxide, OClO, we find that an OClO flux as low as 3.2 × 107 molecules cm-2 s-1 sublimated into the atmosphere from the surface could produce sufficient HClO4 to explain the perchlorate concentration on Mars, assuming an accumulation depth of 30 cm and integrated over the Amazonian period. Radiolysis provides an efficient pathway for the oxidation of chlorine, bypassing the efficient Cl/HCl recycling mechanism that characterizes HClO4 formation mechanisms proposed for the Earth but not Mars.

  17. Surface chemistry and acid-base activity of Shewanella putrefaciens: Cell wall charging and metal binding to bacterial cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, Jacqueline Wilhelmien

    2006-01-01

    To gain insight into the surface chemistry of live microorganisms, pH stat experiments are combined with analyses of the time-dependent changes in solution chemistry using suspensions of live cells of Shewanella putrefaciens. The results of this study illustrate the complex response of the live

  18. Surface chemistry and acid-base activity of Shewanella putrefaciens : Cell wall charging and metal binding to bacterial cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    To gain insight into the surface chemistry of live microorganisms, pH stat experiments are combined with analyses of the time-dependent changes in solution chemistry using suspensions of live cells of Shewanella putrefaciens. The results of this study illustrate the complex response of the live

  19. Experimental studies of lithium-based surface chemistry for fusion plasma-facing materials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, J.P.; Rokusek, D.L.; Harilal, S.S.; Nieto-Perez, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Heim, B.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium has enhanced the operational performance of fusion devices such as: TFTR, CDX-U, FTU, T-11 M, and NSTX. Lithium in the solid and liquid state has been studied extensively in laboratory experiments including its erosion and hydrogen-retaining properties. Reductions in physical sputtering up to 40-60% have been measured for deuterated solid and liquid lithium surfaces. Computational modeling indicates that up to a 1:1 deuterium volumetric retention in lithium is possible. This paper presents the results of systematic in situ laboratory experimental studies on the surface chemistry evolution of ATJ graphite under lithium deposition. Results are compared to post-mortem analysis of similar lithium surface coatings on graphite exposed to deuterium discharge plasmas in NSTX. Lithium coatings on plasma-facing components in NSTX have shown substantial reduction of hydrogenic recycling. Questions remain on the role lithium surface chemistry on a graphite substrate has on particle sputtering (physical and chemical) as well as hydrogen isotope recycling. This is particularly due to the lack of in situ measurements of plasma-surface interactions in tokamaks such as NSTX. Results suggest that the lithium bonding state on ATJ graphite is lithium peroxide and with sufficient exposure to ambient air conditions, lithium carbonate is generated. Correlation between both results is used to assess the role of lithium chemistry on the state of lithium bonding and implications on hydrogen pumping and lithium sputtering. In addition, reduction of factors between 10 and 30 reduction in physical sputtering from lithiated graphite compared to pure lithium or carbon is also measured.

  20. New Concept of C–H and C–C Bond Activation via Surface Organometallic Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Samantaray, Manoja

    2015-08-18

    In this chapter we describe the recent applications of well-defined oxidesupported metal alkyls/alkylidenes/alkylidynes and hydrides of group IV, V, and VI transition metals in the field of C–H and C–C bond activation. The activation of ubiquitous C–H and C–C bonds of paraffin is a long-standing challenge because of intrinsic low reactivity. There are many concepts derived from surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC): surface organometallic fragments are always intermediates in heterogeneous catalysis. The study of their synthesis and reactivity is a way to rationalize mechanism of heterogeneous catalysis and to achieve structure activity relationship. By surface organometallic chemistry one can enter any catalytic center by a reaction intermediate leading in fine to single site catalysts. With surface organometallic chemistry one can coordinate to the metal which can play a role in different elementary steps leading for example to C–H activation and Olefin metathesis. Because of the development of SOMC there is a lot of space for the improvement of homogeneous catalysis. After the 1997 discovery of alkane metathesis using silica-supported tantalum hydride by Basset et al. at low temperature (150ºC) the focus in this area was shifted to the discovery of more and more challenging surface complexes active in the application of C–H and C–C bond activation. Here we describe the evolution of well-defined metathesis catalyst with time as well as the effect of support on catalysis. We also describe here which metal–ligand combinations are responsible for a variety of C–H and C–C bond activation.

  1. Field and laboratory emission cell automation and control system for investigating surface chemistry reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmer, Michael M.; Ham, Jason E.; Wells, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel system [field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) automation and control system] has been developed to deliver ozone to a surface utilizing the FLEC to simulate indoor surface chemistry. Ozone, humidity, and air flow rate to the surface were continuously monitored using an ultraviolet ozone monitor, humidity, and flow sensors. Data from these sensors were used as feedback for system control to maintain predetermined experimental parameters. The system was used to investigate the chemistry of ozone with α-terpineol on a vinyl surface over 72h. Keeping all other experimental parameters the same, volatile organic compound emissions from the vinyl tile with α-terpineol were collected from both zero and 100ppb(partsper109) ozone exposures. System stability profiles collected from sensor data indicated experimental parameters were maintained to within a few percent of initial settings. Ozone data from eight experiments at 100ppb (over 339h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.65ppb and a 95% tolerance of 3.3ppb. Humidity data from 17 experiments at 50% relative humidity (over 664h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.38% and a 95% tolerance of 2.77%. Data of the flow rate of air flowing through the FLEC from 14 experiments at 300ml/min (over 548h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 3.02ml/min and a 95% tolerance range of 6.03ml/min. Initial experimental results yielded long term emissions of ozone/α-terpineol reaction products, suggesting that surface chemistry could play an important role in indoor environments.

  2. Pretreatment-dependent surface chemistry of wood nanocellulose for pH-sensitive hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Syverud, Kristin

    2014-09-01

    Nanocellulose from wood is a promising material with potential in various technological areas. Within biomedical applications, nanocellulose has been proposed as a suitable nano-material for wound dressings. This is based on the capability of the material to self-assemble into 3D micro-porous structures, which among others have an excellent capacity of maintaining a moist environment. In addition, the surface chemistry of nanocellulose is suitable for various applications. First, OH-groups are abundant in nanocellulose materials, making the material strongly hydrophilic. Second, the surface chemistry can be modified, introducing aldehyde and carboxyl groups, which have major potential for surface functionalization. In this study, we demonstrate the production of nanocellulose with tailor-made surface chemistry, by pre-treating the raw cellulose fibres with carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The pre-treatments yielded a highly nanofibrillated material, with significant amounts of aldehyde and carboxyl groups. Importantly, the poly-anionic surface of the oxidized nanocellulose opens up for novel applications, i.e. micro-porous materials with pH-responsive characteristics. This is due to the swelling capacity of the 3D micro-porous structures, which have ionisable functional groups. In this study, we demonstrated that nanocellulose gels have a significantly higher swelling degree in neutral and alkaline conditions, compared to an acid environment (pH 3). Such a capability can potentially be applied in chronic wounds for controlled and intelligent release of antibacterial components into biofilms. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. The Chemistry of Inorganic Precursors during the Chemical Deposition of Films on Solid Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Seán T; Teplyakov, Andrew V; Zaera, Francisco

    2018-03-20

    The deposition of thin solid films is central to many industrial applications, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods are particularly useful for this task. For one, the isotropic nature of the adsorption of chemical species affords even coverages on surfaces with rough topographies, an increasingly common requirement in microelectronics. Furthermore, by splitting the overall film-depositing reactions into two or more complementary and self-limiting steps, as it is done in atomic layer depositions (ALD), film thicknesses can be controlled down to the sub-monolayer level. Thanks to the availability of a vast array of inorganic and metalorganic precursors, CVD and ALD are quite versatile and can be engineered to deposit virtually any type of solid material. On the negative side, the surface chemistry that takes place in these processes is often complex, and can include undesirable side reactions leading to the incorporation of impurities in the growing films. Appropriate precursors and deposition conditions need to be chosen to minimize these problems, and that requires a proper understanding of the underlying surface chemistry. The precursors for CVD and ALD are often designed and chosen based on their known thermal chemistry from inorganic chemistry studies, taking advantage of the vast knowledge developed in that field over the years. Although a good first approximation, however, this approach can lead to wrong choices, because the reactions of these precursors at gas-solid interfaces can be quite different from what is seen in solution. For one, solvents often aid in the displacement of ligands in metalorganic compounds, providing the right dielectric environment, temporarily coordinating to the metal, or facilitating multiple ligand-complex interactions to increase reaction probabilities; these options are not available in the gas-solid reactions associated with CVD and ALD. Moreover, solid surfaces act as unique "ligands", if these reactions are to be

  4. A dynamic duo: pairing click chemistry and postpolymerization modification to design complex surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachelle M; Patton, Derek L; Popik, Vladimir V; Locklin, Jason

    2014-10-21

    Advances in key 21st century technologies such as biosensors, biomedical implants, and organic light-emitting diodes rely heavily on our ability to imagine, design, and understand spatially complex interfaces. Polymer-based thin films provide many advantages in this regard, but the direct synthesis of polymers with incompatible functional groups is extremely difficult. Using postpolymerization modification in conjunction with click chemistry can circumvent this limitation and result in multicomponent surfaces that are otherwise unattainable. The two methods used to form polymer thin films include physisorption and chemisorption. Physisorbed polymers suffer from instability because of the weak intermolecular forces between the film and the substrate, which can lead to dewetting, delamination, desorption, or displacement. Covalent immobilization of polymers to surfaces through either a "grafting to" or "grafting from" approach provides thin films that are more robust and less prone to degradation. The grafting to technique consists of adsorbing a polymer containing at least one reactive group along the backbone to form a covalent bond with a complementary surface functionality. Grafting from involves polymerization directly from the surface, in which the polymer chains deviate from their native conformation in solution and stretch away from the surface because of the high density of chains. Postpolymerization modification (PPM) is a strategy used by our groups over the past several years to immobilize two or more different chemical functionalities onto substrates that contain covalently grafted polymer films. PPM exploits monomers with reactive pendant groups that are stable under the polymerization conditions but are readily modified via covalent attachment of the desired functionality. "Click-like" reactions are the most common type of reactions used for PPM because they are orthogonal, high-yielding, and rapid. Some of these reactions include thiol-based additions

  5. New Developments for Radiation Enhancements from Metal Surfaces by Using Nanoscale Materials in the Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Matsuda, Masami

    2017-12-01

    The enhancements of thermal radiations from the surfaces of devices are very important for electric machines to prevent from heating up and/or efficiency degradations. In this investigation, new applications of micro-scale membrane of Si, SiO2 etc. on the metal surfaces have been studied to cool down the temperature without breaking insulations of the devices by selecting materials. The modified black-body radiations were sensitively detected by thermisters with sub-second responses. The optimum membrane thicknesses were successfully determined by subtractions a of radiation intensities between those at membranes with and without membrane, respectively. We obtained the best cooling condition in SiO2 membrane with 20μmt for an Al-plate of 10cmx10cmx1mmt. Further, we observed the detaching/attaching processes of massive molecule clusters from the metal surface as a sudden change in temperature changes just like the noises in the detectors. A characteristic pattern of temperature change was observed in diatomite membranes during the cooling process in a temperature range between 200-50°C. These radiation phenomena as a function of temperature might be available as a molecular analysis on the metal surface.

  6. Surface chemistry of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan, E-mail: Jayasheelan.Vaithilingam@nottingham.ac.uk [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Prina, Elisabetta [School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Goodridge, Ruth D.; Hague, Richard J.M. [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Edmondson, Steve [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Rose, Felicity R.A.J. [School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Christie, Steven D.R. [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) has previously been shown to be a viable method for fabricating biomedical implants; however, the surface chemistry of SLM fabricated parts is poorly understood. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface chemistries of (a) SLM as-fabricated (SLM-AF) Ti6Al4V and (b) SLM fabricated and mechanically polished (SLM-MP) Ti6Al4V samples and compared with (c) traditionally manufactured (forged) and mechanically polished Ti6Al4V samples. The SLM–AF surface was observed to be porous with an average surface roughness (Ra) of 17.6 ± 3.7 μm. The surface chemistry of the SLM-AF was significantly different to the FGD-MP surface with respect to elemental distribution and their existence on the outermost surface. Sintered particles on the SLM-AF surface were observed to affect depth profiling of the sample due to a shadowing effect during argon ion sputtering. Surface heterogeneity was observed for all three surfaces; however, vanadium was witnessed only on the mechanically polished (SLM-MP and FGD-MP) surfaces. The direct and indirect 3T3 cell cytotoxicity studies revealed that the cells were viable on the SLM fabricated Ti6Al4V parts. The varied surface chemistry of the SLM-AF and SLM-MP did not influence the cell behaviour. - Highlights: • Surface chemistry of selective laser melted (SLM) Ti6Al4V parts was compared with conventionally forged Ti6Al4V parts. • The surface elemental compositions of the SLM as-fabricated surfaces were significantly different to the forged surface. • Surface oxide-layer of the SLM as-fabricated was thicker than the polished SLM surfaces and the forged Ti6Al4V surfaces.

  7. Surface Chemistry Involved in Epitaxy of Graphene on 3C-SiC(111/Si(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Shunsuke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface chemistry involved in the epitaxy of graphene by sublimating Si atoms from the surface of epitaxial 3C-SiC(111 thin films on Si(111 has been studied. The change in the surface composition during graphene epitaxy is monitored by in situ temperature-programmed desorption spectroscopy using deuterium as a probe (D2-TPD and complementarily by ex situ Raman and C1s core-level spectroscopies. The surface of the 3C-SiC(111/Si(111 is Si-terminated before the graphitization, and it becomes C-terminated via the formation of C-rich (6√3 × 6√3R30° reconstruction as the graphitization proceeds, in a similar manner as the epitaxy of graphene on Si-terminated 6H-SiC(0001 proceeds.

  8. Surface and interface analysis of poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-coated anodic aluminium oxide membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Nurshahidah [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia); Murdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia); Duan, Xiaofei [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Jiang, Zhong-Tao, E-mail: Z.Jiang@murdoch.edu.au [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia); Goh, Bee Min [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia); Lamb, Robert [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Tadich, Anton [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, VIC 3086 (Australia); Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Fawcett, Derek [Murdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia); Chapman, Peter [Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, WA 6102 (Australia); Singh, Pritam [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2014-01-15

    The surface and interface of poly (2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) and anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes were comprehensively investigated using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. It was found that 1s→π* (C=O) and 1s→σ* (C-O) transitions were dominant on the surface of both bulk PHEMA polymer and PHEMA-surface coated AAO (AAO–PHEMA) composite. Findings from NEXAFS, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses suggest the possibility of chemical interaction between carbon from the ester group of polymer and AAO membrane.

  9. Correlating humidity-dependent ionically conductive surface area with transport phenomena in proton-exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z; Kostecki, Robert

    2011-10-13

    The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using direct-current voltammetry and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion membrane was examined.

  10. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

  11. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa

    2017-09-15

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  12. Substantial difference in target surface chemistry between reactive dc and high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, G.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M.; Hultman, L.

    2018-02-01

    The nitride layer formed in the target race track during the deposition of stoichiometric TiN thin films is a factor 2.5 thicker for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), compared to conventional dc processing (DCMS). The phenomenon is explained using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the as-operated Ti target surface chemistry supported by sputter depth profiles, dynamic Monte Carlo simulations employing the TRIDYN code, and plasma chemical investigations by ion mass spectrometry. The target chemistry and the thickness of the nitride layer are found to be determined by the implantation of nitrogen ions, predominantly N+ and N2+ for HIPIMS and DCMS, respectively. Knowledge of this method-inherent difference enables robust processing of high quality functional coatings.

  13. Control and Characterization of Titanium Dioxide Morphology: Applications in Surface Organometallic Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jeantelot, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Surface Organometallic Chemistry leads to the combination of the high activity and specificity of homogeneous catalysts with the recoverability and practicality of heterogeneous catalysts. Most metal complexes used in this chemistry are grafted on metal oxide supports such as amorphous silica (SiO2) and γ-alumina (Al2O3). In this thesis, we sought to enable the use of titania (TiO2) as a new support for single-site well-defined grafting of metal complexes. This was achieved by synthesizing a special type of anatase-TiO2, bearing a high density of identical hydroxyl groups, through hydrothermal synthesis then post-treatment under high vacuum followed by oxygen flow, and characterized by several analytical techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, as a proof of concept, the grafting of vanadium oxychloride (VOCl3) was successfully attempted.

  14. Membrane Surface Nanostructures and Adhesion Property of T Lymphocytes Exploited by AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hongsong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The activation of T lymphocytes plays a very important role in T-cell-mediated immune response. Though there are many related literatures, the changes of membrane surface nanostructures and adhesion property of T lymphocytes at different activation stages have not been reported yet. However, these investigations will help us further understand the biophysical and immunologic function of T lymphocytes in the context of activation. In the present study, the membrane architectures of peripheral blood T lymphocytes were obtained by AFM, and adhesion force of the cell membrane were measured by acquiring force–distance curves. The results indicated that the cell volume increased with the increases of activation time, whereas membrane surface adhesion force decreased, even though the local stiffness for resting and activated cells is similar. The results provided complementary and important data to further understand the variation of biophysical properties of T lymphocytes in the context of in vitro activation.

  15. Roles of surface chemistry on safety and electrochemistry in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Jeong, Sookyung; Cho, Jaephil

    2013-05-21

    Motivated by new applications including electric vehicles and the smart grid, interest in advanced lithium ion batteries has increased significantly over the past decade. Therefore, research in this field has intensified to produce safer devices with better electrochemical performance. Most research has focused on the development of new electrode materials through the optimization of bulk properties such as crystal structure, ionic diffusivity, and electric conductivity. More recently, researchers have also considered the surface properties of electrodes as critical factors for optimizing performance. In particular, the electrolyte decomposition at the electrode surface relates to both a lithium ion battery's electrochemical performance and safety. In this Account, we give an overview of the major developments in the area of surface chemistry for lithium ion batteries. These ideas will provide the basis for the design of advanced electrode materials. Initially, we present a brief background to lithium ion batteries such as major chemical components and reactions that occur in lithium ion batteries. Then, we highlight the role of surface chemistry in the safety of lithium ion batteries. We examine the thermal stability of cathode materials: For example, we discuss the oxygen generation from cathode materials and describe how cells can swell and heat up in response to specific conditions. We also demonstrate how coating the surfaces of electrodes can improve safety. The surface chemistry can also affect the electrochemistry of lithium ion batteries. The surface coating strategy improved the energy density and cycle performance for layered LiCoO2, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, and their combinations), and LiMn2O4 spinel materials, and we describe a working mechanism for these enhancements. Although coating the surfaces of cathodes with inorganic materials such as metal oxides and phosphates improves the electrochemical performance and safety properties of

  16. Resveratrol in medicinal chemistry: a critical review of its pharmacokinetics, drug-delivery, and membrane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, A R; Lucio, M; Lima, J L C; Reis, S

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that among other sources occurs in grapes and for this reason, red wines also contain considerable amounts of this compound. Resveratrol is thought to be responsible for the "French Paradox" which associates red wine consumption to the low incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The interest in resveratrol has increased due to its pharmacological effects that include cardio and neuroprotection and several other benefic actions (e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-aging). Despite the therapeutic effects of resveratrol, its pharmacokinetic properties are not favorable since this compound has poor bioavailability being rapidly and extensively metabolized and excreted. To overcome this problem, drug delivery systems have been developed to protect and stabilize resveratrol and to enhance its bioavailability. Herein is presented an up-to-date revision covering the literature reported for nano and microformulations for resveratrol encapsulation that include liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, lipospheres, cyclodextrins, polymeric microspheres, yeast cells carriers and calcium or zinc pectinate beads. Regarding the interaction of resveratrol with cell membranes, only few studies have been published so far. However, it is believed that this interaction can be implied in the biological activities of resveratrol since transmembranar proteins are one of its cellular targets. Indeed, resveratrol presents the capacity to modulate the membrane organization which may consequently affect the protein functionality. Therefore, the intracellular effects of resveratrol and the effects of this compound at the membrane level were also revised since their knowledge is essential for understanding the pharmacological and therapeutic activities of this bioactive compound.

  17. An AFM-based pit-measuring method for indirect measurements of cell-surface membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air drying induced the transformation of cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits. • An AFM-based pit-measuring method was developed to measure cell-surface vesicles. • Our method detected at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles. - Abstract: Circulating membrane vesicles, which are shed from many cell types, have multiple functions and have been correlated with many diseases. Although circulating membrane vesicles have been extensively characterized, the status of cell-surface membrane vesicles prior to their release is less understood due to the lack of effective measurement methods. Recently, as a powerful, micro- or nano-scale imaging tool, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied in measuring circulating membrane vesicles. However, it seems very difficult for AFM to directly image/identify and measure cell-bound membrane vesicles due to the similarity of surface morphology between membrane vesicles and cell surfaces. Therefore, until now no AFM studies on cell-surface membrane vesicles have been reported. In this study, we found that air drying can induce the transformation of most cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits that are more readily detectable by AFM. Based on this, we developed an AFM-based pit-measuring method and, for the first time, used AFM to indirectly measure cell-surface membrane vesicles on cultured endothelial cells. Using this approach, we observed and quantitatively measured at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles, a nanoscale population (<500 nm in diameter peaking at ∼250 nm) and a microscale population (from 500 nm to ∼2 μm peaking at ∼0.8 μm), whereas confocal microscopy only detected the microscale population. The AFM-based pit-measuring method is potentially useful for studying cell-surface membrane vesicles and for investigating the mechanisms of membrane vesicle formation/release

  18. Relationship between types of surface shear stress profiles and membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C C V; Bérubé, P R; Hall, E R

    2011-12-01

    Shear stress has been recognized as an important parameter in controlling particle back-transport from membrane surfaces. However, little is known of the relationship between transient shear conditions induced by air sparging and fouling control near membrane surfaces. In this paper, the different types of surface shear stress profiles that had beneficial effects on minimizing reversible surface fouling were examined. The relationship between different statistical shear parameters (e.g. time-averaged shear, standard deviation of shear and amplitude of shear) and fouling control that have been used by others were examined as well. It was found that the fouling rate for membranes subjected to transient shear conditions was lower than for membranes subjected to constant shear conditions. The magnitude, duration and frequency of the shear conditions were found to have an impact on the fouling rate of membranes. It was also found that although some statistical shear parameters could generally be used to relate shear and fouling, they were inadequate to relate surface shear stress to fouling, for all transient shear conditions examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards Enhanced Performance Thin-film Composite Membranes via Surface Plasma Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rackel; Dumée, Ludovic F; Tardy, Blaise L; Dagastine, Raymond; Orbell, John D; Schutz, Jürg A; Duke, Mikel C

    2016-07-01

    Advancing the design of thin-film composite membrane surfaces is one of the most promising pathways to deal with treating varying water qualities and increase their long-term stability and permeability. Although plasma technologies have been explored for surface modification of bulk micro and ultrafiltration membrane materials, the modification of thin film composite membranes is yet to be systematically investigated. Here, the performance of commercial thin-film composite desalination membranes has been significantly enhanced by rapid and facile, low pressure, argon plasma activation. Pressure driven water desalination tests showed that at low power density, flux was improved by 22% without compromising salt rejection. Various plasma durations and excitation powers have been systematically evaluated to assess the impact of plasma glow reactions on the physico-chemical properties of these materials associated with permeability. With increasing power density, plasma treatment enhanced the hydrophilicity of the surfaces, where water contact angles decreasing by 70% were strongly correlated with increased negative charge and smooth uniform surface morphology. These results highlight a versatile chemical modification technique for post-treatment of commercial membrane products that provides uniform morphology and chemically altered surface properties.

  20. Combined effects of surface conditions, boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on diurnal SOA evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. H. Janssen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the combined effects of land surface conditions, atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on the diurnal evolution of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in the atmospheric boundary layer, using a model that contains the essentials of all these components. First, we evaluate the model for a case study in Hyytiälä, Finland, and find that it is able to satisfactorily reproduce the observed dynamics and gas-phase chemistry. We show that the exchange of organic aerosol between the free troposphere and the boundary layer (entrainment must be taken into account in order to explain the observed diurnal cycle in organic aerosol (OA concentration. An examination of the budgets of organic aerosol and terpene concentrations show that the former is dominated by entrainment, while the latter is mainly driven by emission and chemical transformation. We systematically investigate the role of the land surface, which governs both the surface energy balance partitioning and terpene emissions, and the large-scale atmospheric process of vertical subsidence. Entrainment is especially important for the dilution of organic aerosol concentrations under conditions of dry soils and low terpene emissions. Subsidence suppresses boundary layer growth while enhancing entrainment. Therefore, it influences the relationship between organic aerosol and terpene concentrations. Our findings indicate that the diurnal evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in the boundary layer is the result of coupled effects of the land surface, dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer, chemistry, and free troposphere conditions. This has potentially some consequences for the design of both field campaigns and large-scale modeling studies.

  1. Unravelling the surface chemistry of metal oxide nanocrystals, the role of acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, Jonathan; Van den Broeck, Freya; De Keukeleere, Katrien; Martins, José C; Van Driessche, Isabel; Hens, Zeger

    2014-07-09

    We synthesized HfO2 nanocrystals from HfCl4 using a surfactant-free solvothermal process in benzyl alcohol and found that the resulting nanocrystals could be transferred to nonpolar media using a mixture of carboxylic acids and amines. Using solution (1)H NMR, FTIR, and elemental analysis, we studied the details of the transfer reaction and the surface chemistry of the resulting sterically stabilized nanocrystals. As-synthesized nanocrystals are charge-stabilized by protons, with chloride acting as the counterion. Treatment with only carboxylic acids does not lead to any binding of ligands to the HfO2 surface. On the other hand, we find that the addition of amines provides the basic environment in which carboxylic acids can dissociate and replace chloride. This results in stable, aggregate-free dispersions of HfO2 nanocrystals, sterically stabilized by carboxylate ligands. Moreover, titrations with deuterated carboxylic acid show that the charge on the carboxylate ligands is balanced by coadsorbed protons. Hence, opposite from the X-type/nonstoichiometric nanocrystals picture prevailing in literature, one should look at HfO2/carboxylate nanocrystals as systems where carboxylic acids are dissociatively adsorbed to bind to the nanocrystals. Similar results were obtained with ZrO2 NCs. Since proton accommodation on the surface is most likely due to the high Brønsted basicity of oxygen, our model could be a more general picture for the surface chemistry of metal oxide nanocrystals with important consequences on the chemistry of ligand exchange reactions.

  2. Do organic surface films on sea salt aerosols influence atmospheric chemistry? ─ a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic material from the ocean's surface can be incorporated into sea salt aerosol particles often producing a surface film on the aerosol. Such an organic coating can reduce the mass transfer between the gas phase and the aerosol phase influencing sea salt chemistry in the marine atmosphere. To investigate these effects and their importance for the marine boundary layer (MBL we used the one-dimensional numerical model MISTRA. We considered the uncertainties regarding the magnitude of uptake reduction, the concentrations of organic compounds in sea salt aerosols and the oxidation rate of the organics to analyse the possible influence of organic surfactants on gas and liquid phase chemistry with a special focus on halogen chemistry. By assuming destruction rates for the organic coating based on laboratory measurements we get a rapid destruction of the organic monolayer within the first meters of the MBL. Larger organic initial concentrations lead to a longer lifetime of the coating but lead also to an unrealistically strong decrease of O3 concentrations as the organic film is destroyed by reaction with O3. The lifetime of the film is increased by assuming smaller reactive uptake coefficients for O3 or by assuming that a part of the organic surfactants react with OH. With regard to tropospheric chemistry we found that gas phase concentrations for chlorine and bromine species decreased due to the decreased mass transfer between gas phase and aerosol phase. Aqueous phase chlorine concentrations also decreased but aqueous phase bromine concentrations increased. Differences for gas phase concentrations are in general smaller than for liquid phase concentrations. The effect on gas phase NO2 or NO is very small (reduction less than 5% whereas liquid phase NO2 concentrations increased in some cases by nearly 100%. We list suggestions for further laboratory studies which are needed for improved model studies.

