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Sample records for surface loss coefficient

  1. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable ...

  2. Modified loss coefficients in the determination of optimum generation scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D.; Bordoloi, P.K. (Assam Engineering Coll. (IN))

    1991-03-01

    A modified method has been evolved to form the loss coefficients of an electrical power system network by decoupling load and generation and thereby creating additional fictitious load buses. The system losses are then calculated and co-ordinated to arrive at an optimum scheduling of generation using the standard co-ordination equation. The method presented is superior to the ones currently available, in that it is applicable to a multimachine system with random variation of load and it accounts for limits in plant generations and line losses. The precise nature of results and the economy in the cost of energy production obtained by this method is quantified and presented. (author).

  3. Interpretation of Nonlinear Well Loss Coefficients for Rorabaugh (1953) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, B.; Yaylım, T. N.; Avşar

    2016-12-01

    Step drawdown test (SDT) are essential for hydrogeologist to determine aquifer loss and well loss parameters. In a SDT, different series of constant-discharges with incremental rates are conducted to obtain incremental drawdown into the pumping well. Pumping well efficiency (if the well is properly developed and designed), aquifer characteristics (transmissivity, storativity) and discharge-drawdown relationship can be derived from SDT. The well loss parameter directly associate with the well efficiency. The main problem is to determine the correct well loss parameter in order to estimate aquifer characteristics. Walton (1962) stated that the interpretation of the well efficiency is possible to determine the nonlinear head loss coefficient (C) with p equals to 2 and Walton (1962) presented a criteria that suggested the following terms: If C is less than 1800 m2/s5, the is properly developed and designed, If C is ranged from 1800 m2/s5 to 3600 m2/s5, the well has a mild deterioration, If C is greater than 3600 m2/s5, the well has a severe clogging. Until now, several well-known computer techniques such as Aqutesolv, AquiferWin32 , AquifertestPro can be found in the literature to evaluate well efficiency when exponential parameter (p) equals to 2. However, there exist a lack of information to evaluate well efficiency for different number of exponential parameter (p). Strategic Water Storage & Recovery (SWSR) Project in Liwa, Abu Dhabi is the leading and unique hydrogeology project in the world because of its both financial and scientific dimension. A total of 315 recovery wells have been drilled in pursuance of the scope of the SWSR project. A Universal Well Efficiency Criteria (UWEC) is developed using 315 Step Drawdown Test (SDT). UWEC is defined for different number of head loss equation coefficients. The results reveal that there is a strong correlation between non-linear well loss coefficient (C) and exponential parameter (p) up to a coefficient of determination

  4. Effect of rolling motion on the expansion and contraction loss coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, B.H.; Gu, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The expansion and contraction loss coefficients in rolling motion are analyzed. ► Effects of rolling motion on the expansion and contraction loss coefficients are different. ► The spanwise and transverse additional forces contribute slightly to the local loss. ► The oscillations of loss coefficients increase as the strengthening of rolling motion. - Abstract: The sudden expansion and sudden contraction loss coefficients in rolling motion are investigated with CFD code FLUENT. The calculation results are validated with experimental and theoretical results in steady state. The effects of rolling motion on the expansion and contraction loss coefficients are different. The effects of spanwise and transverse additional forces on the expansion and contraction loss coefficients are weak. The effect of velocity oscillation on the contraction loss coefficient is more significant than that on the expansion loss coefficient. The oscillation of local loss coefficient also becomes more and more irregular as the strengthening of rolling motion

  5. Measurement of Dynamic Friction Coefficient on the Irregular Free Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, S. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    A spent fuel storage cask must be estimated for a structural integrity when an earthquake occurs because it freely stands on ground surface without a restriction condition. Usually the integrity estimation for a seismic load is performed by a FEM analysis, the friction coefficient for a standing surface is an important parameter in seismic analysis when a sliding happens. When a storage cask is placed on an irregular ground surface, measuring a friction coefficient of an irregular surface is very difficult because the friction coefficient is affected by the surface condition. In this research, dynamic friction coefficients on the irregular surfaces between a concrete cylinder block and a flat concrete slab are measured with two methods by one direction actuator

  6. Transport coefficients from energy loss studies in an expanding QGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, Isabel; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2017-08-01

    We use linear viscous hydrodynamics to describe the energy and momentum deposited by a fast moving parton in a quark gluon plasma. This energy-momentum is used to compute the probability density for the production of soft partons by means of the Cooper-Frye formula. Using this probability density, we render manifest a relation between the average transverse momentum given to the fast moving parton from the medium, q̂, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η/s, and the energy lost by the fast moving parton, ΔE, in an expanding medium under similar conditions to those generated in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC and RHIC energies. We find that q̂ increases with ΔE. On the other hand, η/s is more stable with ΔE. The behavior of q̂, with ΔE is understood as arising from the length of medium the parton traverses from the point where it is produced. However, since η/s is proportional to the ratio of the length of medium traversed by the fast parton and the average number of scatterings it experiences, it has a milder dependence on the energy it loses. This study represents a tool to obtain a direct connection between transport coefficients and the description of in-medium energy loss within a linear viscous hydrodynamical evolution of the bulk.

  7. Retrieving complex surface impedances from statistical absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondet, Boris Jean-Francois; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2017-01-01

    coefficients, prior information about the absorber of interest can be used as constraints, which is shown to help determine the correct impedance from absorption coefficient. Further stability and sensitivity investigations indicate that the method presented constitutes an efficient solution to convert sound......In room acoustic simulations the surface materials are commonly represented with energy parameters, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which do not carry phase information. This paper presents a method to transform statistical absorption coefficients into complex surface impedances...... that the impedance found has a physical meaning and respects causality in the time domain. Known material models, such as Miki’s and Maa’s models, are taken as references to assess the validity of the suggested model. Due to the non-uniqueness of retrieving complex-valued impedances from real-valued absorption...

  8. Electric coheating experiment to determine the heat-loss coefficient of a double-envelope house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. K.E.; Anderson, J. V.; Connolly, J. M.; Bingham, C. E.

    1981-07-01

    An electric coheating experiment was conducted on a double-envelope house in Arvada, Colorado, to determine the total heat loss coefficient (UA) of the double-shelled structure, as well as the heat loss coefficients of the inner and outer shells. Electric coheating is fairly well established as an experimental method for determining the total heat loss coefficient in conventional residential buildings. However, special problems are introduced with passive and double-envelope buildings. A new methodology was developed to meet these problems. That methodology and the results of the experimental investigation are presented and discussed.

  9. Determining the surface roughness coefficient by 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Fifer Bizjak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several test methods can be used in the laboratory to determine the roughness of rock joint surfaces.However, true roughness can be distorted and underestimated by the differences in the sampling interval of themeasurement methods. Thus, these measurement methods produce a dead zone and distorted roughness profiles.In this paper a new rock joint surface roughness measurement method is presented, with the use of a camera-typethree-dimensional (3D scanner as an alternative to current methods. For this study, the surfaces of ten samples oftuff were digitized by means of a 3D scanner, and the results were compared with the corresponding Rock JointCoefficient (JRC values. Up until now such 3D scanner have been mostly used in the automotive industry, whereastheir use for comparison with obtained JRC coefficient values in rock mechanics is presented here for the first time.The proposed new method is a faster, more precise and more accurate than other existing test methods, and is apromising technique for use in this area of study in the future.

  10. Adaptive Environmental Source Localization and Tracking with Unknown Permittivity and Path Loss Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Barış; Umay, Ilknur

    2015-12-10

    Accurate signal-source and signal-reflector target localization tasks via mobile sensory units and wireless sensor networks (WSNs), including those for environmental monitoring via sensory UAVs, require precise knowledge of specific signal propagation properties of the environment, which are permittivity and path loss coefficients for the electromagnetic signal case. Thus, accurate estimation of these coefficients has significant importance for the accuracy of location estimates. In this paper, we propose a geometric cooperative technique to instantaneously estimate such coefficients, with details provided for received signal strength (RSS) and time-of-flight (TOF)-based range sensors. The proposed technique is integrated to a recursive least squares (RLS)-based adaptive localization scheme and an adaptive motion control law, to construct adaptive target localization and adaptive target tracking algorithms, respectively, that are robust to uncertainties in aforementioned environmental signal propagation coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive localization and tracking techniques are both mathematically analysed and verified via simulation experiments.

  11. Temperature coefficient for modeling denitrification in surface water sediments using the mass transfer coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Appelboom; G.M. Chescheir; F. Birgand; R.W. Skaggs; J.W. Gilliam; D. Amatya

    2010-01-01

    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers. Modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks requires quantifying the denitrification within the sediments in canals and streams. In a previous study, several of the authors developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment denitrification....

  12. Temperature Coefficient for Modeling Denitrification in Surface Water Sediments Using the Mass Transfer Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. W. Appelboom; G. M. Chescheir; R. W. Skaggs; J. W. Gilliam; Devendra M. Amatya

    2006-01-01

    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers with the high costs of water quality monitoring. When modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks, denitrification within the sediments needs to be accounted for. Birgand et. al. developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment...

  13. Basic data generation and pressure loss coefficient evaluation for HANARO core thermal-hydraulic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Hee Taek; Lee, Kye Hong

    1999-06-01

    MATRA-h, a HANARO subchannel analysis computer code, is used to evaluate thermal margin of the HANARO fuel. It's capability includes the assessments of CHF, ONB margin, and fuel temperature. In this report, basic input data and core design parameters required to perform the subchannel analysis with MATRA-h code are collected. These data include the subchannel geometric data, thermal-hydraulic correlations, empirical constants and material properties. The friction and form loss coefficients of the fuel assemblies were determined based on the results of the pressure drop test. At the same time, different form loss coefficients at the end plates and spacers are evaluated for various subchannels. The adequate correlations are applied to the evaluation of the form loss coefficients for various subchannels, which are corrected by measured values in order to have a same pressure drop at each flow channel. These basic input data and design parameters described in this report will be applied usefully to evaluate the thermal margin of the HANARO fuel. (author). 11 refs., 13 tabs., 11 figs

  14. The influence of the surface composition of mixed monolayer films on the evaporation coefficient of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Rachael E H; Davies, James F; Reid, Jonathan P

    2016-07-20

    We explore the dependence of the evaporation coefficient of water from aqueous droplets on the composition of a surface film, considering in particular the influence of monolayer mixed component films on the evaporative mass flux. Measurements with binary component films formed from long chain alcohols, specifically tridecanol (C13H27OH) and pentadecanol (C15H31OH), and tetradecanol (C14H29OH) and hexadecanol (C16H33OH), show that the evaporation coefficient is dependent on the mole fractions of the two components forming the monolayer film. Immediately at the point of film formation and commensurate reduction in droplet evaporation rate, the evaporation coefficient is equal to a mole fraction weighted average of the evaporation coefficients through the equivalent single component films. As a droplet continues to diminish in surface area with continued loss of water, the more-soluble, shorter alkyl chain component preferentially partitions into the droplet bulk with the evaporation coefficient tending towards that through a single component film formed simply from the less-soluble, longer chain alcohol. We also show that the addition of a long chain alcohol to an aqueous-sucrose droplet can facilitate control over the degree of dehydration achieved during evaporation. After undergoing rapid gas-phase diffusion limited water evaporation, binary aqueous-sucrose droplets show a continued slow evaporative flux that is limited by slow diffusional mass transport within the particle bulk due to the rapidly increasing particle viscosity and strong concentration gradients that are established. The addition of a long chain alcohol to the droplet is shown to slow the initial rate of water loss, leading to a droplet composition that remains more homogeneous for a longer period of time. When the sucrose concentration has achieved a sufficiently high value, and the diffusion constant of water has decreased accordingly so that bulk phase diffusion arrest occurs in the monolayer

  15. Analytical Modeling Of The Steinmetz Coefficient For Single-Phase Transformer Eddy Current Loss Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aly Saandy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents to an analytical calculation methodology of the Steinmetz coefficient applied to the prediction of Eddy current loss in a single-phase transformer. Based on the electrical circuit theory the active power consumed by the core is expressed analytically in function of the electrical parameters as resistivity and the geometrical dimensions of the core. The proposed modeling approach is established with the duality parallel series. The required coefficient is identified from the empirical Steinmetz data based on the experimented active power expression. To verify the relevance of the model validations both by simulations with two in two different frequencies and measurements were carried out. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical approach and the practical results.

  16. Sound absorption coefficient in situ: an alternative for estimating soil loss factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Rosane; Meletti de Abreu, Marco Henrique; Okada, Rafael Yuri; Soares, Paulo Fernando; GranhenTavares, Célia Regina

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the sound absorption coefficient and factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was determined in a section of the Maringá Stream basin, Paraná State, by using erosion plots. In the field, four erosion plots were built on a reduced scale, with dimensions of 2.0×12.5m. With respect to plot coverage, one was kept with bare soil and the others contained forage grass (Brachiaria), corn and wheat crops, respectively. Planting was performed without any type of conservation practice in an area with a 9% slope. A sedimentation tank was placed at the end of each plot to collect the material transported. For the acoustic system, pink noise was used in the measurement of the proposed monitoring, for collecting information on incident and reflected sound pressure levels. In general, obtained values of soil loss confirmed that 94.3% of material exported to the basin water came from the bare soil plot, 2.8% from the corn plot, 1.8% from the wheat plot, and 1.1% from the forage grass plot. With respect to the acoustic monitoring, results indicated that at 16kHz erosion plot coverage type had a significant influence on the sound absorption coefficient. High correlation coefficients were found in estimations of the A and C factors of the USLE, confirming that the acoustic technique is feasible for the determination of soil loss directly in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tire-to-Surface Friction-Coefficient Measurements with a C-123B Airplane on Various Runway Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard H.; Kolnick, Joseph J.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain information on the tire-to-surface friction coefficients available in aircraft braking during the landing run. The tests were made with a C-123B airplane on both wet and dry concrete and bituminous pavements and on snow-covered and ice surfaces at speeds from 12 to 115 knots. Measurements were made of the maximum (incipient skidding) friction coefficient, the full-skidding (locked wheel) friction coefficient, and the wheel slip ratio during braking.

  18. Numerical determination of lateral loss coefficients for subchannel analysis in nuclear fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin Kim; Goon-Cherl Park [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    An accurate prediction of cross-flow based on detailed knowledge of the velocity field in subchannels of a nuclear fuel assembly is of importance in nuclear fuel performance analysis. In this study, the low-Reynolds number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model has been adopted in two adjacent subchannels with cross-flow. The secondary flow is estimated accurately by the anisotropic algebraic Reynolds stress model. This model was numerically calculated by the finite element method and has been verified successfully through comparison with existing experimental data. Finally, with the numerical analysis of the velocity field in such subchannel domain, an analytical correlation of the lateral loss coefficient is obtained to predict the cross-flow rate in subchannel analysis codes. The correlation is expressed as a function of the ratio of the lateral flow velocity to the donor subchannel axial velocity, recipient channel Reynolds number and pitch-to-diameter.

  19. Uptake Coefficients of NO3 Radicals on Solid Surfaces of Sea-Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratpanche, F.; Sawerysyn, J.-P.

    1999-02-01

    Uptake coefficients of nitrate radicals (γ NO_3) have been measured by a technique involving a coated-wall flow tube with radical detection by E.P.R. spectrometry. The variation of NO3 concentration in the gas phase was followed indirectly by monitoring OH radicals produced by the titration reaction H + NO_3. The mean initial value of γ NO3 measured on solid NaCl surfaces was (1.7± 1.2)× 10-2) in the temperature range 258-301 K, while for solid NaBr surfaces the value was (0.11 ± 0.06) at 293 K. In each case, errors limits correspond to one standard deviation. For NaBr, a slight negative temperature dependence was observed over the investigated range, 243-293 K, which can be represented by γ_NO_3^NaBr = 1.6 ≤ft(begin{array}{l}+1.8 -0.9) × 10-3exp [(1210± 200)/T]. An analysis of the results shows that under some conditions the heterogeneous loss of nitrate radicals on sea-salt aerosol particles at ambient temperature could be competitive with their loss by homogeneous reaction in the marine troposphere at night. Les coefficients de capture des radicaux nitrate (γ NO_3) sur des surfaces de sels marins (NaCl et NaBr) ont été mesurés aux températures troposphériques en utilisant la technique du réacteur à écoulement à paroi recouverte couplée à un spectromètre de résonance paramagnétique électronique (R.P.E). La variation de la concentration en phase gazeuse des radicaux nitrate en présence des surfaces étudiées est suivie en mesurant le signal R.P.E des radicaux OH produits par la réaction de titrage H + NO3. Pour des températures comprises entre 258 et 301 K, la valeur moyenne du coefficient de capture initial (γ NO_3) sur des surfaces solides de NaCl est égal à (1.7± 1.2)× 10-2). Sur des surfaces solides de NaBr, (γ NO_3) est égal à (0.11 ± 0.06) à 293 K. L'incertitude correspond à une déviation standard. Par ailleurs, pour ce type de surfaces, une légère dépendance négative avec la température est observée dans la

  20. The heat transfer coefficients of the heating surface of 300 MWe CFB boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Man; Lu, Qinggang; Sun, Yunkai

    2012-08-01

    A study of the heat transfer about the heating surface of three commercial 300 MWe CFB boilers was conducted in this work. The heat transfer coefficients of the platen heating surface, the external heat exchanger (EHE) and cyclone separator were calculated according to the relative operation data at different boiler loads. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficient of the waterwall was calculated by heat balance of the hot circuit of the CFB boiler. With the boiler capacity increasing, the heat transfer coefficients of these heating surface increases, and the heat transfer coefficient of the water wall is higher than that of the platen heating surface. The heat transfer coefficient of the EHE is the highest in high boiler load, the heat transfer coefficient of the cyclone separator is the lowest. Because the fired coal is different from the design coal in No.1 boiler, the ash content of the fired coal is much lower than that of the design coal. The heat transfer coefficients which calculated with the operation data are lower than the previous design value and that is the reason why the bed temperature is rather high during the boiler operation in No.1 boiler.

  1. Irrecoverable pressure loss coefficients for two out-of-plane piping elbows at high Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffield, R.D.; Hammond, R.B.; McKeown, P.T.

    1999-02-08

    Pressure drops of multiple piping elbows were experimentally determined for high Reynolds number flows. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties in the currently used methods for predicting irrecoverable pressure losses and also to provide a qualification database for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes. The earlier high Reynolds number correlations had been based on extrapolations over several orders of magnitude in Reynolds number from where the original database existed. Recent single elbow test data shows about a factor of two lower elbow pressure loss coefficient (at 40x 106 Reynolds number) than those from current correlations. This single piping elbow data has been extended in this study to a multiple elbow configuration of two elbows that are 90o out-of-plane relative to each other. The effects of separation distance and Reynolds number have been correlated and presented in a form that can be used for design application. Contrary to earlier extrapolations from low Reynolds numbers (Re c 1.0x 106), a strong Reynolds number dependence was found to exist. The combination of the high Reynolds number single elbow data with the multiple elbow interaction effects measured in this study shows that earlier design correlations are conservative by significant margins at high Reynolds numbers. Qualification of CFD predictions with this new high Reynolds number database will help guide the need for additional high Reynolds number testing of other piping configurations. The study also included velocity measurements at several positions downstream of the first and second test elbows using an ultrasonic flowmeter. Reasonable agreement after the first test elbow was found relative to flow fields that are known to exist from low Reynolds number visual tests and also from CFD predictions. This data should help to qualify CFD predictions of the three-dimensional flow stream downstream of the second test elbow.

