WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface marine weather

  1. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  2. Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...

  3. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  4. On the sensitivity of numerical weather prediction to remotely sensed marine surface wind data - A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, M. A.; Cardone, V. J.; Halem, M.; Halberstam, I.

    1981-01-01

    The reported investigation has the objective to assess the potential impact on numerical weather prediction (NWP) of remotely sensed surface wind data. Other investigations conducted with similar objectives have not been satisfactory in connection with a use of procedures providing an unrealistic distribution of initial errors. In the current study, care has been taken to duplicate the actual distribution of information in the conventional observing system, thus shifting the emphasis from accuracy of the data to the data coverage. It is pointed out that this is an important consideration in assessing satellite observing systems since experience with sounder data has shown that improvements in forecasts due to satellite-derived information is due less to a general error reduction than to the ability to fill data-sparse regions. The reported study concentrates on the evaluation of the observing system simulation experimental design and on the assessment of the potential of remotely sensed marine surface wind data.

  5. Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau (SWSSWB) Records primarily created by the United States Army Signal Service from 1819 until the paid and voluntary...

  6. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  7. Surface Weather Observations Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  8. Surface Weather Observing Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Manuals and instructions for taking weather observations. Includes the annual Weather Bureau 'Instructions for Preparing Meteorological Forms...' and early airways...

  9. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  10. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  11. Evaluation of a Carbohydrate-Electrolyte Beverage on Performance During Marine Corps Hot Weather Training Exercises

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schrot, John

    2004-01-01

    ... and senior NCOs during field training exercises conducted in hot/humid weather conditions. Subjects were recruited from Marine Corps personnel participating in training courses held at the Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA during the summer of 2003...

  12. Development of tailored indigenous marine consortia for the degradation of naturally weathered polyethylene films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokia Syranidou

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential of bacterial-mediated polyethylene (PE degradation in a two-phase microcosm experiment. During phase I, naturally weathered PE films were incubated for 6 months with the indigenous marine community alone as well as bioaugmented with strains able to grow in minimal medium with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE as the sole carbon source. At the end of phase I the developed biofilm was harvested and re-inoculated with naturally weathered PE films. Bacteria from both treatments were able to establish an active population on the PE surfaces as the biofilm community developed in a time dependent way. Moreover, a convergence in the composition of these communities was observed towards an efficient PE degrading microbial network, comprising of indigenous species. In acclimated communities, genera affiliated with synthetic (PE and natural (cellulose polymer degraders as well as hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were enriched. The acclimated consortia (indigenous and bioaugmented reduced more efficiently the weight of PE films in comparison to non-acclimated bacteria. The SEM images revealed a dense and compact biofilm layer and signs of bio-erosion on the surface of the films. Rheological results suggest that the polymers after microbial treatment had wider molecular mass distribution and a marginally smaller average molar mass suggesting biodegradation as opposed to abiotic degradation. Modifications on the surface chemistry were observed throughout phase II while the FTIR profiles of microbially treated films at month 6 were similar to the profiles of virgin PE. Taking into account the results, we can suggest that the tailored indigenous marine community represents an efficient consortium for degrading weathered PE plastics.

  13. Development of tailored indigenous marine consortia for the degradation of naturally weathered polyethylene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syranidou, Evdokia; Karkanorachaki, Katerina; Amorotti, Filippo; Repouskou, Eftychia; Kroll, Kevin; Kolvenbach, Boris; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Fava, Fabio; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of bacterial-mediated polyethylene (PE) degradation in a two-phase microcosm experiment. During phase I, naturally weathered PE films were incubated for 6 months with the indigenous marine community alone as well as bioaugmented with strains able to grow in minimal medium with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) as the sole carbon source. At the end of phase I the developed biofilm was harvested and re-inoculated with naturally weathered PE films. Bacteria from both treatments were able to establish an active population on the PE surfaces as the biofilm community developed in a time dependent way. Moreover, a convergence in the composition of these communities was observed towards an efficient PE degrading microbial network, comprising of indigenous species. In acclimated communities, genera affiliated with synthetic (PE) and natural (cellulose) polymer degraders as well as hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were enriched. The acclimated consortia (indigenous and bioaugmented) reduced more efficiently the weight of PE films in comparison to non-acclimated bacteria. The SEM images revealed a dense and compact biofilm layer and signs of bio-erosion on the surface of the films. Rheological results suggest that the polymers after microbial treatment had wider molecular mass distribution and a marginally smaller average molar mass suggesting biodegradation as opposed to abiotic degradation. Modifications on the surface chemistry were observed throughout phase II while the FTIR profiles of microbially treated films at month 6 were similar to the profiles of virgin PE. Taking into account the results, we can suggest that the tailored indigenous marine community represents an efficient consortium for degrading weathered PE plastics.

  14. Asian Dust Weather Categorization with Satellite and Surface Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tang-Huang; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study categorizes various dust weather types by means of satellite remote sensing over central Asia. Airborne dust particles can be identified by satellite remote sensing because of the different optical properties exhibited by coarse and fine particles (i.e. varying particle sizes). If a correlation can be established between the retrieved aerosol optical properties and surface visibility, the intensity of dust weather can be more effectively and consistently discerned using satellite rather than surface observations. In this article, datasets consisting of collocated products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and surface measurements are analysed. The results indicate an exponential relationship between the surface visibility and the satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth, which is subsequently used to categorize the dust weather. The satellite-derived spatial frequency distributions in the dust weather types are consistent with China s weather station reports during 2003, indicating that dust weather classification using satellite data is highly feasible. Although the period during the springtime from 2004 to 2007 may be not sufficient for statistical significance, our results reveal an increasing tendency in both intensity and frequency of dust weather over central Asia during this time period.

  15. Biomimicking micropatterned surfaces and their effect on marine biofouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzozowska, Agata M.; Parra-Velandia, Fernando J.; Quintana, Robert; Xiaoying, Zhu; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; Chin-Sing, Lim; Jańczewski, Dominik; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Vancso, Julius G.

    2014-01-01

    When synthetic materials are submerged in marine environments, dissolved matter and marine organisms attach to their surfaces by a process known as marine fouling. This phenomenon may lead to diminished material performance with detrimental consequences. Bioinspired surface patterning and chemical

  16. Development of tailored indigenous marine consortia for the degradation of naturally weathered polyethylene films

    OpenAIRE

    Syranidou, Evdokia; Karkanorachaki, Katerina; Amorotti, Filippo; Repouskou, Eftychia; Kroll, Kevin; Kolvenbach, Boris; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Fava, Fabio; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of bacterial-mediated polyethylene (PE) degradation in a two-phase microcosm experiment. During phase I, naturally weathered PE films were incubated for 6 months with the indigenous marine community alone as well as bioaugmented with strains able to grow in minimal medium with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) as the sole carbon source. At the end of phase I the developed biofilm was harvested and re-inoculated with naturally weathered PE films. Bac...

  17. Marine X-band Weather Radar Data Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis, and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is allimportant that the radar data is well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation...

  18. Observed linear trend in few surface weather elements over the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    total precipitation amount (TP). Linear regression analysis is used to construct the trend in variables listed in table 1 (Pant and. Rupa Kumar 1997; Bhutiyani et al. 2007, 2009,. Dimri and Das 2011). Linear regression equation of the following form is developed at each station for surface weather variables listed in table 1 to.

  19. Insight into the product film formed on Ni-advanced weathering steel in a tropical marine atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Cheng, Xuequn; Hou, Huaxing; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-04-01

    The product film formed on Ni-advanced weathering steel in a tropical marine environment was investigated in detail through outdoor exposure by using diverse surface analysis techniques combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning kelvin probe measurements. The results showed that the product film was mainly composed of nanophasic goethite in the inner layer and maghemite, akaganeite, and hematite in the outer layer. Moreover, the resistance to atmospheric corrosion gradually increased from the outermost product film to the innermost film. Ni was significantly enriched in the inner layer in the form of the spinel phase NiFe2O4, which transformed lepidocrocite to fine-grained goethite, withstood the invasion of chloridion, and improved the corrosion potential of the product film in a tropical marine atmosphere.

  20. Impacts of extreme weather events on highly eutrophic marine ecosystem (Rogoznica Lake, Adriatic coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciglenečki, I.; Janeković, I.; Marguš, M.; Bura-Nakić, E.; Carić, M.; Ljubešić, Z.; Batistić, M.; Hrustić, E.; Dupčić, I.; Garić, R.

    2015-10-01

    Rogoznica Lake is highly eutrophic marine system located on the Eastern Adriatic coast (43°32‧N, 15°58‧E). Because of the relatively small size (10,276 m2) and depth (15 m) it experiences strong natural and indirect anthropogenic influences. Dynamics within the lake is characterized by the extreme and highly variable environmental conditions (seasonal variations in salinity and temperature, water stratification and mixing, redox and euxinic conditions, concentrations of nutrients) which significantly influence the biology inside the lake. Due to the high phytoplankton activity, the upper part of the water column is well oxygenated, while hypoxia/anoxia usually occurs in the bottom layers. Anoxic part of the water column is characterized with high concentrations of sulfide (up to 5 mM) and nutrients (NH4+ up to 315 μM; PO43- up to 53 μM; SiO44- up to 680 μM) indicating the pronounced remineralization of the allochthonous organic matter, produced in the surface waters. The mixolimnion varies significantly within a season feeling effects of the Adriatic atmospheric and ocean dynamics (temperature, wind, heat fluxes, rainfall) which all affect the vertical stability and possibly induce vertical mixing and/or turnover. Seasonal vertical mixing usually occurs during the autumn/winter upon the breakdown of the stratification, injecting oxygen-rich water from the surface into the deeper layers. Depending on the intensity and duration of the vertical dynamics (slower diffusion and/or faster turnover of the water layers) anoxic conditions could developed within the whole water column. Extreme weather events such as abrupt change in the air temperature accompanied with a strong wind and consequently heat flux are found to be a key triggering mechanism for the fast turnover, introducing a large amount of nutrients and sulfur species from deeper parts to the surface. Increased concentration of nutrients, especially ammonium, phosphate, and silicates persisting for

  1. Verification of Forecast Weather Surface Variables over Vietnam Using the National Numerical Weather Prediction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Du Duc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The national numerical weather prediction system of Vietnam is presented and evaluated. The system is based on three main models, namely, the Japanese Global Spectral Model, the US Global Forecast System, and the US Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The global forecast products have been received at 0.25- and 0.5-degree horizontal resolution, respectively, and the WRF model has been run locally with 16 km horizontal resolution at the National Center for Hydro-Meteorological Forecasting using lateral conditions from GSM and GFS. The model performance is evaluated by comparing model output against observations of precipitation, wind speed, and temperature at 168 weather stations, with daily data from 2010 to 2014. In general, the global models provide more accurate forecasts than the regional models, probably due to the low horizontal resolution in the regional model. Also, the model performance is poorer for stations with altitudes greater than 500 meters above sea level (masl. For tropical cyclone performance validations, the maximum wind surface forecast from global and regional models is also verified against the best track of Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Finally, the model forecast skill during a recent extreme rain event in northeast Vietnam is evaluated.

  2. Multipurpose stabilization of the advanced marine surface crafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevostyanov Ruslan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced marine surface crafts, such as SWATHs, catamarans or hovercrafts become more and more popular for a great range of various tasks. They usually operate at much higher speed than conventional ships. Moreover, in the open sea there are a lot of requirements and restrictions concerning the quality of such crafts’ dynamics, especially in case of the wind or waves. This paper considers application of the control law with a special multipurpose structure for autopilot design for amphibious air cushion vehicles. Such control law allows to decompose the autopilot task into simpler optimization subtasks. Efficiency of this approach is shown in the task of stabilizing yaw angle of the air cushion vehicle in the different weather conditions.

  3. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  4. Evaluation of artificially-weathered standard fuel oil toxicity by marine invertebrate embryogenesis bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Juan; Saco-Álvarez, Liliana; Nieto, Óscar; Bayona, Josep María; Albaigés, Joan; Beiras, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    wWeathering of petroleum spilled in the marine environment may not only change its physical and chemical properties but also its effects on the marine ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) obtained from a standard fuel oil following an environmentally realistic simulated weathering process for a period of 80 d. Experimental flasks with 40 g L(-1) of fuel oil were incubated at 18°C with a 14 h light:10 h dark photoperiod and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity of 70 μE m(-2) s(-1). Samples were taken at four weathering periods: 24 h, 7, 21 and 80 d. WAF toxicity was tested using the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) embryo-larval bioassays and the aromatic hydrocarbons levels (AH) in the WAF were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In contrast with the classic assumption of toxicity decrease with oil weathering, the present study shows a progressive increase in WAF toxicity with weathering, being the EC(50) after 80d eightfold lower than the EC(50) at day 1, whereas AH concentration slightly decreased. In the long term, inoculation of WAF with bacteria from a hydrocarbon chronically-polluted harbor slightly reduced toxicity. The differences in toxicity between fresh and weathered fuels could not be explained on the basis of the total AH content and the formation of oxidized derivatives is suggested to explain this toxicity increase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonlinear Control of Marine Surface Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Swarup; Talole, S. E.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, a robust yaw control law design derived from nonlinear extended state observer (NESO) based nonlinear state error feedback controller (NSEFC) in conjunction with nonlinear tracking differentiator (NTD) for marine surface vessels is presented. As marine vessel operates in an environment where significant uncertainties and disturbances are present, an NESO is used to estimate the effect of the uncertainties and disturbances along with the plant states leading to a robust design through disturbance estimation and compensation. Convergence of NESO and NTD is demonstrated. The notable feature of the formulation is that to achieve robustness, accurate plant model or any characterization of the uncertainties and disturbances is not needed. Efficacy of the design is illustrated by simulation. Further, performance of the proposed design is compared with some existing controllers to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  6. Evidence of Space Weathering Processes Across the Surface of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Blewett, David T.; Gaffey, Michael; Mittlefehldt, David W.; CristinaDeSanctis, Maria; Reddy, Vishnu; Coradini, Angioletta; Nathues, Andreas; Denevi, Brett W.; Li, Jian-Yang; hide

    2011-01-01

    As NASA s Dawn spacecraft explores the surface of Vesta, it has become abundantly clear that Vesta is like no other planetary body visited to date. Dawn is collecting global data at increasingly higher spatial resolution during its one-year orbital mission. The bulk properties of Vesta have previously been linked to the HED meteorites through remote mineral characterization of its surface from Earth-based spectroscopy. A principal puzzle has been why Vesta exhibits relatively unweathered diagnostic optical features compared to other large asteroids. Is this due to the composition of this proto-planet or the space environment at Vesta? Alteration or weathering of materials in space normally develops as the products of several processes accumulate on the surface or in an evolving particulate regolith, transforming the bedrock into fragmental material with properties that may be measurably different from the original. Data from Dawn reveal that the regolith of Vesta is exceptionally diverse. Regional surface units are observed that have not been erased by weathering with time. Several morphologically-fresh craters have excavated bright, mafic-rich materials and exhibit bright ray systems. Some of the larger craters have surrounding subdued regions (often asymmetric) that are lower in albedo and relatively red-sloped in the visible while exhibiting weaker mafic signatures. Several other prominent craters have rim exposures containing very dark material and/or display a system of prominent dark rays. Most, but not all, dark areas associated with craters exhibit significantly lower spectral contrast, suggesting that either a Vesta lithology with an opaque component has been exposed locally or that the surface has been contaminated by a relatively dark impactor. Similarly, most, but not all, bright areas associated with craters exhibit enhanced mafic signatures compared to surroundings. On a regional scale, the large south polar structure and surrounding terrain exhibit

  7. Environmental influence on the formation of α-FeOOH on the surface of weathering steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie-Serej, S.; Cook, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    A CEMS and XMS study of the surface oxidation of weathering steel, ASTM A242 Type 1, has shown that after exposure times of 5 1/2 years in a marine or industrial environment, the steel has not yet reached a stage at which the surface is fully protecting the substrate from further corrosion. The formation of α-FeOOH, an intermediate stage of protection, occurs mainly in the form of small particles, the properties of which exhibit an appreciable amount of superparamagnetic relaxation. For the steel exposed to a more moist marine environment, α-FeOOH exists only in the form of small particles. However for the steel exposed to a much dryer and corrosive industrial environment, more α-FeOOH is present. The formation of bulk α-FeOOH is more complete. The temperature dependence of the superparamagnetic hyperfine field and also the field distributions indicate that, in a marine environment, the clusters of α-FeOOH are both smaller in size and have a larger distribution of particle size. The XMS results indicate that α-FeOOH is present below a layer of γ-FeOOH and ferrihydrite which are generally accepted to constitute the early oxidation phases observed on steels. (orig.)

  8. A comparison of all-weather land surface temperature products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joao; Trigo, Isabel F.; Ghilain, Nicolas; Goettche, Frank-M.; Ermida, Sofia; Olesen, Folke-S.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise; Arboleda, Alirio

    2017-04-01

    The Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF, http://landsaf.ipma.pt) has been providing land surface temperature (LST) estimates using SEVIRI/MSG on an operational basis since 2006. The LSA-SAF service has since been extended to provide a wide range of satellite-based quantities over land surfaces, such as emissivity, albedo, radiative fluxes, vegetation state, evapotranspiration, and fire-related variables. Being based on infra-red measurements, the SEVIRI/MSG LST product is limited to clear-sky pixels only. Several all-weather LST products have been proposed by the scientific community either based on microwave observations or using Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models to fill the gaps caused by clouds. The goal of this work is to provide a nearly gap-free operational all-weather LST product and compare these approaches. In order to estimate evapotranspiration and turbulent energy fluxes, the LSA-SAF solves the surface energy budget for each SEVIRI pixel, taking into account the physical and physiological processes occurring in vegetation canopies. This task is accomplished with an adapted SVAT model, which adopts some formulations and parameters of the Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land (TESSEL) model operated at the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and using: 1) radiative inputs also derived by LSA-SAF, which includes surface albedo, down-welling fluxes and fire radiative power; 2) a land-surface characterization obtained by combining the ECOCLIMAP database with both LSA-SAF vegetation products and the H(ydrology)-SAF snow mask; 3) meteorological fields from ECMWF forecasts interpolated to SEVIRI pixels, and 4) soil moisture derived by the H-SAF and LST from LSA-SAF. A byproduct of the SVAT model is surface skin temperature, which is needed to close the surface energy balance. The model skin temperature corresponds to the radiative temperature of the interface between soil and atmosphere

  9. Soesterberg, Netherlands. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-13

    r____ 7__ C NE o4 2.6 2±2 ;d___ ___ 6.1 6.7 ENE 301 6.6 . .~___ ___ . E lei i.7 2.1 *7_ 9,g_ (,.s __ CESE 7 _ 2.2 lei .e____ _ _ 4.2 r,. 8 SE 60 i_ .5... MEC OBSOLETE -4- N, ~ - f* f*i7 NNE- UATA PRUCESSING BRANCH ETAC/USAF SURFACE WINDS 3 AIR wEATHER SERVICE/MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND I DIRECTION...73 73 74 8-T 30/ 29 4. 3.9’ 62 62 70 66 23/ 2714.3 46j ~ 46 5-7 -- T 26f 25 2.6 .9, __ 1, _ 27_7_2 4 6 24/ 23 1.6 lei 20~ -20 23 4 2 22/ 211 ___9 7 7

  10. Atmospheric Corrosion Behavior and Mechanism of a Ni-Advanced Weathering Steel in Simulated Tropical Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zeng, Zhongping; Cheng, Xuequn; Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Corrosion behavior of Ni-advanced weathering steel, as well as carbon steel and conventional weathering steel, in a simulated tropical marine atmosphere was studied by field exposure and indoor simulation tests. Meanwhile, morphology and composition of corrosion products formed on the exposed steels were surveyed through scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Results indicated that the additive Ni in weathering steel played an important role during the corrosion process, which took part in the formation of corrosion products, enriched in the inner rust layer and promoted the transformation from loose γ-FeOOH to dense α-FeOOH. As a result, the main aggressive ion, i.e., Cl-, was effectively separated in the outer rust layer which leads to the lowest corrosion rate among these tested steels. Thus, the resistance of Ni-advanced weathering steel to atmospheric corrosion was significantly improved in a simulated tropical marine environment.

  11. Verification of Forecast Weather Surface Variables over Vietnam Using the National Numerical Weather Prediction System

    OpenAIRE

    Du Duc, Tien; Hole, Lars Robert; Tran Anh, Duc; Hoang Duc, Cuong; Nguyen Ba, Thuy

    2016-01-01

    The national numerical weather prediction system of Vietnam is presented and evaluated. The system is based on three main models, namely, the Japanese Global Spectral Model, the US Global Forecast System, and the US Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The global forecast products have been received at 0.25- and 0.5-degree horizontal resolution, respectively, and the WRF model has been run locally with 16 km horizontal resolution at the National Center for Hydro-Meteorological Foreca...

  12. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, P; Van Sebille, E

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics floating on the ocean surface from 2015 to 2025, with the goal to assess the optimal marine microplastic removal locations for two scenarios: removing the most surface microplastic and reducing the ...

  13. Biomimicking micropatterned surfaces and their effect on marine biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Agata M; Parra-Velandia, Fernando J; Quintana, Robert; Xiaoying, Zhu; Lee, Serina S C; Chin-Sing, Lim; Jańczewski, Dominik; Teo, Serena L-M; Vancso, Julius G

    2014-08-05

    When synthetic materials are submerged in marine environments, dissolved matter and marine organisms attach to their surfaces by a process known as marine fouling. This phenomenon may lead to diminished material performance with detrimental consequences. Bioinspired surface patterning and chemical surface modifications present promising approaches to the design of novel functional surfaces that can prevent biofouling phenomena. In this study, we report the synergistic effects of surface patterns, inspired by the marine decapod crab Myomenippe hardwickii in combination with chemical surface modifications toward suppressing marine fouling. M. hardwickii is known to maintain a relatively clean carapace although the species occurs in biofouling communities of tropical shallow subtidal coastal waters. Following the surface analysis of selected specimens, we designed hierarchical surface microtopographies that replicate the critical features observed on the crustacean surface. The micropatterned surfaces were modified with zwitterionic polymer brushes or with layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers to enhance their antifouling and/or fouling-release potential. Chemically modified and unmodified micropatterned surfaces were subjected to extensive fouling tests, including laboratory assays against barnacle settlement and algae adhesion, and field static immersion tests. The results show a statistically significant reduction in settlement on the micropatterned surfaces as well as a synergistic effect when the microtopographies are combined with grafted polymer chains.

  14. Mixture and method for simulating soiling and weathering of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Destaillats, Hugo; Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem

    2018-01-02

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to simulated soiling and weathering of materials. In one aspect, a soiling mixture may include an aqueous suspension of various amounts of salt, soot, dust, and humic acid. In another aspect, a method may include weathering a sample of material in a first exposure of the sample to ultraviolet light, water vapor, and elevated temperatures, depositing a soiling mixture on the sample, and weathering the sample in a second exposure of the sample to ultraviolet light, water vapor, and elevated temperatures.

  15. Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroid Space Weathering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominque, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Schriver, David; hide

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the composition of Mercury's crust is key to comprehending the formation of the planet. The regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered via a set of space weathering processes. These processes are the same set of mechanisms that work to form Mercury's exosphere, and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of an intrinsic planetary magnetic field. The alterations need to be understood in order to determine the initial crustal compositions. The complex interrelationships between Mercury's exospheric processes, the space environment, and surface composition are examined and reviewed. The processes are examined in the context of our understanding of these same processes on the lunar and asteroid regoliths. Keywords: Mercury (planet) Space weathering Surface processes Exosphere Surface composition Space environment 3

  16. Natural weathering effects on the mechanical and surface properties of polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinmazcelik, Tamer [Mechanical Engineering Department, Kocaeli University, Veziroglu Campus, izmit 41040 (Turkey): TUBITAK-MRC, MCTRI, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze (Turkey)]. E-mail: tamersc@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, Natural weathering effects on the mechanical and surface properties of polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) composites were studied. Injection moulded short glass fibre and short glass fibre/calcium carbonate particle filled (hybrid) PPS composites were investigated. These specimens were subjected to natural weathering in izmit, Turkey for 3216 h. Instrumented charpy impact tests were performed on a charpy pendulum type tester. The surfaces of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is demonstrated that particle reinforcement (additional to the random oriented short glass fibre) reduces the impact performance of composite material but the material becomes more resistant to weathering. Percentage decrease in the impact strength after natural weathering of fibre/particle filled PPS composite is smaller compared to short fibre filled PPS composite. On the other hand, surface morphology of CaCO{sub 3} particle reinforced PPS composite is affected less from natural weathering and this material should be considered for outdoor applications.

  17. Weather Radar Adjustment Using Runoff from Urban Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup

    2017-01-01

    Weather radar data used for urban drainage applications are traditionally adjusted to point ground references, e.g., rain gauges. However, the available rain gauge density for the adjustment is often low, which may lead to significant representativeness errors. Yet, in many urban catchments......, rainfall is often measured indirectly through runoff sensors. This paper presents a method for weather radar adjustment on the basis of runoff observations (Z-Q adjustment) as an alternative to the traditional Z-R adjustment on the basis of rain gauges. Data from a new monitoring station in Aalborg......, Denmark, were used to evaluate the flow-based weather radar adjustment method against the traditional rain-gauge adjustment. The evaluation was performed by comparing radar-modeled runoff to observed runoff. The methodology was both tested on an events basis and multiple events combined. The results...

  18. Phototoxic potential of undispersed and dispersed fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils to Gulf of Mexico Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Marzooghi, Solmaz; Di Toro, Dominic M; Stubblefield, William A

    2017-10-01

    Crude oils contain a mixture of hydrocarbons, including phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have the ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. Absorption of UV light by PAHs can substantially increase their toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of the present study was to examine the potential for phototoxicity of fresh and naturally weathered Macondo crude oils alone and in combination with the dispersant Corexit 9500 to mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). Acute toxicity tests were conducted using combinations of natural or artificial sunlight and low-energy water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Studies were also conducted to compare the phototoxicity resulting from natural and artificial sunlight. Fresh Macondo crude oil was more phototoxic than weathered crude oils, both in the presence and in the absence of UV light. Differences in toxicity between fresh and weathered crude oils were likely attributed to lighter-ringed PAHs in fresh crude oils. Phototoxic PAHs were relatively resistant to weathering compared with lighter-ringed PAHs. The addition of Corexit 9500 to crude oil increased toxicity compared with tests with crude oil alone, by increasing phototoxic PAH concentrations in WAFs. Macondo crude oils had the potential to be phototoxic to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms if specific light conditions and PAH concentrations were present during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2640-2650. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Surface characterization of weathered wood-plastic composites produced from modified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Fabiyi; Armando G. McDonald; Nicole M. Stark

    2007-01-01

    The effects of weathering on the surface properties of wood-plastic composites (WPC) were examined. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) based WPCs made from modified wood flour (untreated, extractives free, and holocellulose (delignified) fibers) were subjected to accelerated (xenon-arc) weathering. Colorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to...

  20. Effect of processing method on surface and weathering characteristics of wood-flour/HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana; Craig M. Clemons

    2004-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low maintenance high-durability product. When exposed to accelerated weathering, however, wood-plastic composites may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. Different methods of manufacturing wood-plastic composites lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, In this study, 50...

  1. Inconsistencies in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model of the Marine Boundary Layer Along the Coast of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew M.

    The late spring and summer low-level wind field along the California coast is primarily controlled by the pressure gradient between the Pacific high and the thermal low over the desert southwest. Strong northwesterly winds within the marine boundary layer (MBL) are common and the flow is often described as a two-layer shallow water hydraulic system, capped above by subsidence and bounded laterally by high coastal topography. Hydraulic features such as an expansion fan can occur near major coastal headlands. Numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system were conducted over a two-month period and compared to observations from several buoy stations and aircraft measurements from the Precision Atmospheric Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (PreAMBLE). Model performance of the atmospheric adjustment near the Point Arguello and Point Conception (PAPC) headlands and into the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) is assessed. Substantial inconsistencies are revealed, especially in the SBC. The strength of the synoptic forcing impacts model performance upstream of PAPC. The model maintains stronger winds than observed under weak forcing regimes, inadequately representing periods of wind relaxation. The large-scale forcing has minimal impact on the flow in the SBC, where poor modeling of the MBL characteristics exists throughout the entire period. Similar results are found in the coarser North American Mesoscale (NAM) model. In general, WRF overestimates the wind speed around PAPC and the expansion fan extends too far into the SBC. Previous conceptual models were based on similar flawed model results and limited observations. PreAMBLE measurements reveal a more complex lower atmosphere in the SBC than the simulations can represent. Mischaracterization of surface wind stress in the SBC has implications for forcing ocean models with WRF. Understanding model biases of the vertical profile of temperature and humidity are also critical to several

  2. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides Daymet output data as mosaicked gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces...

  3. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Daymet output data as mosaicked gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including continuous surfaces of day length,...

  4. Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hongyue; Lovell, Charles R

    2016-03-01

    Biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine waters are rapidly colonized by microorganisms. Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to these organisms and support critical ecological and biogeochemical functions in the changing marine environment. Microbial surface association also contributes to deleterious effects such as biofouling, biocorrosion, and the persistence and transmission of harmful or pathogenic microorganisms and their genetic determinants. The processes and mechanisms of colonization as well as key players among the surface-associated microbiota have been studied for several decades. Accumulating evidence indicates that specific cell-surface, cell-cell, and interpopulation interactions shape the composition, structure, spatiotemporal dynamics, and functions of surface-associated microbial communities. Several key microbial processes and mechanisms, including (i) surface, population, and community sensing and signaling, (ii) intraspecies and interspecies communication and interaction, and (iii) the regulatory balance between cooperation and competition, have been identified as critical for the microbial surface association lifestyle. In this review, recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed. Major gaps in our knowledge remain. We pose questions for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features, answers to which would advance our understanding of surface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities at levels from molecular mechanistic details through systems biological integration. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. U. S. Navy Cold Weather Handbook for Surface Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    to 32°F the deck is very slick due to the brine and slush which will form. Under slush conditions, the deck can be treacherous because traction is...weather deck. Ice below this point will tend to be more brittle and easier to remove, due to the set- tlement of brine in seawater. Concentrate on...through some cells which may be completely disharged. This will result in the generation of hydrogen and oxygen gases caused by the electrolysis

  6. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  7. Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroidal Space Weathering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark. R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Schriver, David; Travnicek, Pavel M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Mercury's regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered by a set of space weathering processes. Before we can interpret crustal composition, it is necessary to understand the nature of these surface alterations. The processes that space weather the surface are the same as those that form Mercury's exosphere (micrometeoroid flux and solar wind interactions) and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of a global magnetic field. To comprehend how space weathering acts on Mercury's regolith, an understanding is needed of how contributing processes act as an interactive system. As no direct information (e.g., from returned samples) is available about how the system of space weathering affects Mercury's regolith, we use as a basis for comparison the current understanding of these same processes on lunar and asteroidal regoliths as well as laboratory simulations. These comparisons suggest that Mercury's regolith is overturned more frequently (though the characteristic surface time for a grain is unknown even relative to the lunar case), more than an order of magnitude more melt and vapor per unit time and unit area is produced by impact processes than on the Moon (creating a higher glass content via grain coatings and agglutinates), the degree of surface irradiation is comparable to or greater than that on the Moon, and photon irradiation is up to an order of magnitude greater (creating amorphous grain rims, chemically reducing the upper layers of grains to produce nanometer scale particles of metallic iron, and depleting surface grains in volatile elements and alkali metals). The processes that chemically reduce the surface and produce nanometer-scale particles on Mercury are suggested to be more effective than similar processes on the Moon. Estimated abundances of nanometer-scale particles can account for Mercury's dark surface relative to that of the Moon without requiring macroscopic grains of opaque minerals. The presence of

  8. Sea surface temperature contributes to marine crocodylomorph evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremy E; Amiot, Romain; Lécuyer, Christophe; Benton, Michael J

    2014-08-18

    During the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, four distinct crocodylomorph lineages colonized the marine environment. They were conspicuously absent from high latitudes, which in the Mesozoic were occupied by warm-blooded ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Despite a relatively well-constrained stratigraphic distribution, the varying diversities of marine crocodylomorphs are poorly understood, because their extinctions neither coincided with any major biological crises nor with the advent of potential competitors. Here we test the potential link between their evolutionary history in terms of taxic diversity and two abiotic factors, sea level variations and sea surface temperatures (SST). Excluding Metriorhynchoidea, which may have had a peculiar ecology, significant correlations obtained between generic diversity and estimated Tethyan SST suggest that water temperature was a driver of marine crocodylomorph diversity. Being most probably ectothermic reptiles, these lineages colonized the marine realm and diversified during warm periods, then declined or became extinct during cold intervals.

  9. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherman, Peter; Van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics

  10. Estimation of sea surface temperature (SST) using marine seismic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sinha, S.K.; Dewangan, P.; Sain, K.

    diurnal variation in temperature. Keywords: Marine Seismic; Direct Arrivals; Soundspeed; Sea Surface Temperature; Diurnal variations. 2 INTRODUCTION Properties of sound waves in oceans are governed by temperature, salinity, water composition... understand ocean dynamics, researchers in the field of ocean acoustics invert for temperature and salinity from observed sound waves, whereas oceanographers measure governing parameters directly by deploying devices such as Expendable Bathythermographs...

  11. On the dual nature of lichen-induced rock surface weathering in contrasting micro-environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Gonçalves, João; Oliveira, Cláudia; Favero-Longo, Sergio E; Paz-Bermúdez, Graciela; Almeida, Rubim; Prieto, Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Contradictory evidence from biogeomorphological studies has increased the debate on the extent of lichen contribution to differential rock surface weathering in both natural and cultural settings. This study, undertaken in Côa Valley Archaeological Park, aimed at evaluating the effect of rock surface orientation on the weathering ability of dominant lichens. Hyphal penetration and oxalate formation at the lichen-rock interface were evaluated as proxies of physical and chemical weathering, respectively. A new protocol of pixel-based supervised image classification for the analysis of periodic acid-Schiff stained cross-sections of colonized schist revealed that hyphal spread of individual species was not influenced by surface orientation. However, hyphal spread was significantly higher in species dominant on northwest facing surfaces. An apparently opposite effect was noticed in terms of calcium oxalate accumulation at the lichen-rock interface; it was detected by Raman spectroscopy and complementary X-ray microdiffraction on southeast facing surfaces only. These results suggest that lichen-induced physical weathering may be most severe on northwest facing surfaces by means of an indirect effect of surface orientation on species abundance, and thus dependent on the species, whereas lichen-induced chemical weathering is apparently higher on southeast facing surfaces and dependent on micro-environmental conditions, giving only weak support to the hypothesis that lichens are responsible for the currently observed pattern of rock-art distribution in Côa Valley. Assumptions about the drivers of open-air rock-art distribution patterns elsewhere should also consider the micro-environmental controls of lichen-induced weathering, to avoid biased measures of lichen contribution to rock-art deterioration. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Feasibility of using a seismic surface wave method to study seasonal and weather effects on shallow surface soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this paper is to study the feasibility of using a seismic surface wave method to investigate seasonal and weather effects on shallow surface soils. In the study, temporal variations of subsurface soil properties were measured and monitored by using a combination of a new seismic su...

  13. Marine drag reduction of shark skin inspired riblet surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Y.F.; Yuan, C.Q.; Bai, X.Q.

    2017-01-01

    Shark skin inspired riblet surfaces have been known to have drag reduction effect for the over past 40 years. It first drew the attention from the aircraft industry. With the property of low drag and self-cleaning (antifouling), shark skin inspired riblet surfaces can also be used on navigation objects. In this paper, different marine drag reduction technologies are discussed, and a review of riblet performance studies is also given. Experimental parameters include riblet geometry, continuous...

  14. Weathering behavior of mine tailings and waste rock: A surface investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domvile, S.J.; Li, M.G.; Sollner, D.D.; Nesbitt, W.

    1994-01-01

    A study focusing on the ion movement in the near surface of sulfide minerals was conducted to better understand the weathering mechanisms of mine waste materials. Tailings and waste rock samples from Canadian mines were subjected to controlled weathering studies using various chemical leachants. Leachates were analyzed for various parameters, and petrographic analyses were conducted on the solid residues. Laboratory oxidation studies of pure pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite were carried out using the surface techniques X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The data derived from the weathering study and the surface techniques were correlated to determine mechanisms of oxidation. Several results were observed during the project: ferric iron constitutes one third of the iron present in pyrrhotite, sulfide oxidation is initiated when rock is blasted, sulfide sulfur is oxidized to di- and poly-sulfides prior to forming sulfates, and significantly more sulfate is produced upon exposure to aqueous environments than to air alone

  15. When time affects space: Dispersal ability and extreme weather events determine metacommunity organization in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, Guilherme N; Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Checon, Helio H; Siegle, Eduardo; Coleman, Ross A; Amaral, A Cecília Z

    2018-05-01

    Community ecology has traditionally assumed that the distribution of species is mainly influenced by environmental processes. There is, however, growing evidence that environmental (habitat characteristics and biotic interactions) and spatial processes (factors that affect a local assemblage regardless of environmental conditions - typically related to dispersal and movement of species) interactively shape biological assemblages. A metacommunity, which is a set of local assemblages connected by dispersal of individuals, is spatial in nature and can be used as a straightforward approach for investigating the interactive and independent effects of both environmental and spatial processes. Here, we examined (i) how environmental and spatial processes affect the metacommunity organization of marine macroinvertebrates inhabiting the intertidal sediments of a biodiverse coastal ecosystem; (ii) whether the influence of these processes is constant through time or is affected by extreme weather events (storms); and (iii) whether the relative importance of these processes depends on the dispersal abilities of organisms. We found that macrobenthic assemblages are influenced by each of environmental and spatial variables; however, spatial processes exerted a stronger role. We also found that this influence changes through time and is modified by storms. Moreover, we observed that the influence of environmental and spatial processes varies according to the dispersal capabilities of organisms. More effective dispersers (i.e., species with planktonic larvae) are more affected by spatial processes whereas environmental variables had a stronger effect on weaker dispersers (i.e. species with low motility in larval and adult stages). These findings highlight that accounting for spatial processes and differences in species life histories is essential to improve our understanding of species distribution and coexistence patterns in intertidal soft-sediments. Furthermore, it shows that

  16. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, Peter; Van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics floating on the ocean surface from 2015 to 2025, with the goal to assess the optimal marine microplastic removal locations for two scenarios: removing the most surface microplastic and reducing the impact on ecosystems, using plankton growth as a proxy. The simulations show that the optimal removal locations are primarily located off the coast of China and in the Indonesian Archipelago for both scenarios. Our estimates show that 31% of the modeled microplastic mass can be removed by 2025 using 29 plastic collectors operating at a 45% capture efficiency from these locations, compared to only 17% when the 29 plastic collectors are moored in the North Pacific garbage patch, between Hawaii and California. The overlap of ocean surface microplastics and phytoplankton growth can be reduced by 46% at our proposed locations, while sinks in the North Pacific can only reduce the overlap by 14%. These results are an indication that oceanic plastic removal might be more effective in removing a greater microplastic mass and in reducing potential harm to marine life when closer to shore than inside the plastic accumulation zones in the centers of the gyres. (letter)

  17. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Peter; van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics floating on the ocean surface from 2015 to 2025, with the goal to assess the optimal marine microplastic removal locations for two scenarios: removing the most surface microplastic and reducing the impact on ecosystems, using plankton growth as a proxy. The simulations show that the optimal removal locations are primarily located off the coast of China and in the Indonesian Archipelago for both scenarios. Our estimates show that 31% of the modeled microplastic mass can be removed by 2025 using 29 plastic collectors operating at a 45% capture efficiency from these locations, compared to only 17% when the 29 plastic collectors are moored in the North Pacific garbage patch, between Hawaii and California. The overlap of ocean surface microplastics and phytoplankton growth can be reduced by 46% at our proposed locations, while sinks in the North Pacific can only reduce the overlap by 14%. These results are an indication that oceanic plastic removal might be more effective in removing a greater microplastic mass and in reducing potential harm to marine life when closer to shore than inside the plastic accumulation zones in the centers of the gyres.

  18. The sensitivity of the surface oil signature to subsurface dispersant injection and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daae, Ragnhild L; Skancke, Jørgen; Brandvik, Per Johan; Faksness, Liv-Guri

    2018-02-01

    Subsea blowouts have the potential to spread oil across large geographical areas, and subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) is a response option targeted at reducing the impact of a blowout, especially reducing persistent surface oil slicks. Modified Weber scaling was used to predict oil droplet sizes with the OSCAR oil spill model, and to evaluate the surface oil volume and area when using SSDI under different conditions. Generally, SSDI reduces the amount of oil on the surface, and creates wider and thinner surface oil slicks. It was found that the reduction of surface oil area and volume with SSDI was enhanced for higher wind speeds. Overall, given the effect of SSDI on oil volume and weathering, it may be suggested that tar ball formation, requiring thick and weathered oil, could possibly be reduced when SSDI is used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictable pollution: an assessment of weather balloons and associated impacts on the marine environment--an example for the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Owen R; Hamann, Mark; Smith, Walter; Taylor, Heidi

    2014-02-15

    Efforts to curb pollution in the marine environment are covered by national and international legislation, yet weather balloons are released into the environment with no salvage agenda. Here, we assess impacts associated with weather balloons in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). We use modeling to assess the probability of ocean endpoints for released weather balloons and predict pathways post-release. In addition, we use 21 months of data from beach cleanup events to validate our results and assess the abundance and frequency of weather balloon fragments in the GBRWHA. We found between 65% and 70% of balloons land in the ocean and ocean currents largely determine final endpoints. Beach cleanup data revealed 2460 weather balloon fragments were recovered from 24 sites within the GBRWHA. This is the first attempt to quantify this problem and these data will add support to a much-needed mitigation strategy for weather balloon waste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global and regional variability in marine surface temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Laepple, T.; Huybers, P.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature variability simulated by climate models is generally consistent with that observed in instrumental records at the scale of global averages, but further insight can also be obtained from regional analysis of the marine temperature record. A protocol is developed for comparing model simulations to observations that account for observational noise and missing data. General consistency between Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model simulations and regional sea surface...

  1. Energy balance of a glacier surface: analysis of Automatic Weather Station data from the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Klok, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    We describe and analyze a complete 1-yr data set from an automatic weather station (AWS) located on the snout of the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland. The AWS stands freely on the glacier surface and measures pressure, windspeed, wind direction, air temperature and humidity, incoming and

  2. COLORIMETRY AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF THREE AMAZON WOODS SUBMITTED TO NATURAL WEATHERING

    OpenAIRE

    Kerber, Patrick Rogério; Stangerlin, Diego Martins; Pariz, Elisangela; de Melo, Rafael Rodolfo; de Souza, Adilson Pacheco; Calegari, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    COLORIMETRIA E RUGOSIDADE SUPERFICIAL DE TRÊS MADEIRAS AMAZÔNICAS SUBMETIDAS AO INTEMPERISMO NATURAL This study aimed to evaluate the color and surface roughness of the wood of three  Amazonian species  submitted to natural weathering. For this purpose, samples of Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J. F. Macbr., Erisma uncinatum Warm and Parkia pendula (Willd.) Benth. ex Walp., with dimensions of 1 x 2 x 30 cm (thickness, width and length, respectively), were exposed to natural weathering without cont...