  3. Surface modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) hollow fibre membranes for biogas purification in a gas–liquid membrane contactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuan; Li, Jiaxiang; Shen, Yadong; Wang, Liao

    2017-01-01

    The wetting of hollow fibre membranes decreases the performance of the liquid–gas membrane contactor for CO2 capture in biogas upgrading. To solve this problem, in this work, a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibre membrane for a liquid–gas membrane contactor was coated with a superhydrophobic layer composed of a combination of hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by the method of spray deposition. A rough layer of SiO2 deposited on the PVDF membrane resulted in an enhanced surface hydrophobicity. The surface structure of the pristine PVDF significantly affected the homogeneity of the generated SiO2 layer. A uniform surface coating on the PVDF upper layer resulted from the presence of micrometre and nanometre-sized roughness on the surface of the PVDF membrane, which was achieved with a SiO2 concentration of 4.44 mg ml−1 (0.2 g/45 ml) in the coating solution. As a result, the water contact angle of the modified surface was recorded as 155 ± 3°, which is higher than that of the pristine surface. The high contact angle is advantageous for reducing the wetting of the membrane. Additional mass transfer resistance was introduced by the superhydrophobic layer. In addition, continuous CO2 absorption tests were carried out in original and modified PVDF hollow fibre membrane contactors, using monoethanolamine (MEA) solution as the absorbent. A long-term stability test revealed that the modified PVDF hollow fibre membrane contactor was able to outperform the original membrane contactor and demonstrated outstanding long-term stability, suggesting that spray deposition is a promising approach to obtain superhydrophobic PVDF membranes for liquid–gas membrane absorption. PMID:29291117

  4. Surface modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) hollow fibre membranes for biogas purification in a gas-liquid membrane contactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pengrui; Huang, Chuan; Li, Jiaxiang; Shen, Yadong; Wang, Liao

    2017-11-01

    The wetting of hollow fibre membranes decreases the performance of the liquid-gas membrane contactor for CO 2 capture in biogas upgrading. To solve this problem, in this work, a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibre membrane for a liquid-gas membrane contactor was coated with a superhydrophobic layer composed of a combination of hydrophobic SiO 2 nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by the method of spray deposition. A rough layer of SiO 2 deposited on the PVDF membrane resulted in an enhanced surface hydrophobicity. The surface structure of the pristine PVDF significantly affected the homogeneity of the generated SiO 2 layer. A uniform surface coating on the PVDF upper layer resulted from the presence of micrometre and nanometre-sized roughness on the surface of the PVDF membrane, which was achieved with a SiO 2 concentration of 4.44 mg ml -1 (0.2 g/45 ml) in the coating solution. As a result, the water contact angle of the modified surface was recorded as 155 ± 3°, which is higher than that of the pristine surface. The high contact angle is advantageous for reducing the wetting of the membrane. Additional mass transfer resistance was introduced by the superhydrophobic layer. In addition, continuous CO 2 absorption tests were carried out in original and modified PVDF hollow fibre membrane contactors, using monoethanolamine (MEA) solution as the absorbent. A long-term stability test revealed that the modified PVDF hollow fibre membrane contactor was able to outperform the original membrane contactor and demonstrated outstanding long-term stability, suggesting that spray deposition is a promising approach to obtain superhydrophobic PVDF membranes for liquid-gas membrane absorption.

  5. Influence of solution chemistry on the deposition and detachment kinetics of RNA on silica surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yun; Kim, Hyunjung; Tong, Meiping; Li, Qingyun

    2011-02-01

    The deposition kinetics of RNA extracted from both virus and bacteria on silica surfaces were examined in both monovalent (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl(2)) solutions under a wide range of environmentally relevant ionic strength and pH conditions by utilizing a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). To better understand the RNA deposition mechanisms, QCM-D data were complemented by diffusion coefficients and zeta potentials of RNA as a function of examined solution chemistry conditions. Favorable deposition of RNA on poly-l-lysine-coated (positively charged) silica surfaces was governed by the convective-diffusive transport of RNA to the surfaces. The deposition kinetics of RNA on bare silica surfaces were controlled by classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interactions. The presence of divalent cations (Ca(2+)) in solutions greatly enhanced the deposition kinetics of RNA on silica surfaces. Solution pH also affected the deposition behavior of RNA on silica surfaces. Release experiments showed that detachment of RNA from silica surfaces was significant in NaCl solutions, whereas, the deposited RNA on silica surfaces in CaCl(2) solutions was more likely to be irreversible. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamics of epiretinal membrane removal off the retinal surface: a computer simulation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Williamson, Tom H

    2013-09-01

    To use a computer simulation to discern the safest angle at which to peel epiretinal membranes. We used ANSYS V.14.1 software to analyse the dynamics involved in membrane removal off the retinal surface. The geometrical values were taken from optical coherence tomography of 30 eyes with epiretinal membranes. A range of Young's modulus values of 0.03, 0.01 and 0.09 MPa were assigned to the epiretinal membrane and to the retina separately. The ratio of maximum shear stress (MSS) recorded at the attachment pegs over that recorded at the membrane (P/E ratio) was determined at nine displacement angles (DA). Mean MSS values recorded at the attachment pegs, epiretinal membrane and retina were significantly different at 0.8668, 0.6091 and 0.0017 Pa consecutively (p<0.05). There was a significant negative linear correlation between DA and MSS recorded at the epiretinal membrane when the Young's modulus for the epiretinal membrane was higher than or equal to that for the attachment pegs and the retina. Nevertheless, there was a significant positive linear correlation between DA and P/E ratio when the Young's modulus for the epiretinal membrane was equal to or lower than that for the attachment pegs and the retina. Attachment pegs appear to be the most likely part to fail (tear) during removal procedures. Changing the direction at which the edge of the membrane is pulled can relocate the MSS within in the tissue complex. Safer and effective removal could be achieved by pulling epiretinal membranes onto themselves at 165° DA.

  7. Surface chemistry of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Prina, Elisabetta; Goodridge, Ruth D; Hague, Richard J M; Edmondson, Steve; Rose, Felicity R A J; Christie, Steven D R

    2016-10-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) has previously been shown to be a viable method for fabricating biomedical implants; however, the surface chemistry of SLM fabricated parts is poorly understood. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface chemistries of (a) SLM as-fabricated (SLM-AF) Ti6Al4V and (b) SLM fabricated and mechanically polished (SLM-MP) Ti6Al4V samples and compared with (c) traditionally manufactured (forged) and mechanically polished Ti6Al4V samples. The SLM-AF surface was observed to be porous with an average surface roughness (Ra) of 17.6±3.7μm. The surface chemistry of the SLM-AF was significantly different to the FGD-MP surface with respect to elemental distribution and their existence on the outermost surface. Sintered particles on the SLM-AF surface were observed to affect depth profiling of the sample due to a shadowing effect during argon ion sputtering. Surface heterogeneity was observed for all three surfaces; however, vanadium was witnessed only on the mechanically polished (SLM-MP and FGD-MP) surfaces. The direct and indirect 3T3 cell cytotoxicity studies revealed that the cells were viable on the SLM fabricated Ti6Al4V parts. The varied surface chemistry of the SLM-AF and SLM-MP did not influence the cell behaviour. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Flexible PVDF membranes with exceptional robust superwetting surface for continuous separation of oil/water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhu; Lin, Haibo; Liu, Fu; Xiao, Peng; Wu, Ziyang; Li, Tiantian; Li, Dehong

    2017-10-26

    Instability of superwetting surface is the stumbling block of flexible polymeric membranes for continuous separation of water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions. Manipulation of rigid superwetting nano-TiO 2 on hierarchical poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane by mimicking the plant roots holding soil behaviour enabled the generation of robust superwetting surface withstanding the harshly physical and chemical torture. The unique interface combination, which fabricated by a compacted nano-layer with the thickness of ~20 μm, was disclosed by systematic structure characterization. As demonstrated by SEM, LSCM and nano-CT, the pristine PVDF membrane with large quantities of cilia-like micro/nano-fibrils can function as the plant roots to capture, cage and confine the nanoparticles to form a robustly rigid nano-coating. The as-prepared membranes showed excellent durable separation performance both in varieties of stabilized water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsion separation for a long term with few nanoparticles loss in a continuous crossflow mode. The strategy of assembling rigid inorganic nano-particles on flexible surface offers a window of opportunity for preparation of robust organic-inorganic hybrid membranes not only for continuous oil/water emulsion separation, but also for other functional application, such as electric conduction, heat conduction, ion exchange, and in membrane catalytic reactors etc.

  9. Controlled surface chemistry of diamond/β-SiC composite films for preferential protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Handschuh-Wang, Stephan; Yang, Yang; Zhuang, Hao; Schlemper, Christoph; Wesner, Daniel; Schönherr, Holger; Zhang, Wenjun; Jiang, Xin

    2014-02-04

    Diamond and SiC both process extraordinary biocompatible, electronic, and chemical properties. A combination of diamond and SiC may lead to highly stable materials, e.g., for implants or biosensors with excellent sensing properties. Here we report on the controllable surface chemistry of diamond/β-SiC composite films and its effect on protein adsorption. For systematic and high-throughput investigations, novel diamond/β-SiC composite films with gradient composition have been synthesized using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the diamond/β-SiC ratio of the composite films shows a continuous change from pure diamond to β-SiC over a length of ∼ 10 mm on the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was employed to unveil the surface termination of chemically oxidized and hydrogen treated surfaces. The surface chemistry of the composite films was found to depend on diamond/β-SiC ratio and the surface treatment. As observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy, albumin and fibrinogen were preferentially adsorbed from buffer: after surface oxidation, the proteins preferred to adsorb on diamond rather than on β-SiC, resulting in an increasing amount of proteins adsorbed to the gradient surfaces with increasing diamond/β-SiC ratio. By contrast, for hydrogen-treated surfaces, the proteins preferentially adsorbed on β-SiC, leading to a decreasing amount of albumin adsorbed on the gradient surfaces with increasing diamond/β-SiC ratio. The mechanism of preferential protein adsorption is discussed by considering the hydrogen bonding of the water self-association network to OH-terminated surfaces and the change of the polar surface energy component, which was determined according to the van Oss method. These results suggest that the diamond/β-SiC gradient film can be a promising material for biomedical applications which

  10. The surface chemistry determines the spatio-temporal interaction dynamics of quantum dots in atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Bernd; Hirn, Stephanie; Mildner, Karina; Coletti, Raffaele; Massberg, Steffen; Reichel, Christoph A; Rehberg, Markus; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Krombach, Fritz

    2018-03-01

    To optimize the design of nanoparticles for diagnosis or therapy of vascular diseases, it is mandatory to characterize the determinants of nano-bio interactions in vascular lesions. Using ex vivo and in vivo microscopy, we analyzed the interactive behavior of quantum dots with different surface functionalizations in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice. We demonstrate that quantum dots with different surface functionalizations exhibit specific interactive behaviors with distinct molecular and cellular components of the injured vessel wall. Moreover, we show a role for fibrinogen in the regulation of the spatio-temporal interaction dynamics in atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings emphasize the relevance of surface chemistry-driven nano-bio interactions on the differential in vivo behavior of nanoparticles in diseased tissue.

  11. Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Platforms: Engineered Surface Chemistry and Structure for Optical Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kumeria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical anodization of pure aluminum enables the growth of highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA structures. This has made NAA one of the most popular nanomaterials with applications including molecular separation, catalysis, photonics, optoelectronics, sensing, drug delivery, and template synthesis. Over the past decades, the ability to engineer the structure and surface chemistry of NAA and its optical properties has led to the establishment of distinctive photonic structures that can be explored for developing low-cost, portable, rapid-response and highly sensitive sensing devices in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR and reflective interference spectroscopy (RIfS techniques. This review article highlights the recent advances on fabrication, surface modification and structural engineering of NAA and its application and performance as a platform for SPR- and RIfS-based sensing and biosensing devices.

  12. Investigation of silicate surface chemistry and reaction mechanisms associated with mass transport in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.F.; Perry, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration and rate of transport of radionuclides through geologic media can be strongly influenced by the extent of sorption on aquifer surfaces. Over time intervals relevant to such transport processes, rock and mineral surfaces cannot be considered as inert, unreactive substrates but rather as groundwater/solidphase interfaces which are commonly in a state of natural or artificially induced disequilibrium. The goal of the present research is to define experimentally the type of water/rock interactions that will influence surface chemistry and hence sorption characteristics and capacities of natural aquifers. As wide a range of silicate minerals as possible was selected for study to represent rock-forming minerals in basalt, tuff, and granite. The minerals include K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, olivine, hornblende, biotite, and volcanic glass

  13. Surface chemistry of K-montmorillonite: ionic strength, temperature dependence and dissolution kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozalén, Marisa; Brady, Patrick V; Huertas, F Javier

    2009-05-15

    The surface chemistry of K-montmorillonite was investigated by potentiometric titrations conducted at 25, 50 and 70 degrees C and at ionic strengths of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 M KNO(3). Proton adsorption decreases with electrolyte concentration at all pHs. The pH of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) decreases from 8.1 to 7.6 when the ionic strength increases from 0.001 to 0.1 M. Temperature has a very small effect on surface charge. A constant capacitance model that accounts for protonation/deprotonation of aluminol and silanol edge sites and basal plane H(+)/K(+) exchange is used to fit the experimental data. H(+) and OH(-) adsorption to specific surface sites appear to account for the pH-dependence of the K-montmorillonite dissolution.

  14. Surface-Dependent Transitions during Self-Assembly of Phospholipid Membranes on Mica, Silica, and Glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Martin; Billy, D.; Benda, Aleš; Speijer, H.; Hof, Martin; Hermens, W. T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 23 (2004), s. 10129-10137 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : silica and glass * phospholipid * surface-dependent Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2004

  15. A Brief View of the Surface Membrane Proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Canul, Ángel de la Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of Chagas' disease which affects millions of people around the world mostly in Central and South America. T. cruzi expresses a wide variety of proteins on its surface membrane which has an important role in the biology of these parasites. Surface molecules of the parasites are the result of the environment to which the parasites are exposed during their life cycle. Hence, T. cruzi displays several modifications when they move from one host to another. Due to the complexity of this parasite's cell surface, this review presents some membrane proteins organized as large families, as they are the most abundant and/or relevant throughout the T. cruzi membrane. PMID:28656101

  16. A Brief View of the Surface Membrane Proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel de la Cruz Pech-Canul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of Chagas’ disease which affects millions of people around the world mostly in Central and South America. T. cruzi expresses a wide variety of proteins on its surface membrane which has an important role in the biology of these parasites. Surface molecules of the parasites are the result of the environment to which the parasites are exposed during their life cycle. Hence, T. cruzi displays several modifications when they move from one host to another. Due to the complexity of this parasite’s cell surface, this review presents some membrane proteins organized as large families, as they are the most abundant and/or relevant throughout the T. cruzi membrane.

  17. Coordination chemistry of weathering: Kinetics of the surface-controlled dissolution of oxide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumm, Werner; Wollast, Roland

    1990-02-01

    Chemical weathering processes, essentially caused by the interaction of water and the atmosphere with the Earth's crust, transform primary minerals into solutes and clays and, eventually, into sedimentary rocks; these processes participate in controlling the global hydrogeochemical cycles of many elements. Many mineral dissolution processes are controlled by a chemical mechanism at the solid-water interface. The reaction-controlling steps can be interpreted in terms of a surface coordination model. The tendency of a mineral to dissolve is influenced by the interaction of solutes—H+, OH-, ligands, and metal ions—with its surface. The surface reactivity is shown to depend on the surface species and their structural identity; specifically, the dependence of dissolution rates on pH and on dissolved ligand concentrations can be explained in terms of surface protonation (and deprotonation) and of ligand surface complexes. A general rate law for the dissolution of minerals is derived by considering, in addition to the surface coordination chemistry, established models of lattice statistics and activated complex theory.

  18. Effect of solution chemistry on the adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate onto mineral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuyang Y; Shiang Fu, Q; Gao, Dawen; Criddle, Craig S; Leckie, James O

    2010-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an emergent contaminant of substantial environmental concerns, yet very limited information has been available on PFOS adsorption onto mineral surfaces. PFOS adsorption onto goethite and silica was investigated by batch adsorption experiments under various solution compositions. Adsorption onto silica was only marginally affected by pH, ionic strength, and calcium concentration, likely due to the dominance of non-electrostatic interactions. In contrast, PFOS uptake by goethite increased significantly at high [H+] and [Ca2+], which was likely due to enhanced electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged PFOS molecules and positively charged goethite surface. The effect of pH was less significant at high ionic strength, likely due to electrical double layer compression. PFOS uptake was reduced at higher ionic strength for a strongly positively charged goethite surface (pH 3), while it increased for a weakly charged surface (pH 7 and 9), which could be attributed to the competition between PFOS-surface electrostatic attraction and PFOS-PFOS electrostatic repulsion. A conceptual model that captures PFOS-surface and PFOS-PFOS electrostatic interactions as well as non-electrostatic interaction was also formulated to understand the effect of solution chemistry on PFOS adsorption onto goethite and silica surfaces. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adhesion strength and spreading characteristics of EPS on membrane surfaces during lateral and central growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Tansel, Derya Z

    2013-11-01

    Deposition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on membrane surfaces is a precursor step for bacterial attachment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphological changes on a clean polysulfone ultrafilration membrane after exposure to effluent from a membrane bioreactor. The effluent was filtered to remove bacteria before exposing the membrane. The morphological characterization was performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The lateral (2D) and central growth characteristics (3D) of the EPS deposits were evaluated by section and topographical analyses of the height images. The contact angle of single EPS units was 9.07 ± 0.50° which increased to 24.41 ± 1.00° for large clusters (over 10 units) and decreased to 18.68 ± 1.00° for the multilayered clusters. The surface tension of the single EPS units was 49.34 ± 1.70 mNm(-1). The surface tension of single layered small and large EPS clusters were 51.26 ± 2.05 and 53.48 ± 2.01 mNm(-1), respectively. For the multilayered clusters, the surface tension was 51.43 ± 2.05 mNm(-1). The spreading values were negative for all deposits on the polysulfone membrane indicating that the EPS clusters did not have tendency to spread but preferred to retain their shapes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface chemistry of methanol on different ZnO surfaces studied by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lanying; Wang, Yuemin

    2017-05-24

    The adsorption and reactions of CH 3 OH on nonpolar mixed-terminated ZnO(101[combining macron]0), polar O-ZnO(0001[combining macron]) and Zn-ZnO(0001) surfaces have been studied systematically using high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) in conjunction with temperature programmed desorption (TPD). For all three ZnO surfaces, exposure to methanol at room temperature leads to (partially) dissociative adsorption resulting in the formation of hydroxyl and methoxy species. Upon heating to higher temperatures, the dissociated and intact methanol species on ZnO(101[combining macron]0) predominantly undergo molecular desorption releasing CH 3 OH at 370 and 440 K. The Zn-O dimer vacancies are responsible for the decomposition of a small fraction of methanol yielding H 2 , CH 2 O and CO at 540 and 565 K. The interaction of methanol with polar O-ZnO and Zn-ZnO surfaces is dominated by thermal decomposition of CH 3 OH to produce CH 2 O, H 2 , CO, CO 2 and H 2 O at elevated temperatures. The high chemical reactivity of both polar surfaces is related to the high abundance of different types of surface defects formed via massive restructuring. Importantly, the reconstructed Zn-ZnO surface exhibits high selectivity for hydrogen production at 520 K, which was not observed for the polar O-ZnO surface. The HREELS data revealed that this low-temperature hydrogen evolution on Zn-ZnO results from methoxy oxidation to a formate species occurring at O-terminated step-edge sites.

  1. Surface chemistry manipulation of gold nanorods preserves optical properties for bio-imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polito, Anthony B.; Maurer-Gardner, Elizabeth I.; Hussain, Saber M., E-mail: saber.hussain@us.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Molecular Bioeffects Branch, Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Due to their anisotropic shape, gold nanorods (GNRs) possess a number of advantages for biosystem use including, enhanced surface area and tunable optical properties within the near-infrared (NIR) region. However, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide-related cytotoxicity, overall poor cellular uptake following surface chemistry modifications, and loss of NIR optical properties due to material intracellular aggregation in combination remain as obstacles for nanobased biomedical GNR applications. In this article, we report that tannic acid-coated 11-mercaptoundecyl trimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) GNRs (MTAB-TA) show no significant decrease in either in vitro cell viability or stress activation after exposures to A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. In addition, MTAB-TA GNRs demonstrate a substantial level of cellular uptake while displaying a unique intracellular clustering pattern. This clustering pattern significantly reduces intracellular aggregation, preserving the GNRs NIR optical properties, vital for biomedical imaging applications. These results demonstrate how surface chemistry modifications enhance biocompatibility, allow for higher rate of internalization with low intracellular aggregation of MTAB-TA GNRs, and identify them as prime candidates for use in nanobased bio-imaging applications.Graphical Abstract.

  2. The influence of the surface chemistry of silver nanoparticles on cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, Ilknur; Altunbek, Mine; Kahraman, Mehmet; Culha, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the surface chemistry of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on p53 mediated cell death was evaluated using human dermal fibroblast (HDF) and lung cancer (A549) cells. The citrate reduced AgNPs (C-AgNPs) were modified with either lactose (L-AgNPs) or a 12-base long oligonucleotide (O-AgNPs). Both unmodified and modified AgNPs showed increased concentration and time dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity causing an increased p53 up-regulation within 6 h and led to apoptotic or necrotic cell deaths. The C-AgNPs induced more cytotoxicity and cellular DNA damage than the surface modified AgNPs. Modifying the C-AgNPs with lactose or the oligonucleotide reduced both necrotic and apoptotic cell deaths in the HDF cells. The C-AgNPs caused an insignificant necrosis in A549 cells whereas the modified AgNPs caused necrosis and apoptosis in both cell types. Compared to the O-AgNPs, the L-AgNPs triggered more cellular DNA damage, which led to up-regulation of p53 gene inducing apoptosis in A549 cells compared to HDF cells. This suggests that the different surface chemistries of the AgNPs cause different cellular responses that may be important not only for their use in medicine but also for reducing their toxicity. (paper)

  3. Surface chemistry manipulation of gold nanorods preserves optical properties for bio-imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Anthony B.; Maurer-Gardner, Elizabeth I.; Hussain, Saber M.

    2015-12-01

    Due to their anisotropic shape, gold nanorods (GNRs) possess a number of advantages for biosystem use including, enhanced surface area and tunable optical properties within the near-infrared (NIR) region. However, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide-related cytotoxicity, overall poor cellular uptake following surface chemistry modifications, and loss of NIR optical properties due to material intracellular aggregation in combination remain as obstacles for nanobased biomedical GNR applications. In this article, we report that tannic acid-coated 11-mercaptoundecyl trimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) GNRs (MTAB-TA) show no significant decrease in either in vitro cell viability or stress activation after exposures to A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. In addition, MTAB-TA GNRs demonstrate a substantial level of cellular uptake while displaying a unique intracellular clustering pattern. This clustering pattern significantly reduces intracellular aggregation, preserving the GNRs NIR optical properties, vital for biomedical imaging applications. These results demonstrate how surface chemistry modifications enhance biocompatibility, allow for higher rate of internalization with low intracellular aggregation of MTAB-TA GNRs, and identify them as prime candidates for use in nanobased bio-imaging applications.

  4. Multifunctionality of organometallic quinonoid metal complexes: surface chemistry, coordination polymers, and catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bok; Pike, Robert D; Sweigart, Dwight A

    2013-11-19

    Quinonoid metal complexes have potential applications in surface chemistry, coordination polymers, and catalysts. Although quinonoid manganese tricarbonyl complexes have been used as secondary building units (SBUs) in the formation of novel metal-organometallic coordination networks and polymers, the potentially wider applications of these versatile linkers have not yet been recognized. In this Account, we focus on these diverse new applications of quinonoid metal complexes, and report on the variety of quinonoid metal complexes that we have synthesized. Through the use of [(η(6)-hydroquinone)Mn(CO)3](+), we are able to modify the surface of Fe3O4 and FePt nanoparticles (NPs). This process occurs either by the replacement of oleylamine with neutral [(η(5)-semiquinone)Mn(CO)3] at the NP surface, or by the binding of anionic [(η(4)-quinone)Mn(CO)3](-) upon further deprotonation of [(η(5)-semiquinone)Mn(CO)3] at the NP surface. We have demonstrated chemistry at the intersection of surface-modified NPs and coordination polymers through the growth of organometallic coordination polymers onto the surface modified Fe3O4 NPs. The resulting magnetic NP/organometallic coordination polymer hybrid material exhibited both the unique superparamagnetic behavior associated with Fe3O4 NPs and the paramagnetism attributable to the metal nodes, depending upon the magnetic range examined. By the use of functionalized [(η(5)-semiquinone)Mn(CO)3] complexes, we attained the formation of an organometallic monolayer on the surface of highly ordered pyrolitic graphite (HOPG). The resulting organometallic monolayer was not simply a random array of manganese atoms on the surface, but rather consisted of an alternating "up and down" spatial arrangement of Mn atoms extending from the HOPG surface due to hydrogen bonding of the quinonoid complexes. We also showed that the topology of metal atoms on the surface could be controlled through the use of quinonoid metal complexes. A quinonoid

  5. Carbon key-properties for microcystin adsorption in drinking water treatment: structure or surface chemistry?

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio, Maria de Fátima de Jesus Leal

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação para Obtenção de Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Química e Bioquímica The carbon key-properties (structure and surface chemistry) for microcystin-LR (MC-LR) adsorption onto activated carbon were investigated. Waters with an inorganic background matrix approaching that of the soft natural water (2.5 mM ionic strength) were used. Also, model waters with controlled ionic make-up and NOM surrogate with similar size of MC-LR (tannic acid - TA) with MC-LR extracts were tested with activ...