  2. Experimental Study on the Tensile Strength and Linear Expansion Coefficient of Air Tunnel Terrazzo Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boping Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, studies on the surface tension of air tunnel terrazzo under wind load and how regularly it is affected by temperature are relatively less, and the measured results of the thermal expansion coefficient of terrazzo have not yet been given. In this paper, based on the top terrazzo surface structure of the inner wall of the wind tunnel, the tensile performance tests of terrazzo surface layer are conducted, while the thermal expansion coefficient of the six terrazzo test blocks were tested. The tests and analysis show that the construction of terrazzo surface, based on the proposed construction process, can effectively guarantee the reliable cement performance for the binding layer between mortar and concrete base layer, terrazzo surface layer and the cement mortar layer. And the thermal expansion coefficient of terrazzo can be valued at 1.06e-5/ºC.

  3. Large scale steam flow test: Pressure drop data and calculated pressure loss coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.B.; Spears, J.R.; Feder, A.R.; Moore, B.P.; Young, C.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the result of large scale steam flow testing, 3 million to 7 million lbs/hr., conducted at approximate steam qualities of 25, 45, 70 and 100 percent (dry, saturated). It is concluded from the test data that reasonable estimates of piping component pressure loss coefficients for single phase flow in complex piping geometries can be calculated using available engineering literature. This includes the effects of nearby upstream and downstream components, compressibility, and internal obstructions, such as splitters, and ladder rungs on individual piping components. Despite expected uncertainties in the data resulting from the complexity of the piping geometry and two-phase flow, the test data support the conclusion that the predicted dry steam K-factors are accurate and provide useful insight into the effect of entrained liquid on the flow resistance. The K-factors calculated from the wet steam test data were compared to two-phase K-factors based on the Martinelli-Nelson pressure drop correlations. This comparison supports the concept of a two-phase multiplier for estimating the resistance of piping with liquid entrained into the flow. The test data in general appears to be reasonably consistent with the shape of a curve based on the Martinelli-Nelson correlation over the tested range of steam quality

  4. Extracting surface diffusion coefficients from batch adsorption measurement data: application of the classic Langmuir kinetics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Khim Hoong

    2017-11-09

    Surface diffusion coefficients may be estimated by fitting solutions of a diffusion model to batch kinetic data. For non-linear systems, a numerical solution of the diffusion model's governing equations is generally required. We report here the application of the classic Langmuir kinetics model to extract surface diffusion coefficients from batch kinetic data. The use of the Langmuir kinetics model in lieu of the conventional surface diffusion model allows derivation of an analytical expression. The parameter estimation procedure requires determining the Langmuir rate coefficient from which the pertinent surface diffusion coefficient is calculated. Surface diffusion coefficients within the 10 -9 to 10 -6  cm 2 /s range obtained by fitting the Langmuir kinetics model to experimental kinetic data taken from the literature are found to be consistent with the corresponding values obtained from the traditional surface diffusion model. The virtue of this simplified parameter estimation method is that it reduces the computational complexity as the analytical expression involves only an algebraic equation in closed form which is easily evaluated by spreadsheet computation.

  5. Tuning apparent friction coefficient by controlled patterning bulk metallic glasses surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Xu, Erjiang; Liu, Ze; Wang, Xinyun; Liu, Lin

    2016-12-01

    Micro-honeycomb structures with various pitches between adjacent cells were hot-embossed on Zr35Ti30Cu8.25Be26.75 bulk metallic glass surface. The effect of pitch geometry on the frictional behavior of metallic glass surface was systematically investigated. The results revealed that all textured metallic glass surfaces show a reduction in friction coefficient compared to smooth surface. More intriguingly, the friction coefficient first decreased and then increased gradually with increasing pitches. Such unique behavior can be understood fundamentally from the perspective of competing effects between contact area and local stress level with increasing pitches. This finding not only enhance the in-depth understanding of the mechanism of the significant role of surface topography on the frictional behavior of metallic glass surface, but also opens a new route towards other functional applications for bulk metallic glasses.

  6. Experimental heat transfer coefficients between a surface and fixed and fluidized beds with PCM

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo-Barrientos, María Asunción; Sobrino, Celia; Almendros-Ibáñez, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study to determine the capacity of a phase change material (PCM) in granular form to be used in fixed and bubbling fluidized beds for thermal energy storage. The experimental measurements are focused on determination of the heat transfer coefficient between a heated surface immersed in the bed and the granular PCM. The flow rate is varied to quantify its influence on the heat transfer coefficient. The PCM used is Rubitherm GR50 with a phase change tem...

  7. Sustained frictional instabilities on nanodomed surfaces: Stick-slip amplitude coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quignon, Benoit; Pilkington, Georgia A.; Thormann, Esben

    2013-01-01

    properties and their measured friction coefficients was identified. Furthermore, all the nanodomed textures exhibited pronounced oscillations in the shear traces, similar to the classic stick-slip behavior, under all the shear velocities and load regimes studied. That is, the nanotextured topography led...... to sustained frictional instabilities, effectively with no contact frictional sliding. The amplitude of the stick-slip oscillations, σf, was found to correlate with the topographic properties of the surfaces and scale linearly with the applied load. In line with the friction coefficient, we define the slope...... of this linear plot as the stick-slip amplitude coefficient (SSAC). We suggest that such stick-slip behaviors are characteristics of surfaces with nanotextures and that such local frictional instabilities have important implications to surface damage and wear. We thus propose that the shear characteristics...

  8. Influence of a variable Rayleigh scattering-loss coefficient on the light backscattering in multimode optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisyarin, M A; Kotov, O I; Hartog, A H; Liokumovich, L B; Ushakov, N A

    2017-06-01

    The recently developed diffraction technique of analytical investigation of the Rayleigh backscattering produced by an incident fundamental mode in a multimode optical fiber with an arbitrary refractive index profile is supplemented by taking into account the Rayleigh scattering-loss coefficient, which could be variable within the fiber cross section. The relative changes in various radial and azimuthal modes' excitation levels, due to some typical radial dependences of this coefficient, are computed for the quadratic- and step-index fibers. It is stated that the excitation efficiency could either rise or decay for different modes. The effect of the variable Rayleigh scattering-loss coefficient is shown to be more noticeable in the fibers with a quadratic refractive index profile, whereas it is negligible in actual multimode step-index fibers.

  9. Influence of surface modification on friction coefficient of the titanium-elastomer couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chladek, Wiesław; Hadasik, Eugeniusz; Chladek, Grzegorz

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the friction coefficient of titanium-elastomer couple. The study was carried out with a view to potential future utilization of its results for constructing retentive elements of implanted prostheses. Changes in the friction force were recorded while removing titanium specimens placed between two silicone counter specimens made of Ufi Gel. The influence of the titanium specimen movement speed in relation that of to the counter specimens and the influence of clamping force on the friction force were assessed. Additionally, the surface roughness of titanium specimens differed; in one case, titanium was coated with polyethylene. The effect of introducing artificial saliva between the cooperating surfaces on the friction force and friction coefficient was analyzed as well. Based on the characteristics recorded, the possibilities of shaping the friction coefficient have been assessed, since it is the friction coefficient that determines effective operation of a friction couple through increasing the titanium specimen roughness. The artificial saliva being introduced between the specimens reduces considerably the friction coefficient through a change of the phenomenon model. An increase in the pressure force for the specimens of high roughness entails a reduction of the friction coefficient. The study carried out allows us to identify the roughness parameters, which in turn will enable obtaining the prescribed retention force for friction/membrane couplings.

  10. Estimation of the friction coefficient between wheel and rail surface using traction motor behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y; Liang, B; Iwnicki, S

    2012-01-01

    The friction coefficient between a railway wheel and rail surface is a crucial factor in maintaining high acceleration and braking performance of railway vehicles thus monitoring this friction coefficient is important. Restricted by the difficulty in directly measuring the friction coefficient, the creep force or creepage, indirect methods using state observers are used more frequently. This paper presents an approach using a Kalman filter to estimate the creep force and creepage between the wheel and rail and then to identify the friction coefficient using the estimated creep force-creepage relationship. A mathematic model including an AC motor, wheel and roller is built to simulate the driving system. The parameters are based on a test rig at Manchester Metropolitan University. The Kalman filter is designed to estimate the friction coefficient based on the measurements of the simulation model. Series of residuals are calculated through the comparison between the estimated creep force and theoretical values of different friction coefficient. Root mean square values of the residuals are used in the friction coefficient identification.

  11. Experimental rig to estimate the coefficient of friction between tire and surface in airplane touchdown simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwei; Zhan, Liwei

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the coefficient of friction between tire and runway surface during airplane touchdowns, we designed an experimental rig to simulate such events and to record the impact and friction forces being executed. Because of noise in the measured signals, we developed a filtering method that is based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the bandwidth of probability density function of each intrinsic mode function to extract friction and impact force signals. We can quantify the coefficient of friction by calculating the maximum values of the filtered force signals. Signal measurements are recorded for different drop heights and tire rotational speeds, and the corresponding coefficient of friction is calculated. The result shows that the values of the coefficient of friction change only slightly. The random noise and experimental artifact are the major reason of the change.

  12. Measurement of Turbulent Skin Friction Drag Coefficients Produced by Distributed Surface Roughness of Pristine Marine Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafiryadis, Frederik; Meyer, Knud Erik; Gökhan Ergin, F.

    Skin friction drag coefficients are determined for marine antifouling coatings in pristine condition by use of Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA) with uni-directionalhot-wires. Mean flow behaviour for varying surface roughness is analysed in zero pressure gradient, flat plate, turbulentboundary...... drag coefficients as well as roughness Reynolds numbers for the various marine coatings across the range of Rex by fitting of the van Driest profile. The results demonstrate sound agreement with the present ITTC method for determining skin friction coefficients for practically smooth surfaces at low...... layers for Reynolds numbers from Rex =1:91x105 to Rex = 9:54x105. The measurements were conducted at the Technical University of Denmark in a closed-loop wind tunnel redesigned for investigations as this. Ensemble averages of the boundary layer velocity profiles allowed for determination of skin friction...

  13. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  14. Quality-factor and reflection-coefficient estimation using reflected surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganov, D.S.; Ruigrok, E.N.; Ghose, R.; Mikesell, D.; Van Wijk, K.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for estimating the reflection coefficient of a subvertical boundary and the the quality factor of the medium between a receiver and the subvertical boundary. The method uses surface waves from transient deterministic sources and is inspired by the occurrence of non-physical

  15. Effects of bridge cable surface roughness and cross-sectional distortion on aerodynamic force coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, G.; Georgakis, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    of their inherent surface roughness and shape, which might present a significant disturbance for the surrounding wind flow. The present study focuses on the experimental determination, based on static wind tunnel tests, of the aerodynamic coefficients of full-scale bridge cable section models both perpendicular...

  16. Impact of overall and particle surface heat transfer coefficients on thermal process optimization in rotary retorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R; Abakarov, A; Almonacid, S; Teixeira, A

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to examine the significance of recent research that has focused on efforts to estimate values for global and surface heat transfer coefficients under forced convection heating induced by end-over-end rotation in retorting of canned peas in brine. The study confirms the accuracy of regression analysis used to predict values for heat transfer coefficients as a function of rotating speed and headspace, and uses them to predict values over a range of process conditions, which make up the search domain for process optimization. These coefficients were used in a convective heat transfer model to establish a range of lethality-equivalent retort temperature-time processes for various conditions of retort temperature, rotating speed, and headspace. Then, they were coupled with quality factor kinetics to predict the final volume average and surface quality retention resulting from each process and to find the optimal thermal process conditions for canned fresh green peas. Results showed that maximum quality retention (surface and volume average retention) was achieved with the shortest possible process time (made possible with highest retort temperature), and reached the similar level in all cases with small difference between surface and volume average quality retention. The highest heat transfer coefficients (associated with maximum rotating speed and headspace) showed a 10% reduction in process time over that required with minimum rotating speed and headspace. The study concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings and degree to which they were expected.

  17. Self-affine roughness influence on the friction coefficient for rubbers onto solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient mu(f) of a rubber body under incomplete contact onto a solid surface. The roughness is characterized by the rms amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent H. It is shown that with

  18. Surface Plasmon Resonances of an Axially Magnetized Plasma Column in the Presence of Collisional Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es'kin, V. A.; Ivoninsky, A. V.; Kudrin, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    Surface plasmon resonances arising in the course of scattering of an H-polarized plane electromagnetic wave by an axially magnetized plasma column are analyzed. Main attention is paid to the behavior of these resonances in the presence of collisional loss in the magnetoplasma filling the scatterer. The frequencies, Q factors, and amplitude coefficients of the electromagnetic field of multipole surface plasmon resonances of different orders are found, and conditions under which the collisional loss in the plasma completely suppresses a given resonance are determined.

  19. Measurements of uptake coefficients for heterogeneous loss of HO2 onto submicron inorganic salt aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, I J; Matthews, P S J; Whalley, L K; Brooks, B; Goddard, A; Baeza-Romero, M T; Heard, D E

    2013-08-21

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the kinetics of HO2 radical uptake onto submicron inorganic salt aerosols. HO2 reactive uptake coefficients were measured at room temperature using an aerosol flow tube and the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE) technique that allowed for measurements to be conducted under atmospherically relevant HO2 concentrations ([HO2] = 10(8) to 10(9) molecule cm(-3)). The uptake coefficient for HO2 uptake onto dry inorganic salt aerosols was consistently below the detection limit (γ(HO2) atmospheric models (γ(HO2) = 0.1-1.0). Evidence is presented showing that the HO2 uptake coefficients onto aqueous salt aerosol particles are dependent both on the exposure time to the aerosol and on the HO2 concentration used.

  20. A universal empirical expression for the isotope surface exchange coefficients (k*) of acceptor-doped perovskite and fluorite oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, R A

    2006-02-21

    The isotope surface exchange coefficient k* determined in an 18O/16O exchange experiment characterises the exchange flux of the dynamic equilibrium between oxygen in the gas phase and oxygen in a solid oxide. At present there is no atomistic expression that relates measured exchange coefficients to materials' parameters. In this study an empirical, atomistic expression is developed that describes the exchange kinetics of gaseous oxygen with diverse acceptor-doped perovskite and fluorite oxides at temperatures above T approximately 900 K. The expression is used to explain the observed correlations between surface exchange coefficients k* and oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients D* and to identify compounds that exhibit high surface exchange coefficients.

  1. Determination of the potential energy surfaces of refrigerant mixtures and their gas transport coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the inversion scheme was used to determine the potential energy surfaces of five polar refrigerant mixtures. The systems studied here are R123-R134a, R123-R142b, R123-R152a, R142b-R134a, and R142b-R152a. The low density transport coefficients of the refrigerant mixtures were calculated from the new invert potentials by the classical kinetic theory. The viscosity coefficient, binary diffusion coefficient, and thermal diffusion factor were computed for the temperature range from 313.15-973.15 K. The agreement with the NIST viscosity data demonstrates that the present calculated values are accurate enough to supplement experimental data over an extended temperature range. Correlations of the transport properties were also provided for the refrigerant mixtures at equimolar ratios.

  2. Collisional Dissociation of CO: ab initio Potential Energy Surfaces and Quasiclassical Trajectory Rate Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenke, David W.; Jaffe, Richard L.; Chaban, Galina M.

    2016-01-01

    We have generated accurate global potential energy surfaces for CO+Ar and CO+O that correlate with atom-diatom pairs in their ground electronic states based on extensive ab initio electronic structure calculations and used these potentials in quasi-classical trajectory nuclear dynamics calculations to predict the thermal dissociation rate coefficients over 5000- 35000 K. Our results are not compatible with the 20-45 year old experimental results. For CO + Ar we obtain fairly good agreement with the experimental rate coefficients of Appleton et al. (1970) and Mick and Roth (1993), but our computed rate coefficients exhibit a stronger temperature dependence. For CO + O our dissociation rate coefficient is in close agreement with the value from the Park model, which is an empirical adjustment of older experimental results. However, we find the rate coefficient for CO + O is only 1.5 to 3.3 times larger than CO + Ar over the temperature range of the shock tube experiments (8000-15,000 K). The previously accepted value for this rate coefficient ratio is 15, independent of temperature. We also computed the rate coefficient for the CO + O ex- change reaction which forms C + O2. We find this reaction is much faster than previously believed and is the dominant process in the removal of CO at temperatures up to 16,000 K. As a result, the dissociation of CO is accomplished in two steps (react to form C+O2 and then O2 dissociates) that are endothermic by 6.1 and 5.1 eV, instead of one step that requires 11.2 eV to break the CO bond.

  3. The surface diffusion coefficient for an arbitrarily curved fluidfluid interface.(II). Coefficient for plane-parallel diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we developed an expression for the coefficient for plane-parallel diffusion for an arbitrarily curved fluid–fluid interface. The expression is valid for ordinary diffusion in binary mixtures, with isotropic bulk phases and an interfacial region that is isotropic in the plane parallel

  4. Some experimental data on accommodation coefficients for the noble ions on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, K.I.; Rijov, Y.A.; Shkarban, I.I.

    1974-01-01

    Methods and results of experimental measurements of energy accommodation for Ar + , Kr + , and Xe + ions with initial energy E 0 - 100-500eV bombarding Cu, Mo, Ag and other (including Mo - monocrystal) foil target are presented. The angular dependencies for the energy accommodation coefficient are obtained within the range of angle phi=0+70 deg (phi is the angle between the target surface normal and the beam direction)

  5. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  6. Experimental investigation of thermal conductivity coefficient and heat exchange between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental research of thermal conductivity coefficients of the siliceous sand bed fluidized by air and an experimental investigation of the particle size influence on the heat transfer coefficient between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surfaces. The measurements were performed for the specific fluidization velocity and sand particle diameters d p=0.3, 0.5, 0.9 mm. The industrial use of fluidized beds has been increasing rapidly in the past 20 years owing to their useful characteristics. One of the outstanding characteristics of a fluidized bed is that it tends to maintain a uniform temperature even with nonuniform heat release. On the basis of experimental research, the influence of the process's operational parameters on the obtained values of the bed's thermal conductivity has been analyzed. The results show direct dependence of thermal conductivity on the intensity of mixing, the degree of fluidization, and the size of particles. In the axial direction, the coefficients that have been treated have values a whole order higher than in the radial direction. Comparison of experimental research results with experimental results of other authors shows good agreement and the same tendency of thermal conductivity change. It is well known in the literature that the value of the heat transfer coefficient is the highest in the horizontal and the smallest in the vertical position of the heat exchange surface. Variation of heat transfer, depending on inclination angle is not examined in detail. The difference between the values of the relative heat transfer coefficient between vertical and horizontal heater position for all particle sizes reduces by approximately 15% with the increase of fluidization rate.

  7. The coefficient of restitution of ice particles in glancing collisions: Experimental results for unfrosted surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supulver, Kimberley D.; Bridges, Frank G.; Lin, D. N. C.

    1995-01-01

    Both Saturn's rings and planetesimal disks are made up of particles in Keplerian orbits. Inelastic collisions between these particles regulate their dynamical evolution and possible aggregation. We present an experiment to simulate glancing collisions in Saturn's rings and in planetesimal disks and thus measure contributions to the energy loss for both normal and tangential velocity components. In this experiment, a spherical iceball mounted on a long-period, two dimensional pendulum is made to impact a flat ice surface in a low-temperature environment. This paper describes the experimental apparatus in detail and presents results for smooth unfrosted surfaces. The energy loss for tangential motion is suprisingly low, indicating that very little friction is present at low impact speeds for relatively smooth ice surfaces and temperatures near 100 K. We have also investigated room-temperature collisions of a rubber ball on a rough surface to understand the energy loss in situations where the tangential friction force is not small. In this analogous case, the energy loss is maximum for impact angles in the range 45 deg-60 deg.

  8. Heat Transmission Coefficient Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a Heat Loss Measuring Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2013-01-01

    and cooling our houses. There is a huge energy-saving potential in this area for reducing both the global climate problems as well as economy challenges. Heating of buildings in Denmark accounts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consumption. For this reason, a reduction of heat losses from...... to optimize the energy performance. This paper presents a method for measuring the heat loss by utilizing a U-value meter. The U-value meter measures the heat transfer in the unit W/Km2 and has been used in several projects to upgrade the energy performance in temperate regions. The U-value meter was also......Global energy efficiency can be obtained in two ordinary ways. One way is to improve the energy production and supply side, and the other way is, in general, to reduce the consumption of energy in society. This paper has focus on the latter and especially the consumption of energy for heating...