  3. GLUE Based Marine X-Band Weather Radar Data Calibration and Uncertainty Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Beven, Keith; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2015-01-01

    The Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology (GLUE) is investigated for radar rainfall calibration and uncertainty assessment. The method is used to calibrate radar data collected by a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR). In contrast to other LAWR data calibrations, the method combines...

  4. Weathering and toxicity of marine sediments contaminated with oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Sinke, A.; Brils, J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many sediments are contaminated with mixtures of oil residues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but little is known about the toxicity of such mixtures to sediment-dwelling organisms and the change in toxicity on weathering. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a

  5. Marine drag reduction of shark skin inspired riblet surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.F. Fu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Shark skin inspired riblet surfaces have been known to have drag reduction effect for the over past 40 years. It first drew the attention from the aircraft industry. With the property of low drag and self-cleaning (antifouling, shark skin inspired riblet surfaces can also be used on navigation objects. In this paper, different marine drag reduction technologies are discussed, and a review of riblet performance studies is also given. Experimental parameters include riblet geometry, continuous and segmented configurations, fluid velocity (laminar and turbulent flow, fluid viscosity (water, oil and gas, and wettability are analyzed. However, force is obtained by area-weighted integral of shear stress distributions. So area of riblet surfaces is a crucial factor which has not been considered in many previous studies. An experiment is given to discuss the impact of area. This paper aims not only to contribute to a better understanding of marine drag reduction, but also to offer new perspectives to improve the current evaluation criteria of riblet drag reduction.

  6. Weather extremes and the Romans - A marine palynological perspective on Italian temperature and precipitation between 200 BC and 500 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Karin; Clotten, Caroline; Chen, Liang

    2015-04-01

    Sediments of a tephra-dated marine sediment core located at the distal part of the Po-river discharge plume (southern Italy) have been studied with a three annual resolution. Based on the variability in the dinoflagellate cyst content detailed reconstructions have been established of variability in precipitation related river discharge rates and local air temperature. Furthermore about the variability in distort water quality has been reconstructed. We show that both precipitation and temperature signals vary in tune with cyclic changes in solar insolation. On top of these cyclic changes, short term extremes in temperature and precipitation can be observed that can be interpreted to reflect periods of local weather extremes. Comparison of our reconstructions with historical information suggest that times of high temperatures and maximal precipitation corresponds to the period of maximal expansion of the Roman Empire. We have strong indications that at this time discharge waters might have contained higher nutrient concentrations compared to previous and later time intervals suggesting anthropogenic influence of the water quality. First pilot-results suggest that the decrease in temperature reconstructed just after the "Roman Optimum" corresponds to an increase in numbers of armored conflicts between the Roman and German cultures. Furthermore we observe a resemblance in timing of short-term intervals with cold weather spells during the early so called "Dark-Age-Period" to correspond to epidemic/pandemic events in Europe.

  7. Effects of copper-plasma deposition on weathering properties of wood surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón-Garrido, P.; Mainusch, N.; Militz, H.; Viöl, W.; Mai, C.

    2016-03-01

    Thin layers of copper micro-particles were deposited on the surfaces of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) micro-veneers using atmospheric pressure plasma to improve the resistance of the surfaces to weathering. Three different loadings of copper were established. Micro-veneers were exposed to artificial weathering in a QUV weathering tester for 0, 24, 48, 96 and 144 h following the standard EN 927-6 [1]. Mass losses after each exposure showed significant differences between copper coated and untreated micro-veneers. Tensile strength was assessed at zero span (z-strength) and finite span (f-strength) under dry conditions (20 °C, 65% RH). During 48 h, micro-veneers lost their z-strength progressively. In contrast, copper coating at highest loading imparts a photo-protective effect to wood micro-veneers during 144 h exhibiting z-strength retention of 95%. F-strength losses were similar in all copper treated and untreated micro-veneers up to 96 h. However, after 144 h, copper coated micro-veneers at highest loading showed significantly greater strength retention of 56%, while untreated micro-veneers exhibited only 38%. Infrared spectroscopy suggested that copper coating does not stabilize lignin. Inductively Coupled Plasma revealed that micro-veneers coated with the highest loading exhibited the lowest percentage of copper loss. Blue stain resistance of copper coated Scots pine following the guidelines of EN 152 [2] was performed. Additional test with different position of the coated surface was also assessed. Copper coating reduced fungal growth when coated surface is exposed in contact with vermiculite. Spores of Aureobasidium pullulans were not able to germinate on the copper coated surface positioned uppermost.

  8. Extreme weather impacts on tropical mangrove forests in the Eastern Brazil Marine Ecoregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Gomes, Luiz Eduardo de Oliveira; Bernardino, Angelo Fraga

    2018-07-01

    Extreme weather events are likely to become more frequent in the 21st century bringing significant impacts to coastal ecosystems. However, the capacity to detect and measure those impacts are still limited, with effects largely unstudied. In June 2016, a hailstorm with wind gusts of over 100 km·h -1 caused an unprecedented mangrove dieback on Eastern Brazil. To quantify the scale of impact and short-term recovery of mangroves (15-mo), we used satellite imagery and field sampling to evaluate changes in forest structure in control and impacted areas after the hailstorm. Satellite imagery revealed mangrove dieback in over 500 ha, corresponding to 29.3% of the total forest area suddenly impacted after the hailstorm. Fifteen months after the hailstorm, some impacted areas show an initial recovery, while others continued to degrade. The El Niño years of 2014-2016 created mild drought conditions in Eastern Brazil. As observed in wetlands of semi-arid regions during the same period, mangrove recovery may have been impaired by continued physiological stress and climate change effects. Economic losses in the study site from typical mangrove ecosystem services including food provision, climate regulation, raw materials and nurseries are estimated to at least US$ 792,624 yr -1 . This is the first evidence of an extreme weather impact on mangroves in Brazil that typically provide unique ecological and economic subsistence to coastal populations. Our results reveal that there is a pressing need for long-term monitoring and climate change adaptation actions for coastal wetlands in Brazil, and to provide broad estimates of ecosystem values associated with these ecosystems given many areas are already experiencing chronic stress from local impacts, drought and high temperatures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO 2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ∼30%. (letter)

  10. Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by

  11. Marinobacter sp. from marine sediments produce highly stable surface-active agents for combatting marine oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Totaro, Grazia; Fava, Fabio

    2017-11-02

    The application of chemical dispersants as a response to marine oil spills is raising concerns related to their potential toxicity also towards microbes involved in oil biodegradation. Hence, oil spills occurring under marine environments necessitate the application of biodispersants that are highly active, stable and effective under marine environment context. Biosurfactants from marine bacteria could be good candidates for the development of biodispersant formulations effective in marine environment. This study aimed at establishing a collection of marine bacteria able to produce surface-active compounds and evaluating the activity and stability of the produced compounds under conditions mimicking those found under marine environment context. A total of 43 different isolates were obtained from harbor sediments. Twenty-six of them produced mainly bioemulsifiers when glucose was used as carbon source and 16 were biosurfactant/bioemulsifiers producers after growth in the presence of soybean oil. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene classified most isolates into the genus Marinobacter. The produced emulsions were shown to be stable up to 30 months monitoring period, in the presence of 300 g/l NaCl, at 4 °C and after high temperature treatment (120 °C for 20 min). The partially purified compounds obtained after growth on soybean oil-based media exhibited low toxicity towards V. fischeri and high capability to disperse crude oil on synthetic marine water. To the best of our knowledge, stability characterization of bioemulsifiers/biosurfactants from the non-pathogenic marine bacterium Marinobacter has not been previously reported. The produced compounds were shown to have potential for different applications including the environmental sector. Indeed, their high stability in the presence of high salt concentration and low temperature, conditions characterizing the marine environment, the capability to disperse crude oil and the low ecotoxicity makes them interesting for

  12. Weatherability Evaluation of Nanocomposite Polymeric Treatments for Surface Protection of Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfato, Paola; Letizia Fariello, Maria; Di Maio, Luciano; Incarnato, Loredana

    2010-06-01

    In this work the protective efficacy and stability against UV weathering of polymeric nanocomposites for concrete (CLS) surface protection have been evaluated. In particular, nanocomposite hybrids were prepared dispersing a commercial organomodified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B) in two different polymeric matrices, one based on fluoroelastomers (Fluoline CP), the other on silane and siloxane (Antipluviol S). The obtained systems were characterized by several techniques (SAXD, DSC, TGA, FT-IR, contact angle measurements, colorimetry), before and after accelerated aging due to UV exposure, in order to evaluate the effect of the nanoscale dispersion of the organoclay on the properties and the UV stability of the treatments.

  13. Weatherability Evaluation of Nanocomposite Polymeric Treatments for Surface Protection of Construction Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarfato, Paola; Letizia Fariello, Maria; Di Maio, Luciano; Incarnato, Loredana

    2010-01-01

    In this work the protective efficacy and stability against UV weathering of polymeric nanocomposites for concrete (CLS) surface protection have been evaluated. In particular, nanocomposite hybrids were prepared dispersing a commercial organomodified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B) in two different polymeric matrices, one based on fluoroelastomers (Fluoline CP), the other on silane and siloxane (Antipluviol S). The obtained systems were characterized by several techniques (SAXD, DSC, TGA, FT-IR, contact angle measurements, colorimetry), before and after accelerated aging due to UV exposure, in order to evaluate the effect of the nanoscale dispersion of the organoclay on the properties and the UV stability of the treatments.

  14. Coordination chemistry of weathering: Kinetics of the surface-controlled dissolution of oxide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumm, Werner; Wollast, Roland

    1990-02-01

    Chemical weathering processes, essentially caused by the interaction of water and the atmosphere with the Earth's crust, transform primary minerals into solutes and clays and, eventually, into sedimentary rocks; these processes participate in controlling the global hydrogeochemical cycles of many elements. Many mineral dissolution processes are controlled by a chemical mechanism at the solid-water interface. The reaction-controlling steps can be interpreted in terms of a surface coordination model. The tendency of a mineral to dissolve is influenced by the interaction of solutes—H+, OH-, ligands, and metal ions—with its surface. The surface reactivity is shown to depend on the surface species and their structural identity; specifically, the dependence of dissolution rates on pH and on dissolved ligand concentrations can be explained in terms of surface protonation (and deprotonation) and of ligand surface complexes. A general rate law for the dissolution of minerals is derived by considering, in addition to the surface coordination chemistry, established models of lattice statistics and activated complex theory.

  15. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Incardona

    Full Text Available Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network.

  16. Antibacterial activity of marine culturable bacteria collected from a global sampling of ocean surface waters and surface swabs of marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to isolate marine culturable bacteria with antibacterial activity and hence a potential biotechnological use. Seawater samples (244) and 309 swab samples from biotic or abiotic surfaces were collected on a global Danish marine research expedition (Galathea 3......). Total cell counts at the seawater surface were 5 × 105 to 106 cells/ml, of which 0.1–0.2% were culturable on dilute marine agar (20°C). Three percent of the colonies cultured from seawater inhibited Vibrio anguillarum, whereas a significantly higher proportion (13%) of colonies from inert or biotic...... surfaces was inhibitory. It was not possible to relate a specific kind of eukaryotic surface or a specific geographic location to a general high occurrence of antagonistic bacteria. Five hundred and nineteen strains representing all samples and geographic locations were identified on the basis of partial...

  17. Surface Temperature Variation Prediction Model Using Real-Time Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M.; Vant-Hull, B.; Nazari, R.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Combination of climate change and urbanization are heating up cities and putting the lives of millions of people in danger. More than half of the world's total population resides in cities and urban centers. Cities are experiencing urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Hotter days are associated with serious health impacts, heart attaches and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Densely populated cities like Manhattan, New York can be affected by UHI impact much more than less populated cities. Even though many studies have been focused on the impact of UHI and temperature changes between urban and rural air temperature, not many look at the temperature variations within a city. These studies mostly use remote sensing data or typical measurements collected by local meteorological station networks. Local meteorological measurements only have local coverage and cannot be used to study the impact of UHI in a city and remote sensing data such as MODIS, LANDSAT and ASTER have with very low resolution which cannot be used for the purpose of this study. Therefore, predicting surface temperature in urban cities using weather data can be useful.Three months of Field campaign in Manhattan were used to measure spatial and temporal temperature variations within an urban setting by placing 10 fixed sensors deployed to measure temperature, relative humidity and sunlight. Fixed instrument shelters containing relative humidity, temperature and illumination sensors were mounted on lampposts in ten different locations in Manhattan (Vant-Hull et al, 2014). The shelters were fixed 3-4 meters above the ground for the period of three months from June 23 to September 20th of 2013 making measurements with the interval of 3 minutes. These high resolution temperature measurements and three months of weather data were used to predict temperature variability from weather forecasts. This study shows that the amplitude of spatial and temporal variation in temperature for each day can be predicted

  18. Marine Biofouling of Surfaces: Morphology, and Nanomechanics of Barnacle Cyprid Adhesion Proteins by AFM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phang, In Yee

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of biointerfaces in contact with seawater is crucially important in tackling the problems of marine biofouling. Such biointerfaces involve the bioadhesives used by marine organisms to attach temporary or permanently to the surfaces immersed in water. The aim of this Thesis is to

  19. Quantifying widespread aqueous surface weathering on Mars: The plateaus south of Coprates Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizeau, D.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Carter, J.; Flahaut, J.; Thollot, P.; Lozac'h, L.; Millot, C.

    2018-03-01

    Pedogenesis has been previously proposed on the plateaus around Coprates Chasma, Valles Marineris to explain the presence of widespread clay sequences with Al-clays and possible hydrated silica over Fe/Mg-clays on the surface of the plateaus (Le Deit et al., 2012; Carter et al., 2015). We use previous observations together with new MRO targeted observations and DEMs to constrain the extent and thickness of the plateau clay unit: the Al-clay unit is less than 3 m thick, likely ∼1 m, while the Fe/Mg-clays underneath are few tens of meters thick. We also refine the age of alteration by retrieving crater retention ages of the altered plateau and of later deposits: the observed clay sequence was created by surface pedogenesis between model ages of 4.1 Ga and 3.75 Ga. Using a leaching model from Zolotov and Mironenko (2016), we estimate the quantity of atmospheric precipitations needed to create such a clay sequence, that strongly depends on the chemistry of the precipitating fluid. A few hundreds of meters of cumulated precipitations of highly acidic fluids could explain the observed clay sequence, consistent with estimates based on late Noachian valley erosion for example (Rosenberg and Head, 2015). We show finally that the maximum quantity of sulfates potentially formed during this surface weathering event can only contribute minimally to the volume of sulfates deposited in Valles Marineris.

  20. NODC Standard Product: Atlas of surface marine data 1994 (9 disc set) (NCEI Accession 0101474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A set of 9 CD-ROMs were produced to accompany the analog publication Atlas of Surface Marine Data, 1994. Each CD-ROM contains monthly mean objectively analyzed...

  1. Acute effects of non-weathered and weathered crude oil and dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident on the development of marine bivalve and echinoderm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Emily S; Langdon, Chris J; Pargee, Suzanne M; Blunt, Susanna M; Gage, Susan J; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-08-01

    Acute toxicity tests (48-96-h duration) were conducted with larvae of 2 echinoderm species (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Dendraster excentricus) and 4 bivalve mollusk species (Crassostrea virginica, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Mercenaria mercenaria). Developing larvae were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) and chemically enhanced water-accommodated fractions (CEWAFs) of fresh and weathered oils collected from the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon incident. The WAFs (oils alone), CEWAFs (oils plus Corexit 9500A dispersant), and WAFs of Corexit alone were prepared using low-energy mixing. The WAFs of weathered oils had no effect on survival and development of echinoderm and bivalve larvae, whereas WAFs of fresh oils showed adverse effects on larval development. Similar toxicities were observed for weathered oil CEWAFs and WAFs prepared with Corexit alone for oyster (C. gigas and C. virginica) larvae, which were the most sensitive of the tested invertebrate species to Corexit. Mean 10% effective concentration values for total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether (a marker for Corexit) in the present study were higher than all concentrations reported in nearshore field samples collected during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident. The results suggest that water-soluble fractions of weathered oils and Corexit dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident had limited, if any, acute impacts on nearshore larvae of eastern oysters and clams, as well as other organisms with similar sensitivities to those of test species in the present study; however, exposure to sediments and long-term effects were not evaluated. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2016-2028. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. X-ray diffraction analysis of rust layer on a weathering steel bridge with surface treatment using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masato; Hara, Shuichi; Kamimura, Takayuki; Miyuki, Hideaki; Sato, Masugu

    2007-01-01

    We have examined the structure of rust layer formed on a weathering steel bridge, to which the surface treatment, employing the effect of Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 sophisticatedly designed to form the protective goethite (α-FeOOH) rust layer which contains a certain amount of Cr, Cr-goethite, was applied in 1996, using X-ray diffraction at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. It was shown that the formation of α-FeOOH was promoted and/or crystal growth of γ-FeOOH was suppressed by the surface treatment. The increase in the protective ability index (PAI) of the rust layer indicates that the protective goethite was predominantly formed under the effect of the surface treatment. In conclusion, it can be said that the surface treatment worked well to promote the formation of the protective goethite rust layer on the weathering steel bridge during the 10-year exposure. (author)

  3. Ensemble Data Assimilation to Characterize Surface-Layer Errors In Numerical Weather Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Joshua; Angevine, Wayne

    2013-04-01

    Experiments with the single-column implementation of the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model provide a basis for deducing land-atmosphere coupling errors in the model. Coupling occurs both through heat and moisture fluxes through the land-atmosphere interface and roughness sub-layer, and turbulent heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes through the atmospheric surface layer. This work primarily addresses the turbulent fluxes, which are parameterized following Monin-Obukhov similarity theory applied to the atmospheric surface layer. By combining ensemble data assimilation and parameter estimation, the model error can be characterized. Ensemble data assimilation of 2-m temperature and water vapor mixing ratio, and 10-m wind components, forces the model to follow observations during a month-long simulation for a column over the well-instrumented ARM Central Facility near Lamont, OK. One-hour errors in predicted observations are systematically small but non-zero, and the systematic errors measure bias as a function of local time of day. Analysis increments for state elements nearby (15-m AGL) can be too small or have the wrong sign, indicating systematically biased covariances and model error. Experiments using the ensemble filter to objectively estimate a parameter controlling the thermal land-atmosphere coupling show that the parameter adapts to offset the model errors, but that the errors cannot be eliminated. Results suggest either structural error or further parametric error that may be difficult to estimate. Experiments omitting atypical observations such as soil and flux measurements lead to qualitatively similar deductions, showing potential for assimilating common in-situ observations as an inexpensive framework for deducing and isolating model errors. We finish by presenting recent results from a deeper examination of the second-moment ensemble statistics, which demonstrate the effect of assimilation on the coupling through the stability function in

  4. Marine Reference Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various publications and other instructions for taking marine weather observations. includes Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 1, Weather Bureau Circular M, and...

  5. Robust formation control of marine surface craft using Lagrange multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a formation modelling scheme based on a set of inter-body constraint functions and Lagrangian multipliers. Formation control for a °eet of marine craft is achieved by stabilizing the auxiliary constraints such that the desired formation con¯guration appears. In the proposed...

  6. Formation control of surface marine craft using Lagrange multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    We propose a method for constructing control laws for formation control of marine craft using classical tools from analytical mechanics. The control law is based on applying inter-vessel constraint functions which again impose forces on the individual vessels that maintain the given constraints o...

  7. The Themis-Beagle families: Investigation of space-weathering processes on primitive surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Perna, D.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.

    2014-07-01

    In the past 20 years, enormous progress has been reached in the study of space-weathering (SW) effects on silicates and silicate asteroids. The so-called ordinary chondrite paradox, that is, lack of asteroids similar to the ordinary chondrites, which represent 80 % of meteorite falls, has been solved. These meteorites are now clearly related to S-type asteroids, as proved also by the direct measurements of the NEAR and HAYABUSA missions on the near-Earth asteroids Eros and Itokawa. Spectral differences between S-type asteroids and ordinary chondrites are caused by space-weathering effects, which produce a darkening in the albedo, a reddening of the spectra, and diminish the silicate absorption bands on the asteroids surfaces, exposed to cosmic radiation and solar wind. On the other hand, our understanding of space-weathering effects on primitive asteroids is still poor. Only few laboratory experiments have been devoted to the investigation of SW effects on dark carbonaceous chondrites and on complex organic materials. Irradiation of transparent organic materials produces firstly redder and darker materials that upon further processing turn flatter-bluish and darker (Kanuchova et al. 2012; Moroz et al. 2004). The Themis family is a natural laboratory to study primitive asteroids and space-weathering effects. The Themis family is located between 3.05 and 3.24 au, beyond the snow line, and it is composed of primitive asteroids. Themis is one of the most statistically reliable families in the asteroid belt. First discovered by Hirayama (1918), it has been identified as a family in all subsequent works, and it has 550 members as determined by Zappalà et al. (1995) and more than 4000 as determined by Nesvorny et al. (2010). The family formed probably about 2.3 Gyr ago as a result of a large-scale catastrophic disruption event of a parent asteroid 400 km in diameter colliding with a 190-km projectile (Marzari et al. 1995). Several Themis family members show absorption

  8. Friction surfacing for enhanced surface protection of marine engineering components: erosion-corrosion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, S.; Balasubramanian, V.; Balakrishnan, M.

    2016-08-01

    Good mechanical properties combined with outstanding corrosion-resistance properties of cast nickel-aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy lead to be a specific material for many marine applications, including ship propellers. However, the erosion-corrosion resistance of cast-NAB alloy is not as good as wrought NAB alloy. Hence, in this investigation, an attempt has been made to improve the erosion-corrosion resistance of cast NAB alloy by depositing wrought (extruded) NAB alloy applying the friction surfacing (FS) technique. Erosion-corrosion tests were carried out in slurries composed of sand particles of 3.5% NaCl solution. Silica sand having a nominal size range of 250-355 μm is used as an erodent. Specimens were tested at 30° and 90° impingement angles. It is observed that the erosion and erosion-corrosion resistance of friction surfaced NAB alloy exhibited an improvement as compared to cast NAB alloy. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the erosion tracks developed on the cast NAB alloy were wider and deeper than those formed on the friction surfaced extruded NAB alloy.

  9. Effect of surface preparation on service life of top-coats applied to weathered primer paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos

    2008-01-01

    Paint companies usually recommend that topcoats be applied to primer paint within two weeks. Unfortunately, this is not always possible. For example, onset of winter weather shortly after applying primer may delay topcoat application until spring. Scuff sanding or repriming are often recommended remedial methods for preparing a weathered primer for topcoats, but there...

  10. Nannofossil and sequence chronostratigraphy of a marine flooding surface in the Turonian of Trinidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.C. [Exxon Exploration Company, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A multi-well regional study in the Southern basin, Trinidad, reveals a very pronounced marine flooding surface in Turonian- age sediments. This surface is correlatable with global Turonian marine transgressions and genetically ties with the best hydrocarbon source rocks known in Trinidad. The Turonian marine flooding surface yields abundant nannoplankton. Most notable is Lithastrinus moratus Stover, a short-ranging marker of the Lithastrinus evolutionary series. Two morphotypes of Lithastrinus moratus have been found. The more delicate eight-rayed form evolves from Lithastrinus floralls in early Turonian time. Based on observations in Ste. Croix-1, Rocky Palace-1, Rochard-1, Marac-1, Moniga East-15, Iguana River-1, Lizard Spring-I and Antilles Brighton-102, it occurs more frequently in the lower Turonian, but is rare in Trinidad. It has a more robust seven-rayed descendant that appears to be restricted to a narrow interval associated with peak Turonian marine transgression and usually dominates the nannofossil assemblage in the condensed section. The highest stratigraphic occurrence of this form coincides with the lowest occurrence of Marthastentes furcatus based on core sample studies. The age of the marine flooding surface is therefore well constrained to be in zone CC12 and is considered to be correlative with the 89 million year marine flooding surface. The marine flooding surface appears intercontinentally correlatable as it has also been identified in the Arcadia Shale of the Eagle Ford Group in Texas. Because of its wide areal distribution and ease of paleontological recognition, this surface is ideal for regional hydrocarbon source rock mapping, stratal correlation and structural control.

  11. Using of standard marine radar for determination of a water surface and an atmosphere near-surface layer parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatov, Nikolay A.; Bakhanov, Victor V.; Ermoshkin, Aleksei V.; Kazakov, Vasily I.; Kemarskaya, Olga N.; Titov, Victor I.; Troitskaya, Yulia I.

    2014-10-01

    At present time radar methods of the seas and oceans diagnostics are actively developing. Using of the radar stations based on satellites and planes allows to receive information on a sea surface and a atmosphere near-surface layer with coverage of big water surface areas independently of day time. The developed methods of satellite radio images processing can be applied to marine radar stations. In Institute of Applied Physics RAS works on sea surface diagnostics systems development on the basis of standard marine radar are actively conducted. Despite smaller coverage of the territory in comparison with satellite data, marine radar have possibility to record spatially temporary radar images and to receive information on a surrounding situation quickly. This work deals with results of the researches which were conducted within the international expedition in the Atlantic Ocean in the autumn of 2012 on a route Rotterdam (Netherlands) - Ushuaya (Argentina) - Antarctica — Ushuaya. During this expedition a complex measurements of a sea surface, a atmosphere near-surface layer parameters and subsurface currents in the wide range of hydroweather conditions, including the storm were carried out. The system developed in IAP RAS on the basis of a marine radar ICOM MR-1200RII and the ADC (Analog Digital Converter) block for data recording on the personal computer was used. Display of a non-uniform near-surface current on sea surface radar images in storm conditions is shown. By means of the high-speed anemometer and meteorological station the measurements of the atmosphere parameters were carried out. Comparison of the anemometer data with calculated from radar images is carried out. Dependence of radar cross section from wind speed in the wide range of wind speeds, including storm conditions is investigated. Possibility of marine radar using for surface waves intensity and ice situation estimates also as icebergs detection is shown.

  12. Marine traffic model based on cellular automaton: Considering the change of the ship's velocity under the influence of the weather and sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Le; Zheng, Zhongyi; Gang, Longhui

    2017-10-01

    It was found that the ships' velocity change, which is impacted by the weather and sea, e.g., wind, sea wave, sea current, tide, etc., is significant and must be considered in the marine traffic model. Therefore, a new marine traffic model based on cellular automaton (CA) was proposed in this paper. The characteristics of the ship's velocity change are taken into account in the model. First, the acceleration of a ship was divided into two components: regular component and random component. Second, the mathematical functions and statistical distribution parameters of the two components were confirmed by spectral analysis, curve fitting and auto-correlation analysis methods. Third, by combining the two components, the acceleration was regenerated in the update rules for ships' movement. To test the performance of the model, the ship traffic flows in the Dover Strait, the Changshan Channel and the Qiongzhou Strait were studied and simulated. The results show that the characteristics of ships' velocities in the simulations are consistent with the measured data by Automatic Identification System (AIS). Although the characteristics of the traffic flow in different areas are different, the velocities of ships can be simulated correctly. It proves that the velocities of ships under the influence of weather and sea can be simulated successfully using the proposed model.

  13. Atmospheric and surface properties of Mars obtained by infrared spectroscopy on Mariner 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrath, B.; Curran, R.; Hanel, R.; Kunde, V.; Maguire, W.; Pearl, J.; Pirraglia, J.; Welker, J.; Burke, T.

    1973-01-01

    The infrared spectroscopy experiment on Mariner 9 obtained data over much of Mars. Interpretation of the thermal emission of Mars in terms of atmospheric temperatures, wind fields and dynamics, surface temperatures, surface pressure and topography, mineral composition, and minor atmospheric constituents including isotopic ratios, as well as a search for unexpected phenomena are reported.

  14. BET surface area distributions in polar stream sediments: Implications for silicate weathering in a cold-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Elwood Madden, Megan E; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Hall, Brenda L

    2014-01-01

    BET surface area values are critical for quantifying the amount of potentially reactive sediments available for chemical weathering and ultimately, prediction of silicate weathering fluxes. BET surface area values of fine-grained (<62.5 μm) sediment from the hyporheic zone of polar glacial streams in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica (Wright and Taylor Valleys) exhibit a wide range (2.5–70.6 m2/g) of surface area values. Samples from one (Delta Stream, Taylor Valley) of the four sampled stream transects exhibit high values (up to 70.6 m2/g), which greatly exceed surface area values from three temperate proglacial streams (0.3–12.1 m2/g). Only Clark stream in Wright Valley exhibits a robust trend with distance, wherein surface area systematically decreases (and particle size increases) in the mud fraction downstream, interpreted to reflect rapid dissolution processes in the weathering environment. The remaining transects exhibit a range in variability in surface area distributions along the length of the channel, likely related to variations in eolian input to exposed channel beds, adjacent snow drifts, and to glacier surfaces, where dust is trapped and subsequently liberated during summer melting. Additionally, variations in stream discharge rate, which mobilizes sediment in pulses and influences water:rock ratios, the origin and nature of the underlying drift material, and the contribution of organic acids may play significant roles in the production and mobilization of high-surface area sediment. This study highlights the presence of sediments with high surface area in cold-based glacier systems, which influences models of chemical denudation rates and the impact of glacial systems on the global carbon cycle.

  15. Biofilm development on metal surfaces in tropical marine waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Bhosle, N.B.

    The immersion of solid surfaces in aquatic environment results in the rapid adsorption of dissolved organic matter, thereby conditioning the surfaces. A number of compounds including glycoproteins humic material and / or unspecified macromolecules...

  16. All-Weather Sounding of Moisture and Temperature From Microwave Sensors Using a Coupled Surface/Atmosphere Inversion Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukabara, S. A.; Garrett, K.

    2014-12-01

    A one-dimensional variational retrieval system has been developed, capable of producing temperature and water vapor profiles in clear, cloudy and precipitating conditions. The algorithm, known as the Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MiRS), is currently running operationally at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS), and is applied to a variety of data from the AMSU-A/MHS sensors on board the NOAA-18, NOAA-19, and MetOp-A/B polar satellite platforms, as well as SSMI/S on board both DMSP F-16 and F18, and from the NPP ATMS sensor. MiRS inverts microwave brightness temperatures into atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles, along with hydrometeors and surface parameters, simultaneously. This atmosphere/surface coupled inversion allows for more accurate retrievals in the lower tropospheric layers by accounting for the surface emissivity impact on the measurements. It also allows the inversion of the soundings in all-weather conditions thanks to the incorporation of the hydrometeors parameters in the inverted state vector as well as to the inclusion of the emissivity in the same state vector, which is accounted for dynamically for the highly variable surface conditions found under precipitating atmospheres. The inversion is constrained in precipitating conditions by the inclusion of covariances for hydrometeors, to take advantage of the natural correlations that exist between temperature and water vapor with liquid and ice cloud along with rain water. In this study, we present a full assessment of temperature and water vapor retrieval performances in all-weather conditions and over all surface types (ocean, sea-ice, land, and snow) using matchups with radiosonde as well as Numerical Weather Prediction and other satellite retrieval algorithms as references. An emphasis is placed on retrievals in cloudy and precipitating atmospheres, including extreme weather events

  17. Experimental investigation of the effect of surface markings on the mechanical integrity of weathering bridge steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) weathering steels are the conventional material used for non-redundant fracture-critical members in bridge construction. Guidelines have been put in place by state : Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to prevent mater...

  18. Space Weathering Products Found on the Surfaces of the Itokawa Dust Particles: A Summary of the Initial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Konno, M.; Nakamura, T.; Ogami, T.; Ishida, H.; Sagae, R.; Tsujimoto, S.; Tsuchiyama, A,; hide

    2012-01-01

    Surfaces of airless bodies exposed to interplanetary space gradually have their structures, optical properties, chemical compositions, and mineralogy changed by solar wind implantation and sputtering, irradiation by galactic and solar cosmic rays, and micrometeorite bombardment. These alteration processes and the resultant optical changes are known as space weathering [1, 2, 3]. Our knowledge of space weathering has depended almost entirely on studies of the surface materials returned from the Moon and regolith breccia meteorites [1, 4, 5, 6] until the surface material of the asteroid Itokawa was returned to the Earth by the Hayabusa spacecraft [7]. Lunar soil studies show that space weathering darkens the albedo of lunar soil and regolith, reddens the slopes of their reflectance spectra, and attenuates the characteristic absorption bands of their reflectance spectra [1, 2, 3]. These changes are caused by vapor deposition of small (nanoparticles within the grain rims of lunar soils and agglutinates [5, 6, 8]. The initial analysis of the Itokawa dust particles revealed that 5 out of 10 particles have nanoparticle-bearing rims, whose structure varies depending on mineral species. Sulfur-bearing Fe-rich nanoparticles (npFe) exist in a thin (5-15 nm) surface layer (zone I) on olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, and plagioclase, suggestive of vapor deposition. Sulfur-free npFe exist deeper inside (of Fe2+ in ferromagnesian silicates [7]. On the other hand, nanophase metallic iron (npFe0) in the lunar samples is embedded in amorphous silicate [5, 6, 8]. These textural differences indicate that the major formation mechanisms of the npFe0 are different between the Itokawa and the lunar samples. Here we report a summary of the initial analysis of space weathering of the Itokawa dust particles.

  19. Application of Satellite-Derived Ocean Surface Winds to the Detection of Weather Systems and the Prediction of Near-Ocean Surface Winds around Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Chyi Yeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian Island chain is surrounded by the open ocean and is an ideal place to conduct the application of QuikSCAT satellite-derived ocean surface winds to the detection of weather systems. With the help of QuikSCAT winds, the associated circulation of the weather systems over the open ocean around Hawaii can be identified. In this study, the obvious cyclonic circulation associated with a Kona storm, the significant wind shift and wind confluence related to the surface cold front, and the anticyclonic circulation related to high-pressure systems for both a strong-wind event and a trade-wind condition are revealed over the open ocean through QuikSCAT winds. The propagation of a cold frontal boundary, defined by the wind shift and wind confluence, also can be clearly detected using the reanalyzed ocean-surface winds.

  20. Andrews AFB, Washington DC Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-15

    dust. Contnued on Reverse A- 1 Blowing spray - This item if reported, is not shown in a separate category on this form but is included in the computation...m m ad m )v I, - GLCBAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCHS AFETAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY AT9 wEATHER SERVICE/MAC 0 13715

  1. Thule AB, Greenland. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-18

    Blowing spray - This item if reported, is not shorn in a separate category on this form but Is included In the computation Percentage of Observations with...sj32F 67F 73F -11f glF Totl Dry Bulb Wet Bulb S Dew Poeint GLCBAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH USArETAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY AT9 WEATHER SERVICE/MAC 1A, Twilr

  2. Restoring surface fire stabilizes forest carbon under extreme fire weather in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Krofcheck; Matthew D. Hurteau; Robert M. Scheller; E. Louise Loudermilk

    2017-01-01

    Climate change in the western United States has increased the frequency of extreme fire weather events and is projected to increase the area burned by wildfire in the coming decades. This changing fire regime, coupled with increased high-severity fire risk from a legacy of fire exclusion, could destabilize forest carbon (C), decrease net ecosystem exchange (...

  3. On the Temperature and Humidity Dissimilarity in the Marine Surface Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kelly, Mark C.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    The dissimilarity of temperature and humidity transfer in the marine surface layer (MSL) is investigated through the relative transport efficiency and correlation coefficient of these two scalars. We examine their variability and relationship with mean values, as well as spectral characteristics....

  4. Frost Monitoring and Forecasting Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and a Numerical Weather Prediction Model Forecasts for Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuchanga, Eric; Flores, Africa; Malaso, Susan; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Shaka, Ayub; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Frost is a major challenge across Eastern Africa, severely impacting agricultural farms. Frost damages have wide ranging economic implications on tea and coffee farms, which represent a major economic sector. Early monitoring and forecasting will enable farmers to take preventive actions to minimize the losses. Although clearly important, timely information on when to protect crops from freezing is relatively limited. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data, derived from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and 72-hr weather forecasts from the Kenya Meteorological Service's operational Weather Research Forecast model are enabling the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to provide timely information to farmers in the region. This presentation will highlight an ongoing collaboration among the Kenya Meteorological Service, RCMRD, and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to identify frost events and provide farmers with potential frost forecasts in Eastern Africa.

  5. Surface analysis and anti-graffiti behavior of a weathered polyurethane-based coating embedded with hydrophobic nano silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabea, A. Mohammad; Mohseni, M.; Mirabedini, S. M.; Tabatabaei, M. Hashemi

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a permanent anti-graffiti polyurethane coating was prepared using concomitant loading of an OH-functional silicone modified polyacrylate additive ranging from 2 to 15 mol% and hydrophobic silica nanoparticles from 1 to 5 wt%. UV-visible spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) analysis were conducted on selected samples to study the weathering performance of samples containing various amounts of silica nanoparticles before and after accelerated weathering conditions. The results showed that higher amounts of additive had inferior effects on the anti-graffiti performance of the coating samples after exposure. However, silica nanoparticles could positively affect the anti-graffiti performance against ageing cycles. This improvement was attributed to lower degradation of samples containing silica nanoparticles and barrier property of nanoparticles against graffiti penetration. The presence of silica nanoparticles did not have any significant effect on the surface free energy of the samples prior and after ageing.

  6. Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Audrey H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

  7. Surface preparation for residual stress measurement of an accelerated corrosion tested welded marine steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Bilal; Fitzpatrick, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Residual stress measurement is often required for the assessment of structural integrity of components. Measurement of residual stress in corrosion tested specimens is challenging owing to the difficulty of accessing the surface because of the rust layer. This study explored the potential methods for the surface preparation of an ultrasonically-peened and accelerated corrosion tested DH36 marine steel fillet welded specimen to ease the way for subsequent residual stress measurement using neutron diffraction and the contour method. We find that hydroblasting introduces compressive residual stress at the surface that will alter the surface stress to be measured

  8. Marine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, L.; Man in 't Veld, W.A.; Meffert, J.P.; Bouma, T.J.; van Rijswick, P.C.; Heusinkveld, J.H.T.; Orth, R.J.; van Katwijk, M.M.; van der Heide, T.

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora species are potent pathogens that can devastate terrestrial plants, causing billions of dollars of damage yearly to agricultural crops and harming fragile ecosystems worldwide. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the distribution and pathogenicity of their marine relatives.

  9. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center develops new products and techniques that can be used in operational meteorology. The majority of these products are derived from NASA polar-orbiting satellite imagery from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. One such product is a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the new SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on land surface models apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. The second phase of the project is to examine the impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate WRF model simulations were made for individual severe weather case days using the NCEP GVF (control) and SPoRT GVF (experimental), with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results in these case studies, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and lower direct surface heating, which typically resulted in lower (higher) predicted 2-m temperatures (2-m dewpoint temperatures). The opposite was true

  10. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on a land surface model (LSM) apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. In the West, higher latent heat fluxes prevailed, which enhanced the rates of evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion in the LSM. By late Summer and Autumn, both the average sensible and latent heat fluxes increased in the West as a result of the more rapid soil drying and higher coverage of GVF. The impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP was also examined for a single severe weather case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate coupled LIS/WRF model simulations were made for the 17 July 2010 severe weather event in the Upper Midwest using the NCEP and SPoRT GVFs, with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and

  11. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantle, Matthew S.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2003-10-01

    The biological activity on continents and the oxygen content of the atmosphere determine the chemical pathways through which Fe is processed at the Earth's surface. Experiments have shown that the relevant chemical pathways fractionate Fe isotopes. Measurements of soils, streams, and deep-sea clay indicate that the {sup 56}Fe/{sup 54}Fe ratio ({delta}{sup 56}Fe relative to igneous rocks) varies from +1{per_thousand} for weathering residues like soils and clays, to -3{per_thousand} for dissolved Fe in streams. These measurements confirm that weathering processes produce substantial fractionation of Fe isotopes in the modern oxidizing Earth surface environment. The results imply that biologically-mediated processes, which preferentially mobilize light Fe isotopes, are critical to Fe chemistry in weathering environments, and that the {delta}{sup 56}Fe of marine dissolved Fe should be variable and negative. Diagenetic reduction of Fe in marine sediments may also be a significant component of the global Fe isotope cycle. Iron isotopes provide a tracer for the influence of biological activity and oxygen in weathering processes through Earth history. Iron isotopic fractionation during weathering may have been smaller or absent in an oxygen-poor environment such as that of the early Precambrian Earth.

  12. Surface attachment induced production of antimicrobial compounds by marine epiphytic bacteria using modified roller bottle cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liming; Boyd, Kenneth G; Grant Burgess, J

    2002-09-01

    A modified roller bottle culture method elicited the production of antimicrobial compounds from 2 epibiotic marine bacterial strains, EI-34-6 and II-111-5, isolated from the surface of the marine alga Palmaria palmata. These isolates, tentatively identified as Bacillus species, were grown as a biofilm on the surface of nutrient glycerol ferric agar (NGFA) and marine Columbia glycerol agar (MCGA) on the inside of a rolling bottle. The biofilm was shown to be stable, and the cells were difficult to remove from the agar surface. The culture supernatant exhibited a different antibiotic spectrum when the strains were grown using the agar roller bottle method compared with shake flask cultures or nonagar roller bottle cultures. These results suggest that biofilm formation is an important factor in the production of antimicrobial compounds by these 2 strains, and roller bottle cultivation also allowed production of these compounds to be increased. The methodology used here has the potential to allow increased production of useful secondary metabolites such as antibiotics from marine epibiotic bacteria.