  6. The influence of surface nanoroughness, texture and chemistry of TiZr implant abutment on oral biofilm accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Rui; Lyngstadaas, Ståle P; Ellingsen, Jan Eirik; Taxt-Lamolle, Sébastien; Haugen, Håvard J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine surface nanoroughness, texture and chemistry of dental implant abutment and to investigate how these parameters influence oral biofilm formation in healthy subjects. Eight different nanorough TiZr surfaces were produced by polishing, machining, cathodic polarization and acid etching. Surface topography was examined using field emission scanning electron microscope and a blue light laser profilometer. Surface chemistry was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface hydrophilicity was tested by measuring contact angle on the surfaces. A human in vivo study using a splint model was employed to evaluate oral biofilm accumulation on these surfaces. Different surface textures (flat, grooved and irregular) were created with nanoroughness from 29 to 214 nm. Some test surfaces were incorporated with hydrogen by cathodic polarization and/or acid etching with HCl/H(2)SO(4). Nanoroughness (S(a)) positively correlated with microbial adhesion. Biofilm accumulation was less pronounced on flat and grooved than on irregular surfaces. No significant association between hydrogen content or hydrophilicity of the surface and biofilm accumulation was observed. Nanoroughness (< 214 nm) and surface texture influence oral biofilm accumulation independent of surface chemistry and hydrophilicity. Surface hydrogen, which has previously been shown to promote fibroblast growth, does not affect biofilm formation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Controls on surface water chemistry in the upper Merced River basin, Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.; Campbell, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Surface water draining granitic bedrock in Yosemite National Park exhibits considerable variability in chemical composition, despite the relative homogeneity of bedrock chemistry. Other geological factors, including the jointing and distribution of glacial till, appear to exert strong controls on water composition. Chemical data from three surface water surveys in the upper Merced River basin conducted in August 1981, June 1988 and August 1991 were analysed and compared with mapped geological, hydrological and topographic features to identify the solute sources and processes that control water chemistry within the basin during baseflow. Water at most of the sampling sites was dilute, with alkalinities ranging from 26 to 77 ??equiv. 1-1. Alkalinity was much higher in two subcatchments, however, ranging from 51 to 302 ??equiv. 1-1. Base cations and silica were also significantly higher in these two catchments than in the rest of the watershed. Concentrations of weathering products in surface water were correlated to the fraction of each subcatchment underlain by surficial material, which is mostly glacial till. Silicate mineral weathering is the dominant control on concentrations of alkalinity, silica and base cations, and ratios of these constituents in surface water reflect the composition of local bedrock, Chloride concentrations in surface water samples varied widely, ranging from Merced River at the Happy Isles gauge from 1968 to 1990 was 26 ??equiv. 1-1, which was five times higher than in atmospheric deposition (4-5 ??equiv. 1-1), suggesting that a source of chloride exists within the watershed. Saline groundwater springs, whose locations are probably controlled by vertical jointing in the bedrock, are the most likely source of the chloride. Sulphate concentrations varied much less than most other solutes, ranging from 3 to 14 ??equiv. 1-1. Concentrations of sulphate in quarterly samples collected at the watershed outlet also showed relatively little variation

  8. Olopatadine Inhibits Exocytosis in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells by Counteracting Membrane Surface Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud/Aims: Besides its anti-allergic properties as a histamine receptor antagonist, olopatadine stabilizes mast cells by inhibiting the release of chemokines. Since olopatadine bears amphiphilic features and is preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membrane, it would induce some morphological changes in mast cells and thus affect the process of exocytosis. Methods: Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of olopatadine and other anti-allergic drugs on the membrane capacitance (Cm in rat peritoneal mast cells during exocytosis. Using confocal imaging of a water-soluble fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, we also examined their effects on the deformation of the plasma membrane. Results: Low concentrations of olopatadine (1 or 10 µM did not significantly affect the GTP-γ-S-induced increase in the Cm. However, 100 µM and 1 mM olopatadine almost totally suppressed the increase in the Cm. Additionally, these doses completely washed out the trapping of the dye on the cell surface, indicating that olopatadine counteracted the membrane surface deformation induced by exocytosis. As shown by electron microscopy, olopatadine generated inward membrane bending in mast cells. Conclusion: This study provides electrophysiological evidence for the first time that olopatadine dose-dependently inhibits the process of exocytosis in rat peritoneal mast cells. Such mast cell stabilizing properties of olopatadine may be attributed to its counteracting effects on the plasma membrane deformation in degranulating mast cells.

  9. Early osseointegration driven by the surface chemistry and wettability of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartoretto, Suelen Cristina; Alves, Adriana Terezinha Neves Novellino; Resende, Rodrigo Figueiredo Britto; Calasans-Maia, José; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Calasans-Maia, Mônica Diuana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of two different commercially available dental implants on osseointegration. The surfaces were sandblasting and acid etching (Group 1) and sandblasting and acid etching, then maintained in an isotonic solution of 0.9% sodium chloride (Group 2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed for surface chemistry analysis. Surface morphology and topography was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy (CM), respectively. Contact angle analysis (CAA) was employed for wetting evaluation. Bone-implant-contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupied (BAFO) analysis were performed on thin sections (30 μm) 14 and 28 days after the installation of 10 implants from each group (n=20) in rabbits' tibias. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA at the 95% level of significance considering implantation time and implant surface as independent variables. Group 2 showed 3-fold less carbon on the surface and a markedly enhanced hydrophilicity compared to Group 1 but a similar surface roughness (p>0.05). BIC and BAFO levels in Group 2 at 14 days were similar to those in Group 1 at 28 days. After 28 days of installation, BIC and BAFO measurements of Group 2 were approximately 1.5-fold greater than in Group 1 (pimplants of Group 2 accelerate osseointegration and increase the area of the bone-to-implant interface when compared to those of Group 1.

  10. Surface modification of thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane by glycerol assisted oxidation with sodium hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Hiren D.; Samnani, Mohit D.; Gauswami, Maulik V.

    2018-01-01

    Need for improvement in water flux of thin film composite (TFC) RO membrane has been appreciated by researchers world over and surface modification approach is found promising to achieve higher water flux and solute rejection. Thin film composite RO membrane was exposed to 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite solution with varying concentrations of glycerol ranging from 1 to 10%. It was found that there was a drop in concentration of sodium hypochlorite after the addition of glycerol because of a new compound resulted from the oxidation of glycerol with sodium hypochlorite. The water flux of the membrane treated with 1% glycerol with 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite for 1 h was about 22% more and salt rejection was 1.36% greater than that of only sodium hypochlorite treated membrane for the same concentration and time. There was an increase in salt rejection of membrane with increase in concentration of glycerol from 1% to 5%, however, increasing glycerol concentration further up to 10%, the salt rejection declined. The water flux was found declining from 1% glycerol solution to 10% glycerol solution. The membrane samples were characterized to understand the change in chemical structure and morphology of the membrane.

  11. Quantitative analysis of molecular partition towards lipid membranes using surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Tiago N.; Freire, João M.; Cunha-Santos, Catarina; Heras, Montserrat; Gonçalves, João; Moscona, Anne; Porotto, Matteo; Salomé Veiga, Ana; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the interplay between molecules and lipid membranes is fundamental when studying cellular and biotechnological phenomena. Partition between aqueous media and lipid membranes is key to the mechanism of action of many biomolecules and drugs. Quantifying membrane partition, through adequate and robust parameters, is thus essential. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a powerful technique for studying 1:1 stoichiometric interactions but has limited application to lipid membrane partition data. We have developed and applied a novel mathematical model for SPR data treatment that enables determination of kinetic and equilibrium partition constants. The method uses two complementary fitting models for association and dissociation sensorgram data. The SPR partition data obtained for the antibody fragment F63, the HIV fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide, and the endogenous drug kyotorphin towards POPC membranes were compared against data from independent techniques. The comprehensive kinetic and partition models were applied to the membrane interaction data of HRC4, a measles virus entry inhibitor peptide, revealing its increased affinity for, and retention in, cholesterol-rich membranes. Overall, our work extends the application of SPR beyond the realm of 1:1 stoichiometric ligand-receptor binding into a new and immense field of applications: the interaction of solutes such as biomolecules and drugs with lipids.

  12. Nanofiltration Membranes with Narrow Pore Size Distribution via Contra-Diffusion-Induced Mussel-Inspired Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Qiu, Wen-Ze; Lv, Yan; Wu, Jian; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2016-11-02

    Nanofiltration membranes (NFMs) are widely used in saline water desalination, wastewater treatment, and chemical product purification. However, conventional NFMs suffer from broad pore size distribution, which limits their applications for fine separation, especially in complete separation of molecules with slight differences in molecular size. Herein, defect-free composite NFMs with narrow pore size distribution are fabricated using a contra-diffusion method, with dopamine/polyethylenimine solution on the skin side and ammonium persulfate solution on the other side of the ultrafiltration substrate. Persulfate ions can diffuse through the ultrafiltration substrate into the other side and in situ trigger dopamine to form a codeposited coating with polyethylenimine. The codeposition is hindered on those sites completely covered by the polydopamine/polyethylenimine coating, although it is promoted at the defects or highly permeable regions because it is induced by the diffused persulfate ions. Such a "self-completion" process results in NFMs with highly uniform structures and narrow pore size distribution, as determined by their rejection of neutral solutes. These near electrically neutral NFMs show a high rejection of divalent ions with a low rejection of monovalent ions (MgCl 2 rejection = 96%, NaCl rejection = 23%), majorly based on a steric hindrance effect. The as-prepared NFMs can be applied in molecular separation such as isolating cellulose hydrogenation products.

  13. Review: Impacts of permafrost degradation on inorganic chemistry of surface fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicola; Salerno, Franco; Gruber, Stephan; Freppaz, Michele; Williams, Mark; Fratianni, Simona; Giardino, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is impacting the inorganic chemical characteristics of surface fresh water in permafrost areas and affecting aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of major ions (e.g., Ca2 +, Mg2 +, SO42 -, NO3-) can increase following permafrost degradation with associated deepening of flow pathways and increased contributions of deep groundwater. In addition, thickening of the active layer and melting of near-surface ground ice can influence inorganic chemical fluxes from permafrost into surface water. Permafrost degradation has also the capability to modify trace element (e.g., Ni, Mn, Al, Hg, Pb) contents in surface water. Although several local and regional modifications of inorganic chemistry of surface fresh water have been attributed to permafrost degradation, a comprehensive review of the observed changes is lacking. The goal of this paper is to distil insight gained across differing permafrost settings through the identification of common patterns in previous studies, at global scale. In this review we focus on three typical permafrost configurations (pervasive permafrost degradation, thermokarst, and thawing rock glaciers) as examples and distinguish impacts on (i) major ions and (ii) trace elements. Consequences of warming climate have caused spatially-distributed progressive increases of major ion and trace element delivery to surface fresh water in both polar and mountain areas following pervasive permafrost degradation. Moreover, localised releases of major ions and trace elements to surface water due to the liberation of soluble materials sequestered in permafrost and ground ice have been found in ice-rich terrains both at high latitude (thermokarst features) and high elevation (rock glaciers). Further release of solutes and related transport to surface fresh water can be expected under warming climatic conditions. However, complex interactions among several factors able to influence the timing and magnitude of the impacts

  14. [Amniotic membrane for ocular surface reconstruction after conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Rêgo, Paulo Roberto de; Gomes, José Alvaro Pereira; Ballalai, Priscila Luppi; Cunha, Marcelo Carvalho; Sousa, Luciene Barbosa de; Erwenne, Clélia Maria

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the use of human amniotic membrane for ocular surface reconstruction after conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma resection. Amniotic membrane was obtained at the time of cesarean section and was preserved at -80 masculineC in glycerol and cornea culture media at a ratio of 1:1. The inclusion criteria were patients presenting proliferating lesions suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma (flat or elevated white lesions resembling "fish meat") that involve the conjunctiva, limbus and cornea. Eight eyes of 8 patients with conjunctival "squamous cell carcinoma" underwent tumor resection with amniotic membrane transplantation. Three of these cases underwent total corneal epitheliectomy and amniotic membrane transplantation associated with limbal autograft. Mean follow-up time was 17.8 months (range, 10-35 months). In four patients (71.4%) surgical treatment was successful, with good ocular surface stability. In two patients (28.6%) results were partially successful, with mild cicatricial alterations. One patient was excluded from the study due to aggressive tumor recurrence with intraocular invasion that needed to be removed with exenteration. This study suggests that amniotic membrane transplantation is a good alternative for ocular surface reconstruction after conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma resection.

  15. Application of response surface methodology to tailor the surface chemistry of electrospun chitosan-poly(ethylene oxide) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösiger, Peter; Richard, Isabelle M T; Le Gat, Luce; Michen, Benjamin; Schubert, Mark; Rossi, René M; Fortunato, Giuseppino

    2018-04-15

    Chitosan is a promising biocompatible polymer for regenerative engineering applications, but its processing remains challenging due to limited solubility and rigid crystalline structure. This work represents the development of electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) blend nanofibrous membranes by means of a numerical analysis in order to identify and tailor the main influencing parameters with respect to accessible surface nitrogen functionalities which are of importance for the biological activity as well as for further functionalization. Depending on the solution composition, both gradient fibers and homogenous blended fiber structures could be obtained with surface nitrogen concentrations varying between 0 and 6.4%. Response surface methodology (RSM) revealed chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) ratio and chitosan molecular weight as the main influencing factors with respect to accessible nitrogen surface atoms and respective concentrations. The model showed good adequacy hence providing a tool to tailor the surface properties of chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) blends by addressing the amount of accessible chitosan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiofrequency electric field hyperthermia with gold nanostructures: role of particle shape and surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Gilani, Kambiz

    2017-09-10

    Hyperthermia treatment of cancerous cells has been recently developed drastically with the help of nanostructures. Heating of gold nanoparticles in non-invasive radiofrequency electric field (RF-EF) is a promising and unique technique for cancer hyperthermia. However, because of differences between particles (i.e. their surface chemistry and dispersion medium) and between RF-EF sources, the research community has not reached a consensus yet. Here, we report the results of investigations on heating of gold nanoparticles and gold nanorods under RF-EF and feasibility of in-vitro cancer hyperthermia. The heating experiments were performed to investigate the role of particle shape and surface chemistry (CTAB, citrate and PEG molecules). In-vitro hyperthermia was performed on human pancreatic cancer cell (MIA Paca-2) with PEG-coated GNPs and GNRs at concentrations that were found non-toxic based on the results of cytotoxicity assay. Application of RF-EF on cells treated with PEG-GNPs and PEG-GNRs proved highly effective in killing cells.

  17. Tuning colloidal quantum dot band edge positions through solution-phase surface chemistry modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupa, Daniel M.; Vörös, Márton; Brawand, Nicholas P.; McNichols, Brett W.; Miller, Elisa M.; Gu, Jing; Nozik, Arthur J.; Sellinger, Alan; Galli, Giulia; Beard, Matthew C.

    2017-05-01

    Band edge positions of semiconductors determine their functionality in many optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaics, photoelectrochemical cells and light emitting diodes. Here we show that band edge positions of lead sulfide (PbS) colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, specifically quantum dots (QDs), can be tuned over 2.0 eV through surface chemistry modification. We achieved this remarkable control through the development of simple, robust and scalable solution-phase ligand exchange methods, which completely replace native ligands with functionalized cinnamate ligands, allowing for well-defined, highly tunable chemical systems. By combining experiments and ab initio simulations, we establish clear relationships between QD surface chemistry and the band edge positions of ligand/QD hybrid systems. We find that in addition to ligand dipole, inter-QD ligand shell inter-digitization contributes to the band edge shifts. We expect that our established relationships and principles can help guide future optimization of functional organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructures for diverse optoelectronic applications.

  18. Surface chemistry and microstructure of metallic biomaterials for hip and knee endoprostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenko, Monika; Gorenšek, Matevž; Godec, Matjaž; Hodnik, Maxinne; Batič, Barbara Šetina; Donik, Črtomir; Grant, John T.; Dolinar, Drago

    2018-01-01

    The surface chemistry and microstructures of titanium alloys (both new and used) and CoCrMo alloys used for hip and knee endoprostheses were determined using SEM (morphology), EBSD (phase analysis), AES and XPS (surface chemistry). Two new and two used endoprostheses were studied. The SEM SE and BE images showed their microstructures, while the EBSD provided the phases of the materials. During the production of the hip and knee endoprostheses, these materials are subject to severe thermomechanical treatments and physicochemical processes that are decisive for CoCrMo alloys. The AES and XPS results showed that thin oxide films on (a) Ti6Al4V are primarily a mixture of TiO2 with a small amount of Al2O3, while the V is depleted, (b) Ti6Al7Nb is primarily a mixture of TiO2 with a small amount of Al2O3 and Nb2O5, and (c) the CoCrMo alloy is primarily a mixture of Cr2O3 with small amounts of Co and Mo oxides. The thin oxide film on the CoCrMo alloy should prevent intergranular corrosion and improve the biocompatibility. The thin oxide films on the Ti alloys prevent further corrosion, improve the biocompatibility, and affect the osseointegration.

  19. Solid Character of Membrane Ceramides: A Surface Rheology Study of Their Mixtures with Sphingomyelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Elisa R.; Arriaga, Laura R.; Espinosa, Gabriel; Monroy, Francisco; Langevin, Dominique; López-Montero, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The compression and shear viscoelasticities of egg-ceramide and its mixtures with sphingomyelin were investigated using oscillatory surface rheology performed on Langmuir monolayers. We found high values for the compression and shear moduli for ceramide, compatible with a solid-state membrane, and extremely high surface viscosities when compared to typical fluid lipids. A fluidlike rheological behavior was found for sphingomyelin. Lateral mobilities, measured from particle tracking experiments, were correlated with the monolayer viscosities through the usual hydrodynamic relationships. In conclusion, ceramide increases the solid character of sphingomyelin-based membranes and decreases their fluidity, thus drastically decreasing the lateral mobilities of embedded objects. This mechanical behavior may involve important physiological consequences in biological membranes containing ceramides. PMID:22261061

  20. Surface chemistry and corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical, and ultrasupercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, David; Merwin, Augustus; Karmiol, Zachary; Chidambaram, Dev, E-mail: dcc@unr.edu

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Mixtures of oxides containing Ni, Fe, Cr and Nb formed on the surface. • Short term exposure tests observed breakdown of native film. • Formation of a Fe rich oxide layer on Inconel 718 prevents mass loss. - Abstract: Corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical and ultrasupercritical water was studied as a function of temperature and time. The change in the chemistry of the as-received surface film on Inconel 625 and 718 after exposure to subcritical water at 325 °C and supercritical water at 425 °C and 527.5 °C for 2 h was studied. After exposure to 325 °C subcritical water, the CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−} based film formed; however minor quantities of NiFe{sub x}Cr{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} spinel compounds were observed. The oxide film formed on both alloys when exposed to supercritical water at 425 °C consisted of NiFe{sub x}Cr{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} spinel. The surface films on both alloys were identified as NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} when exposed to supercritical water at 527.5 °C. To characterize the fully developed oxide layer, studies were conducted at test solution temperatures of 527.5 and 600 °C. Samples were exposed to these temperatures for 24, 96, and 200 h. Surface chemistry was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, as well as Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Inconel 718 exhibited greater mass gain than Inconel 625 for all temperatures and exposure times. The differences in corrosion behavior of the two alloys are attributed to the lower content of chromium and increased iron content of Inconel 718 as compared to Inconel 625.

  1. Surface chemistry of polyacrylonitrile- and rayon-based activated carbon fibers after post-heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang Yuchun; Lee, C.-Y.; Lee, H.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile- and rayon-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) subject to heat treatment were investigated by means of elemental analyzer, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The total ash content of all ACFs was also analyzed. The adsorption of benzene, carbon tetrachloride and water vapor on ACFs was determined to shed light on the role of surface chemistry on gas adsorption. Results show that different precursors resulted in various elemental compositions and imposed diverse influence upon surface functionalities after heat treatment. The surface of heat-treated ACFs became more graphitic and hydrophobic. Three distinct peaks due to C, N, and O atoms were identified by XPS, and the high-resolution revealed the existence of several surface functionalities. The presence of nitride-like species, aromatic N-imines, or chemisorbed nitrogen oxides was found to be of great advantage to adsorption of water vapor or benzene, but the pyridine-N was not. Unstable complexes on the surface would hinder the fibers from adsorption of carbon tetrachloride. The rise in total ash content or hydrogen composition was of benefit to the access of water vapor. Modifications of ACFs by heat treatment have effectively improved adsorption performance

  2. Tuning Surface Chemistry of Polyetheretherketone by Gold Coating and Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, Zdeňka; Rimpelová, Silvie; Juřík, Petr; Veselý, Martin; Kolská, Zdeňka; Hubáček, Tomáš; Borovec, Jakub; Švorčík, Václav

    2017-06-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has good chemical and biomechanical properties that are excellent for biomedical applications. However, PEEK exhibits hydrophobic and other surface characteristics which cause limited cell adhesion. We have investigated the potential of Ar plasma treatment for the formation of a nanostructured PEEK surface in order to enhance cell adhesion. The specific aim of this study was to reveal the effect of the interface of plasma-treated and gold-coated PEEK matrices on adhesion and spreading of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The surface characteristics (polarity, surface chemistry, and structure) before and after treatment were evaluated by various experimental techniques (gravimetry, goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrokinetic analysis). Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to examine PEEK surface morphology and roughness. The biological response of cells towards nanostructured PEEK was evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Detailed cell morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared to plasma treatment, gold coating improved PEEK wettability. The XPS method showed a decrease in the carbon concentration with increasing time of plasma treatment. Cell adhesion determined on the interface between plasma-treated and gold-coated PEEK matrices was directly proportional to the thickness of a gold layer on a sample. Our results suggest that plasma treatment in a combination with gold coating could be used in biomedical applications requiring enhanced cell adhesion.

  3. Tuning Surface Chemistry of Polyetheretherketone by Gold Coating and Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, Zdeňka; Rimpelová, Silvie; Juřík, Petr; Veselý, Martin; Kolská, Zdeňka; Hubáček, Tomáš; Borovec, Jakub; Švorčík, Václav

    2017-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has good chemical and biomechanical properties that are excellent for biomedical applications. However, PEEK exhibits hydrophobic and other surface characteristics which cause limited cell adhesion. We have investigated the potential of Ar plasma treatment for the formation of a nanostructured PEEK surface in order to enhance cell adhesion. The specific aim of this study was to reveal the effect of the interface of plasma-treated and gold-coated PEEK matrices on adhesion and spreading of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The surface characteristics (polarity, surface chemistry, and structure) before and after treatment were evaluated by various experimental techniques (gravimetry, goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrokinetic analysis). Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to examine PEEK surface morphology and roughness. The biological response of cells towards nanostructured PEEK was evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Detailed cell morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared to plasma treatment, gold coating improved PEEK wettability. The XPS method showed a decrease in the carbon concentration with increasing time of plasma treatment. Cell adhesion determined on the interface between plasma-treated and gold-coated PEEK matrices was directly proportional to the thickness of a gold layer on a sample. Our results suggest that plasma treatment in a combination with gold coating could be used in biomedical applications requiring enhanced cell adhesion.

  4. Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Wolden, Colin A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Colorado School of Mines (CSM) developed high temperature, hydrogen permeable membranes that contain no platinum group metals with the goal of separating hydrogen from gas mixtures representative of gasification of carbon feedstocks such as coal or biomass in order to meet DOE NETL 2015 hydrogen membrane performance targets. We employed a dual synthesis strategy centered on transition metal carbides. In the first approach, novel, high temperature, surface diffusion membranes based on nanoporous Mo2C were fabricated on ceramic supports. These were produced in a two step process that consisted of molybdenum oxide deposition followed by thermal carburization. Our best Mo2C surface diffusion membrane achieved a pure hydrogen flux of 367 SCFH/ft2 at a feed pressure of only 20 psig. The highest H2/N2 selectivity obtained with this approach was 4.9. A transport model using “dusty gas” theory was derived to describe the hydrogen transport in the Mo2C coated, surface diffusion membranes. The second class of membranes developed were dense metal foils of BCC metals such as vanadium coated with thin (< 60 nm) Mo2C catalyst layers. We have fabricated a Mo2C/V composite membrane that in pure gas testing delivered a H2 flux of 238 SCFH/ft2 at 600 °C and 100 psig, with no detectable He permeance. This exceeds the 2010 DOE Target flux. This flux is 2.8 times that of pure Pd at the same membrane thickness and test conditions and over 79% of the 2015 flux target. In mixed gas testing we achieved a permeate purity of ≥99.99%, satisfying the permeate purity milestone, but the hydrogen permeance was low, ~0.2 SCFH/ft2.psi. However, during testing of a Mo2C coated Pd alloy membrane with DOE 1 feed gas mixture a hydrogen permeance of >2 SCFH/ft2.psi was obtained which was stable during the entire test, meeting the permeance associated with

  5. Investigations of Nitrogen Oxide Plasmas: Fundamental Chemistry and Surface Reactivity and Monitoring Student Perceptions in a General Chemistry Recitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechle, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Part I of this dissertation focuses on investigations of nitrogen oxide plasma systems. With increasing concerns over the environmental presence of NxOy species, there is growing interest in utilizing plasma-assisted conversion techniques. Advances, however, have been limited because of the lack of knowledge regarding the fundamental chemistry of…

  6. Development of a dynamic model for cleaning ultra filtration membranes fouled by surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, E.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model for cleaning ultra filtration membranes fouled by surface water is proposed. A model that captures the dynamics well is valuable for the optimization of the cleaning process. The proposed model is based on component balances and contains three parameters that can be

  7. Plasma membrane surface potential: dual effects upon ion uptake and toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical properties of plasma membranes (PMs), partially controlled by the ionic composition of the bathing medium, play significant roles in the distribution of ions at the exterior surface of PMs and in the transport of ions across PMs. The effects of coexistent cations (commonly Al3+, Ca2+, Mg...

  8. Study of Asorption Kinetics of Surfactants onto Polyethersulfone Membrane Surface Using QCM-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption kinetics of surfactants onto the crystal surface spin-coated with a thin layer of a model membrane material, polyethersulfone was monitored through measurements of frequency and dissipation shifts simultaneously using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) device. In ...

  9. Chemistry of SOFC Cathode Surfaces: Fundamental Investigation and Tailoring of Electronic Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Bilge; Heski, Clemens

    2013-08-31

    1) Electron tunneling characteristics on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin-film surfaces were studied up to 580oC in 10-3mbar oxygen pressure, using scanning tunneling microscopy/ spectroscopy (STM/STS). A threshold-like drop in the tunneling current was observed at positive bias in STS, which is interpreted as a unique indicator for the activation polarization in cation oxygen bonding on LSM cathodes. Sr-enrichment was found on the surface at high temperature using Auger electron spectroscopy, and was accompanied by a decrease in tunneling conductance in STS. This suggests that Sr-terminated surfaces are less active for electron transfer in oxygen reduction compared to Mn-terminated surfaces on LSM. 2) Effects of strain on the surface cation chemistry and the electronic structure are important to understand and control for attaining fast oxygen reduction kinetics on transition metal oxides. Here, we demonstrate and mechanistically interpret the strain coupling to Sr segregation, oxygen vacancy formation, and electronic structure on the surface of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin films as a model system. Our experimental results from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy are discussed in light of our first principles-based calculations. A stronger Sr enrichment tendency and a more facile oxygen vacancy formation prevail for the tensile strained LSM surface. The electronic structure of the tensile strained LSM surface exhibits a larger band gap at room temperature, however, a higher tunneling conductance near the Fermi level than the compressively strained LSM at elevated temperatures in oxygen. Our findings suggest lattice strain as a key parameter to tune the reactivity of perovskite transition metal oxides with oxygen in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. 3) Cation segregation on perovskite oxide surfaces affects vastly the oxygen reduction activity and stability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. A unified theory that explains the physical

  10. Surface chemistry and moisture sorption properties of wood coated with multifunctional alkoxysilanes by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; Peter Kingshott; Mark R. VanLandingham; David Plackett

    2003-01-01

    Sol-gel surface deposition of a hydrophobic polysiloxane coating on wood was accomplished by using a mixture of a low molecular weight multifunctional alkoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS), and a high molecular weight multifunctional alkoxysilane, hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMOS). Investigation of the surface chemistry and morphology of the wood specimens by...