  9. The stochastic distribution of available coefficient of friction for human locomotion of five different floor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2014-05-01

    The maximum coefficient of friction that can be supported at the shoe and floor interface without a slip is usually called the available coefficient of friction (ACOF) for human locomotion. The probability of a slip could be estimated using a statistical model by comparing the ACOF with the required coefficient of friction (RCOF), assuming that both coefficients have stochastic distributions. An investigation of the stochastic distributions of the ACOF of five different floor surfaces under dry, water and glycerol conditions is presented in this paper. One hundred friction measurements were performed on each floor surface under each surface condition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if the distribution of the ACOF was a good fit with the normal, log-normal and Weibull distributions. The results indicated that the ACOF distributions had a slightly better match with the normal and log-normal distributions than with the Weibull in only three out of 15 cases with a statistical significance. The results are far more complex than what had heretofore been published and different scenarios could emerge. Since the ACOF is compared with the RCOF for the estimate of slip probability, the distribution of the ACOF in seven cases could be considered a constant for this purpose when the ACOF is much lower or higher than the RCOF. A few cases could be represented by a normal distribution for practical reasons based on their skewness and kurtosis values without a statistical significance. No representation could be found in three cases out of 15. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Empirical mapping of the convective heat transfer coefficients with local hot spots on highly conductive surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekelioğlu Murat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental method was proposed to assess the natural and forced convective heat transfer coefficients on highly conductive bodies. Experiments were performed at air velocities of 0m/s, 4.0m/s, and 5.4m/s, and comparisons were made between the current results and available literature. These experiments were extended to arbitrary-shape bodies. External flow conditions were maintained throughout. In the proposed method, in determination of the surface convective heat transfer coefficients, flow condition is immaterial, i.e., either laminar or turbulent. With the present method, it was aimed to acquire the local heat transfer coefficients on any arbitrary conductive shape. This method was intended to be implemented by the heat transfer engineer to identify the local heat transfer rates with local hot spots. Finally, after analyzing the proposed experimental results, appropriate decisions can be made to control the amount of the convective heat transfer off the surface. Limited mass transport was quantified on the cooled plate.

  11. Simulation calculations of physical sputtering and reflection coefficient of plasma-irradiated carbon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.; Ono, T.; Yamamura, Y.

    1994-08-01

    Physical sputtering yields from the carbon surface irradiated by the boundary plasma are obtained with the use of a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The yields are calculated for many random initial energy and angle values of incident protons or deuterons with a Maxwellian velocity distribution, and then averaged. Here the temperature of the boundary plasma, the sheath potential and the angle δ between the magnetic field line and the surface normal are taken into account. A new fitting formula for an arrangement of the numerical data of sputtering yield is introduced, in which six fitting parameters are determined from the numerical results and listed. These results provide a way to estimate the erosion of carbon materials irradiated by boundary plasma. The particle reflection coefficients for deuterons and their neutrals from a carbon surface are also calculated by the same code and presented together with, for comparison, that for the case of monoenergetic normal incidence. (author)

  12. Measurement of thermal accommodation coefficients of inert gas mixtures on a surface of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Byung Soon

    Heat transfer in the fuel-clad gap in a nuclear reactor impacts the overall temperature distribution, stored energy and the mechanical properties of a nuclear fuel rod. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the gap conductance between the UO2 fuel and the clad is critically important for reactor design and operations. To obtain the requisite accuracy in the gap conductance estimation, the thermal accommodation coefficients of the various gases present on the fuel outer surface and the cladding inner surface are very important. In present work, we studied the stainless steel that is the most favored cladding material for advanced gas-cooled reactors. Our goal was to obtain the thermal accommodation coefficients of select inert gases and mixtures of the same on this stainless steel. It has been found for pure helium, pure argon and select He-Ar mixtures that the thermal accommodation coefficient values with stainless steel are very close to constant over the range of pressures studied. The values obtained in this work are in good agreement with similar values reported previously in the literature. As far as we aware, these measurements are the first made of the thermal accommodation coefficients of inert gas mixtures on stainless steel. To aid in the verification of the kinetic theory, additional experiments were done using a two-sphere system and were analyzed using the equivalent sphere approximation. It is found that this theory can be applicable to spherical geometry problems and can be used for a wide range of values of the Knudsen number (Kn). Some sensitivity studies were performed to delineate some key parameter effect in terms of cooling rate, DeltaT difference, and Knudsen number.

  13. Energy loss in grazing proton-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaristi, J.I.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The energy loss of fast protons, with energy E > 100 keV, specularly reflected on a solid surface with glancing angle of incidence of the order of a mrad is analysed on theoretical grounds. Two different contributions can be distinguished: i) energy losses originating from the interaction with the valence band, accounted for through an induced force, and ii) the excitation of electron bound states of the target atoms. The results are compared with available experimental data. (orig.)

  14. Low-order aberration coefficients applied to design of telescopes with freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bryan D.; Howard, Joseph M.

    2017-09-01

    As the number of smallsats and cubesats continues to increase [1], so does the interest in the space optics community to miniaturize reflective optical instrumentation for these smaller platforms. Applications of smallsats are typically for the Earth observing community, but recently opportunities for them are being made available for planetary science, heliophysics and astrophysics concepts [2]. With the smaller satellite platforms come reduced instrument sizes that they accommodate, but the specifications such as field of view and working f/# imposed on the smaller optical systems are often the same, or even more challenging. To meet them, and to "fit in the box", it is necessary to employ additional degrees of freedom to the optical design. An effective strategy to reduce package size is to remove rotational symmetry constraints on the system layout, allowing it to minimize the unused volume by applying rigid body tilts and decenters to mirrors. Requirements for faster systems and wider fields of view can be addressed by allowing optical surfaces to become "freeform" in shape, essentially removing rotational symmetry constraints on the mirrors themselves. This dual approach not only can reduce package size, but also can allow for increased fields of view with improved image quality. Tools were developed in the 1990s to compute low-order coefficients of the imaging properties of asymmetric tilted and decentered systems [3][4]. That approach was then applied to reflective systems with plane symmetry, where the coefficients were used to create closed-form constraints to reduce the number of degrees of freedom of the design space confronting the designer [5][6]. In this paper we describe the geometric interpretation of these coefficients for systems with a plane of symmetry, and discuss some insights that follow for the design of systems without closed-form constraints. We use a common three-mirror design form example to help illustrate these concepts, and

  15. Changes in the surface roughness and friction coefficient of orthodontic bracket slots before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomo; Lin, Jiuxiang; Ding, Peng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the surface roughness of bracket slots and the friction coefficient between the bracket and the stainless steel archwire before and after orthodontic treatment. There were four experimental groups: groups 1 and 2 were 3M new and retrieved brackets, respectively, and groups 3 and 4 were BioQuick new and retrieved brackets, respectively. All retrieved brackets were taken from patients with the first premolar extraction and using sliding mechanics to close the extraction space. The surface roughness of specimens was evaluated using an optical interferometry profilometer, which is faster and nondestructive compared with a stylus profilometer, and provided a larger field, needing no sample preparation, compared with atomic force microscopy. Orthodontic treatment resulted in significant increases in surface roughness and coefficient of friction for both brands of brackets. However, there was no significant difference by brand for new or retrieved brackets. These retrieval analysis results highlight the necessity of reevaluating the properties and clinical behavior of brackets during treatment to make appropriate treatment decisions. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. EPMA-EDS surface measurements of interdiffusion coefficients between miscible metals in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christien, F.; Pierson, J.F.; Hassini, A.; Capon, F.; Le Gall, R.; Brousse, T.

    2010-01-01

    A new technique is developed to study interdiffusion between two miscible metals. The technique is applied to the Ni-Pd system. It consists in measuring the change of apparent surface composition of a Pd substrate coated with an 800 nm Ni thin film during annealing at a given temperature. The measurement is carried out in-situ inside the chamber of a SEM (scanning electron microscope) by EPMA-EDS (electron probe microanalysis-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). The experimental data are processed using a model that mixes the Fick's diffusion equations and the electron probe microanalysis equation. This process allows the determination of the mean interdiffusion coefficient at a given annealing temperature. The main advantages of the technique are the possible determination of interdiffusion coefficients in thin films and at very low temperature (down to 430 deg. C, i.e. ∼0.4 T m ), which is not achievable with other techniques conventionally used for the study of interdiffusion. The Ni-Pd mean interdiffusion coefficient is shown to follow an Arrhenius law (D-tilde c =6.32x10 -3 exp((178.8kJmol -1 )/(RT) )cm 2 s -1 ) between 430 deg. C and 900 deg. C, in relatively good agreement with previous interdiffusion measurements made on the Ni-Pd system at higher temperature.

  17. Sliding motion modulates stiffness and friction coefficient at the surface of tissue engineered cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, S; Loparic, M; Peter, R; Stolz, M; Aebi, U; Alini, M

    2012-04-01

    Functional cartilage tissue engineering aims to generate grafts with a functional surface, similar to that of authentic cartilage. Bioreactors that stimulate cell-scaffold constructs by simulating natural joint movements hold great potential to generate cartilage with adequate surface properties. In this study two methods based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) were applied to obtain information about the quality of engineered graft surfaces. For better understanding of the molecule-function relationships, AFM was complemented with immunohistochemistry. Bovine chondrocytes were seeded into polyurethane scaffolds and subjected to dynamic compression, applied by a ceramic ball, for 1h daily [loading group 1 (LG1)]. In loading group 2 (LG2), the ball additionally oscillated over the scaffold, generating sliding surface motion. After 3 weeks, the surfaces of the engineered constructs were analyzed by friction force and indentation-type AFM (IT-AFM). Results were complemented and compared to immunohistochemical analyses. The loading type significantly influenced the mechanical and histological outcomes. Constructs of LG2 exhibited lowest friction coefficient and highest micro- and nanostiffness. Collagen type II and aggrecan staining were readily observed in all constructs and appeared to reach deeper areas in loaded (LG1, LG2) compared to unloaded scaffolds. Lubricin was specifically detected at the top surface of LG2. This study proposes a quantitative AFM-based functional analysis at the micrometer- and nanometer scale to evaluate the quality of cartilage surfaces. Mechanical testing (load-bearing) combined with friction analysis (gliding) can provide important information. Notably, sliding-type biomechanical stimuli may favor (re-)generation and maintenance of functional articular surfaces and support the development of mechanically competent engineered cartilage. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Analytical expressions of the imaging and aberration coefficients of a general form surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Qi, Jin Wei; Bin, Zhu

    2017-12-01

    A theoretical development is presented in this paper for describing and understanding the imaging and aberrations of a general form surface. The development is based on the Taylor expansion of an arbitrary ray trace from the object reference plane to the image reference plane, which is called the base mapping of the general form surface in this paper. The base mapping is expressed as two Taylor series of the object and pupil coordinates and the imaging and aberration coefficients in the third-order scope are derived and presented as analytical expressions relevant to the optic parameters, invoking no approximations. The situation with tilted object and observing plane is also considered, and the mapping from a tilted object to a tilted observing plane is derived via simple mathematical manipulations based on the base mapping.

  19. Slip safety risk analysis of surface properties using the coefficients of friction of rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoşkun, Gültekin; Sarıışık, Gencay; Sarıışık, Ali

    2017-12-19

    This study was conducted to determine the most appropriate surface processing techniques (SPT), environmental conditions (EC) and surface roughness (SR) to minimize the risk of slipping when pedestrians walk on a floor covering of rocks barefoot and with shoes. Coefficients of friction (COFs) and values of SR were found using five different types of rocks, four SPT and two (ramp and pendulum) tests. Results indicate that the parameters which affect the COF values of rocks include SR, EC and SPT. Simple linear regression was performed to examine the relationship between the values of the COF and the SR. The value of the COF was identified as R 2  ≥ 0.864. Statistical results, which are based on experimental measurements, show that rocks are classified according to their safe use areas depending on their COF and SR values.

  20. Surface runoff and phosphorus (P) loss from bamboo (Phyllostachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... The average bioavailable phosphorus (BAP) concentration of the runoff was 0.23 mg/l and the various phosphorus ... Key words: Phyllostachys pubescens, ecosystem, surface runoff, phosphorus (P) loss. INTRODUCTION .... runoff samples were used for total P (TP) determination following perchloric acid ...

  1. Resonant interaction of ϕ4 kink with PT-symmetric perturbation with spatially periodic gain/loss coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, Danial; Borisov, Denis I.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Zhou, Kun; Dmitriev, Sergey V.

    2018-03-01

    The resonant interaction of the ϕ4 kink with a PT-symmetric perturbation is observed in the numerical study performed in the frame of the continuum model and with the help of a two degree of freedom collective variable model derived in PRA 89, 010102(R). The perturbation is in the form of first partial derivative in time term with a spatially periodic gain/loss coefficient. When the kink interacts with the perturbation, the kink's internal mode is excited with the amplitude varying in time quasiperiodically. The maximal value of the amplitude was found to grow when the kink velocity is such that it travels one period of the gain/loss prefactor in nearly one period of the kink's internal mode. It is also found that the kink's translational and vibrational modes are coupled in a way that an increase in the kink's internal mode amplitude results in a decrease in kink velocity. The results obtained with the collective variable method are in a good qualitative agreement with the numerical simulations for the continuum model. The results of the present study suggest that kink dynamics in open systems with balanced gain and loss can have new features in comparison with the case of conservative systems.

  2. Effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on sprint time in a sled-towing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Cooper, James E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise. The coefficients of friction of four common sports surfaces (a synthetic athletics track, a natural grass rugby pitch, a 3G football pitch, and an artificial grass hockey pitch) were determined from the force required to tow a weighted sled across the surface. Timing gates were then used to measure the 30-m sprint time for six rugby players when towing a sled of varied weight across the surfaces. There were substantial differences between the coefficients of friction for the four surfaces (micro = 0.21-0.58), and in the sled-towing exercise the athlete's 30-m sprint time increased linearly with increasing sled weight. The hockey pitch (which had the lowest coefficient of friction) produced a substantially lower rate of increase in 30-m sprint time, but there were no significant differences between the other surfaces. The results indicate that although an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise is affected by the coefficient offriction of the surface, the relationship relationship between the athlete's rate of increase in 30-m sprint time and the coefficient of friction is more complex than expected.

  3. Effects of self-affine surface roughness on the friction coefficient of rubbers in the presence of a liquid interlayer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G; De Hosson, JTM

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we investigate how the friction coefficient is affected by the presence of a liquid layer in between a self-affine rough surface and a sliding rubber surface. The liquid layer will reduce energy dissipation from the small surface asperities and cavities of lateral sizes smaller than

  4. Coefficient of Friction Between Carboxymethylated Hyaluronic Acid-Based Polymer Films and the Ocular Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colter, Jourdan; Wirostko, Barbara; Coats, Brittany

    2017-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid-based polymer films are emerging as drug-delivery vehicles for local and continuous drug administration to the eye. The highly lubricating hyaluronic acid increases comfort, but displaces films from the eye, reducing drug exposure and efficacy. Previous studies have shown that careful control of the surface interaction of the film with the eye is critical for improved retention. In this study, the frictional interaction of a carboxymethylated, hyaluronic acid-based polymer (CMHA-S) with and without methylcellulose was quantified against ovine and human sclera at three axial loads (0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 N) and four sliding velocities (0.3, 1.0, 10, and 30 mm/s). Static coefficients of friction significantly increased with rate (P Friction became more rate-dependent when methylcellulose was added to CMHA-S. Kinetic coefficient of friction was not affected by rate, and averaged 0.15 ± 0.1. Methylcellulose increased CMHA-S static and kinetic friction by 60% and 80%, respectively, but was also prone to wear during testing. These data suggest that methylcellulose can be used to create a friction differential on the film, but a potentially increased degradation rate with the methylcellulose must be considered in the design.

  5. Dependence of the coefficient of environmental thermal losses of radiation-absorbing thermal exchange panels of flat solar collectors for heating heat-transfer fluid from their average operating and ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avezova, N.R.; Avezov, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    The approximation formula is derived for calculating the normalized coefficient of thermal losses of flat solar collectors (FSCs) for heating heat-transfer fluid (HTF). These are used in hot water supply systems in the warmer part of the year, depending on the average working surface temperature of their radiation-absorbing thermal exchange panels (RATEPs) (t - wsr ) and the ambient temperature (t amb ) in their realistic variation range. (author)

  6. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests. (paper)

  7. Influence of the surface drag coefficient (young waves) on the current structure of the Berre lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Roux, Bernard; Kharif, Christian; Sukhinov, Alexander; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique; Chen, Paul Gang

    2013-04-01

    Due to the shallowness, currents and hydrodynamics of Berre lagoon (South of France) are closely conditioned by the bottom topography, and wind affects the entire water column, as for many other Mediterranean lagoons (Perez-Ruzafa, 2011). Wind stress, which is caused by moving atmospheric disturbance, is known to have a major influence in lagoon water circulation. According to the numerical simulation for the main directions of the wind: N-NW, S-SE and W (wind speed of 80 km/h) it is observed that the current is maximal alongshore in the wind direction; the bottom nearshore current being larger in shallower area. This fact is coherent with fundamental principle of wind-driven flows in closed or partially closed basins which states that in shallow water the dominant force balance is between surface wind stress and bottom friction, yielding a current in the direction of the wind (Mathieu et al, 2002, Hunter and Hearn, 1987; Hearn and Hunter,1990). A uniform wind stress applied at the surface of a basin of variable depth sets up a circulation pattern characterized by relatively strong barotropic coastal currents in the direction of the wind, with return flow occurring over the deeper regions (Csanady, 1967; Csanady, 1971). One of the key parameters characterizing the wind stress formulation is a surface drag coefficient (Cds). Thus, an effect of a surface drag coefficient, in the range 0.0016 - 0.0032, will be analyzed in this work. The value of surface drag coefficient Cds = 0.0016 used in our previous studies (Alekseenko et al., 2012), would correspond to mature waves (open sea). But, in the case of semi-closed lagoonal ecosystem, it would be more appropriate to consider "young waves" mechanism. A dependency of this coefficient in terms of the wind speed is given by Young (1999) in both cases of mature waves and young waves. For "young waves" generated at a wind speed of 80 km/h, Cds = 0.0032. So, the influence of Cds on the vertical profile of the velocity in the

  8. REMOTE SENSING AND SURFACE ENERGY FLUX MODELS TO DERIVE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CROP COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing techniques using high resolution satellite images provide opportunities to evaluate daily crop water use and its spatial and temporal distribution on a field by field basis. Mapping this indicator with pixels of few meters of size on extend areas allows to characterize different processes and parameters. Satellite data on vegetation reflectance, integrated with in field measurements of canopy coverage features and the monitoring of energy fluxes through the soil-plant-atmosphere system, allow to estimate conventional irrigation components (ET, Kc thus improving irrigation strategies. In the study, satellite potential evapotranspiration (ETp and crop coefficient (Kc maps of orange orchards are derived using semi-empirical approaches between reflectance data from IKONOS imagery and ground measurements of vegetation features. The monitoring of energy fluxes through the orchard allows to estimate actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa using energy balance and the Surface Renewal theory. The approach indicates substantial promise as an efficient, accurate and relatively inexpensive procedure to predict actual ET fluxes and Kc from irrigated lands.

  9. Experiments and correlations of pressure loss coefficients for hexagonal arranged rod bundles (P/D > 1.02) with helical wire spacers in laminar and turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.; Yonekawa, S.; Hoffmann, H.