  13. Seattle Tacoma IAP, Washington. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-21

    Nov STAT IOlNT StIO NAE aC" .IoN ALL WEATHER 1800-2000 SCLAUS MOONS IL lIlt I cu NO." 4 L-v I SPEED 1MEAN (ICPAS) 1 .3 A4.6 7. 10 11 .16 17.-21 22 .27...EIA C 0.14-5 !O L A ’ mf C I , TD O " D’ .5 100. A 1o00_ --- [ L’,PAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH AFEAT CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITYS Ai- 4EATHER $ERV ICEIMAC 7...2 uSAFETAC SKY COVER AIP wEATHER SERVICE/MAC 7" f9Sr SEATTLE/TACOMA IAPWA 73-81 MAY S7Tt~O sT*t10. NAE PERiOD vOst- PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE

  14. Incirlik AB, Adana, Turkey. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A through F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-15

    WEATHER SERVICE/MAC 130 INCIALIK Al TURKEY/ADANA 67-74 AE2 09010 STATION STATION NAME YEARS HOUNS 4L. S. T.1 T-.WET SULS TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F...TURKy/ADANA 6_ _6 JUt_ STAT.ON STATIC. NiAME ER A E OT’*N’[R IR OT -! T..p. WET BULB TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F) TOTALTOA , r 2! 1. S /o 7 .. . 6 . .i

  15. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-24

    SUNSIlPOSES IMiIvN OF URFACE ye5WEATHER WEIVATIO..(U) Alp FOCE ENI m UwAL TECHICAL APPLICATIONS Cing. SCTT A. 24 AUG 82 UNCLASSIIED USA ITAC/O1-2/081 0l-D...X) ___ _ __ton. Obo . *" no. of He wie Tpmlamtwo .0 -Ne . - T- -l .7, .t .. . _4_ i -I - ,-e.’ v.. ’r."- - ... . " GLC3AL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH USA

  16. George AFB Victorville, California. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-05

    S. T.) , - --- .’S, 1 ’ i - - ---- ’ ------- --,’--- ATA WET BULB T R 4 SF TAC PSYC ROMETRIC~o S,05757Lo. uMMARY 91 "C 0 E lO St It .x.I <Fe. 0.. 1...7: ,4 . ~. n;(I~7 ; :1 3 Z fs O2, ,II j i N DATA PROCESSING BRANCH S4 USAF ETAC * AIR WEATHER SERVICE/MAC PSYC ~HROMETRIC SUMMARY! 2311 GiEOKGE AFB

  17. Luke AFB, Phoenix, Arizona. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-13

    WEATHER SERVIE/,MAC LLIKP AE8 ARIZ flax 2W4s1,7 PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE -amo,_11__ (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) CEIL.INC VISIBILITY 4SrATUTE...174( .j 33_ I 74-__ 60 32/ 31 I193 / I l_9’ JI- I_ 151 Ele ne n t (X) I ZxP Z_____ No. Ob,. Mean No. of Hours willh Temperature Ret Hum,. 1 0

  18. Control of wave-driven turbulence and surface heating on the mixing of microplastic marine debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulka, T.; Lavender Law, K. L.; Proskurowski, G. K.

    2016-02-01

    Buoyant microplastic marine debris (MPMD) is a pollutant in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL) that is submerged by turbulent transport processes. Langmuir circulation (LC) is a turbulent process driven by wind and surface waves that enhances mixing in the OSBL. Sea surface cooling also contributes to OSBL turbulence by driving convection. On the other hand, sea surface heating stratifies and stabilizes the water column to reduce turbulent motion. We analyze observed MPMD surface concentrations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to reveal a significant increase in MPMD concentrations during surface heating and a decrease during surface cooling. Turbulence resolving large eddy simulations of the OSBL for an idealized diurnal heating cycle suggest that turbulent downward fluxes of buoyant tracers are enhanced at night, facilitating deep submergence of plastics, and suppressed in heating conditions, resulting in surface trapped MPMD. Simulations agree with observations if enhanced mixing due to LC is included. Our results demonstrate the controlling influence of surface heat fluxes and LC on turbulent transport in the OSBL and on vertical distributions of buoyant marine particles.

  19. Nitrogenase gene amplicons from global marine surface waters are dominated by genes of non-cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farnelid, Hanna; Andersson, Anders F.; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    by unicellular cyanobacteria, 42% of the identified non-cyanobacterial nifH clusters from the corresponding DNA samples were also detected in cDNA. The study indicates that non-cyanobacteria account for a substantial part of the nifH gene pool in marine surface waters and that these genes are at least......Cyanobacteria are thought to be the main N2-fixing organisms (diazotrophs) in marine pelagic waters, but recent molecular analyses indicate that non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs are also present and active. Existing data are, however, restricted geographically and by limited sequencing depths. Our...... of the nifH gene pool in marine waters. Great divergence in nifH composition was observed between sites. Cyanobacteria-like genes were most frequent among amplicons from the warmest waters, but overall the data set was dominated by nifH sequences most closely related to non-cyanobacteria. Clusters related...

  20. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  1. Multiple episodes of extensive marine anoxia linked to global warming and continental weathering following the latest Permian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Romaniello, Stephen J; Algeo, Thomas J; Lau, Kimberly V; Clapham, Matthew E; Richoz, Sylvain; Herrmann, Achim D; Smith, Harrison; Horacek, Micha; Anbar, Ariel D

    2018-04-01

    Explaining the ~5-million-year delay in marine biotic recovery following the latest Permian mass extinction, the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic, is a fundamental challenge for both geological and biological sciences. Ocean redox perturbations may have played a critical role in this delayed recovery. However, the lack of quantitative constraints on the details of Early Triassic oceanic anoxia (for example, time, duration, and extent) leaves the links between oceanic conditions and the delayed biotic recovery ambiguous. We report high-resolution U-isotope (δ 238 U) data from carbonates of the uppermost Permian to lowermost Middle Triassic Zal section (Iran) to characterize the timing and global extent of ocean redox variation during the Early Triassic. Our δ 238 U record reveals multiple negative shifts during the Early Triassic. Isotope mass-balance modeling suggests that the global area of anoxic seafloor expanded substantially in the Early Triassic, peaking during the latest Permian to mid-Griesbachian, the late Griesbachian to mid-Dienerian, the Smithian-Spathian transition, and the Early/Middle Triassic transition. Comparisons of the U-, C-, and Sr-isotope records with a modeled seawater PO 4 3- concentration curve for the Early Triassic suggest that elevated marine productivity and enhanced oceanic stratification were likely the immediate causes of expanded oceanic anoxia. The patterns of redox variation documented by the U-isotope record show a good first-order correspondence to peaks in ammonoid extinctions during the Early Triassic. Our results indicate that multiple oscillations in oceanic anoxia modulated the recovery of marine ecosystems following the latest Permian mass extinction.

  2. Marine microbial communities of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon are influenced by riverine floodwaters and seasonal weather events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent E. Angly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of microorganisms in maintaining coral reef health is increasingly recognized. Riverine floodwater containing herbicides and excess nutrients from fertilizers compromises water quality in the inshore Great Barrier Reef (GBR, with unknown consequences for planktonic marine microbial communities and thus coral reefs. In this baseline study, inshore GBR microbial communities were monitored along a 124 km long transect between 2011 and 2013 using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Members of the bacterial orders Rickettsiales (e.g., Pelagibacteraceae and Synechococcales (e.g., Prochlorococcus, and of the archaeal class Marine Group II were prevalent in all samples, exhibiting a clear seasonal dynamics. Microbial communities near the Tully river mouth included a mixture of taxa from offshore marine sites and from the river system. The environmental parameters collected could be summarized into four groups, represented by salinity, rainfall, temperature and water quality, that drove the composition of microbial communities. During the wet season, lower salinity and a lower water quality index resulting from higher river discharge corresponded to increases in riverine taxa at sites near the river mouth. Particularly large, transient changes in microbial community structure were seen during the extreme wet season 2010–11, and may be partially attributed to the effects of wind and waves, which resuspend sediments and homogenize the water column in shallow near-shore regions. This work shows that anthropogenic floodwaters and other environmental parameters work in conjunction to drive the spatial distribution of microorganisms in the GBR lagoon, as well as their seasonal and daily dynamics.

  3. Marine microbial communities of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon are influenced by riverine floodwaters and seasonal weather events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angly, Florent E; Heath, Candice; Morgan, Thomas C; Tonin, Hemerson; Rich, Virginia; Schaffelke, Britta; Bourne, David G; Tyson, Gene W

    2016-01-01

    The role of microorganisms in maintaining coral reef health is increasingly recognized. Riverine floodwater containing herbicides and excess nutrients from fertilizers compromises water quality in the inshore Great Barrier Reef (GBR), with unknown consequences for planktonic marine microbial communities and thus coral reefs. In this baseline study, inshore GBR microbial communities were monitored along a 124 km long transect between 2011 and 2013 using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Members of the bacterial orders Rickettsiales (e.g., Pelagibacteraceae) and Synechococcales (e.g., Prochlorococcus), and of the archaeal class Marine Group II were prevalent in all samples, exhibiting a clear seasonal dynamics. Microbial communities near the Tully river mouth included a mixture of taxa from offshore marine sites and from the river system. The environmental parameters collected could be summarized into four groups, represented by salinity, rainfall, temperature and water quality, that drove the composition of microbial communities. During the wet season, lower salinity and a lower water quality index resulting from higher river discharge corresponded to increases in riverine taxa at sites near the river mouth. Particularly large, transient changes in microbial community structure were seen during the extreme wet season 2010-11, and may be partially attributed to the effects of wind and waves, which resuspend sediments and homogenize the water column in shallow near-shore regions. This work shows that anthropogenic floodwaters and other environmental parameters work in conjunction to drive the spatial distribution of microorganisms in the GBR lagoon, as well as their seasonal and daily dynamics.

  4. The concentration of 137Cs in the surface of the Greek marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological status of the Greek marine environment, prior to the Chernobyl accident, was characterized mainly by the fallout from nuclear weapon tests. However, the release of radioactivity into the environment from the accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and its deposition in the Greek marine environment resulted in an increase of the 137 Cs activity concentration by approximately one order of magnitude. In addition, the direct transport of radiocaesium into the North Aegean Sea has been further influenced by the late impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Greek marine environment, related to the transfer of 137 Cs, mainly through the Dnieper but also the Danube rivers, to the Black Sea and further to the North Aegean Sea through the Straits of Dardanelles. The aim of this work is to provide a present day picture of the geographic variation of the concentration of 137 Cs in the surface layer of the Greek marine environment and hence, to evaluate the annual committed effective dose delivered to humans through the ingestion pathway from marine sources.

  5. Portland IAP, Portland, Oregon. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-08

    21 .0 42.9 11688 I porn USAPETAC F~ORM .(.A.ftfO 0m4C ~FMA 5t1 -uy . - - -_ _ _ _ ______-mr)RmNOLOl X~ U S AIR FORCE NVIRONMENTAL STCHNICAL...ILtAION STATION Ae ?UU Ilea?. ALL WEATHER 1ti’- 12 f, CLAS movIes (L*ST.) ¢~ONDIIO KN SPEED MEAN (KNTS) 1 .3 4.6 7. 10 11 16 17.21 22.27 21.33 34.40 41

  6. Williams AFB, Chandler, Arizona. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-16

    HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 23104 WILLIAMS AFB ARIZONA/CHANDLER 42-74 NOV STlAT ION STATION AME{ TRDEMNTH ALL WEATHER 0900-1100 ClASS MOVIS (L ST.) CONDITION...1 9. 1011.12 13. 14 I. 16 17.18 19.20 21.22 23.24 25".26 27.28129.30 .31 D.B./W.B. pDy nulbFWetI ulbOew Porn , 34/ 33 289 32/3R1 _ I jJ _, _ 267 30

  7. Measurement of Turbulent Skin Friction Drag Coefficients Produced by Distributed Surface Roughness of Pristine Marine Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafiryadis, Frederik; Meyer, Knud Erik; Gökhan Ergin, F.

    Skin friction drag coefficients are determined for marine antifouling coatings in pristine condition by use of Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA) with uni-directionalhot-wires. Mean flow behaviour for varying surface roughness is analysed in zero pressure gradient, flat plate, turbulentboundary...... drag coefficients as well as roughness Reynolds numbers for the various marine coatings across the range of Rex by fitting of the van Driest profile. The results demonstrate sound agreement with the present ITTC method for determining skin friction coefficients for practically smooth surfaces at low...... layers for Reynolds numbers from Rex =1:91x105 to Rex = 9:54x105. The measurements were conducted at the Technical University of Denmark in a closed-loop wind tunnel redesigned for investigations as this. Ensemble averages of the boundary layer velocity profiles allowed for determination of skin friction...

  8. Surface-active biopolymers from marine bacteria for potential biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Sałek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active agents are amphiphilic chemicals that are used in almost every sector of modern industry, the bulk of which are produced by organo-chemical synthesis. Those produced from biological sources (biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, however, have gained increasing interest in recent years due to their wide structural and functional diversity, lower toxicities and high biodegradability, compared to their chemically-synthesised counterparts. This review aims to present a general overview on surface-active agents, including their classification, where new types of these biomolecules may lay awaiting discovery, and some of the main bottlenecks for their industrial-scale production. In particular, the marine environment is highlighted as a largely untapped source for discovering new types of surface-active agents. Marine bacteria, especially those living associated with micro-algae (eukaryotic phytoplankton, are a highly promising source of polymeric surface-active agents with potential biotechnological applications. The high uronic acids content of these macromolecules has been linked to conferring them with amphiphilic qualities, and their high structural diversity and polyanionic nature endows them with the potential to exhibit a wide range of functional diversity. Production yields (e.g. by fermentation for most microbial surface-active agents have often been too low to meet the volume demands of industry, and this principally remains as the most important bottleneck for their further commercial development. However, new developments in recombinant and synthetic biology approaches can offer significant promise to alleviate this bottleneck. This review highlights a particular biotope in the marine environment that offers promise for discovering novel surface-active biomolecules, and gives a general overview on specific areas that researchers and the industry could focus work towards increasing the production yields of microbial surface

  9. The Use of an Infrared Thermometer to Determine Surface Temperatures in Marine Macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, T. K.; Van Alstyne, K.

    2013-12-01

    The surface temperatures of intertidal algae may span a wide range at low tide, and there is a need for a quick yet accurate method to measure them. Infrared thermometers are used for measuring the temperatures of a variety of surfaces but, to our knowledge, have not been used to measure surface temperatures of marine macroalgae. These thermometers produce estimates of surface temperatures based upon measurements of infrared radiation and the emissivity of the surface being measured. In order to determine if this instrument would be suitable for measurements of macroalgal surface temperatures, variation in the emissivities of macroalgal surfaces had to first be determined. Emmisivities generally ranged from 0.93 to 0.98 and, with the exception of Chondrocanthus exasperatus, showed little variation among algal species, with the condition of the algal surface, or with layering. The differences in emissivities between C. exasperathus and other algal species might have been due to its papillate surface texture. Using an emissivity of 0.95, the infrared thermometer was then used to obtain the surface temperatures of a variety of intertidal algae in the field. Ulva lactuca and Porphyra sp. displayed the largest range of surface temperatures, while Ulvaria obscura and Mazzaella splendens varied the least.

  10. Friendship IAP, Maryland. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-04

    USAFETAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY’k A1 dEATHER SERVXCE/MAC STATIO STATION 041A vt LS MONT. PAGE I1 - i(Fl WI~III~i~i1IIi ET SUL& TESIPEXATUnE DEPRESION (F...WEATHER SERVICE/MAC L2AD0. FRIENDOSHIP IAP MD 74-S1orf STATION STATION *464 VtAAS M. PAGE 2 -nn-nn Th.~.WIT SUL$ TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F) ITOTAL TOTAL () 0...Alte WEAT.4ER SERVICE/IAC 776ff F7hnSHTP Ti A mn-t ER STAION NWA YA PAGE 1 WE? BULB TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F) TOTAL 1 TOTAL (I 0 1.2 j3-43. 7. 9. . 1o 1

  11. Daggett Municipal, California. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-02

    TRACE *96 𔃾 1.97 .09 .701TRACE TRACE .05k .321 .03 .26 .03’ .6 .15 . C6 .82- RACE, .n .061 .o7 .o0 .93’ 1.01, .oo .0a .:T .01 S6 ’ *98TRACER 001 .114 W...SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 723815 DAGGETT MUNI CA 73-81 JUL "TAT"e W141 u-.9 nif eblt ALL WEATHER 150-,700 SPEED 111FMEAN (KNTS) 1 .3 4-6 7. 10...Q,525,6 , 7. 1 2. 5 8.; 5 795 , 79 4 79 794 I I , 1 too- (X .11. Ob.- -Mom N.. H... wIdw Tomp..t.. j , ReIN... 103114 2600 32.i5.O3 794 1 F 32P 1 C6

  12. Eielson AFB, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-22

    PERCENTACE FREQUENCY Of WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 7- 2650 EIELSON AF6 AK 73-8? *pp ALL WEATHER ISO -1 700 (KNEED I .3 4.6 7. 10...HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 7 265C EIELSON AFB AX 73-82 DEC mn~y.. .y.rm,Io u ii. n~lu Sr.m ALL kEATHER ISO -1700 CLAm -- IL.S T.) SPEED i( MEA (KNTS) 1 - 3...fis r, i- &hS.2? q i- 7 &S2 kL%- &.S-2. fq 7Sf..7:p U8000 7Z.1 73. 73. 73. 73. ?6 73. 73. 38?8le 73.8 73.8 73.8 73.81 73., 27000 ’ ,i. L.bi~2~~ 800 I 8t

  13. Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO), Edwards AFB, Lancaster, California (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-09

    10o1K 0-88 5 (Oil) U S AIR FORCE ENVIROMENTAL TECHICAL APPLICATIONS CENTER PART C SURFACE WINDS Presented in this part are various tabulations of surface...4966 580 7,614 846 14#4 491 11 84_ I_ 11-- -- A----- -- - Elencot Xl R ~ No Obo MON Noof Hotsnoit Tespottot -5_77

  14. Solar Atmosphere to Earth's Surface: Long Lead Time dB/dt Predictions with the Space Weather Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Manchester, W.; Savani, N.; Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Jin, M.; Toth, G.; Liemohn, M. W.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    The future of space weather prediction depends on the community's ability to predict L1 values from observations of the solar atmosphere, which can yield hours of lead time. While both empirical and physics-based L1 forecast methods exist, it is not yet known if this nascent capability can translate to skilled dB/dt forecasts at the Earth's surface. This paper shows results for the first forecast-quality, solar-atmosphere-to-Earth's-surface dB/dt predictions. Two methods are used to predict solar wind and IMF conditions at L1 for several real-world coronal mass ejection events. The first method is an empirical and observationally based system to estimate the plasma characteristics. The magnetic field predictions are based on the Bz4Cast system which assumes that the CME has a cylindrical flux rope geometry locally around Earth's trajectory. The remaining plasma parameters of density, temperature and velocity are estimated from white-light coronagraphs via a variety of triangulation methods and forward based modelling. The second is a first-principles-based approach that combines the Eruptive Event Generator using Gibson-Low configuration (EEGGL) model with the Alfven Wave Solar Model (AWSoM). EEGGL specifies parameters for the Gibson-Low flux rope such that it erupts, driving a CME in the coronal model that reproduces coronagraph observations and propagates to 1AU. The resulting solar wind predictions are used to drive the operational Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) for geospace. Following the configuration used by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center, this setup couples the BATS-R-US global magnetohydromagnetic model to the Rice Convection Model (RCM) ring current model and a height-integrated ionosphere electrodynamics model. The long lead time predictions of dB/dt are compared to model results that are driven by L1 solar wind observations. Both are compared to real-world observations from surface magnetometers at a variety of geomagnetic latitudes

  15. Accelerator Analysis of Tributyltin Adsorbed onto the Surface of a Tributyltin Resistant Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kitamura

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tributyltin (TBT released into seawater from ship hulls is a stable marine pollutant and obviously remains in marine environments. We isolated a TBT resistant marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. TBT1 from sediment of a ship’s ballast water. The isolate (109.3 ± 0.2 colony-forming units mL-1 adsorbed TBT in proportion to the concentrations of TBTCl externally added up to 3 mM, where the number of TBT adsorbed by a single cell was estimated to be 108.2. The value was reduced to about one-fifth when the lysozyme-treated cells were used. The surface of ethanol treated cells became rough, but the capacity of TBT adsorption was the same as that for native cells. These results indicate that the function of the cell surface, rather than that structure, plays an important role to the adsorption of TBT. The adsorption state of TBT seems to be multi-layer when the number of more than 106.8 TBT molecules is adsorbed by a single cell.

  16. Early Marine Diagenesis In Corals and Geochemical Consequences For Sea Surface Temperature Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A.; Gagan, M. K.

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are an important quantity for understanding past cli- mate dynamics, and estimates of SSTs are an essential boundary condition used in general circulation models of past and future climate. Large negative SST anomalies of 4 to 6.5rC have been reconstructed for the last deglaciation and the last glacial max- imum (LGM) using two supposedly independent paleothermometers based on d18O and Sr/Ca measurements in scleractinian corals. The tropical sea surface tempera- tures recorded from fossil coral for the LGM, however, are much lower than those recorded from other marine proxies. These proxies, which include foraminifera spe- ciation, foraminiferal oxygen isotopes and alkenone results, suggest a cooling of no more than 3rC. At present it is not clear if this difference reflects regional differences in the extent of cooling, or if one of the proxies is misleading. Another surprising finding is the large warming and/or freshening trends for the ocean surface over the last 200 years indicated by many recent coral d18O records. These long-term trends generally exceed those of the 20th century instrumental records and suggest that tracers in corals may overestimate cooling of the ocean in the past. Here we show that early marine di- agenesis, i.e. secondary precipitation of marine inorganic aragonite, can cause errors in past climate reconstructions from coral. We compare coral skeletal d18O and Sr/Ca data for two long coral cores spanning 1839-1994 AD at Ningaloo Reef, Western Aus- tralia, one of which includes significant secondary precipitation of marine inorganic aragonite. Long-term trends in reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the well preserved coral correlate strongly with instrumental SST records spanning the 20th century. In contrast, the d18O and Sr/Ca for the diagenetically altered coral give identical cool SST anomalies of 4-5rC, as a consequence of the addition of secondary aragonite enriched in 18O and Sr. Our

  17. Space Weathering of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  18. Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-17

    40.7 4 .7 ’ nIF , ’,1 5!.3 5 .,o 51.,l 5 1 1.* L,3 51.3 I 10000 5U.8 51.5 52.2 )2.2 52.7 52.1 5,.7 52.9 5 .9 53.2 53.9 54.1 54. 1 54,2 54.2 54.2 I 900_...h 2 US, ETAC CEILING VERSUS V I T AIR WEATHER SERVICE/MAC _2k ,. ELME9OURF AF5 A ASKAlANC.IURAGL2 C6 -75 srp PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE 1Q1...9 5. 4 9 5. 4 1 9 5, 4 9 5 4 1 9 5 : l 9 , 4I 9 5 . 4 95 4 150 >- :o4,4 95: 1 5 9 9: 6 1 6 1 C6 96 02 9 021 96.2 1). ,) 96 7 9o cf. 2 )6 6 . ) 2

  19. ClimoBase: Rouse Canadian Surface Observations of Weather, Climate, and Hydrological Variables, 1984-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ClimoBase is a collection of surface climate measurements collected in Northern Canada by Dr. Wayne Rouse between 1984 and 1998 in three locations: Churchill,...

  20. Experimental investigation of the effect of surface markings on the mechanical integrity of weathering bridge steels : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    High-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) weathering : steels are the conventional choice for fracture-critical members in bridge construction. HSLA : weathering steels offer superior corrosion : resistance, important in Floridas humid and : coastal en...

  1. Sembach AB, Germany (West). Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-28

    TECHICAL APPLIZATIONS CENTER * PART C SURFACE WINDS Presented in this part are various tabulations of surface winds as follows: *1. Extreme Values - Peak...I7 *1______ _____11 2 9! 71TA 1.014.8 8.4 .9 696 696 = I ’ , - x__- -- .4 . 696 696 I ,i ()5921N.. Obo . Me. No. FeN..... Tepro’... R0.INN. 4 . 32 P

  2. Improving Weather Research and Forecasting Model Initial Conditions via Surface Pressure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    boundary layer (ABL). It predicts turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and is a Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence closure model. As in Lee et al. (2012...cumulus parameterization (Kain 2004) is employed. For radiation , the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) (Mlawer et al. 1997) is used for...longwave and the Dudhia scheme (Dudhia 1989) for shortwave . The Noah land surface model (Chen and Dudhia 2001) is used to represent land surface processes

  3. Heavy metal concentrations in the surface marine sediments of Sfax Coast, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Dorra; Azri, Chafai; Serbaji, Mohamed Moncef; Jedoui, Younes; Montacer, Mabrouk

    2011-04-01

    Sixty-seven surface marine sediment samples in the Sfax (Tunisia) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry for seven heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, and Fe). Metal concentrations were compared with natural values, marine sediment quality standards, and also with other results concerning sediments from several Mediterranean coasts. The study of their spatial distributions refined by complementary approaches including principal component analysis, enrichment factors, and geoaccumulation index showed a significant impact of multiple anthropogenic sources. These included industrial sources and municipal discharges of the urban Sfax and also non-controlled discharges in rural zones close to the coastline. Moderate pollution of sediments, especially by Pb, Zn, and Ni, was shown to exist in localized sites. Besides, it was shown that other sites, slightly to highly enriched in terms of Cu, Cr, and Cd, are characterized by a quality of sediments varying from unpolluted to moderately polluted.

  4. Biofouling on buoyant marine plastics: An experimental study into the effect of size on surface longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazey, Francesca M.C.; Ryan, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that roughly 100 times more plastic litter enters the sea than is found floating at the sea surface, despite the buoyancy and durability of many plastic polymers. Biofouling by marine biota is one possible mechanism responsible for this discrepancy. Microplastics (<5 mm in diameter) are more scarce than larger size classes, which makes sense because fouling is a function of surface area whereas buoyancy is a function of volume; the smaller an object, the greater its relative surface area. We tested whether plastic items with high surface area to volume ratios sank more rapidly by submerging 15 different sizes of polyethylene samples in False Bay, South Africa, for 12 weeks to determine the time required for samples to sink. All samples became sufficiently fouled to sink within the study period, but small samples lost buoyancy much faster than larger ones. There was a direct relationship between sample volume (buoyancy) and the time to attain a 50% probability of sinking, which ranged from 17 to 66 days of exposure. Our results provide the first estimates of the longevity of different sizes of plastic debris at the ocean surface. Further research is required to determine how fouling rates differ on free floating debris in different regions and in different types of marine environments. Such estimates could be used to improve model predictions of the distribution and abundance of floating plastic debris globally. - Highlights: • We tested how fragment size affects the rate of buoyancy loss at sea due to biofouling for two low-density plastic polymers. • We found a strong direct relationship between fragment size and surface longevity. • Our longevity estimates ranged from 17 days for the thinnest microplastics to 66 days for thicker macroplastics. • Our results provide the first estimates of the longevity of different sizes of plastic debris at the ocean surface. • The results could be used to improve model predictions of the

  5. Use of Ensemble Numerical Weather Prediction Data for Inversely Determining Atmospheric Refractivity in Surface Ducting Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, D. P.; Hackett, E.

    2017-12-01

    Under certain atmospheric refractivity conditions, propagated electromagnetic waves (EM) can become trapped between the surface and the bottom of the atmosphere's mixed layer, which is referred to as surface duct propagation. Being able to predict the presence of these surface ducts can reap many benefits to users and developers of sensing technologies and communication systems because they significantly influence the performance of these systems. However, the ability to directly measure or model a surface ducting layer is challenging due to the high spatial resolution and large spatial coverage needed to make accurate refractivity estimates for EM propagation; thus, inverse methods have become an increasingly popular way of determining atmospheric refractivity. This study uses data from the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System developed by the Naval Research Laboratory and instrumented helicopter (helo) measurements taken during the Wallops Island Field Experiment to evaluate the use of ensemble forecasts in refractivity inversions. Helo measurements and ensemble forecasts are optimized to a parametric refractivity model, and three experiments are performed to evaluate whether incorporation of ensemble forecast data aids in more timely and accurate inverse solutions using genetic algorithms. The results suggest that using optimized ensemble members as an initial population for the genetic algorithms generally enhances the accuracy and speed of the inverse solution; however, use of the ensemble data to restrict parameter search space yields mixed results. Inaccurate results are related to parameterization of the ensemble members' refractivity profile and the subsequent extraction of the parameter ranges to limit the search space.

  6. Atlantic City, New Jersey, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-23

    blowing dubt, blowing sand, and dust. Continued on Reverse A-1 - - mtr Blowing spray - This item if reported, is not shown in a separate category on this...ImvioNs OF Twos O M An osomlql i---------------I-l------i.. . . *) CLCTAL CLIMATOLOGY RRANCH &SArETAC SURFACE WINDS AT9 .EATHER SERVICE/MAC PERCENTAGE

  7. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  8. The ISMAR high frequency coastal radar network: Monitoring surface currents for management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) established a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network for the measurement of the velocity of surface currents in coastal seas. The network consists of four HF radar systems located on the coast of the Gargano...... Promontory (Southern Adriatic, Italy). The network has been operational since May 2013 and covers an area of approximately 1700 square kilometers in the Gulf of Manfredonia. Quality Assessment (QA) procedures are applied for the systems deployment and maintenance and Quality Control (QC) procedures...

  9. Minot AFB, North Dakota. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Responsible Individual: Marianne L. Cavanauigh 22b Telephone: (618)256-2625 22c Office Symbol: USAFETAC/LDD DD FORN 1473UNCLASSIFIED REVIEW AND APPROVAL...document has been reviewed and is approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDER WALTER S. BURGMANNio r Scientific and Technical Information Program Manager...70TAL NUMBER OF 0O8SE RVA T IONS: QL) GLOBAL CLIMATIOLOG BRANCH PERCENTAGE FREOLENCY OF OCCLRRFNCE OF SURFACE WIND DIRECTION VERSLS WINE SEEU USAFETAC

  10. A Stabilizing Feedback Between Cloud Radiative Effects and Greenland Surface Melt: Verification From Multi-year Automatic Weather Station Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.; Wang, W.; van As, D.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds have strong impacts on Greenland's surface melt through the interaction with the dry atmosphere and reflective surfaces. However, their effects are uncertain due to the lack of in situ observations. To better quantify cloud radiative effects (CRE) in Greenland, we analyze and interpret multi-year radiation measurements from 30 automatic weather stations encompassing a broad range of climatological and topographical conditions. During melt season, clouds warm surface over most of Greenland, meaning the longwave greenhouse effect outweighs the shortwave shading effect; on the other hand, the spatial variability of net (longwave and shortwave) CRE is dominated by shortwave CRE and in turn by surface albedo, which controls the potential absorption of solar radiation when clouds are absent. The net warming effect decreases with shortwave CRE from high to low altitudes and from north to south (Fig. 1). The spatial correlation between albedo and net CRE is strong (r=0.93, pCRE seasonal trend is controlled by longwave CRE associated with cloud fraction and liquid water content. It becomes stronger from May to July and stays constant in August. In the ablation zone, albedo determines the net CRE seasonal trend, which decreases from May to July and increases afterwards. On an hourly timescale, we find two distinct radiative states in Greenland (Fig. 2). The clear state is characterized by clear-sky conditions or thin clouds, when albedo and solar zenith angle (SZA) weakly correlates with CRE. The cloudy state is characterized by opaque clouds, when the combination of albedo and SZA strongly correlates with CRE (r=0.85, pCRE, the large melt-season variability of these two non-cloud factors, albedo and solar zenith angle, explains the majority of the CRE variation in spatial distribution, seasonal trend in the ablation zone, and in hourly variability in the cloudy radiative state. Clouds warm the brighter and colder surfaces of Greenland, enhance snow melt, and tend to

  11. Malmstrom AFB, Montana. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    for ALL WRKINR surface inds, all years cobined, by: (i) An ual - all bours oobl4ed, (9) BY mAth - all hours oomblned, and (3) BY mth - by standard 3... clIL . .5 .1I~ 1 I A.2 1 ’ 4 o 𔃾𔃼 1t !Q/ 37 3~ 1. 2.4 . 42 4 37 1-4/ 33. 1 .79 *9 2.7 .14, 43 6- : ~ / 7 9 .2 1.11 2.c5 .6 𔃿 4" 56 31, ’/ 2’ . 1.7

  12. Use of weather research and forecasting model outputs to obtain near-surface refractive index structure constant over the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Chun; Wu, Xiaoqing; Li, Xuebin; Zhu, Wenyue; Qiao, Chunhong; Rao, Ruizhong; Mei, Haipin

    2016-06-13

    The methods to obtain atmospheric refractive index structure constant (Cn2) by instrument measurement are limited spatially and temporally and they are more difficult and expensive over the ocean. It is useful to forecast Cn2 effectively from Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) outputs. This paper introduces a method that WRF Model is used to forecast the routine meteorological parameters firstly, and then Cn2 is calculated based on these parameters by the Bulk model from the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) over the ocean near-surface. The corresponding Cn2 values measured by the micro-thermometer which is placed on the ship are compared with the ones forecasted by WRF model to determine how this method performs. The result shows that the forecasted Cn2 is consistent with the measured Cn2 in trend and the order of magnitude as a whole, as well as the correlation coefficient is up to 77.57%. This method can forecast some essential aspects of Cn2 and almost always captures the correct magnitude of Cn2, which experiences fluctuations of two orders of magnitude. Thus, it seems to be a feasible and meaningful method that using WRF model to forecast near-surface Cn2 value over the ocean.

  13. On the contribution of lakes in predicting near-surface temperature in a global weather forecasting model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stockdale

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of lakes in numerical weather prediction is investigated in a set of global simulations performed with the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS. A Fresh shallow-water Lake model (FLake is introduced allowing the coupling of both resolved and subgrid lakes (those that occupy less than 50% of a grid-box to the IFS atmospheric model. Global fields for the lake ancillary conditions (namely lake cover and lake depth, as well as initial conditions for the lake physical state, have been derived to initialise the forecast experiments. The procedure for initialising the lake variables is described and verified with particular emphasis on the importance of surface water temperature and freezing conditions. The response of short-range near surface temperature to the representation of lakes is examined in a set of forecast experiments covering one full year. It is shown that the impact of subgrid lakes is beneficial, reducing forecast error over the Northern territories of Canada and over Scandinavia particularly in spring and summer seasons. This is mainly attributed to the lake thermal effect, which delays the temperature response to seasonal radiation forcing.

  14. Bardenas Reales Range, Spain. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (Russwo). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-30

    VAIIIL .3. _____ i TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS 141, USAFETAC Ft6 0-8-5 ( EL A) IP0Mvous SO)T)OOS OF THI OIl S 0* 8oLMT0 -f--. .. ’ . ___ SURFACE...88 4 8 88 8 88a8 A 6 ; 8.4 89.2 ;39.5 b9. 5 9 9.8: 89.9; A9.9, 90. 1 90. 9,.l 90.1 90.11) 0. el 90.3 91.2! 92.0 cI2.3* -9 2 7zj 92.81 92.8 93.0 93: q...00.0 TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS - 147 USAF )TAC ’ 0-4-5 L A , , ’) f.I 0 0 tn-t.c DATA P’ CESSIJC tifO -CH V RU /,DIT USAF ETAC CEILING VES S IIBLT AI

  15. Taipei IAP, Taiwan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-07

    AN & AN 4 1 71 S.~ ,, v,(, ,a,.i ,,s,-.* ’., - a *.1 ’ { " La . i’I’ [ __ ’ 64, TOTALS ’" a ,i . , <,* 0’, ii 𔃾 1210 WS FORM 0-10-5 (OL, 1, PREVIOUS...TOTA NUBE OP5 OBS3RVATIONS A 22 N6 Fb 6 3 1 USAFETAC FOM 0-8-S (0. A) PREAIOS EDITION$ Of THIS FORM ARE OBSOLETE vV TAe C/usA SURFACE WINDS tIi .EAr E4...U7 2.1j 2___0 .7__ .11__ 10. SE -4 9 A 1 .1 ~7 S ! SSW EIt 0-- LA )IVIU DTOS0 l~ OT T UT S(44. 2 . WS . r)ATA PRUCFSS!IN, ’IRANC’S<RA FTAC/USA

  16. Microplastic distribution in global marine surface waters: results of an extensive citizen science study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, A.; Petersen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Plastic is a major pollutant throughout the world. The majority of the 322 million tons produced annually is used for single-use packaging. What makes plastic an attractive packaging material: cheap, light-weight and durable are also the features that help make it a common and persistent pollutant. There is a growing body of research on microplastic, particles less than 5 mm in size. Microfibers are the most common microplastic in the marine environment. Global estimates of marine microplastic surface concentrations are based on relatively small sample sizes when compared to the vast geographic scale of the ocean. Microplastic residence time and movement along the coast and sea surface outside of the gyres is still not well researched. This five-year project utilized global citizen scientists to collect 1,628 1-liter surface grab samples in every major ocean. The Artic and Southern oceans contained highest average of particles per liter of surface water. Open ocean samples (further than 12 nm from land, n = 686) contained a higher particle average (17 pieces L-1) than coastal samples (n = 723) 6 pieces L-1. Particles were predominantly 100 µm- 1.5 mm in length (77%), smaller than what has been captured in the majority of surface studies. Utilization of citizen scientists to collect data both in fairly accessible regions of the world as well as from areas hard to reach and therefore under sampled, provides us with a wider perspective of global microplastics occurrence. Our findings confirm global microplastic accumulation zone model predictions. The open ocean and poles have sequestered and trapped plastic for over half a century, and show that not only plastics, but anthropogenic fibers are polluting the environment. Continuing to fill knowledge gaps on microplastic shape, size and color in remote ocean areas will drive more accurate oceanographic models of plastic accumulation zones. Incorporation of smaller-sized particles in these models, which has previously

  17. Neural Prescribed Performance Control for Uncertain Marine Surface Vessels without Accurate Initial Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Si

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems concerned with the trajectory tracking control with prescribed performance for marine surface vessels without velocity measurements in uncertain dynamical environments, in the presence of parametric uncertainties, unknown disturbances, and unknown dead-zone. First, only the ship position and heading measurements are available and a high-gain observer is used to estimate the unmeasurable velocities. Second, by utilizing the prescribed performance control, the prescribed tracking control performance can be ensured, while the requirement for the initial error is removed via the preprocessing. At last, based on neural network approximation in combination with backstepping and Lyapunov synthesis, a robust adaptive neural control scheme is developed to handle the uncertainties and input dead-zone characteristics. Under the designed adaptive controller for marine surface vessels, all the signals in the closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB, and the prescribed transient and steady tracking control performance is guaranteed. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  19. Using Three-Dimensional Passive Seismic Imaging to Capture Near-Surface Weathering and Its Influence on Overlying Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N. J.; Dueker, K. G.; Riebe, C. S.; Chen, P.; Flinchum, B. A.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    In mountain landscapes, vegetation is tightly coupled to elevation through orographic effects on temperature and precipitation. However, at any given elevation, vegetation can vary markedly due to non-climatic factors such as lithology. For example, tree-canopy cover correlates strongly with bedrock composition in the Sierra Nevada, California, via mechanisms that remain poorly understood. We are exploring the hypothesis that vegetation varies across bedrock types in the Sierra Nevada due to differences in near-surface fracture density that influence the availability of water for plants. Our approach uses data collected from autonomous seismic nodes that record seismic energy generated by ambient sources such as wind, rivers, and road traffic. By deploying the nodes across the landscape in arrays spanning 200 m on a side, we can obtain a three-dimensional image of spatial variations in near-surface weathering. Data presented here will be derived from arrays deployed for 3 days each spanning an area of 0.04 km2 at each of three sites underlain by Sierra Nevada granites and granodiorites. To isolate the effects of lithology on vegetation, we chose sites that span a range of forest cover and mafic-mineral content but have similar microclimate (i.e., with similar aspect and elevation). Our data will provide a three-dimensional model of P- and S-wave velocity structure, which we can invert using a Hertz-Mindlin porosity model to constrain the thickness and degree of fracturing and thus the subsurface water-holding potential for plants. We will explore the hypothesis that the densest vegetation occurs within bedrock with the densest fracturing, due to enhanced availability of water in the near surface. We will present a comparison of our results from the Sierra Nevada and results from similar experiments at the Snowy Range and Blair Wallis field sites of the Wyoming Center for Environmental Hydrology and Geophysics.

  20. North America Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Maps contains a surface analysis comprised of plotted weather station observations, isobars indicating low and high-pressure...

  1. A new technique for non-destructive field measurement of rock-surface strength: an application of the Equotip hardness tester to weathering studies

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Hisashi; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2007-01-01

    Tafone-like depressions have developed on the Aoshima sandstone blocks used for a masonry bridge pier in the coastal spray zone. A thin layer of partial granular disintegration was found on the surface in depressions. To evaluate quantitatively the strength of the thin weathered layer, the hardness was measured at the surface of the sandstone blocks using both an Equotip hardness tester and an L-type Schmidt hammer. Comparison of the two testing results indicates that the Equotip hardness val...

  2. Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Guido D; Gentine, Pierre

    2013-04-16

    The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (C(surf)). C(surf) accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of C(surf) to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land-atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid-humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and C(surf) can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle.

  3. Weldability, machinability and surfacing of commercial duplex stainless steel AISI2205 for marine applications - A recent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth Jebaraj, A; Ajaykumar, L; Deepak, C R; Aditya, K V V

    2017-05-01

    In the present review, attempts have been made to analyze the metallurgical, mechanical, and corrosion properties of commercial marine alloy duplex stainless steel AISI 2205 with special reference to its weldability, machinability, and surfacing. In the first part, effects of various fusion and solid-state welding processes on joining DSS 2205 with similar and dissimilar metals are addressed. Microstructural changes during the weld cooling cycle such as austenite reformation, partitioning of alloying elements, HAZ transformations, and the intermetallic precipitations are analyzed and compared with the different welding techniques. In the second part, machinability of DSS 2205 is compared with the commercial ASS grades in order to justify the quality of machining. In the third part, the importance of surface quality in a marine exposure is emphasized and the enhancement of surface properties through peening techniques is highlighted. The research gaps and inferences highlighted in this review will be more useful for the fabrications involved in the marine applications.

  4. Evaporation and weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, H.A.R. de; Feddes, R.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Lablans, W.N.; Schuurmans, C.J.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Data on evaporation to be used in agriculture, hydrology, forestry, etc. are usually supplied by meteorologists. Meteorologists themselves also use evaporation data. Air mass properties determining weather are strongly dependent on the input of water vapour from the surface. So for weather

  5. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Jason R.; Ebling, Alina M.; Landing, William M.; Joyner, Jessica L.; Kemp, Keri M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrioafter natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust–Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health.

  6. Model tests for corrosion influence of electrode surface on electroosmosis in marine sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingwei; Li, Jinzhu; Shi, Hanru

    2017-11-01

    The corrosion of metal electrodes is inevitable on electroosmosis in soil. Surface corrosion of electrodes is also one of the reasons for increasing energy consumption in electroosmosis treatment. A series of laboratory tests were conducted employing three kinds of materials, aluminium, steel, and brass. To explore the impact of surface corrosion degree on electroosmosis, metal electrodes were pretreated with durations 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h. After the pretreatment, corroded electrodes are used as anodes on electroosmosis. Water discharge, current, voltage potential were measured during the tests; water content was also tested at three points after the electroosmosis. The results showed that aluminium was better than steel in electroosmotic drainage while brass provided the worst dewatering performance. Surface corrosion did not influence the aluminium and steel on electroosmosis in marine sludge, but brass did. In the pretreatment of brass electrodes, corrosion rate had started to slow down at later periods, with the deterioration rate of dewatering reduced afterwards. As the results showed, it is not recommended to employ those easily deteriorated electrode materials from surface corrosion in practical engineering, such as brass; electrode material with higher electroosmosis exchange rate is recommended, such as aluminium.