  11. The synergy of ultrasonic treatment and organic modifiers for tuning the surface chemistry and conductivity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omastová, M.; Mičušík, M.; Fedorko, P.; Pionteck, J.; Kovářová, Jana; Chehimi, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, 10-11 (2014), s. 940-944 ISSN 0142-2421. [European Conference on Applications of Surface and Interface Analysis /15./ - ECASIA 2013. Cagliari, 13.10.2013-18.10.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * surface modification * surfactant Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.245, year: 2014

  12. Long-Time Plasma Membrane Imaging Based on a Two-Step Synergistic Cell Surface Modification Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hao-Ran; Wang, Hong-Yin; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Zhan; Wu, Fu-Gen

    2016-03-16

    Long-time stable plasma membrane imaging is difficult due to the fast cellular internalization of fluorescent dyes and the quick detachment of the dyes from the membrane. In this study, we developed a two-step synergistic cell surface modification and labeling strategy to realize long-time plasma membrane imaging. Initially, a multisite plasma membrane anchoring reagent, glycol chitosan-10% PEG2000 cholesterol-10% biotin (abbreviated as "GC-Chol-Biotin"), was incubated with cells to modify the plasma membranes with biotin groups with the assistance of the membrane anchoring ability of cholesterol moieties. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated avidin was then introduced to achieve the fluorescence-labeled plasma membranes based on the supramolecular recognition between biotin and avidin. This strategy achieved stable plasma membrane imaging for up to 8 h without substantial internalization of the dyes, and avoided the quick fluorescence loss caused by the detachment of dyes from plasma membranes. We have also demonstrated that the imaging performance of our staining strategy far surpassed that of current commercial plasma membrane imaging reagents such as DiD and CellMask. Furthermore, the photodynamic damage of plasma membranes caused by a photosensitizer, Chlorin e6 (Ce6), was tracked in real time for 5 h during continuous laser irradiation. Plasma membrane behaviors including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and plasma membrane vesiculation could be dynamically recorded. Therefore, the imaging strategy developed in this work may provide a novel platform to investigate plasma membrane behaviors over a relatively long time period.

  13. Surface modification of commercial seawater reverse osmosis membranes by grafting of hydrophilic monomer blended with carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatanpour, Vahid, E-mail: vahidvatanpour@khu.ac.ir; Zoqi, Naser

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A commercial PA RO membrane was modified by grafting of hydrophilic acrylic acid. • COOH-MWCNTs were mixed in grafting layer to increase permeability and antifouling. • However, more increase of CNTs caused in reduction of flux of the membranes. • Effect of acrylic acid amount, contact time and curing time was optimized. - Abstract: In this study, modification of commercial seawater reverse osmosis membranes was carried out with simultaneous use of surface grafting and nanoparticle incorporation. Membrane grafting with a hydrophilic acrylic acid monomer and thermal initiator was used to increase membrane surface hydrophilicity. The used nanomaterial was carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which were dispersed in the grafting solution and deposited on membrane surface to reduce fouling by creating polymer brushes and hydrodynamic resistance. Effectiveness of the grafting process (formation of graft layer on membrane surface) was proved by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Increase of membrane surface hydrophilicity was approved with contact angle test. First, the grafting was performed on the membrane surfaces with different monomer concentrations, various contact times and several membrane curing times (three variables for optimization). The modified membranes were tested by a cross-flow setup using saline solution for permeability and rejection tests, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution for fouling test. The results showed that the modified membranes with 0.75 M of monomer, 3 min contact time and 80 min curing time in an oven at 50 °C presented the highest flux and lowest rejection decline related to the commercial reverse osmosis membrane. In the next step, the optimum grafting condition was selected and the nanotubes with different weight percentages were dispersed in the acrylic acid monomer solution. The membrane containing 0.25 wt% COOH-MWCNTs showed the

  14. Fabrication of cell outer membrane mimetic polymer brush on polysulfone surface via RAFT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qian; Zhang Hui; Zhao Jiang; Gong Yongkuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cell membrane mimetic antifouling polymer brush was grown on polysulfone surface. ► Graft density and polymerization degree were calculated from XPS results. ► Water contact angle measurements showed an extremely hydrophilic surface. ► Platelet adhesion and protein adsorption results suggested excellent antifouling ability. - Abstract: Cell membrane mimetic antifouling polymer brush was grown on polysulfone (PSF) membrane by surface-induced reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). The RAFT agent immobilized PSF substrate was prepared by successive chloromethylation, amination with ethylenediamine (EDA) and amidation of the amine group of grafted EDA with the carboxylic group of 4-cyanopentanoic acid dithiobenzoate (CPAD). The surface RAFT polymerization of MPC was initiated in aqueous solution by 4,4′-azobis-4-cyanopentanoic acid (ACPA). The formation of PMPC brush coating is evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. The degree of polymerization of PMPC and the polymer grafting density were calculated from the high resolution XPS spectra. The platelet adhesion and protein adsorption results showed that the PMPC-grafted PSF surface has excellent antifouling ability to resist platelet adhesion completely and suppress protein adsorption significantly. This biomimetic and bio-friendly surface RAFT polymerization strategy could be promising for a variety of biomedical applications.

  15. Interaction of lectins with membrane receptors on erythrocyte surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, L A; Kabat, E A; Chien, S

    1985-08-01

    The interactions of human genotype AO erythrocytes (red blood cells) (RBCs) with N-acetylgalactosamine-reactive lectins isolated from Helix pomatia (HPA) and from Dolichos biflorus (DBA) were studied. Binding curves obtained with the use of tritium-labeled lectins showed that the maximal numbers of lectin molecules capable of binding to human genotype AO RBCs were 3.8 X 10(5) and 2.7 X 10(5) molecules/RBC for HPA and DBA, respectively. The binding of one type of lectin may influence the binding of another type. HPA was found to inhibit the binding of DBA, but not vice versa. The binding of HPA was weakly inhibited by a beta-D-galactose-reactive lectin isolated from Ricinus communis (designated RCA1). Limulus polyphemus lectin (LPA), with specificity for N-acetylneuraminic acid, did not influence the binding of HPA but enhanced the binding of DBA. About 80% of LPA receptors (N-acetylneuraminic acid) were removed from RBC surfaces by neuraminidase treatment. Neuraminidase treatment of RBCs resulted in increases of binding of both HPA and DBA, but through different mechanisms. An equal number (7.6 X 10(5) of new HPA sites were generated on genotypes AO and OO RBCs by neuraminidase treatment, and these new sites accounted for the enhancement (AO cells) and appearance (OO cells) of hemagglutinability by HPA. Neuraminidase treatment did not generate new DBA sites, but increased the DBA affinity for the existing receptors; as a result, genotype AO cells increased their hemagglutinability by DBA, while OO cells remained unagglutinable. The use of RBCs of different genotypes in binding assays with 3H-labeled lectins of known specificities provides an experimental system for studying cell-cell recognition and association.

  16. Simple preparation of thiol-ene particles in glycerol and surface functionalization by thiol-ene chemistry (TEC) and surface chain transfer free radical polymerization (SCT-FRP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Chiaula, Valeria; Pinelo, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    functionalization of excess thiol groups via photochemical thiol-ene chemistry (TEC) resulting in a functional monolayer. In addition, surface chain transfer free radical polymerization (SCT-FRP) was used for the first time to introduce a thicker polymer layer on the particle surface. The application potential...

  17. Control of pyrite surface chemistry in physical coal cleaning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luttrell, G.H.; Yoon, R.H.; Richardson, P.E.

    1993-05-19

    In Part I, Surface Chemistry of Coal Pyrite the mechanisms responsible for the inefficient rejection of coal pyrite were investigated using a number of experimental techniques. The test results demonstrate that the hydrophobicity of coal pyrite is related to the surface products formed during oxidation in aqueous solutions. During oxidation, a sulfur-rich surface layer is produced in near neutral pH solutions. This surface layer is composed mainly of sulfur species in the form of an iron-polysulfide along with a smaller amount of iron oxide/hydroxides. The floatability coal pyrite increases dramatically in the presence of frothers and hydrocarbon collectors. These reagents are believed to absorb on the weakly hydrophobic pyrite surfaces as a result of hydrophobic interaction forces. In Part III, Developing the Best Possible Rejection Schemes, a number of pyrite depressants were evaluated in column and conventional flotation tests. These included manganese (Mn) metal, chelating agents quinone and diethylenetriamine (DETA), and several commercially-available organic depressants. Of these, the additives which serve as reducing agents were found to be most effective. Reducing agents were used to prevent pyrite oxidation and/or remove oxidation products present on previously oxidized surfaces. These data show that Mn is a significantly stronger depressant for pyrite than quinone or DETA. Important factors in determining the pyrite depression effect of Mn include the slurry solid content during conditioning, the addition of acid (HCl), and the amount of Mn. The acid helps remove the oxide layer from the surface of Mn and promotes the depression of pyrite by Mn.

  18. Photografting of perfluoroalkanes onto polyethylene surfaces via azide/nitrene chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegmann, Konstantin, E-mail: konstantin.siegmann@zhaw.ch [Institute of Materials and Process Engineering (IMPE), School of Engineering (SoE), Zurich University of Applied Sciences - ZHAW, Technikumstrasse 9, CH-8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Inauen, Jan, E-mail: jan.inauen@zhaw.ch [Institute of Materials and Process Engineering (IMPE), School of Engineering (SoE), Zurich University of Applied Sciences - ZHAW, Technikumstrasse 9, CH-8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Villamaina, Diego, E-mail: diego.villamaina@gmail.com [Visiting scientist at IMPE, Permanent address: Rapidplatz 3, CH-8953 Dietikon (Switzerland); Winkler, Martin, E-mail: martin.winkler@zhaw.ch [Institute of Materials and Process Engineering (IMPE), School of Engineering (SoE), Zurich University of Applied Sciences - ZHAW, Technikumstrasse 9, CH-8401 Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2017-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to render polyethylene surfaces strongly and permanently hydrophobic. Polyethylene is a common plastic and, because of its inertness, difficult to graft. We chose polyethylene as example because of its ubiquity and model character. As graft chains linear perfluoroalkyl residues (−C{sub 4}F{sub 9}, −C{sub 6}F{sub 13}, −C{sub 8}F{sub 17} and −C{sub 10}F{sub 21}) were chosen, and photografting was selected as grafting method. Photolytically generated nitrenes can insert into carbon–hydrogen bonds and are therefore suited for binding to polyethylene. Hydrophobic photo reactive surface modifiers based on azide/nitrene chemistry are designed, synthesized in high yield and characterized. Four new molecules are described. Water contact angles exceeding 110° were achieved on grafted polyethylene. One problem is to demonstrate that the photografted surface modifiers are bound covalently to the polyethylene. Abrasion tests show that all new molecules, when photografted to polyethylene, have a higher abrasion resistance than a polyethylene surface coated with a long-chain perfluoroalkane. Relative abrasion resitances of 1.4, 2.0, 2.1 and 2.5 compared to the fluoroalkane coating were obtained for the four compounds. An abrasion model using ice is developed. Although all four compounds have the same λ{sub max} of 266 nm in acetonitrile solution, their molar extincition coefficients increase from 1.6·10{sup 4} to 2.2·10{sup 4} with increasing length of the fluorotelomer chain. Exitonic coupling of the chromophores of the surface modifiers is observed for specific molecules in the neat state. A linear correlation of water contact angle with fluorine surface content, as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy, in grafted polyethylene surfaces is established.

  19. Surface chemistry and corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical, and ultrasupercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, David; Merwin, Augustus; Karmiol, Zachary; Chidambaram, Dev

    2017-05-01

    Corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical and ultrasupercritical water was studied as a function of temperature and time. The change in the chemistry of the as-received surface film on Inconel 625 and 718 after exposure to subcritical water at 325 °C and supercritical water at 425 °C and 527.5 °C for 2 h was studied. After exposure to 325 °C subcritical water, the CrO42- based film formed; however minor quantities of NiFexCr2-xO4 spinel compounds were observed. The oxide film formed on both alloys when exposed to supercritical water at 425 °C consisted of NiFexCr2-xO4 spinel. The surface films on both alloys were identified as NiFe2O4 when exposed to supercritical water at 527.5 °C. To characterize the fully developed oxide layer, studies were conducted at test solution temperatures of 527.5 and 600 °C. Samples were exposed to these temperatures for 24, 96, and 200 h. Surface chemistry was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, as well as Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Inconel 718 exhibited greater mass gain than Inconel 625 for all temperatures and exposure times. The differences in corrosion behavior of the two alloys are attributed to the lower content of chromium and increased iron content of Inconel 718 as compared to Inconel 625.

  20. The surface chemistry of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane films deposited on magnesium alloy AZ91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.; Gray-Munro, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have desirable physical and mechanical properties for a number of applications. Unfortunately, these materials are highly susceptible to corrosion, particularly in the presence of aqueous solutions. The purpose of this study is to develop a uniform, non-toxic surface treatment to enhance the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. This paper reports the influence of the coating bath parameters and alloy microstructure on the deposition of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) coatings on magnesium alloy AZ91. The surface chemistry at the magnesium/MPTS interface has also been explored. The results indicate that the deposition of MPTS onto AZ91 was influenced by both the pH and MPTS concentration in the coating bath. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy results showed that the MPTS film deposited uniformly on all phases of the magnesium alloy surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed that at the magnesium/MPTS interface, the molecules bond to the surface through the thiol group in an acid-base interaction with the Mg(OH) 2 layer, whereas in the bulk of the film, the molecules are randomly oriented.

  1. The surface chemistry of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane films deposited on magnesium alloy AZ91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A. [Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Gray-Munro, J.E., E-mail: jgray@laurentian.c [Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2009-10-30

    Magnesium and its alloys have desirable physical and mechanical properties for a number of applications. Unfortunately, these materials are highly susceptible to corrosion, particularly in the presence of aqueous solutions. The purpose of this study is to develop a uniform, non-toxic surface treatment to enhance the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. This paper reports the influence of the coating bath parameters and alloy microstructure on the deposition of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) coatings on magnesium alloy AZ91. The surface chemistry at the magnesium/MPTS interface has also been explored. The results indicate that the deposition of MPTS onto AZ91 was influenced by both the pH and MPTS concentration in the coating bath. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy results showed that the MPTS film deposited uniformly on all phases of the magnesium alloy surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed that at the magnesium/MPTS interface, the molecules bond to the surface through the thiol group in an acid-base interaction with the Mg(OH){sub 2} layer, whereas in the bulk of the film, the molecules are randomly oriented.

  2. Clinical analysis of amniotic membrane patches and grafts for acute ocular surface burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect and value of amniotic membrane patches and grafts for acute ocular surface burn at different degrees.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 28 cases(28 eyesaffected by ocular chemical or thermal burn with different degree were included in our hospital from March 2007 to March 2012. Amniotic membrane patched was undergone in 13 eyes with fresh amnion that the patients corneal burns degree Ⅱ or Ⅲ with partial limbal buns at degree Ⅳ. Amniotic membrane grafts was performed in 15 eyes with fresh amnion that the patients all corneal burns at degree Ⅲ with the whole limbal necrosis without severe eyelid defect. The follow-up time ranged 6~24mo. The postoperative visual acuity, the condition of amniotic membrane transplant, renovation of cornea and complications were observed. RESULTS: Postoperative corrected visual acuity was improved in 20 eyes(71%, it was not changed in 5 eyes(18%, the visual acuity declined in 3 eyes(11%. The amniotic membrane survived in 23 eyes and the survival rate was up to 82%. The cornea of 4 eyes recovered to transparent, nebula emceed in 8 eyes eventually, corneal macula emerged in 10 eyes, 4 eyes ended up with leukoma, 2 eyes developed corneal melting after therapy, then received lamellar keratoplasty. Corneal surface become epithelization after amnion patches or grafts, but any of them have recurrent epithelial erosion, and become stable epithalization after repeat operation.CONCLUSION: Amniotic membrane patches and grafts is an effective method to deal with acute ocular surface burn.

  3. Surface chemistry of InP ridge structures etched in Cl{sub 2}-based plasma analyzed with angular XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchoule, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.bouchoule@lpn.cnrs.fr; Cambril, Edmond; Guilet, Stephane [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructure (LPN)—UPR20, CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Chanson, Romain; Pageau, Arnaud; Rhallabi, Ahmed; Cardinaud, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.cardinaud@cnrs-imn.fr [Institut des matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 44322 Nantes (France)

    2015-09-15

    Two x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy configurations are proposed to analyze the surface chemistry of micron-scale InP ridge structures etched in chlorine-based inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Either a classical or a grazing configuration allows to retrieve information about the surface chemistry of the bottom surface and sidewalls of the etched features. The procedure is used to study the stoichiometry of the etched surface as a function of ridge aspect ratio for Cl{sub 2}/Ar and Cl{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma chemistries. The results show that the bottom surface and the etched sidewalls are P-rich, and indicate that the P-enrichment mechanism is rather chemically driven. Results also evidence that adding H{sub 2} to Cl{sub 2} does not necessarily leads to a more balanced surface stoichiometry. This is in contrast with recent experimental results obtained with the HBr ICP chemistry for which fairly stoichiometric surfaces have been obtained.

  4. Constraints on the Early Terrestrial Surface UV Environment Relevant to Prebiotic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2017-03-01

    The UV environment is a key boundary condition to abiogenesis. However, considerable uncertainty exists as to planetary conditions and hence surface UV at abiogenesis. Here, we present two-stream multilayer clear-sky calculations of the UV surface radiance on Earth at 3.9 Ga to constrain the UV surface fluence as a function of albedo, solar zenith angle (SZA), and atmospheric composition. Variation in albedo and latitude (through SZA) can affect maximum photoreaction rates by a factor of >10.4; for the same atmosphere, photoreactions can proceed an order of magnitude faster at the equator of a snowball Earth than at the poles of a warmer world. Hence, surface conditions are important considerations when computing prebiotic UV fluences. For climatically reasonable levels of CO 2 , fluence shortward of 189 nm is screened out, meaning that prebiotic chemistry is robustly shielded from variations in UV fluence due to solar flares or variability. Strong shielding from CO 2 also means that the UV surface fluence is insensitive to plausible levels of CH 4 , O 2 , and O 3 . At scattering wavelengths, UV fluence drops off comparatively slowly with increasing CO 2 levels. However, if SO 2 and/or H 2 S can build up to the ≥1-100 ppm level as hypothesized by some workers, then they can dramatically suppress surface fluence and hence prebiotic photoprocesses. H 2 O is a robust UV shield for λ levels of other atmospheric gases, fluence ≲198 nm is only available for cold, dry atmospheres, meaning sources with emission ≲198 (e.g., ArF excimer lasers) can only be used in simulations of cold environments with low abundance of volcanogenic gases. On the other hand, fluence at 254 nm is unshielded by H 2 O and is available across a broad range of [Formula: see text], meaning that mercury lamps are suitable for initial studies regardless of the uncertainty in primordial H 2 O and CO 2 levels. Key Words: Radiative transfer-Origin of life-Planetary environments

  5. An Ab Initio Approach Towards Engineering Fischer-Tropsch Surface Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Neurock

    2006-09-11

    One of the greatest societal challenges over the next decade is the production of cheap, renewable energy for the 10 billion people that inhabit the earth. This will require the development of various energy sources which will likely include fuels derived from methane, coal, and biomass and alternatives sources such as solar, wind and nuclear energy. One approach will be to synthesize gasoline and other fuels from simpler hydrocarbons such as CO derived from methane or other U.S. based sources such as coal. Syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) can be readily converted into higher molecular weight hydrocarbons through Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis involves the adsorption and the activation of CO and H{sub 2}, the subsequent propagation steps including hydrogenation and carbon-carbon coupling, followed by chain termination reactions. The current commercial catalysts are supported Co and Co-alloys particles. This project set out with the following objectives in mind: (1) understand the reaction mechanisms that control FT kinetics, (2) predict how the intrinsic metal-adsorbate bond affects the sequence of elementary steps in FT, (3) establish the effects of the reaction environment on catalytic activity and selectivity, (4) construct a first-principles based algorithm that can incorporate the detailed atomic surface structure and simulate the kinetics for the myriad of elementary pathways that make up FT chemistry, and (5) suggest a set of optimal features such as alloy composition and spatial configuration, oxide support, distribution of defect sites. As part of this effort we devoted a significant portion of time to develop an ab initio based kinetic Monte Carlo simulation which can be used to follow FT surface chemistry over different transition metal and alloy surfaces defined by the user. Over the life of this program, we have used theory and have developed and applied stochastic Monte Carlo simulations in order to establish the fundamental

  6. Amniotic membrane transplantation in surgical management of ocular surface squamous neoplasias: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, M; Kaya, E; Egrilmez, S; Akalin, T; Yagci, A

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the long-term efficacy of amniotic membrane transplantation for ocular surface reconstruction in the surgical management of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). OSSN in 21 patients (7 female, 14 male patients) was managed with excisional biopsy, cryotherapy, corneal epitheliectomy with absolute alcohol application when the cornea is involved, lamellar sclerectomy and adjunctional absolute alcohol application to the base when episclera is involved, and ocular surface reconstruction with cryopreserved amniotic membrane transplantation. Tumor control and complications were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 62.42 ± 20.9 (range, 16-84). The average diameter of the base of the tumors was 13.1 ± 4.8 (range, 9-21) mm and complete removal was achieved in all cases as revealed histopathologically. Ocular surface healing was achieved in all cases. At the postoperative period, limbal stem cell deficiency in three eyes and mild symblepharon in one eye were detected. In a mean follow-up of 30.95 ± 18.8 (range, 13-75) months, no recurrence was detected. For large or multifocal conjunctival tumors, the reconstruction of ocular surface and fornix is challenging. The amniotic-membrane use to repair conjunctival defects larger than 10 mm is a safe and effective technique with minimal complications allowing surgeons to make large enough excisions.

  7. Structure of the surface layer protein of the outer membrane of Spirillum serpens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, R.M.; Chiu, W.; Grano, D.

    1979-01-01

    The outer membrane of the Gram negative bacterium, Spirillum serpens VHA, possesses an ordered surface-layer protein. A morphological model of this protein is proposed on the basis of electron micrographs that have been obtained of unstained, hydrated specimens as well as of negatively stained specimens. The molecular weight of the protein monomer in this model is consistent with the surface-layer protein molecular weight obtained by gel electrophoresis and estimated to be 140,000. In addition, gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of proteins of MW approx. = 35,000 and MW approx. = 78,000, which remain associated with the outer membrane under conditions where the ordered surface-layer protein is released in soluble form.

  8. Surface composition, chemistry, and structure of polystyrene modified by electron-beam-generated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Evgeniya H; Petrovykh, Dmitri Y; Mack, Paul; Carney, Tim; White, Richard G; Walton, Scott G; Fernsler, Richard F

    2010-06-01

    Polystyrene (PS) surfaces were treated by electron-beam-generated plasmas in argon/oxygen, argon/nitrogen, and argon/sulfur hexafluoride environments. The resulting modifications of the polymer surface energy, morphology, and chemical composition were analyzed by a suite of complementary analytical techniques: contact angle goniometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The plasma treatments produced only minimal increases in the surface roughness while introducing the expected chemical modifications: oxygen-based after Ar/O(2) plasma, oxygen- and nitrogen-based after Ar/N(2) plasma, and fluorine-based after Ar/SF(6) plasma. Fluorinated PS surfaces became hydrophobic and did not significantly change their properties over time. In contrast, polymer treated in Ar/O(2) and Ar/N(2) plasmas initially became hydrophilic but underwent hydrophobic recovery after 28 days of aging. The aromatic carbon chemistry in the top 1 nm of these aged surfaces clearly indicated that the hydrophobic recovery was produced by reorientation/diffusion of undamaged aromatic polymer fragments from the bulk rather than by contamination. Nondestructive depth profiles of aged plasma-treated PS films were reconstructed from parallel angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) measurements using a maximum-entropy algorithm. The salient features of reconstructed profiles were confirmed by sputter profiles obtained with 200 eV Ar ions. Both types of depth profiles showed that the electron-beam-generated plasma modifications are confined to the topmost 3-4 nm of the polymer surface, while valence band measurements and unsaturated carbon signatures in ARXPS and REELS data indicated that much of the PS structure was preserved below 9 nm.

  9. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sych, N.V.; Trofymenko, S.I.; Poddubnaya, O.I.; Tsyba, M.M.; Sapsay, V.I.; Klymchuk, D.O.; Puziy, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phosphoric acid activation results in formation of carbons with acidic surface groups. ► Maximum amount of surface groups is introduced at impregnation ratio 1.25. ► Phosphoric acid activated carbons show high capacity to copper. ► Phosphoric acid activated carbons are predominantly microporous. ► Maximum surface area and pore volume achieved at impregnation ratio 1.0. - Abstract: Active carbons have been prepared from corncob using chemical activation with phosphoric acid at 400 °C using varied ratio of impregnation (RI). Porous structure of carbons was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was studied by IR and potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that porosity development was peaked at RI = 1.0 (S BET = 2081 m 2 /g, V tot = 1.1 cm 3 /g), while maximum amount of acid surface groups was observed at RI = 1.25. Acid surface groups of phosphoric acid activated carbons from corncob includes phosphate and strongly acidic carboxylic (pK = 2.0–2.6), weakly acidic carboxylic (pK = 4.7–5.0), enol/lactone (pK = 6.7–7.4; 8.8–9.4) and phenol (pK = 10.1–10.7). Corncob derived carbons showed high adsorption capacity to copper, especially at low pH. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue and iodine was observed for carbon with most developed porosity (RI = 1.0).

  10. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sych, N.V.; Trofymenko, S.I.; Poddubnaya, O.I.; Tsyba, M.M. [Institute for Sorption and Endoecology Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov St., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine); Sapsay, V.I.; Klymchuk, D.O. [M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2 Tereshchenkivska St., 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Puziy, A.M., E-mail: alexander.puziy@ispe.kiev.ua [Institute for Sorption and Endoecology Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov St., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activation results in formation of carbons with acidic surface groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum amount of surface groups is introduced at impregnation ratio 1.25. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activated carbons show high capacity to copper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphoric acid activated carbons are predominantly microporous. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum surface area and pore volume achieved at impregnation ratio 1.0. - Abstract: Active carbons have been prepared from corncob using chemical activation with phosphoric acid at 400 Degree-Sign C using varied ratio of impregnation (RI). Porous structure of carbons was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was studied by IR and potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that porosity development was peaked at RI = 1.0 (S{sub BET} = 2081 m{sup 2}/g, V{sub tot} = 1.1 cm{sup 3}/g), while maximum amount of acid surface groups was observed at RI = 1.25. Acid surface groups of phosphoric acid activated carbons from corncob includes phosphate and strongly acidic carboxylic (pK = 2.0-2.6), weakly acidic carboxylic (pK = 4.7-5.0), enol/lactone (pK = 6.7-7.4; 8.8-9.4) and phenol (pK = 10.1-10.7). Corncob derived carbons showed high adsorption capacity to copper, especially at low pH. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue and iodine was observed for carbon with most developed porosity (RI = 1.0).

  11. Surface chemistry and cytotoxicity of reactively sputtered tantalum oxide films on NiTi plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, K. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Department of Physics & Energy, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Kolaj-Robin, O.; Belochapkine, S.; Laffir, F. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Gandhi, A.A. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Department of Physics & Energy, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Tofail, S.A.M., E-mail: tofail.syed@ul.ie [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Department of Physics & Energy, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-08-31

    NiTi, an equiatomic alloy containing nickel and titanium, exhibits unique properties such as shape memory effect and superelasticity. NiTi also forms a spontaneous protective titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) layer that allows its use in biomedical applications. Despite the widely perceived biocompatibility there remain some concerns about the sustainability of the alloy's biocompatibility due to the defects in the TiO{sub 2} protective layer and the presence of high amount of sub-surface Ni, which can give allergic reactions. Many surface treatments have been investigated to try to improve both the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of this layer. For such purposes, we have sputter deposited tantalum (Ta) oxide thin films onto the surface of the NiTi alloy. Despite being one of the promising metals for biomedical applications, Ta, and its various oxides and their interactions with cells have received relatively less attention. The oxidation chemistry, crystal structure, morphology and biocompatibility of these films have been investigated. In general, reactive sputtering especially in the presence of a low oxygen mixture yields a thicker film with better control of the film quality. The sputtering power influenced the surface oxidation states of Ta. Both microscopic and quantitative cytotoxicity measurements show that Ta films on NiTi are biocompatible with little to no variation in cytotoxic response when the surface oxidation state of Ta changes. - Highlights: • Reactive sputtering in low oxygen mixture yields thicker better quality films. • Sputtering power influenced surface oxidation states of Ta. • Cytotoxicity measurements show Ta films on NiTi are biocompatible. • Little to no variation in cytotoxic response when oxidation state changes.