    1987-05-01

    Advanced pressurized water reactors as well as sodium cooled fast reactors, in their breeding and absorber elements, use tightly packed rod bundles with hexagonally arranged rods. Helical wires or helical fins serve as spacers. The pressure loss coefficients of twelve bundles with helical wires were determined systematically in water experiments. High measuring accuracy was achieved by very precise fabrication of the bundles and the shroud as well as by investigations of the proper measuring techniques. The results show a dependency of the loss coefficients on the Reynolds number and on the P/D and H/D ratios of the bundles. These results together with available systematic experimental results of investigations at P/D > 1.1 were used to develop a correlation to determine the pressure loss coefficients of tightly and widely packed hexagonally arranged rod bundles with helical wire spacers. These correlations were used to recalculate and compare results of pressure loss investigations found in the literature; good agreement was demonstrated. Hence, calculation methods exist for a broad range of applications to determine the pressure loss coefficients of hexagonally arranged rod bundles with helical wires for spacers. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Experimental determination of surface heat transfer coefficient in a dry ice-ethanol cooling bath using a numerical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    BACKGROUND: Dry ice-ethanol bath (-78 degree C) have been widely used in low temperature biological research to attain rapid cooling of samples below freezing temperature. The prediction of cooling rates of biological samples immersed in dry ice-ethanol bath is of practical interest in cryopreservation. The cooling rate can be obtained using mathematical models representing the heat conduction equation in transient state. Additionally, at the solid cryogenic-fluid interface, the knowledge of the surface heat transfer coefficient (h) is necessary for the convective boundary condition in order to correctly establish the mathematical problem. The study was to apply numerical modeling to obtain the surface heat transfer coefficient of a dry ice-ethanol bath. A numerical finite element solution of heat conduction equation was used to obtain surface heat transfer coefficients from measured temperatures at the center of polytetrafluoroethylene and polymethylmetacrylate cylinders immersed in a dry ice-ethanol cooling bath. The numerical model considered the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties of plastic materials used. A negative linear relationship is observed between cylinder diameter and heat transfer coefficient in the liquid bath, the calculated h values were 308, 135 and 62.5 W/(m 2 K) for PMMA 1.3, PTFE 2.59 and 3.14 cm in diameter, respectively. The calculated heat transfer coefficients were consistent among several replicates; h in dry ice-ethanol showed an inverse relationship with cylinder diameter.

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Runoff Coefficient of HiPIMS in Simulating Flood Processes in a Large Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueling Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To simulate flood processes at the basin level, the GPU-based High-Performance Integrated Hydrodynamic Modelling System (HiPIMS is gaining interest as computational capability increases. However, the difficulty of coping with rainfall input to HiPIMS reduces the possibility of acquiring a satisfactory simulation accuracy. The objective of this study is to test the sensitivity of the surface runoff coefficient in the HiPIMS source term in the Misai basin with an area of 797 km2 in south China. To achieve this, the basin was divided into 909,824 grid cells, to each of which a Manning coefficient was assigned based on its land use type interpreted from remote sensing data. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for three typical flood processes under four types of surface runoff coefficients, assumed a priori, upon three error functions. The results demonstrate the crucial role of the surface runoff coefficient in achieving better simulation accuracy and reveal that this coefficient varies with flood scale and is unevenly distributed over the basin.

  12. The collective diffusion coefficient as a shape detector of the surface energy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mińkowski, Marcin; Załuska–Kotur, Magdalena A.

    2018-01-01

    The general expression for the diffusion coefficient for a dense, interacting particle system moving through a one-dimensional non-homogeneous energy potential is derived. Based on this expression, it is shown that the diffusion coefficient as a function of density depends to a great extent on the shape of the energy landscape. The presence of other particles affects the diffusion coefficient in another way as they pass through the same energy barriers, but set in a different order. The obtained result comes from a variational approach to diffusion and the interactions are taken into account using the transfer-matrix method. Interactions impact on the dynamics of the system, both by changing the equilibrium probabilities of the occupied states and by changing the barriers for the particle jumps. Several examples of diffusion in different energy potentials are presented and the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on potential and interactions is discussed.

  13. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  14. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  15. Low temperature rate coefficients of the H + CH(+) → C(+) + H2 reaction: New potential energy surface and time-independent quantum scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfelli, Ghofran; Halvick, Philippe; Honvault, Pascal; Kerkeni, Boutheïna; Stoecklin, Thierry

    2015-09-21

    The observed abundances of the methylidyne cation, CH(+), in diffuse molecular clouds can be two orders of magnitude higher than the prediction of the standard gas-phase models which, in turn, predict rather well the abundances of neutral CH. It is therefore necessary to investigate all the possible formation and destruction processes of CH(+) in the interstellar medium with the most abundant species H, H2, and e(-). In this work, we address the destruction process of CH(+) by hydrogen abstraction. We report a new calculation of the low temperature rate coefficients for the abstraction reaction, using accurate time-independent quantum scattering and a new high-level ab initio global potential energy surface including a realistic model of the long-range interaction between the reactants H and CH(+). The calculated thermal rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental data in the range 50 K-800 K. However, at lower temperatures, the experimental rate coefficient takes exceedingly small values which are not reproduced by the calculated rate coefficient. Instead, the latter rate coefficient is close to the one given by the Langevin capture model, as expected for a reaction involving an ion and a neutral species. Several recent theoretical works have reported a seemingly good agreement with the experiment below 50 K, but an analysis of these works show that they are based on potential energy surfaces with incorrect long-range behavior. The experimental results were explained by a loss of reactivity of the lowest rotational states of the reactant; however, the quantum scattering calculations show the opposite, namely, a reactivity enhancement with rotational excitation.

  16. Surface Acting and Job-Related Affective Wellbeing: Preventing Resource Loss Spiral and Resource Loss Cycle for Sustainable Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongwook Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the synergistic negative effect of two kinds of job demand on job-related affective wellbeing (JAW and the accelerating effects of cynicism in the negative relationships between job demands and JAW using a sample of 299 employees in the Chinese banking industry. Job demands include quantitative role overload and surface acting to represent the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job demands. Cynicism is introduced as a state where one’s energy resource is lost. The results of this study show that surface acting has a negative relationship with JAW, but quantitative role overload has no relationship with JAW. High levels of quantitative role overload exacerbate the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW. Cynicism also exacerbates the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW but does not have any moderating effect in the relationship between quantitative role overload and JAW. These results are consistent with the relationships predicted by resource loss spiral and resource loss cycle. The resource loss spiral means that resource loss, caused by handling with a quantitative role overload, lessens the employee’s ability to cope with surface acting. The resource loss cycle represents a vicious circle that amplifies the resource loss caused by surface acting. Surface acting reduces the level of one’s resources. Furthermore, surface acting reduces JAW and resources more strongly when an individual has low levels of previous energy resources than it reduces JAW and resources when he or she has high levels of previous energy resources.

  17. Tranexamic acid: optimal blood loss management in surface replacement arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, A; Nam, D; Jackups, R; Johnson, S R; Nunley, R M; Barrack, R L

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) decreased blood loss and transfusion related cost following surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA). A retrospective review of patients treated with TXA during a SRA, who did not receive autologous blood (TXA group) was performed. Two comparison groups were established; the first group comprised of patients who donated their own blood pre-operatively (auto group) and the second of patients who did not donate blood pre-operatively (control). Outcomes included transfusions, post-operative haemoglobin (Hgb), complications, and length of post-operative stay. Between 2009 and 2013, 150 patients undergoing SRA were identified for inclusion: 51 in the auto, 49 in the control, and 50 in the TXA group. There were no differences in the pre-operative Hgb concentrations between groups. The mean post-operative Hgb was 11.3 g/dL (9.1 to 13.6) in the auto and TXA groups, and 10.6 g/dL (8.1 to 12.1)in the control group (p = 0.001). Accounting for cost of transfusions, administration of TXA, and length of stay, the cost per patient was $1731, $339, and $185 for the auto, control and TXA groups, respectively. TXA use demonstrated higher post-operative Hgb concentrations when compared with controls and decreased peri-operative costs. Tranexamic acid safely limits allogeneic transfusion, maintains post-operative haemoglobin, and decreases direct and indirect transfusion related costs in surface replacement arthroplasty. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  18. Diffusion coefficients-surface and interfacial tensions - Particular study of some lauryl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Jean-Emile

    1969-01-01

    Two important results of the double lipophilic and hydrophilic character of some heavy organic compounds with a polar group at the end of the chain, were studied: - In a first part, molecular diffusion coefficients were measured in order to prove the micellar aggregation of tri-laurylammonium nitrate in some organic solutions; - In a second part, the tensioactivity of some lauryl compounds (lauric acid, lauric alcohol, mono-laurylamine, etc.), was studied. (author) [fr

  19. Octanol Water Partition Coefficients of Surface and Ground Water Contaminants Found at Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    34 method. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8(6):499-512. 23. Geyer, H., G. Politzki, and Freitag, D. 1984. Prediction of ecotoxicological behavior of chemicals...relationship between N-octanol/water partition coefficient and bloaccunulation of organic chemicals by Alga Chlorella. Chemosphere 13(2):269-284. 24...Branch Preventive Medicine Division (HSHA-IPM) * Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234-5000 17 .1 *1 - I Iii L - U.S. Army Engineers Division, Huntsville 106 Wynn

  20. CFD simulation of direct contact condensation with ANSYS CFX using surface renewal theory based heat transfer coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Ceuca, Sabin Cristian; Macian-Juan, Rafael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Different approaches for the calculation of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) using Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTC) based on the Surface Renewal Theory (SRT) are tested using the CFD simulation tool ANSYS CFX. The present work constitutes a preliminary study of the flow patterns and conditions observed using different HTC models. A complex 3D flow pattern will be observed in the CFD simulations as well as a strong coupling between the condensation rate and the two-phase flow dynamics. (orig.)

  1. Light yield and light loss coefficient of LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr under excitation with α- and γ-rays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sreebunpeng, K.; Chewpraditkul, W.; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 468, Jun (2017), s. 373-375 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-15569S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : light yield * light loss coefficient * LuAG:Ce * LuAG:Pr * lα/γ ratio Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  2. Internal Energy Dependence of Molecular Condensation Coefficients Determined from Molecular Beam Surface Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibener, S. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    An experiment was performed which confirms the existence of an internal mode dependence of molecular sticking probabilities for collisions of molecules with a cold surface. The scattering of a velocity selected effusive beam of CCl{sub 4} from a 90 K CC1{sub 4} ice surface has been studied at five translational velocities and for two different internal temperatures. At a surface temperature of 90 K (approx. 99% sticking probability) a four fold increase in reflected intensity was observed for the internally excited (560 K) CC1{sub 4} relative to the room temperature (298 K) CC1{sub 4} at a translational velocity of 2.5 X 10{sup 4} cm/sec. For a surface temperature of 90 K all angular distributions were found to peak 15{sup 0} superspecularly independent of incident velocity.

  3. The impact of surface and geometry on coefficient of friction of artificial hip joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Vrbka, Martin; Mamat, Azuddin Bin; Stavness, Ian; Roy, Chanchal K; Mootanah, Rajshree; Krupka, Ivan

    2017-08-01

    Coefficient of friction (COF) tests were conducted on 28-mm and 36-mm-diameter hip joint prostheses for four different material combinations, with or without the presence of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles using a novel pendulum hip simulator. The effects of three micro dimpled arrays on femoral head against a polyethylene and a metallic cup were also investigated. Clearance played a vital role in the COF of ceramic on polyethylene and ceramic on ceramic artificial hip joints. Micro dimpled metallic femoral heads yielded higher COF against a polyethylene cup; however, with metal on metal prostheses the dimpled arrays significantly reduced the COF. In situ images revealed evidence that the dimple arrays enhanced film formation, which was the main mechanism that contributed to reduced friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A characteristic function to estimate the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in surface water flows over porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofuentes, M.; Polo, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    One-dimensional modelling of solute transport in shallow water flows relies on an accurate approximation of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, E, especially under transient conditions of the water flow during the solute residence time. Previous approaches have used expressions (e.g., the Rutherford equation) that allow the inclusion of spatiotemporal variability of E during the transport process, but their accuracy is reduced in marked transient regimes since the data were obtained from experimental work in rivers. This work proposes a different approach from experimental work with slow, shallow flows over porous media in fertigation essays, and provides us with a simple, parametric sigmoid function to estimate a priori effective values of E from simple measurements of flow characteristics and variables. The results have been successfully validated and compared to the Rutherford equation approach. Furthermore, the methodology to develop this characteristic function can be easily adapted for application in other practical cases.

  5. Normal incidence sound transmission loss evaluation by upstream surface impedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneton, Raymond

    2009-03-01

    A method is developed to obtain the normal incidence sound transmission loss of noise control elements used in piping systems from upstream surface impedance measurements only. The noise control element may be a small material specimen in an impedance tube, a sealing part in an automotive hollow body network, an expansion chamber, a resonator, or a muffler. The developments are based on a transfer matrix (four-pole) representation of the noise control element and on the assumption that only plane waves propagate upstream and downstream the element. No assumptions are made on its boundary conditions, dimensions, shape, and material properties (i.e., the element may be symmetrical or not along its thickness, homogeneous or not, isotropic or not). One-load and two-load procedures are also proposed to identify the transfer matrix coefficients needed to obtain the true transmission loss of the tested element. The method can be used with a classical two-microphone impedance tube setup (i.e., no additional downstream tube and downstream acoustical measurements). The method is tested on three different noise control elements: two impedance tube multilayered specimens and one expansion chamber. The results found using the developed method are validated using numerical simulations.

  6. Mapping Surface Water DOC in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using CDOM Absorption Coefficients and Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B.; Chelsky, A.; Bulygina, E.; Roberts, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing techniques have become valuable tools to researchers, providing the capability to measure and visualize important parameters without the need for time or resource intensive sampling trips. Relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and spectral data have been used to remotely sense DOC concentrations in riverine systems, however, this approach has not been applied to the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and needs to be tested to determine how accurate these relationships are in riverine-dominated shelf systems. In April, July, and October 2017 we sampled surface water from 80+ sites over an area of 100,000 km2 along the Louisiana-Texas shelf in the northern GoM. DOC concentrations were measured on filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-VCSH analyzer using standard techniques. Additionally, DOC concentrations were estimated from CDOM absorption coefficients of filtered water samples on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer using a modification of the methods of Fichot and Benner (2011). These values were regressed against Landsat visible band spectral data for those same locations to establish a relationship between the spectral data, CDOM absorption coefficients. This allowed us to spatially map CDOM absorption coefficients in the Gulf of Mexico using the Landsat spectral data in GIS. We then used a multiple linear regressions model to derive DOC concentrations from the CDOM absorption coefficients and applied those to our map. This study provides an evaluation of the viability of scaling up CDOM absorption coefficient and remote-sensing derived estimates of DOC concentrations to the scale of the LA-TX shelf ecosystem.

  7. The effect of surface tension on the contraction coefficient of a jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasmi, A; Mekias, H

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional free surface potential flow issued from an opening of a container is considered. The flow is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible. The mathematical problem, which is characterized by the nonlinear boundary condition on the free surface of an unknown equation, is solved via a series truncation. We computed solutions for all Weber numbers. Our problem is an extension of the work done by Ackerberg and Liu (1987 Phys. Fluids 30 289-96), the results confirm and extend their results

  8. Incorporation of velocity-dependent restitution coefficient and particle surface friction into kinetic theory for modeling granular flow cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yifei; Feng, Zhi-Gang

    2017-12-01

    Kinetic theory (KT) has been successfully used to model rapid granular flows in which particle interactions are frictionless and near elastic. However, it fails when particle interactions become frictional and inelastic. For example, the KT is not able to accurately predict the free cooling process of a vibrated granular medium that consists of inelastic frictional particles under microgravity. The main reason that the classical KT fails to model these flows is due to its inability to account for the particle surface friction and its inelastic behavior, which are the two most important factors that need be considered in modeling collisional granular flows. In this study, we have modified the KT model that is able to incorporate these two factors. The inelasticity of a particle is considered by establishing a velocity-dependent expression for the restitution coefficient based on many experimental studies found in the literature, and the particle friction effect is included by using a tangential restitution coefficient that is related to the particle friction coefficient. Theoretical predictions of the free cooling process by the classical KT and the improved KT are compared with the experimental results from a study conducted on an airplane undergoing parabolic flights without the influence of gravity [Y. Grasselli, G. Bossis, and G. Goutallier, Europhys. Lett. 86, 60007 (2009)10.1209/0295-5075/86/60007]. Our results show that both the velocity-dependent restitution coefficient and the particle surface friction are important in predicting the free cooling process of granular flows; the modified KT model that integrates these two factors is able to improve the simulation results and leads to better agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Incorporation of velocity-dependent restitution coefficient and particle surface friction into kinetic theory for modeling granular flow cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yifei; Feng, Zhi-Gang

    2017-12-01

    Kinetic theory (KT) has been successfully used to model rapid granular flows in which particle interactions are frictionless and near elastic. However, it fails when particle interactions become frictional and inelastic. For example, the KT is not able to accurately predict the free cooling process of a vibrated granular medium that consists of inelastic frictional particles under microgravity. The main reason that the classical KT fails to model these flows is due to its inability to account for the particle surface friction and its inelastic behavior, which are the two most important factors that need be considered in modeling collisional granular flows. In this study, we have modified the KT model that is able to incorporate these two factors. The inelasticity of a particle is considered by establishing a velocity-dependent expression for the restitution coefficient based on many experimental studies found in the literature, and the particle friction effect is included by using a tangential restitution coefficient that is related to the particle friction coefficient. Theoretical predictions of the free cooling process by the classical KT and the improved KT are compared with the experimental results from a study conducted on an airplane undergoing parabolic flights without the influence of gravity [Y. Grasselli, G. Bossis, and G. Goutallier, Europhys. Lett. 86, 60007 (2009), 10.1209/0295-5075/86/60007]. Our results show that both the velocity-dependent restitution coefficient and the particle surface friction are important in predicting the free cooling process of granular flows; the modified KT model that integrates these two factors is able to improve the simulation results and leads to better agreement with the experimental results.

  10. New sensitive micro-measurements of dynamic surface tension and diffusion coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Needham, David

    2017-01-01

    Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain “dead time” at initial measurement. These ...

  11. Effect of surface losses on soliton propagation in Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Pagano, S.

    1986-01-01

    We have explored numerically the effects on soliton propagation of a third order damping term in the modified sine-Gordon equation. In Josephson tunnel junctions such a term corresponds physically to quasiparticle losses within the metal electrodes of the junction. We find that this loss term plays...... the dominant role in determining the shape and stability of the soliton at high velocity. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  12. Distinct positive temperature coefficient effect of polymer-carbon fiber composites evaluated in terms of polymer absorption on fiber surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zheng, Shaodi; Zheng, Xiaofang; Liu, Zhengying; Yang, Wei; Yang, Mingbo

    2016-03-21

    In this article, the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect was studied for high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon fiber (CF) composites. All of the samples showed a significant PTC effect during the heating processes without a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect, even at a temperature much higher than the melting point of the polymer matrix. An ever-increasing PTC intensity with increasing thermal cycles was observed in our study that had never been reported in previous research. The absence of a NTC effect resulted from the increased binding force between the matrix and fillers that contributed to the very special structure of CF surface. We incorporated thermal expansion theory and quantum tunneling effects to explain PTC effect. From the SEM micrographs for the HDPE/CF composites before and after the different thermal cycles, we found that the surface of CF was covered with a layer of polymer which resulted in a change in the gap length between CF and HDPE and its distribution. We believed that the gap change induced by polymer absorption on the fiber surface had a great effect on the PTC effect.