  7. Ecosystem productivity is associated with bacterial phylogenetic distance in surface marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galand, Pierre E; Salter, Ian; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the link between community diversity and ecosystem function is a fundamental aspect of ecology. Systematic losses in biodiversity are widely acknowledged but the impact this may exert on ecosystem functioning remains ambiguous. There is growing evidence of a positive relationship between species richness and ecosystem productivity for terrestrial macro-organisms, but similar links for marine micro-organisms, which help drive global climate, are unclear. Community manipulation experiments show both positive and negative relationships for microbes. These previous studies rely, however, on artificial communities and any links between the full diversity of active bacterial communities in the environment, their phylogenetic relatedness and ecosystem function remain hitherto unexplored. Here, we test the hypothesis that productivity is associated with diversity in the metabolically active fraction of microbial communities. We show in natural assemblages of active bacteria that communities containing more distantly related members were associated with higher bacterial production. The positive phylogenetic diversity-productivity relationship was independent of community diversity calculated as the Shannon index. From our long-term (7-year) survey of surface marine bacterial communities, we also found that similarly, productive communities had greater phylogenetic similarity to each other, further suggesting that the traits of active bacteria are an important predictor of ecosystem productivity. Our findings demonstrate that the evolutionary history of the active fraction of a microbial community is critical for understanding their role in ecosystem functioning. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Biodegradation of weathered polystyrene films in seawater microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syranidou, Evdokia; Karkanorachaki, Katerina; Amorotti, Filippo; Franchini, Martina; Repouskou, Eftychia; Kaliva, Maria; Vamvakaki, Maria; Kolvenbach, Boris; Fava, Fabio; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2017-12-21

    A microcosm experiment was conducted at two phases in order to investigate the ability of indigenous consortia alone or bioaugmented to degrade weathered polystyrene (PS) films under simulated marine conditions. Viable populations were developed on PS surfaces in a time dependent way towards convergent biofilm communities, enriched with hydrocarbon and xenobiotics degradation genes. Members of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were highly enriched in the acclimated plastic associated assemblages while the abundance of plastic associated genera was significantly increased in the acclimated indigenous communities. Both tailored consortia efficiently reduced the weight of PS films. Concerning the molecular weight distribution, a decrease in the number-average molecular weight of films subjected to microbial treatment was observed. Moreover, alteration in the intensity of functional groups was noticed with Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) along with signs of bio-erosion on the PS surface. The results suggest that acclimated marine populations are capable of degrading weathered PS pieces.

  9. Uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments collected in Ghazaouet, west coast of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noureddine, A.; Baggoura, B.; Hocini, N.; Boulahdid, M.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of surface marine sediments of different grain sizes collected in Ghazaouet, a small bay on the western coast of Algeria, have been examined to measure concentrations of natural and artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides. The aim of this study is to determine the level of radioactivity and its repartition in the sedimentary area. The samples analyzed by direct counting gamma spectrometry, showed relatively high activities for natural radioactivity and revealed measurable quantities of 137 Cs, ranging from 0.66-8.47 Bq kg -1 dry weight. In addition, some of the samples of different nature were sieved in different grain-sizes, to study the uptake of radioactivity. It is found that the sediments of less than 100 μm grain-size have the highest level of uptake of radioactivity

  10. Uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments collected in Ghazaouet, west coast of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noureddine, A.; Baggoura, B. [Laboratoire d' Environnement, Centre de Radioprotection et de Surete (C.R.S.), Algiers (Algeria); Hocini, N. [Laboratoire de Sedimentologie, Centre de Developpement des Techniques Nucleaires (C.D.T.N.), Algiers (Algeria); Boulahdid, M. [Departement de la Pollution Chimique, Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de l' Amenagement du Littoral, Tipaza (Algeria)

    1998-12-01

    Samples of surface marine sediments of different grain sizes collected in Ghazaouet, a small bay on the western coast of Algeria, have been examined to measure concentrations of natural and artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides. The aim of this study is to determine the level of radioactivity and its repartition in the sedimentary area. The samples analyzed by direct counting gamma spectrometry, showed relatively high activities for natural radioactivity and revealed measurable quantities of {sup 137}Cs, ranging from 0.66-8.47 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight. In addition, some of the samples of different nature were sieved in different grain-sizes, to study the uptake of radioactivity. It is found that the sediments of less than 100 {mu}m grain-size have the highest level of uptake of radioactivity.

  11. Kernel density surface modelling as a means to identify significant concentrations of vulnerable marine ecosystem indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kenchington

    Full Text Available The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify "significant concentrations" of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores, and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here

  12. Biodegradation of weathered polystyrene films in seawater microcosms

    OpenAIRE

    Syranidou, Evdokia; Karkanorachaki, Katerina; Amorotti, Filippo; Franchini, Martina; Repouskou, Eftychia; Kaliva, Maria; Vamvakaki, Maria; Kolvenbach, Boris; Fava, Fabio; Corvini, Philippe F.-X.; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    A microcosm experiment was conducted at two phases in order to investigate the ability of indigenous consortia alone or bioaugmented to degrade weathered polystyrene (PS) films under simulated marine conditions. Viable populations were developed on PS surfaces in a time dependent way towards convergent biofilm communities, enriched with hydrocarbon and xenobiotics degradation genes. Members of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were highly enriched in the acclimated plastic associate...

  13. Personal warning system for vessels under bad weather conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many services provide weather forecasts, including severe weather alerts for the marine. It proves that many ships neglect the warnings because they expect to be able to handle the bad weather conditions. In order to identify possible unsafe situations the Coast Guard needs to observe marine vessel

  14. Hydrogel brushes grafted from stainless steel via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for marine antifouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingjing, E-mail: jjwang1@hotmail.com; Wei, Jun

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from SS surfaces for marine antifouling. • All brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of biofouling. • The antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density of hydrogels. - Abstract: Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from stainless steel (SS) surfaces for marine antifouling. The brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) respectively with different fractions of crosslinker in the feed. The grafted layers prepared with different thickness were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and water contact angle measurements. With the increase in the fraction of crosslinker in the feed, the thickness of the grafted layer increased and the surface became smooth. All the brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of bacteria and microalgae and settlement of barnacle cyprids, as compared to the pristine SS surface. The antifouling efficacy of the PEGMA polymer (PPEGMA)-grafted surface was higher than that of the MPC polymer (PMPC)-grafted surfaces. Furthermore, the crosslinked hydrogel brush-grafted surfaces exhibited better fouling resistance than the non-crosslinked polymer brush-grafted surfaces, and the antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density. These hydrogel coatings of low toxicity and excellent anti-adhesive characteristics suggested their useful applications as environmentally friendly antifouling coatings.

  15. Marine Phages As Tracers: Effects of Size, Morphology, and Physico-Chemical Surface Properties on Transport in a Porous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Nawras; Kiesel, Bärbel; Kallies, René; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Wick, Lukas Y

    2016-12-06

    Although several studies examined the transport of viruses in terrestrial systems only few studies exist on the use of marine phages (i.e., nonterrestrial viruses infecting marine host bacteria) as sensitively detectable microbial tracers for subsurface colloid transport and water flow. Here, we systematically quantified and compared for the first time the effects of size, morphology and physicochemical surface properties of six marine phages and two coliphages (MS2, T4) on transport in sand-filled percolated columns. Phage-sand interactions were described by colloidal filtration theory and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek approach (XDLVO), respectively. The phages belonged to different families and comprised four phages never used in transport studies (i.e., PSA-HM1, PSA-HP1, PSA-HS2, and H3/49). Phage transport was influenced by size, morphology and hydrophobicity in an approximate order of size > hydrophobicity ≥ morphology. Two phages PSA-HP1, PSA-HS2 (Podoviridae and Siphoviridae) exhibited similar mass recovery as commonly used coliphage MS2 and were 7-fold better transported than known marine phage vB_PSPS-H40/1. Differing properties of the marine phages may be used to trace transport of indigenous viruses, natural colloids or anthropogenic nanomaterials and, hence, contribute to better risk analysis. Our results underpin the potential role of marine phages as microbial tracer for transport of colloidal particles and water flow.

  16. Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM): Energy Balance and Thermal Status During a 10-Day Cold Weather U.S. Marine Corps Infantry Officer Course Field Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoyt, Reed

    2001-01-01

    ...) during a 10-day field exercise (FEX) at Quantico, VA. Question: Does intense physical activity, limited sleep, and restricted rations, combined with cold/damp weather, result in excessively negative energy balance and hypothermia? Methods...

  17. Rising sea surface temperature: towards ice-free Arctic summers and a changing marine food chain Document Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Coppini, Giovanni; Christiansen, Trine

    2009-01-01

    Global sea surface temperature is approximately 1 degree C higher now than 140 years ago, and is one of the primary physical impacts of climate change. Sea surface temperature in European seas is increasing more rapidly than in the global oceans. Projections show the temperature increases will persist throughout this century. Ice-free summers are expected in the Arctic by the end of this century, if not earlier. Already, there is evidence that many marine ecosystems in European seas are affec...

  18. MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine surface oil spill model for short-term forecasting – Part 1: Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dominicis, M.; Pinardi, N.; Zodiatis, G.; Lardner, R.

    2013-01-01

    The processes of transport, diffusion and transformation of surface oil in seawater can be simulated using a Lagrangian model formalism coupled with Eulerian circulation models. This paper describes the formalism and the conceptual assumptions of a Lagrangian marine surface oil slick numerical model and rewrites the constitutive equations in a modern mathematical framework. The Lagrangian numerical representation of the oil slick requires three different state variables: the...

  19. 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Ra/226Ra in surface marine sediment of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei-Wo Yii; Zal Uyun Wan-Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected at the West (east coast and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia) and East (Sabah and Sarawak) Malaysia in several expeditions within August 2003 until June 2008 for determining the level of natural radium isotopes. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in surface marine sediment at 176 sampling stations were measured. The activity concentrations of both radionuclides in Malaysia (East and West Malaysia) display varied with the range from 9 to 158 Bq/kg dry wt. and 13 to 104 Bq/kg dry wt., respectively. Meanwhile, the ratio distributions of 228 Ra/ 226 Ra were ranged from 0.62 to 3.75. This indicated that the ratios were slightly high at west coast of Peninsular Malaysia compared to other regions (east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak). The variation of activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra and its ratios were also supported by the statistical analyses of one-way ANOVA and t test at 95 % confidence level, whereby there were proved that the measured values were different between the regions. These different were strictly related to their half-life, potential input sources (included their parents, 238 U and 232 Th), parent's characteristic, the geological setting/formation of the study area, environment origin and behavior. (author)

  20. Observations and simulations of microplastic marine debris in the ocean surface boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulka, T.; Brunner, K.; Proskurowski, G. K.; Lavender Law, K. L.

    2016-02-01

    Motivated by observations of buoyant microplastic marine debris (MPMD) in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL), this study applies a large eddy simulation model and a parametric one-dimensional column model to examine vertical distributions of MPMD. MPMD is widely distributed in vast regions of the subtropical gyres and has emerged as a major open ocean pollutant whose distribution is subject to upper ocean turbulence. The models capture wind-driven turbulence, Langmuir turbulence (LT), and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy input due to breaking waves (BW). Model results are only consistent with MPMD observations if LT effects are included. Neither BW nor shear-driven turbulence is capable of deeply submerging MPMD, suggesting that the observed vertical MPMD distributions are a characteristic signature of wave-driven LT. Thus, this study demonstrates that LT substantially increases turbulent transport in the OSBL, resulting in deep submergence of buoyant tracers. The parametric model is applied to eleven years of observations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific subtropical gyres to show that surface measurements substantially underestimate MPMD concentrations by a factor of three to thirteen.

  1. Marine environmental conditions in the SW Indian Ocean and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry weather prevails in a NW-SE band across Madagascar and the adjacent island nations; and, - Sea surface temperatures (SST) off Angola increase well in advance. Further work is needed to compare marine environmental signals that could emerge from locally sourced fish catch data and those reported here with the ...

  2. Compositional Similarities and Differences between Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) from two Marine Bacteria and two Marine Algae: Significance to Surface Biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2015-06-12

    Transparent-exopolymer-particles (TEP) have been recently identified as a significant contributor to surface biofouling, such as on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. TEP research has mainly focused on algal TEP/TEP precursors while limited investigations have been conducted on those released by bacteria. In this study, TEP/TEP precursors derived from both algae and bacteria were isolated and then characterized to investigate their similarities and/or differences using various advanced analytical techniques, thus providing a better understanding of their potential effect on biofouling. Bacterial TEP/TEP precursors were isolated from two species of marine bacteria (Pseudidiomarina homiensis and Pseudoalteromonas atlantica) while algal TEP/TEP precursors were isolated from two marine algae species (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis). Results indicated that both isolated bacterial and algal TEP/TEP precursors were associated with protein-like materials, and most TEP precursors were high-molecular-weight biopolymers. Furthermore all investigated algal and bacterial TEP/TEP precursors showed a lectin-like property, which can enable them to act as a chemical conditioning layer and to agglutinate bacteria. This property may enhance surface biofouling. However, both proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and the nitrogen/carbon (N/C) ratios suggested that the algal TEP/TEP precursors contained much less protein content than the bacterial TEP/TEP precursors. This difference may influence their initial deposition and further development of surface biofouling.

  3. Satellite-based albedo, sea surface temperature and effective land roughness maps used in the HIRLAM model for weather and climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasager, C. B.; Nielsen, N. W.; Christensen, J. H.; Soegaard, H.; Boegh, E.; Rasmussen, M. S.; Jensen, N. O.

    2001-12-01

    A study is conducted on the effect of introducing maps of geophysical parameters retrieved from satellite Earth Observation data into the atmospheric model HIRLAM (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model). . The HIRLAM system was developed by the HIRLAM project group, a cooperative project of the national weather services in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. It is currently used by weather services in several European countries. The exchanges of sensible heat, water vapour and momentum between the land- and ocean surface and the atmosphere are very important dynamical processes in this type of model. The results from the HIRLAM model when using the improved surface boundary conditions is validated from wind and temperature data at synoptic weather stations and surface flux data from land- and ocean meteorological masts in Denmark. The results from a set of scenarios covering the hurricane in Denmark in December 1999 and several springtime cases in 2000 show improved weather forecasts. The methodology on retrieving improved boundary conditions is based on satellite image data. Maps on the geophysical parameters albedo and sea surface temperature are retrieved at a 1 km spatial resolution from NOAA AVHRR. Furthermore, land cover maps based on Landsat TM satellite data are used to assess the regional roughness. The high-resolution land roughness map (Areal Systems Information in a 25 m pixel resolution) is area-averaged into effective roughness values (15 km grid) by using a non-linear aggregation technique (QJRMS 1999, vol 125, 2075-2102). The area-averaging is highly non-linear due to the turbulent physical processes involved. Thus the effective surface conditions cannot be obtained by simple averaging but only by a flow model taking horizontal advection into consideration. The effect of hedges in the landscape is included as a correction index based on a vector-based map. The land surface fluxes of heat and water vapour is also

  4. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures and Marine Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polashenski, D.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Wake, C. P.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Chemical analyses of precipitation preserved in glacial ice cores provide a unique opportunity to study changes in atmospheric circulation patterns and ocean surface conditions through time. In this study, we aim to investigate changes in both the physical and biological parameters of the north-central Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea over the twentieth century using the deuterium excess (d-excess) and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from the Mt. Hunter ice cores drilled in Denali National Park, Alaska. These parallel, 208 m-long ice cores were drilled to bedrock during the 2013 field season on the Mt. Hunter plateau (63° N, 151° W, 3,900 m above sea level) by a collaborative research team consisting of members from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores were sampled on a continuous melter system at Dartmouth College and analyzed for the concentrations major ions (Dionex IC) and trace metals (Element2 ICPMS), and for stable water isotope ratios (Picarro). The depth-age scale has been accurately dated to 400 AD using annual layer counting of several chemical species and further validated using known historical volcanic eruptions and the Cesium-137 spike associated with nuclear weapons testing in 1963. We use HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling to identify likely source areas of moisture and aerosol MSA being transported to the core site. Satellite imagery allows for a direct comparison between chlorophyll a concentrations in these source areas and MSA concentrations in the core record. Preliminary analysis of chlorophyll a and MSA concentrations, both derived almost exclusively from marine biota, suggest that the Mt. Hunter ice cores reflect changes in North Pacific and Bering Sea marine primary productivity. Analysis of the water isotope and MSA data in conjunction with climate reanalysis products shows significant correlations (psea surface temperatures in the Bering Sea and North Central Pacific. These findings, coupled with

  5. Local knowledge of fishermen in weather prediction in Moa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , sea worms, marine mammals, terrestrial animals, amphibians, human beings, birds, insects, sea rubbish, moon, clouds, rainbow, sun, sea sand, stars and sky, to predict weather change in their localities. Of the many weather parameters ...

  6. Effect of steel surface conditions on reinforcing steel corrosion in concrete exposed to marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzola, E.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory methods and experimental tests were deployed in the present study to evaluate corrosion in reinforced concrete exposed to marine environments. Reinforcing steel exhibiting two different surface conditions prior to embedment in concrete were studied, one the one hand to assess the electrochemical behaviour of the bars during exposure of the concrete specimens to a simulated marine environment, and on the other to determine the strength of the steel/concrete bond. The reinforced concrete specimens prepared were adapted as required for electrochemical potential and corrosion rate testing. A total of 56 7x15-cm cylindrical specimens containing 3/8" steel rods anchored at a depth of 11.5 cm were made to evaluate the steel / concrete bond and exposed to a natural marine environment for 28 or 190 days prior to testing. All the specimens were made with ready-mixed concrete. It may be concluded from the results of the corrosion tests on reinforcing steel with different surface conditions that the oxide initially covering the bars was dissolved and the steel passivated by the alkalinity in the concrete. The chief finding of the bonding study was that the layer of oxide formed in pre-embedment steel deterioration contributed to establishing a better bond.

    En el contexto de esta investigación, se tomaron en consideración métodos y ensayos experimentales de laboratorio, que permiten hacer una evaluación de la corrosión del hormigón armado expuesto en ambientes marinos. Por una parte se evaluó el comportamiento electroquímico de dos condiciones de estados superficiales del acero embebido en el hormigón, exponiéndolo en un ambiente marino simulado y, por otra parte, se estudió la adherencia entre el acero y el hormigón, con los mismos estados superficiales usados para la evaluación electroquímica. Las probetas se fabricaron de hormigón con acero de refuerzo en su interior, adecuándolas para realizar los ensayos de potenciales

  7. Lead isotopes in marine surface sediments reveal historical use of leaded fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Martin M; Blusztajn, Jerzy S; Andersen, Ole; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2012-11-01

    Analyses of lead (Pb) isotopes have been performed in terrestrial and fresh water environments to estimate historical uses of leaded fuel, but so far this method has not been employed in studies of world-wide marine surface sediments. We analyzed Pb and its isotopes in 23 surface sediments from four continents collected during the Galathea 3 expedition in 2006-2007. To enhance the anthropogenic signal, a partial digestion using nitric acid was performed. The concentrations of Pb, Th, U and Al were determined with an ICP-Quadrupole MS, and Pb-isotope ratios with an ICP-multi-collector MS. The samples could be divided into three groups: Harbor areas in larger cities with concentrations of 150 to 265 mg kg(-1) dry weight, smaller towns with concentrations between 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) dry weight, and remotely located sites with concentrations below 15 mg kg(-1) dry weight. Pb-isotope ratios were compared to literature values for gasoline and local or geological background values, and the contribution of leaded-gasoline to total concentrations was calculated for contaminated sites using both a one-dimensional and a novel two-dimensional (vector) method. The North American sites had Pb-isotope ratios corresponding to the US leaded gasoline, with 24-88% of the Pb from leaded gasoline. Samples from Oceania showed Pb-isotope ratios corresponding to Australian gasoline, with 60% attributed to leaded gasoline in Sydney and 21% in Christchurch. Outside Cape Town, 15 to 46% of Pb in sediments was from leaded gasoline.

  8. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  9. Isolation, screening, and characterization of surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria of Mumbai Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, Rajamani; Jagtap, Chandrakant; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-04-15

    Diverse marine bacterial species predominantly found in oil-polluted seawater produce diverse surface-active agents. Surface-active agents produced by bacteria are classified into two groups based on their molecular weights, namely biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers. In this study, surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria were isolated using a modified Bushnell-Haas medium with high-speed diesel as a carbon source from three oil-polluted sites of Mumbai Harbor. Surface-active agent-producing bacterial strains were screened using nine widely used methods. The nineteen bacterial strains showed positive results for more than four surface-active agent screening methods; further, these strains were characterized using biochemical and nucleic acid sequencing methods. Based on the results, the organisms belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Comamonas, Chryseomicrobium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Nesterenkonia, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. The present study confirmed the prevalence of surface-active agent-producing bacteria in the oil-polluted waters of Mumbai Harbor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Updated global soil map for the Weather Research and Forecasting model and soil moisture initialization for the Noah land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DY, C. Y.; Fung, J. C. H.

    2016-08-01

    A meteorological model requires accurate initial conditions and boundary conditions to obtain realistic numerical weather predictions. The land surface controls the surface heat and moisture exchanges, which can be determined by the physical properties of the soil and soil state variables, subsequently exerting an effect on the boundary layer meteorology. The initial and boundary conditions of soil moisture are currently obtained via National Centers for Environmental Prediction FNL (Final) Operational Global Analysis data, which are collected operationally in 1° by 1° resolutions every 6 h. Another input to the model is the soil map generated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (FAO-UNESCO) soil database, which combines several soil surveys from around the world. Both soil moisture from the FNL analysis data and the default soil map lack accuracy and feature coarse resolutions, particularly for certain areas of China. In this study, we update the global soil map with data from Beijing Normal University in 1 km by 1 km grids and propose an alternative method of soil moisture initialization. Simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting model show that spinning-up the soil moisture improves near-surface temperature and relative humidity prediction using different types of soil moisture initialization. Explanations of that improvement and improvement of the planetary boundary layer height in performing process analysis are provided.

  11. Weather Station: Hawaii: Oahu: Coconut Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) automatic weather station (AWS) records hourly measurements of precipitation, air temperature, wind speed and...

  12. Observations on marine biofouling on electroplated metallic surfaces in Goa waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagh, A.B.; Sawant, S.S.

    The panels of metallic brass electroplated with cadmium as well as nickel-chromium were kept suspended in the near-shore marine environment of Goa, India for biofouling studies. The results for the premonsoon period, which coincides...

  13. Development of a New Data Tool for Computing Launch and Landing Availability with Respect to Surface Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. Lee; Altino, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch has a long history of expertise in the modeling and computation of statistical launch availabilities with respect to weather conditions. Their existing data analysis product, the Atmospheric Parametric Risk Assessment (APRA) tool, computes launch availability given an input set of vehicle hardware and/or operational weather constraints by calculating the climatological probability of exceeding the specified constraint limits, APRA has been used extensively to provide the Space Shuttle program the ability to estimate impacts that various proposed design modifications would have to overall launch availability. The model accounts for both seasonal and diurnal variability at a single geographic location and provides output probabilities for a single arbitrary launch attempt. Recently, the Shuttle program has shown interest in having additional capabilities added to the APRA model, including analysis of humidity parameters, inclusion of landing site weather to produce landing availability, and concurrent analysis of multiple sites, to assist in operational landing site selection. In addition, the Constellation program has also expressed interest in the APRA tool, and has requested several additional capabilities to address some Constellation-specific issues, both in the specification and verification of design requirements and in the development of operations concepts. The combined scope of the requested capability enhancements suggests an evolution of the model beyond a simple revision process. Development has begun for a new data analysis tool that will satisfy the requests of both programs. This new tool, Probabilities of Atmospheric Conditions and Environmental Risk (PACER), will provide greater flexibility and significantly enhanced functionality compared to the currently existing tool.

  14. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) for Wheeler AFB, Wahiawa, Hawaii. Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-11

    entire period of record available. Also provided are the meas and standard deviations for each month and a&n-aI (all maths ) and the total vaId...wloeor cs rns RA -nuMs- - - ~ -___ __ ___ ___ ___ __ -,..)?AL CLIL -ITOLOGY ERALChi TSURFACE WINDS -EATL E? SEPVICr-/UAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...YEA.$ MATH ALL WEATHER 3900-1100 cuss NOUNS (L I T.) CONDITION SPEED I. , f 7~>6T TMEAN (KNTS) 1! 1.3 4-6 f7-10 116 1 21 2-7 333 3 40 41 .47148-.551

  15. Rhein-Main Apt, Germany/Franfurt. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    ossb.na r ’--V. 󈨘 ~ 0-111- .411 DATA PROCESS! G BRANCH USAF LTCC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITYAIR WEATHER SERVICE/H4AC RrEIN-PIAI. A!T ’ERMAPY...10 a6m _> _5 2>4 _>3 2:2’,: 2 _>n . atn a> t a- -a’ h> a ’" a 5:0 • NO CEING ... 25,8 29,0 33,6 38,0 39: 41o0 41, oO 42,U 42o3 4293 -4294 42.41

  16. Bio-inspired design of ice-retardant devices based on benthic marine invertebrates: the effect of surface texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayun Mehrabani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of ice on surfaces poses a challenge for both organisms and for devices that come into contact with liquids below the freezing point. Resistance of some organisms to ice formation and growth, either in subtidal environments (e.g., Antarctic anchor ice, or in environments with moisture and cold air (e.g., plants, intertidal begs examination of how this is accomplished. Several factors may be important in promoting or mitigating ice formation. As a start, here we examine the effect of surface texture alone. We tested four candidate surfaces, inspired by hard-shelled marine invertebrates and constructed using a three-dimensional printing process. We examined sub-polar marine organisms to develop sample textures and screened them for ice formation and accretion in submerged conditions using previous methods for comparison to data for Antarctic organisms. The sub-polar organisms tested were all found to form ice readily. We also screened artificial 3-D printed samples using the same previous methods, and developed a new test to examine ice formation from surface droplets as might be encountered in environments with moist, cold air. Despite limitations inherent to our techniques, it appears surface texture plays only a small role in delaying the onset of ice formation: a stripe feature (corresponding to patterning found on valves of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, or on the spines of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri slowed ice formation an average of 25% compared to a grid feature (corresponding to patterning found on sub-polar butterclams, Saxidomas nuttalli. The geometric dimensions of the features have only a small (∼6% effect on ice formation. Surface texture affects ice formation, but does not explain by itself the large variation in ice formation and species-specific ice resistance observed in other work. This suggests future examination of other factors, such as material elastic properties and surface coatings, and their

  17. Mirador - Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Our weather system includes the dynamics of the atmosphere and its interaction with the oceans and land. The improvement of...

  18. Micro-mapping Meteorite Surfaces on Mars using Microscopic Imager Mosaics — A Tool for Unraveling Weathering History at Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J. W.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Golombek, M. P.; Johnson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Meteorites found on Mars provide valuable insights into martian surface processes. During the course of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extended missions, Spirit and Opportunity have identified 17 confirmed and candidate meteorites on Mars, most of which are irons. The iron meteorites exhibit morphologies and coatings that communicate complex post-fall exposure histories relevant to an understanding of climate near the martian equator [1-4]. Both chemical and mechanical weathering effects are represented. Among the more significant of these are: 1) cm-scale hollowing, 2) surficial rounding, 3) mass excavation/dissolution and removal, 4) differential etching of kamacite plates and taenite lamellae, revealing Widmanstätten patterns, 5) discontinuous iron oxide coatings, and 6) the effects of cavernous weathering, which often penetrate to rock interiors. Determining the nature, magnitude, and timing of each process and its associated features is a complex problem that will be aided by laboratory experiments, image processing, and careful surface evaluation. Because some features appear to superpose others in ways analogous to stratigraphic relationships, Microscopic Imager (MI) mosaics are useful for sketching "geologic maps" of meteorite surfaces. Employing the techniques of conventional planetary mapping [5], each map was drafted manually using full-resolution MI mosaics and Adobe Photoshop software. Units were selected to represent the oxide coating, dust-coated surfaces, sand-coated surfaces, taenite lamellae, and uncoated metal. Also included are areas in shadow, and regions of blooming caused by specular reflection of metal. Regmaglypt rim crests are presented as lineations. As with stratigraphic relationships, noting embayments and other cross-cutting relationships assists with establishing the relative timing for observed weathering effects. In addition to suggesting alternating sequences of wind and water exposure [1], patterns in oxide coating occurrence show

  19. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics.......Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  20. Numerical modeling of the effects of a free surface on the operating characteristics of Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Samantha; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines are a growing area of research in the renewable energy field because tidal currents are a highly predictable clean energy source. The presence of a free surface may influence the flow around the turbine and in the wake, critically affecting turbine performance and environmental effects through modification of wake physical variables. The characteristic Froude number that control these processes is still a matter of controversy, with the channel depth and turbine's depth, blade tip depth and diameter as potential candidates for a length scale used in literature. We use the Volume of Fluid model to track the free surface dynamics in a RANS simulation with a BEMT model of the turbine to understand the physics of the wake-free surface interactions. Pressure and flow rate boundary conditions for channel's inlet, outlet and air side have been tested in an effort to determine the optimum set of simulation conditions for MHK turbines in rivers or estuaries. Stability and accuracy in terms of power extraction and kinetic and potential energy budgets are considered. The goal of this research is to determine, quantitatively in non dimensional parameter space, the limit between negligible and significant free surface effects on MHK turbine analysis. Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center.

  1. Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C; Kane, Ravi S

    2011-02-08

    The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Correction of Sampling Errors in Ocean Surface Cross-Sectional Estimates from Nadir-Looking Weather Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylor, I. Jeff; Meneghini, R.; Miller, L. S.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    The return from the ocean surface has a number of uses for airborne meteorological radar. The normalized surface cross section has been used for radar system calibration, estimation of surface winds, and in algorithms for estimating the path-integrated attenuation in rain. However, meteorological radars are normally optimized for observation of distributed targets that fill the resolution volume, and so a point target such as the surface can be poorly sampled, particularly at near-nadir look angles. Sampling the nadir surface return at an insufficient rate results in a negative bias of the estimated cross section. This error is found to be as large as 4 dB using observations from a high-altitude airborne radar. An algorithm for mitigating the error is developed that is based upon the shape of the surface echo and uses the returned signal at the three range gates nearest the peak surface echo.

  3. Using shallow seismic tomography to characterize patterns of near-surface weathering and the mobile-immobile regolith transition: Implications for the erodibility and morphology of hillslopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, B. A.; Kirby, E.; Burbank, D. W.; West, N.

    2014-12-01

    We use 2D tomography of P- and S-wave velocities (Vp, Vs), based on seismic refraction and surface wave analyses, to characterize subsurface architecture and erodibility of hillslopes. Calibrating the seismic imagery with direct field observations allows us to quantify mechanical properties, image depth-dependent variations in weathering intensity, and identify the mobile-immobile regolith transition and differences in transport efficiency of mobile layers. We conducted a cross-CZO comparison of N- and S-facing slopes at Boulder Creek and Shale Hills CZOs (BcCZO and SSHCZO) to investigate how near-surface weathering and hillslope morphology are influenced by differences in regional geology and climatic as well as local variations in aspect-controlled microclimate. Niwot Ridge (BcCZO) is a high alpine site with minimal soil/veg cover, characterized by steeper S-facing hillslopes; whereas, SSHCZO is a temperate, densely-forested, soil-mantled site with steeper N-facing slopes. On Niwot Ridge, the depth of the weathering front and thickness of mobile regolith are substantially greater on shallower N-facing slopes; however, velocity-based estimates of transport efficiency are higher on S-facing slopes. Although, thin mobile regolith on S-facing slopes may be weaker (slower V), the lower gradient of N-facing slopes and southward asymmetry of the ridge divide, suggests greater transport efficiency on N-facing aspects. This can be explained by the dominance of frost/freeze process on N-facing slopes, which can efficiently develop and transport the thick mobile regolith. At SSHCZO, depths of weathering fronts are invariant with slope aspect, suggesting that aspect control is not a predominant mechanism driving regolith production. Mobile regolith thickness, however, is more than 2-fold greater on N-facing slopes. Additionally, mobile regolith on both slope aspects is primarily composed of well-developed soils. N-facing soils are thicker with greater cohesion, moisture, and

  4. Long-Term Stability of PEG-Based Antifouling Surfaces in a Marine Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Kiil, Søren; Hvilsted, Søren

    The work presented here concerns the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to reduce marine biofouling on ship hulls. The long-term stability of PEG towards degradation in a marine environment is reviewed, and the results of experiments designed to test the degradation of polyethylene glycol moieties...... structure and the end-group on the degradation of different PEG-containing compounds in accelerated conditions, while showing very little degradation in real exposure tests in seawater after 3 months. Further experiments will be discussed involving long-term stability and degradation pathways involved...

  5. Enhanced road weather forecasting : Clarus regional demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The quality of road weather forecasts : has major impacts on users of surface : transportation systems and managers : of those systems. Improving the quality : involves the ability to provide accurate, : route-specific road weather information : (e.g...

  6. Fort Knox/Godman AAF, Kentucky Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) ’ ?4 FT KNOX/I60MAN AAF KY TS-84 APP IILfIuSTAtIOS SASE OSSSSoltH ALL WEATHER 06b0- obO CLASS NOUNS (L...a__ 7____________ TOTAL NUMBER F OBSERVATIONS USAFETAC FORM 0.8.5 CL-A FEvOUS (tDIIOS O 1H1S FORM A05 OSSOtET IUL V/ - VA EZWIROMMKMrAL TECHICAL ...X) Z’ X Me * ObO . Me"o No. 4 Hgp wild T.mpor.wt R .u0 F s 32F 67 F 73F 80F 93F Tot.1 D e, B lb W~f 8.1 Dow Poin bL33AL CLIMATOLOGY PRANt,- Iu

  7. Stallion Site, San Marcial, New Mexico. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A, C through F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-21

    DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) I 9j06 STALLI0N SITE si 61-73 6Y IINIII rATIMA "al VIM t ALL o ATHER ALL CLAI 4L.S.T.) SPE mmvm (K IS...64in69 z1i,73 VAR____ (ALL WEATHER hO20 (KNYS) 1.3 4.6 7-10 11.16 17.21 22.2 28V.2-3 34. 40 41.04 48-5 a:56 % WIND( DIN. slim 241 2 .1 6___ Il I VIM ~m...ARANCM EAIEHMDT3 ITACIUSAP AIR WIAT41R SIRVICEIIAC 11061_. STALLION StTE NM bla 3 w7l ____ STATION STATION MAMA mIoo MONTH C CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE

  8. A case of the tail wagging the dog? Reverse weathering and Earth's CO2 thermostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Feedbacks between climate, the global carbon cycle, and the chemistry of seawater stabilize Earth's surface temperature on geologic timescales and are likely responsible for its habitability over billions of years of Earth history. The most important component of the geologic carbon cycle is the precipitation and burial of carbonate sediments. The amount of carbonate sediment produced depends, in turn, on the alkalinity generated during silicate weathering less the amount consumed during the formation of secondary clay minerals both on the continents and in the ocean. In marine enviroments this process, often referred to as reverse weathering, consumes seawater alkalinity (and cations) via reaction with degraded Al-silicate minerals. Because these reactions constitute a sink of seawater alkalinity, changes in the amount of reverse weathering will lead to imbalances between alkalinity sources and sinks. The net effect is that on timescales greater than the timescale of carbonate compensation (< 10 kyr), changes in reverse weathering will lead to changes in the rate of continental silicate weathering through the dependence of continental silicate weathering on atmospheric CO2 and climate. This mechanism is capable of changing rates of continental silicate weathering without changing either the rate of volcanic outgassing or the rate constant for continental silicate weathering (i.e. through mountain-building or the exposure of different rock types) and as a result represents a unique way of modulating the global carbon cycle and Earth's climate on geologic timescales.

  9. Transport of temperature and humidity variance and covariance in the marine surface layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, A.M.; Højstrup, J.

    1998-01-01

    they have never been shown together in the literature. For this purpose an extensive set of humidity and temperature turbulence data from two heights in a marine environment has been analysed. We discuss and compare our results with results from earlier studies for a range of stability from near...

  10. Guest editor - Material exchanges at marine boundaries and surface ocean processes: Forcings and feedbacks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    the equatorial Indian Ocean. I thank all the authors for contributing to Ses- sion OA-18 of the AOGS 2005 meeting and to this Special section. I am grateful to the review- ers (Drs. Hermann W Bange of Forschungs- bereich Marine Biogeochemie, Kiel, Germany...

  11. Evaluation of Near-Surface Gases in Marine Sediments to Assess Subsurface Petroleum Gas Generation and Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Abrams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gases contained within near-surface marine sediments can be derived from multiple sources: shallow microbial activity, thermal cracking of organic matter and inorganic materials, or magmatic-mantle degassing. Each origin will display a distinctive hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon composition as well as compound-specific isotope signature and thus the interpretation of origin should be relatively straightforward. Unfortunately, this is not always the case due to in situ microbial alteration, non-equilibrium phase partitioning, mixing, and fractionation related to the gas extraction method. Sediment gases can reside in the interstitial spaces, bound to mineral or organic surfaces and/or entrapped in carbonate inclusions. The interstitial sediment gases are contained within the sediment pore space, either dissolved in the pore waters (solute or as free (vapour gas. The bound gases are believed to be attached to organic and/or mineral surfaces, entrapped in structured water or entrapped in authigenic carbonate inclusions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the gas types found within shallow marine sediments and examine issues related to gas sampling and extraction. In addition, the paper will discuss how to recognise mixing, alteration and fractionation issues to best interpret the seabed geochemical results and determine gas origin to assess subsurface petroleum gas generation and entrapment.

  12. Climatic variability of near-surface turbulent kinetic energy over the United States: implications for fire-weather predications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman; Xindi. Bain

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high levels of ambient near-surface atmospheric turbulence are often associated with rapid and sometimes erratic wildland fire spread that may eventually lead to large burn areas. Previous research has also examined the feasibility of using near-surface atmospheric turbulent kinetic energy (TKEs) alone or in...

  13. Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata genome reveals properties of a surface-associated life style in the marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Thomas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonisation of sessile eukaryotic host surfaces (e.g. invertebrates and seaweeds by bacteria is common in the marine environment and is expected to create significant inter-species competition and other interactions. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a successful competitor on marine surfaces owing primarily to its ability to produce a number of inhibitory molecules. As such P. tunicata has become a model organism for the studies into processes of surface colonisation and eukaryotic host-bacteria interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains. We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers. Features of P. tunicata's oxidative stress response, iron scavenging and nutrient acquisition show that the organism is well adapted to high-density communities on surfaces. Variation of the P. tunicata genome is suggested by several landmarks of genetic rearrangements and mobile genetic elements (e.g. transposons, CRISPRs, phage. Surface attachment is likely to be mediated by curli, novel pili, a number of extracellular polymers and potentially other unexpected cell surface proteins. The P. tunicata genome also shows a utilisation pattern of extracellular polymers that would avoid a degradation of its recognised hosts, while potentially causing detrimental effects on other host types. In addition, the prevalence of recognised virulence genes suggests that P. tunicata has the potential for pathogenic interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface

  14. The Data Base for the May 1979 Marine Surface Layer Micrometeorological Experiment at San Nicolas Island, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-07

    DRE-l K/E. WATER LAT.HEAT yALP. 1lca 17’ 0g)59056E 5 aCONTINUE ON NEXT PAGE 146 RUN4 NURSE R; 790503220S MARINE SURFACE LATER PRINT DATE; 1I JUN �S...TOURI). 1101101 uori L ’T I mil,,T NAVAL RI ’j ART t SI At I RAT I5U R A I5904514, I APH YS9 IT.,; fk(.H1 MAR Set .4,II51, N L05.5 AN’ 1 IAs I 11I114

  15. Distribution of 210Pb activity concentrations in marine surface sediments within East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    A sampling expedition into the East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was carried in June 2008. Marine surface sediment samples were taken and the activity concentrations of 210 Pb have been determined. Its distribution was plotted and the findings show that the activity concentrations decline from north to south. On the other hand, the activity concentrations are increasing from west to east right to the edge of the EEZ. The highest activity concentrations were found to be near offshore oil platforms. The 210 Pb activity concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.3 - 123.1 Bq/ kg. (author)

  16. Weather forecast

    CERN Document Server

    Courtier, P

    1994-02-07

    Weather prediction is performed using the numerical model of the atmosphere evolution.The evolution equations are derived from the Navier Stokes equation for the adiabatic part but the are very much complicated by the change of phase of water, the radiation porocess and the boundary layer.The technique used operationally is described. Weather prediction is an initial value problem and accurate initial conditions need to be specified. Due to the small number of observations available (105 ) as compared to the dimension of the model state variable (107),the problem is largely underdetermined. Techniques of optimal control and inverse problems are used and have been adapted to the large dimension of our problem. our problem.The at mosphere is a chaotic system; the implication for weather prediction is discussed. Ensemble prediction is used operationally and the technique for generating initial conditions which lead to a numerical divergence of the subsequent forecasts is described.

  17. ClimoBase: Rouse Canadian Surface Observations of Weather, Climate, and Hydrological Variables, 1984-1998, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ClimoBase is a collection of surface climate measurements collected in Northern Canada by Dr. Wayne Rouse between 1984 and 1998 in three locations: Churchill,...

  18. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  19. Temperature-dependent remineralization in a warming ocean increases surface pCO2 through changes in marine ecosystem composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segschneider, Joachim; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2014-05-01

    Temperature-dependent remineralization of organic matter is, in general, not included in marine biogeochemistry models currently used for Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections. Associated feedbacks with climate and the carbon cycle have therefore not been quantified. In this study we aim at investigating how temperature-dependent remineralization rates (Q10 = 2) in a warming ocean impact on the marine carbon cycle, and if this may weaken the oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. We perturb an Earth system model used for CMIP5 with temperature-dependent remineralization rates of organic matter using representative concentration pathway (RCP)8.5-derived oceanic temperature anomalies for 2100. The result is a modest change of organic carbon export but more important derived effects associated with feedback processes between changed nutrient concentrations and ecosystem structure. As more nutrients are recycled in the euphotic layer, increased primary production causes a depletion of silicate in the surface layer because opal is exported to depth more efficiently than particulate organic carbon. Shifts in the ecosystem occur as diatoms find less favorable conditions. Export production of calcite shells increases causing a decrease in alkalinity and higher surface pCO2. With regard to future climate projections, the results indicate a reduction of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 of about 0.2 PgC yr-1 towards the end of the 21st century. This is in addition to reductions caused by already identified climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. Similar shifts in the ecosystem as identified here, but driven by external forcing, have been proposed to drive glacial/interglacial changes in atmospheric pCO2. We propose a similar positive feedback between climate perturbations and the global carbon cycle but driven solely by internal marine biogeochemical processes.