  12. Roles of Bulk and Surface Chemistry in the Oxygen Exchange Kinetics and Related Properties of Mixed Conducting Perovskite Oxide Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola H. Perry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mixed conducting perovskite oxides and related structures serving as electrodes for electrochemical oxygen incorporation and evolution in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, respectively, play a significant role in determining the cell efficiency and lifetime. Desired improvements in catalytic activity for rapid surface oxygen exchange, fast bulk transport (electronic and ionic, and thermo-chemo-mechanical stability of oxygen electrodes will require increased understanding of the impact of both bulk and surface chemistry on these properties. This review highlights selected work at the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER, Kyushu University, set in the context of work in the broader community, aiming to characterize and understand relationships between bulk and surface composition and oxygen electrode performance. Insights into aspects of bulk point defect chemistry, electronic structure, crystal structure, and cation choice that impact carrier concentrations and mobilities, surface exchange kinetics, and chemical expansion coefficients are emerging. At the same time, an understanding of the relationship between bulk and surface chemistry is being developed that may assist design of electrodes with more robust surface chemistries, e.g., impurity tolerance or limited surface segregation. Ion scattering techniques (e.g., secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, or low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, LEIS with high surface sensitivity and increasing lateral resolution are proving useful for measuring surface exchange kinetics, diffusivity, and corresponding outer monolayer chemistry of electrodes exposed to typical operating conditions. Beyond consideration of chemical composition, the use of strain and/or a high density of active interfaces also show promise for enhancing performance.

  13. Nitrate pollution and surface water chemistry in Shimabara, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, K.; Amano, H.

    2017-12-01

    Shimabara city has been experiencing serious nitrate pollution in groundwater. To evaluate nitrate pollution and water chemistry in surface water, water samples were collected at 42 sampling points in 15 rivers in Shimabara including a part of Unzen city from January to February 2017. Firstly, spatial distribution of water chemistry was assessed by describing stiff and piper-trilinear diagrams using major ions concentrations. Most of the samples showed Ca-HCO3 or Ca-(NO3+SO4) water types. It corresponds to groundwater chemistry. Some samples were classified into characteristic water types such as Na-Cl, (Na+K)-HCO3, and Ca-Cl. These results indicate sea water mixing and anthropogenic pollution. At the upstream of Nishi-river, although water chemistry showed Ca-HCO3, ions concentrations were higher than that of the other rivers. It indicates that this site was affected by the peripheral anthropogenic activities. Secondly, nitrate-pollution assessment was performed by using NO3-, NO2-, coprostanol (5β(H)-Cholestan-3β-ol), and cholestanol (5α(H)-Cholestan-3β-ol). NO2-N was detected at the 2 sampling points and exceeded drinking standard 0.9 mg L-1 for bottle-fed infants (WHO, 2011). NO3-N + NO2-N concentrations exceeded Japanese drinking standard 10 mg L-1 at 18 sampling points. The highest concentration was 27.5 mg L-1. Higher NO3-N levels were observed in the rivers in the northern parts of the study area. Coprostanol has been used as a fecal contamination indicator, since it can be found in only feces of higher animals. Coprostanol concentrations at 8 sampling points exceeded 700 ng L-1 (Australian drinking water standard). Coprostanol has a potential to distinguish the nitrate pollution sources between chemical fertilizer or livestock wastes, since water samples with similar NO3-N + NO2-N concentration showed distinct coprostanol concentration. The sterols ratio (5β/ (5β+5α)) exceeded 0.5 at 18 sampling points. This reveals that fecal pollution has occurred.

  14. Well-defined porous membranes for robust omniphobic surfaces via microfluidic emulsion templating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingan; Kong, Tiantian; Tang, Xin; Wang, Liqiu

    2017-06-01

    Durability is a long-standing challenge in designing liquid-repellent surfaces. A high-performance omniphobic surface must robustly repel liquids, while maintaining mechanical/chemical stability. However, liquid repellency and mechanical durability are generally mutually exclusive properties for many omniphobic surfaces--improving one performance inevitably results in decreased performance in another. Here we report well-defined porous membranes for durable omniphobic surfaces inspired by the springtail cuticle. The omniphobicity is shown via an amphiphilic material micro-textured with re-entrant surface morphology; the mechanical durability arises from the interconnected microstructures. The innovative fabrication method--termed microfluidic emulsion templating--is facile, cost-effective, scalable and can precisely engineer the structural topographies. The robust omniphobic surface is expected to open up new avenues for diverse applications due to its mechanical and chemical robustness, transparency, reversible Cassie-Wenzel transition, transferability, flexibility and stretchability.

  15. Controls on Surface Water Chemistry in the Upper Merced River Basin, Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Alisa Mast, M.; Campbell, Donald H.

    1996-05-01

    Surface water draining granitic bedrock in Yosemite National Park exhibits considerable variability in chemical composition, despite the relative homogeneity of bedrock chemistry. Other geological factors, including the jointing and distribution of glacial till, appear to exert strong controls on water composition. Chemical data from three surface water surveys in the upper Merced River basin conducted in August 1981, June 1988 and August 1991 were analysed and compared with mapped geological, hydrological and topographic features to identify the solute sources and processes that control water chemistry within the basin during baseflow. Water at most of the sampling sites was dilute, with alkalinities ranging from 26 to 77 equiv. l-1. Alkalinity was much higher in two subcatchments, however, ranging from 51 to 302 equiv. l-1. Base cations and silica were also significantly higher in these two catchments than in the rest of the watershed. Concentrations of weathering products in surface water were correlated to the fraction of each subcatchment underlain by surficial material, which is mostly glacial till. Silicate mineral weathering is the dominant control on concentrations of alkalinity, silica and base cations, and ratios of these constituents in surface water reflect the composition of local bedrock. Chloride concentrations in surface water samples varied widely, ranging from <1 to 96 equiv. l-1. The annual volume-weighted mean chloride concentration in the Merced River at the Happy Isles gauge from 1968 to 1990 was 26 equiv. l-1, which was five times higher than in atmospheric deposition (4-5 equiv. l-1), suggesting that a source of chloride exists within the watershed. Saline groundwater springs, whose locations are probably controlled by vertical jointing in the bedrock, are the most likely source of the chloride. Sulphate concentrations varied much less than most other solutes, ranging from 3 to 14 equiv. l-1. Concentrations of sulphate in quarterly samples

  16. Development of high performance nano-porous polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes with hydrophilic surface and superior antifouling properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour, Ahmad; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Mansourpanah, Yaghoub; Mortazavian, Narmin

    2009-01-01

    Hydrophilic nano-porous polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes were developed for milk concentration. The membranes were prepared from new dope solution containing polyethersulfone (PES)/polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP)/polyethyleneglycole (PEG)/cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP)/acrylic acid/Triton X-100 using phase inversion induced by immersion precipitation technique. This casting solution leads to formation of new hydrophilic membranes. The morphological studies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the hydrophilicity and performance of membranes were examined by contact angel measurements and cross-flow filtration (pure water flux, milk water permeation, protein rejection and antifouling measurements). The contact angle measurements indicate that a surface with superior hydrophilicity was obtained for PES membranes. Two concentrations of PES (16 and 14.4 wt.%) and two different non-solvents (pure water and mixtures of water and IPA) were used for preparation of membranes. The morphological studies showed that the higher concentration of PES and the presence of IPA in the gelation media results in formation of a membrane with a dense top and sub-layer with small pores on the surface. The pure water flux of membranes was decreased when higher polymer concentration and mixtures of water and IPA were employed for membrane formation. On the other hand, the milk water permeation and protein rejection were increased using mixtures of water and IPA as non-solvent. Furthermore, the fouling analysis of the membranes demonstrated that the membrane surface with fewer tendencies for fouling was obtained.

  17. Multiple dynamic Al-based floc layers on ultrafiltration membrane surfaces for humic acid and reservoir water fouling reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baiwen; Li, Wenjiang; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Gang; Sun, Jingqiu; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; van der Meer, Walter

    2018-04-05

    The integration of adsorbents with ultrafiltration (UF) membranes is a promising method for alleviating membrane fouling and reducing land use. However, adsorbents typically are only injected into the membrane tank once, resulting in a single dynamic protection layer and low removal efficiency over long-term operation. In addition, the granular adsorbents used can cause membrane surface damage. To overcome these disadvantages, we injected inexpensive and loose aluminum (Al)-based flocs directly into a membrane tank with bottom aeration in the presence of humic acid (HA) or raw water taken from the Miyun Reservoir (Beijing, China). Results showed that the flocs were well suspended in the membrane tank, and multiple dynamic floc protection layers were formed (sandwich-like) on the membrane surface with multiple batch injections. Higher frequency floc injections resulted in better floc utilization efficiency and less severe membrane fouling. With continuous injection, acid solutions demonstrated better performance in removing HA molecules, especially those with small molecular weight, and in alleviating membrane fouling compared with the use of high aeration rate or polyacrylamide injection. This was attributed to the small particle size, large specific surface area, and high zeta potential of the flocs. Additionally, excellent UF membrane performance was exhibited by reservoir water with continuous injection and acid solution. Based on the outstanding UF membrane performance, this innovative integrated filtration with loose Al-based flocs has great application potential for water treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plains hydrology and reclamation project: Spoil ground-water chemistry and its impacts on surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudell, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Description of the chemical makeup of spoil groundwater at Diplomat and Vesta mines in the Battle River mining area, 200 km southeast of Edmonton within the Lower Horseshoe Canyon coal zone; and at Highvale and Whitewood Mines in the Lake Wabamun mining area, 100 km west of Edmonton within the Ardley coal zone. This report compares the chemical characteristics of the spoil groundwater for each mine to those of the principal premining aquifer that is disrupted by surface mining. The characterization of spoil groundwater chemistry is based on the sampling and analyses of groundwater from piezometers installed in reclaimed areas. Forty-three samples were collected from 23 piezometers at Vesta Mine, and 54 samples were collected from 32 piezometers at Diplomat Mine. At Highvale Mine, 29 samples were collected from 13 piezometers installed in the reclaimed area at Pit 01. Eleven samples were also collected from piezometers installed in spoil at Whitewood Mine to augment a study of that site.

  19. Micropatterning of Functional Conductive Polymers with Multiple Surface Chemistries in Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik; Acikgöz, Canet; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2012-01-01

    A versatile procedure is presented for fast and efficient micropatterning of multiple types of covalently bound surface chemistry in perfect register on and between conductive polymer microcircuits. The micropatterning principle is applied to several types of native and functionalized PEDOT (poly(3......,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) thin films. The method is based on contacting PEDOT-type thin films with a micropatterned agarose stamp containing an oxidant (aqueous hypochlorite) and applying a nonionic detergent. Where contacted, PEDOT not only loses its conductance but is entirely removed, thereby locally revealing...... of the method is illustrated by micropatterning cell-binding RGD-functionalized PEDOT on low cell-binding PMOXA (poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)) to produce cell-capturing microelectrodes on a cell nonadhesive background in a few simple steps. The method should be applicable to a wide range of native and chemically...

  20. SnSe Nanocrystals: Synthesis, Structure, Optical Properties, and Surface Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.

    2010-07-21

    The colloidal synthesis of SnSe nanoparticles is accomplished through the injection of bis[bis(trimethylsilyl)amino]tin(II) into hot trioctylphosphine: selenium in the presence of oleylamine. Through the manipulation of reaction temperature particles are grown with the average diameter reliably tuned to 4-10 nm. Quantum confinement is examined by establishing a relationship between particle size and band gap while the in depth growth dynamics are illuminated through UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Surface chemistry effects are explored, including the demonstration of useful ligand exchanges and the development of routes toward anisotropic particle growth. Finally, transient current-voltage properties of SnSe nanocrystal films in the dark and light are examined. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Chemistry of the sea-surface microlayer. 3. Studies on the nutrient chemistry of the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singbal, S.Y.S.; Narvekar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Nutrients showed enrichment in the surface microlayer compared to those in sub-surface water and there was a decreasing trend in the enrichment factor from nearshore to offshore in Northern Arabian Sea. The nutrient concentrations were correlated...

  2. Contributions of gas-phase plasma chemistry to surface modifications and gas-surface interactions: investigations of fluorocarbon rf plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Michael F., II

    The fundamental aspects of inductively coupled fluorocarbon (FC) plasma chemistry were examined, with special emphasis on the contributions of gas-phase species to surface modifications. Characterization of the gas-phase constituents of single-source CF4-, C2F6-, C3F 8-, and C3F6-based plasmas was performed using spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. The effects of varying plasma parameters, including applied rf power (P) and system pressure (p) were examined. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy were employed to monitor the behavior of excited and ground CFx (x = 1,2) radicals, respectively. Mass spectrometric techniques, including ion energy analyses, elucidated behaviors of nascent ions in the FC plasmas. These gas-phase data were correlated with the net effect of substrate processing for Si and ZrO2 surfaces. Surface-specific analyses were performed for post-processed substrates via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle goniometry. Generally, precursors with lower F/C ratios tended to deposit robust FC films of high surface energy. Precursors of higher F/C ratio, such as CF4, were associated with etching or removal of material from surfaces. Nonetheless, a net balance between deposition of FC moieties and etching of material exists for each plasma system. The imaging of radicals interacting with surfaces (IRIS) technique provided insight into the phenomena occurring at the interface of the plasma gas-phase and substrate of interest. IRIS results demonstrate that CFx radicals scatter copiously, with surface scatter coefficients, S, generally greater than unity under most experimental conditions. Such considerable S values imply surface-mediated production of the CFx radicals at FC-passivated sites. It is inferred that the primary route to surface production of CFx arises from energetic ion bombardment and ablation of surface FC films. Other factors which may influence the observed CFx

  3. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Wu, Corina; Cross, Jon B.; Jurgensen, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen 'spin-off' or 'dual use' technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of cell membrane by a highly homogeneous and isotropic silver nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Gianluigi; Rusciano, Giulia; Pesce, Giuseppe; Dochshanov, Alden; Sasso, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Label-free chemical imaging of live cell membranes can shed light on the molecular basis of cell membrane functionalities and their alterations under membrane-related diseases. In principle, this can be done by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in confocal microscopy, but requires engineering plasmonic architectures with a spatially invariant SERS enhancement factor G(x, y) = G. To this end, we exploit a self-assembled isotropic nanostructure with characteristics of homogeneity typical of the so-called near-hyperuniform disorder. The resulting highly dense, homogeneous and isotropic random pattern consists of clusters of silver nanoparticles with limited size dispersion. This nanostructure brings together several advantages: very large hot spot density (~104 μm-2), superior spatial reproducibility (SD nanotoxicity issues. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01341k

  5. THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE CHEMISTRY ON THE PROPERTIES OF PROTEINS CONFINED IN NANO-POROUS MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, L. M.; O' Neill, H.

    2007-01-01

    The entrapment of proteins using the sol-gel route provides a means to retain its native properties and artifi cially reproduce the molecular crowding and confi nement experienced by proteins in the cell allowing investigation of the physico-chemical and structural properties of biomolecules at the biotic/abiotic interface. The biomolecules are spatially separated and ‘caged’ in the gel structure but solutes can freely permeate the matrix. Thus, properties such as the folding of ensembles of individual molecules can be examined in the absence of aggregation effects that can occur in solution studies. Green fl uorescent protein from Aequorea coerulescens was used as a model protein to examine the unfolding/re-folding properties of protein in silica gels. The recombinant protein was isolated and purifi ed from Escherichia coli extracts by cell lysis, three-phase partitioning, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography. The purity of the protein was greater than 90% as judged by SDS PAGE gel analysis. Sol-gels were synthesized using tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) in combination with, methyltrimethoxyorthosilane (MTMOS), ethyltrimethoxyorthosilane (ETMOS), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). The acid induced denaturation and renaturation of GFP was analyzed by UV-visible, fl uorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. No renaturation was observed in gels that were made with TMOS only, and in the presence of APTES, MTMOS, and ETMOS. However, in gels that were made with GPTMS, the CD and UV-visible spectra indicated that the protein had refolded. The fl uorescence emission spectrum indicated that approximately 20% of fl uorescence had returned. This study highlights the importance of the surface chemistry of the silica gels for the refolding properties of the entrapped GFP. Future studies will investigate the effect of surface chemistry on the thermal and solvent stability of the entrapped protein.

  6. Graphdiyne as Electrode Material: Tuning Electronic State and Surface Chemistry for Improved Electrode Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuyue; Yan, Hailong; Wu, Fei; Zhao, Lijun; Yu, Ping; Liu, Huibiao; Li, Yuliang; Mao, Lanqun

    2017-12-05

    Graphdiyne (GDY) is recently synthesized two-dimensional carbon allotrope with hexagonal rings cross-linked by diacetylene through introducing butadiyne linkages (-C≡C-C≡C-) to form 18-C hexagons and is emerging to be fundamentally interesting and particularly useful in various research fields. In this study, we for the first time find that GDY can be used as an electrode material with reactivity tunable by electronic states and surface chemistry of GDY. To demonstrate this, GDY is oxidized into graphdiyne oxide (GDYO) that is then chemically and electrochemically reduced into chemically reduced GDYO (cr-GDYO) and electrochemically reduced GDYO (er-GDYO), respectively. Electrode reactivity of GDY and its derivatives (i.e., GDYO, cr-GDYO, and er-GDYO) is studied with hexaammineruthenium chloride ([Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ]Cl 3 ) and potassium ferricyanide (K 3 Fe(CN) 6 ) as redox probes. We find that electron transfer kinetics of the redox probes employed here at GDYs depends on the density of electronic state (DOS) and the synergetic effects of the surface chemistry as well as the hydrophilicity of the materials, and that the electron transfer kinetics at cr-GDYO and er-GDYO are faster than those at GDY and GDYO, and quite comparable with those at carbon nanotubes and graphene and its derivatives (i.e., GO, cr-GO, and er-GO). These properties, combined with the unique electronic and chemical structures of GDY, essentially enable GDY as a new kind of electrode material for fundamental studies on carbon electrochemistry and various electroanalytical applications.

  7. Chemistry and Photochemistry at the Surface of Urban Road Dust and Photoactive Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styler, S. A.; Abou-Ghanem, M.; Wickware, B.

    2017-12-01

    Each year, over a billion tons of dust are released into the atmosphere from arid regions. After its emission, dust can undergo efficient long-range transport to urban centres, where it can interact with local pollution sources. Another source of dust in urban regions is road dust resuspension, which is the largest anthropogenic source of primary particulate matter in both Canada and the United States. Since dust contains light-absorbing components, including iron- and titanium-containing minerals, dust-catalyzed photochemical processes have the potential to influence both the lifetime of pollutants present at the dust surface and the composition of the surrounding atmosphere. To date, most studies of dust photochemistry have focused on TiO2-mediated processes, and no studies have explored trace gas uptake at the surface of road dust. Here, we present first results from aerosol and coated-wall flow tube investigations of ozone uptake at the surface of a suite of titanium-containing minerals and road dust collected in Edmonton, Alberta. Together, this work represents a significant advance in our understanding of chemistry and photochemistry at realistic environmental interfaces.

  8. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, N. V.; Trofymenko, S. I.; Poddubnaya, O. I.; Tsyba, M. M.; Sapsay, V. I.; Klymchuk, D. O.; Puziy, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    Active carbons have been prepared from corncob using chemical activation with phosphoric acid at 400 °C using varied ratio of impregnation (RI). Porous structure of carbons was characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was studied by IR and potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that porosity development was peaked at RI = 1.0 (SBET = 2081 m2/g, Vtot = 1.1 cm3/g), while maximum amount of acid surface groups was observed at RI = 1.25. Acid surface groups of phosphoric acid activated carbons from corncob includes phosphate and strongly acidic carboxylic (pK = 2.0-2.6), weakly acidic carboxylic (pK = 4.7-5.0), enol/lactone (pK = 6.7-7.4; 8.8-9.4) and phenol (pK = 10.1-10.7). Corncob derived carbons showed high adsorption capacity to copper, especially at low pH. Maximum adsorption of methylene blue and iodine was observed for carbon with most developed porosity (RI = 1.0).

  9. Preparation and application of a novel electrochemical sensing material based on surface chemistry of polyhydroquinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Xueping; Wang, Yingkai; Hu, Chengguo; Huang, Jianlin; Chen, Huaixia; Wang, Shengfu; Hu, Shengshui

    2014-01-01

    A new analogue of polydopamine (PDA), i.e., polyhydroquinone (PH 2 Q), was polymerized and its surface chemistry was studied by different ways of characterization. PH 2 Q was produced by the self-polymerization of H 2 Q mediated by dissolved oxygen, and the self-polymerization process was strongly dependent on the type and the pH value of the buffer solutions. PH 2 Q can not only achieve surface hydrophilization of different substrates like polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film, graphite strip, C 12 SH/Au and wax slice, but also possess several unique properties like reversible adsorption, good solubility and low cost. These properties made PH 2 Q an ideal polymeric modifier for the noncovalent functionalization of some nanomaterials. By simply grinding with PH 2 Q, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can be readily dispersed in water with high solubility and good stability. The resulting MWNT–PH 2 Q composite exhibited excellent electrochemical performance, which was employed for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). - Highlights: • Polyhydroquinone (PH 2 Q) was produced by the self-polymerization of hydroquinone (H 2 Q) mediated by dissolved oxygen. • PH 2 Q can achieve surface hydrophilization of a variety of substrates. • PH 2 Q is an ideal polymeric modifier for the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). • The MWNT–PH 2 Q composite can be employed for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA)

  10. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  11. Quantum Chemistry in Nanoscale Environments: Insights on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering and Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Amaya, Roberto

    The understanding of molecular effects in nanoscale environments is becoming increasingly relevant for various emerging fields. These include spectroscopy for molecular identification as well as in finding molecules for energy harvesting. Theoretical quantum chemistry has been increasingly useful to address these phenomena to yield an understanding of these effects. In the first part of this dissertation, we study the chemical effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We use quantum chemistry simulations to study the metal-molecule interactions present in these systems. We find that the excitations that provide a chemical enhancement contain a mixed contribution from the metal and the molecule. Moreover, using atomistic studies we propose an additional source of enhancement, where a transition metal dopant surface could provide an additional enhancement. We also develop methods to study the electrostatic effects of molecules in metallic environments. We study the importance of image-charge effects, as well as field-bias to molecules interacting with perfect conductors. The atomistic modeling and the electrostatic approximation enable us to study the effects of the metal interacting with the molecule in a complementary fashion, which provides a better understanding of the complex effects present in SERS. In the second part of this dissertation, we present the Harvard Clean Energy Project, a high-throughput approach for a large-scale computational screening and design of organic photovoltaic materials. We create molecular libraries to search for candidates structures and use quantum chemistry, machine learning and cheminformatics methods to characterize these systems and find structure-property relations. The scale of this study requires an equally large computational resource. We rely on distributed volunteer computing to obtain these properties. In the third part of this dissertation we present our work related to the acceleration of electronic structure

  12. Surface Redox Chemistry of Immobilized Nanodiamond: Effects of Particle Size and Electrochemical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; McDonald, B.; Carrizosa, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    The size of the diamond particle is tailored to nanoscale (nanodiamond, ND), and the ND surface is engineered targeting specific (electrochemical and biological) applications. In this work, we investigated the complex surface redox chemistry of immobilized ND layer on conductive boron-doped diamond electrode with a broad experimental parameter space such as particle size (nano versus micron), scan rate, pH (cationic/acidic versus anionic/basic), electrolyte KCl concentration (four orders of magnitude), and redox agents (neutral and ionic). We reported on the significant enhancement of ionic currents while recording reversible oxidation of neutral ferrocene methanol (FcMeOH) by almost one order of magnitude than traditional potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) redox agent. The current enhancement is inversely related to ND particle diameter in the following order: 1 μm << 1000 nm < 100 nm < 10 nm ≤ 5 nm < 2 nm. We attribute the current enhancement to concurrent electrocatalytic processes, i.e. the electron transfer between redox probes and electroactive surface functional (e.g. hydroxyl, carboxyl, epoxy) moieties and the electron transfer mediated by adsorbed FcMeOH+ (or Fe(CN) 6 3+ ) ions onto ND surface. The first process is pH dependent since it depends upon ND surface functionalities for which the electron transfer is coupled to proton transfer. The adsorption mediated process is observed most apparently at slower scan rates owing to self-exchange between adsorbed FcMeOH+ ions and FcMeOH redox agent molecules in diffusion-limited bulk electrolyte solution. Alternatively, it is hypothesized that the surface functionality and defect sites ( sp 2-bonded C shell and unsaturated bonds) give rise to surface electronic states with energies within the band gap (midgap states) in undoped ND. These surface states serve as electron donors (and acceptors) depending upon their bonding (and antibonding) character and, therefore, they can support electrocatalytic redox

  13. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans (C.a and Candida tropicalis (C.t were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin, respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05 after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin.

  14. Surface Modification of Asymmetric Polysulfone/Polyethylene Glycol Membranes by DC Ar-Glow Discharge Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalad Yuenyao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone/polyethylene glycol (PSF/PEG membranes were prepared by dry/wet phase inversion method. Effects of direct current glow discharge plasma using argon as working gas on morphological structures and gas separation properties of membranes were studied. Alteration of membrane characteristics were analyzed by various techniques like contact angle, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Gas separation properties were measured in terms of permeation and ideal O2/N2 selectivity. Results showed that hydrophilic and gas separation properties of PSF/PEG membranes increased by plasma surface modification. It was also shown that the dosage of PEG and plasma treatment affected the morphological structures and mechanical and gas separation properties. The macro voids and transmembrane structure disappeared with a little amount of PEG dosage. Pore size and mechanical strength tend to decrease with increasing PEG dosage up to 10 wt%. Glass transition temperature (Tg receded from 201.8 to 143.7°C for pure PSF and PSF/PEG with PEG dosage of 10 wt%. O2 and N2 gases permeation through the 10-minute plasma treated membranes tend to increase. However, the permeation strongly dispersed when treatment time was more extended.

  15. Voltage-sensitive styryl dyes as singlet oxygen targets on the surface of bilayer lipid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, V S; Gavrilchik, A N; Kulagina, A O; Meshkov, I N; Pohl, P; Gorbunova, Yu G

    2016-08-01

    Photosensitizers are widely used as photodynamic therapeutic agents killing cancer cells by photooxidation of their components. Development of new effective photosensitive molecules requires profound knowledge of possible targets for reactive oxygen species, especially for its singlet form. Here we studied photooxidation of voltage-sensitive styryl dyes (di-4-ANEPPS, di-8-ANEPPS, RH-421 and RH-237) by singlet oxygen on the surface of bilayer lipid membranes commonly used as cell membrane models. Oxidation was induced by irradiation of a photosensitizer (aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate) and monitored by the change of dipole potential on the surface of the membrane. We studied the drop of the dipole potential both in the case when the dye molecules were adsorbed on the same side of the lipid bilayer as the photosensitizer (cis-configuration) and in the case when they were adsorbed on the opposite side (trans-configuration). Based on a simple model, we determined the rate of oxidation of the dyes from the kinetics of change of the potential during and after irradiation. This rate is proportional to steady-state concentration of singlet oxygen in the membrane under irradiation. Comparison of the oxidation rates of various dyes reveals that compounds of ANEPPS series are more sensitive to singlet oxygen than RH type dyes, indicating that naphthalene group is primarily responsible for their oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Controlling the Photophysical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Arrays by Strategically Altering Their Surface Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ashley R.