  13. Effect of surface tension and coefficient of thermal expansion in 30 nm scale nanoimprinting with two flexible polymer molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kwan; Cho, Hye Sung; Jung, Ho-Sup; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Lim, Kipil; Kim, Ki-Bum; Choi, Dae-Geun; Jeong, Jun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We report on nanoimprinting of polymer thin films at 30 nm scale resolution using two types of ultraviolet (UV)-curable, flexible polymer molds: perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and polyurethane acrylate (PUA). It was found that the quality of nanopatterning at the 30 nm scale is largely determined by the combined effects of surface tension and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the polymer mold. In particular, the polar component of surface tension may play a critical role in clean release of the mold, as evidenced by much reduced delamination or broken structures for the less polarized PFPE mold when patterning a relatively hydrophilic PMMA film. In contrast, such problems were not notably observed with a relatively hydrophobic PS film for both polymer molds. In addition, the demolding characteristic was also influenced by the coefficient of thermal expansion so that no delamination or uniformity problems were observed when patterning a UV-curable polymer film at room temperature. These results suggest that a proper polymeric mold material needs to be chosen for patterning polymer films under different surface properties and processing conditions, providing insights into how a clean demolding characteristic can be obtained at 30 nm scale nanopatterning. (paper)

  14. The effect of surface roughness on the heat exchange and pressure-drop coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.M.

    1963-02-01

    The effect of various types of roughness on the wall of an axial tube in an annular space of 15-25 mm cooled by an air-flow has been studied in the case of steady turbulence. Roughness of the type 'disrupter of the boundary layer' was set up using triangular threads of 0.2 to 0.4 mm thickness machined in the tube itself, or brass or glass wire wound on a smooth tube. Tests were also carried out using the roughness provided by regularly spaced pyramids 0.4 mm high. The results obtained showed that the heat exchange increased because of the presence of this roughness. A maximum in the heat exchange and pressure-drop coefficients was observed when the pitch equals about eight times the height of the thread. An analytical method has been developed and experiments have been carried out in which the two walls of the annular space were heated in such a way as to transmit unequal heat flows. The region considered is limited to Reynolds's numbers of between 5 X 10 3 and 5 x 10 4 and wall temperatures of under 250 deg C. (author) [fr

  15. Poloidal density variation of impurities in a rotating tokamak plasma - flux surface coordinates and effect on transport coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, M.

    1999-09-01

    The poloidal variation of impurity densities over magnetic surfaces brings about an enhancement of neoclassical transport coefficients, as shown by Romanelli and Ottaviani for impurities in the Pfirsch Schlueter regime and by Helander for particles in the banana-plateau regime, both in a large aspect ratio tokamak. The same effect will occur in a finite aspect ratio tokamak and therefore it is considered to be relevant for inclusion in transport codes for comparison with the experimental measurements of impurity transport. Here an expression for the impurity-density poloidal-variation generated by the fast toroidal rotation of the plasma column is presented in general coordinates. (author)

  16. Error correction and degeneracy in surface codes suffering loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stace, Thomas M.; Barrett, Sean D.

    2010-01-01

    Many proposals for quantum information processing are subject to detectable loss errors. In this paper, we give a detailed account of recent results in which we showed that topological quantum memories can simultaneously tolerate both loss errors and computational errors, with a graceful tradeoff between the threshold for each. We further discuss a number of subtleties that arise when implementing error correction on topological memories. We particularly focus on the role played by degeneracy in the matching algorithms and present a systematic study of its effects on thresholds. We also discuss some of the implications of degeneracy for estimating phase transition temperatures in the random bond Ising model.

  17. Aerodynamic Losses in Turbines with and without Film Cooling, as Influenced by Mainstream Turbulence, Surface Roughness, Airfoil Shape, and Mach Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Ligrani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of a variety of different physical phenomena are described as they affect the aerodynamic performance of turbine airfoils in compressible, high-speed flows with either subsonic or transonic Mach number distributions. The presented experimental and numerically predicted results are from a series of investigations which have taken place over the past 32 years. Considered are (i symmetric airfoils with no film cooling, (ii symmetric airfoils with film cooling, (iii cambered vanes with no film cooling, and (iv cambered vanes with film cooling. When no film cooling is employed on the symmetric airfoils and cambered vanes, experimentally measured and numerically predicted variations of freestream turbulence intensity, surface roughness, exit Mach number, and airfoil camber are considered as they influence local and integrated total pressure losses, deficits of local kinetic energy, Mach number deficits, area-averaged loss coefficients, mass-averaged total pressure loss coefficients, omega loss coefficients, second law loss parameters, and distributions of integrated aerodynamic loss. Similar quantities are measured, and similar parameters are considered when film-cooling is employed on airfoil suction surfaces, along with film cooling density ratio, blowing ratio, Mach number ratio, hole orientation, hole shape, and number of rows of holes.

  18. Vibrational Surface Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Probes Confined Surface-Phonon Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Lourenço-Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two reports [Krivanek et al. Nature (London 514, 209 (2014NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature13870, Lagos et al. Nature (London 543, 529 (2017NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature21699] have demonstrated the amazing possibility to probe vibrational excitations from nanoparticles with a spatial resolution much smaller than the corresponding free-space phonon wavelength using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS. While Lagos et al. evidenced a strong spatial and spectral modulation of the EELS signal over a nanoparticle, Krivanek et al. did not. Here, we show that discrepancies among different EELS experiments as well as their relation to optical near- and far-field optical experiments [Dai et al. Science 343, 1125 (2014SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1246833] can be understood by introducing the concept of confined bright and dark surface phonon modes, whose density of states is probed by EELS. Such a concise formalism is the vibrational counterpart of the broadly used formalism for localized surface plasmons [Ouyang and Isaacson Philos. Mag. B 60, 481 (1989PMABDJ1364-281210.1080/13642818908205921, García de Abajo and Aizpurua Phys. Rev. B 56, 15873 (1997PRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.56.15873, García de Abajo and Kociak Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 106804 (2008PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.106804, Boudarham and Kociak Phys. Rev. B 85, 245447 (2012PRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.85.245447]; it makes it straightforward to predict or interpret phenomena already known for localized surface plasmons such as environment-related energy shifts or the possibility of 3D mapping of the related surface charge densities [Collins et al. ACS Photonics 2, 1628 (2015APCHD52330-402210.1021/acsphotonics.5b00421].

  19. Vibrational Surface Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Probes Confined Surface-Phonon Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-Martins, Hugo; Kociak, Mathieu

    2017-10-01

    Recently, two reports [Krivanek et al. Nature (London) 514, 209 (2014), 10.1038/nature13870, Lagos et al. Nature (London) 543, 529 (2017), 10.1038/nature21699] have demonstrated the amazing possibility to probe vibrational excitations from nanoparticles with a spatial resolution much smaller than the corresponding free-space phonon wavelength using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). While Lagos et al. evidenced a strong spatial and spectral modulation of the EELS signal over a nanoparticle, Krivanek et al. did not. Here, we show that discrepancies among different EELS experiments as well as their relation to optical near- and far-field optical experiments [Dai et al. Science 343, 1125 (2014), 10.1126/science.1246833] can be understood by introducing the concept of confined bright and dark surface phonon modes, whose density of states is probed by EELS. Such a concise formalism is the vibrational counterpart of the broadly used formalism for localized surface plasmons [Ouyang and Isaacson Philos. Mag. B 60, 481 (1989), 10.1080/13642818908205921, García de Abajo and Aizpurua Phys. Rev. B 56, 15873 (1997), 10.1103/PhysRevB.56.15873, García de Abajo and Kociak Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 106804 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.106804, Boudarham and Kociak Phys. Rev. B 85, 245447 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.245447]; it makes it straightforward to predict or interpret phenomena already known for localized surface plasmons such as environment-related energy shifts or the possibility of 3D mapping of the related surface charge densities [Collins et al. ACS Photonics 2, 1628 (2015), 10.1021/acsphotonics.5b00421].

  20. Pressure loss reduction in hydrogen pipelines by surface restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet, Y.; Sagaut, P. [Insitut Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, UMR CNRS 7190, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu - case 162, F-75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Charron, Y. [IFP- Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison Cedex, 92852 (France)

    2009-11-15

    This paper concerns the reduction of pressure losses during pipeline hydrogen transportation, as the cost of hydrogen compression is a significant obstacle for efficient hydrogen pumping on a large-scale basis. The use of organized micro-structures on pipeline walls is proposed to obtain lower values of pressure losses with respect to smooth walls. Three-dimensional micro-structures of a sinusoidal shape are investigated as potentially more efficient counterparts to conventional two-dimensional structures (riblets) developed in aerospace industry. Aerodynamic performance of three-dimensional structures is investigated computationally in terms of both skin friction and pressure drag, two constituents of the total drag. Three-dimensional structures are shown to provide larger total drag reduction than two-dimensional structures for some range of geometrical parameters (14.5% versus 11%). Parametric dependence of both pressure and skin friction drag on structure geometry is analyzed, and an optimum configuration maximizing the total drag reduction is proposed. (author)

  1. Experimental assessment of blade tip immersion depth from free surface on average power and thrust coefficients of marine current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Ethan; Flack, Karen; Luznik, Luksa

    2014-11-01

    Results from an experimental study on the effects of marine current turbine immersion depth from the free surface are presented. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D = 0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy. Thrust and torque are measured using a dynamometer, mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using a shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Two optical wave height sensors are used to measure the free surface elevation. The turbine is towed at 1.68 m/s, resulting in a 70% chord based Rec = 4 × 105. An Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) is installed one turbine diameter upstream of the turbine rotation plane to characterize the inflow turbulence. Measurements are obtained at four relative blade tip immersion depths of z/D = 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, and 0.2 at a TSR value of 7 to identify the depth where free surface effects impact overall turbine performance. The overall average power and thrust coefficient are presented and compared to previously conducted baseline tests. The influence of wake expansion blockage on the turbine performance due to presence of the free surface at these immersion depths will also be discussed.

  2. Influence of inhomogeneous surface heat capacity on the estimation of radiative response coefficients in a two-zone energy balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungmin; Choi, Yong-Sang

    2018-04-01

    Observationally constrained values of the global radiative response coefficient are pivotal to assess the reliability of modeled climate feedbacks. A widely used approach is to measure transient global radiative imbalance related to surface temperature changes. However, in this approach, a potential error in the estimate of radiative response coefficients may arise from surface inhomogeneity in the climate system. We examined this issue theoretically using a simple two-zone energy balance model. Here, we dealt with the potential error by subtracting the prescribed radiative response coefficient from those calculated within the two-zone framework. Each zone was characterized by the different magnitude of the radiative response coefficient and the surface heat capacity, and the dynamical heat transport in the atmosphere between the zones was parameterized as a linear function of the temperature difference between the zones. Then, the model system was forced by randomly generated monthly varying forcing mimicking time-varying forcing like an observation. The repeated simulations showed that inhomogeneous surface heat capacity causes considerable miscalculation (down to -1.4 W m-2 K-1 equivalent to 31.3% of the prescribed value) in the global radiative response coefficient. Also, the dynamical heat transport reduced this miscalculation driven by inhomogeneity of surface heat capacity. Therefore, the estimation of radiative response coefficients using the surface temperature-radiation relation is appropriate for homogeneous surface areas least affected by the exterior.

  3. Application of modified export coefficient method on the load estimation of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of soil and water loss in semiarid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Jian-en; Ma, Xiao-yi; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Loess Plateau is considered as one of the most serious soil loss regions in the world, its annual sediment output accounts for 90 % of the total sediment loads of the Yellow River, and most of the Loess Plateau has a very typical characteristic of "soil and water flow together", and water flow in this area performs with a high sand content. Serious soil loss results in nitrogen and phosphorus loss of soil. Special processes of water and soil in the Loess Plateau lead to the loss mechanisms of water, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus are different from each other, which are greatly different from other areas of China. In this study, the modified export coefficient method considering the rainfall erosivity factor was proposed to simulate and evaluate non-point source (NPS) nitrogen and phosphorus loss load caused by soil and water loss in the Yanhe River basin of the hilly and gully area, Loess Plateau. The results indicate that (1) compared with the traditional export coefficient method, annual differences of NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load after considering the rainfall erosivity factor are obvious; it is more in line with the general law of NPS pollution formation in a watershed, and it can reflect the annual variability of NPS pollution more accurately. (2) Under the traditional and modified conditions, annual changes of NPS TN and TP load in four counties (districts) took on the similar trends from 1999 to 2008; the load emission intensity not only is closely related to rainfall intensity but also to the regional distribution of land use and other pollution sources. (3) The output structure, source composition, and contribution rate of NPS pollution load under the modified method are basically the same with the traditional method. The average output structure of TN from land use and rural life is about 66.5 and 17.1 %, the TP is about 53.8 and 32.7 %; the maximum source composition of TN (59 %) is farmland; the maximum source

  4. High performance AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with large electromechanical coupling coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenbo; He, Xingli; Ye, Zhi, E-mail: yezhi@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Wang, Xiaozhi [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University and Cyrus Tang Centre for Sensor Materials and Applications, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; Gillinger, Manuel; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse, 7/2/366-MST, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Luo, J. K., E-mail: yezhi@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk [Institute of Renewable Energy Environmental Technology, University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom); Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University and Cyrus Tang Centre for Sensor Materials and Applications, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-09-29

    AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K{sup 2}, in the range of 2.0% ∼ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

  5. First-order exchange coefficient coupling for simulating surface water-groundwater interactions: Parameter sensitivity and consistency with a physics-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B.A.; Mirus, B.B.; Heppner, C.S.; VanderKwaak, J.E.; Loague, K.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed hydrologic models capable of simulating fully-coupled surface water and groundwater flow are increasingly used to examine problems in the hydrologic sciences. Several techniques are currently available to couple the surface and subsurface; the two most frequently employed approaches are first-order exchange coefficients (a.k.a., the surface conductance method) and enforced continuity of pressure and flux at the surface-subsurface boundary condition. The effort reported here examines the parameter sensitivity of simulated hydrologic response for the first-order exchange coefficients at a well-characterized field site using the fully coupled Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM). This investigation demonstrates that the first-order exchange coefficients can be selected such that the simulated hydrologic response is insensitive to the parameter choice, while simulation time is considerably reduced. Alternatively, the ability to choose a first-order exchange coefficient that intentionally decouples the surface and subsurface facilitates concept-development simulations to examine real-world situations where the surface-subsurface exchange is impaired. While the parameters comprising the first-order exchange coefficient cannot be directly estimated or measured, the insensitivity of the simulated flow system to these parameters (when chosen appropriately) combined with the ability to mimic actual physical processes suggests that the first-order exchange coefficient approach can be consistent with a physics-based framework. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Characteristics of Nitrogen Loss through Surface-Subsurface Flow on Red Soil Slopes of Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haijin; Liu, Zhao; Zuo, Jichao; Wang, Lingyun; Nie, Xiaofei

    2017-12-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) loss related to surface flow and subsurface flow (including interflow and groundwater flow) from slope lands is a global issue. A lysimetric experiment with three types of land cover (grass cover, GC; litter cover, LC; and bare land, BL) were carried out on a red soil slope land in southeast China. Total Nitrogen (TN) loss through surface flow, interflow and groundwater flow was observed under 28 natural precipitation events from 2015 to 2016. TN concentrations from subsurface flow on BL and LC plots were, on average, 2.7-8.2 and 1.5-4.4 times greater than TN concentrations from surface flow, respectively; the average concentration of TN from subsurface flow on GC was about 36-56% of that recorded from surface flow. Surface flow, interflow and groundwater flow contributed 0-15, 2-9 and 76-96%, respectively, of loss load of TN. Compared with BL, GC and LC intercepted 83-86% of TN loss through surface runoff; GC intercepted 95% of TN loss through subsurface flow while TN loss through subsurface flow on LC is 2.3 times larger than that on BL. In conclusion, subsurface flow especially groundwater flow is the dominant hydrological rout for N loss that is usually underestimated. Grass cover has the high retention of N runoff loss while litter mulch will increase N leaching loss. These findings provide scientific support to control N runoff loss from the red soil slope lands by using suitable vegetation cover and mulching techniques.

  7. Effects of surface soil loss in South Eastern Nigeria: I. crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The widespread incidence of soil erosion in the tropics has been identified, though few studies have dealt with specific problems of decline in crop productivity associated with soil loss. An understanding of the influence of surface soil loss on crop yield is necessary in order to find out their effects on performance of crops.

  8. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the temperature coefficient of surface resistivity of two-dimensional island platinum films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishay, A.G. [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Gamal, S., E-mail: samyelgamal@gmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    Three sets (A, B and C) of two-dimensional island platinum films (2D-I(Pt)Fs) were prepared via the thermal evaporation technique, where the substrates are corning 7059 glass slides. The mass thickness (d{sub m}) of the films of different sets is 5, 10 and 20 A, respectively. The Pt films were exposed to {gamma}-rays from {sup 137}Cs (0.662 MeV) radiation source of dose rate 0.5 Gy/min. and the different doses are 100, 200, 300, 500 and 700 Gy. The dependence of the surface resistivity ({rho}) on temperature over the range of 100-300 K was undertaken at different d{sub m} and doses then the temperature coefficient of surface resistivity ({alpha}) was deduced. It was found that; (i) for particular d{sub m} and T, the absolute value of {alpha} decreases as the dose increases (ii) for particular dose and T, the absolute value of {alpha} decreases as d{sub m} increases (iii) for particular dose and d{sub m}, the absolute value of {alpha} decreases as T increases. Qualitative interpretation for the results was offered on the ground that the electrons transfer among islands takes place by the activated tunneling mechanism and the {gamma}-irradiation has changed the shape of islands from spherical to prolate spheroid.

  9. Measurements of Heat-Transfer and Friction Coefficients for Helium Flowing in a Tube at Surface Temperatures up to 5900 Deg R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maynard F.; Kirchgessner, Thomas A.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of average heat transfer and friction coefficients and local heat transfer coefficients were made with helium flowing through electrically heated smooth tubes with length-diameter ratios of 60 and 92 for the following range of conditions: Average surface temperature from 1457 to 4533 R, Reynolds numbe r from 3230 to 60,000, heat flux up to 583,200 Btu per hr per ft2 of heat transfer area, and exit Mach numbe r up to 1.0. The results indicate that, in the turbulent range of Reynolds number, good correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is obtained when the physical properties and density of helium are evaluated at the surface temperature. The average heat transfer coefficients are best correlated on the basis that the coefficient varies with [1 + (L/D))(sup -0,7)] and that the physical properties and density are evaluated at the surface temperature. The average friction coefficients for the tests with no heat addition are in complete agreement with the Karman-Nikuradse line. The average friction coefficients for heat addition are in poor agreement with the accepted line.

  10. Prediction of hydrological reduction factor and initial loss in urban surface runoff from small ungauged catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Harremoës, P.

    1996-01-01

    An advanced runoff model is compared to a simple one employing only a runoff coefficient and a regression parameter allowing for initial loss. The present study shows that the more detailed description of the runoff processes cannot be justified due to the uncertainty from using only one gauge...... in a catchment for the description of the rain input. A significant variation of the two parameters from one catchment to another has been found and the uncertainty of the two variables are evaluated. The uncertainty of the hydrological reduction factor and the initial loss should be taken into account...

  11. Energy loss of light ions scattered off Al(110) single crystal surfaces at low energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, S; Hofner, C; Schlathölter, Thomas; Franke, H; Narmann, A; Heiland, W

    We present energy loss data taken after grazing incidence scattering of H+, H-0, He2+, He+, and He-0 off an Al(110) surface, The data is evaluated by means of a procedure that allows to extract surface electron density parameters. The obtained density parameters will be compared to those obtained

  12. Grass mulching effect on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of three agricultural soils in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekalu, K O; Olorunfemi, I A; Osunbitan, J A

    2007-03-01

    Mulching the soil surface with a layer of plant residue is an effective method of conserving water and soil because it reduces surface runoff, increases infiltration of water into the soil and retard soil erosion. The effectiveness of using elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) as mulching material was evaluated in the laboratory using a rainfall simulator set at rainfall intensities typical of the tropics. Six soil samples, two from each of the three major soil series representing the main agricultural soils in South Western Nigeria were collected, placed on three different slopes, and mulched with different rates of the grass. The surface runoff, soil loss, and apparent cumulative infiltration were then measured under each condition. The results with elephant grass compared favorably with results from previous experiments using rice straw. Runoff and soil loss decreased with the amount of mulch used and increased with slope. Surface runoff, infiltration and soil loss had high correlations (R = 0.90, 0.89, and 0.86, respectively) with slope and mulch cover using surface response analysis. The mean surface runoff was correlated negatively with sand content, while mean soil loss was correlated positively with colloidal content (clay and organic matter) of the soil. Infiltration was increased and soil loss was reduced greatly with the highest cover. Mulching the soils with elephant grass residue may benefit late cropping (second cropping) by increasing stored soil water for use during dry weather and help to reduce erosion on sloping land.