  20. Spaceborne weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  1. Sensitivity of Turbine-Height Wind Speeds to Parameters in Planetary Boundary-Layer and Surface-Layer Schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ben; Qian, Yun; Berg, Larry K.; Ma, Po-Lun; Wharton, Sonia; Bulaevskaya, Vera; Yan, Huiping; Hou, Zhangshuan; Shaw, William J.

    2016-07-21

    We evaluate the sensitivity of simulated turbine-height winds to 26 parameters applied in a planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and a surface layer scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over an area of complex terrain during the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study. An efficient sampling algorithm and a generalized linear model are used to explore the multiple-dimensional parameter space and quantify the parametric sensitivity of modeled turbine-height winds. The results indicate that most of the variability in the ensemble simulations is contributed by parameters related to the dissipation of the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), Prandtl number, turbulence length scales, surface roughness, and the von Kármán constant. The relative contributions of individual parameters are found to be dependent on both the terrain slope and atmospheric stability. The parameter associated with the TKE dissipation rate is found to be the most important one, and a larger dissipation rate can produce larger hub-height winds. A larger Prandtl number results in weaker nighttime winds. Increasing surface roughness reduces the frequencies of both extremely weak and strong winds, implying a reduction in the variability of the wind speed. All of the above parameters can significantly affect the vertical profiles of wind speed, the altitude of the low-level jet and the magnitude of the wind shear strength. The wind direction is found to be modulated by the same subset of influential parameters. Remainder of abstract is in attachment.

  2. Sensitivity of Turbine-Height Wind Speeds to Parameters in Planetary Boundary-Layer and Surface-Layer Schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ben; Qian, Yun; Berg, Larry K.; Ma, Po-Lun; Wharton, Sonia; Bulaevskaya, Vera; Yan, Huiping; Hou, Zhangshuan; Shaw, William J.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the sensitivity of simulated turbine-height wind speeds to 26 parameters within the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) planetary boundary-layer scheme and MM5 surface-layer scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting model over an area of complex terrain. An efficient sampling algorithm and generalized linear model are used to explore the multiple-dimensional parameter space and quantify the parametric sensitivity of simulated turbine-height wind speeds. The results indicate that most of the variability in the ensemble simulations is due to parameters related to the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), Prandtl number, turbulent length scales, surface roughness, and the von Kármán constant. The parameter associated with the TKE dissipation rate is found to be most important, and a larger dissipation rate produces larger hub-height wind speeds. A larger Prandtl number results in smaller nighttime wind speeds. Increasing surface roughness reduces the frequencies of both extremely weak and strong airflows, implying a reduction in the variability of wind speed. All of the above parameters significantly affect the vertical profiles of wind speed and the magnitude of wind shear. The relative contributions of individual parameters are found to be dependent on both the terrain slope and atmospheric stability.

  3. Evapotranspiration and land surface process responses to afforestation in western Taiwan: A comparison between dry and wet weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; L.B. Zhang; L. Hao; Ge Sun; S.-C. Liu

    2016-01-01

    An afforestation project was initiated in the western plain of Taiwan to convert abandoned farming lands into forests to improve the ecological and environmental conditions. This study was conducted to understand the potential impacts of this land cover change on evapotranspiration (ET) and other land surface processes and the...

  4. 75 FR 3395 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... and at least 200 yards (183 m) from marine mammals other than whales, and avoid approaching animals...) behavior of marine animals sighted; (7) direction of travel; (8) environmental information associated with... of marine animals. These transect data will provide an opportunity to collect data of marine mammals...

  5. Bacterial colonization of metallic surfaces exposed in marine environment. Use of bacterial lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guezennec, Jean

    1986-01-01

    Addressing fouling and more particularly biofouling phenomena occurring notably on structures in marine environment, this research thesis first describes the fouling phenomenon (components, sequences of biofouling development, bio-film chemical composition). The author reports the study of the composition of the biological veil (microbiological methods, presentation of the different components), addresses the various types of lipids (bacterial markers and others). Then, after a presentation of the experimental equipment and methods (test cells, sample preparation, gas phase chromatography, hydrogenation and bromination, mass spectrometry), the author discusses the influence of different parameters such as the substrate type, speed, season, chlorination, and correlation with thermal transfer [fr

  6. A Nonlinear Observer for Estimating Transverse Stability Parameters of Marine Surface Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Perez, Tristan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear observer for estimating parameters associated with the restoring term of a roll motion model of a marine vessel in longitudinal waves. Changes in restoring, also referred to as transverse stability, can be the result of changes in the vessel’s centre of gravity due...... to, for example, water on deck and also in changes in the buoyancy triggered by variations in the water-plane area produced by longitudinal waves – propagating along the fore-aft direction along the hull. These variations in the restoring can change dramatically the dynamics of the roll motion...

  7. Prince George Apt, British Columbia, Canada, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-11-02

    kIiiii~~ la 1.1 Tc. ., ssw~~~7TOTA NUBE OF OBSRVAION 9010____ _ ___’,~ ___ ETA __ 8_ 5_ __L I I’I1,%11 A-t SURFACE WINDS 2 (.0, A C, ,, PERCENTAGE...WS LA L. _ _ _ _ _ _ _L0 NNW ... 5.9 ___ _.__ _ N w 4 I i .2 1.4 __ - ___ -7 VARBL T CALMK _ s < . j> ___N1 T --- h li 21 . ,. . 3 .( l O 7.u...L K L A:. I I 2o~ .2 4,.7 1.14 1000 - / 9 TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS USAFETAC O 85 (OLS-) P1 ) ,T SOT ’ , S 11,00 COT 80etI t LA , TI, ,. SURFACE

  8. Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model using a Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Mlawer et al. 1997) is used for long wave radiation and the Dudhia (1989) scheme for shortwave radiation . The Noah land surface model (Chen and...decreases the background turbulent kinetic energy and alters the diagnosis of the boundary layer depth used for model output and data assimilation...Kain 2004) cumulus parameterization is used only on the 9-km outer domain. For radiation , the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) parameterization

  9. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  10. Mariner 10 Image Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mariner 10 Image Archive includes tools to view shaded relief maps of the surface of Mercury, a 3D globe, and all images acquired by NASA's Mariner 10 mission.

  11. The effect of glutaraldehyde on the development of marine biofilms formed on surfaces of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapper, R.C.; Smith, J.R.; Beech, I.B. [Univ. of Portsmouth (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry, Physics, and Radiography; Viera, M.R.; Guiamet, P.S.; Videla, H. [Univ. of La Plata (Argentina); Swords, C.L.; Edyvean, R.G.J. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The effect of pre-conditioning polished and unpolished AISI 304 stainless steel surfaces with glutaraldehyde on the attachment, growth and morphology of an aerobic consortium of marine bacteria was investigated using total cell number counts, epifluorescence microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and grazing-angle Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both fully hydrated and dehydrated biofilms were studied using AFM and ESEM. Formation of the conditioning layer on steel surfaces from the culture medium, in the presence and absence of glutaraldehyde was monitored in-situ employing AFM and Grazing Angle FTIR spectroscopy. The influence of both surface area and surface energy upon the numbers of bacteria attached to polished and unpolished coupons was determined. This study has shown the influence of pretreatment of AISI 304 stainless steel with glutaraldehyde upon biofilm formation and has demonstrated the ability of AFM, ESEM and FTIR to be used as valuable tools for the in-situ investigation of the effect of biocides on bacterial biofilms.

  12. Experimental assessment of blade tip immersion depth from free surface on average power and thrust coefficients of marine current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Ethan; Flack, Karen; Luznik, Luksa

    2014-11-01

    Results from an experimental study on the effects of marine current turbine immersion depth from the free surface are presented. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D = 0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy. Thrust and torque are measured using a dynamometer, mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using a shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Two optical wave height sensors are used to measure the free surface elevation. The turbine is towed at 1.68 m/s, resulting in a 70% chord based Rec = 4 × 105. An Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) is installed one turbine diameter upstream of the turbine rotation plane to characterize the inflow turbulence. Measurements are obtained at four relative blade tip immersion depths of z/D = 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, and 0.2 at a TSR value of 7 to identify the depth where free surface effects impact overall turbine performance. The overall average power and thrust coefficient are presented and compared to previously conducted baseline tests. The influence of wake expansion blockage on the turbine performance due to presence of the free surface at these immersion depths will also be discussed.

  13. Patrick AFB, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-14

    ETAC JUL 64 0-a-5 IOL A) | I |I II I - p I , 1 U S.AIR FORCE 19MIOMENTAL TECHICAL APPLICATIONS CEWIM PART C SURFACE WINDS Presented In this part are...40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% THUMIVDTY ObO . -’ 1 1 . .. 1 .. 1 1 L..L 9F.𔃾 9 ,b S1.2 75. 39 .4 i6.5 373 -r ... IL-." 1 3. 99.2 9(,5 91.7 14.6 53.0 R8.4

  14. Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-29

    S SURFACE WINDS A.4VILL ", CI Al PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED Jill (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) I 16 S I -Ty ",,IT WT 4 2-~ 0 - TD ...92 &2 95.1 95o9 96,3 97&2 9Z, 97&2 97. 97 97,. 9.. > 0 o 83 1jj 86,2 8.84 91,6 92.2 95,1 9,9 96.0 97,4 97,4 97,4 98 , 973. 90. 98.> 400 68,3 1 oJ 86,t

  15. U-Tapao RTNAS, Thailand. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-26

    11i2 .14,LASI IED USAFETAC/US-81/ OzO SBIE-AD-ESSO 030 N * r ATA PRu([SSIIr. "ANCH FTAL/USAF SURFACE WINDS 2 -, .jEA, E R SEK V!CF/tAC PERCENTAGE...is an enlarged model of the pressure altitude scale in the Smithsonian Meteorological Tables. P R E S S U R E A L T I T U D E (1 0 0 O’S F T) II 10 9

  16. Pre-1947 Marine Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board U.S. Navy and merchant marine vessels and submitted to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Merchant ships are of many nationalities, and mainly...

  17. Temporal variations of 137Cs concentrations in the surface seawater and marine organisms collected from the Japanese coast during the 1980's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Nagaya, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The surface seawater and marine organisms were collected on the Japanese coast and analyzed for their 137 Cs concentrations during the 1980's. The 137 Cs concentrations in surface seawater decreased almost exponentially with time and the 137 Cs removal rate constant was estimated to be 0.0445 y -1 . The 137 Cs concentrations in marine organisms also decreased almost exponentially with time. The environmental half-lives of 137 Cs in muscle and viscera of fish, crustacea, and seaweed were estimated from the measured decreases of 137 Cs concentrations. (author)

  18. An Algorithm for Surface Current Retrieval from X-band Marine Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxi Shen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel current inversion algorithm from X-band marine radar images is proposed. The routine, for which deep water is assumed, begins with 3-D FFT of the radar image sequence, followed by the extraction of the dispersion shell from the 3-D image spectrum. Next, the dispersion shell is converted to a polar current shell (PCS using a polar coordinate transformation. After removing outliers along each radial direction of the PCS, a robust sinusoidal curve fitting is applied to the data points along each circumferential direction of the PCS. The angle corresponding to the maximum of the estimated sinusoid function is determined to be the current direction, and the amplitude of this sinusoidal function is the current speed. For validation, the algorithm is tested against both simulated radar images and field data collected by a vertically-polarized X-band system and ground-truthed with measurements from an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. From the field data, it is observed that when the current speed is less than 0.5 m/s, the root mean square differences between the radar-derived and the ADCP-measured current speed and direction are 7.3 cm/s and 32.7°, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed procedure, unlike most existing current inversion schemes, is not susceptible to high current speeds and circumvents the need to consider aliasing. Meanwhile, the relatively low computational cost makes it an excellent choice in practical marine applications.

  19. Effects of DNP on the cell surface properties of marine bacteria and its implication for adhesion to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, A.; Nishad, K.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    of hydrogen peroxide as model antimicrobial agent for examining resisitance mechanisms. Methods Enzymol 310 : 599-608. Haque H, Cutright TJ & Zhang newby BM (2005) Effectiveness of sodium benzoate as a freshwater low toxicity antifoulant when dispersed... and the Environment (D Almorza C A, Brebbia D Sales & V Popov) (Editors),ISBN 1-85312-907- 0. Min Seok chae, Heidi Schraft, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen & Robet Mackereth (2006) Effect of physiochemical surface characteristic of Listeria monocytogenes strains...

  20. Effects and Interactions of Medium Components on Laccase from a Marine-Derived Fungus Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralata Raghukumar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various synthetic medium components and their interactions with each other ultimately impact laccase production in fungi. This was studied using a laccasehyper-producing marine-derived basidiomycete, Cerrena unicolor MTCC 5159. Inducible laccases were produced in the idiophase only after addition of an inducer such as CuSO4. Concentration of carbon and nitrogen acted antagonistically with respect to laccase production. A combination of low nitrogen and high carbon concentration favored both biomass and laccase production. The most favorable combination resulted in 917 U L-1 of laccase. After sufficient growth had occurred, addition of a surfactant such as Tween 80 positively impacted biomass and increased the laccase activity to around 1,300 U L-1. Increasing the surface to volume ratio of the culture vessel further increased its activity to almost 2,000 U L-1.

  1. Study of cadmium, lead and tin distribution in surface marine sediment samples from Ria de Arousa (NW of Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Pazos-Capeans, P.; Regueira-Miguens, M.E.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P

    2004-10-25

    In this work a study of the Cd, Pb and Sn content in marine surface sediment from the Ria de Arousa has been realised. For this, 21 sediment samples were taken in triplicate, lyophilised and sieved, and the fraction <63 {mu}m was taken for analysis. The samples were prepared in a form of slurries and analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration ranges obtained were 90-990 {mu}g kg{sup -1} Cd, 26.5-91.3 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb and 5.0-20.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} Sn. The highest concentrations of these metals are in the inner part of the Ria, near to the port and urban nucleus such as Vilagarcia or Rianxo, and decrease toward the mouth of the Ria.

  2. Painted surfaces - Important sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination to the urban and marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jartun, Morten [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: morten.jartun@ngu.no; Ottesen, Rolf Tore [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Steinnes, Eiliv [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Volden, Tore [Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-01-15

    A study of a large number of samples of flaking old paint from various buildings in Bergen, Norway (N = 68) suggests that paint may be the most important contemporary source of PCBs in this urban environment with concentrations of PCB{sub 7} up to 3.39 g/kg. Twenty-three of the samples were collected from a single building, and the concentrations were found to vary over 3 orders of magnitude. In addition, 16 concrete samples from a large bridge previously coated with PCB-containing paint were collected and separated into outer- and inner samples indicating that PCBs are still present in high concentrations subsequent to renovation. PCBs were found in several categories of paint from wooden and concrete buildings, potentially introduced to the environment by natural weathering, renovation, and volatilization. Consequently, this dispersion may lead to increased levels of PCBs in urban atmospheres, soils, and harbor sediments where high concentrations have resulted in Governmental advice against consumption of certain seafood. - Paint from structures built during the period 1950-1970 may be the most important source of PCBs in an urban environment.

  3. Passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer: 2. Observations and simulations of microplastic marine debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, K.; Kukulka, T.; Proskurowski, G.; Law, K. L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is the second of a two-part series that investigates passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL). The first part examines the influence of equilibrium wind-waves on vertical tracer distributions, based on large eddy simulations (LESs) of the wave-averaged Navier-Stokes equation. Motivated by observations of buoyant microplastic marine debris (MPMD), this study applies the LES model and the parametric one-dimensional column model from part one to examine the vertical distributions of MPMD. MPMD is widely distributed in vast regions of the subtropical gyres and has emerged as a major open ocean pollutant whose distribution is subject to upper ocean turbulence. The models capture shear-driven turbulence, Langmuir turbulence (LT), and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy input due to breaking waves (BWs). Model results are only consistent with observations of MPMD profiles and the relationship between surface concentrations and wind speed if LT effects are included. Neither BW nor shear-driven turbulence is capable of deeply submerging MPMD, suggesting that the observed vertical MPMD distributions are a characteristic signature of wave-driven LT. Thus, this study demonstrates that LT substantially increases turbulent transport in the OSBL, resulting in deep submergence of buoyant tracers. The parametric model is applied to 11 years of observations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific subtropical gyres to show that surface measurements substantially underestimate MPMD concentrations by a factor of 3-13.

  4. Surface treatment systems for concrete in marine environment: Effect of concrete cover thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Farias de Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract There are some ways to extend the service life of a reinforced concrete structure. This paper focuses on the extension of the service life by treating the surface of reinforced concrete, specifically on the effect of the concrete cover thickness on the surface treatment system efficacy. Thus, chloride migration tests were performed and diffusion chloride coefficients were calculated. The service life of each case (treated or non-treated concrete was estimated using these data and Fick's second law of diffusion. Results indicated that the thicker the concrete cover is, the greater the efficacy of the concrete surface treatment system will be. The dissemination of this information is important, since it is almost intuitive to think that the effect of a surface treatment system depends only on itself and this study shows the opposite.

  5. Space Weather and the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Anthea; Komjathy, Attila

    2008-06-01

    The ability to monitor space weather in near-real time is required as our society becomes increasingly dependent on technological systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). Certain critical applications such as railway control, highway traffic management, emergency response, commercial aviation, and marine navigation require high-precision positioning. As a consequence, these applications require real-time knowledge of space weather effects. In recent years, GPS itself has become recognized as one of the premier remote sensing tools to monitor space weather events. For this reason, Space Weather has opened a special section called "Space Weather Effects on GPS." Papers in this section describe the use of GPS as a monitor of space weather events and discuss how GPS is used to observe ionospheric irregularities and total electron content gradients. Other papers address the implications that these space weather features may have on GPS and on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) operations in general. Space weather impacts on GPS include the introduction of range errors and the loss of signal reception, both of which can have severe effects on marine and aviation navigation, surveying, and other critical real-time applications.

  6. Marine Acoustic Sensor Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruffa, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    A marine acoustic sensor assembly includes an acoustic panel having a forward surface and an after surface, a laser scanner oriented so as to project a laser beam onto the acoustic panel after surface...

  7. Precipitable water and surface humidity over global oceans from special sensor microwave imager and European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, Wenqing; Wentz, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Global fields of precipitable water W from the special sensor microwave imager were compared with those from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. They agree over most ocean areas; both data sets capture the two annual cycles examined and the interannual anomalies during an ENSO episode. They show significant differences in the dry air masses over the eastern tropical-subtropical oceans, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, comparisons with radiosonde data indicate that overestimation by the ECMWF model accounts for a large part of the differences. As a check on the W differences, surface-level specific humidity Q derived from W, using a statistical relation, was compared with Q from the ECMWF model. The differences in Q were found to be consistent with the differences in W, indirectly validating the Q-W relation. In both W and Q, SSMI was able to discern clearly the equatorial extension of the tongues of dry air in the eastern tropical ocean, while both ECMWF and climatological fields have reduced spatial gradients and weaker intensity.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Surface and Upper-Air Observations on the Forecast Skill of the ACCESS Numerical Weather Prediction Model over Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Soldatenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology’s in situ observations (land and sea surface observations, upper air observations by radiosondes, pilot balloons, wind profilers, and aircraft observations on the short-term forecast skill provided by the ACCESS (Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator global numerical weather prediction (NWP system is evaluated using an adjoint-based method. This technique makes use of the adjoint perturbation forecast model utilized within the 4D-Var assimilation system, and is able to calculate the individual impact of each assimilated observation in a cycling NWP system. The results obtained show that synoptic observations account for about 60% of the 24-h forecast error reduction, with the remainder accounted for by aircraft (12.8%, radiosondes (10.5%, wind profilers (3.9%, pilot balloons (2.8%, buoys (1.7% and ships (1.2%. In contrast, the largest impact per observation is from buoys and aircraft. Overall, all observation types have a positive impact on the 24-h forecast skill. Such results help to support the decision-making process regarding the evolution of the observing network, particularly at the national level. Consequently, this 4D-Var-based approach has great potential as a tool to assist the design and running of an efficient and effective observing network.

  9. Deposition of the trace heavy metals polonium and plutonium onto marine surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, V.F.; Folsom, T.R.; Cowen, J.P.; Parks, G.J. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Plutonium and polonium assays of the giant kelp revealed that most of the Pu and Po was in the surface scrapings. Both nuclides were concentrated to 1000 times their sea water concentrations; there was usually 200 times more Po activity than Pu. Field experiments using Macrocystis pyrifera showed that Pu and Po accumulated in proportion with time and surface area and that approximately four times more Pu and Po were found on oldest tissues. When glass microscope slides were exposed alongside living plants, deposition rates for Po were identical and Po deposited about 200 times faster than Pu. (HLW)

  10. MOSAIC: An organic geochemical and sedimentological database for marine surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagna, Maria Luisa; Usman, Muhammed; De Avelar, Silvania; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Modern ocean sediments serve as the interface between the biosphere and the geosphere, play a key role in biogeochemical cycles and provide a window on how contemporary processes are written into the sedimentary record. Research over past decades has resulted in a wealth of information on the content and composition of organic matter in marine sediments, with ever-more sophisticated techniques continuing to yield information of greater detail and as an accelerating pace. However, there has been no attempt to synthesize this wealth of information. We are establishing a new database that incorporates information relevant to local, regional and global-scale assessment of the content, source and fate of organic materials accumulating in contemporary marine sediments. In the MOSAIC (Modern Ocean Sediment Archive and Inventory of Carbon) database, particular emphasis is placed on molecular and isotopic information, coupled with relevant contextual information (e.g., sedimentological properties) relevant to elucidating factors that influence the efficiency and nature of organic matter burial. The main features of MOSAIC include: (i) Emphasis on continental margin sediments as major loci of carbon burial, and as the interface between terrestrial and oceanic realms; (ii) Bulk to molecular-level organic geochemical properties and parameters, including concentration and isotopic compositions; (iii) Inclusion of extensive contextual data regarding the depositional setting, in particular with respect to sedimentological and redox characteristics. The ultimate goal is to create an open-access instrument, available on the web, to be utilized for research and education by the international community who can both contribute to, and interrogate the database. The submission will be accomplished by means of a pre-configured table available on the MOSAIC webpage. The information on the filled tables will be checked and eventually imported, via the Structural Query Language (SQL), into

  11. The use of fair-weather cases from the ACT-America Summer 2016 field campaign to better constrain regional biogenic CO2 surface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, B. J.; Davis, K. J.; DiGangi, J. P.; Feng, S.; Hoffman, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lauvaux, T.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N.; Pal, S.; Pauly, R.; Richardson, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) study is a multi-year NASA-funded project designed to increase our understanding of regional-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes over North America through aircraft, satellite, and tower-based observations. This is being accomplished through a series of field campaigns that cover three focus regions (Mid-Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Midwest), and all four seasons (summer, winter, fall, and spring), as well as a variety of meteorological conditions. While constraints on GHG fluxes can be derived on the global scale (through remote-site concentration measurements and global flux inversion models) and the local scale (through eddy-covariance flux tower measurements), observational constraints on the intermediate scales are not as readily available. Biogenic CO2 fluxes are particularly challenging because of their strong seasonal and diurnal cycles and large spatial variability. During the summer 2016 ACT field campaign, fair weather days were targeted for special flight patterns designed to estimate surface fluxes at scales on the order of 105 km2 using a modified mass-balance approach. For some onshore flow cases in the Gulf Coast, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flight transects were performed both inland and offshore when it could be reasonably inferred that the homogeneous Gulf air provided the background GHG field for the inland transect. On other days, two-day flight sequences were performed, where the second-day location of the flight patterns was designed to encompass the air mass that was sampled on the first day. With these flight patterns, the average regional flux can be estimated from the ABL CO2 concentration change. Direct measurements of ABL depth from both aircraft profiles and high-resolution airborne lidar will be used, while winds and free-tropospheric CO2 can be determined from model output and in situ aircraft observations. Here we will present examples of this flux estimation for both Gulf

  12. ForCenS, a curated database of planktonic foraminifera census counts in marine surface sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siccha, Michael; Kucera, Michal

    2017-08-01

    Census counts of marine microfossils in surface sediments represent an invaluable resource for paleoceanography and for the investigation of macroecological processes. A prerequisite for such applications is the provision of data syntheses for individual microfossil groups. Specific to such syntheses is the necessity of taxonomical harmonisation across the constituent datasets, coupled with dereplication of previous compilations. Both of these aspects require expert knowledge, but with increasing number of records involved in such syntheses, the application of expert knowledge via manual curation is not feasible. Here we present a synthesis of planktonic foraminifera census counts in surface sediment samples, which is taxonomically harmonised, dereplicated and treated for numerical and other inconsistencies. The data treatment is implemented as an objective and largely automated pipeline, allowing us to reduce the initial 6,984 records to 4,205 counts from unique sites and informative technical or true replicates. We provide the final product and document the procedure, which can be easily adopted for other microfossil data syntheses.

  13. Effect of Cavitation on Surface Damage of 16.7Cr-10Ni-2Mo Stainless Steel in Marine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Sang-Ok; Han, Min-Su; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Stainless steel is generally known to have characteristics of excellent corrosion resistance and durability, but in a marine environment it can suffer from localized corrosion due to the breakdown of passivity film due to chloride ion in seawater. Furthermore, the damage behaviors are sped up under a cavitation environment because of complex damage from electrochemical corrosion and cavitation-erosion. In this study the characteristics of electrochemical corrosion and cavitation erosion behavior were evaluated on 16.7Cr-10Ni-2Mo stainless steel under a cavitation environment in natural seawater. The electrochemical experiments have been conducted at both static conditions and dynamic conditions inducing cavitation with different current density parameters. The surface morphology and damage behaviors were compared after the experiment. After the cavitation test with time variables morphological examinations on damaged specimens were analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope and a 3D microscope. the galvanostatic experiment gave a cleaner surface morphology presented with less damage depth at high current density regions. It is due to the effect of water cavitation peening under the cavitation condition. In the cavitation experiment, with amplitude of 30 μm and seawater temperature of 25 ℃, weight loss and cavitation-erosion damage depth were dramatically increased after 5 hours inducing cavitation

  14. Multi-Annual Climate Predictions for Fisheries: An Assessment of Skill of Sea Surface Temperature Forecasts for Large Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Tommasi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decisions made by fishers and fisheries managers are informed by climate and fisheries observations that now often span more than 50 years. Multi-annual climate forecasts could further inform such decisions if they were skillful in predicting future conditions relative to the 50-year scope of past variability. We demonstrate that an existing multi-annual prediction system skillfully forecasts the probability of next year, the next 1–3 years, and the next 1–10 years being warmer or cooler than the 50-year average at the surface in coastal ecosystems. Probabilistic forecasts of upper and lower seas surface temperature (SST terciles over the next 3 or 10 years from the GFDL CM 2.1 10-member ensemble global prediction system showed significant improvements in skill over the use of a 50-year climatology for most Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs in the North Atlantic, the western Pacific, and Indian oceans. Through a comparison of the forecast skill of initialized and uninitialized hindcasts, we demonstrate that this skill is largely due to the predictable signature of radiative forcing changes over the 50-year timescale rather than prediction of evolving modes of climate variability. North Atlantic LMEs stood out as the only coastal regions where initialization significantly contributed to SST prediction skill at the 1 to 10 year scale.

  15. Characterisation of rust surfaces formed on mild steel exposed to marine atmospheres using XRD and SEM/Micro-Raman techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, D. de la; Alcántara, J.; Chico, B.; Díaz, I.; Jiménez, J.A.; Morcillo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SEM/Micro-Raman is very useful for characterizing rust phases morphologies. • SEM/Micro-Raman enables unequivocal rust phases identification. • γ-FeOOH basically presents two types of morphologies: globular and laminar. • Fe 3 O 4 presents two morphologies: flat patches and black doughnut-type formations. • β-FeOOH presents highly porous morphologies comprised by fine prismatic crystals. - Abstract: The exposure of mild steel to marine atmospheres gives rise to the formation of various corrosion products, mainly lepidocrocite, goethite, magnetite and akaganeite. In this study, Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction, Micro-X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Micro-Raman are used to characterise rust layer surfaces and to identify the principal component rust phases and their morphology. The main conclusion reached is that lepidocrocite is preferentially located on the outermost surface while magnetite and akaganeite form mostly close to base steel. The Scanning Electron Microscopy/Micro-Raman technique has been very useful for characterising (identifying) the wide variety of morphologies presented by the rust phases.

  16. Turbulent Flow and Large Surface Wave Events in the Marine Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    AIAA, 2011 • Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill and Ecosystem Conference, 2013 150 s time averaged streamlines (U,W) Vectors and Pressure over Incipient...observations78 of the sea surface from field campaigns ( Romero and Melville 2010). Although our main79 computational target is building a turbulence resolving...the LES; this observational data is generally unknown. In the absence of a full description228 of the wavefield kinematics and dynamics (e.g., Romero

  17. Surface-active biopolymers from marine bacteria for potential biotechnological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Sałek; Tony Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    Surface-active agents are amphiphilic chemicals that are used in almost every sector of modern industry, the bulk of which are produced by organo-chemical synthesis. Those produced from biological sources (biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers), however, have gained increasing interest in recent years due to their wide structural and functional diversity, lower toxicities and high biodegradability, compared to their chemically-synthesised counterparts. This review aims to present a general overvi...

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. formosa and P. verrucosa responded significantly to seasonal fluctuation in both solar radiation and sea surface temperature by regulating their ... types from the environmental pool. It is concluded that seasonal fluctuations in both solar ..... photoprotection in symbiotic dinoflagellates from reef-building corals. Marine ...

  19. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W. Jr. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Schmidt, J. [Joe Schmidt, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  20. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen Schmidt, Louise; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Langen, Peter L.; Pálsson, Finnur; Mottram, Ruth; Gascoin, Simon; Björnsson, Helgi

    2017-07-01

    A simulation of the surface climate of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, carried out with the regional climate model HIRHAM5 for the period 1980-2014, is used to estimate the evolution of the glacier surface mass balance (SMB). This simulation uses a new snow albedo parameterization that allows albedo to exponentially decay with time and is surface temperature dependent. The albedo scheme utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from observed MODIS data. The simulation is evaluated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five automatic weather stations (AWSs) from the period 2001-2014, as well as in situ SMB measurements from the period 1995-2014. The model agrees well with observations at the AWS sites, albeit with a general underestimation of the net radiation. This is due to an underestimation of the incoming radiation and a general overestimation of the albedo. The average modelled albedo is overestimated in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and not taking the surface darkening from dirt and volcanic ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions into account. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and net mass balance for the whole of Vatnajökull (1995-2014) shows a good overall fit during the summer, with a small mass balance underestimation of 0.04 m w.e. on average, whereas the winter mass balance is overestimated by on average 0.5 m w.e. due to too large precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at the highest points of the glacier reduces this to 0.15 m w.e. Here, we use HIRHAM5 to simulate the evolution of the SMB of Vatnajökull for the period 1981-2014 and show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the SMB for this period. However, a major source of uncertainty in the representation of the SMB is the representation of the albedo, and processes currently not accounted for in RCMs

  1. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Schmidt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A simulation of the surface climate of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, carried out with the regional climate model HIRHAM5 for the period 1980–2014, is used to estimate the evolution of the glacier surface mass balance (SMB. This simulation uses a new snow albedo parameterization that allows albedo to exponentially decay with time and is surface temperature dependent. The albedo scheme utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from observed MODIS data. The simulation is evaluated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five automatic weather stations (AWSs from the period 2001–2014, as well as in situ SMB measurements from the period 1995–2014. The model agrees well with observations at the AWS sites, albeit with a general underestimation of the net radiation. This is due to an underestimation of the incoming radiation and a general overestimation of the albedo. The average modelled albedo is overestimated in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and not taking the surface darkening from dirt and volcanic ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions into account. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and net mass balance for the whole of Vatnajökull (1995–2014 shows a good overall fit during the summer, with a small mass balance underestimation of 0.04 m w.e. on average, whereas the winter mass balance is overestimated by on average 0.5 m w.e. due to too large precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at the highest points of the glacier reduces this to 0.15 m w.e. Here, we use HIRHAM5 to simulate the evolution of the SMB of Vatnajökull for the period 1981–2014 and show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the SMB for this period. However, a major source of uncertainty in the representation of the SMB is the representation of the albedo, and processes

  2. Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds Infrared Sea Surface Temperature Autonomous Radiometer (ISAR) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R. Michael [Remote Measurements & Research Company, Seattle, WA (United States); Long, Charles N. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.

    2016-01-10

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the most appropriate and important climate parameters: a widespread increase is an indicator of global warming and modifications of the geographical distribution of SST are an extremely sensitive indicator of climate change. There is high demand for accurate, reliable, high-spatial-and-temporal-resolution SST measurements for the parameterization of ocean-atmosphere heat, momentum, and gas (SST is therefore critical to understanding the processes controlling the global carbon dioxide budget) fluxes, for detailed diagnostic and process-orientated studies to better understand the behavior of the climate system, as model boundary conditions, for assimilation into climate models, and for the rigorous validation of climate model output. In order to achieve an overall net flux uncertainty < 10 W/m2 (Bradley and Fairall, 2006), the sea surface (skin) temperature (SSST) must be measured to an error < 0.1 C and a precision of 0.05 C. Anyone experienced in shipboard meteorological measurements will recognize this is a tough specification. These demands require complete confidence in the content, interpretation, accuracy, reliability, and continuity of observational SST data—criteria that can only be fulfilled by the successful implementation of an ongoing data product validation strategy.

  3. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and

  4. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and

  5. Observational Data Analysis and Numerical Model Assessment of the Seafloor Interaction and Mobility of Sand and Weathered Oil Agglomerates (Surface Residual Balls) in the Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, S.; Long, J.; Plant, N. G.; Penko, A.; Calantoni, J.; Thompson, D.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    When weathered oil is transported ashore, such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, it can mix with suspended sediment in the surf zone to create heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates in the form of mats several centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Broken off pieces of these mats and smaller agglomerates formed in situ (called Surface Residual Balls, SRBs) can cause beach re-oiling months to years after the initial spill. The physical dynamics of these SRBs in the nearshore, where they are larger (cm-scale) and less dense than natural sediment, are poorly understood. In the current study, SRB mobility and seafloor interaction is investigated through a combination of laboratory and field experiments with pseudo-SRBs developed to be physically stable proxies for genuine agglomerates. Formulations for mobility prediction based on comparing estimated shear stress to the critical Shields and modified Shields parameters developed for mixed sediment beds are assessed against observations. Processes such as burial, exhumation, and interaction with bedforms (e.g., migrating ripples) are also explored. The observations suggest that incipient motion estimates based on a modified Shields parameter have some skill in predicting SRB movement, but that other forcing mechanisms such as pressure gradients may be important under some conditions. Additionally, burial and exhumation due to the relatively high mobility of sand grains are confirmed as key processes controlling SRB dynamics in the surf zone. This work has broad implications for understanding surf zone sediment transport at the short timescale associated with mobilizing sand grains and SRBs as well as at the longer timescales associated with net transport patterns, sediment budgets, and bed elevation changes.

  6. Marine oil degrading bacteria related to oil inputs and surface currents in the western Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizarraga-Partida, M.L.; Vicuna, F.B.I.; Chang, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of oil degrading bacteria (ODB) and its ratios to viable heterotrophic bacteria (CFU) and direct counts (AODC) were examined in relation to the surface currents of the western Caribbean Sea. High ODB/CFU and ODB/AODC ratios were found, suggesting that chronic sources of hydrocarbons in the region may have a larger impact than those in the southern Gulf of Mexico, where previous studies have been performed. It was concluded that, in western Caribbean waters, the distribution of oil degrading bacteria, or its ratios to CFU or AODC, could be useful indicators of chronic oil inputs originating at the east of the Caribbean Sea, as well as their motions afterwards. (author)

  7. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather About Winter Weather Before a Storm Prepare Your Home Prepare Your Car Winter Weather Checklists During a Storm Indoor Safety During ...

  8. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  9. Optimization of fermentation conditions for 1,3-propanediol production by marine Klebsiella pneumonia HSL4 using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Zhou, Sheng; Ji, Huasong; Gao, Ren; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-09-01

    The industrially important organic compound 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) is mainly used as a building block for the production of various polymers. In the present study, response surface methodology protocol was followed to determine and optimize fermentation conditions for the maximum production of 1,3-PDO using marine-derived Klebsiella pneumoniae HSL4. Four nutritional supplements together with three independent culture conditions were optimized as follows: 29.3 g/L glycerol, 8.0 g/L K2 HPO4, 7.6 g/L (NH4)2 SO4, 3.0 g/L KH2 PO4, pH 7.1, cultivation at 35°C for 12 h. Under the optimal conditions, a maximum 1,3-PDO concentration of 14.5 g/L, a productivity of 1.21 g/(L·h) and a conversion of glycerol of 0.49 g/g were obtained. In comparison with the control conditions, fermentation under the optimized conditions achieved an increase of 38.8% in 1,3-PDO concentration, 39.0% in productivity and 25.7% in glycerol conversion in flask. This enhancement trend was further confirmed when the fermentation was conducted in a 5-L fermentor. The optimized fermentation conditions could be an important basis for developing lowcost, large-scale methods for industrial production of 1,3-PDO in the future.

  10. Enhancing production of a 24-membered ring macrolide compound by a marine bacterium using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Wu, Mian-bin; Chen, Zheng-jie; Wang, Ming-lu; Lin, Jian-ping; Yang, Li-rong

    2013-04-01

    A 24-membered ring macrolide compound, macrolactin A has potential applications in pharmaceuticals for its anti-infectious and antiviral activity. In this study, macrolactin A was produced by a marine bacterium, which was identified as Bacillus subtilis by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses were used to characterize this compound. To improve the production, response surface methodology (RSM) involving Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed. Faeces bombycis, the main by-product in sericulture, was used as a nitrogen source in fermentation. The interactions between three significant factors, F. bombycis, soluble starch, and (NH4)2SO4 were investigated. A quadratic model was constructed to fit the production and the factors. Optimum medium composition was obtained by analysis of the model. When cultivated in the optimum medium, the production of macrolactin A was increased to 851 mg/L, 2.7 times as compared to the original. This study is also useful to find another way in utilizing F. bombycis.

  11. Zooplankton responses to increasing sea surface temperatures in the southeastern Australia global marine hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paige; Clementson, Lesley; Davies, Claire; Corney, Stuart; Swadling, Kerrie

    2016-10-01

    Southeastern Australia is a 'hotspot' for oceanographic change. Here, rapidly increasing sea surface temperatures, rising at more than double the global trend, are largely associated with a southerly extension of the East Australian Current (EAC) and its eddy field. Maria Island, situated at the southern end of the EAC extension at 42°S, 148°E, has been used as a site to study temperature-driven biological trends in this region of accelerated change. Zooplankton have short life cycles (usually Australia are responding to increased temperatures through relocation, long-term increases in warm-water species and a shift towards a zooplankton community dominated by small copepods. The biological trends present evidence of extended EAC influence at Maria Island into autumn and winter months, which has allowed for the rapid establishment of warm-water species during these seasons, and has increased the similarity between Maria Island and the more northerly Port Hacking zooplankton community. Generalised Linear Models (GLM) suggest the high salinity and low nutrient properties of EAC-water to be the primary drivers of increasing abundances of warm-water species off southeastern Australia. Changes in both the species composition and size distribution of the Maria Island zooplankton community will have effects for pelagic fisheries. This study provides an indication of how zooplankton communities influenced by intensifying Western Boundary currents may respond to rapid environmental change.

  12. An experimental study of the attachment of bacteria to submerged surfaces in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fera, Ph.

    1985-09-01

    The seasonal variations of the bacterial settling of three materials (stainless steel, aluminium, polycarbonate filters) have been studied inside an open system of circulating seawater (0.7 m.s -1 ). The fixed bacteria counting have been carried out by scanning electron microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. From the results of the first part of this work, it appears that the growth kinetics of the microbial bio-film, and the densities of the bacteria fixed after 15 days of immersion are higher during summer. Qualitatively, the composition of the number of fixed bacteria evolve with immersion time and with the season. The continuous injection of 0.1 ppm of chlorine in the seawater feeding the experimental system, seems not to be sufficient to prevent, for a long time, the settling of a great number of bacteria. The second part of this work deals with the experimental study of the settling of an aluminium surface by a pseudomonas, isolated of the seawater and submitted or not to conditions of preliminary fast. (O.M.)

  13. Efficient harvesting of marine Chlorella vulgaris microalgae utilizing cationic starch nanoparticles by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat Tork, Mahya; Khalilzadeh, Rasoul; Kouchakzadeh, Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Harvesting involves nearly thirty percent of total production cost of microalgae that needs to be done efficiently. Utilizing inexpensive and highly available biopolymer-based flocculants can be a solution for reducing the harvest costs. Herein, flocculation process of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae using cationic starch nanoparticles (CSNPs) was evaluated and optimized through the response surface methodology (RSM). pH, microalgae and CSNPs concentrations were considered as the main independent variables. Under the optimum conditions of microalgae concentration 0.75gdry weight/L, CSNPs concentration 7.1mgdry weight/L and pH 11.8, the maximum flocculation efficiency (90%) achieved. Twenty percent increase in flocculation efficiency observed with the use of CSNPs instead of the non-particulate starch which can be due to the more electrostatic interactions between the cationic nanoparticles and the microalgae. Therefore, the synthesized CSNPs can be employed as a convenient and economical flocculants for efficient harvest of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae at large scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of surface colour on the formation of marine micro and macrofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, Sergey V.