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are interesting materials that, after less than 40 years of research, are used in commercial products. QDs are now found in displays, such as Samsung televisions and the Kindle Fire, and have applications in lighting, bio-imaging, quantum computing, and photovoltaics. They offer a large range of desirable properties: a controllable band gap, solution processability, controlled energy levels, and are currently the best materials for multiple exciton generation. The tunable optoelectronic properties of QDs can be controlled using size, shape, composition, and surface treatments--as shown here. Due to the quasi-spherical shape of QDs the surface to volume ratio is high, i.e. many of the constituent atoms are found on the QD surface. This makes QDs highly sensitive to surface chemistry modifications. This thesis encompasses the effects of surface treatments for QDs of two semiconducting materials: lead chalcogenides and CsPbI3. Our group developed a new synthetic technique for lead chalcogenide QDs via the cation exchange of cadmium chalcogenides. An in-depth chemical analysis is paired with optical and electrical studies and we find that metal halide residue contributes to the oxidative stability and decreased trap state density in cation-exchanged PbS QDs. We exploit these properties to make air-stable QD photovoltaic devices from both PbS and PbSe QD materials. Beyond the effects of residual atoms left from the synthetic technique, I investigated how to controllably add atoms onto the surface of QDs. I found that by introducing metal halides as a post-treatment in an electronically coupled array I am able to control the performance parameters in QD photovoltaic devices. These treatments fully infiltrate the assembled film, even under short exposure times and allow me to add controlled quantities of surface atoms to study their effects on film properties and photovoltaic device performance. Finally, I sought to apply the knowledge of

  17. Dust evolution, a global view: III. Core/mantle grains, organic nano-globules, comets and surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A P

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of The Heterogeneous dust Evolution Model for Interstellar Solids (THEMIS), this work explores the surface processes and chemistry relating to core/mantle interstellar and cometary grain structures and their influence on the nature of these fascinating particles. It appears that a realistic consideration of the nature and chemical reactivity of interstellar grain surfaces could self-consistently and within a coherent framework explain: the anomalous oxygen depletion, the nature of the CO dark gas, the formation of 'polar ice' mantles, the red wing on the 3 μm water ice band, the basis for the O-rich chemistry observed in hot cores, the origin of organic nano-globules and the 3.2 μm 'carbonyl' absorption band observed in comet reflectance spectra. It is proposed that the reaction of gas phase species with carbonaceous a-C(:H) grain surfaces in the interstellar medium, in particular the incorporation of atomic oxygen into grain surfaces in epoxide functional groups, is the key to explaining these observations. Thus, the chemistry of cosmic dust is much more intimately related with that of the interstellar gas than has previously been considered. The current models for interstellar gas and dust chemistry will therefore most likely need to be fundamentally modified to include these new grain surface processes.

  18. Surface/Interfacial Structure and Chemistry of High-Energy Nickel-Rich Layered Oxide Cathodes: Advances and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peiyu; Yin, Jiangmei; Ding, Meng; Huang, Jinzhao; Xu, Xijin

    2017-12-01

    The urgent prerequisites of high energy-density and superior electrochemical properties have been the main inspiration for the advancement of cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in the last two decades. Nickel-rich layered transition-metal oxides with large reversible capacity as well as high operating voltage are considered as the most promising candidate for next-generation LIBs. Nonetheless, the poor long-term cycle-life and inferior thermal stability have limited their broadly practical applications. In the research of LIBs, it is observed that surface/interfacial structure and chemistry play significant roles in the performance of cathode cycling. This is due to the fact that they are basically responsible for the reversibility of Li + intercalation/deintercalation chemistries while dictating the kinetics of the general cell reactions. In this Review, the surface/interfacial structure and chemistry of nickel-rich layered cathodes involving structural defects, redox mechanisms, structural evolutions, side-reactions among others are initially demonstrated. Recent advancements in stabilizing the surface/interfacial structure and chemistry of nickel-rich cathodes by surface modification, core-shell/concentration-gradient structure, foreign-ion substitution, hybrid surface, and electrolyte additive are presented. Then lastly, the remaining challenges such as the fundamental studies and commercialized applications, as well as the future research directions are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Surface functionalization dependent subcellular localization of Superparamagnetic nanoparticle in plasma membrane and endosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B; Khan, Niamat Ali

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate the application of thermal decomposition based synthesis of Fe 3 O 4 superparamagnetic nanoparticle (SPMNP) in subcellular fractionation context. Here, we performed surface functionalization of SPMNP with phospholipids and dimercaptosuccinic acid. Surprisingly, we observed surface functionalization dependent SPMNP localization in subcellular compartments such as plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes. By using SPMNP based subcellular localization with pulse-chase methodology, we could use SPMNP for high pure-high yield organelle (plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosome) fractionation. Further, SPMNP that are distinctly localized in subcellular compartments can be used as technology for subcellular fractionation that can complement existing tools for cell biology research. As a future perspective, isolated magnetic organelles can be extended to protein/protein complex purification for biochemical and structural biology studies.

  20. Controlled ionic condensation at the surface of a native extremophile membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contera, Sonia Antoranz; Voïtchovsky, Kislon; Ryan, John F.

    2010-02-01

    At the nanoscale level biological membranes present a complex interface with the solvent. The functional dynamics and relative flexibility of membrane components together with the presence of specific ionic effects can combine to create exciting new phenomena that challenge traditional theories such as the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory or models interpreting the role of ions in terms of their ability to structure water (structure making/breaking). Here we investigate ionic effects at the surface of a highly charged extremophile membrane composed of a proton pump (bacteriorhodopsin) and archaeal lipids naturally assembled into a 2D crystal. Using amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) in solution, we obtained sub-molecular resolution images of ion-induced surface restructuring of the membrane. We demonstrate the presence of a stiff cationic layer condensed at its extracellular surface. This layer cannot be explained by traditional continuum theories. Dynamic force spectroscopy experiments suggest that it is produced by electrostatic correlation mediated by a Manning-type condensation of ions. In contrast, the cytoplasmic surface is dominated by short-range repulsive hydration forces. These findings are relevant to archaeal bioenergetics and halophilic adaptation. Importantly, they present experimental evidence of a natural system that locally controls its interactions with the surrounding medium and challenges our current understanding of biological interfaces.At the nanoscale level biological membranes present a complex interface with the solvent. The functional dynamics and relative flexibility of membrane components together with the presence of specific ionic effects can combine to create exciting new phenomena that challenge traditional theories such as the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory or models interpreting the role of ions in terms of their ability to structure water (structure making/breaking). Here we

  1. Evolution of interfacial intercalation chemistry on epitaxial graphene/SiC by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferralis, Nicola, E-mail: ferralis@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Carraro, Carlo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • H-intercalated epitaxial graphene–SiC interface studied with surface enhanced Raman. • Evolution of graphene and H–Si interface with UV-ozone, annealing and O-exposure. • H–Si interface and quasi-freestanding graphene are retained after UV-ozone treatment. • Enhanced ozonolytic reactivity at the edges of H-intercalated defected graphene. • Novel SERS method for characterizing near-surface graphene–substrate interfaces. - Abstract: A rapid and facile evaluation of the effects of physical and chemical processes on the interfacial layer between epitaxial graphene monolayers on SiC(0 0 0 1) surfaces is essential for applications in electronics, photonics, and optoelectronics. Here, the evolution of the atomic scale epitaxial graphene-buffer-layer–SiC interface through hydrogen intercalation, thermal annealings, UV-ozone etching and oxygen exposure is studied by means of single microparticle mediated surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (smSERS). The evolution of the interfacial chemistry in the buffer layer is monitored through the Raman band at 2132 cm{sup −1} corresponding to the Si-H stretch mode. Graphene quality is monitored directly by the selectively enhanced Raman signal of graphene compared to the SiC substrate signal. Through smSERS, a simultaneous correlation between optimized hydrogen intercalation in epitaxial graphene/SiC and an increase in graphene quality is uncovered. Following UV-ozone treatment, a fully hydrogen passivated interface is retained, while a moderate degradation in the quality of the hydrogen intercalated quasi-freestanding graphene is observed. While hydrogen intercalated defect free quasi-freestanding graphene is expected to be robust upon UV-ozone, thermal annealing, and oxygen exposure, ozonolytic reactivity at the edges of H-intercalated defected graphene results in enhanced amorphization of the quasi-freestanding (compared to non-intercalated) graphene, leading ultimately to its complete etching.

  2. Evolution of interfacial intercalation chemistry on epitaxial graphene/SiC by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferralis, Nicola; Carraro, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • H-intercalated epitaxial graphene–SiC interface studied with surface enhanced Raman. • Evolution of graphene and H–Si interface with UV-ozone, annealing and O-exposure. • H–Si interface and quasi-freestanding graphene are retained after UV-ozone treatment. • Enhanced ozonolytic reactivity at the edges of H-intercalated defected graphene. • Novel SERS method for characterizing near-surface graphene–substrate interfaces. - Abstract: A rapid and facile evaluation of the effects of physical and chemical processes on the interfacial layer between epitaxial graphene monolayers on SiC(0 0 0 1) surfaces is essential for applications in electronics, photonics, and optoelectronics. Here, the evolution of the atomic scale epitaxial graphene-buffer-layer–SiC interface through hydrogen intercalation, thermal annealings, UV-ozone etching and oxygen exposure is studied by means of single microparticle mediated surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (smSERS). The evolution of the interfacial chemistry in the buffer layer is monitored through the Raman band at 2132 cm −1 corresponding to the Si-H stretch mode. Graphene quality is monitored directly by the selectively enhanced Raman signal of graphene compared to the SiC substrate signal. Through smSERS, a simultaneous correlation between optimized hydrogen intercalation in epitaxial graphene/SiC and an increase in graphene quality is uncovered. Following UV-ozone treatment, a fully hydrogen passivated interface is retained, while a moderate degradation in the quality of the hydrogen intercalated quasi-freestanding graphene is observed. While hydrogen intercalated defect free quasi-freestanding graphene is expected to be robust upon UV-ozone, thermal annealing, and oxygen exposure, ozonolytic reactivity at the edges of H-intercalated defected graphene results in enhanced amorphization of the quasi-freestanding (compared to non-intercalated) graphene, leading ultimately to its complete etching

  3. Scanning near-field optical microscopy on rough surfaces: applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear-force apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM with very sharp uncoated tapered waveguides relies on the unexpected enhancement of reflection in the shear-force gap. It is the technique for obtaining chemical (materials contrast in the optical image of “real world” surfaces that are rough and very rough without topographical artifacts, and it is by far less complicated than other SNOM techniques that can only be used for very flat surfaces. The experimental use of the new photophysical effect is described. The applications of the new technique are manifold. Important mechanistic questions in solid-state chemistry (oxidation, diazotization, photodimerization, surface hydration, hydrolysis are answered with respect to simultaneous AFM (atomic force microscopy and detailed crystal packing. Prehistoric petrified bacteria and concomitant pyrite inclusions are also investigated with local RAMAN SNOM. Polymer beads and unstained biological objects (rabbit heart, shrimp eye allow for nanoscopic analysis of cell organelles. Similarly, human teeth and a cancerous tissue are analyzed. Bladder cancer tissue is clearly differentiated from healthy tissue without staining and this opens a new highly promising diagnostic tool for precancer diagnosis. Industrial applications are demonstrated at the corrosion behavior of dental alloys (withdrawal of a widely used alloy, harmless substitutes, improvement of paper glazing, behavior of blood bags upon storage, quality assessment of metal particle preparations for surface enhanced RAMAN spectroscopy, and determination of diffusion coefficient and light fastness in textile fiber dyeing. The latter applications include fluorescence SNOM. Local fluorescence SNOM is also used in the study of partly aggregating dye nanoparticles within resin/varnish preparations. Unexpected new insights are obtained in all of the various fields that cannot be obtained by other techniques.

  4. Chemistry in a spinneret - On the interplay of crosslinking and phase inversion during spinning of novel hollow fiber membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.; Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    This work explores a new method of simultaneous membrane formation and chemical modification in a spinning process for fabricating asymmetric composite hollow fiber membranes. This method is based on controlled crosslinking reaction between the membrane forming polyimide P84 and the chemically

  5. Improving surface and defect center chemistry of fluorescent nanodiamonds for imaging purposes--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Andreas; Hemelaar, Simon Robert; Schirhagl, Romana

    2015-10-01

    Diamonds are widely used for jewelry owing to their superior optical properties accounting for their fascinating beauty. Beyond the sparkle, diamond is highly investigated in materials science for its remarkable properties. Recently, fluorescent defects in diamond, particularly the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV(-)) center, have gained much attention: The NV(-) center emits stable, nonbleaching fluorescence, and thus could be utilized in biolabeling, as a light source, or as a Förster resonance energy transfer donor. Even more remarkable are its spin properties: with the fluorescence intensity of the NV(-) center reacting to the presence of small magnetic fields, it can be utilized as a sensor for magnetic fields as small as the field of a single electron spin. However, a reproducible defect and surface and defect chemistry are crucial to all applications. In this article we review methods for using nanodiamonds for different imaging purposes. The article covers (1) dispersion of particles, (2) surface cleaning, (3) particle size selection and reduction, (4) defect properties, and (5) functionalization and attachment to nanostructures, e.g., scanning probe microscopy tips.

  6. Synthesis and Modification of Nanoparticles for Surface Nanostructuration of Polymeric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Prada, Iran David Charry

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this work are (i) to prepare silver and TiO2 nanoparticles functionalized with polymers or alkoxysilanes as capping agents with specific control of morphology, size, and chemical reactivity and (ii) their attachment to the surface and pore wall of ultrafiltration membranes. These particles are interesting due to their known antibacterial, anti-biofouling efficiency, besides the photocatytic activity exhibited by TiO2. The first chapter focuses on the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. Their performance depends on the shape, size and other colloidal characteristics. A complete analysis of the effect of the stabilizer and pH conditions on particle size and shape was conducted by using polyethyleneimine and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Opposite trends and different morphologies were observed for both stabilizers. The second chapter describes the surface attachment of TiO2 nanoparticles onto polyetherimide ultrafiltration membrane with pore size around 134nm by using organoalkylsilanes. Excellent hydrophilicity (contact angle 39  2) and high and thermal stability (260oC) was achieved. Particles and membranes samples were characterized by microscopy, chemical and surface analysis.

  7. Overexpression and surface localization of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koehler, JF; Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is the quantitatively predominant surface protein which has important functional, structural and antigenic properties. We have cloned and overexpressed the MOMP in Escherichia coli. The MOMP is surface exposed in C. trachomatis....... The induction of MOMP expression had a rapidly lethal effect on the L2rMOMP E. coli clone. Although no genetic system exists for Chlamydia, development of a stable, inducible E. coli clone which overexpresses the chlamydial MOMP permits a study of the biological properties of the MOMP, including...

  8. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truini, Margot; Baum, B. M; Littin, G. R; Shingoitewa-Honanie, Gayl

    2000-01-01

    ...) flowmeter tests, and (5) ground-water and surface-water chemistry. In 1998 ,ground-water withdrawals for industrial and municipal use totaled about 7,060 acre-feet, which is less than a 1 percent decrease from 1997...

  9. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering and Visible Extinction Spectroscopy of Copper Chlorophyllin: An Upper Level Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Cheryl S.; Reim, Candace Lawson; Sirois, John J.; House, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced chemistry students are introduced to surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) by studying how sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) adsorbs onto silver colloids (CuChl/Ag) as a function of pH. Using both SERRS and visible extinction spectroscopy, the extent of CuChl adsorption and colloidal aggregation are monitored. Initially at…

  10. Preparation and application of a novel electrochemical sensing material based on surface chemistry of polyhydroquinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Xueping [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10080 (China); Wang, Yingkai [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu, Chengguo, E-mail: cghu@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10080 (China); Huang, Jianlin; Chen, Huaixia; Wang, Shengfu [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Hu, Shengshui, E-mail: sshu@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10080 (China)

    2014-07-01

    A new analogue of polydopamine (PDA), i.e., polyhydroquinone (PH{sub 2}Q), was polymerized and its surface chemistry was studied by different ways of characterization. PH{sub 2}Q was produced by the self-polymerization of H{sub 2}Q mediated by dissolved oxygen, and the self-polymerization process was strongly dependent on the type and the pH value of the buffer solutions. PH{sub 2}Q can not only achieve surface hydrophilization of different substrates like polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film, graphite strip, C{sub 12}SH/Au and wax slice, but also possess several unique properties like reversible adsorption, good solubility and low cost. These properties made PH{sub 2}Q an ideal polymeric modifier for the noncovalent functionalization of some nanomaterials. By simply grinding with PH{sub 2}Q, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can be readily dispersed in water with high solubility and good stability. The resulting MWNT–PH{sub 2}Q composite exhibited excellent electrochemical performance, which was employed for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). - Highlights: • Polyhydroquinone (PH{sub 2}Q) was produced by the self-polymerization of hydroquinone (H{sub 2}Q) mediated by dissolved oxygen. • PH{sub 2}Q can achieve surface hydrophilization of a variety of substrates. • PH{sub 2}Q is an ideal polymeric modifier for the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). • The MWNT–PH{sub 2}Q composite can be employed for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA)

  11. Estimating the Analytical and Surface Enhancement Factors in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS): A Novel Physical Chemistry and Nanotechnology Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ioana E.; Alnajjar, Khadijeh S.; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Stahler, Adam; Hunter, Nora E.; Weaver, Kent M.; Baker, Joshua D.; Meyerhoefer, Allie J.; Dolson, David A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel laboratory experiment was successfully implemented for undergraduate and graduate students in physical chemistry and nanotechnology. The main goal of the experiment was to rigorously determine the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensing capabilities of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These were quantified by…

  12. Functionalization of regenerated cellulose membrane via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for boron removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Zheng, Yu-Ming; Chen, J Paul

    2011-05-17

    In this study, an adsorptive membrane was prepared for efficient boron removal. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) was grafted on the surfaces of the regenerated cellulose (RC) membrane via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, and N-methylglucamine was used to further react with epoxide rings to introduce polyhydroxyl functional groups, which served as the major binding sites for boron. The pristine and modified membranes were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), dynamic water contact angle measurement, and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the designed functional groups were successfully grafted onto the RC membrane, and surface modification contributed to higher boron binding capability. The optimal pH range for boron adsorption was 4-8. Under a neutral pH condition, the maximum adsorption capacity of the modified membrane was determined to be 0.75 mmol/g, which was comparable with those of commercial resins. Studies of electrolyte influence indicated the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes on the membrane surface. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analyses showed that secondary alcohol and tertiary amine groups were mainly involved in boron adsorption, and tetrahedral boron complexes were found on the membrane surface.

  13. Surface Chemistry Manipulation of Gold Nanorods Displays High Cellular Uptake In Vitro While Preserving Optical Properties for Bio-Imaging and Photo-Thermal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-28

    its analytical applications. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry , 37(0), 32-47. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2012.03.015 Livak, K. J...SURFACE CHEMISTRY MANIPULATION OF GOLD NANORODS DISPLAYS HIGH CELLULAR UPTAKE IN VITRO WHILE PRESERVING OPTICAL...2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 7/2012 –1/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SURFACE CHEMISTRY MANIPULATION OF GOLD NANORODS DISPLAYS

  14. Facile fouling resistant surface modification of microfiltration cellulose acetate membranes by using amino acid L-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Sara; Zou, Linda; Cornelissen, Emile; Mukai, Yasushito

    2013-01-01

    A major obstacle in the widespread application of microfiltration membranes in the wet separation processes such as wastewater treatment is the decline of permeates flux as a result of fouling. This study reports on the surface modification of cellulose acetate (CA) microfiltration membrane with amino acid L-3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) to improve fouling resistance of the membrane. The membrane surface was characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water contact angle and zeta potential measurement. Porosity measurement showed a slight decrease in membrane porosity due to coating. Static adsorption experiments revealed an improved resistance of the modified membranes towards the adhesion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model foulant. Dead end membrane filtration tests exhibited that the fouling resistance of the modified membranes was improved. However, the effect of the modification depended on the foulant solution concentration. It is concluded that L-DOPA modification is a convenient and non-destructive approach to enable low-BSA adhesion surface modification of CA microfiltration membranes. Nevertheless, the extent of fouling resistance improvement depends on the foulant concentration.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESPONSE SURFACE MODELING OF PI/PES-ZEOLITE 4A MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANE FOR CO2 SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. KUSWORO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of preparation of polyimide/polyethersulfone (PI/PES blending-zeolite mixed matrix membrane through the manipulation of membrane production variables such as polymer concentration, blending composition and zeolite loading. Combination of central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to determine the main effect and interaction effects of these variables on membrane separation performance. The quadratic models between each response and the independent parameters were developed and the response surface models were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA. In this study, PI/ (PES–zeolite 4A mixed matrix membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The separation performance of mixed matrix membrane had been tested using pure gases such as CO2 and CH4. The results showed that zeolite loading was the most significant variable that influenced the CO2/CH4 selectivity among three variables and the experimental results were in good agreement with those predicted by the proposed regression models. The gas separation performance of the membrane was relatively higher as compare to polymeric membrane. Therefore, combination of central composite design and response surface methodology can be used to prepare optimal condition for mixed matrix membrane fabrication. The incorporation of 20 wt% zeolite 4A into 25 wt% of PI/PES matrix had resulted in a high separation performance of membrane material.

  16. Fouling behavior of lysozyme on different membrane surfaces during the MD operation: An especial interest in the interaction energy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Liang

    2017-08-01

    The membrane fouling behaviors of lysozyme (LYS) on three different membranes were systematically investigated during the membrane distillation (MD) process, including polypropylene (PP), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. The results showed that PP membrane was not suitable for the MD operation due to its lower heat resistance. A flux decline of 50% was observed for the PTFE, while PVDF displayed a more severe decrement of 70%. Additionally, the PTFE and PVDF membranes both demonstrated a faster flux decline during the early period, and then a clear decrement of fouling rate was obtained at the later period. To better understand the interactions between LYS and different membranes, the interaction energy between LYS and the reconstructed membrane surface, represented by XDLVO potential, was calculated by surface element integration. The PVDF membrane exhibited higher roughness and lower energy barrier, indicating that rougher membrane was tended to be fouled by LYS. Finally, a "four stages model" was suggested for the MD fouling process, which was associated with three LYS deposition patterns of smooth, protuberance and valley. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Platelet adhesion and cellular interaction with poly(ethylene oxide) immobilized onto silicone rubber membrane surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiue, G H; Lee, S D; Chang, P C

    1996-01-01

    Cellular interaction and platelet adsorption were investigated on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) immobilized silicone rubber membrane (SR) which has polyacrylic acid grafts on the surfaces. Polyacrylic acid (PAA) had been introduced to the SR surface after Ar plasma treatment of SR surfaces to introduce peroxide groups. Surface characterizations were made using ATR-FTIR, ESCA, SEM, and contact angle measurements. Experimental results obtained by ESCA high resolution curve fitting spectra indicated that the amount of bisamino PEO of different molecular weights immobilized onto SR surfaces were similar, which showed that the influence of the length of molecular chains (-C-C-O-) on the reactivity of terminal amino group is negligible. The wettability of modified SR surfaces increased with an increase in PEO molecular weight. Biological studies such as corneal epithelial cell culture and blood platelet adhesion were performed to understand the biocompatibility of modified SR surfaces. Biological studies using corneal epithelial cells showed that cell migration, attachment and proliferation onto PEO-20000 immobilized SR surface were suppressed, whereas these biological activities on PEO-600 were enhanced. Another study on platelet adhesion revealed that many platelets attached to PEO-600 immobilized SR, while platelet deposition was rarely observed on SR grafted with PEO-3350. The effects of different PEO molecular chains on biological response were discussed.

  18. Boron Nitride Nanoporous Membranes with High Surface Charge by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matthieu; Koonkaew, Boonprakrong; Balme, Sebastien; Utke, Ivo; Picaud, Fabien; Iatsunskyi, Igor; Coy, Emerson; Miele, Philippe; Bechelany, Mikhael

    2017-05-17

    In this work, we report the design and the fine-tuning of boron nitride single nanopore and nanoporous membranes by atomic layer deposition (ALD). First, we developed an ALD process based on the use of BBr 3 and NH 3 as precursors in order to synthesize BN thin films. The deposited films were characterized in terms of thickness, composition, and microstructure. Next, we used the newly developed process to grow BN films on anodic aluminum oxide nanoporous templates, demonstrating the conformality benefit of BN prepared by ALD, and its scalability for the manufacturing of membranes. For the first time, the ALD process was then used to tune the diameter of fabricated single transmembrane nanopores by adjusting the BN thickness and to enable studies of the fundamental aspects of ionic transport on a single nanopore. At pH = 7, we estimated a surface charge density of 0.16 C·m -2 without slip and 0.07 C·m -2 considering a reasonable slip length of 3 nm. Molecular dynamics simulations performed with experimental conditions confirmed the conductivities and the sign of surface charges measured. The high ion transport results obtained and the ability to fine-tune nanoporous membranes by such a scalable method pave the way toward applications such as ionic separation, energy harvesting, and ultrafiltration devices.

  19. Cytolytic pore-forming protein associated with the surface membrane of Naegleria fowleri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrey, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Whole cell homogenates of Naegleria fowleri were examined by hemolytic and /sup 51/Cr-release assays for the presence of cytolytic molecules which may participate in the cytopathogenic action of this amoeba. Two distinct cytolytic activities were found. A surface membrane cytolysin was identified which was found to be avidly associated with membranes possessing an equilibrium density of 1.135 g/cm/sup 3/ in isopycnic sucrose gradients. The activity of the surface membrane cytolysin was not affected by heating at 75/sup 0/C for 30 min. The second cytolytic activity was found in putative lysosomes possessing an equilibrium density of 1.162 g/cm/sup 3/ and was completely inactivated by heating at 75/sup 0/C for 30 min. Cytolysis produced in the presence of both cytolysins was consistently synergistic with respect to the activity of either cytolysin alone. The lesions produced on erythrocytes by this cooperative process were characterized by electron microscopy as transmembrane pores resembling a number of other cytolytic effector molecules including the ninth component of complement, perforins of cytolytic T lymphocytes, and the alphatoxin of Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Polypropylene non-woven fabric membrane via surface modification with biomimetic phosphorylcholine in Ce(IV)/HNO3 redox system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jie; Shi Qiang; Luan Shifang; Song Lingjie; Yang Huawei; Stagnaro, Paola; Yin Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene non-woven fabric membrane (NWF) for improving its hemocompatibility was developed by grafting a biomimic monomer, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorycholine (MPC). The NWF membrane surface was first activated by potassium peroxydisulfate to form hydroxyl groups, and then grafted with MPC using ceric (IV) ammonium nitrate as the redox initiator. The surface chemical changes before and after modification were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with an ATR unit (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); the water contact angle results showed the gradual changes in wettability from hydrophobic to hydrophilic surface. Meanwhile, the hemocompatibility of these samples was also evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. These experimental results exhibited that the introduction of poly(MPC) onto the NWF membrane surfaces substantially improved their hemocompatibility. The feasibility and simplicity of this procedure may lead to potential applications of NWF membranes in biomedical separation and blood purification. - Graphical abstract: 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorycholine (MPC), was grafted onto non-woven fabric (NWF) membrane surface by Ce(IV)/HNO 3 redox system. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion were substantially suppressed by the introduction of poly(MPC). Highlights: ► MPC was successfully grafted onto NWF PP membrane surface. ► Obviously enhanced hemocompatibility was acquired by the modified samples. ► A facile redox grafting was adopted in the whole process.