  13. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of clean and hydrogen covered Si(001) surfaces: first principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C H

    2012-09-07

    Surface phonons, conductivities, and loss functions are calculated for reconstructed (2×1), p(2×2) and c(4×2) clean Si(001) surfaces, and (2×1) H and D covered Si(001) surfaces. Surface conductivities perpendicular to the surface are significantly smaller than conductivities parallel to the surface. The surface loss function is compared to high resolution electron energy loss measurements. There is good agreement between calculated loss functions and experiment for H and D covered surfaces. However, agreement between experimental data from different groups and between theory and experiment is poor for clean Si(001) surfaces. Formalisms for calculating electron energy loss spectra are reviewed and the mechanism of electron energy losses to surface vibrations is discussed.

  14. The condensation of steam on the external surfaces of the shells of HIFAR heavy water heat exchangers during a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, A.G.

    1987-03-01

    A study of steam condensation rates on the HIFAR heavy water heat exchangers was undertaken to predict thermohydraulic conditions in the HIFAR containment during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The process of surface condensation from a mixture of air and steam, and methods for calculating the rate of condensation, are briefly reviewed. Suitable experimental data are used to estimate coefficients of condensation heat transfer to cool surfaces in a reactor containment during a LOCA. The relevance of the available data to a LOCA in the HIFAR materials testing reactor is examined, and two sets of data are compared. The differences between air/H 2 O and air/D 2 O mixtures are discussed. Formulae are derived for the estimation of the coefficient of heat transfer from the heat exchanger shells to the cooling water, and a method of calculating the rate of condensation per unit area of surface is developed

  15. Thermal Rate Coefficients and Kinetic Isotope Effects for the Reaction OH + CH4 → H2O + CH3 on an ab Initio-Based Potential Energy Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Hua

    2018-03-15

    Thermal rate coefficients for the title reaction and its various isotopologues are computed using a tunneling-corrected transition-state theory on a global potential energy surface recently developed by fitting a large number of high-level ab initio points. The calculated rate coefficients are found to agree well with the measured ones in a wide temperature range, validating the accuracy of the potential energy surface. Strong non-Arrhenius effects are found at low temperatures. In addition, the calculations reproduced the primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects. These results confirm the strong influence of tunneling to this heavy-light-heavy hydrogen abstraction reaction.

  16. Effect of Saturated Near Surface on Nitrate and Ammonia Nitrogen Losses in Surface Runoff at the Loess Soil Hillslope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-bin Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution from agricultural fields is a global problem and cause of eutrophication of surface waters. A laboratory study was designed to evaluate the effects of near-surface hydraulic gradients on NO3–N and NH4–N losses in surface runoff from soil boxes at 27% slope undersimulated rainfall of a loess soil hillslope. Experimental treatments included two near-surface hydraulic gradients (free drainage, FD; saturation, SA, three fertilizer application rates (control, no fertilizer input; low, 120 kg N ha-1; high, 240 kg N ha-1, and simulated rainfall of 100 mm h-1 was applied for 70 min. The results showed that saturated near-surface soil moisture had dramatic effects on NO3–N and NH4–N losses and water quality. Under the low fertilizer treatment, average NO3–N concentrations in runoff water of SA averaged 2.2 times greater than that of FD, 1.6 times greater for NH4–N. Under the high fertilizer treatment, NO3–N concentrations in runoff water from SA averaged 5.7 times greater than that of FD, 4.3 times greater for NH4–N. Nitrogen loss formed with NO3–N is dominant during the event, but not NH4–N. Under the SA condition, the total loss of NO3–N from low fertilizer treatment was 34.2 to 42.3% of applied nitrogen, while under the FD treatment that was 3.9 to 6.9%. However, the total loss of NH4–N was less than 1% of applied nitrogen. These results showed that saturated condition could make significant contribution to water quality problems.

  17. Observations of discrete energy loss effects in spectra of positrons reflected from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, J.M.; Hulett, L.D.; Pendyala, S.

    1980-01-01

    Surfaces of tungsten and silicon have been bombarded with monoenergetic beams of positrons and electrons. Spectra of reflected particles show energy loss tails with discrete peaks at kinetic energies about 15 eV lower than that of the elastic peaks. In the higher energy loss range for tungsten, positron spectra show fine structure that is not apparent in the electron spectra. This suggests that the positrons are losing energy through mechanisms different from that of the electrons

  18. Predicting tooth surface loss using genetic algorithms-optimized artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haidan, Ali; Abu-Hammad, Osama; Dar-Odeh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to predict tooth surface loss in individuals without the need to conduct clinical examinations. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to construct a mathematical model. Input data consisted of age, smoker status, type of tooth brush, brushing, and consumption of pickled food, fizzy drinks, orange, apple, lemon, and dried seeds. Output data were the sum of tooth surface loss scores for selected teeth. The optimized constructed ANN consisted of 2-layer network with 15 neurons in the first layer and one neuron in the second layer. The data of 46 subjects were used to build the model, while the data of 15 subjects were used to test the model. Accepting an error of ±5 scores for all chosen teeth, the accuracy of the network becomes more than 80%. In conclusion, this study shows that modeling tooth surface loss using ANNs is possible and can be achieved with a high degree of accuracy.

  19. Predicting Tooth Surface Loss Using Genetic Algorithms-Optimized Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Haidan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to predict tooth surface loss in individuals without the need to conduct clinical examinations. Artificial neural networks (ANNs were used to construct a mathematical model. Input data consisted of age, smoker status, type of tooth brush, brushing, and consumption of pickled food, fizzy drinks, orange, apple, lemon, and dried seeds. Output data were the sum of tooth surface loss scores for selected teeth. The optimized constructed ANN consisted of 2-layer network with 15 neurons in the first layer and one neuron in the second layer. The data of 46 subjects were used to build the model, while the data of 15 subjects were used to test the model. Accepting an error of ±5 scores for all chosen teeth, the accuracy of the network becomes more than 80%. In conclusion, this study shows that modeling tooth surface loss using ANNs is possible and can be achieved with a high degree of accuracy.

  20. Different trends in extreme and median surface aerosol extinction coefficients over China inferred from quality-controlled visibility data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the temporal changes in aerosol properties have been widely investigated, the majority of studies has focused on average conditions without much emphasis on the extremes. However, the latter can be more important in terms of human health and climate change. This study uses a previously validated, quality-controlled visibility dataset to investigate the long-term trends (expressed in terms of relative changes in extreme surface aerosol extinction coefficient (AEC over China and compares them with the median trends. Two methods are used to independently evaluate the trends, which arrive at consistent results. The signs of extreme and median trends are generally coherent, whereas their magnitudes show distinct spatial and temporal differences. In the 1980s, an overall positive trend is found throughout China with the extreme trend exceeding the mean trend, except for northwest China and the North China Plain. In the 1990s, AEC over northeast and northwest China started to decline while the rest of the country still exhibited an increase. The extreme trends continued to dominate in the south while they yielded to the mean trend in the north. After the year 2000, the extreme trend became weaker than the mean trend overall in terms of both the magnitude and significance level. The annual trend can be primarily attributed to winter and fall trends. The results suggest that the decadal changes in pollution in China may be governed by different mechanisms. Synoptic conditions that often result in extreme air quality changes might have dominated in the 1980s, whereas emission increase might have been the main factor for the 2000s.

  1. Different trends in extreme and median surface aerosol extinction coefficients over China inferred from quality-controlled visibility data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Chengcai; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2018-03-01

    Although the temporal changes in aerosol properties have been widely investigated, the majority of studies has focused on average conditions without much emphasis on the extremes. However, the latter can be more important in terms of human health and climate change. This study uses a previously validated, quality-controlled visibility dataset to investigate the long-term trends (expressed in terms of relative changes) in extreme surface aerosol extinction coefficient (AEC) over China and compares them with the median trends. Two methods are used to independently evaluate the trends, which arrive at consistent results. The signs of extreme and median trends are generally coherent, whereas their magnitudes show distinct spatial and temporal differences. In the 1980s, an overall positive trend is found throughout China with the extreme trend exceeding the mean trend, except for northwest China and the North China Plain. In the 1990s, AEC over northeast and northwest China started to decline while the rest of the country still exhibited an increase. The extreme trends continued to dominate in the south while they yielded to the mean trend in the north. After the year 2000, the extreme trend became weaker than the mean trend overall in terms of both the magnitude and significance level. The annual trend can be primarily attributed to winter and fall trends. The results suggest that the decadal changes in pollution in China may be governed by different mechanisms. Synoptic conditions that often result in extreme air quality changes might have dominated in the 1980s, whereas emission increase might have been the main factor for the 2000s.

  2. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires’ Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Yunta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire’s loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  3. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires' Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, Jorge; Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Diaz, Vicente; Olatunbosun, Oluremi

    2018-02-06

    Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire's loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  4. Surface effects in the energy loss of ions passing through a thin foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osma, J.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The role of surface plasmon excitation in the interaction of ions passing through thin films has been studied in both the Bloch hydrodynamic approximation and the local response approach for projectile velocities above the maximum of the stopping power curve. The effect of the surface is found to be much weaker when the dispersion of the modes is taken into consideration than in the case of nondispersive media, though qualitatively the main features of the hydrodynamic approach resemble those of the local one. A generalization of the Bothe-Landau convolution formula for the loss probability distribution is derived to take into account the scattering due to the surface. The effects of the surface in the energy-loss spectra are discussed. A comparison with experiment is given. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Normalized lift: an energy interpretation of the lift coefficient simplifies comparisons of the lifting ability of rotating and flapping surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Burgers

    Full Text Available For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient C(L to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv(2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders.This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S, compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v(2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran.The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings.

  6. Optical coating on a corrugated surface to align the polarization of an unpolarized wave without loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Yi Jun

    2017-12-01

    A multilayer comprising birefringent thin films is devised to present to function as a polarization beam splitter and waveplate simultaneously. By arranging such a multilayer on a right triangle-shaped corrugated surface, a polarizer is realized to align the randomly oscillating electric field of an unpolarized wave into a linear polarized wave without loss.

  7. Surface and bulk-loss reduction research by low-energy hydrogen doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonash, S.

    1985-01-01

    Surface and bulk loss reduction by low energy hydrogen doping of silicon solar cells was examined. Hydrogen ions provided a suppression of space charge recombination currents. Implantation of hydrogen followed by the anneal cycle caused more redistribution of boron than the anneal which could complicate processing. It was demonstrated that passivation leads to space charge current reduction.

  8. Energy loss of MeV protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaristi, J.I.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Echenique, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A parameter-free model is presented to study the energy loss of fast protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces. The contributions to the energy loss from excitation of valence-band electrons and ionization of localized target-atom electronic states are calculated separately. The former is calculated from the induced surface wake potential using linear response theory and the specular-reflection model, while the latter is calculated in the first Born approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, the experimental qualitative trend of the energy loss as a function of the angle of incidence is obtained when the valence-band electron model is replaced by localized target atom electron states, though with a worse quantitative agreement. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Electron energy-loss spectroscopic study of the surface of ceria abrasives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliss, Shelley R.; Bentley, James; Carter, C. Barry

    2005-01-01

    Surfaces of ceria (CeO 2 ) particles have been studied by electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope. All the ceria particles analyzed contained Ce 3+ at the surface. Rare-earth impurities such as La were enriched at the surface and were observed for particles ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers in size. Fluorine in the abrasives corresponded to a lower average cerium valence. Time series investigations indicate that fluorine substitutes on the oxygen sub-lattice and is charge-balanced by some cerium changing from Ce 4+ to Ce 3+

  10. Electron energy-loss spectroscopic study of the surface of ceria abrasives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliss, Shelley R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 421 Washington Avenue S.E., 151 Amundson Hall, Minneapolis, MN 55455 0132 (United States); Bentley, James [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Metals and Ceramics Division, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 6024 (United States); Carter, C. Barry [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 421 Washington Avenue S.E., 151 Amundson Hall, Minneapolis, MN 55455 0132 (United States)]. E-mail: carter@cems.umn.edu

    2005-02-28

    Surfaces of ceria (CeO{sub 2}) particles have been studied by electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope. All the ceria particles analyzed contained Ce{sup 3+} at the surface. Rare-earth impurities such as La were enriched at the surface and were observed for particles ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers in size. Fluorine in the abrasives corresponded to a lower average cerium valence. Time series investigations indicate that fluorine substitutes on the oxygen sub-lattice and is charge-balanced by some cerium changing from Ce{sup 4+} to Ce{sup 3+}.

  11. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  12. Bloch-Surface-Polariton-Based Hybrid Nanowire Structure for Subwavelength, Low-Loss Waveguiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijing Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs have been thoroughly studied in the past decades for not only sensing but also waveguiding applications. Various plasmonic device structures have been explored due to their ability to confine their optical mode to the subwavelength level. However, with the existence of metal, the large ohmic loss limits the propagation distance of the SPP and thus the scalability of such devices. Therefore, different hybrid waveguides have been proposed to overcome this shortcoming. Through fine tuning of the coupling between the SPP and a conventional waveguide mode, a hybrid mode could be excited with decent mode confinement and extended propagation distance. As an effective alternative of SPP, Bloch surface waves have been re-investigated more recently for their unique advantages. As is supported in all-dielectric structures, the optical loss for the Bloch surface wave is much lower, which stands for a much longer propagating distance. Yet, the confinement of the Bloch surface wave due to the reflections and refractions in the multilayer structure is not as tight as that of the SPP. In this work, by integrating a periodic multilayer structure that supports the Bloch surface wave with a metallic nanowire structure, a hybrid Bloch surface wave polariton could be excited. With the proposed hybrid nanowire structure, a hybrid mode is demonstrated with the deep subwavelength mode confinement and a propagation distance of tens of microns.

  13. Higher lifetime chance of spontaneous surface antigen loss in hepatitis B carriers with genotype C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, T-C; Liu, C-J; Chen, C-L; Yang, W-T; Yang, H-C; Su, T-H; Wang, C-C; Kuo, S F-T; Liu, C-H; Chen, P-J; Chen, D-S; Kao, J-H

    2015-05-01

    Clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) indicates clinical control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, little is known about the impact of viral genomic variations on HBsAg loss. We explored the association between viral genomic factors and HBsAg loss in 2121HBeAg-negative patients. HBV pre-core stop codon (1896) and basal core promoter (BCP) (1762/1764) sequences were determined in patients with HBV DNA ≥200 IU/mL (N = 1693). The effect of HBV genotype on HBsAg loss was further validated in the whole cohort of 3445 HBsAg carriers. The cumulative lifetime (age 28-75 years) incidence of HBsAg loss was 50.4% in 2121 HBeAg-negative patients. We found that genotype C, but not pre-core stop codon or BCP mutants, was associated with HBsAg loss. Compared to genotype B patients, genotype C patients had higher lifetime chance of HBsAg loss, with hazard ratio of 1.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-2.4). Multivariable analysis showed that male sex, elevated ALT levels, lower serum HBV DNA and HBsAg levels, and genotype C infection were associated with higher chance of HBsAg loss independently. We then performed sensitivity analysis, which re-included HBeAg-positive, cirrhotic and treatment-experienced patients, and confirmed the robustness of our results in 3445 HBsAg carriers. Genotype C infection, compared to genotype B, is associated with a higher lifetime chance of HBsAg loss in Asian HBV carriers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Forced heat loss from body surface reduces heat flow to body surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A

    2010-01-01

    Heat stress is commonly relieved by forced evaporation from body surfaces. The mode of heat stress relief by heat extraction from the periphery is not clear, although it reduces rectal temperature. Radiant surface temperature (Ts) of the right half of the body surface was examined by thermovision in 4 lactating Holstein cows (30 kg of milk/d) during 7 repeated cycles of forced evaporation created by 30s of wetting followed by 4.5 min of forced airflow. Wetting was performed by an array of sprinklers (0.76 m(3)/h), and forced airflow (>3m/s velocity) over the right side of the body surface was produced by fans mounted at a height of 3m above the ground. Sprinkling wetted the hind legs, rump, and chest, but not the lower abdomen side, front legs, or neck. The animals were maintained in shade at an air temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 47%. Coat thickness was 1 to 2mm, so Ts closely represented skin temperature. Mean Ts of 5 x 20cm areas on the upper and lower hind and front legs, rump, chest, abdomen side, and neck were obtained by converting to temperature their respective gray intensity in single frames obtained at 10-s intervals. Little change occurred in Ts during the first wetting (0.1+/-0.6 degrees C), but it decreased rapidly thereafter (1.6+/-0.6 degrees C in the fifth wetting). The Ts also decreased, to a smaller extent, in areas that remained dry (0.7+/-1.0 degrees C). In all body sites, a plateau in Ts was reached by 2 min after wetting. The difference between dry and wet areas in the first cooling cycle was approximately 1.2 degrees C. The Ts of different body areas decreased during consecutive cooling cycles and reached a plateau by 3 cooling cycles in dry sites (front leg, neck, abdomen side), by 5 cooling cycles in the hind leg, and 7 cooling cycles in the rump and chest. The reduction in mean Ts produced by 7 cycles was 4.0 to 6.0 degrees C in wetted areas and 1.6 to 3.7 degrees C in sites that were not wetted. Initial rectal

  15. Effects of urban tree canopy loss on land surface temperature magnitude and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Arthur; Rogan, John; Williams, Christopher; Ratick, Samuel; Nowak, David; Martin, Deborah

    2017-06-01

    Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) plays an important role in moderating the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) effect, which poses threats to human health due to substantially increased temperatures relative to rural areas. UTC coverage is associated with reduced urban temperatures, and therefore benefits both human health and reducing energy use in cities. Measurement of this relationship relies on accurate, fine spatial resolution UTC mapping, and on time series analysis of Land Surface Temperatures (LST). The City of Worcester, Massachusetts underwent extensive UTC loss and gain during the relatively brief period from 2008 to 2015, providing a natural experiment to measure the UTC/LST relationship. This paper consists of two elements to this end. First, it presents methods to map UTC in urban and suburban locations at fine spatial resolution (∼0.5 m) using image segmentation of a fused Lidar/WorldView-2 dataset, in order to show UTC change over time. Second, the areas of UTC change are used to explore changes in LST magnitude and seasonal variability using a time series of all available Landsat data for the study area over the eight-year period from 2007 to 2015. Fractional UTC change per unit area was determined using fine resolution UTC maps for 2008, 2010, and 2015, covering the period of large-scale tree loss and subsequent planting. LST changes were measured across a series of net UTC change bins, providing a relationship between UTC net change and LST trend. LST was analyzed for both monotonic trends over time and changes to seasonal magnitude and timing, using Theil-Sen slopes and Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA), respectively. The largest magnitudes of UTC loss occurred in residential neighborhoods, causing increased exposure of impervious (road) and pervious (grass) surfaces. Net UTC loss showed higher monotonic increases in LST than persistence and gain areas. STA indicated that net UTC loss was associated greater difference between 2008 and 2015 seasonal

  16. Monolithic dielectric surfaces as new low-loss light-matter interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Frank; Clausnitzer, Tina; Burmeister, Oliver; Friedrich, Daniel; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Danzmann, Karsten; Tünnermann, Andreas; Schnabel, Roman

    2008-02-01

    We propose a new mirror architecture, which is solely based upon structuring of the surface of a monolithic, possibly monocrystalline, bulk material. We found that a structure of T-shaped ridges of a subwavelength grating can theoretically provide 100% reflectivity. Since no material needs to be added to the mirror device, lowest mechanical loss can also be expected. Our approach might have compelling applications as a new light-matter interface.