    2013-07-01

    The effect of substratum colour on the formation of micro- and macro fouling communities was investigated. Acrylic tiles, painted either black or white were covered with transparent sheets in order to ensure similar surface properties. All substrata were exposed to biofouling at 1 m depth for 40 d in the Marina Bandar al Rowdha (Muscat, Sea of Oman). Studies were conducted in 2010 over a time course of 5, 10 and 20 d, and in 2012 samples were collected at 7, 14 and 21 d. The densities of bacteria on the black and white substrata were similar with the exception of day 10, when the black substrata had a higher abundance than white ones. Pyrosequencing via 454 of 16S rRNA genes of bacteria from white and black substrata revealed that Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant groups. SIMPER analysis demonstrated that bacterial phylotypes (uncultured Gammaproteobacteria, Actibacter, Gaetbulicola, Thalassobius and Silicibacter) and the diatoms (Navicula directa, Navicula sp. and Nitzschia sp.) contributed to the dissimilarities between communities developed on white and black substrata. At day 20, the highest amount of chlorophyll a was recorded in biofilms developed on black substrata. SIMPER analysis showed that Folliculina sp., Ulva sp. and Balanus amphitrite were the major macro fouling species that contributed to the dissimilarities between the communities formed on white and black substrata. Higher densities of these species were observed on black tiles. The results emphasise the effect of substratum colour on the formation of micro and macro fouling communities; substratum colour should to be taken into account in future studies. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  15. CO2leakage from carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) systems affects organic matter cycling in surface marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Greco, Silvestro; Lo Martire, Marco; Carugati, Laura; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), involving the injection of CO 2 into the sub-seabed, is being promoted worldwide as a feasible option for reducing the anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, the effects on the marine ecosystems of potential CO 2 leakages originating from these storage sites have only recently received scientific attention, and little information is available on the possible impacts of the resulting CO 2 -enriched seawater plumes on the surrounding benthic ecosystem. In the present study, we conducted a 20-weeks mesocosm experiment exposing coastal sediments to CO 2 -enriched seawater (at 5000 or 20,000 ppm), to test the effects on the microbial enzymatic activities responsible for the decomposition and turnover of the sedimentary organic matter in surface sediments down to 15 cm depth. Our results indicate that the exposure to high-CO 2 concentrations reduced significantly the enzymatic activities in the top 5 cm of sediments, but had no effects on subsurface sediment horizons (from 5 to 15 cm depth). In the surface sediments, both 5000 and 20,000 ppm CO 2 treatments determined a progressive decrease over time in the protein degradation (up to 80%). Conversely, the degradation rates of carbohydrates and organic phosphorous remained unaltered in the first 2 weeks, but decreased significantly (up to 50%) in the longer term when exposed at 20,000 ppm of CO 2 . Such effects were associated with a significant change in the composition of the biopolymeric carbon (due to the accumulation of proteins over time in sediments exposed to high-pCO 2 treatments), and a significant decrease (∼20-50% at 5000 and 20,000 ppm respectively) in nitrogen regeneration. We conclude that in areas immediately surrounding an active and long-lasting leak of CO 2 from CCS reservoirs, organic matter cycling would be significantly impacted in the surface sediment layers. The evidence of negligible impacts on the deeper sediments should be

  16. Proceedings of U.S. Navy Symposium on Arctic/Cold Weather Operations of Surface Ships (1985) Held on 3-4 December 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    POPDIV was an infant on the polar learning curve and at the very end of the supply chain. But the wisdom of deploying from one unit to all regions of...recommendations, there was much discussion about gloves and mittens . Personnel frequently removed them to "get the job done". Lines could not be faked-out early due...cold weather outfit (A-i), consisting of trousers, jacket, hcod and mittens performed extremely well". The Navy submarine extreme cold weather qear was

  17. WRF-Fire: coupled weather-wildland fire modeling with the weather research and forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice L. Coen; Marques Cameron; John Michalakes; Edward G. Patton; Philip J. Riggan; Kara M. Yedinak

    2012-01-01

    A wildland fire behavior module (WRF-Fire) was integrated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) public domain numerical weather prediction model. The fire module is a surface fire behavior model that is two-way coupled with the atmospheric model. Near-surface winds from the atmospheric model are interpolated to a finer fire grid and used, with fuel properties...

  18. Pesticide and trace metals in surface waters and sediments of rivers entering the Corner Inlet Marine National Park, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, Graeme; Allinson, Mayumi; Bui, AnhDuyen; Zhang, Pei; Croatto, George; Wightwick, Adam; Rose, Gavin; Walters, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from up to 17 sites in waterways entering the Corner Inlet Marine National Park monthly between November 2009 and April 2010, with the Chemcatcher passive sampler system deployed at these sites in November 2009 and March 2010. Trace metal concentrations were low, with none occurring at concentrations with the potential for adverse ecological effects. The agrochemical residues data showed the presence of a small number of pesticides at very low concentration (ng/L) in the surface waters of streams entering the Corner Inlet, and as widespread, but still limited contamination of sediments. Concentrations of pesticides detected were relatively low and several orders of magnitude below reported ecotoxicological effect and hazardous concentration values. The low levels of pesticides detected in this study indicate that agricultural industries were responsible agrochemical users. This research project is a rarity in aligning both agrochemical usage data obtained from chemical resellers in the target catchment with residue analysis of environmental samples. Based on frequency of detection and concentrations, prometryn is the priority chemical of concern for both the water and sediments studied, but this chemical was not listed in reseller data. Consequently, the risks may be greater than the field data would suggest, and priorities for monitoring different since some commonly used herbicides (such as glyphosate, phenoxy acid herbicides, and sulfonyl urea herbicides) were not screened. Therefore, researchers, academia, industry, and government need to identify ways to achieve a more coordinated land use approach for obtaining information on the use of chemicals in a catchment, their presence in waterways, and the longer term performance of chemicals, particularly where they are used multiple times in a year.

  19. Landslides as weathering reactors; links between physical erosion and weathering in rapidly eroding mountain belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Galy, A.

    2014-12-01

    The link between physical erosion and chemical weathering is generally modelled with a surface-blanketing weathering zone, where the supply of fresh minerals is tied to the average rate of denudation. In very fast eroding environments, however, sediment production is dominated by landsliding, which acts in a stochastic fashion across the landscape, contrasting strongly with more uniform denudation models. If physical erosion is a driver of weathering at the highest erosion rates, then an alternative weathering model is required. Here we show that landslides can be effective 'weathering reactors'. Previous work modelling the effect of landslides on chemical weathering (Gabet 2007) considered the fresh bedrock surfaces exposed in landslide scars. However, fracturing during the landslide motion generates fresh surfaces, the total surface area of which exceeds that of the exposed scar by many orders of magnitude. Moreover, landslides introduce concavity into hillslopes, which acts to catch precipitation. This is funnelled into a deposit of highly fragmented rock mass with large reactive surface area and limited hydraulic conductivity (Lo et al. 2007). This allows percolating water reaction time for chemical weathering; any admixture of macerated organic debris could yield organic acid to further accelerate weathering. In the South island of New Zealand, seepage from recent landslide deposits has systematically high solute concentrations, far outstripping concentration in runoff from locations where soils are present. River total dissolved load in the western Southern Alps is highly correlated with the rate of recent (<35yrs) landsliding, suggesting that landslides are the dominant locus of weathering in this rapidly eroding landscape. A tight link between landsliding and weathering implies that localized weathering migrates through the landscape with physical erosion; this contrasts with persistent and ubiquitous weathering associated with soil production. Solute

  20. Effects and interactions of medium components on laccase from a marine-derived fungus using response surface methodology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Garg, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    The effects of various synthetic medium components and their interactions with each other ultimately impact laccase production in fungi. This was studied using a laccase-hyper-producing marine-derived basidiomycete, Cerrena unicolor MTCC 5159...

  1. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    If weather is also governed by physical laws, why ... radiate according to Planck's law (higher the temperature of the ..... in vertical motion. • Frictional Forces: In addition to the above forces that tend to produce acceleration, there are forces that retard the motion. These are the frictional forces primarily active near the surface.

  2. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    weather and climate prediction. His interests include understanding variability and predictability of all tropical phenomena including the monsoon. B N Goswami .... change the global average annual mean surface temperature Ts' the external solar forcing ..... Colombia, Toronto, London, Sydney. p 532, 1981. •. A Miller, J C ...

  3. Medium-range fire weather forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.O. Roads; K. Ueyoshi; S.C. Chen; J. Alpert; F. Fujioka

    1991-01-01

    The forecast skill of theNational Meteorological Center's medium range forecast (MRF) numerical forecasts of fire weather variables is assessed for the period June 1,1988 to May 31,1990. Near-surface virtual temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and a derived fire weather index (FWI) are forecast well by the MRF model. However, forecast relative humidity has...

  4. Temperature-dependent remineralization in a warming ocean increases surface pCO2through changes in marine ecosystem composition

    OpenAIRE

    Segschneider, Joachim; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-dependent remineralization of organic matter is, in general, not included in marine biogeochemistry models currently used for CMIP5 climate projections. Associated feedbacks have therefore not been quantified. In this study we aim at investigating how temperature dependent remineralization rates (Q10 = 2) in a warming ocean impact on the marine carbon cycle, and if this may weaken the oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. We perturb an Earth system model used for CMIP5 with temperat...

  5. Surface water temperature data collected from data logger at 1 meter from pier at Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland, New Zealand from 2011-07-10 to 2014-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0127341)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seawater surface temperatures collected adjacent the Leigh Marine Laboratory. Hourly measurements are taken by means of an electronic data logger. The sensor is...

  6. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcillo, M.; Alcantara, J.; Diaz, I.; Chico, B.; Simancas, J.; Fuente, D. de la

    2015-07-01

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy. (Author)

  7. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Schodack Island hydro/weather by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2008-04-25 to 2017-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0163416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163416 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Schodack Island hydro/weather, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  8. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Port of Albany weather/hydro by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2011-01-04 to 2017-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0163364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163364 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Port of Albany weather/hydro, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-07-25 to 2007-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144352 includes Surface underway data collected from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from WECOMA in the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2011-08-12 to 2011-08-30 (NCEI Accession 0157448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157448 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from WECOMA in the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary,...

  11. Centennial-scale surface hydrology off Portugal during marine isotope stage 3: Insights from planktonic foraminiferal fauna variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautravers, Maryline J.; Shackleton, Nicholas J.

    2006-09-01

    The marine isotopic stage 3 (MIS3) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1060 (Gulf Stream) shows both sharp onset and end of interstadials, the existence of very short lived warm events during stadials, and points to differences in detail between the sea surface temperature (SST) record from the western North Atlantic and the atmospheric temperature record inferred from δ18O in Greenland ice. Investigating MIS3 and obtaining comparable data from other locations appears crucial. The eastern Atlantic provides well-documented records of climate changes. We have selected a core from off Portugal and use it to examine Dansgaard/Oeschger events (D/O) at centennial-scale resolution (139 years on average between two data points). We have obtained a faunal data set for core MD01-2444, 37°N, 10°W, 2600 m water depth and use a group of species (Globigerina bulloides + Globigerinita glutinata) as a proxy of upwelling intensity driven by trade winds intensity changes. We tentatively relate the variation of this group to a North Atlantic Oscillation-like phenomenon (NAO) off Portugal. We observe that it resembles the rainfall index in the Caribbean as recorded at ODP Site 1002 (Cariaco Basin) which traces the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) location through changes of terrigenous inputs. The driest intervals (ITZC to the south) at Site 1002 correspond to intervals of increased upwelling in MD01-2444 as well as the driest periods identified during stadials on similar cores in the area. Because the ITZC to the south is consistent with an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO+) situation, our study suggests a positive correlation between ENSO-like conditions and NAO-like conditions at a millennial timescale. During interstadial intervals when increased wetness over Cariaco is recorded (ITCZ to the north) and the upwelling in MD01-2444 is decreased, we see from both SSTs and faunal tropical indicators that MD01-2444 site is warm. In addition, interstadials are equally warm

  12. Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.

  13. WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.

  14. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  15. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health ... Although there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect ...

  16. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  17. Radar Weather Observation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  18. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  19. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  20. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  1. Internet Weather Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) National Telecommunications Gateway provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its...

  2. Space Weather in Operation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Space Weather in Operations” effort will provide on-demand and near-real time space weather event information to the Data Access Toolkit (DAT), which is the...

  3. Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. F.

    2003-12-01

    Silicates constitute more than 90% of the rocks exposed at Earth's land surface (Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971). Most primary minerals comprising these rocks are thermodynamically unstable at surface pressure/temperature conditions and are therefore susceptible to chemical weathering. Such weathering has long been of interest in the natural sciences. Hartt (1853) correctly attributed chemical weathering to "the efficacy of water containing carbonic acid in promoting the decomposition of igneous rocks." Antecedent to the recent interest in the role of vegetation on chemical weathering, Belt (1874) observed that the most intense weathering of rocks in tropical Nicaragua was confined to forested regions. He attributed this effect to "the percolation through rocks of rain water charged with a little acid from decomposing vegetation." Chamberlin (1899) proposed that the enhanced rates of chemical weathering associated with major mountain building episodes in Earth's history resulted in a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 that led to periods of global cooling. Many of the major characteristics of chemical weathering had been described when Merrill (1906) published the groundbreaking volume Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils.The major advances since that time, particularly during the last several decades, have centered on understanding the fundamental chemical, hydrologic, and biologic processes that control weathering and in establishing quantitative weathering rates. This research has been driven by the importance of chemical weathering to a number environmentally and economically important issues. Undoubtedly, the most significant aspect of chemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks to form soils, a process that makes life possible on the surface of the Earth. The availability of many soil macronutrients such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and PO4 is directly related to the rate at which primary minerals weather. Often such nutrient balances are upset by anthropogenic

  4. Risks and advantages of using surface laser photogrammetry on free-ranging marine organisms: a case study on white sharks Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, G; O'Connell, C P; Andreotti, S; Rutzen, M; Vonk Noordegraaf, H

    2015-06-01

    This study employed a non-lethal measurement tool, which combined an existing photo-identification technique with a surface, parallel laser photogrammetry technique, to accurately estimate the size of free-ranging white sharks Carcharodon carcharias. Findings confirmed the hypothesis that surface laser photogrammetry is more accurate than crew-based estimations that utilized a shark cage of known size as a reference tool. Furthermore, field implementation also revealed that the photographer's angle of reference and the shark's body curvature could greatly influence technique accuracy, exposing two limitations. The findings showed minor inconsistencies with previous studies that examined pre-caudal to total length ratios of dead specimens. This study suggests that surface laser photogrammetry can successfully increase length estimation accuracy and illustrates the potential utility of this technique for growth and stock assessments on free-ranging marine organisms, which will lead to an improvement of the adaptive management of the species. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  6. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  7. Weathering: methods and techniques to measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza-Indart, A.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    Surface recession takes place when weathered material is removed from the rocks. In order to know how fast does weathering and erosion occur, a review of several methods, analyses and destructive and non-destructive techniques to measure weathering of rocks caused by physico-chemical changes that occur in bedrocks due to salt crystallization, freezing-thaw, thermal shock, influence of water, wind, temperature or any type of environmental agent leading to weathering processes and development of soils, in-situ in the field or through experimental works in the laboratory are addressed. From micro-scale to macro-scale, from the surface down to more in depth, several case studies on in-situ monitoring of quantification of decay on soils and rocks from natural landscapes (mountains, cliffs, caves, etc) or from urban environment (foundations or facades of buildings, retaining walls, etc) or laboratory experimental works, such as artificial accelerated ageing tests (a.a.e.e.) or durability tests -in which one or more than one weathering agents are selected to assess the material behaviour in time and in a cyclic way- performed on specimens of these materials are summarised. Discoloration, structural alteration, precipitation of weathering products (mass transfer), and surface recession (mass loss) are all products of weathering processes. Destructive (SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, drilling resistance measurement, flexural and compression strength) and Non-destructive (spectrophotocolorimetry, 3D optical surface roughness, Schmidt hammer rebound tester, ultrasound velocity propagation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR, X ray computed micro-tomography or CT-scan, geo-radar differential global positioning systems) techniques and characterization analyses (e.g. water absorption, permeability, open porosity or porosity accessible to water) to assess their morphological, physico-chemical, mechanical and hydric weathering; consolidation products or

  8. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  9. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  10. Importance of the surface reaction OH + Cl− on sea salt aerosol for the chemistry of the marine boundary layer – a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of the hydroxyl radical with chloride on the surface of sea salt aerosol producing gas phase Cl2 and particulate OH− and its implications for the chemistry of the marine boundary layer under coastal, remote, and very remote conditions have been investigated with a numerical model. This reaction had been suggested by Laskin et al. (2003 to play a major role in the sulfur cycle in the marine boundary layer by increasing the sulfate production in sea salt by O3 oxidation due to the additional production of alkalinity in the particle. Based on literature data a new "best estimate" for the rate coefficient of the reaction was deduced and applied, showing that the additional initial sulfate production by this reaction is less than 1%, therefore having only a minor impact on sulfate production. Even though the gas phase concentration of Cl2 increased strongly in the model, the concentration of Cl radicals increased by less than 5% for the "best guess" case. Additional feedbacks between the cycles of chlorine and sulfur in the marine boundary layer are discussed as well as a two-stage acidification of large fresh sea salt aerosol.

  11. Determination of weathering trend using seismic reflection data of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A datum surface was assumed, and a plot of both the shots and geophones elevation above the datum surface along the line gives the surface topography of the area. Subsequently, the weathering thickness along the line was obtained using the elevation velocity obtained, shot depth, weathering velocity and calculated ...

  12. Corrosion processes on weathering steel railway bridge in Prague

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Viktor; Křivý, Vít; Buchta, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    This contribution deals with experimental corrosion tests carried out on the weathering steel railway bridge in Prague. The basic specific property of the weathering steel is an ability to create in favourable environment a protective patina layer on its surface. Since 1968 weathering steel is used under the name “Atmofix” in the Czech Republic and can be used as a standard structural material without any corrosion protection. The weathering steel Atmofix is mostly used for bridge structures ...

  13. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  14. Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Amy Bruno

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

  15. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  16. Modeling Weather Impact on Ground Delay Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Kulkarni, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Scheduled arriving aircraft demand may exceed airport arrival capacity when there is abnormal weather at an airport. In such situations, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) institutes ground-delay programs (GDP) to delay flights before they depart from their originating airports. Efficient GDP planning depends on the accuracy of prediction of airport capacity and demand in the presence of uncertainties in weather forecast. This paper presents a study of the impact of dynamic airport surface weather on GDPs. Using the National Traffic Management Log, effect of weather conditions on the characteristics of GDP events at selected busy airports is investigated. Two machine learning methods are used to generate models that map the airport operational conditions and weather information to issued GDP parameters and results of validation tests are described.

  17. Sunspots, Space Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Four hundred years ago this year the telescope was first used for astronomical observations. Within a year, Galileo in Italy and Harriot in England reported seeing spots on the surface of the Sun. Yet, it took over 230 years of observations before a Swiss amateur astronomer noticed that the sunspots increased and decreased in number over a period of about 11 years. Within 15 years of this discovery of the sunspot cycle astronomers made the first observations of a flare on the surface of the Sun. In the 150 years since that discovery we have learned much about sunspots, the sunspot cycle, and the Sun s explosive events - solar flares, prominence eruptions and coronal mass ejections that usually accompany the sunspots. These events produce what is called Space Weather. The conditions in space are dramatically affected by these events. Space Weather can damage our satellites, harm our astronauts, and affect our lives here on the surface of planet Earth. Long term changes in the sunspot cycle have been linked to changes in our climate as well. In this public lecture I will give an introduction to sunspots, the sunspot cycle, space weather, and the possible impact of solar variability on our climate.

  18. OMI Satellite and Ground-Based Pandora Observations and Their Application to Surface NO2 Estimations at Terrestrial and Marine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollonige, Debra E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Josipovic, Miroslav; Tzortziou, Maria; Beukes, Johan P.; Burger, Roelof; Martins, Douglas K.; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Vakkari, Ville; Laakso, Lauri

    2018-01-01

    The Pandora spectrometer that uses direct-Sun measurements to derive total column amounts of gases provides an approach for (1) validation of satellite instruments and (2) monitoring of total column (TC) ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We use for the first time Pandora and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations to estimate surface NO2 over marine and terrestrial sites downwind of urban pollution and compared with in situ measurements during campaigns in contrasting regions: (1) the South African Highveld (at Welgegund, 26°34'10″S, 26°56'21″E, 1,480 m asl, 120 km southwest of the Johannesburg-Pretoria megacity) and (2) shipboard U.S. mid-Atlantic coast during the 2014 Deposition of Atmospheric Nitrogen to Coastal Ecosystems (DANCE) cruise. In both cases, there were no local NOx sources but intermittent regional pollution influences. For TC NO2, OMI and Pandora difference is 20%, with Pandora higher most times. Surface NO2 values estimated from OMI and Pandora columns are compared to in situ NO2 for both locations. For Welgegund, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, used in converting column to surface NO2 value, has been estimated by three methods: co-located Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations; a model simulation; and radiosonde data from Irene, 150 km northeast of the site. AIRS PBL heights agree within 10% of radiosonde-derived values. Absolute differences between Pandora- and OMI-estimated surface NO2 and the in situ data are better at the terrestrial site ( 0.5 ppbv and 1 ppbv or greater, respectively) than under clean marine air conditions, with differences usually >3 ppbv. Cloud cover and PBL variability influence these estimations.

  19. The road weather bulletin #2 : road weather management publications and training materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This flyer summarizes recent documents and training materials : concerning road weather management and surface transportation published since June 2011. It includes reports, flyers, pamphlets, and training courses to show the progress made in the : m...

  20. Evaporation/SST Sensitivity Over the Tropical Oceans During ENSO Events as Estimated from the da Silva, Young, Levitus Surface Marine Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Fitzjarrald, D. E.; Sohn, B.-J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The da Silva, Young and Levitus Surface Marine Atlas, based on observations from the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) Release 1, has been used to investigate the relationship between evaporation and sea-surface temperature (SST) over the global oceans. For the period 1950 to 1987 SST, surface latent heat flux, and other related variables have been filtered to minimize data uncertainties and to focus upon interannual variations associated with warm (El Nino) and cold (La Nina) ENSO events. Compositing procedures have enabled identification of systematic variations in latent heat fluxes accompanying these events and the relationship to spatial anomalies in ocean surface wind speed and humidity. The evaporation response associated with ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) variability is systematic in nature and composed of offsetting contributions from the surface wind and humidity variations. During warm events exceeding 1.0 S.D. delta SST, increases in the surface humidity deficit, delta(qs-qa), between the surface and 2m height dominate regions of positive SST anomalies and lead to increases in evaporation of almost 2 Wm (exp -2) at deltaSST = 0.23 K. Despite the increases in specific humidity, relative humidity decreases slightly in regions of elevated SSTs. For the most part, variations in wind speed are consistent with previous investigations. Weakening of the equatorial easterlies (and generation of westerlies) between 160 degrees E and 140 degrees W dominates during the early phases of warm events. Elevated wind speeds in adjacent subtropical regions and in the eastern equatorial Pacific subsequently develop too. The net contribution of these winds, which reflect adjustments in Hadley and Walker circulation components is toward reduced evaporation. Results for cold periods are approximately similar, but opposite in sign to warm events, though evidence of different temporal evolution is noted.

  1. Computing tomorrow's weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The development of computer models that simulate the Earth's atmosphere, allowing us to predict weather and anticipate climate change, is one of the triumphs of 20th-century science. Weather forecasting used to be very hit-and-miss, based on rough rules of thumb and the assumption that similar weather patterns would evolve in a similar manner. But from 1950 onwards, digital computers revolutionized the field, transforming it from a woolly empirical activity to a precise, quantitative, science-based procedure. Weather forecasting was among the first computational sciences and is still a major application for high-end computers today. In Weather by the Numbers, the historian Kristine Harper tells the fascinating story of how numerical weather prediction became possible.

  2. Six years of surface remote sensing of stratiform warm clouds in marine and continental air over Mace Head, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preißler, Jana; Martucci, Giovanni; Saponaro, Giulia; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Vaishya, Aditya; Kolmonen, Pekka; Ceburnis, Darius; Sogacheva, Larisa; de Leeuw, Gerrit; O'Dowd, Colin

    2016-12-01

    A total of 118 stratiform water clouds were observed by ground-based remote sensing instruments at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland from 2009 to 2015. Microphysical and optical characteristics of these clouds were studied as well as the impact of aerosols on these properties. Microphysical and optical cloud properties were derived using the algorithm SYRSOC (SYnergistic Remote Sensing Of Clouds). Ground-based in situ measurements of aerosol concentrations and the transport path of air masses at cloud level were investigated as well. The cloud properties were studied in dependence of the prevailing air mass at cloud level and season. We found higher cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC) and smaller effective radii (reff) with greater pollution. Median CDNC ranged from 60 cm-3 in marine air masses to 160 cm-3 in continental air. Median reff ranged from 8 μm in polluted conditions to 10 μm in marine air. Effective droplet size distributions were broader in marine than in continental cases. Cloud optical thickness (COT) and albedo were lower in cleaner air masses and higher in more polluted conditions, with medians ranging from 2.1 to 4.9 and 0.22 to 0.39, respectively. However, calculation of COT and albedo was strongly affected by liquid water path (LWP) and departure from adiabatic conditions. A comparison of SYRSOC results with MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) observations showed large differences for LWP and COT but good agreement for reff with a linear fit with slope near 1 and offset of -1 μm.

  3. Zircon (U-Th)/He Thermochronometric Constraints on Himalayan Thrust Belt Exhumation, Bedrock Weathering, and Cenozoic Seawater Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleps, Cody L.; McKenzie, N. Ryan; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hughes, Nigel C.; Singh, Birendra P.; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Myrow, Paul M.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Horton, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    Shifts in global seawater 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr are often utilized as proxies to track global weathering processes responsible for CO2 fluctuations in Earth history, particularly climatic cooling during the Cenozoic. It has been proposed, however, that these isotopic records instead reflect the weathering of chemically distinctive Himalayan lithologies exposed at the surface. We present new zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometric and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic evidence from the Himalaya of northwest India to explore these contrasting interpretations concerning the driving mechanisms responsible for these seawater records. Our data demonstrate in-sequence southward thrust propagation with rapid exhumation of Lesser Himalayan strata enriched in labile 187Os and relatively less in radiogenic 87Sr at ˜16 Ma, which directly corresponds with coeval shifts in seawater 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr. Results presented here provide substantial evidence that the onset of exhumation of 187Os-enriched Lesser Himalayan strata could have significantly impacted the marine 187Os/188Os record at 16 Ma. These results support the hypothesis that regional weathering of isotopically unique source rocks can drive seawater records independently from shifts in global-scale weathering rates, hindering the utility of these records as reliable proxies to track global weathering processes and climate in deep geologic time.

  4. Space Weather Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Space Weather Analysis archives are model output of ionospheric, thermospheric and magnetospheric particle populations, energies and electrodynamics

  5. Weather it's Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, A.; Lashof, D.

    2004-12-01

    For almost two decades both national polls and in-depth studies of global warming perceptions have shown that people commonly conflate weather and global climate change. Not only are current weather events such as anecdotal heat waves, droughts or cold spells treated as evidence for or against global warming, but weather changes such as warmer weather and increased storm intensity and frequency are the consequences most likely to come to mind. Distinguishing weather from climate remains a challenge for many. This weather 'framing' of global warming may inhibit behavioral and policy change in several ways. Weather is understood as natural, on an immense scale that makes controlling it difficult to conceive. Further, these attributes contribute to perceptions that global warming, like weather, is uncontrollable. This talk presents an analysis of data from public opinion polls, focus groups, and cognitive studies regarding people's mental models of and 'frames' for global warming and climate change, and the role weather plays in these. This research suggests that priming people with a model of global warming as being caused by a "thickening blanket of carbon dioxide" that "traps heat" in the atmosphere solves some of these communications problems and makes it more likely that people will support policies to address global warming.

  6. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  7. Consolidation of weathered limestone using nanolime

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce, Giovanni Luca; Morgan, Deborah; Odgers, David; Henry, Alison; Allen, Mollie; Ball, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Limestone sourced from Salisbury Cathedral and Bath Abbey (UK) was treated with commercially available nanolime of concentration 25 g/l. The response of the stones to the treatment was studied using a variety of analysis techniques including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, drilling resistance measurement and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Weathered and non-weathered surfaces of both types of stones were compared. All the specimens were characterised before and after the treatment to ...

  8. A 1200 Year Alkenone-based Reconstruction of Sea Surface Temperature and Marine Productivity in the Southern California Current System from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, N. A.; Kelly, C. S.; Herbert, T.

    2017-12-01

    Laminated sediment cores taken from the San Lazaro Basin (SLB) (25.18N, 112.66W) located off the coast of Baja California in the subtropical eastern Pacific were geochemically analyzed for alkenone and sterol biomarkers to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST) and marine productivity from 850-1980 CE. High sedimentation rates, low bottom water dissolved oxygen, and high marine productivity in combination with the San Lazaro Basin's location within the dynamic transition zone between the tropical and subtropical eastern Pacific, make it a prime location to study variability of tropical and subtropical modes of climate variability. This study focuses on the impacts and variability of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on the subtropical eastern Pacific. SST and coccolithophore productivity (n=730) for 2 mm sections of sediment corresponding to 1 measurement every 1.8 years were reconstructed using the Uk'37 unsaturation index and C37 alkenone concentration. The high resolution of this record allowed for the analysis of variability of SST and productivity on decadal timescales. Brassicasterol concentrations were calculated for a limited number of samples (n=44) to assess diatom productivity. High spectral power was found at periods of 20-30 years in SST and productivity records indicating a strong influence of the PDO on the SLB, making this the first marine based record directly relevant to PDO reconstructions that continuously spans the last millennium. Cool and productive (warm and less productive) waters were observed in the southern California Current in the Medieval Climate Anomaly 900-1200 CE (Little Ice Age 1400-1800 CE) supporting previous reconstructions that warmer (cooler) SST are linked to both reduced (enhanced) phytoplankton productivity. Additionally, cool (warm) SST were also associated with dry (wet) conditions in the American Southwest indicating that changes in the PDO has had a significant impact on drought

  9. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  10. Topographic imprint on chemical weathering in deeply weathered soil-mantled landscapes (southern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Veerle; Schoonejans, Jerome; Ameijeiras-Marino, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Minella, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The regolith mantle is defined as the thin layer of unconsolidated material overlaying bedrock that contributes to shape the Earth's surface. The development of the regolith mantle in a landscape is the result of in-situ weathering, atmospheric input and downhill transport of weathering products. Bedrock weathering - the physical and chemical transformations of rock to soil - contributes to the vertical development of the regolith layer through downward propagation of the weathering front. Lateral transport of soil particles, aggregates and solutes by diffusive and concentrated particle and solute fluxes result in lateral redistribution of weathering products over the hillslope. In this study, we aim to expand the empirical basis on long-term soil evolution at the landscape scale through a detailed study of soil weathering in subtropical soils. Spatial variability in chemical mass fluxes and weathering intensity were studied along two toposequences with similar climate, lithology and vegetation but different slope morphology. This allowed us to isolate the topographic imprint on chemical weathering and soil development. The toposequences have convexo-concave slope morphology, and eight regolith profiles were analysed involving the flat upslope, steep midslope and flat toeslope part. Our data show a clear topographic imprint on soil development. Along hillslope, the chemical weathering intensity of the regolith profiles increases with distance from the crest. In contrast to the upslope positions, the soils in the basal concavities develop on in-situ and transported regolith. While the chemical weathering extent on the slope convexities (the upslope profiles) is similar for the steep and gentle toposequence, there is a clear difference in the rate of increase of the chemical weathering extent with distance from the crest. The increase of chemical weathering extent along hillslope is highest for the steep toposequence, suggesting that topography enhances soil particle

  11. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  12. Fabulous Weather Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  13. Tales of future weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.; Min, E.; van Oldenborgh, G.J.; Wang, X.; Petersen, A.C.; Stainforth, D.A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The

  14. Estimating Surface Area of Sponges and Marine Gorgonians as Indicators of Habitat Availability on Caribbean Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface area and topographical complexity are fundamental attributes of shallow tropical coral reefs and can be used to estimate habitat for fish and invertebrates. This study presents empirical methods for estimating surface area provided by sponges and gorgonians in the Central...

  15. Dynamic surface deformation of silicone elastomers for management of marine biofouling: laboratory and field studies using pneumatic actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivapooja, Phanindhar; Wang, Qiming; Szott, Lizzy M; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Daniel; Zhao, Xuanhe; López, Gabriel P

    2015-01-01

    Many strategies have been developed to improve the fouling release (FR) performance of silicone coatings. However, biofilms inevitably build on these surfaces over time. Previous studies have shown that intentional deformation of silicone elastomers can be employed to detach biofouling species. In this study, inspired by the methods used in soft-robotic systems, controlled deformation of silicone elastomers via pneumatic actuation was employed to detach adherent biofilms. Using programmed surface deformation, it was possible to release > 90% of biofilm from surfaces in both laboratory and field environments. A higher substratum strain was required to remove biofilms accumulated in the field environment as compared with laboratory-grown biofilms. Further, the study indicated that substratum modulus influences the strain needed to de-bond biofilms. Surface deformation-based approaches have potential for use in the management of biofouling in a number of technological areas, including in niche applications where pneumatic actuation of surface deformation is feasible.

  16. The weathering of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash evaluated by some weathering indices for natural rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    The weathering of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues consists of complicated phenomena. This makes it difficult to describe leaching behaviors of major and trace elements in fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash, which was relevant interactively to pH neutralization and formation of secondary minerals. In this study, mineralogical weathering indices for natural rock profiles were applied to fresh/landfilled MSWI bottom ash to investigate the relation of these weathering indices to landfill time and leaching concentrations of component elements. Tested mineralogical weathering indices were Weathering Potential Index (WPI), Ruxton ratio (R), Weathering Index of Parker (WIP), Vogt's Residual Index (V), Chemical Index of Alternation (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), Plagioclase Index of Alternation (PIA), Silica-Titania Index (STI), Weathering Index of Miura (Wm), and Weatherability index of Hodder (Ks). Welch's t-test accepted at 0.2% of significance level that all weathering indices could distinguish fresh and landfilled MSWI bottom ash. However, R and STI showed contrasted results for landfilled bottom ash to theoretical expectation. WPI, WIP, Wm, and Ks had good linearity with reclamation time of landfilled MSWI bottom ash. Therefore, these four indices might be applicable as an indicator to identify fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash and to estimate weathering time. Although WPI had weak correlation with leachate pH, other weathering indices had no significant correlation. In addition, all weathering indices could not explain leaching concentration of Al, Ca, Cu, and Zn quantitatively. Large difficulty to modify weathering indices correctly suggests that geochemical simulation including surface sorption, complexation with DOM, and other mechanisms seems to be the only way to describe leaching behaviors of major and trace elements in fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  18. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G

    2011-01-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  19. Combining surface weathering analyses and cosmogenic 36Cl dating on the Pisia fault plane (Eastern Gulf of Corinth) to reveal the Holocene earthquake history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechernich, Silke; Schneiderwind, Sascha; Mason, Jack; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Binnie, Steven A.; Dunai, Tibor J.; Reicherter, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The deformation of the Corinth rift (Greece) is distributed along several E-W trending active normal faults like the 25-km-long Pisia fault, which experienced up to 110 cm of coseismic displacement during the 1981 Alkyonides earthquake sequence (Mw 6.7). Ages of paleoearthquakes and slip rate estimates of the Pisia fault are not known so far, despite the faults recent strong shaking and its significant destruction that reached until Athens. We mapped the continuous bedrock fault scarp of the central Pisia fault and revealed at least six different weathering stripes, which are interpreted as coseismic slip that stepwise exhumed the Pisia fault plane. The stripes were detected by color changes, lichen colonization, karst features (pitting and solution flute termination), and by the laser backscatter intensity. Their width and thus the amount of coseismic displacement ranges from 50-110 cm suggesting that six to seven paleoearthquakes of Mw 6.5-6.7 have exhumed the lower 5.15 m of the free-face. Forward modeling of 32 36Cl concentrations indicates that the Pisia fault moved at an average slip rate of 0.7 mm/yr during the Holocene. Modeled ages of individual earthquake events reveal recurrence intervals ranging between 0.2 and 3.1 kyr and a declined tectonic activity from this fault during the past 4.5 kyr. The exposure time in between most events was too narrow to be able to differentiate consecutive events based on cusps in the cosmogenic 36Cl concentrations as there is a rather low local 36Cl production rate (38°N, 625 m a.s.l.). Since such recurrence intervals and earthquake clustering phenomena appear to be quite common on active faults, mapping of independent offset features are often necessary to accurately restore the earthquake history on similarly located bedrock fault planes.

  20. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey: Land cover and surface energy budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, P.S.; Steyaert, L.T.; Walko, R.L.; Waever, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    The 19th-century agrarian landscape of New Jersey (NJ) and the surrounding region has been extensively transformed to the present-day land cover by urbanization, reforestation, and localized areas of deforestation. This study used a mesoscale atmospheric numerical model to investigate the sensitivity of the warm season climate of NJ to these land cover changes. Reconstructed 1880s-era and present-day land cover data sets were used as surface boundary conditions for a set of simulations performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Three-member ensembles with historical and present-day land cover were compared to examine the sensitivity of surface air and dew point temperatures, rainfall, and the individual components of the surface energy budget to these land cover changes. Mean temperatures for the present-day landscape were 0.3-0.6??C warmer than for the historical landscape over a considerable portion of NJ and the surrounding region, with daily maximum temperatures at least 1.0??C warmer over some of the highly urbanized locations. Reforested regions, however, were slightly cooler. Dew point temperatures decreased by 0.3-0.6??C, suggesting drier, less humid near-surface air for the present-day landscape. Surface warming was generally associated with repartitioning of net radiation from latent to sensible heat flux, and conversely for cooling. While urbanization was accompanied by strong surface albedo decreases and increases in net shortwave radiation, reforestation and potential changes in forest composition have generally increased albedos and also enhanced landscape heterogeneity. The increased deciduousness of forests may have further reduced net downward longwave radiation. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Elemental sulfur and thiosulfate disproportionation by Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium isolated from marine surface sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Liesack, Werner; Thamdrup, Bo

    1998-01-01

    A mesophilic, anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium, strain SB164P1, was enriched and isolated from oxidized marine surface sediment with elemental sulfur as the sole energy substrate in the presence of ferrihydrite. Elemental sulfur was disproportionated to hydrogen sulfide and sulfate. Growth...... was observed exclusively in the presence of a hydrogen sulfide scavenger, e.g., ferrihydrite. In the absence of a scavenger, sulfide and sulfate production were observed but no growth occurred. Strain SB164P1 grew also by disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite. With thiosulfate, the growth efficiency...... was higher in ferrihydrite-supplemented media than in media without ferrihydrite. Growth coupled to sulfate reduction was not observed. However, a slight sulfide production occurred in cultures incubated with formate and sulfate. Strain SB164P1 is the first bacterium described that grows...

  2. Controls on salt mobility and storage in the weathered dolerites of north-east Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Margaret; Moore, Leah

    2014-05-01

    Changes in land use and vegetation due to agriculture, forestry practices and urbanisation can mobilise naturally occurring salts in the landscape and accelerate the expression of land and water salinisation, potentially threatening built and natural assets. Some salts are released during rock weathering or are derived from marine sediments or wind-blown dust, but in Tasmania most originate from salt dissolved in rainfall that is concentrated during evaporation. The volume of salts deposited over north-east Tasmania from precipitation exceeds 70kg/ha/year. The dominant lithology of the salt affected regions in Tasmania is dolerite which breaks down to form secondary minerals including: smectite and kaolinite clays and Fe-bearing sesquioxides. The weathering of Tasmanian dolerites, sampled from fresh corestones, weathering rinds and sequentially through the soil horizon, has been examined petrographically and geochemically. The EC1:5 increases with weathering to a maximum 4.9 dS/m and decreases in the pedogenic zone. This confirms field observations that deeply weathered dolerite can serve as a significant store for salt in the landscape. The water associated with dolerite weathering is typically a bicarbonate fluid. The pH1:5 decreases as the samples weather and increases in the pedogenic zone. Clay content increases with distance from corestones (sandy clay loam to heavy clay), and this is also reflected in the density (2.6-1.3 gm/cm3) and loss on ignition (1.3-13.3 wt%). The patterns for Na are complicated as it is enriched through NaCl accession and removed during the weathering of plagioclase. The net enrichment of Cl (up to 5239 ppm) implies decoupling of Cl from Na during weathering. Potassium, Ca and Sr are mobilised from the profile as plagioclase weathers, and silica is progressively lost from the profile with the weathering of silicate phases. Iron is initially mobilised with the weathering of pyroxene and mafic accessory minerals, but is rapidly fixed in

  3. Experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the phase averaged performance characteristics of marine current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Flack, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies describing the interaction between marine current turbines and an overlying surface gravity wave field. In this work we present an experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the wave phase averaged performance characteristics of a marine current turbine model. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D=0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large (116m long) towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy equipped with a dual-flap, servo-controlled wave maker. Three regular waves with wavelengths of 15.8, 8.8 and 3.9m with wave heights adjusted such that all waveforms have the same energy input per unit width are produced by the wave maker and model turbine is towed into the waves at constant carriage speed of 1.68 m/s. This representing the case of waves travelling in the same direction as the mean current. Thrust and torque developed by the model turbine are measured using a dynamometer mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using in in-house designed shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Free surface elevation and wave parameters are measured with two optical wave height sensors, one located in the turbine rotor plane and other one diameter upstream of the rotor. All instruments are synchronized in time and data is sampled at a rate of 700 Hz. All measured quantities are conditionally sampled as a function of the measured surface elevation and transformed to wave phase space using the Hilbert Transform. Phenomena observed in earlier experiments with the same turbine such as phase lag in the torque signal and an increase in thrust due to Stokes drift are examined and presented with the present data as well as spectral analysis of the torque and thrust data.

  4. Pioneer marine biofilms on artificial surfaces including antifouling coatings immersed in two contrasting French Mediterranean coast sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Jean-François; Djeridi, Ikram; Jamet, Dominique; Coupé, Stéphane; Bressy, Christine; Molmeret, Maëlle; Le Berre, Brigitte; Rimet, Frédéric; Bouchez, Agnès; Blache, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Marine biofilm communities that developed on artificial substrata were investigated using molecular and microscopic approaches. Polystyrene, Teflon® and four antifouling (AF) paints were immersed for 2 weeks at two contrasting sites near Toulon on the French Mediterranean coast (Toulon military harbour and the natural protected area of Porquerolles Island). Biofilms comprising bacteria and diatoms were detected on all the coatings. The population structure as well as the densities of the microorganisms differed in terms of both sites and coatings. Lower fouling densities were observed at Porquerolles Island compared to Toulon harbour. All bacterial communities (analysed by PCR-DGGE) showed related structure, controlled both by the sites and the type of substrata. Pioneer microalgal communities were dominated by the same two diatom species, viz. Licmophora gracilis and Cylindrotheca closterium, at both sites, irrespective of the substrata involved. However, the density of diatoms followed the same trend at both sites with a significant effect of all the AF coatings compared to Teflon and polystyrene.

  5. Organic biomarker records spanning the last 34,800 years from the southeastern Brazilian upper slope: links between sea surface temperature, displacement of the Brazil Current, and marine productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Rafael André; de Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch; Wainer, Ilana Elazari Klein Coaracy; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2016-10-01

    Collective assessment of marine and terrigenous organic biomarkers was performed on a sediment core spanning the last 34,800 years on the upper slope southeast of Brazil to verify the signatures of climatic variations in sea surface temperature (SST), marine productivity, and the flux of terrigenous material in this region. This evaluation is based on marine and terrigenous proxies including alkenones, chlorins, aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alcohols, and fatty acids. This first report of organic biomarker data for this region confirms a correlation between SST, changes in terrigenous organic matter flow into the ocean, and marine productivity over the last 34.8 ka as a response to the displacement of the Brazil Current. Conditions prevailing during marine isotopic stage (MIS) 3 may be considered intermediate between the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Late Holocene. For MIS 2, a period of low relative sea level, it was verified that the lowest SSTs were associated with the LGM and higher marine productivity. SST increased by up to 4.4 °C between the LGM and the Holocene. This reveals synchronicity between SST on the southeastern Brazilian upper slope and the North Atlantic Ocean SST records reported in earlier studies.