  1. A Simple, Cost-Efficient Method to Separate Microalgal Lipids from Wet Biomass Using Surface Energy-Modified Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Moo Jin; Yoo, Youngmin; Lee, Han Sol; Kim, Jiyeon; Yang, Ji-Won; Han, Jong-In; Im, Sung Gap; Kwon, Jong-Hee

    2016-01-13

    For the efficient separation of lipid extracted from microalgae cells, a novel membrane was devised by introducing a functional polymer coating onto a membrane surface by means of an initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process. To this end, a steel-use-stainless (SUS) membrane was modified in a way that its surface energy was systemically modified. The surface modification by conformal coating of functional polymer film allowed for selective separation of oil-water mixture, by harnessing the tuned interfacial energy between each liquid phase and the membrane surface. The surface-modified membrane, when used with chloroform-based solvent, exhibited superb permeate flux, breakthrough pressure, and also separation yield: it allowed separation of 95.5 ± 1.2% of converted lipid (FAME) in the chloroform phase from the water/MeOH phase with microalgal debris. This result clearly supported that the membrane-based lipid separation is indeed facilitated by way of membrane being functionalized, enabling us to simplify the whole downstream process of microalgae-derived biodiesel production.

  2. Bacillus Cellulase Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Surface Display on the Outer Membrane of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehwan Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of using recombinant enzymes is that they are derived from genetically-modified microorganisms commonly located in the intracellular region. The use of these recombinant enzymes for commercial purposes requires the additional processes of cell disruption and purification, which may result in enzyme loss, denaturation, and increased total production cost. In this study, the cellulase gene of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 was cloned, over-expressed, and surface displayed in recombinant Escherichia coli using an ice-nucleation protein (INP. INP, an outer membrane-bound protein from Pseudomonas syringae, was utilized as an anchor linker, which was cloned with a foreign cellulase gene into the pET21a vector to develop a surface display system on the outer membrane of E. coli. The resulting strain successfully revealed cellulase on the host cell surface. The over-expressed INP-cellulase fusion protein was confirmed via staining assay for determining the extracellular cellulase and Western blotting method for the molecular weight (MW of cellulase, which was estimated to be around 61.7 kDa. Cell fractionation and localization tests demonstrated that the INP-cellulase fusion protein was mostly present in the supernatant (47.5% and outer membrane (19.4%, while the wild-type strain intracellularly retained enzymes within cytosol (>61%, indicating that the INP gene directed the cellulase expression on the bacteria cell surface. Further studies of the optimal enzyme activity were observed at 60 °C and pH 7.0, and at least 75% of maximal enzyme activity was preserved at 70 °C.

  3. Atom-resolved surface chemistry using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avouris, P.

    1989-01-01

    The author shows that by using STM and STS one can study chemistry with atomic resolution. The author uses two examples: the reaction of Si(111)-(7x7) with (a) NH 3 and (b) decaborane (DB). In case (a) the authors can directly observe the spatial distribution of the reaction. He determined which surface atoms have reacted and how the products of the reaction are distributed. He found that the different dangling-bond sites have significantly different reactivities and explain these differences in terms of the local electronic structure. In case (b) the 7x7 reconstruction is eliminated and at high temperatures, (√3 x √3) R30 degree reconstructions are observed. Depending on the amount of DB and the annealing temperature the √3 structures contain variable numbers of B and Si adatoms on T 4 -sites. Calculations show that the structure involving B adatoms, although kinetically favored, is not the lowest energy configuration. The lowest energy state involves B in a substitutional site under a Si adatom

  4. Water chemistry of surface waters affected by the Fourmile Canyon wildfire, Colorado, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the Fourmile Canyon fire burned about 23 percent of the Fourmile Creek watershed in Boulder County, Colo. Water-quality sampling of Fourmile Creek began within a month after the wildfire to assess its effects on surface-water chemistry. Water samples were collected from five sites along Fourmile Creek (above, within, and below the burned area) monthly during base flow, twice weekly during snowmelt runoff, and at higher frequencies during storm events. Stream discharge was also monitored. Water-quality samples were collected less frequently from an additional 6 sites on Fourmile Creek, from 11 tributaries or other inputs, and from 3 sites along Boulder Creek. The pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, specific ultraviolet absorbance, total suspended solids, and concentrations (dissolved and total) of major cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium), anions (chloride, sulfate, alkalinity, fluoride, and bromide), nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and phosphorus), trace metals (aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, rubidium, antimony, selenium, strontium, vanadium, and zinc), and dissolved organic carbon are here reported for 436 samples collected during 2010 and 2011.

  5. Structure vs chemistry: friction and wear of Pt-based metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, A; Louzguine-Luzguin, D V; Bennewitz, R

    2013-11-13

    In comparison of a Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 metallic glass with a Pt(111) single crystal we find that wearless friction is determined by chemistry through bond formation alloying, while wear is determined by structure through plasticity mechanisms. In the wearless regime, friction is affected by the chemical composition of the counter body and involves the formation of a liquid-like neck and interfacial alloying. The wear behavior of Pt-based metallic surfaces is determined by their structural properties and corresponding mechanisms for plastic deformation. In the case of Pt(111) wear occurs by dislocation-mediated homogeneous plastic deformation. In contrast the wear of Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 metallic glass occurs through localized plastic deformation in shear bands that merge together in a single shear zone above a critical load and corresponds to the shear softening of metallic glasses. These results open a new route in the control of friction and wear of metals and are relevant for the development of self-lubricated and wear-resistant mechanical devices.

  6. Investigating thiol-modification on hyaluronan via carbodiimide chemistry using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Sruthi; Liang, Jue; Baid, Rinku; Ravi, Nathan

    2015-07-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan widely researched for its use as a biomaterial in tissue engineering, drug delivery, angiogenesis, and ophthalmic surgeries. The mechanical properties of this biomaterial can be altered to a required extent by chemically modifying the pendant reactive groups. However, derivatizing these polymers to a predetermined extent has been the Achilles heel for this process. In this study, we have investigated the factors controlling the derivatization of the carboxyl moieties of HA with amine containing thiol, cystamine dihydrochloride (Cys), via carbodiimide crosslinking chemistry. We used fractional factorial design to screen and identify the significant factor(s) affecting the reaction, and response surface methodology (RSM) to develop a model equation for predicting the degree of thiolation of HA. Also, we analyzed the reaction mechanism for potential side reactions. We observed that N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) (mole ratio with repeat unit of HA) is the significant factor controlling the degree of amidation. The quadratic equations developed from RSM predict the formulation for a desired degree of amidation of HA and percentage of potential side product. Hence, derivatizing HA to a predetermined extent with minimal side product can be achieved using the statistical design of experiments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Human Fetal Osteoblast Response on Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)/Polystyrene Demixed Thin Film Blends: Surface Chemistry Vs Topography Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, Raechelle A; Raj, Jog; Dickinson, Peter J; McCabe, Fiona; Meenan, Brian J

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in materials sciences have allowed for the development and fabrication of biomaterials that are capable of providing requisite cues to instigate cells to respond in a predictable fashion. We have developed a series of poly(methyl methacrylate)/polystyrene (PMMA/PS) polymer demixed thin films with nanotopographies ranging from nanoislands to nanopits to study the response of human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOBs). When PMMA was in excess in the blend composition, a nanoisland topography dominated, whereas a nanopit topography dominated when PS was in excess. PMMA was found to segregate to the top of the nanoisland morphology with PS preferring the substrate interface. To further ascertain the effects of surface chemistry vs topography, we plasma treated the polymer demixed films using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge reactor to alter the surface chemistry. Our results have shown that hFOBs did not have an increased short-term cellular response on pristine polymer demixed surfaces. However, increasing the hydrophilicty/wettability of the surfaces by oxygen functionalization causes an increase in the cellular response. These results indicate that topography alone is not sufficient to induce a positive cellular response, but the underlying surface chemistry is also important in regulating cell function.

  8. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori cells and their surface components to HeLa cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchère, J L; Blaser, M J

    1990-12-01

    Four Helicobacter pylori strains were used to develop in vitro methods to assess adherence to HeLa cells. Using direct detection by microscopy, adhesion scores increased with the initial bacteria-to-cell ratio. The urease method assessed H. pylori bound to HeLa cells by their urease activity. The percentage of the original inoculum adhering to HeLa cells remained constant for initial ratios from 10(2) to 10(5) bacteria per cell. An ELISA using anti-H. pylori serum assessed whole bacteria or components bound to HeLa cell fractions. By all three methods, the four H. pylori strains were adherent to HeLa cells or membranes whereas Campylobacter fetus and Providencia control strains were not. The adherence of H. pylori whole cells decreased following extraction with saline, water, or glycine buffer and most of the superficial adhering material (SAM) was present in the saline or water extracts. SAM bound better to HeLa membranes than to calf fetuin or bovine serum albumin (BSA); binding was inhibited by preincubation of SAM with HeLa membranes but not with fetuin or BSA or by pretreatment of HeLa membranes with neuraminidase. These data indicate that SAM has a specific receptor on the HeLa cell membranes. By gel exclusion chromatography of bacterial extracts, the most adherent components were found in the fractions which also contained the highest urease activity; these fractions included urease subunit antigens. We conclude that adherence of H. pylori can be assessed by microtiter assays and involves bacterial surface material which co-purifies with urease and is different from the N-acetyl-neuraminyl-lactose binding hemagglutinin.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Grain Surface Chemistry to Binding Energies of Ice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, E. M.; Walsh, C.; Cuppen, H. M.

    2017-07-01

    Advanced telescopes, such as ALMA and the James Webb Space Telescope, are likely to show that the chemical universe may be even more complex than currently observed, requiring astrochemical modelers to improve their models to account for the impact of new data. However, essential input information for gas-grain models, such as binding energies of molecules to the surface, have been derived experimentally only for a handful of species, leaving hundreds of species with highly uncertain estimates. We present in this paper a systematic study of the effect of uncertainties in the binding energies on an astrochemical two-phase model of a dark molecular cloud, using the rate equations approach. A list of recommended binding energy values based on a literature search of published data is presented. Thousands of simulations of dark cloud models were run, and in each simulation a value for the binding energy of hundreds of species was randomly chosen from a normal distribution. Our results show that the binding energy of H2 is critical for the surface chemistry. For high binding energies, H2 freezes out on the grain forming an H2 ice. This is not physically realistic, and we suggest a change in the rate equations. The abundance ranges found are in reasonable agreement with astronomical ice observations. Pearson correlation coefficients revealed that the binding energy of HCO, HNO, CH2, and C correlate most strongly with the abundance of dominant ice species. Finally, the formation route of complex organic molecules was found to be sensitive to the branching ratios of H2CO hydrogenation.

  10. Application of Amniotic Membrane in Ocular Surface Diseases: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cindarik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To investigate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation in cases with corneal thinning, desmatocele and refractive corneal ulcer. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients who were applied amniotic membrane transplantation for various ocular surface disease between January 2004 and February 2009 in Çukurova University Ophthalmology Department were included in the study. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed. Corneal culture and corneal cytology samples were collected from the patients with the diagnosis of corneal ulcers. The patients were informed about the surgical procedure and the possible complications and informed consent was obtained. The amniotic membranes that were prepared under optimal conditions and protected in frozen forms were used in the operations. Follow-up examinations were done at postoperative 1st day, 1st week, 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and then once in a year. Re sults: Of 54 patients, 26 (48.1% were men and 28 (51.8% were women. The mean age of patients was 52.53±19.75 (2-87 years. The cases were separated into 2 groups according to the etiology: group 1 - eyes with corneal ulcer (n:26 and group 2 - eyes with corneal stromal thinning, persistent epithelial defects and desmatocel (n:28. The transplantations were performed using cover technique in 17 eyes (31.4%, graft technique in 37 eyes (68.5% and graft technique with corneal patch in 2 eyes (3.7%. Partial penetrating keratoplasty was required in 38 of 54 eyes (70.3%. One eye was enucleated. Dis cus si on: The amniotic membrane transplantation has advantages like: it can be prepared easily and is cost-effective. It is a safe and effective procedure in ocular surface disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 177-82

  11. I. Measuring and Reducing Stress and Surface Roughness in IBAD MgO Films and II. Developing Tools to Measure Transfer in Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakos, Cory Dale

    I. MgO may be grown with a biaxial texture onto an amorphous substrate with the use of ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). This MgO film may then be used as a platform on which to grow epitaxial films on an amorphous membrane for characterization purposes. However, the IBAD MgO film is stressed, causing buckles in the amorphous membrane and problems with further film growth on the IBAD MgO. This dissertation work explores the source of this film stress and develops methods to relax the stress and reduce surface roughness with annealing and increased growth temperature. It is determined that annealing and increased growth temperature coupled with a higher ion-to-atom ratio (IAR) during film growth reduce stress and surface roughness sufficiently to use even thinner IBAD MgO films as an intermediate layer between an amorphous membrane and epitaxial film. II. Much of the existing literature on knowledge transfer concludes that transfer is rare and does not occur spontaneously. However, studies supporting that transfer is rare often use methods that focus on binary success or failure to solve a problem correctly and do not analyze thought process. This dissertation work aims at developing transfer questions that allow open-ended responses, developing a method of analysis for these responses that looks for transfer in the problem-solving process, and assessing the methodology itself and its sensitivity, validity, and utility as a general transfer measurement technique for use across a broad range of expertise levels in chemistry. Detailed analysis of responses to each transfer question show that some transfer questions are more effective at distinguishing between expertise levels while also allowing responders of all levels to show knowledge transfer. Simpler questions that are more accessible to students of introductory chemistry proved the most useful at eliciting a range of responses that correlate with expertise level while still showing some degree of transfer in

  12. Modeling the Mechanics of Cell Division: Influence of Spontaneous Membrane Curvature, Surface Tension, and Osmotic Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beltrán-Heredia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cell division processes have been conserved throughout evolution and are being revealed by studies on model organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and protozoa. Cellular membrane constriction is one of these processes, observed almost universally during cell division. It happens similarly in all organisms through a mechanical pathway synchronized with the sequence of cytokinetic events in the cell interior. Arguably, such a mechanical process is mastered by the coordinated action of a constriction machinery fueled by biochemical energy in conjunction with the passive mechanics of the cellular membrane. Independently of the details of the constriction engine, the membrane component responds against deformation by minimizing the elastic energy at every constriction state following a pathway still unknown. In this paper, we address a theoretical study of the mechanics of membrane constriction in a simplified model that describes a homogeneous membrane vesicle in the regime where mechanical work due to osmotic pressure, surface tension, and bending energy are comparable. We develop a general method to find approximate analytical expressions for the main descriptors of a symmetrically constricted vesicle. Analytical solutions are obtained by combining a perturbative expansion for small deformations with a variational approach that was previously demonstrated valid at the reference state of an initially spherical vesicle at isotonic conditions. The analytic approximate results are compared with the exact solution obtained from numerical computations, getting a good agreement for all the computed quantities (energy, area, volume, constriction force. We analyze the effects of the spontaneous curvature, the surface tension and the osmotic pressure in these quantities, focusing especially on the constriction force. The more favorable conditions for vesicle constriction are determined, obtaining that smaller constriction forces are required for positive

  13. Relationship between wettability and lubrication characteristics of the surfaces of contacting phospholipid-based membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Zenon; Petelska, Aneta D; Urbaniak, Wieslaw; Yusuf, Kehinde Q; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2013-04-01

    The wettability of the articular surface of cartilage depends on the condition of its surface active phospholipid overlay, which is structured as multi-bilayer. Based on a hypothesis that the surface of cartilage facilitates the almost frictionless lubrication of the joint, we examined the characteristics of this membrane surface entity in both its normal and degenerated conditions using a combination of atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurement, and friction test methods. The observations have led to the conclusions that (1) the acid-base equilibrium condition influences the lubrication effectiveness of the surface of cartilage and (2) the friction coefficient is significantly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the surface of the tissue, thereby confirming the hypothesis tested in this paper. Both wettability angle and interfacial energy were obtained for varying conditions of the cartilage surface both in its wet, dry and lipid-depleted conditions. The interfacial energy also increased with mole fraction of the lipid species reaching an asymptotic value after 0.6. Also, the friction coefficient was found to decrease to an asymptotic level as the wettability angle increased. The result reveal that the interfacial energy increased with pH till pH = 4.0, and then decreased from pH = 4.0 to reach equilibrium at pH = 7.0.

  14. Elucidation of the Oxygen Surface Kinetics in a Coated Dual-Phase Membrane for Enhancing Oxygen Permeation Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Beom Tak; Park, Jeong Hwan; Park, Jong Hyuk; Yu, Ji Haeng; Joo, Jong Hoon

    2017-06-14

    The dual-phase membrane has received much attention as the solution to the instability of the oxygen permeation membrane. It has been reported that the oxygen flux of the dual-phase membrane is greatly enhanced by the active coating layer. However, there has been little discussion about the enhancement mechanism by surface coating in the dual-phase membrane. This study investigates the oxygen flux of the Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 2-δ -La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3±δ (GDC 80 vol %/LSM 20 vol %) composite membrane depending on the oxygen partial pressure (P O 2 ) to elucidate the mechanism of enhanced oxygen flux by the surface modification in the fluorite-rich phase dual-phase membrane. The oxygen permeation resistances were obtained from the oxygen flux as a function of P O 2 using the oxygen permeation model. The surface exchange coefficient (k) and the bulk diffusion coefficient (D) were calculated from these resistances. According to the calculated k and D values, we concluded that the active coating layer (La 0.6 Sr 0.4 CoO 3-δ ) significantly increased the k value of the membrane. Furthermore, the surface exchange reaction on the permeate side was more sluggish than that at the feed side under operating conditions (feed: 0.21 atm/permeate side: 4.7 × 10 -4 atm). Therefore, the enhancement of the oxygen surface exchange kinetics at the permeate side is more important in improving the oxygen permeation flux of the thin film-based fluorite-rich dual-phase membrane. These results provide new insight about the function of the surface coating to enhance the oxygen permeation flux of the dual-phase membrane.

  15. The effects of non-solvent on surface morphology and hydrophobicity of dip-coated polypropylene membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiqotul Himma, Nurul; Kusuma Wardani, Anita; Gede Wenten, I.

    2017-05-01

    Polypropylene (PP) has been widely used for fabrication of hydrophobic microporous membrane due to its good thermal and chemical stability. However, the hydrophobicity of PP is inadequate to prevent membrane wetting which hinders its application in long-term operation of membrane contactor and other hydrophobic membrane processes. Endowing the membrane with superhydrophobicity has become an attractive way to improve wetting resistance. In this work, superhydrophobic PP membrane was prepared by coating with roughened polymer film. A simple technique of two-step dip-coating was used for deposition of the non-solvent solution and polymer solution. The effects of five non-solvent types were investigated, including ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and cyclohexanone. All non-solvents increased the surface roughness, leading to an improvement of membrane hydrophobicity. Superhydrophobic PP membranes with high water contact angle (WCA) of 150.4° and 151.3° have been successfully prepared by using IPA and MEK, respectively. Morphology characterization revealed that both modified membranes had more uniform and larger number of smaller aggregates which might minimize surface area in contact with liquid, resulting in increased contact angle. As the coating was conducted separately, the utilization of non-solvent could be more effective.

  16. Effect of the surface charge of artificial model membranes on the aggregation of amyloid β-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Raimon; Espargaró, Alba; Barbosa-Barros, Lucyanna; Ventura, Salvador; Estelrich, Joan

    2012-08-01

    The neurotoxicity effect of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, the primary constituent of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease, occurs through interactions with neuronal membranes. Here, we attempt to clarify the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of Aβ with lipid membranes. We have used liposomes as a model of biological membrane, and have devoted particular attention to the bilayer charge effect. Our results show that insertion and surface association of peptide with membrane, increased in a membrane charge-dependent manner, lead to a reduction of Aβ soluble species, lag time elongation and an increase in the inter-molecular β-sheet ratio of amyloid fibrils. In addition, our findings suggest that the fine balance between peptide insertion and surface association modulates Aβ aggregation, influencing the amyloid fibrils concentration as well as their morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A Biomedical Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate: Functionalized Three-Dimensional Porous Membrane Decorated with Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a simple, cheap, and functional surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate for biomedical application. Hot spots between two close silver nanoparticles distributed in the skeleton of a three-dimensional porous membrane, especially in the pores, were formed. The dual poles of micropores in the membrane were discussed. The pores could protect the silver nanoparticles in the pores from being oxidized, which makes the membrane effective for a longer period of time. In addition, Staphylococcus aureus cells could be trapped by the micropores and then the Raman signal became stronger, indicating that the functional surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate is reliable.

  18. Polarized Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Exhibits Distinct Surface Proteome on Apical and Basal Plasma Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristov, Vladimir; Wan, Qin; Sharma, Ruchi; Lotfi, Mostafa; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Bharti, Kapil

    2018-01-01

    Surface proteins localized on the apical and basal plasma membranes are required for a cell to sense its environment and relay changes in ionic, cytokine, chemokine, and hormone levels to the inside of the cell. In a polarized cell, surface proteins are differentially localized on the apical or the basolateral sides of the cell. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an example of a polarized cell that performs a variety of functions that are dependent on its polarized state including trafficking of ions, fluid, and metabolites across the RPE monolayer. These functions are absolutely crucial for maintaining the health and integrity of adjacent photoreceptors, the photosensitive cells of the retina. Here we present a series of approaches to identify and validate the polarization state of cultured primary human RPE cells using immunostaining for RPE apical/basolateral markers, polarized cytokine secretion, electrophysiology, fluid transport, phagocytosis, and identification of plasma membrane proteins through cell surface capturing technology. These approaches are currently being used to validate the polarized state and the epithelial phenotype of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell derived RPE cells. This work provides the basis for developing an autologous cell therapy for age-related macular degeneration using patient specific iPS cell derived RPE.

  19. Nonenzymatic Reactions above Phospholipid Surfaces of Biological Membranes: Reactivity of Phospholipids and Their Oxidation Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Calero, Christian; Ortega-Castro, Joaquín; Frau, Juan; Muñoz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids play multiple and essential roles in cells, as components of biological membranes. Although phospholipid bilayers provide the supporting matrix and surface for many enzymatic reactions, their inherent reactivity and possible catalytic role have not been highlighted. As other biomolecules, phospholipids are frequent targets of nonenzymatic modifications by reactive substances including oxidants and glycating agents which conduct to the formation of advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). There are some theoretical studies about the mechanisms of reactions related to these processes on phosphatidylethanolamine surfaces, which hypothesize that cell membrane phospholipids surface environment could enhance some reactions through a catalyst effect. On the other hand, the phospholipid bilayers are susceptible to oxidative damage by oxidant agents as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Molecular dynamics simulations performed on phospholipid bilayers models, which include modified phospholipids by these reactions and subsequent reactions that conduct to formation of ALEs and AGEs, have revealed changes in the molecular interactions and biophysical properties of these bilayers as consequence of these reactions. Then, more studies are desirable which could correlate the biophysics of modified phospholipids with metabolism in processes such as aging and diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25977746

  20. Surface Modification of Polypropylene Microporous Membrane by Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Immobilization of N,N-dimethylamino Ethyl Methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shaofeng

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene microporous membrane (PPMM) was performed by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma immobilization of N,N-dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). Structural and morphological changes on the membrane surface were characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR/ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Water contact angles of the membrane surfaces were also measured by the sessile drop method. Results reveal that both the plasma-treating conditions and the adsorbed DMAEMA amount have remarkable effects on the immobilization degree of DMAEMA. Peroxide determination by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrvlhydrazyl (DPPH) method verifies the exsistence of radicals induced by plasma, which activize the immobilization reaction. Pure water contact angle on the membrane surface decreased with the increase of DMAEMA immobilization degree, which indicates an enhanced hydrophilicity for the modified membranes. The effects of immobilization degrees on pure water fluxes were also measured. It is shown that pure water fluxes first increased with immobilization degree and then decreased. Finally, permeation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme solution were measured to evaluate the antifouling property of the DMAEMA-modified membranes, from which it is shown that both hydrophilicity and electrostatic repulsion are beneficial for membrane antifouling.

  1. Chitosan/polyanion surface modification of styrene–butadiene–styrene block copolymer membrane for wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jen Ming, E-mail: jmyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jhe-Hao [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Huang, Huei Tsz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    The surface of styrene–butadiene–styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane is modified with tri-steps in this study. At first, two step modified SBS membrane (MSBS) was prepared with epoxidation and ring opening reaction with maleated ionomer. Then chitosan was used as the polycation electrolyte and sodium alginate, poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) and poly(aspartic acid) (PAsp) were selected as polyanion electrolytes to deposit on the surfaces of MSBS membrane by the layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) deposition technique to get three [chitosan/polyanion] LbL modified SBS membranes, ([CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp]). From the quantitative XPS analysis and water contact angle measurement, it is found that the order of wettability and the content of functional group percentages of COO{sup −} and -O=C-N- on the three [CS/polyanion] systems are [CS/Alg] > [CS/PGA] > [CS/PAsp]. Performances of water vapor transmission rates, fibronectin adsorption, antibacterial assessment and 3T3 fibroblast cell growth on [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp] membranes were also evaluated. With the evaluation of water vapor transmission rate, these [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp] membranes are sterile semipermeable with water evaporation at about 82 ± 8 g/day · m{sup 2}. It is found that the amount of fibronectin adsorption on the three [CS/polyanion] systems is significantly determined by the sum of the functional group of COO{sup −} and -O=C-N- on the surfaces of [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp] systems. The results are inverse with the sum of the functional group of COO{sup −} and -O=C-N- on the three [CS/polyanion]. From the cytotoxicity test and cell adhesion and proliferation assay of 3T3 fibroblasts on the three [CS/polyanion] systems, it revealed that the cells not only remained viable but they also proliferated on the surfaces of [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp]. The bactericidal activity was found on [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp]. The transport of bacterial through

  2. Influence of surface chemistry of carbon materials on their interactions with inorganic nitrogen contaminants in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaraj; Padhye, Lokesh P

    2017-10-01

    Inorganic nitrogen contaminants (INC) (NH 4 + , NO 3 - , NO 2 - , NH 3 , NO, NO 2 , and N 2 O) pose a growing risk to the environment, and their remediation methods are highly sought after. Application of carbon materials (CM), such as biochar and activated carbon, to remediate INC from agricultural fields and wastewater treatment plants has gained a significant interest since past few years. Understanding the role of surface chemistry of CM in adsorption of various INC is highly critical to increase adsorption efficiency as well as to assess the long term impact of using these highly recalcitrant CM for remediation of INC. Critical reviews of adsorption studies related to INC have revealed that carbon surface chemistry (surface functional groups, pH, Eh, elemental composition, and mineral content) has significant influence on adsorption of INC. Compared to basic functional groups, oxygen containing surface functional groups have been found to be more influential for adsorption of INC. However, basic sites on carbon materials still play an important role in chemisorption of anionic INC. Apart from surface functional groups, pH, Eh and pH zpc of CM and elemental and mineral composition of its surface are important properties capable of altering INC interactions with CM. This review summarizes our current understanding of INC interactions with CM's surface through the known chemisorption mechanisms: electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, electron donor-acceptor mechanism, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interaction, chemisorption aided by minerals, and interactions influenced by pH and elemental composition. Change in surface chemistry of CM in soil during aging is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of water chemistry and surface contact on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jun; Cheng, Jinping

    2017-07-01

    The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has created concerns about its potential impacts on natural microbial communities. In this study, the physicochemical properties of AgNPs and its toxicity on natural bacteria Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) were investigated in aqueous conditions. The characterization data showed that AgNPs highly aggregated in aqueous conditions, and the hydrodynamic diameter of AgNPs in aqueous conditions was larger than its primary size. The studied AgNPs was less toxic to B. subtilis in estuarine water as compared to that in Milli-Q water and artificial seawater, which might be due to the observed enhanced aggregation of AgNPs in estuarine water. The toxicity of AgNPs to B. subtilis was greatly reduced when their surface contact was blocked by a dialysis membrane. Scanning electron microscope images showed that exposure contact to AgNPs resulted in damage of the microbial cell wall and enhanced formation of fibrillar structures. These results suggest that particle-cell contact is largely responsible for the observed toxicity of AgNPs in B. subtilis. This study can help to understand the potential impacts of AgNPs to natural microbes, especially in the complex aquatic environments.