  17. Monolithic dielectric surfaces as new low-loss light-matter interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Brückner, Frank; Clausnitzer, Tina; Burmeister, Oliver; Friedrich, Daniel; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Danzmann, Karsten; Tünnermann, Andreas; Schnabel, Roman

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new mirror architecture, which is solely based upon structuring of the surface of a monolithic, possibly monocrystalline, bulk material. We found that a structure of T-shaped ridges of a subwavelength grating can theoretically provide 100% reflectivity. Since no material needs to be added to the mirror device, lowest mechanical loss can also be expected. Our approach might have compelling applications as a new light-matter interface. (C) 2008 Optical Society of America.

  18. Effects of Fertilization on Surface Runoff Loss of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Mulberry in the Northern Zhejiang Plain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Yan-ping

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, the situ experimental plots in mulberry under two different kinds of treatment(control fertilization and farmer's conventional fertilization were conducted, and the runoff water in each plot were collected and tested in a period of two years to investigate the law of runoff, the regular pattern and the influential factors of nitrogen and phosphorus losses, and to study the coefficient of fertilizer losses from mulberry in northern Zhejiang plain. The results showed that the annual rainfall runoff coefficient was about 0.253 in mulberry field in northern Zhejiang plain. In those two years, TN and TP cumulative loss load in the conventional fertilization area reached 36.13 kg·hm-2 and 3.49 kg·hm-2, of which the N, P nutrient losses of fertilizer reached 6.415 kg·hm-2 and 1.090 kg·hm-2, respectively. N, P loss coefficients of fertilizer (the difference of nitrogen or phosphorus loss in the conventional fertilization area and the control area was divided by the total amount of fertilizer application were 0.744% and 3.047%. Nitrogen loss were mainly in soluble form, in which the NO3-N and NH4-N, accounting for about 38.3% and 14.4% respectively; while the phosphorus loss were in particulate form, accounting for about 68.9%. The larger amount of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient loss, were within the first year of the fertilization period, and the P loss was more serious than N. Within a period of fertilization, the cumulative loss of nitrogen and phosphorus caused by rainfall and the occurrence times of runoff increased with power function(R2>0.95.

  19. Sound conversion phenomena at the free surface of liquid helium. I. Calculation of the coefficients of reflection, transmission, and transformation of sound waves incident on the liquid--vapor interface of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechert, H.; Buchholz, F.I.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of a set of boundary conditions describing quite generally mass and energy transport processes across the free surface of helium II, the acoustic coefficients of reflection, transmission, and transformation of first sound, second sound, and the sound wave propagating in the vapor are calculated in the case of perpendicular incidence of sound waves against the liquid--vapor phase boundary. Considering rigoroulsy the influences of the Onsager surface coefficients, the isobaric thermal expansion coefficients, and the thermal conductivities of the liquid and the vapor, we derive sets of equations from which the acoustic coefficients are determined numerically. For estimations, simple explicit formulas of the acoustic coefficients are given. It is shown that the evaporation and energy transport processes occurring at the free surface of helium II due to the incidence of sound waves may be connected with appreciable energy dissipation. The surface absorption coefficients of first, second, and gas sound waves are deduced

  20. The Complete Solution of Fick's Second Law of Diffusion with Time-dependent Diffusion Coefficient and Surface Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlbro, Leif

    1996-01-01

    Fick's Second Law of Diffusion with time-dependent diffusioncoefficient and surface concentration is solved. Mimicking the classicalsolution, special time-dependent surface concentration functions areconsidered. These models are used in giving estimates of the lifetimeof the structure, when the c...... the concrete cover is given, as well as estimatesof the thickness of the concrete cover, when the expected lifetime is given.*Note: Book tilte: Durability of Concrete in Saline Environment...

  1. Surface excess elasticity of gold: Ab initio coefficients and impact on the effective elastic response of nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, B.A.M.; Müller, S.; Bargmann, S.; Weissmüller, J.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the influence of the surface on the effective elastic properties of nanoscale structures and nanomaterials remains a challenge, which we here address on both levels, continuum and atomic. Density Functional Theory (DFT) computation at the atomic level yields the first reliable surface excess elastic parameters for the (111) and (001) surfaces of gold. At the continuum level, we derive closed-form expressions for the effective elastic behavior that can be combined with the DFT-derived excess elastic parameters to obtain the effective axial, torsion, and bending stiffness of circular nanowires with surface excess elasticity. The two approaches use different reference frames, and we emphasize the need for consistent stress definitions and for conversion between the separate stress measures when transferring results between the approaches. We present excess elastic parameters separately for Cauchy and 2 nd Piola-Kirchhoff stresses, demonstrating that the conversion substantially modifies their numerical value and may even invert their sign. The results afford an assessment of the contribution of the surface excess elastic parameters to the effective elastic response of nanoscale beams or wires. This assessment sheds doubt on earlier suggestions relating experimental observations of an effective stiffening or softening at small size to the excess elasticity of clean surfaces.

  2. Multi-Staged NDVI Dependent Snow-Free Land-Surface Shortwave Albedo Narrowband-to-Broadband (NTB Coefficients and Their Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrowband-to-broadband conversion is a critical procedure for mapping land-surface broadband albedo using multi-spectral narrowband remote-sensing observations. Due to the significant difference in optical characteristics between soil and vegetation, NTB conversion is influenced by the variation in vegetation coverage on different surface types. To reduce this influence, this paper applies an approach that couples NTB coefficient with the NDVI. Multi-staged NDVI dependent NTB coefficient look-up tables (LUT for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Polarization and Directionality of Earth’s Reflectance (POLDER and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR were calculated using 6000 spectra samples collected from two typical spectral databases. Sensitivity analysis shows that NTB conversion is affected more by the NDVI for sensors with fewer band numbers, such as POLDER and AVHRR. Analysis of the validation results based on simulations, in situ measurements and global albedo products indicates that by using the multi-staged NDVI dependent NTB method, the conversion accuracies of these two sensors could be improved by 2%–13% on different NDVI classes compared with the general method. This improvement could be as high as 15%, on average, and 35% on dense vegetative surface compared with the global broadband albedo product of POLDER. This paper shows that it is necessary to consider surface reflectance characteristics associated with the NDVI on albedo-NTB conversion for remote sensors with fewer than five bands.

  3. Evaluation and management of the impact of land use change on the nitrogen and phosphorus load delivered to surface waters: the export coefficient modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, P. J.

    1996-09-01

    A manageable, relatively inexpensive model was constructed to predict the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus from a complex catchment to its drainage system. The model used an export coefficient approach, calculating the total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) load delivered annually to a water body as the sum of the individual loads exported from each nutrient source in its catchment. The export coefficient modelling approach permits scaling up from plot-scale experiments to the catchment scale, allowing application of findings from field experimental studies at a suitable scale for catchment management. The catchment of the River Windrush, a tributary of the River Thames, UK, was selected as the initial study site. The Windrush model predicted nitrogen and phosphorus loading within 2% of observed total nitrogen load and 0.5% of observed total phosphorus load in 1989. The export coefficient modelling approach was then validated by application in a second research basin, the catchment of Slapton Ley, south Devon, which has markedly different catchment hydrology and land use. The Slapton model was calibrated within 2% of observed total nitrogen load and 2.5% of observed total phosphorus load in 1986. Both models proved sensitive to the impact of temporal changes in land use and management on water quality in both catchments, and were therefore used to evaluate the potential impact of proposed pollution control strategies on the nutrient loading delivered to the River Windrush and Slapton Ley.

  4. Influence of texture coefficient on surface morphology and sensing properties of W-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kumar, Akshay; Abhyankar, A C

    2015-02-18

    For the first time, a new facile approach based on simple and inexpensive chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique is used to deposit Tungsten (W) doped nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films. The textural, optical, structural and sensing properties are investigated by GAXRD, UV spectroscopy, FESEM, AFM, and home-built sensing setup. The gas sensing results indicate that, as compared to pure SnO2, 1 wt % W-doping improves sensitivity along with better response (roughness values of 3.82 eV and 3.01 nm, respectively. Reduction in texture coefficient along highly dense (110) planes with concomitant increase along loosely packed (200) planes is found to have prominent effect on gas sensing properties of W-doped films.

  5. Relation between measured menstrual blood loss and patient's subjective assessment of loss, duration of bleeding, number of sanitary towels used, uterine weight and endometrial surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimbira, T H; Anderson, A B; Turnbull, A c

    1980-07-01

    In 92 women complaining of heavy but regular periods for which no cause was found, the relation was studied between measured menstrual blood loss during two consecutive periods and the patient's subjective assessment of blood loss, the number of days of bleeding, and the number of sanitary pads and tampons used. There was no correlation between menstrual blood loss and these parameters. In many women these parameters are not a reliable indicator of the volume of menstrual blood loss. In 40 of the 92 women, who subsequently had a hysterectomy because of their complaint of menorrhagia, the uterus was weighed and the endometrial surface area measured. The view that menorrhagia is associated with a large uterus or a large endometrial surface area could not be confirmed.

  6. Definition of the linearity loss of the surface temperature in static tensile tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Risitano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Static tensile tests on material for mechanical constructions have pointed out the linearity loss of the surface temperature with the application of load. This phenomenon is due to the heat generation caused by the local microplasticizations which carry the material to deviate from its completely thermoelastic behavior,. The identification of the static load which determines the loss of linearity of the temperature under stress, becomes extremely important to define a first dynamic characterization of the material. The temperature variations that can be recorded during the static test are often very limited (a few tenths of degree for every 100 MPa in steels and they require the use of special sensors able to measure very low temperature variations. The experience acquired in such analysis highlighted that, dealing with highly accurate sensors or with particular materials, the identification of the first linearity loss (often by eye in the temperature curves, can be influenced by the sensibility of the investigator himself and can lead to incorrect estimates. The aim of this work is to validate the above mentioned observations on different steels, by applying the autocorrelation function to the data collected during the application of a static load. This, in order to make the results of the thermal analysis free from the sensitivity of the operator and to make the results as objective as possible, for defining the closest time of the linearity loss in the temperature-time function.

  7. Intrinsic light yield and light loss coefficient of Bi.sub.4./sub.Ge.sub.3./sub.O.sub.12./sub. single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yawai, N.; Chewpraditkul, W.; Wanarak, C.; Nikl, Martin; Ratanatongchai, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 12 (2014), s. 2030-2033 ISSN 0925- 3467 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 * energy resolution * light yield * photofraction * mass attenuation coefficient Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2014

  8. Rehabilitation of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) complicated with localized tooth surface loss: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Walter Y H; Ho, Edward H T; Pow, Edmond H N

    2014-05-01

    Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental enamel hypomineralized condition characteristically involving the first permanent molars and sometimes also the incisors. The affected teeth are predisposed to tooth surface loss (TSL) which may not only compromise the esthetics and function but also endanger the pulp and longevity of the teeth. This report describes the management of a patient with MIH complicated with localized TSL and lack of occlusal clearance due to dentoalveolar compensation. The atypical TSL pattern involved all anterior teeth and required the placement of Dahl appliances on both arches.

  9. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam (Inventor); Wu, Yan (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  10. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy imaging of surface plasmons at the nanometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliex, Christian; Kociak, Mathieu; Stéphan, Odile

    2016-03-01

    Since their first realization, electron microscopes have demonstrated their unique ability to map with highest spatial resolution (sub-atomic in most recent instruments) the position of atoms as a consequence of the strong scattering of the incident high energy electrons by the nuclei of the material under investigation. When interacting with the electron clouds either on atomic orbitals or delocalized over the specimen, the associated energy transfer, measured and analyzed as an energy loss (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) gives access to analytical properties (atom identification, electron states symmetry and localization). In the moderate energy-loss domain (corresponding to an optical spectral domain from the infrared (IR) to the rather far ultra violet (UV), EELS spectra exhibit characteristic collective excitations of the rather-free electron gas, known as plasmons. Boundary conditions, such as surfaces and/or interfaces between metallic and dielectric media, generate localized surface charge oscillations, surface plasmons (SP), which are associated with confined electric fields. This domain of research has been extraordinarily revived over the past few years as a consequence of the burst of interest for structures and devices guiding, enhancing and controlling light at the sub-wavelength scale. The present review focuses on the study of these surface plasmons with an electron microscopy-based approach which associates spectroscopy and mapping at the level of a single and well-defined nano-object, typically at the nanometer scale i.e. much improved with respect to standard, and even near-field, optical techniques. After calling to mind some early studies, we will briefly mention a few basic aspects of the required instrumentation and associated theoretical tools to interpret the very rich data sets recorded with the latest generation of (Scanning)TEM microscopes. The following paragraphs will review in more detail the results obtained on simple planar and

  11. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy imaging of surface plasmons at the nanometer scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colliex, Christian; Kociak, Mathieu; Stéphan, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Since their first realization, electron microscopes have demonstrated their unique ability to map with highest spatial resolution (sub-atomic in most recent instruments) the position of atoms as a consequence of the strong scattering of the incident high energy electrons by the nuclei of the material under investigation. When interacting with the electron clouds either on atomic orbitals or delocalized over the specimen, the associated energy transfer, measured and analyzed as an energy loss (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) gives access to analytical properties (atom identification, electron states symmetry and localization). In the moderate energy-loss domain (corresponding to an optical spectral domain from the infrared (IR) to the rather far ultra violet (UV), EELS spectra exhibit characteristic collective excitations of the rather-free electron gas, known as plasmons. Boundary conditions, such as surfaces and/or interfaces between metallic and dielectric media, generate localized surface charge oscillations, surface plasmons (SP), which are associated with confined electric fields. This domain of research has been extraordinarily revived over the past few years as a consequence of the burst of interest for structures and devices guiding, enhancing and controlling light at the sub-wavelength scale. The present review focuses on the study of these surface plasmons with an electron microscopy-based approach which associates spectroscopy and mapping at the level of a single and well-defined nano-object, typically at the nanometer scale i.e. much improved with respect to standard, and even near-field, optical techniques. After calling to mind some early studies, we will briefly mention a few basic aspects of the required instrumentation and associated theoretical tools to interpret the very rich data sets recorded with the latest generation of (Scanning)TEM microscopes. The following paragraphs will review in more detail the results obtained on simple planar and

  12. Simulation of torrential rain as a means for assessment of surface runoff coefficients and calculation of recurrent design events in alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markart, Gerhard; Kohl, Bernhard; Sotier, Bernadette; Klebinder, Klaus; Schauer, Thomas; Bunza, Günther

    2010-05-01

    Simulation of heavy rain is an established method for studying infiltration characteristics, runoff and erosion behaviour in alpine catchments. Accordingly for characterization and differentiation of various runoff producing areas in alpine catchments transportable spray irrigation installations for large plots have been developed at the BFW, Department of Natural Hazards and Alpine Timberline, in Innsbruck, Austria. One installation has been designed for assessment of surface runoff coefficients under convective torrential rain with applicable precipitation intensities between 30 and 120 mm*h-1 and a plot size between 50 and 100 m2. The second device is used for simulation of persistent rain events (rain intensity about 10 mm*h-1, plot size: 400-1200 m2). Very reasonable results have been achieved during the comparison with spray irrigations from other institutions (e.g. Bavarian Environmental Agency in Munich) in the field. Rain simulations at BFW are mostly combined with comprehensive additional investigations on land-use, vegetation cover, soil physical characteristics, soil humidity, hydrogeology and other features of the test-sites. This allows proper interpretation of the achieved runoff data. At the moment results from more than 280 rain simulations are available from about 25 catchments / regions of the Eastern Alps at the BFW. Results show that the surface runoff coefficient, when runoff is constant at the test site (φconst) increases only slightly between rain intensities from 30 to 120 mm*h-1 (increment is 6%). Therefore φconst shall be used for assessment of runoff behaviour of runoff contributing areas, because it is less dependent form system conditions than φtot. BFW-data have been consolidated with results of the LfU (Bavarian Environmental Agency in Munich) in a data base and formed the basis for the development of a simple code of practice for assessment of surface runoff coefficients in torrential rain. The manual is freely available under

  13. Comparison of distributed vortex receptivity coefficients at excitation of 3D TS-waves in presence and absence of surface waviness and pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulin, V. I.; Ivanov, A. V.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Mischenko, D. A.; Fedenkova, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is devoted to quantitative experimental investigation of effective mechanisms of excitation of 3D TS instability waves due to distributed boundary layer receptivity to free-stream vortices. Experiments carried out in a self-similar boundary layer with Hartree parameter βH = -0.115 and concentrated on studying two receptivity mechanisms connected with distributed scattering of 3D unsteady free-stream vortices both on the natural boundary layer nonuniformity (smooth surface) and on 2D surface nonuniformity (waviness). Obtained quantitative characteristics (distributed receptivity coefficients) are compared directly with those obtained in Blasius boundary layer. It is found that the adverse pressure gradient leads to reduction of efficiency of the vortex-roughness receptivity mechanism.

  14. Force Field Benchmark of the TraPPE_UA for Polar Liquids: Density, Heat of Vaporization, Dielectric Constant, Surface Tension, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Isothermal Compressibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Rojas, Edgar; Aguilar-Pineda, Jorge Alberto; Pérez de la Luz, Alexander; de Jesús González, Edith Nadir; Alejandre, José

    2018-02-08

    The transferable potential for a phase equilibria force field in its united-atom version, TraPPE_UA, is evaluated for 41 polar liquids that include alcohols, thiols, ethers, sulfides, aldehydes, ketones, and esters to determine its ability to reproduce experimental properties that were not included in the parametrization procedure. The intermolecular force field parameters for pure components were fit to reproduce experimental boiling temperature, vapor-liquid coexisting densities, and critical point (temperature, density, and pressure) using Monte Carlo simulations in different ensembles. The properties calculated in this work are liquid density, heat of vaporization, dielectric constant, surface tension, volumetric expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the gas and liquid phases, and also at the liquid-vapor interface. We found that relative error between calculated and experimental data is 1.2% for density, 6% for heat of vaporization, and 6.2% for surface tension, in good agreement with the experimental data. The dielectric constant is systematically underestimated, and the relative error is 37%. Evaluating the performance of the force field to reproduce the volumetric expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility requires more experimental data.

  15. Transfer coefficient models for escherichia coli O157:H7 on contacts between beef tissue and high-density polyethylene surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rolando A; Tamplin, Mark L; Marmer, Benne S; Phillips, John G; Cooke, Peter H

    2006-06-01

    Risk studies have identified cross-contamination during beef fabrication as a knowledge gap, particularly as to how and at what levels Escherichia coli O157:H7 transfers among meat and cutting board (or equipment) surfaces. The objectives of this study were to determine and model transfer coefficients (TCs) between E. coli O157:H7 on beef tissue and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) cutting board surfaces. Four different transfer scenarios were evaluated: (i) HDPE board to agar, (ii) beef tissue to agar, (iii) HDPE board to beef tissue to agar, and (iv) beef tissue to HDPE board to agar. Also, the following factors were studied for each transfer scenario: two HDPE surface roughness levels (rough and smooth), two beef tissues (fat and fascia), and two conditions of the initial beef tissue inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 (wet and dry surfaces), for a total of 24 treatments. The TCs were calculated as a function of the plated inoculum and of the cells recovered from the first contact. When the treatments were compared, all of the variables evaluated interacted significantly in determining the TC. An overall TC-per-treatment model did not adequately represent the reduction of the cells on the original surface after each contact and the interaction of the factors studied. However, an exponential model was developed that explained the experimental data for all treatments and represented the recontamination of the surfaces with E. coli O157:H7. The parameters for the exponential model for cross-contamination with E. coli O157:H7 between beef tissue and HDPE surfaces were determined, allowing for the use of the resulting model in quantitative microbial risk assessment.