  6. Weather Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  7. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  8. Space Weather Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...

  9. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  10. Waste glass weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass

  11. National Weather Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Daily Briefing Damage/Fatality/Injury Statistics Forecast Models GIS Data Portal NOAA Weather Radio Publications SKYWARN Storm Spotters StormReady TsunamiReady EDUCATION Be A Force of Nature NWS Education Home ...

  12. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  13. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  14. 3-Dimensional Weather Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Nimitz, Sarah; Forsyth, Duke; Knittle, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Senior Design Project presentation and report for CS 4624 Multimedia/Hypertext Capstone. Two Zip archives also are provided, with software for each of the front and back end parts of the system. Project deliverables are provided, including a detailed description of the creation of a polling and parsing system for keeping track of severe weather warnings, as delivered by the National Weather Service, and an interface to allow the user to view a representation of Doppler radar data in three ...

  15. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect...... information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an operational nowcasting product called 'Precipitating Clouds' based on Meteosat-8 input is used. A scale...

  16. Climatic Study of the Marine Surface Wind Field over the Greek Seas with the Use of a High Resolution RCM Focusing on Extreme Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Vagenas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine surface wind field (10 m over the Greek seas is analyzed in this study using The RegCM. The model’s spatial resolution is dynamically downscaled to 10 km × 10 km, in order to simulate more efficiently the complex coastlines and the numerous islands of Greece. Wind data for the 1980–2000 and 2080–2100 periods are produced and evaluated against real observational data from 15 island and coastal meteorological stations in order to assess the model’s ability to reproduce the main characteristics of the surface wind fields. RegCM model shows a higher simulating skill to project seasonal wind speeds and direction during summer and the lowest simulating skill in the cold period of the year. Extreme wind speed thresholds were estimated using percentiles indices and three Peak Over Threshold (POT techniques. The mean threshold values of the three POT methods are used to examine the inter-annual distribution of extreme winds in the study region. The highest thresholds were observed in three poles; the northeast, the southeast, and the southwest of Aegean Sea. Future changes in extreme speeds show a general increase in the Aegean Sea, while lower thresholds are expected in the Ionian Sea. Return levels for periods of 20, 50, 100, and 200 years are estimated.

  17. Natural radionuclides tracing in marine surface waters along the northern coast of Oman Sea by combining the radioactivity analysis, oceanic currents and the SWAN model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Tari, Marziyeh; Mosayebi, Sanaz; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study estimates radioactive pollution diffusion in coastline of the Oman Sea. • 36 high volume surface water samples were analyzed using a portable HPGe detector. • Oceanic currents in the northern coast of Oman Sea were investigated. • The spectral wave model SWAN was used for wave parameters simulation. • Currents and preferable wave directions were coupled with higher radioactivity. - Abstract: This study aims to establish a managed sampling plan for rapid estimate of natural radio-nuclides diffusion in the northern coast of the Oman Sea. First, the natural radioactivity analysis in 36 high volume surface water samples was carried out using a portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Second, the oceanic currents in the northern coast were investigated. Then, the third generation spectral SWAN model was utilized to simulate wave parameters. Direction of natural radioactivity propagation was coupled with the preferable wave vectors and oceanic currents direction that face to any marine pollution, these last two factors will contribute to increase or decrease of pollution in each grid. The results were indicated that the natural radioactivity concentration between the grids 8600 and 8604 is gathered in the grid 8600 and between the grids 8605 and 8608 is propagated toward middle part of Oman Sea

  18. Computed Tomography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to study the internal structure and measure weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza-Indart, A.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    Outdoor stone heritage is prone to decay due to its direct exposure to weathering agents such us thermal shock caused by isolation processes, salt crystallization phenomena, atmospheric pollutants effects on stone surfaces, freezing and thawing cycles or biodeterioration o decay provoked by biogenic activity. These damages use to affect the surface of the objects or elements causing de-cohesions (flaking, spallings, grain disintegration), material loss or color changes, but also use to affect the internal structure of the objects, although they are not visible, causing internal pressures, fissures and fractures, mineral transformations or inner biodeterioration compromising objects conservation. For this reason, the study of the internal structure of the objects is necessary to establish its weathering and conservation state, to determine its restoration needs and achieve its conservation. Moreover, in cultural heritage where the originality of the objects and their historical or artistic values are so important the use of non-destructive techniques result necessary for their study without causing any damage by sampling. In this work X ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) are used to analyze rock samples (dolostones used in historical buildings from Central Spain and Madrid both in the city and in the province) subjected to different artificial accelerated ageing tests (thermal shock, salt crystallization, freezing and thawing cycles and marine aerosol) to simulate the most common outdoor heritage deterioration scenarios. The changes in the internal structure and pore system modifications are studied with these non-destructive techniques. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (both imaging and relaxometry) experiments were performed in stone specimens to observe and to quantify the location and distribution of water inside the objects, been able to analyze pore size and location. X ray Computed Tomography was used for visualizing and locating

  19. Verification of operational weather forecasts from the POSEIDON system across the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papadopoulos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The POSEIDON weather forecasting system became operational at the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR in October 1999. The system with its nesting capability provided 72-h forecasts in two different model domains, i.e. 25- and 10-km grid spacing. The lower-resolution domain covered an extended area that included most of Europe, Mediterranean Sea and N. Africa, while the higher resolution domain focused on the Eastern Mediterranean. A major upgrade of the system was recently implemented in the framework of the POSEIDON-II project (2005–2008. The aim was to enhance the forecasting skill of the system through improved model parameterization schemes and advanced numerical techniques for assimilating available observations to produce high resolution analysis fields. The configuration of the new system is applied on a horizontal resolution of 1/20°×1/20° (~5 km covering the Mediterranean basin, Black Sea and part of North Atlantic providing up to 5-day forecasts. This paper reviews and compares the current with the previous weather forecasting systems at HCMR presenting quantitative verification statistics from the pre-operational period (from mid-November 2007 to October 2008. The statistics are based on verification against surface observations from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO network across the Eastern Mediterranean region. The results indicate that the use of the new system can significantly improve the weather forecasts.

  20. Effects of Antioxidants on Photodegradation of Wood Flour/Polypropylene Composites during Artificial Weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Peng; Ru Liu; Jinzhen Cao

    2014-01-01

    The influence of antioxidants and of their compound systems were evaluated relative to the photodegradation of wood flour/polypropylene (WF/PP) composites using ultraviolet accelerated weathering. Six groups of samples were exposed in an accelerated weathering tester for a total duration of 960 h. The surface color, gloss, and flexural properties of the samples during weathering were tested. In addition, the weathered surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differen...

  1. Micro weather stations for in situ measurements in the Martian planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, D.; Kaiser, W. J.; Kenny, T. W.; Vanzandt, T. R.; Tillman, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Viking Lander meteorology measurements show that the Martian planetary boundary layer (PBL) has large diurnal and seasonal variations in pressure, wind velocity, relative humidity, and airborne dust loading. An even larger range of conditions was inferred from remote sensing observations acquired by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters. Numerical models indicate that these changes may be accompanied by dramatic vertical and horizontal wind shears (100 m/s/km) and rapid changes in the static stability. In-situ measurements from a relatively small number surface stations could yield global constraints on the Martian climate and atmospheric general circulation by providing ground truth for remote sensing instruments on orbiters. A more complete understanding of the meteorology of the PBL is an essential precursor to manned missions to Mars because this will be their working environment. In-situ measurements are needed for these studies because the spatial and temporal scales that characterize the important meteorological processes near the surface cannot be resolved from orbit. The Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Program will provide the first opportunity to deploy a network of surface weather stations for a comprehensive investigation of the Martian PBL. The feasibility and utility of a network of micro-weather stations for making in-situ meteorological measurements in the Martian PBL are assessed.

  2. Marine Aerosols and Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah D; Thornton, Daniel C O

    2018-01-03

    The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gas-phase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean. Understanding the formation of marine aerosols and their propensity to catalyze cloud formation processes are challenges that must be addressed given the major uncertainties associated with aerosols in climate models.

  3. Marine Aerosols and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah D.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.

    2018-01-01

    The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gas-phase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean. Understanding the formation of marine aerosols and their propensity to catalyze cloud formation processes are challenges that must be addressed given the major uncertainties associated with aerosols in climate models.

  4. Mobility of nutrients and trace metals during weathering in the late Archean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jihua; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Hazen, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    The evolution of the geosphere and biosphere depends on the availability of bio-essential nutrients and trace metals. Consequently, the chemical and isotopic variability of trace elements in the sedimentary record have been widely used to infer the existence of early life and fluctuations in the near-surface environment on the early Earth, particularly fluctuations in the redox state of the atmosphere. In this study, we applied late Archean weathering models (Hao et al., 2017), developed to estimate the behavior of major elements and the composition of late Archean world average river water, to explore the behavior of nutrient and trace metals and their potential for riverine transport. We focused on P, Mn, Cr, and Cu during the weathering of olivine basalt. In our standard late Archean weathering model (pCO2,g = 10-1.5 bars, pH2,g = 10-5.0 bars), crustal apatite was totally dissolved by the acidic rainwater during weathering. Our model quantitatively links the pCO2,g of the atmosphere to phosphate levels transported by rivers. The development of late Archean river water (pH = 6.4) resulted in riverine phosphate of at least 1.7 μmolar, much higher than at the present-day. At the end of the early Proterozoic snowball Earth event when pCO2,g could be 0.01-0.10 bars, river water may have transported up to 70 μmolar phosphate, depending on the availability of apatite, thereby stimulating high levels of oxygenic photosynthesis in the marine environment. Crustal levels of Mn in olivine dissolved completely during weathering, except at large extents of weathering where Mn was stored as a component of a secondary carbonate mineral. The corresponding Mn content of river water, about 1.2 μmolar, is higher than in modern river water. Whiffs of 10-5 mole O2 gas or HNO3 kg-1 H2O resulted in the formation of pyrolusite (MnO2) and abundant hematite and simultaneous dramatic decreases in the concentration of Mn(II) in the river water. Chromite dissolution resulted in negligible

  5. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 5. Mountain range specific ... Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model is developed utilizing surface weather observations of reference stations in each mountain range in northwest Himalaya (NW-Himalaya).The model searches past ...

  6. Contribution of seasonal sub-Antarctic surface water variability to millennial-scale changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last deglaciation and Marine Isotope Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2015-02-01

    The Southern Ocean is thought to have played a key role in past atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2,atm) changes. Three main factors are understood to control the Southern Ocean's influence on CO2,atm, via their impact on surface ocean pCO2 and therefore regional ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes: 1) the efficiency of air-sea gas exchange, which may be attenuated by seasonal- or annual sea-ice coverage or the development of a shallow pycnocline; 2) the supply of CO2-rich water masses from the sub-surface and the deep ocean, which is associated with turbulent mixing and surface buoyancy- and/or wind forcing; and 3) biological carbon fixation, which depends on nutrient availability and is therefore influenced by dust deposition and/or upwelling. In order to investigate the possible contributions of these processes to millennial-scale CO2,atm variations during the last glacial and deglacial periods, we make use of planktonic foraminifer census counts and stable oxygen- and carbon isotope measurements in the planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides and Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) from marine sediment core MD07-3076Q in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic. These data are interpreted on the basis of a comparison of core-top and modern seawater isotope data, which permits an assessment of the seasonal biases and geochemical controls on the stable isotopic compositions of G. bulloides and N. pachyderma (s.). Based on a comparison of our down-core results with similar data from the Southeast Atlantic (Cape Basin) we infer past basin-wide changes in the surface hydrography of the sub-Antarctic Atlantic. We find that millennial-scale rises in CO2,atm over the last 70 ka are consistently linked with evidence for increased spring upwelling, and enhanced summer air-sea exchange in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic. Parallel evidence for increased summer export production would suggest that seasonal changes in upwelling and air-sea exchange exerted a dominant influence on surface pCO2 in

  7. Weather derivatives: Business hedge instrument from weather risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1990s, a new financial market was developed - a market for weather derivatives, so that the risk managers could hedge their exposure to weather risk. After a rather slow start, the weather derivatives market had started to grow rapidly. Risk managers could no longer blame poor financial results on the weather. Weather risk could now be removed by hedging procedure. This paper will explain briefly what the weather derivatives are and will point out at some of the motives for use of derivatives. Thereafter we will look at the history of the weather risk market, how the weather derivatives market has developed in recent years and also who are the current and potential players in the weather derivatives market.

  8. Comparative Study on Assimilating Remote Sensing High Frequency Radar Surface Currents at an Atlantic Marine Renewable Energy Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of data assimilation approaches have been applied to enhance modelling capability and accuracy using observations from different sources. The algorithms have varying degrees of complexity of implementation, and they improve model results with varying degrees of success. Very little work has been carried out on comparing the implementation of different data assimilation algorithms using High Frequency radar (HFR data into models of complex inshore waters strongly influenced by both tides and wind dynamics, such as Galway Bay. This research entailed implementing four different data assimilation algorithms: Direct Insertion (DI, Optimal Interpolation (OI, Nudging and indirect data assimilation via correcting model forcing into a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and carrying out detailed comparisons of model performances. This work will allow researchers to directly compare four of the most common data assimilation algorithms being used in operational coastal hydrodynamics. The suitability of practical data assimilation algorithms for hindcasting and forecasting in shallow coastal waters subjected to alternate wetting and drying using data collected from radars was assessed. Results indicated that a forecasting system of surface currents based on the three-dimensional model EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code and the HFR data using a Nudging or DI algorithm was considered the most appropriate for Galway Bay. The largest averaged Data Assimilation Skill Score (DASS over the ≥6 h forecasting period from the best model NDA attained 26% and 31% for east–west and north–south surface velocity components respectively. Because of its ease of implementation and its accuracy, this data assimilation system can provide timely and useful information for various practical coastal hindcast and forecast operations.

  9. A new prediction model of daily weather elements in Hainan province under the typhoon weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruixu; Gao, Wensheng; Zhang, Bowen; Chen, Qinzhu; Liang, Yafeng; Yao, Dong; Han, Laijun; Liao, Xinzheng; Li, Ruihai

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a new prediction model for severe natural disasters, especially typhoon using daily weather analysis. Hainan province in China is selected to be a typical application region, where natural disasters, especially typhoons take place frequently. These disasters have great impacts on the life and property safety of the residents, and therefore are in specific need of accurate prediction. A new prediction model of daily weather in Hainan province under the typhoon weather is proposed in this paper based on the best track datasets of typhoons and the corresponding daily weather data. This model utilizes the statistical methods and data mining technology in combination with the dynamic migration information of tropical cyclones and can provide the dynamic prediction of daily weather elements in any designated location. Three surface meteorological observation stations of Hainan province during the years 1951-1920 are used to test the model. Test results show that the prediction equations established for the vast majority of daily weather elements have passed the significant test. Besides, Typhoon Damrey is used as a case to illustrate the whole daily weather prediction model in detail and comparisons between the model and other official forecast (such as JTWC, UKMO and CMA) are performed thoroughly. It is worth noting that the model proposed in this paper is not limited to Hainan province and can be generalized to other areas in the world.

  10. The New Space Weather Action Center; the Next Level on Space Weather Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Lewis, E. M.; Cline, T. D.; MacDonald, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) provides access for students to near real-time space weather data, and a set of easy instructions and well-defined protocols that allow them to correctly interpret such data. It is a student centered approach to teaching science and technology in classrooms, as students are encouraged to act like real scientists by accessing, collecting, analyzing, recording, and communicating space weather forecasts. Integration and implementation of several programs will enhance and provide a rich education experience for students' grades 5-16. We will enhance the existing data and tutorials available using the Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) tool created by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA GSFC. iSWA is a flexible, turn-key, customer-configurable, Web-based dissemination system for NASA-relevant space weather information that combines data based on the most advanced space weather models available through the CCMC with concurrent space environment information. This tool provides an additional component by the use of videos and still imagery from different sources as a tool for educators to effectively show what happens during an eruption from the surface of the Sun. We will also update content on the net result of space weather forecasting that the public can experience by including Aurorasaurus, a well established, growing, modern, innovative, interdisciplinary citizen science project centered around the public's visibility of the northern lights with mobile applications via the use of social media connections.

  11. Surface Lagrangian transport in the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea) from drifters, HF radar and models: implications for fishery and Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffa, Annalisa; Carlson, Daniel; Berta, Maristella; Sciascia, Roberta; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Mantovani, Carlo; Fredji, Erick; Magaldi, Marcello; Zambianchi, Enrico; Poulain, Pierre Marie; Russo, Aniello; Carniel, Sandro

    2017-04-01

    Surface transport in the Adriatic Sea is investigated using data from historic drifter data, HF radar and virtual particles computed from a numerical model. Alongshore coastal currents and cyclonic gyres are the primary circulation features that connect regions in the Adriatic Sea. Their strength is highly dependent on the wind, with Southeasterly Sirocco winds driving eastward cross-Adriatic transport from the Italian coasts and Northwesterly Mistral winds enhancing east-to-west transport. Results from the analysis show that Cross-Adriatic connection percentages were higher for east-to-west transport, with westward (eastward) transport observed mostly in the northern (southern) arms of the central and southern gyres. These pathways of patterns influence the connection between Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and between spawning and nursery areas for small pelagic fish. Percentage connections between MPAs are computed, showing that while the highest percentages occur through boundary currents, significant percentages also occur through cross-gyre transport, suggesting the concept of cell-based ecosystems. The nursery area of the Manfredonia Gulf has limited retention properties, and eggs and larvae are likely to reach the Gulf mostly from remote spawning areas through current transport

  12. Gust factor based on research aircraft measurements: A new methodology applied to the Arctic marine boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, Irene; Lüpkes, Christof; Hartmann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    exceeding those at upper levels. Furthermore, we found gust factors to be strongly dependent on surface roughness conditions, which differed between the open ocean and sea ice in the Arctic marine environment. The roughness effect on the gust factor was stronger than the effect of boundary-layer stability....... at multiple levels over the same track. This is a significant advance, as gust measurements are usually limited to heights reached by weather masts. In unstable conditions over the open ocean, the gust factor was nearly constant with height throughout the boundary layer, the near-surface values only slightly...

  13. Marine isoprene production and consumption in the mixed layer of the surface ocean - a field study over two oceanic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booge, Dennis; Schlundt, Cathleen; Bracher, Astrid; Endres, Sonja; Zäncker, Birthe; Marandino, Christa A.

    2018-02-01

    Parameterizations of surface ocean isoprene concentrations are numerous, despite the lack of source/sink process understanding. Here we present isoprene and related field measurements in the mixed layer from the Indian Ocean and the eastern Pacific Ocean to investigate the production and consumption rates in two contrasting regions, namely oligotrophic open ocean and the coastal upwelling region. Our data show that the ability of different phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) to produce isoprene seems to be mainly influenced by light, ocean temperature, and salinity. Our field measurements also demonstrate that nutrient availability seems to have a direct influence on the isoprene production. With the help of pigment data, we calculate in-field isoprene production rates for different PFTs under varying biogeochemical and physical conditions. Using these new calculated production rates, we demonstrate that an additional significant and variable loss, besides a known chemical loss and a loss due to air-sea gas exchange, is needed to explain the measured isoprene concentration. We hypothesize that this loss, with a lifetime for isoprene between 10 and 100 days depending on the ocean region, is potentially due to degradation or consumption by bacteria.

  14. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  15. Weather at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, David Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    This report gives general information about how to become a meteorologist and what kinds of jobs exist in that field. Then it goes into detail about why weather is monitored at LANL, how it is done, and where the data can be accessed online.

  16. Weather, Climate, and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  17. Rainy Weather Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

  18. Climate, weather, and hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    As climate and weather become more variable, hop growers face increased uncertainty in making decisions about their crop. Given the unprecedented nature of these changes, growers may no longer have enough information and intuitive understanding to adequately assess the situation and evaluate their m...

  19. Energy and the weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Energy companies need to take the weather forecast into account these days. Proper anticipation of wind, sunshine and rain may yield a considerable profit for a programme manager, a trader or a renewable energy producer. Meteo Consult has made the energy market one of its priority issues and is developing all kinds of services to advise and assist the sector [nl

  20. Accessing Space Weather Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D.; Weiss, M.; Immer, E. A.; Patrone, D.; Potter, M.; Barnes, R. J.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.

    2009-12-01

    To meet the needs of our technology based society, space weather forecasting needs to be advanced and this will entail collaboration amongst research, military and commercial communities to find new ways to understand, characterize, and forecast. In this presentation VITMO, the Virtual Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere Observatory will be used as a prototype for a generalized system as a means to bring together a set of tools to access data, models and online collaboration tools to enable rapid progress. VITMO, available at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/, currently provides a data access portal for researchers and scientists to enable finding data products as well as access to tools and models. To further the needs of space weather forecasters, the existing VITMO data holdings need to be expanded to provide additional datasets as well as integrating relevant models and model output. VITMO can easily be adapted for the Space Weather domain in its entirety. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how VITMO and the VITMO architecture can be utilized as a prototype in support of integration of Space Weather forecasting tools, models and data.

  1. Distinct Mineral Weathering Behaviors of the Novel Mineral-Weathering Strains Rhizobium yantingense H66 and Rhizobium etli CFN42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Luo, Long; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-07-15

    Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering, soil formation, and element cycling. However, little is known about the interaction between silicate minerals and rhizobia. In this study, Rhizobium yantingense H66 (a novel mineral-weathering rhizobium) and Rhizobium etli CFN42 were compared with respect to potash feldspar weathering, mineral surface adsorption, and metabolic activity during the mineral weathering process. Strain H66 showed significantly higher Si, Al, and K mobilization from the mineral and higher ratios of cell numbers on the mineral surface to total cell numbers than strain CFN42. Although the two strains produced gluconic acid, strain H66 also produced acetic, malic, and succinic acids during mineral weathering in low- and high-glucose media. Notably, higher Si, Al, and K releases, higher ratios of cell numbers on the mineral surface to total cell numbers, and a higher production of organic acids by strain H66 were observed in the low-glucose medium than in the high-glucose medium. Scanning electron microscope analyses of the mineral surfaces and redundancy analysis showed stronger positive correlations between the mineral surface cell adsorption and mineral weathering, indicated by the dissolved Al and K concentrations. The results showed that the two rhizobia behaved differently with respect to mineral weathering. The results suggested that Rhizobium yantingense H66 promoted potash feldspar weathering through increased adsorption of cells to the mineral surface and through differences in glucose metabolism at low and high nutrient concentrations, especially at low nutrient concentrations. This study reported the potash feldspar weathering, the cell adsorption capacity of the mineral surfaces, and the metabolic differences between the novel mineral-weathering Rhizobium yantingense H66 and Rhizobium etli CFN42 under different nutritional conditions. The results showed that Rhizobium yantingense H66 had a greater ability to weather the

  2. Biologically enhanced mineral weathering: what does it look like, can we model it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M. S.; Lawrence, C. R.; Harden, J. W.; White, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction between plants and minerals in soils is hugely important and poorly understood as it relates to the fate of soil carbon. Plant roots, fungi and bacteria inhabit the mineral soil and work symbiotically to extract nutrients, generally through low molecular weight exudates (organic acids, extracelluar polysachrides (EPS), siderophores, etc.). Up to 60% of photosynthetic carbon is allocated below ground as roots and exudates, both being important carbon sources in soils. Some exudates accelerate mineral weathering. To test whether plant exudates are incorporated into poorly crystalline secondary mineral phases during precipitation, we are investigating the biologic-mineral interface. We sampled 5 marine terraces along a soil chronosequence (60 to 225 ka), near Santa Cruz, CA. The effects of the biologic interactions with mineral surfaces were characterized through the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Morphologically, mycorrhizal fungi were observed fully surrounding minerals, fungal hyphae were shown to tunnel into primary silicate minerals and we have observed direct hyphal attachment to mineral surfaces. Fungal tunneling was seen in all 5 soils by SEM. Additionally, specific surface area (using a nitrogen BET method) of primary minerals was measured to determine if the effects of mineral tunneling are quantifiable in older soils. Results suggest that fungal tunneling is more extensive in the primary minerals of older soils. We have also examined the influence of organic acids on primary mineral weathering during soil development using a geochemical reactive transport model (CrunchFlow). Addition of organic acids in our models of soil development at Santa Cruz result in decreased activity of Fe and Al in soil pore water, which subsequently alters the spatial extent of primary mineral weathering and kaolinite precipitation. Overall, our preliminary modeling results suggest biological processes may be an important but underrepresented aspect of

  3. Mechanism and kinetics of mineral weathering under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anbeek, C.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with the relationships between crystal structure, grain diameter, surface morphology and dissolution kinetics for feldspar and quartz under acid conditions.

    Intensively ground samples from large, naturally weathered mineral fragments are frequently used in

  4. Synthetic weather generator SYNTOR: Implementing improvements in precipitation generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrequent high precipitation events produce a disproportionally large amount of the annual surface runoff, soil erosion, nutrient movement, and watershed sediment yield. Numerical simulation of these watershed processes often lack sufficiently long weather data records to adequately capture the sto...

  5. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ment. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships between humans and the coastal and marine environment. In addition, Western Indian Ocean Journal of ...

  7. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research articles dealing with all aspects of marine science and coastal manage- ment. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/ ...

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. This is central to the goal of supporting and promoting.

  10. Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms (Keyed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to fill in the observation gap prior to the time when commercial aviation began in the U.S., The NCDC Climate Data Modernization Program (CDMP) retrieved...

  11. Hydration of dicalcium silicate and diffusion through neo-formed calcium-silicate-hydrates at weathered surfaces control the long-term leaching behaviour of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Douglas I; Bray, Andrew W; Udoma, Gideon; Hobson, Andrew J; Mayes, William M; Rogerson, Mike; Burke, Ian T

    2018-01-25

    Alkalinity generation and toxic trace metal (such as vanadium) leaching from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag particles must be properly understood and managed by pre-conditioning if beneficial reuse of slag is to be maximised. Water leaching under aerated conditions was investigated using fresh BOF slag at three different particle sizes (0.5-1.0, 2-5 and 10 × 10 × 20 mm blocks) and a 6-month pre-weathered block. There were several distinct leaching stages observed over time associated with different phases controlling the solution chemistry: (1) free-lime (CaO) dissolution (days 0-2); (2) dicalcium silicate (Ca 2 SiO 4 ) dissolution (days 2-14) and (3) Ca-Si-H and CaCO 3 formation and subsequent dissolution (days 14-73). Experiments with the smallest size fraction resulted in the highest Ca, Si and V concentrations, highlighting the role of surface area in controlling initial leaching. After ~2 weeks, the solution Ca/Si ratio (0.7-0.9) evolved to equal those found within a Ca-Si-H phase that replaced dicalcium silicate and free-lime phases in a 30- to 150-μm altered surface region. V release was a two-stage process; initially, V was released by dicalcium silicate dissolution, but V also isomorphically substituted for Si into the neo-formed Ca-Si-H in the alteration zone. Therefore, on longer timescales, the release of V to solution was primarily controlled by considerably slower Ca-Si-H dissolution rates, which decreased the rate of V release by an order of magnitude. Overall, the results indicate that the BOF slag leaching mechanism evolves from a situation initially dominated by rapid hydration and dissolution of primary dicalcium silicate/free-lime phases, to a slow diffusion limited process controlled by the solubility of secondary Ca-Si-H and CaCO 3 phases that replace and cover more reactive primary slag phases at particle surfaces.

  12. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 Th is winter season ... can affect your heart, especially if you have cardiovascular disease . Some people who are outdoors in cold weather ...

  13. Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...

  14. Efficient Preparation of Streptochlorin from Marine Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4 by Combination of Response Surface Methodology and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since first isolated from the lipophilic extract of Streptomyces sp. SF2583, streptochlorin, has attracted a lot of attention because of its various pharmacological properties, such as antibiotic, antiallergic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. For the efficient preparation of streptochlorin from a producing strain Streptomyces sp. SYYLWHS-1-4, we developed a combinative method by using response surface methodology (RSM and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. In the fermentation process, we used RSM to optimize the condition for the efficient accumulation of streptochlorin, and the optimal parameters were: yeast extract 1.889 g/L, soluble starch 8.636 g/L, K2HPO4 0.359 g/L, CaCl2 2.5 g/L, MgSO4 0.625 g/L, marine salt 25 g/L, medium volume 50%, initial pH value 7.0, temperature 27.5 °C, which enhanced streptochlorin yield by 17.7-fold. During the purification process, the preparative HSCCC separation was performed using a petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (9:0.8:5:5, v/v/v/v biphasic solvent system, where 300 mg of crude sample yielded 16.5 mg streptochlorin with over 95% purity as determined by UPLC. Consequently, the combination method provided a feasible strategy for highly effective preparation of streptochlorin, which ensured the supply of large amounts of streptochlorin for in vivo pharmacological assessments or other requirements.

  15. Projected sea surface temperatures over the 21st century: Changes in the mean, variability and extremes for large marine ecosystem regions of Northern Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate models were used to assess changes in the mean, variability and extreme sea surface temperatures (SSTs in northern oceans with a focus on large marine ecosystems (LMEs adjacent to North America, Europe, and the Arctic Ocean. Results were obtained from 26 models in the Community Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 archive and 30 simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Large Ensemble Community Project (CESM-LENS. All of the simulations used the observed greenhouse gas concentrations for 1976–2005 and the RCP8.5 “business as usual” scenario for greenhouse gases through the remainder of the 21st century. In general, differences between models are substantially larger than among the simulations in the CESM-LENS, indicating that the SST changes are more strongly affected by model formulation than internal climate variability. The annual SST trends over 1976–2099 in the 18 LMEs examined here are all positive ranging from 0.05 to 0.5°C decade–1. SST changes by the end of the 21st century are primarily due to a positive shift in the mean with only modest changes in the variability in most LMEs, resulting in a substantial increase in warm extremes and decrease in cold extremes. The shift in the mean is so large that in many regions SSTs during 2070–2099 will 'always' be warmer than the 'warmest' year during 1976–2005. The SST trends are generally stronger in summer than in winter, as greenhouse gas heating is integrated over a much shallower climatological mixed layer depth in summer than in winter, which amplifies the seasonal cycle of SST over the 21st century. In the Arctic, the mean SST and its variability increases substantially during summer, when it is ice free, but not during winter when a thin layer of ice reforms and SSTs remain near the freezing point.

  16. Coupling between marine boundary layer clouds and summer-to-summer sea surface temperature variability over the North Atlantic and Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Timothy A.; Mechoso, Carlos R.; DeFlorio, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Climate modes of variability over the Atlantic and Pacific may be amplified by a positive feedback between sea-surface temperature (SST) and marine boundary layer clouds. However, it is well known that climate models poorly simulate this feedback. Does this deficiency contribute to model-to-model differences in the representation of climate modes of variability? Over both the North Atlantic and Pacific, typical summertime interannual to interdecadal SST variability exhibits horseshoe-like patterns of co-located anomalies of shortwave cloud radiative effect (CRE), low-level cloud fraction, SST, and estimated inversion strength over the subtropics and midlatitudes that are consistent with a positive cloud feedback. During winter over the midlatitudes, this feedback appears to be diminished. Models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 that simulate a weak feedback between subtropical SST and shortwave CRE produce smaller and less realistic amplitudes of summertime SST and CRE variability over the northern oceans compared to models with a stronger feedback. The change in SST amplitude per unit change in CRE amplitude among the models and observations may be understood as the temperature response of the ocean mixed layer to a unit change in radiative flux over the course of a season. These results highlight the importance of boundary layer clouds in interannual to interdecadal atmosphere-ocean variability over the northern oceans during summer. The results also suggest that deficiencies in the simulation of these clouds in coupled climate models contribute to underestimation in their simulation of summer-to-summer SST variability.

  17. Distribution of branched GDGTs in surface sediments from the Colville River, Alaska: Implications for the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer in Arctic marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Andrea J. M.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Allison, Mead A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant climate fluctuations in the Arctic over the recent past, and additional predicted future temperature changes, highlight the need for high-resolution Arctic paleoclimate records. Arctic coastal environments supplied with terrigenous sediment from Arctic rivers have the potential to provide annual to subdecadal resolution records of climate variability over the last few millennia. A potential tool for paleotemperature reconstructions in these marine sediments is the revised methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT')/cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) proxy based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs). In this study, we examine the source of brGDGTs in the Colville River, Alaska, and the adjacent Simpson Lagoon and reconstruct temperatures from Simpson Lagoon sediments to evaluate the applicability of this proxy in Arctic estuarine environments. The Colville catchment soils, fluvial sediments, and estuarine sediments contain statistically similar brGDGT distributions, indicating that the brGDGTs throughout the system are soil derived with little alteration from in situ brGDGT production in the river or coastal waters. Temperatures reconstructed from the MBT'/CBT indices for surface samples show good agreement with regional summer (June through September) temperatures, suggesting a seasonal bias in Arctic temperature reconstructions from the Colville system. In addition, we reconstruct paleotemperatures from an estuarine sediment core that spans the last 75 years, revealing an overall warming trend in the twentieth century that is consistent with trends observed in regional instrumental records. These results support the application of this brGDGT-based paleotemperature proxy for subdecadal-scale summer temperature reconstructions in Arctic estuaries containing organic material derived from sediment-laden, episodic rivers.

  18. Whether weather affects music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.

    2012-09-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

  19. WEATHERING PROCESS IN EOCENE FLYSCH IN REGION OF SPLIT (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Miščević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene flysh in the region of Split (Dalmatia, Croatia is char¬acterized by the presence of layers with different characteristics. It mainly includes thin-layered marls, clayey marls, calcareous marls, clastic lay¬ered limestones, calcarenites and breccias. Those parts that can be de¬scribed as the soft rocks or hard clays by the mechanical means, exposed to weathering reduce the durability within "an engineering time scale". The paper deals with the factors that influence the weathering process. The analyzed weathering is a combination of processes acting simulta¬neously. Most of these processes depend on the change of the water con¬tent, thus the weathering process mainly develops when a material is subjected to the wetting-drying process, On the base of these results form of degradation process is modeled. The weathering process can be main¬ly described as physical weathering combined with chemical weathering on the free surfaces and on the cracks walls. Erosion as a result of weath¬ering, is the dominant geomorphic process on analyzed flysch terrain. According to the analysis, as the most appropriate due to the characteris¬tics the tests are chosen as index properties. Some of these tests are modified in order to adapt them to the determined characteristics of ma¬terials from flysch layers. The correlations between the measured values are used as the basis for the classification proposal of the analyzed mate¬rial, according to its resistance to weathering processes. Roughly, three main groups of samples are recognizable: the first one with carbonate content more then 90% is not weathered at the engineers time scale; the second group with carbonate content from 75% to 90% include samples susceptible to weathering in engineers time scale; the third group with carbonate content less then 75% include samples in which the weather¬ing occurs immediately after the exposition to the weathering factors.

  20. Kazakhstan Space Weather Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryakunova, Olga

    2012-07-01

    Kazakhstan experimental complex is a center of experimental study of space weather. This complex is situated near Almaty, Kazakhstan and includes experimental setup for registration of cosmic ray intensity (neutron monitor) at altitude of 3340 m above sea level, geomagnetic observatory and setup for registration of solar flux density with frequency of 1 and 3 GHz with 1 second time resolution. Results of space environment monitoring in real time are accessible via Internet. This experimental information is used for space weather investigations and different cosmic ray effects. Almaty mountain cosmic ray station is one of the most suitable and sensitive stations for investigation and forecasting of the dangerous situations for satellites; for this reason Almaty cosmic ray station is included in the world-wide neutron monitor network for the real-time monitoring of the space weather conditions and European Database NMDB (www.nmdb.eu). All data are represented on the web-site of the Institute of Ionosphere (www.ionos.kz) in real time. Since July, 2006 the space environment prediction laboratory represents the forecast of geomagnetic activity every day on the same site (www.ionos.kz/?q=en/node/21).

  1. Land plants, weathering, and Paleozoic climatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddéris, Yves; Maffre, Pierre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Carretier, Sébastien

    2017-04-01

    At the end of the Paleozoic, the Earth plunged into the longest and most severe glaciation of the Phanerozoic eon (Montanez et al., 2013). The triggers for this event (called the Late Paleozoic Ice Age, LPIA) are still debated. Based on field observations and laboratory experiments showing that CO2 consumption by rock weathering is enhanced by the presence of plants, the onset of the LPIA has been related to the colonization of the continents by vascular plants in the latest Devonian. By releasing organic acids, concentrating respired CO2 in the soil, and by mechanically breaking rocks with their roots, land plants may have increased the weatherability of the continental surfaces. The "greening" of the continents may also have contributed to an enhanced burial of organic carbon in continental sedimentary basins, assuming that lignin decomposers have not yet evolved (Berner, 2004). As a consequence, CO2 went down, setting the conditions for the onset of the LPIA. This scenario is now widely accepted in the scientific community, and reinforces the feeling that biotic evolutionary steps are main drivers of the long-term climatic evolution. Although appealing, this scenario suffers from some weaknesses. The timing of the continent colonization by vascular plants was achieved in the late Devonian, several tens of million years before the onset of the LPIA (Davies and Gibling, 2013). Second, lignin decomposer fungi were present at the beginning of the Carboniferous, 360 million years ago while the LPIA started around 340-330 Ma (Nelsen et al., 2016). Land plants have also decreased the continental albedo, warming the Earth surface and promoting runoff. Weathering was thus facilitated and CO2 went down. Yet, temperature may have stayed constant, the albedo change compensating for the CO2 fall (Le Hir et al., 2010). From a modelling point of view, the effect of land plants on CO2 consumption by rock weathering is accounted for by forcing the weatherability of the

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from OOCL Tianjin in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, East China Sea and others from 2008-09-19 to 2010-02-21 (NODC Accession 0081039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081039 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from OOCL Tianjin in the Channel Islands National Marine...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 1996-03-30 to 1996-04-18 (NCEI Accession 0157455)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157455 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary,...

  4. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  5. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  6. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  7. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  8. Index of Air Weather Service Technical Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    8217 Radiation over Indo- nesia and Malaysia ," by Earl S. Merritt, pp. 245-253. "Short Range, Subsynoptic Surface Weather Prediction," by Harry R. Glahn and Dale...AViano(, i tale, (6 May 1977, AP"-A0138964. Aeon Park Rarnie, Avon Park, 1-’ icia, 2 May 1979 , A’W-A07466 3. :a 19re uz~nach AAP , B~ad K reuunach

  9. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  10. The Weather in Richmond

    OpenAIRE

    Harless, William Edwin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Weather in Richmond is a short documentary about the Oilers, the football team at Richmond High School in downtown Richmond, California, as they struggle in 2012 with the legacy of winning no games, with the exception of a forfeit, in two years. The video documents the city of Richmond’s poverty and violence, but it also is an account of the city’s cultural diversity, of the city’s industrial history and of the hopes of some of the people who grow up there. The...

  11. Weather Balloon Ascent Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.

  12. Combating bad weather

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Every year lives and properties are lost in road accidents. About one-fourth of these accidents are due to low vision in foggy weather. At present, there is no algorithm that is specifically designed for the removal of fog from videos. Application of a single-image fog removal algorithm over each video frame is a time-consuming and costly affair. It is demonstrated that with the intelligent use of temporal redundancy, fog removal algorithms designed for a single image can be extended to the real-time video application. Results confirm that the presented framework used for the extension of the

  13. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  14. Integrated Surface Dataset (Global)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Surface (ISD) Dataset (ISD) is composed of worldwide surface weather observations from over 35,000 stations, though the best spatial coverage is...

  15. Surface Prognostic Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Prognostic Charts are historical surface prognostic (forecast) charts created by the United States Weather Bureau. They include fronts, isobars, cloud, and...

  16. Weatherization Apprenticeship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Eric J

    2012-12-18

    Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.

  17. Solar weather monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hochedez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs, flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.

  18. 78 FR 17359 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... logistics and weather. L-DEO plans to use conventional seismic methodology in the Deep Galicia Basin of the... or man-made noise. In many cases, tolerance develops by the animal habituating to the stimulus (i.e..., 1963), but because of ecological or physiological requirements, many marine animals may need to remain...

  19. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  20. Toward Seamless Weather-Climate Prediction with a Global Cloud Resolving Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-14

    distribution is unlimited. TOWARD SEAMLESS WEATHER- CLIMATE PREDICTION WITH A GLOBAL CLOUD RESOLVING MODEL PI: Tim Li IPRC/SOEST, University of Hawaii at...Project Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 May 2012 - 30 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TOWARD SEAMLESS WEATHER- CLIMATE PREDICTION WITH...A GLOBAL CLOUD RESOLVING MODEL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N000141210450 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER ONR Marine Meteorology Program 6

  1. Space Weather Activities in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Talk given at Space Weather Seminar at Irish National Emergency Coordinating Centre (NECC), Office of Emergency Planning, Department of Defence, Kildare Street, Dublin on Thursday 3 July, 2014. Agenda 14.00: Welcome and Introduction– Brigitta O’Doherty, Office of Emergency Planning 14.05: Space Weather – What are the issues ? - Mr. William J Murtagh, Programm Coordinator, Space Weather Prediction Centre, National Oceanic and Observation Administration, US Department of Commerce 15...