  4. Finite element based contact analysis of radio frequency MEMs switch membrane surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Ya; Chalivendra, Vijaya; Huang, Wenzhen

    2017-10-01

    Finite element simulations were performed to determine the contact behavior of radio frequency (RF) micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) switch contact surfaces under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to capture the topography of RF-MEM switch membranes and later they were analyzed for multi-scale regular as well as fractal structures. Frictionless, non-adhesive contact 3D finite element analysis was carried out at different length scales to investigate the contact behavior of the regular-fractal surface using an elasto-plastic material model. Dominant micro-scale regular patterns were found to significantly change the contact behavior. Contact areas mainly cluster around the regular pattern. The contribution from the fractal structure is not significant. Under cyclic loading conditions, plastic deformation in the 1st loading/unloading cycle smooth the surface. The subsequent repetitive loading/unloading cycles undergo elastic contact without changing the morphology of the contacting surfaces. The work is expected to shed light on the quality of the switch surface contact as well as the optimum design of RF MEM switch surfaces.

  5. The influence of hydrodynamic factors, membrane surface properties and channel geometries on membrane performance and fouling mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervov Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern theoretical understanding of colloidal and suspended matter membrane fouling mechanisms are presented and discussed. State-of-the-art simulation models of concentration polarization calculations for different channel conditions are described and influence of the fouling layers on the flux and rejection decrease are evaluated. Results of experimental investigations are presented that suggest a quantitative evaluation of fouling rates and membrane flux prognosis due to colloidal fouling with time. The influence of channel geometry on fouling is demonstrated and discussed. The main disadvantage of spiral wounded membrane modules which is attributed to the presence of a separation spacer mesh in the feed channel is discussed.

  6. Effect of filler surface functionalization on the performance of Nafion/Titanium oxide composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonis, Catia de; Cozzi, Dafne; Mecheri, Barbara; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Rainer, Alberto; De Porcellinis, Diana; Licoccia, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The phenylsulfonic functionalized nanometric titania (TiO 2 -PhSO 3 H) was synthesized to be used as filler in Nafion-based composite membranes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. The organic moieties were covalently bound on the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles and the hybrid product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. TiO 2 -PhSO 3 H showed higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity values with respect to those of TiO 2 . The incorporation of TiO 2 -PhSO 3 H in Nafion led to a mechanical reinforcement of the membranes and higher conductivity than that obtained with unfilled Nafion. The composite membrane containing 10 wt.% of TiO 2 -PhSO 3 H showed an increased crystallinity and the highest conductivity, reaching 0.11 S cm −1 at 140 °C. DMFC tests were carried out showing that the use of the organic-inorganic hybrid filler leads to a general improvement in the cell performance, in terms of higher current and power density and reduced methanol crossover

  7. A high affinity Ca2(+)-ATPase on the surface membrane of Leishmania donovani promastigote

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, J.; Ray, M.; Sarkar, S.; Bhaduri, A.

    1990-01-01

    A Ca2(+)-dependent ATP-hydrolytic activity was detected in the crude membrane ghost of the promastigote or vector form of the protozoal parasite Leishmania donovani, the pathogen responsible for kala azar. The Ca2(+)-ATPase was purified to apparent homogeneity after solubilization with deoxycholate. The enzyme consists of two subunits of Mr = 51,000 and 57,000 and has an apparent molecular weight of 215,000 +/- 12,000. The enzyme activity is exclusively dependent on Ca2+, and the pure enzyme can hydrolyze 1.6 mumol of ATP/min/mg of protein. The apparent Km for Ca2+ is 35 nM, which is further reduced to 12 nM in the presence of heterologous calmodulin. The enzyme is sensitive to vanadate, but is insensitive to oligomycin and ouabain. The enzyme is strongly associated with the plasma membrane and has its catalytic site oriented toward the cytoplasmic face. The enzyme spans across the plasma membrane as surface labeling with radioiodine shows considerable radioactivity in the completely purified enzyme. The localization and orientation of this high affinity, calmodulin-sensitive Ca2(+)-ATPase suggest some role of this enzyme in Ca2+ movement in the life cycle of this protozoal parasite

  8. A high affinity Ca2(+)-ATPase on the surface membrane of Leishmania donovani promastigote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, J.; Ray, M.; Sarkar, S.; Bhaduri, A. (Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Calcutta (India))

    1990-07-05

    A Ca2(+)-dependent ATP-hydrolytic activity was detected in the crude membrane ghost of the promastigote or vector form of the protozoal parasite Leishmania donovani, the pathogen responsible for kala azar. The Ca2(+)-ATPase was purified to apparent homogeneity after solubilization with deoxycholate. The enzyme consists of two subunits of Mr = 51,000 and 57,000 and has an apparent molecular weight of 215,000 +/- 12,000. The enzyme activity is exclusively dependent on Ca2+, and the pure enzyme can hydrolyze 1.6 mumol of ATP/min/mg of protein. The apparent Km for Ca2+ is 35 nM, which is further reduced to 12 nM in the presence of heterologous calmodulin. The enzyme is sensitive to vanadate, but is insensitive to oligomycin and ouabain. The enzyme is strongly associated with the plasma membrane and has its catalytic site oriented toward the cytoplasmic face. The enzyme spans across the plasma membrane as surface labeling with radioiodine shows considerable radioactivity in the completely purified enzyme. The localization and orientation of this high affinity, calmodulin-sensitive Ca2(+)-ATPase suggest some role of this enzyme in Ca2+ movement in the life cycle of this protozoal parasite.

  9. Transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes through silica based porous media: influences of aquatic chemistry, surface chemistry, and natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Bitter, Julie L; Smith, Billy A; Fairbrother, D Howard; Ball, William P

    2013-12-17

    This paper provides results from studies of the transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) of varying surface oxygen concentrations under a range of aquatic conditions and through uniform silica glass bead media. In the presence of Na(+), the required ionic strength (IS) for maximum particle attachment efficiency (i.e., the critical deposition concentration, or CDC) increased as the surface oxygen concentration of the O-MWCNTs or pH increased, following qualitative tenets of theories based on electrostatic interactions. In the presence of Ca(2+), CDC values were lower than those with Na(+) present, but were no longer sensitive to surface oxygen content, suggesting that Ca(2+) impacts the interactions between O-MWCNTs and glass beads by mechanisms other than electrostatic alone. The presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) decreased the attachment efficiency of O-MWCNTs in the presence of either Na(+) or Ca(2+), but with more pronounced effects when Na(+) was present. Nevertheless, low concentrations of SRNOM (organic carbon) were sufficient to mobilize all O-MWCNTs studied at CaCl2 concentrations as high as 10 mM. Overall, this study reveals that NOM content, pH, and cation type show more importance than surface chemistry in affecting O-MWCNTs deposition during transport through silica-based porous media.

  10. Magnetical and optical properties of nanodiamonds can be tuned by particles surface chemistry: theoretical and experimental study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Šebera, Jakub; Ashcheulov, Petr; Golan, Martin; Ledvina, Miroslav; Mičová, Júlia; Mravec, F.; Kovalenko, A.; Zverev, D.; Yavkin, B.; Orlinskii, S.; Záliš, Stanislav; Fišerová, Anna; Richter, Jan; Šefc, L.; Turánek, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 43 (2014), s. 25245-25252 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011165; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10279S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanodiamond particles * NV luminescent centers * surface functionalization * DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.772, year: 2014

  11. Investigating the effects of membrane deformability on artificial capsule adhesion to the functionalized surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Hiren D; Banton, Rohan J; Eggleton, Charles D

    2016-10-01

    Understanding, manipulating and controlling cellular adhesion processes can be critical in developing biomedical technologies. Adhesive mechanisms can be used to the target, pattern and separate cells such as leukocytes from whole blood for biomedical applications. The deformability response of the cell directly affects the rolling and adhesion behavior under viscous linear shear flow conditions. To that end, the primary objective of the present study was to investigate numerically the influence of capsule membrane's nonlinear material behavior (i.e. elastic-plastic to strain hardening) on the rolling and adhesion behavior of representative artificial capsules. Specifically, spherical capsules with radius of [Formula: see text] were represented using an elastic membrane governed by a Mooney-Rivlin strain energy functions. The surfaces of the capsules were coated with P-selectin glycoprotein-ligand-1 to initiate binding interaction with P-selectin-coated planar surface with density of [Formula: see text] under linear shear flow varying from 100 to [Formula: see text]. The numerical model is based on the Immersed Boundary Method for rolling of deformable capsule in shear flow coupled with Monte Carlo simulation for receptor/ligand interaction modeled using Bell model. The results reveal that the mechanical properties of the capsule play an important role in the rolling behavior and the binding kinetics between the capsule contact surface and the substrate. The rolling behavior of the strain hardening capsules is relatively smoother and slower compared to the elastic-plastic capsules. The strain hardening capsules exhibits higher contact area at any given shear rate compared to elastic-plastic capsules. The increase in contact area leads to decrease in rolling velocity. The capsule contact surface is not in complete contact with the substrate because of thin lubrication film that is trapped between the capsule and substrate. This creates a concave shape on the bottom

  12. Chemistry of Frozen NaCl and MgSO4 Brines - Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. V.; Hodyss, R. P.; Choukroun, M.; Vu, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of Europa's subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability, but current analysis of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the Europan surface. While there is observational evidence indicating that ocean materials make their way to the surface, our understanding of the chemical processes that can alter this material under Europan surface conditions is limited. We present experimental data on the chemistry of mixed solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 as they are frozen to 100 K, replicating the conditions that may occur when subsurface ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa's surface. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to study the formation of salts during the freezing process, and the interaction of ions in the frozen brines. Our data indicate that mixed aqueous solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 form Na2SO4 and MgCl2 preferentially when frozen, rather than making NaCl and MgSO4 precipitates. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4Ÿ•7H2O) on Europa's surface may therefore imply an ocean composition relatively low in sodium, unless radiolytic chemistry converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Hand and Brown 2013 (ApJ 145 110). These results have important implications for the interpretation of remote sensing data of Europa's surface.

  13. Effects of steam activation on the pore structure and surface chemistry of activated carbon derived from bamboo waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Juan; Xing, Zhen-Jiao; Duan, Zheng-Kang; Li, Meng; Wang, Yin

    2014-10-01

    The effects of steam activation on the pore structure evolution and surface chemistry of activated carbon (AC) obtained from bamboo waste were investigated. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms revealed that higher steam activation temperatures and/or times promoted the creation of new micropores and widened the existing micropores, consequently decreasing the surface area and total pore volume. Optimum conditions included an activation temperature of 850 °C, activation time of 120 min, and steam flush generated from deionized water of 0.2 cm3 min-1. Under these conditions, AC with a BET surface area of 1210 m2 g-1 and total pore volume of 0.542 cm-3 g-1was obtained. Changes in surface chemistry were determined through Boehm titration, pH measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results revealed the presence of a large number of basic groups on the surface of the pyrolyzed char and AC. Steam activation did not affect the species of oxygen-containing groups but changed the contents of these species when compared with pyrolyzed char. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface morphology of the products. AC obtained under optimum conditions showed a monolayer adsorption capacity of 330 mg g-1 for methylene blue (MB), which demonstrates its excellent potential for MB adsorption applications.

  14. Hemocompatibility and oxygenation performance of polysulfone membranes grafted with polyethylene glycol and heparin by plasma-induced surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Zheng, Zhi; Huang, Xin; Fan, Wenling; Yu, Wenkui; Zhang, Zhibing; Li, Lei; Mao, Chun

    2017-10-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and heparin (Hep) were grafted onto polysulfone (PSF) membrane by plasma-induced surface modification to prepare PSF-PEG-Hep membranes used for artificial lung. The effects of plasma treatment parameters, including power, gas type, gas flow rate, and treatment time, were investigated, and different PEG chains were bonded covalently onto the surface in the postplasma grafting process. Membrane surfaces were characterized by water contact angle, PEG grafting degree, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, critical water permeability pressure, and scanning electron microscopy. Protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and coagulation tests showed significant improvement in the hemocompatibility of PSF-PEG-Hep membranes compared to pristine PSF membrane. Gas exchange tests through PSF-PEG6000-Hep membrane showed that when the flow rate of porcine blood reached 5.0 L/min, the permeation fluxes of O 2 and CO 2 reached 192.6 and 166.9 mL/min, respectively, which were close to the gas exchange capacity of a commercial membrane oxygenator. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1737-1746, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ultrastructural analysis of miltefosine-induced surface membrane damage in adult Schistosoma mansoni BH strain worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertão, Humberto Gonçalves; da Silva, Renata Alexandre Ramos; Padilha, Rafael José R; de Azevedo Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessôa; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2012-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious parasitic disease caused by helminths from the genus Schistosoma; it affects over 200 million people globally and is endemic in 70 countries. In Brazil, 6 million individuals are infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Furthermore, as the prevalence of S. mansoni infections is increasing, approximately 26 million citizens in 19 Brazilian states are at risk for infection. Schistosomiasis disease control involves predominately the administration of a single drug, praziquantel. Although praziquantel exhibits chemotherapeutic efficacy and safety, its massive use in endemic zones, the possibility of the emergence of drug-resistant Schistosoma parasites, and the lack of another efficacious antischistosomal drug demand the discovery of new schistosomicidal compounds. First developed as anti-tumor drug, miltefosine is an alkylphospholipid derivative that exhibits bioactivity against Leishmania and Trypanosoma parasites, free-living protozoa, bacteria, and fungi. With its anti-parasite activity, miltefosine was the first orally administered drug against visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis approved. Previously, by means of the MTT cytotoxic assay and a DNA fragmentation test, we verified that, at doses of 100 and 200 μM (40 and 80 μg/mL), miltefosine exhibited in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms. Here, we present ultrastructural evidence of rapid, severe miltefosine-induced surface membrane damage in S. mansoni following drug treatment. The number of dead parasites was concentration- and time-dependent following miltefosine treatment. At a miltefosine concentration of 200 μM (∼80 μg/mL), in vitro parasite killing was initiated as early as 3 h post-incubation, and it was maximal after 24 h of treatment. The parasite death was preceded by progressive surface membrane damage, characterized by tegument peeling, spine reduction and erosion, blister formation and rupture, and the emergence of holes. According to our

  16. Increasing the Detection Limit of the Parkinson Disorder through a Specific Surface Chemistry Applied onto Inner Surface of the Titration Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Poncin-Epaillard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to illustrate the enhancement of the sensitivity of ELISA titration for neurodegenerative proteins by reducing nonspecific adsorptions that could lead to false positives. This goal was obtained thanks to the association of plasma and wet chemistries applied to the inner surface of the titration well. The polypropylene surface was plasma-activated and then, dip-coated with different amphiphilic molecules. These molecules have more or less long hydrocarbon chains and may be charged. The modified surfaces were characterized in terms of hydrophilic—phobic character, surface chemical groups and topography. Finally, the coated wells were tested during the ELISA titration of the specific antibody capture of the α-synuclein protein. The highest sensitivity is obtained with polar (Θ = 35°, negatively charged and smooth inner surface.

  17. Membrane effects of Vitamin E deficiency: bioenergetic and surface-charge-density studies of skeletal muscle and liver mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilha, A.T.; Packer, L.; Szyszlo Davies, J.M.; Racanelli, T.L.; Davies, K.J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Vitamin E (dl-..cap alpha..-tocopherol) deficiency in rats increased the sensitivity of liver and muscle mitochondria to damage during incubation at various temperatures, irradiation with visible light, or steady state respiration with substrates. In all cases, vitamin E deficient mitochondria exhibited increased lipid peroxidation, reduced transmembrane potential, decreased respiratory coupling, and lower rates of electron transport, compared to control mitochondria. Muscle mitochondria always showed greater negative inner membrane surface charge density, and were also more sensitive to damage than were liver mitochondria. Vitamin E deficient mitochondria also showed slightly more negative inner membrane surface charge density compared to controls. The relationship between greater negative surface potential and increased sensitivity to damage observed, provides for a new and sensitive method to further probe the role of surface charge in membrane structure and function. Implications of these new findings for the well known human muscle myopathies and those experimentally induced by Vitamin E deficiency in animals, are discussed.

  18. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  19. Structure–Property Relationships of Inorganically Surface-Modified Zeolite Molecular Sieves for Nanocomposite Membrane Fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Lydon, Megan E.

    2012-05-03

    A multiscale experimental study of the structural, compositional, and morphological characteristics of aluminosilicate (LTA) and pure-silica (MFI) zeolite materials surface-modified with MgO xH y nanostructures is presented. These characteristics are correlated with the suitability of such materials in the fabrication of LTA/Matrimid mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) for CO 2/CH 4 separations. The four functionalization methods studied in this work produce surface nanostructures that may appear superficially similar under SEM observation but in fact differ considerably in shape, size, surface coverage, surface area/roughness, degree of attachment to the zeolite surface, and degree of zeolite pore blocking. The evaluation of these characteristics by a combination of TEM, HRTEM, N 2 physisorption, multiscale compositional analysis (XPS, EDX, and ICP-AES elemental analysis), and diffraction (ED and XRD) allows improved understanding of the origin of disparate gas permeation properties observed in MMMs made with four types of surface-modified zeolite LTA materials, as well as a rational selection of the method expected to result in the best enhancement of the desired properties (in the present case, CO 2/CH 4 selectivity increase without sacrificing permeability). A method based on ion exchange of the LTA with Mg 2+, followed by base-induced precipitation and growth of MgO xH y nanostructures, deemed "ion exchange functionalization" here, offers modified particles with the best overall characteristics resulting in the most effective MMMs. LTA/Matrimid MMMs containing ion exchange functionalized particles had a considerably higher CO 2/CH 4 selectivity (∼40) than could be obtained with the other functionalization techniques (∼30), while maintaining a CO 2 permeability of ∼10 barrers. A parallel study on pure silica MFI surface nanostructures is also presented to compare and contrast with the zeolite LTA case. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  1. Outcome of application of amniotic membrane graft in ocular surface disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Nargis Nizam; Adhi, Muhammad Idrees

    2017-07-01

    To determine the outcome of application of amniotic graft in ocular surface disorders. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from January 2010 to December 2012, and comprised patients with ocular surface disorders. Patients' presenting symptoms and signs were recorded. Previously harvested and frozen amniotic graft was applied in different types of ocular surface disorders, such as corneal ulcers, pterygium, keratomalacia, Steven-Johnson syndrome, etc. Following the surgery, patients were assessed for improvement in symptoms and signs related to epithelialisation in corneal ulcers.. Of the 50 patients, 30(60%) were male and 20(40%) female. The overall mean age was 40±19.3 years (range: 9 months to 80 years). Out of the 18(36%) cases of pterygium, there was recurrence in 5(27.7%) cases. There were 26(52%) patients of corneal ulcers, of whom re-epithelialisation occurred in 21(80.7%) patients. Amniotic membrane grafting was found to be a safe procedure for ocular surface disorders.

  2. Hemocompatible control of sulfobetaine-grafted polypropylene fibrous membranes in human whole blood via plasma-induced surface zwitterionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Han; Chang, Yung; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Wei, Ta-Chin; Higuchi, Akon; Ho, Feng-Ming; Tsou, Chia-Chun; Ho, Hsin-Tsung; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2012-12-21

    In this work, the hemocompatibility of zwitterionic polypropylene (PP) fibrous membranes with varying grafting coverage of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) via plasma-induced surface polymerization was studied. Charge neutrality of PSBMA-grafted layers on PP membrane surfaces was controlled by the low-pressure and atmospheric plasma treatment in this study. The effects of grafting composition, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Protein adsorption onto the different PSBMA-grafted PP membranes from human fibrinogen solutions was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. Blood platelet adhesion and plasma clotting time measurements from a recalcified platelet-rich plasma solution were used to determine if platelet activation depends on the charge bias of the grafted PSBMA layer. The charge bias of PSBMA layer deviated from the electrical balance of positively and negatively charged moieties can be well-controlled via atmospheric plasma-induced interfacial zwitterionization and was further tested with human whole blood. The optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and keeps its original blood-inert property of antifouling, anticoagulant, and antithrmbogenic activities when it comes into contact with human blood. This work suggests that the hemocompatible nature of grafted PSBMA polymers by controlling grafting quality via atmospheric plasma treatment gives a great potential in the surface zwitterionization of hydrophobic membranes for use in human whole blood.

  3. Tuning optoelectronic properties of small semiconductor nanocrystals through surface ligand chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Katie N.

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (SNCs) are a class of material with one dimension reported. Furthermore, the outstanding increase in PL-QY was found to be a product of both passivation and delocalization effects. Next we used poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG)-thiolate ligands to passivate the SNC and provide unique solubility properties in both aqueous and organic solvents as well as utilized their highly conductive nature to explore inter-SNC electronic coupling. The electronic coupling was studied: 1) as a function of SNC size where the smallest SNC exhibited the largest coupling energy (170 meV) and 2) as a function of annealing temperature, where an exceptionally large (˜400 meV) coupling energy was observed. This strong electronic coupling in self-organized films could facilitate the large-scale production of highly efficient electronic materials for advanced optoelectronic device applications. Strong inter-SNC electronic coupling together with high solubility, such as that provided by PEG-thiolate-coated CdSe SNCs, can increase the stability of SNCs during solution-phase electrochemical characterization. Therefore, we utilized these properties to characterize solution-state electrochemical properties and photocatalytic activity of ternary copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) SNCs as a function of their size and surface ligand chemistry. Electrochemical characterization of our PEG-thiolate-coated SNCs showed that the thermodynamic driving force (-?G) for oxygen reduction, which increased with decreasing bandgap, was a major contributor to the overall photocatalytic reaction. Additionally, phenol degradation efficiency was monitored in which the smallest diameter SNC and shortest chain length of PEG provided the highest efficiency. The information provided herein could be used to produce superior SNC photocatalysts for a variety of applications including oxidation of organic contaminants, conversion of water to hydrogen gas, and decomposition of crude oil or pesticides

  4. Connecting membrane fluidity and surface charge to pore-forming antimicrobial peptides resistance by an ANN-based predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehla, Jitender; Sood, S K

    2013-05-01

    Efficiency of antibacterial chemotherapy is gradually more challenged by the emergence of pathogenic strains exhibiting high levels of antibiotic resistance. Pore-forming antimicrobial peptides (PF-AMPs) such as alamethicin (Alm) are therefore in the focus of extensive research efforts. In the present study, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (SAR) modeling of membrane phospholipids vs. PF-AMPs, in context to membrane fluidity and surface charge, was carried out. We observed that the potency of PF-AMPs depends on the fatty acyl chain and polar head group of phospholipids. Alm showed surface interactions with zwitterionic phospholipids however could penetrate deeper inside the hydrophobic core of anionic membranes. Here, the resistance developed in bacterial cells was coupled to membrane fluidity and surface charge, and simultaneously, these principles could be applied for combating resistance against PF-AMPs. The correlation coefficient between observed CR and predicted CR using ANN was found to be 0.757. Thus, ANN could be used as a reliable modeling method for predicting CR, given the structure of the biomimetic membrane in terms of membrane fluidity and surface charge. Fully explored mechanisms of resistance, a forward modeling step in the design cycle of AMPs, can be cross-linked to the inward modeling using ANN to complete the peptide design cycle. The SAR between membrane phospholipids and PF-AMPs could furnish valuable information regarding their design to provide us efficacious peptides against premier pathogens. So far, this is the only report available to predict and quantify interactions of PF-AMPs with membrane phospholipids.

  5. A Solvent-Free Surface Suspension Melt Technique for Making Biodegradable PCL Membrane Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratima Suntornnond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, there is limited availability of a simple, fast and solvent-free process for fabricating micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds. This paper presents the first report of a novel surface suspension melt technique to fabricate a micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds without using any organic solvent. Briefly, a layer of polycaprolactone (PCL particles is directly spread on top of water in the form of a suspension. After that, with the use of heat, the powder layer is transformed into a melted layer, and following cooling, a thin membrane is obtained. Two different sizes of PCL powder particles (100 µm and 500 µm are used. Results show that membranes made from 100 µm powders have lower thickness, smaller pore size, smoother surface, higher value of stiffness but lower ultimate tensile load compared to membranes made from 500 µm powder. C2C12 cell culture results indicate that the membrane supports cell growth and differentiation. Thus, this novel membrane generation method holds great promise for tissue engineering.

  6. Process for producing curved surface of membrane rings for large containers, particulary for prestressed concrete pressure vessels of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.

    1977-01-01

    Membrane rings for large pressure vessels, particularly for prestressed-concrete pressure vessels, often have curved surfaces. The invention describes a process of producing these at site, which is particularly advantageous as the forming and installation of the vessel component coincide. According to the invention, the originally flat membrane ring is set in a predetermined position, is then pressed in sections by a forming tool (with a preformed support ring as opposite tool), and shaped. After this, the shaped parts are welded to the ring-shaped wall parts of the large vessel. The manufacture of single and double membrane rings arrangements is described. (HP) [de

  7. La and Al co-doped CaMnO3 perovskite oxides: From interplay of surface properties to anion exchange membrane fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzara, Michael J.; Christ, Jason M.; Joghee, Prabhuram; Ngo, Chilan; Cadigan, Christopher A.; Bender, Guido; Richards, Ryan M.; O'Hayre, Ryan; Pylypenko, Svitlana

    2018-01-01

    This work reports the first account of perovskite oxide and carbon composite oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts integrated into anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs). Perovskite oxides with a theoretical stoichiometry of Ca0.9La0.1Al0.1Mn0.9O3-δ are synthesized by an aerogel method and calcined at various temperatures, resulting in a set of materials with varied surface chemistry and surface area. Material composition is evaluated by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The perovskite oxide calcined at 800 °C shows the importance of balance between surface area, purity of the perovskite phase, and surface composition, resulting in the highest ORR mass activity when evaluated in rotating disk electrodes. Integration of this catalyst into AEMFCs reveals that the best AEMFC performance is obtained when using composites with 30:70 perovskite oxide:carbon composition. Doubling the loading leads to an increase in the power density from 30 to 76 mW cm-2. The AEMFC prepared with a composite based on perovskite oxide and N-carbon achieves a power density of 44 mW cm-2, demonstrating an ∼50% increase when compared to the highest performing composite with undoped carbon at the same loading.

  8. In Situ Studies of the Temperature-Dependent Surface Structure and Chemistry of Single-Crystalline (001)-Oriented La 0.8 Sr 0.2 CoO 3−δ Perovskite Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zhenxing

    2013-05-02

    Perovskites are used to promote the kinetics of oxygen electrocatalysis in solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen permeation membranes. Little is known about the surface structure and chemistry of perovskites at high temperatures and partial oxygen pressures. Combining in situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we report, for the first time, the evolution of the surface structure and chemistry of (001)-oriented perovskite La0.8Sr0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC113) and (La0.5Sr 0.5)2CoO4+δ (LSC214)-decorated LSC113 (LSC113/214) thin films as a function of t