  2. Chemical weathering of flat continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffre, Pierre; Goddéris, Yves; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Carretier, Sébastien; Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Donnadieu, Yannick; Labat, David; Vigier, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    Mountain uplift is often cited as the main trigger of the end Cenozoic glacial state. Conversely, the absence of major uplift is invoked to explain the early Eocene warmth. This hypothesis relies on the fact that mountain uplift increases the supply of "fresh" silicate rocks through enhanced physical erosion, and boosts CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. Atmospheric CO2 —and therefore climate— then adjust to compensate for the changes in weatherability and keep the geological carbon cycle balanced (Walker's feedback). Yet, orography also strongly influences the global atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Consequently, building mountains does not only change the weathering regime in the restricted area of the orogen, but also modifies the worldwide distribution of the weathering flux. We conduct a numerical experiment in which we simulate the climate of the present day world, with all mountain ranges being removed. Up-to-date weathering and erosion laws (West, 2012; Carretier et al., 2014) are then used to quantify the global weathering for a "flat world". Specifically, the parameters of the weathering law are first carefully calculated such that the present day distribution of the weathering fluxes matches the riverine geochemical data. When removing mountains, we predict a warmer and wetter climate, especially in geographic spots located in the equatorial band. The calculated response of the global weathering flux ranges from an increase by 50% to a decrease by 70% (relative to the present day with mountains). These contrasted responses are pending on the parameterisation of the weathering model, that makes it more sensitive to reaction rate (kinetically-limited mode) or to rock supply by erosion (supply-limited mode). The most likely parameterisation —based on data-model comparison— predicts a decrease of CO2 consumption by weathering by 40% when mountains are removed. These results show that (1) the behaviour of the weathering engine depends on the

  3. Space Weathering on Icy Satellites in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Perlman, Z.; Pearson, N.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering produces well-known optical effects in silicate minerals in the inner Solar System, for example, on the Moon. Space weathering from solar wind and UV (ultraviolet radiation) is expected to be significantly weaker in the outer Solar System simply because intensities are low. However, cosmic rays and micrometeoroid bombardment would be similar to first order. That, combined with the much higher volatility of icy surfaces means there is the potential for space weathering on icy outer Solar System surfaces to show optical effects. The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn is providing evidence for space weathering on icy bodies. The Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument has spatially mapped satellite surfaces and the rings from 0.35-5 microns and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument from 0.1 to 0.2 microns. These data have sampled a complex mixing space between H2O ice and non-ice components and they show some common spectral properties. Similarly, spectra of the icy Galilean satellites and satellites in the Uranian system have some commonality in spectral properties with those in the Saturn system. The UV absorber is spectrally similar on many surfaces. VIMS has identified CO2, H2 and trace organics in varying abundances on Saturn's satellites. We postulate that through the spatial relationships of some of these compounds that they are created and destroyed through space weathering effects. For example, the trapped H2 and CO2 observed by VIMS in regions with high concentrations of dark material may in part be space weathering products from the destruction of H2O and organic molecules. The dark material, particularly on Iapetus which has the highest concentration in the Saturn system, is well matched by space-weathered silicates in the .4 to 2.6 micron range, and the spectral shapes closely match those of the most mature lunar soils, another indicator of space weathered material.

  4. North Europe power transmission system vulnerability during extreme space weather

    OpenAIRE

    Piccinelli Roberta; Krausmann Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Space weather driven by solar activity can induce geomagnetic disturbances at the Earth's surface that can affect power transmission systems. Variations in the geomagnetic field result in geomagnetically induced currents that can enter the system through its grounding connections, saturate transformers and lead to system instability and possibly collapse. This study analyzes the impact of extreme space weather on the northern part of the European power transmission grid for different transfor...

  5. Phytoplankton Biomass Distribution and Identification of Productive Habitats Within the Galapagos Marine Reserve by MODIS, a Surface Acquisition System, and In-Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) is one of the most diverse ecosystems in the world. Phytoplankton are the base of the ecosystem food chain for many higher trophic organisms, so identifying phytoplankton biomass distribution is the first step in understanding the dynamic envir...

  6. Benthic Bacterial Community Composition in the Oligohaline-Marine Transition of Surface Sediments in the Baltic Sea Based on rRNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Klier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity has a strong impact on bacterial community composition such that freshwater bacterial communities are very different from those in seawater. By contrast, little is known about the composition and diversity of the bacterial community in the sediments (bacteriobenthos at the freshwater-seawater transition (mesohaline conditions. In this study, partial 16S-rRNA sequences were used to investigate the bacterial community at five stations, representing almost freshwater (oligohaline to marine conditions, in the Baltic Sea. Samples were obtained from the silty, top-layer (0–2.5 cm sediments with mostly oxygenated conditions. The long water residence time characteristic of the Baltic Sea, was predicted to enable the development of autochthonous bacteriobenthos at mesohaline conditions. Our results showed that, similar to the water column, salinity is a major factor in structuring the bacteriobenthos and that there is no loss of bacterial richness at intermediate salinities. The bacterial communities of marine, mesohaline, and oligohaline sediments differed in terms of the relative rRNA abundances of the major bacterial phyla/classes. At mesohaline conditions typical marine and oligohaline operational taxonomic units (OTUs were abundant. Putative unique OTUs in mesohaline sediments were present only at low abundances, suggesting that the mesohaline environment consists mainly of marine and oligohaline bacteria with a broad salinity tolerance. Our study provides a first overview of the diversity patterns and composition of bacteria in the sediments along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient as well as new insights into the bacteriobenthos at mesohaline conditions.

  7. Photosynthesis, respiration, and carbon turnover in sinking marine snow from surface waters of Southern California Bight: implications for the carbon cycle in the ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, H.; Grossart, HP; Azam, F.

    1999-01-01

    aggregate in darkness, which yielded a turnover time of 8 to 9 d for the total organic carbon in aggregates. Thus, marine snow is not only a vehicle for vertical flux of organic matter; the aggregates are also hotspots of microbial respiration which cause a fast and efficient respiratory turnover...... of particulate organic carbon in the sea....

  8. Removal of Inorganic, Microbial, and Particulate Contaminants from a Fresh Surface Water: Village Marine Tec. Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier, Generation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Village Marine Tec. Generation 1 Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP) is a mobile skid-mounted system employing ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to produce drinking water from a variety of different water quality sources. The UF components were evaluated to t...

  9. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  10. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  11. Synoptic weather types associated with critical fire weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Schroeder; Monte Glovinsky; Virgil F. Hendricks; Frank C. Hood; Melvin K. Hull; Henry L. Jacobson; Robert Kirkpatrick; Daniel W. Krueger; Lester P. Mallory; Albert G. Oeztel; Robert H. Reese; Leo A. Sergius; Charles E. Syverson

    1964-01-01

    Recognizing that weather is an important factor in the spread of both urban and wildland fires, a study was made of the synoptic weather patterns and types which produce strong winds, low relative humidities, high temperatures, and lack of rainfall--the conditions conducive to rapid fire spread. Such historic fires as the San Francisco fire of 1906, the Berkeley fire...

  12. Bacterial community composition in rainwater associated with synoptic weather in an area downwind of the Asian continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Murata, Kotaro; Horikawa, Yuka; Naganuma, Ayumi; Zhang, Daizhou

    2017-12-01

    Bacteria are abundant in atmospheric waters and can be disseminated by precipitation to the surface of the Earth, potentially influencing ecosystems, public health and climate. However, data on bacterial communities in rainwater, especially on the association with weather, are very limited. In this study, rainwater was collected at the coastal city Kumamoto, southwestern Japan, in 2015. The bacterial communities in fourteen samples were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and compared according to the rain types at the synoptic scale, i.e., cyclones, Meiyu and non-Meiyu stationary fronts, and typhoons. Diverse bacterial communities were present in all four types of rainwater and were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria (37%), Bacteroidetes (16%), Cyanobacteria (14%), Actinobacteria (9%), Acidobacteria (8%) and Firmicutes (5%). Approximately half of the phyla (16 out of 33) were common among the rain types. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common among the four types of rainwater represented the majority (averagely 74%) of the sequences, indicating the predominance of common bacterial OTUs regardless of rain type. On the other hand, the synoptic weather systems and the origins of air masses associated with the rain likely resulted in distinct bacterial communities. High fractions of bacterial soil indicator taxa signified the large contribution of bacteria from soils. Genera containing ice nucleation-active bacteria were identified in all samples except one typhoon rain sample. Marine bacterial taxa, e.g., Pseudoalteromonas, Synechococcus and Marinobacter, were detected in several samples, indicating the dispersal of marine bacteria via clouds and rainwater. Fecal indicator bacteria were also detected in all samples. Thus, the bacteria in the four types of rainwater were characterized by largely overlapping communities with some differences in community composition, indicating that rain is an efficient pathway for the dissemination of bacterial communities

  13. Description of the surface behaviour of marine tucuxi, Sotalia guianensis, at Pipa Beach - RN / Descrição do comportamento de superfície do boto cinza, Sotalia guianensis, na Praia de Pipa - RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídio França do Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in animal behavior is a consolidated area whose development and diversification in several countries have originated some subjects and investigation approaches, such as Ethology, Behavior Ecology, Neuroecology, Psychology and Evolutionist Psychology. In the study of animal behavior, the ethogram is the foundation for studies on behavior patterns of distinct populations of the same species. An ethogram traditionally describes behavioral events performed by individuals of the same species in detail. This study presents an ethogram of behavioral events performed on surface by a costal dolphin known as the gray dolphin (Marine Tucuxi Dolphin, at Pipa Beach, RN.

  14. Silicate Weathering and Carbon Cycle Controls on the Oligocene-Miocene Transition Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joseph A.; James, Rachael H.; Anand, Pallavi; Wilson, Paul A.

    2017-10-01

    Changes in both silicate weathering rates and organic carbon burial have been proposed as drivers of the transient "Mi-1" glaciation event at the Oligocene-Miocene transition (OMT; 23 Ma). However, detailed geochemical proxy data are required to test these hypotheses. Here we present records of Li/Ca, Mg/Ca, Cd/Ca, U/Ca, δ18O, δ13C, and shell weight in planktonic foraminifera from marine sediments spanning the OMT in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Li/Ca values increase by 1 μmol/mol across this interval. We interpret this to indicate an 20% increase in silicate weathering rates, which would have lowered atmospheric CO2, potentially forcing the Antarctic glaciation 23 Ma. δ13C of thermocline dwelling planktonic foraminifera track the global increase in seawater δ13C across the OMT and during the Mi-1 event, hence supporting a hypothesized global increase in organic carbon burial rates. High δ13C previously measured in epipelagic planktonic foraminifera and high Cd/Ca ratios during Mi-1 are interpreted to represent locally enhanced primary productivity, stimulated by increased nutrients supply to surface waters. The fingerprint of high export production and associated organic carbon burial at this site is found in reduced bottom water oxygenation (inferred from high foraminiferal U/Ca) and enhanced respiratory dissolution of carbonates, characterized by reduced foraminiferal shell weight. Replication of our results elsewhere would strengthen the case that weathering-induced CO2 sequestration preconditioned climate for Antarctic ice sheet growth across the OMT, and increased burial of organic carbon acted as a feedback that intensified cooling at this time.

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships between humans .... ally changing marine environment with small island states faced with issues related to rising sea level. Two field notes .... alter the structure of coral tissue, skeletal morphol- ogy and density ...

  16. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- .... Kaullysing et al. also present a field note on coral-eating gastropods observed around Mauritius. ... and decision making in the field of coral reef studies and management in Mauritius, while contributing.

  17. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sues of marine gastropods belonging to these genera contain a higher amount of protein and would there- fore benefit from a higher amount of PK added to the lysis buffer of choice. Moreover, it has been reported that PK is very active in the presence of the detergent. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) (Gross-Bellard et al,.

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships between ... ISSN 0856-860X. Western Indian Ocean. J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Editorial Board. Serge ANDREFOUËT. France. Ranjeet BHAGOOLI. Mauritius ...... ence Technology, Rhodes, Greece.

  20. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As in other oceans, anthropogenic activities have a large impact on marine habitats and ... effects of region (north vs south), country (proxy for latitude) and depth stratum on catch composition were con- sidered. Of 243 genera identified from 206 trawls, .... rather than species level. Two survey vessels with unequal fishing ...

  2. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research ... PAHs are among the persistent organic pollutants that are a worldwide environmental ... combusted and petroleum products are used during boat/dhow making and servicing ...

  3. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    org/wio-journal-of-marine- science/ and AJOL ... The mangroves around Maputo city in Maputo Bay were studied to assess changes in forest cover area and the effect of cutting ..... factors on forest health condition has not yet been assessed.

  4. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determining zonation in intertidal areas (Tomanek &. Helmuth, 2002), it is noteworthy that wave action and. Abstract. This study compared spatial variations in the density and diversity of marine benthic molluscs along Belle Mare and. Gris Gris, a sheltered and an exposed intertidal zone, respectively, in Mauritius. Species ...

  5. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. The Challenge of Weather Prediction Old and Modern Ways of Weather Forecasting. B N Goswami. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Now, Here's the Weather Forecast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mathew

    2013-01-01

    The Met Office has a long history of weather forecasting, creating tailored weather forecasts for customers across the world. Based in Exeter, the Met Office is also home to the Met Office Hadley Centre, a world-leading centre for the study of climate change and its potential impacts. Climate information from the Met Office Hadley Centre is used…

  7. Weatherization Assistance Program Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy e ciency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety. The Program supports 8,500 jobs and provides weatherization services to approximately 35,000 homes every year using DOE funds.

  8. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  9. WOD - Weather On Demand forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Ragnarsson, Logi; Stanislawska, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    The backbone of the Belgingur forecasting system (called WOD - Weather On Demand) is the WRF-Chem atmospheric model, with a number of in-house customisations. Initial and boundary data are taken from the Global Forecasting System, operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Operational forecasts use cycling of a number of parameters, mainly deep soil and surface fields. This is done to minimise spin-up effects and to ensure proper book-keeping of hydrological fields such as snow accumulation and runoff, as well as the constituents of various chemical parameters. The WOD system can be used to create conventional short- to medium-range weather forecasts for any location on the globe. The WOD system can also be used for air quality purposes (e.g. dispersion forecasts from volcanic eruptions) and as a tool to provide input to other modelling systems, such as hydrological models. A wide variety of post-processing options are also available, making WOD an ideal tool for creating highly customised output that can be tailored to the specific needs of individual end-users. The most recent addition to the WOD system is an integrated verification system where forecasts can be compared to surface observations from chosen locations. Forecast visualisation, such as weather charts, meteograms, weather icons and tables, is done via number of web components that can be configured to serve the varying needs of different end-users. The WOD system itself can be installed in an automatic way on hardware running a range of Linux based OS. System upgrades can also be done in semi-automatic fashion, i.e. upgrades and/or bug-fixes can be pushed to the end-user hardware without system downtime. Importantly, the WOD system requires only rudimentary knowledge of the WRF modelling, and the Linux operating systems on behalf of the end-user, making it an ideal NWP tool in locations with limited IT infrastructure.

  10. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...... and precipitating and non-precipitating clouds. Another method uses the difference in the motion field of clutter and precipitation measured between two radar images. Furthermore, the direction of the wind field extracted from a weather model is used. The third method uses information about the refractive index...

  11. EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL WEATHERING ON WOOD LAMINATES COLOR TREATED WITH TWO FINISHING PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Jacob Mendes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weathering is one of the main reasons for the degradation of wood, especially its color. The application of finishes minimizes these effects. This study aimed to monitor the effect of artificial weathering on wood veneer of the species cumaru (Dipteryx odorata and pau marfim (Balfourodendron riedelianum with two finishes, the marine varnish and Cetol, with monitoring using a spectrophotometer. The samples were subjected to cycles of exposure to weathering for 20, 40, 52, 76, 124, 226, 430, 838 and 960 hours. The colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, C and h* were measured before treatment, after application of the products and during the weathering time intervals. The application of finishes darkened veneer of cumaru wood and pau marfim in nature. However, in higher weathering times, both species returned to a lighter color, and even became lighter than the natural wood. The use of Cetol was more efficient, giving greater stability in the conservation of wood color of the species studied.

  12. Study on seasonal IR signature change of a ship by considering seasonal marine environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hwi; Han, Kuk-Il; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Kuk

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) signal emitted from objects over 0 degree Kelvin has been used to detect and recognize the characteristics of those objects. Recently more delicate IR sensors have been applied for various guided missiles and they affect a crucial influence on object's survivability. Especially, in marine environment it is more vulnerable to be attacked by IR guided missiles since there are nearly no objects for concealment. To increase the survivability of object, the IR signal of the object needs to be analyzed properly by considering various marine environments. IR signature of a naval ship consists of the emitted energy from ship surface and the reflected energy by external sources. Surface property such as the emissivity and the absorptivity on the naval ship varies with different paints applied on the surface and the reflected IR signal is also affected by the surface radiative property, the sensor's geometric position and various climatic conditions in marine environment. Since the direct measurement of IR signal using IR camera is costly and time consuming job, computer simulation methods are developing rapidly to replace those experimental tasks. In this study, we are demonstrate a way of analyzing the IR signal characteristics by using the measured background IR signals using an IR camera and the estimated target IR signals from the computer simulation to find the seasonal trends of IR threats of a naval ship. Through this process, measured weather data are used to analyze more accurate IR signal conditions for the naval ship. The seasonal change of IR signal contrast between the naval ship and the marine background shows that the highest contrast radiant intensity (CRI) value is appeared in early summer.

  13. Aviation weather : FAA and the National Weather Service are considering plans to consolidate weather service offices, but face significant challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The National Weather Services (NWS) weather products are a vital component of the Federal Aviation Administrations (FAA) air traffic control system. In addition to providing aviation weather products developed at its own facilities, NWS also pr...

  14. Reconstruction of Historical Weather by Assimilating Old Weather Diary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neluwala, P.; Yoshimura, K.; Toride, K.; Hirano, J.; Ichino, M.; Okazaki, A.

    2017-12-01

    Climate can control not only human life style but also other living beings. It is important to investigate historical climate to understand the current and future climates. Information about daily weather can give a better understanding of past life on earth. Long-term weather influences crop calendar as well as the development of civilizations. Unfortunately, existing reconstructed daily weather data are limited to 1850s due to the availability of instrumental data. The climate data prior to that are derived from proxy materials (e.g., tree-ring width, ice core isotopes, etc.) which are either in annual or decadal scale. However, there are many historical documents which contain information about weather such as personal diaries. In Japan, around 20 diaries in average during the 16th - 19th centuries have been collected and converted into a digitized form. As such, diary data exist in many other countries. This study aims to reconstruct historical daily weather during the 18th and 19th centuries using personal daily diaries which have analogue weather descriptions such as `cloudy' or `sunny'. A recent study has shown the possibility of assimilating coarse weather data using idealized experiments. We further extend this study by assimilating modern weather descriptions similar to diary data in recent periods. The Global Spectral model (GSM) of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is used to reconstruct weather with the Local Ensemble Kalman filter (LETKF). Descriptive data are first converted to model variables such as total cloud cover (TCC), solar radiation and precipitation using empirical relationships. Those variables are then assimilated on a daily basis after adding random errors to consider the uncertainty of actual diary data. The assimilation of downward short wave solar radiation using weather descriptions improves RMSE from 64.3 w/m2 to 33.0 w/m2 and correlation coefficient (R) from 0.5 to 0.8 compared with the case without any

  15. INCREASE: Innovation and Networking for the integration of Coastal Radars into European mArine SErvices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Julien; Rubio, Anna; Asensio Igoa, Jose Luis; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Mantovani, Carlo; Griffa, Annalisa; Gorringe, Patrick; Alba, Marco; Novellino, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    High Frequency radar (HFR) is a land-based remote sensing instrument offering a unique insight to coastal ocean variability, by providing synoptic, high frequency and high resolution data at the ocean atmosphere interface. HFRs have become invaluable tools in the field of operational oceanography for measuring surface currents, waves and winds, with direct applications in different sectors and an unprecedented potential for the integrated management of the coastal zone. To further the use of HFRs into the Copernicus Marine environment monitoring service, CMEMS, is becoming crucial to ensure the improved management of several related key issues such as Marine Safety, Marine Resources, Coastal & Marine Environment, Weather, Climate & Seasonal Forecast. In this context, INCREASE (Innovation and Networking for the integration of Coastal Radars into European mArine SErvices) project aims to set the necessary developments towards the integration of the existing European HFR operational systems into the CMEMS, following five main objectives: (i) Define and implement a common data and metadata model for HFR real-time data; (ii) Provide HFR quality controlled real-time surface currents and key derived products; (iii) Set the basis for the management of historical data and methodologies for advanced delayed mode quality-control techniques; (iv) Advance the use of HFR data for improving CMEMS numerical modelling systems; and (v) Enable an HFR European operational node to ensure the link with operational CMEMS. In cooperation with other ongoing initiatives (like the EuroGOOS HFR Task Team and the European project JERICO_NEXT), INCREASE has already set up the data management infrastructure to manage and make discoverable and accessible near real time data from 30 systems in Europe. This paper presents the achieved results and available products and features.

  16. Effect of weathering cycle and manufacturing method on performance of wood flour and high-density polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark

    2006-01-01

    Wood–plastic lumber is promoted as a low-maintenance high-durability product. When exposed to accelerated weathering, however, wood–plastic composites may experience a color change and loss in mechanical properties. Differences in weathering cycle and composite surface characteristics can affect the rate and amount of change caused by weathering. In this study, 50%...

  17. Soil weathering rates in 21 catchments of the Canadian Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Houle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil mineral weathering represents an essential source of nutrient base cation (Ca, Mg and K for forest growth in addition to provide a buffering power against precipitation acidity for soils and surface waters. Weathering rates of base cations were obtained for 21 catchments located within the temperate and the boreal forest of the Canadian Shield with the geochemical model PROFILE. Weathering rates ranged from 0.58 to 4.46 kmolc ha−1 yr−1 and their spatial variation within the studied area was mostly in agreement with spatial variations in soil mineralogy. Weathering rates of Ca and Mg were significantly correlated (r = 0.80 and 0.64 with their respective lake concentrations. Weathering rates of K and Na did not correlate with lake concentrations of K and Na. The modeled weathering rates for each catchment were also compared with estimations of net catchment exportations. The result show that modeled weathering rates of Ca were not significantly different than the net catchment exportations while modeled weathering rates of Mg were higher by 51%. Larger differences were observed for K and Na weathering rates that were significantly different than net catchment exportations being 6.9 and 2.2 times higher than net exportations, respectively. The results for K were expected given its high reactivity with biotic compartments and suggest that most of the K produced by weathering reactions was retained within soil catchments and/or above ground biomass. This explanation does not apply to Na, however, which is a conservative element in forest ecosystems because of the insignificant needs of Na for soil microorganisms and above ground vegetations. It raises concern about the liability of the PROFILE model to provide reliable values of Na weathering rates. Overall, we concluded that the PROFILE model is powerful enough to reproduce spatial geographical gradients in weathering rates for relatively large areas

  18. Weather radar research at the USA's storm laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doviak, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Radar research that is directed toward improving storm forecasts and hazard warnings and studying lightning is discussed. The two moderately sensitive Doppler weather radars in central Oklahoma, with their wide dynamic range, have demonstrated the feasibility of mapping wind fields in all weather conditions from the clear skies of quiescent air and disturbed prestorm air near the earth's surface to the optically opaque interior of severe and sometimes tornadic thunderstorms. Observations and analyses of Doppler weather radar data demonstrate that improved warning of severe storm phenomena and improved short-term forecast of storms may be available when Doppler techniques are well integrated into the national network of weather radars. When used in combination with other sensors, it provides an opportunity to learn more about the complex interrelations between the wind, water, and electricity in storms.

  19. Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Velcheva, Maya; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Marinova, Veselka

    2017-04-01

    MARLEN - Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools is a project under the Programme BG02.03: Increased capacity for assessing and predicting environmental status in marine and inland waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Burgas municipality and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. Initial assessment of ecological state of Bulgarian marine waters showed lack of data for some descriptors of MSFD. The main goal of MARLEN is to build up tools for assessment of marine environment by implementing new technologies and best practices for addressing three main areas of interest with lack of marine data in particular: a) Marine litter detection and classification in coastal areas; b) Regular near real time surface water eutrophication monitoring on large aquatory; c) Underwater noise monitoring. Developed tools are an important source of real time, near real time and delay mode marine data for Bulgarian Black Sea waters. The partnership within the project increased capacity for environmental assessments and training of personnel and enhances collaboration between scientific institutes, regional and local authorities. Project results supported implementation of MSFD in Bulgarian marine waters for the benefit of coastal population, marine industry, tourism, marine research and marine spatial planning.

  20. The NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S.; Hutchins, C.; Del Greco, S.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is an application that provides simple visualization and data export of weather and climate data archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and other organizations. The WCT is built on the Unidata Common Data Model and supports defined feature types such as Grid, Radial, Point, Time Series and Trajectory. Current NCDC datasets supported include NEXRAD Radar data, GOES Satellite imagery, NOMADS Model Data, Integrated Surface Data and the U.S. Drought Monitor (part of the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS)). The WCT Viewer provides tools for displaying custom data overlays, Web Map Services (WMS), animations and basic filters. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats. The WCT Data Exporter allows for data export in both vector polygon (Shapefile, Well-Known Text) and raster (GeoTIFF, Arc/Info ASCII Grid, VTK, NetCDF) formats. By decoding and exporting data into multiple common formats, a diverse user community can perform analysis using familiar tools such as ArcGIS, MatLAB and IDL. This brings new users to a vast array of weather and climate data at NCDC.

  1. How Cities Make Their Own Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of world's population has moved to urban areas. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in d e near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world's population will live in cities. Human activity in urban environments also alters weather and climate processes. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-weather-climate system is incomplete. Recent literature continues to provide evidence that anomalies in precipitation exist over and downwind of major cities. Current and future research efforts are actively seeking to verify these literature findings and understand potential cause-effect relationships. The novelty of this study is that it utilizes rainfall data from multiple satellite data sources (e.g. TRMM precipitation radar, TRMM-geosynchronous-rain gauge merged product, and SSM/I) and ground-based measurements to identify spatial anomalies and temporal trends in precipitation for cities around the world. We will also present results from experiments using a regional atmospheric-land surface modeling system. Early results will be presented and placed within the context of weather prediction, climate assessment, and societal applications.

  2. Global CO2-consumption by chemical weathering: What is the contribution of highly active weathering regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jens; Jansen, Nils; Dürr, Hans H.; Kempe, Stephan; Köhler, Peter

    2010-05-01

    is important to distinguish among the various types of sedimentary rocks and their diagenetic history to evaluate the spatial distribution of rock weathering and thus lateral inorganic carbon fluxes. Results highlight the role of hotspots (>10 times global average weathering rates) and hyperactive areas (5 to 10 times global average rates). Only 9% of the global exorheic area is responsible for about 50% of CO2- consumption by chemical weathering (or if hotspots and hyperactive areas are considered: 3.4% of exorheic surface area corresponds to 28% of global CO2-consumption). The contribution of endorheic areas to the global CO2-consumption is with 3.7 Mt C a-1 only minor. A significant impact on the global CO2-consumption rate can be expected if identified highly active areas are affected by changes in the overall spatial patterns of the hydrological cycle due to ongoing global climate change. Specifically if comparing the Last Glacial Maximum with present conditions it is probable that also the global carbon cycle has been affected by those changes. It is expected that results will contribute to improve global carbon and global circulation models. In addition, recognizing chemical weathering rates and geochemical composition of certain lithological classes may be of value for studies focusing on biological aspects of the carbon cycles (e.g. studies needing information on the abundance of phosphorus or silica in the soil or aquatic system). Reference: Hartmann, J., Kempe, S, Dürr, H.H., Jansen, N. (2009) Global CO2-consumption by chemical weathering: What is the contribution of highly active weathering regions?. Global and Planetary Change, 69, 185-194. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.07.007

  3. Powernext weather, benchmark indices for effective weather risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the Powernext/Meteo France partnership for the elaboration of efficient weather-related risk management indices. (J.S.)

  4. Distribution and enrichment of trace metals in surface marine sediments in the Gulf of Pozzuoli and off the coast of the brownfield metallurgical site of Ilva of Bagnoli (Campania, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifuoggi, Marco; Donadio, Carlo; Mangoni, Olga; Ferrara, Luciano; Bolinesi, Francesco; Nastro, Rosa Anna; Stanislao, Corrado; Toscanesi, Maria; Di Natale, Gabriella; Arienzo, Michele

    2017-11-15

    The distribution of metals in surface sediments of Gulf of Pozzuoli (GoP), embedding the former second Italian largest integrated steelworks of Bagnoli, was studied based on sediment dispersal, quality guidelines (SQGs) and quantitative pollution indices of the respective metals. As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn largely exceeded the limits. Hg had a mean of 5.8mg/kg, twentyfold higher the rule, accumulating primarily near Bagnoli site. The mean effective range quotient, m-ERM-Q, revealed a high potential for negative biological effects especially in the area nearby the Bagnoli site. The enrichment factor (EF) values were outstandingly high, >1.5 with values which were often ≥100. The geoaccumulation index, Igeo, was very critical for Cr, Cu, Hg and Ni, showing an Igeo in the range of strongly polluted (4polluted (Igeo>5). The principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson's correlation matrix (CM), excluded significant contribution from weathering products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Where fast weathering creates thin regolith and slow weathering creates thick regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina; Lebedeva, Marina; Pavich, Milan J.; Brantley, Susan L.; Rother, Gernot; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; Cole, David

    2013-01-01

    Weathering disaggregates rock into regolith – the fractured or granular earth material that sustains life on the continental land surface. Here, we investigate what controls the depth of regolith formed on ridges of two rock compositions with similar initial porosities in Virginia (USA). A priori, we predicted that the regolith on diabase would be thicker than on granite because the dominant mineral (feldspar) in the diabase weathers faster than its granitic counterpart. However, weathering advanced 20 deeper into the granite than the diabase. The 20 -thicker regolith is attributed mainly to connected micron-sized pores, microfractures formed around oxidizing biotite at 20 m depth, and the lower iron (Fe) content in the felsic rock. Such porosity allows pervasive advection and deep oxidation in the granite. These observations may explain why regolith worldwide is thicker on felsic compared to mafic rock under similar conditions. To understand regolith formation will require better understanding of such deep oxidation reactions and how they impact fluid flow during weathering.

  6. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable.

  7. Prescribed burning weather in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney W. Sando

    1969-01-01

    Describes the weather patterns in northern Minnesota as related to prescribed burning. The prevailing wind direction, average wind speed, most persistent wind direction, and average Buildup Index are considered in making recommendations.

  8. Road weather management performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-29

    This report presents the results of a study to identify appropriate measures of performance that can be attributed to the Federal Highway Administrations (FHWA) Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) products and activities. Specifically, the stud...

  9. KZHU Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  10. Weather data communication and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, R. H.; Nickum, J. D.; Mccall, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The communication of weather data to aircraft is discussed. Problems encountered because of the great quantities of data available and the limited capacity to transfer this via radio link to an aircraft are discussed. Display devices are discussed.

  11. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe July 2014 Print this issue Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather En español Send ... handle food properly to avoid the misery of food poisoning. It can be hard to keep foods safe ...

  12. Northern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Part I consists of plotted and analyzed daily maps of sea-level and 500-mb maps for 0300, 0400, 1200, 1230, 1300, and 1500...

  13. The science of space weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Jonathan P

    2008-12-13

    The basic physics underpinning space weather is reviewed, beginning with a brief overview of the main causes of variability in the near-Earth space environment. Although many plasma phenomena contribute to space weather, one of the most important is magnetic reconnection, and recent cutting edge research in this field is reviewed. We then place this research in context by discussing a number of specific types of space weather in more detail. As society inexorably increases its dependence on space, the necessity of predicting and mitigating space weather will become ever more acute. This requires a deep understanding of the complexities inherent in the plasmas that fill space and has prompted the development of a new generation of scientific space missions at the international level.

  14. KZTL Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  15. US Weather Bureau Storm Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Bureau and US Army Corps and other reports of storms from 1886-1955. Hourly precipitation from recording rain gauges captured during heavy rain, snow,...

  16. Practical Weathering for Geology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, A. Peter

    1990-01-01

    The design and data management of an activity to study weathering by increasing the rate of mineral dissolution in a microwave oven is described. Data analysis in terms of parabolic and first-order kinetics is discussed. (CW)

  17. Space weather and risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lappalainen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The term space weather is used for the solar driven variability in particle and electromagnetic conditions of the near-Earth space that may harm the performance of ground-based and space-borne technology. The European Union (EU and the European Space Agency (ESA have started a common programme called the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES. Many of the GMES operational services will rely on technology prone to space weather phenomena. For long-term environmental monitoring this is not a problem, but for applications of risk management in emergency situations the impact of space weather should be considered and evaluated. In this paper, we discuss how ESA's previous activity together with European national initiatives in the space weather area can be used to support GMES and how EU could participate in this work in its Framework Programmes and within the European Research Area (ERA.

  18. KZOA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  19. paza Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  20. KZDV Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  1. KZSE Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  2. KZME Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  3. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks and Regolith Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    The exposed surfaces of lunar soil grains and lunar rocks become modified and coated over time with a thin rind of material (patina) through complex interactions with the space environment. These interactions encompass many processes including micrometeorite impacts, vapor and melt deposition, and solar wind implantation/sputtering effects that collectively are referred to as "space weathering". Studies of space weathering effects in lunar soils and rocks provide important clues to understanding the origin and evolution of the lunar regolith as well as aiding in the interpretation of global chemical and mineralogical datasets obtained by remote-sensing missions. The interpretation of reflectance spectra obtained by these missions is complicated because the patina coatings obscure the underlying rock mineralogy and compositions. Much of our understanding of these processes and products comes from decades of work on remote-sensing observations of the Moon, the analysis of lunar samples, and laboratory experiments. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. Space weathering effects are largely surface-correlated, concentrated in the fine size fractions, and occur as amorphous rims on individual soil grains. Rims on lunar soil grains are highly complex and span the range between erosional surfaces modified by solar wind irradiation to depositional surfaces modified by the condensation of sputtered ions and impact-generated vapors. The optical effects of space weathering effects are directly linked to the production of nanophase Fe metal in lunar materials]. The size of distribution of nanophase inclusions in the rims directly affect optical properties given that large Fe(sup o) grains (approx 10 nm and larger) darken the sample (lower albedo) while the tiny Fe(sup o) grains (rock

  4. Weathering kinetics of thin wood veneers assessed with near infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sandak, Anna; Sandak, Jakub; Burud, Ingunn; Gobakken, Lone Ross

    2016-01-01

    Wooden elements may be subjected to mechanical, environmental or biological alterations during their service life. The most susceptible parts of wood structural members are the exposed surfaces since they are subjected to ageing, weathering and/or decay. Knowledge of the influence of weathering factors and polymer degradation mechanisms is essential for understanding the weathering process of wood. The goal of this study was to investigate the degradation of thin wooden samples exposed to sho...

  5. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  6. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The author of this book has combined his own vast experience as a marine biologist with a critical evaluation of the ever-increasing literature in a work which highlights those longterm effects and dangerous materials most threatening on a global scale. This English translation of the highly acclaimed German original has been revised and expanded to keep pace with the rapid process of research in the field. A particularly large number of changes were made in the chapter on oil pollution, and new chapters on waste heat and radioactivity in the ocean have been added. (orig.)

  7. Marine Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A retired soldier and his timid girlfriend. Two teenagers who are underemployed and overaged. A man who knows what he wants but not how to get it and his ex who knows how to get what she wants but not exactly what that is.What do all of these people have in common? They live in Westfield, New York, a town with just as many traffic lights as panoramic views of nearby Lake Erie and with about as many bartenders as schoolteachers. Everyone wants to leave, but nobody knows where to go.Marine Biol...

  8. A marine meteorological data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    A marine meteorological data acquisition system has been developed for long term unattended measurements at remote coastal sites, ocean surface platforms and for use on board research vessels. The system has an open and modular configuration...

  9. NCEP Real-time Marine Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly surface marine data gathered by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The basic observational data are edited, using a "trimming" procedure...

  10. Marine genomics: News and views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ângela M; Foote, Andrew D; Kupczok, Anne; Frazão, Bárbara; Limborg, Morten T; Piñeiro, Rosalía; Abalde, Samuel; Rocha, Sara; da Fonseca, Rute R

    2017-02-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag between observed and estimated diversity is in part due to the elusiveness of most aquatic species and the technical difficulties of exploring extreme environments, as for instance the abyssal plains and polar waters. In the last decade, the rapid development of affordable and flexible high-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bicarbonate uptake by marine Crenarchaeota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuchter, C.; Schouten, S.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Biphytanyl membrane lipids and 16S rRNA sequences derived from marine Crenarchaeota were detected in shallow North Sea surface water in February 2002. To investigate the carbon fixation mechanism of these uncultivated archaea in situ 13C bicarbonate tracer experiments were performed with this water

  12. Persistent marine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the distribution of persistent marine debris, adrift on world oceans and stranded on beaches globally, is reviewed and related to the known inputs and transport by the major surface currents. Since naturally occurring processes eventually degrade petroleum in the environment, international measures to reduce the inputs have been largely successful in alleviating oil pollution on a global, if not on a local, scale. Many plastics, however, are so resistant to natural degradation that merely controlling inputs will be insufficient, and more drastic and costly measures will be needed to cope with the emerging global problem posed by these materials

  13. Integrated assessment of heavy metal pollution in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the coastal waters of the Zhangzi Island, China: comparison among typical marine sediment quality indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhuang

    Full Text Available The total concentrations and chemical forms of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the surrounding marine area of the Zhangzi Island (hereafter referred to as Zhangzi Island for short were obtained and multiple indices and guidelines were applied to assess their contamination and ecological risks. The sedimentary conditions were fine in both of the two studied areas according to the marine sediment quality of China. Whereas the probable effects level guideline suggested that Ni might cause adverse biological effects to occur frequently in some sites. All indices used suggested that Cd posed the highest environmental risk in both the Laizhou Bay and the Zhangzi Island, though Cd may unlikely be harmful to human and ecological health due to the very low total concentrations. The enrichment factor (EF showed that a substantial portion of Cr was delivered from anthropogenic sources, whereas the risk assessment code (RAC indicated that most Cr was in an inactive state that it may not have any adverse effect either. Moreover, the results of EF and geoaccumulation index were consistent with the trend of the total metal concentrations except for Cd, while the results of RAC and potential ecological risk factor did not follow the same trend of their corresponding total metal concentrations. We also evaluated the effects of using different indices to assess the environmental impact of these heavy metals.

  14. Integrated assessment of heavy metal pollution in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the coastal waters of the Zhangzi Island, China: comparison among typical marine sediment quality indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wen; Gao, Xuelu

    2014-01-01

    The total concentrations and chemical forms of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the surrounding marine area of the Zhangzi Island (hereafter referred to as Zhangzi Island for short) were obtained and multiple indices and guidelines were applied to assess their contamination and ecological risks. The sedimentary conditions were fine in both of the two studied areas according to the marine sediment quality of China. Whereas the probable effects level guideline suggested that Ni might cause adverse biological effects to occur frequently in some sites. All indices used suggested that Cd posed the highest environmental risk in both the Laizhou Bay and the Zhangzi Island, though Cd may unlikely be harmful to human and ecological health due to the very low total concentrations. The enrichment factor (EF) showed that a substantial portion of Cr was delivered from anthropogenic sources, whereas the risk assessment code (RAC) indicated that most Cr was in an inactive state that it may not have any adverse effect either. Moreover, the results of EF and geoaccumulation index were consistent with the trend of the total metal concentrations except for Cd, while the results of RAC and potential ecological risk factor did not follow the same trend of their corresponding total metal concentrations. We also evaluated the effects of using different indices to assess the environmental impact of these heavy metals.

  15. Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled “Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities” is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  16. Monitoring Wood Degradation during Weathering by Cellulose Crystallinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Maffezzoli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The degree of crystallinity of cellulose was used for assessing the degradation level of coated and uncoated samples of pine wood after weathering. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy measured the changes in the surface crystallinity of cellulose resulting from weathering, both natural and artificial. Both techniques revealed an increase in the crystallinity index (CI of cellulose when wood was subjected to weathering. An increase in the size of crystallites was also observed by XRD measurements. These results were related to the reduction of the amorphous fractions of wood, and, consequently, to the enrichment of the relative crystalline content. Thanks to FT-IR analysis, the degradation of hemicellulose was observed for uncoated samples after exposure to artificial weathering. The effect of weathering was less evident on coated samples because of the protective action of the coating. A good correlation between the crystallinity indexes obtained from FT-IR and XRD was found. The experimental results proved that the proposed method may be a very useful tool for a rapid and accurate estimation of the degradation level of wood exposed to weathering. This methodology can find application in the field of conservation and restoration of wooden objects or in the industry of wood coatings.

  17. Use of EOS Data in AWIPS for Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Haines, Stephanie L.; Suggs, Ron J.; Bradshaw, Tom; Darden, Chris; Burks, Jason

    2003-01-01

    Operational weather forecasting relies heavily on real time data and modeling products for forecast preparation and dissemination of significant weather information to the public. The synthesis of this information (observations and model products) by the meteorologist is facilitated by a decision support system to display and integrate the information in a useful fashion. For the NWS this system is called Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). Over the last few years NASA has launched a series of new Earth Observation Satellites (EOS) for climate monitoring that include several instruments that provide high-resolution measurements of atmospheric and surface features important for weather forecasting and analysis. The key to the utilization of these unique new measurements by the NWS is the real time integration of the EOS data into the AWIPS system. This is currently being done in the Huntsville and Birmingham NWS Forecast Offices under the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Program. This paper describes the use of near real time MODIS and AIRS data in AWIPS to improve the detection of clouds, moisture variations, atmospheric stability, and thermal signatures that can lead to significant weather development. The paper and the conference presentation will focus on several examples where MODIS and AIRS data have made a positive impact on forecast accuracy. The results of an assessment of the utility of these products for weather forecast improvement made at the Huntsville NWS Forecast Office will be presented.

  18. Monitoring Wood Degradation during Weathering by Cellulose Crystallinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetto, Francesca; Del Sole, Roberta; Cannoletta, Donato; Vasapollo, Giuseppe; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    The degree of crystallinity of cellulose was used for assessing the degradation level of coated and uncoated samples of pine wood after weathering. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy measured the changes in the surface crystallinity of cellulose resulting from weathering, both natural and artificial. Both techniques revealed an increase in the crystallinity index (CI) of cellulose when wood was subjected to weathering. An increase in the size of crystallites was also observed by XRD measurements. These results were related to the reduction of the amorphous fractions of wood, and, consequently, to the enrichment of the relative crystalline content. Thanks to FT-IR analysis, the degradation of hemicellulose was observed for uncoated samples after exposure to artificial weathering. The effect of weathering was less evident on coated samples because of the protective action of the coating. A good correlation between the crystallinity indexes obtained from FT-IR and XRD was found. The experimental results proved that the proposed method may be a very useful tool for a rapid and accurate estimation of the degradation level of wood exposed to weathering. This methodology can find application in the field of conservation and restoration of wooden objects or in the industry of wood coatings.

  19. Martian weathering products as tracers of climate change and atmosphere/hydrosphere evolution on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Primary objectives for exploration of Mars include determination of: (1) the distribution, abundance, and sources and sinks of volatile materials, and (2) the interaction of surface materials with the atmosphere. Both objectives fall within the purview of planetary surface weathering studies and require documented samples of weathered materials, including rock surfaces, soils, and sediments. Major issues to be addressed in selecting and studying Martian samples in this context are summarized

  20. Beyond Data Regulation: Finding a Solution to the Persistent Problem of Marine Debris and Sea Surface Temperature Measurement Along the Coastline of Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O A Ediang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss environmental changes along the coastal line of Nigeria, especially in the region around Lagos, based on provisional multi-disciplinary analyses of meteorological and maritime observations. This study has revealed that recent environmental change in the Nigerian coastal region has been much more apparent than that of a few years back (1989-2007. Various kinds of ocean debris, transported mainly by coastal wind, are severely affecting the marine and coastal environment. Because the current ocean monitoring system has been found to be troubled by ocean debris, establishing a new system to obtain reliable observational data to monitor and preserve the environment of the coastal region is urgent.