  16. Loss of fibrinogen receptors from the platelet surface during simulated extracorporeal circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, J.; Niewiarowski, S.; Hershock, D.; Morinelli, T.A.; Colman, R.W.; Edmunds, L.H. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    In vitro recirculation of fresh human heparinized blood in an extracorporeal circuit with a membrane oxygenator decreased fibrinogen- induced platelet aggregation and diminished the number of fibrinogen receptors and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/GPIIIa) antigenic sites on the platelet surface. In seven experiments, the mean +/- SD Km value for fibrinogen (i.e., molar concentration of fibrinogen required to cause 50% of the maximal rate of aggregation) was 1.58 x 10(-7) mol/L +/- 0.68 x 10(-7) mol/L. After recirculation, this value increased to 3.8 x 10(-7) mol/L +/- 1.94 x 10(-7) mol/L. The maximal aggregation rate of chymotrypsin-treated platelets decreased by 40% after 2 hours of recirculation. The number of fibrinogen receptors on platelets, which were treated with chymotrypsin after a recirculation, decreased from 41,370 +/- 24,000 to 13,230 +/- 10,230/platelet under the same conditions. The number of antigenic sites for monoclonal antibody reacting with GPIIb/GPIIIa complex of adenosine diphosphate-stimulated platelets decreased from 34,200 +/- 5,940 to 19,500 +/- 9,680/platelet after recirculation. Prostaglandin E1 (0. 3 mumol/L) in the perfusion circuit preserved the ability of platelets to react with fibrinogen. In conclusion, the loss of fibrinogen receptors from the surface of platelet membranes results from the interaction of platelets with the surfaces of perfusion circuits.

  17. Loss of fibrinogen receptors from the platelet surface during simulated extracorporeal circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musial, J.; Niewiarowski, S.; Hershock, D.; Morinelli, T.A.; Colman, R.W.; Edmunds, L.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro recirculation of fresh human heparinized blood in an extracorporeal circuit with a membrane oxygenator decreased fibrinogen- induced platelet aggregation and diminished the number of fibrinogen receptors and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/GPIIIa) antigenic sites on the platelet surface. In seven experiments, the mean +/- SD Km value for fibrinogen (i.e., molar concentration of fibrinogen required to cause 50% of the maximal rate of aggregation) was 1.58 x 10(-7) mol/L +/- 0.68 x 10(-7) mol/L. After recirculation, this value increased to 3.8 x 10(-7) mol/L +/- 1.94 x 10(-7) mol/L. The maximal aggregation rate of chymotrypsin-treated platelets decreased by 40% after 2 hours of recirculation. The number of fibrinogen receptors on platelets, which were treated with chymotrypsin after a recirculation, decreased from 41,370 +/- 24,000 to 13,230 +/- 10,230/platelet under the same conditions. The number of antigenic sites for monoclonal antibody reacting with GPIIb/GPIIIa complex of adenosine diphosphate-stimulated platelets decreased from 34,200 +/- 5,940 to 19,500 +/- 9,680/platelet after recirculation. Prostaglandin E1 (0. 3 mumol/L) in the perfusion circuit preserved the ability of platelets to react with fibrinogen. In conclusion, the loss of fibrinogen receptors from the surface of platelet membranes results from the interaction of platelets with the surfaces of perfusion circuits

  18. Advanced Topographic Characterization of Variously Prepared Niobium Surfaces and Linkage to RF Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen

    time-intensive AFM approach can be limited to where it is genuinely necessary. The prevalent idea is that sharp features could lead to magnetic quench or enhance the thermal quench. In this report, a calculation on magnetic field is numerically given on fine structure by finite element and conformal mapping methods. Corresponding RF Ohmic loss will be simulated. A certain thermal tolerant will be calculated. A Q˜E curve will be predicted from this model. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate rough surface additional RF loss based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor will become iormal at field higher than transition field. Therefore, it is only expected to explain midfield Q performance. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range. Additionally, the resistivity of Nb is temperature and magnetic field dependent from classic thermal feedback model theory. Combining with topographic PSD analysis and Rs temperature and field ependency, a middle field Q slope model could be modeled and the contribution from topography can be simulated.

  19. Soil-soil solution distribution coefficient of soil organic matter is a key factor for that of radioiodide in surface and subsurface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Yusuke; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Takeda, Akira; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the vertical distribution of the soil-soil-solution distribution coefficients (K d ) of 125 I, 137 Cs, and 85 Sr in organic-rich surface soil and organic-poor subsurface soil of a pasture and an urban forest near a spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan. K d of 137 Cs was highly correlated with water-extractable K + . K d of 85 Sr was highly correlated with water-extractable Ca 2+ and SOC. K d of 125 I - was low in organic-rich surface soil, high slightly below the surface, and lowest in the deepest soil. This kinked distribution pattern differed from the gradual decrease of the other radionuclides. The thickness of the high- 125 I - K d middle layer (i.e., with high radioiodide retention ability) differed between sites. K d of 125 I - was significantly correlated with K d of soil organic carbon. Our results also showed that the layer thickness is controlled by the ratio of K d -OC between surface and subsurface soils. This finding suggests that the addition of SOC might prevent further radioiodide migration down the soil profile. As far as we know, this is the first report to show a strong correlation of a soil characteristic with K d of 125 I - . Further study is needed to clarify how radioiodide is retained and migrates in soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  1. Carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks exhibit risks for human enamel surface loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Sampaio de Melo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks on the likely capacity of enamel surface dissolution and the influence of human saliva exposure as a biological protective factor. Materials and Methods The pH, titratable acidity (TA to pH 7.0, and buffer capacity (β of common beverages ingested by patients under physical activity were analyzed. Then, we randomly distributed 50 specimens of human enamel into 5 groups. Processed and natural coconut water served as controls for testing three carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks. In all specimens, we measured surface microhardness (Knoop hardness numbers and enamel loss (profilometry, µm for baseline and after simulated intake cycling exposure model. We also prepared areas of specimens to be exposed to human saliva overnight prior to the simulated intake cycling exposure. The cycles were performed by alternated immersions in beverages and artificial saliva. ANOVA two-way and Tukey HDS tests were used. Results The range of pH, TA, and β were 2.85 - 4.81, 8.33 - 46.66 mM/L and 3.48 - 10.25 mM/L × pH, respectively. The highest capacity of enamel surface dissolution was found for commercially available sports drinks for all variables. Single time human saliva exposure failed to significantly promote protective effect for the acidic attack of beverages. Conclusions In this study, carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks usually consumed during endurance training may have a greater capacity of dissolution of enamel surface depending on their physicochemical proprieties associated with pH and titratable acidity.

  2. Carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks exhibit risks for human enamel surface loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Mary Anne Sampaio; Passos, Vanara Florêncio; Lima, Juliana Paiva Marques; Santiago, Sérgio Lima; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks on the likely capacity of enamel surface dissolution and the influence of human saliva exposure as a biological protective factor. The pH, titratable acidity (TA) to pH 7.0, and buffer capacity (β) of common beverages ingested by patients under physical activity were analyzed. Then, we randomly distributed 50 specimens of human enamel into 5 groups. Processed and natural coconut water served as controls for testing three carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks. In all specimens, we measured surface microhardness (Knoop hardness numbers) and enamel loss (profilometry, µm) for baseline and after simulated intake cycling exposure model. We also prepared areas of specimens to be exposed to human saliva overnight prior to the simulated intake cycling exposure. The cycles were performed by alternated immersions in beverages and artificial saliva. ANOVA two-way and Tukey HDS tests were used. The range of pH, TA, and β were 2.85 - 4.81, 8.33 - 46.66 mM/L and 3.48 - 10.25 mM/L × pH, respectively. The highest capacity of enamel surface dissolution was found for commercially available sports drinks for all variables. Single time human saliva exposure failed to significantly promote protective effect for the acidic attack of beverages. In this study, carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks usually consumed during endurance training may have a greater capacity of dissolution of enamel surface depending on their physicochemical proprieties associated with pH and titratable acidity.

  3. A simple model for farmland nitrogen loss to surface runoff with raindrop driven process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, J.; Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been widely recognized that surface runoff from the agricultural fields is an important source of non-point source pollution (NPSP). Moreover, as the agricultural country with the largest nitrogen fertilizer production, import and consumption in the world, our nation should pay greater attention to the over-application and inefficient use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, which may cause severe pollution both in surface water and groundwater. To figure out the transfer mechanism between the soil solution and surface runoff, lots of laboratory test were conducted and related models were established in this study. But little of them was carried out in field scale since a part of variables are hard to control and some uncontrollable natural factors including rainfall intensity, temperature, wind speeds, soil spatial heterogeneity etc., may affect the field experimental results. Despite that, field tests can better reflect the mechanism of soil chemical loss to surface runoff than laboratory experiments, and the latter tend to oversimplify the environmental conditions. Therefore, a physically based, nitrogen transport model was developed and tested with so called semi-field experiments (i.e., artificial rainfall instead of natural rainfall was applied in the test). Our model integrated both raindrop driven process and diffusion effect along with the simplified nitrogen chain reactions. The established model was solved numerically through the modified Hydrus-1d source code, and the model simulations closely agree with the experimental data. Furthermore, our model indicates that the depth of the exchange layer and raindrop induced water transfer rate are two important parameters, and they have different impacts on the simulation results. The study results can provide references for preventing and controlling agricultural NPSP.

  4. Evaluation of Heat Losses Behind the Front of the Detonation Moving Along the Metallic Porous Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Golovastov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a computational technique of the heat flow from the hot products of detonation combustion into the porous coating and estimates the efficiency of the coating layer that results in slowing the flame front down with disregard the transverse displacement of the combustion products weight of a hydrogen-air mixture.Initial thermodynamic parameters of combustion products on the porous coating surface have been estimated. A drag (stagnation temperature of flow was determined.The statement of task was to calculate the heat flow into the long cylindrical metal fiber with radius of 15 μm. The reference values of heat capacity and heat diffusivity were used to estimate a thermal diffusivity in a wide range of temperatures. An approximation of the parameters is given for a wide range of temperatures.The calculation algorithm using an explicit four-point scheme is presented. The convergence and accuracy of the results were confirmed. The theoretical estimation using cylindrical Bessel functions was made to prove the accuracy of the results.Total heat loss was estimated using the photos of moving detonation front and hot combustion gases.Comparison of the total heat loss and the amount of energy absorbed by a single fiber allowed us to find that the porous coating thickness, resulting in attenuation of detonation wave, is efficient.

  5. Gas-surface interactions using accommodation coefficients for a dilute and a dense gas in a micro- or nanochannel: heat flux predictions using combined molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedea, S V; van Steenhoven, A A; Markvoort, A J; Spijker, P; Giordano, D

    2014-05-01

    The influence of gas-surface interactions of a dilute gas confined between two parallel walls on the heat flux predictions is investigated using a combined Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The accommodation coefficients are computed from the temperature of incident and reflected molecules in molecular dynamics and used as effective coefficients in Maxwell-like boundary conditions in Monte Carlo simulations. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic wall interactions are studied, and the effect of the gas-surface interaction potential on the heat flux and other characteristic parameters like density and temperature is shown. The heat flux dependence on the accommodation coefficient is shown for different fluid-wall mass ratios. We find that the accommodation coefficient is increasing considerably when the mass ratio is decreased. An effective map of the heat flux depending on the accommodation coefficient is given and we show that MC heat flux predictions using Maxwell boundary conditions based on the accommodation coefficient give good results when compared to pure molecular dynamics heat predictions. The accommodation coefficients computed for a dilute gas for different gas-wall interaction parameters and mass ratios are transferred to compute the heat flux predictions for a dense gas. Comparison of the heat fluxes derived using explicit MD, MC with Maxwell-like boundary conditions based on the accommodation coefficients, and pure Maxwell boundary conditions are discussed. A map of the heat flux dependence on the accommodation coefficients for a dense gas, and the effective accommodation coefficients for different gas-wall interactions are given. In the end, this approach is applied to study the gas-surface interactions of argon and xenon molecules on a platinum surface. The derived accommodation coefficients are compared with values of experimental results.

  6. Anisotropy of the Seebeck Coefficient in the Cuprate Superconductor YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}: Fermi-Surface Reconstruction by Bidirectional Charge Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cyr-Choinière

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Seebeck coefficient S of the cuprate YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y} is measured in magnetic fields large enough to suppress superconductivity, at hole dopings p=0.11 and p=0.12, for heat currents along the a and b directions of the orthorhombic crystal structure. For both directions, S/T decreases and becomes negative at low temperature, a signature that the Fermi surface undergoes a reconstruction due to broken translational symmetry. Above a clear threshold field, a strong new feature appears in S_{b}, for conduction along the b axis only. We attribute this feature to the onset of 3D-coherent unidirectional charge-density-wave modulations seen by x-ray diffraction, also along the b axis only. Because these modulations have a sharp onset temperature well below the temperature where S/T starts to drop towards negative values, we infer that they are not the cause of Fermi-surface reconstruction. Instead, the reconstruction must be caused by the quasi-2D bidirectional modulations that develop at significantly higher temperature. The unidirectional order only confers an additional anisotropy to the already reconstructed Fermi surface, also manifest as an in-plane anisotropy of the resistivity.

  7. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Bending Loss-Based U-Shaped Plastic Optical Fiber Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadny da S. Arcas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli is a large and diverse bacteria group that inhabits the intestinal tract of many mammals. Most E. coli strains are harmless, however some of them are pathogenic, meaning they can make one sick if ingested. By being in the feces of animals and humans, its presence in water and food is used as indicator of fecal contamination. The main method for this microorganism detection is the bacterial culture medium that is time-consuming and requires a laboratory with specialized personnel. Other sophisticated methods are still not fast enough because they require sending samples to a laboratory and with a high cost of analysis. In this paper, a gold-coated U-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF biosensor for E. coli bacteria detection is presented. The biosensor works by intensity modulation principle excited by monochromatic light where the power absorption is imposed by predominant effect of either bending loss or surface plasmon resonance (SPR, depending on the gold thickness. Bacterial selectivity is obtained by antibody immobilization on the fiber surface. The biosensor showed a detection limit of 1.5 × 103 colony-forming units (CFU/mL, demonstrating that the technology can be a portable, fast response and low-cost alternative to conventional methodologies for quality analysis of water and food.

  8. Estimating surface soil erosion losses and mapping erosion risk for Yusufeli micro-catchment (Artvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tüfekçioğlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheet erosion, one of the most important types of water erosion, takes place on the top soil as tiny soil layer movement that affects lake and stream ecosystem. This type of erosion is very important because the productive soil layer on the top soil can be lost in a very short period of time. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of surface (sheet and rill soil erosion, and to identify areas under high erosion risk within the study area at Yusufeli province in Artvin by using RUSLE erosion methodology. As a result of the study it was found that the average annual potential soil loss by surface erosion was 3.6 ton ha-1yr-1. Additionally, the maps produced and conclusions reached by the study revealed that the areas of high erosion risk were identified spatially and measures to control erosion on some of these high risk areas can be possible with appropriate erosion control techniques.

  9. Determinants of spontaneous surface antigen loss in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients with a low viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Tai-Chung; Liu, Chun-Jen; Yang, Hung-Chih; Su, Tung-Hung; Wang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Chi-Ling; Kuo, Stephanie Fang-Tzu; Liu, Chen-Hua; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2012-01-01

    Loss of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) usually indicates the cure of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In spontaneous hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconverters, lower serum HBsAg and HBV DNA levels have been shown to be associated with HBsAg loss over time. However, little is known about their impacts on HBsAg loss in HBeAg-negative patients with limited viral replication. A total of 688 HBeAg-negative patients with baseline serum HBV DNA levels loss were investigated. In a mean follow-up of 11.6 years, the average annual rate of HBsAg loss was 1.6%. Baseline HBsAg and HBV DNA levels were inversely associated with subsequent HBsAg loss. When compared to patients who had HBsAg levels >1000 IU/mL, the rates of HBsAg loss were significantly higher in patients with HBsAg levels of 100-999, 10-99, and loss was 13.2 (95% CI, 7.8-22.1) for HBsAg level loss. In HBeAg-negative patients with HBV genotype B or C infection who have HBV DNA level loss. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Surface and Subsurface Transport of Nitrate Loss from the Selected Bioenergy Crop Fields: Systematic Review, Analysis and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate loss from bioenergy crop fields has attracted considerable attention during the last few years because of its potential negative impact on aquatic and human health. Both controllable and uncontrollable factors for nitrate loss have been the subject of several previous studies. Due to differences in climate, biophysical dissimilarities and land management characteristics in different parts of the world the factors affecting nitrate loss are often inconsistent and hence difficult to generalize. Therefore, reanalyzing the experimental field or plot scale studies to understand the nitrate loss factors in crop fields is useful and necessary in developing management strategies for reducing nitrate loss. This research synthesized and investigated 36 peer reviewed scientific journal articles related to selected bioenergy crop fields that included: continuous corn, corn in rotation with soybean, switchgrass and Miscanthus to conduct a meta-analysis of the available research. In this study, factors such as drain tile spacing, tillage practices, type and timing of the fertilization rate, irrigation and various other factors, which are challenging to represent in regression equations, were also systematically analyzed. In addition, various other agronomic characteristics that are attributed too nitrate loss are caused by perennially planted bio energized crops such as Miscanthus and switchgrass. Results indicated that 49% of nitrate loss through surface runoff from corn fields is directly related to the annual precipitation and fertilization rate. Multiple linear regression equations were developed to estimate the annual subsurface nitrate loss for the continuous corn fields with a R2 value of 0.65, 0.58 and 0.26 for sandy loam, silty loam and clay loam, respectively. Our analysis resulted in the conclusion that corn has a 2 to 3 times higher nitrate loss in surface runoff compared to switchgrass. Likewise, continuous corn and corn in rotation with

  11. The effect of surface grain reversal on the AC losses of sintered Nd–Fe–B permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Martina; Roth, Stefan; Gebert, Annett; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets are exposed to AC magnetic fields in many applications, e.g. in permanent magnet electric motors. We have measured the AC losses of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets in a closed circuit arrangement using AC fields with root mean square-values up to 80 mT (peak amplitude 113 mT) over the frequency range 50 to 1000 Hz. Two magnet grades with different dysprosium content were investigated. Around the remanence point the low grade material (1.7 wt% Dy) showed significant hysteresis losses; whereas the losses in the high grade material (8.9 wt% Dy) were dominated by classical eddy currents. Kerr microscopy images revealed that the hysteresis losses measured for the low grade magnet can be mainly ascribed to grains at the sample surface with multiple domains. This was further confirmed when the high grade material was subsequently exposed to DC and AC magnetic fields. Here a larger number of surface grains with multiple domains are also present once the step in the demagnetization curve attributed to the surface grain reversal is reached and a rise in the measured hysteresis losses is evident. If in the low grade material the operating point is slightly offset from the remanence point, such that zero field is not bypassed, its AC losses can also be fairly well described with classical eddy current theory. - Highlights: • The eddy current losses of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were measured. • Field amplitudes up to 113 mT over the frequency range 50 to 1000 Hz were applied. • The Nd–Fe–B magnets showed significant hysteresis losses at low amplitudes (∼100 mT). • The source of such hysteresis losses in sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets was identified. • Two magnet grades with different dysprosium content were investigated

  12. Evidence of surface loss as ubiquitous limiting damping mechanism in SiN micro- and nanomechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Schmid, Silvan

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN) micro- and nanomechanical resonators have attracted a lot of attention in various research fields due to their exceptionally high quality factors (Qs). Despite their popularity, the origin of the limiting loss mechanisms in these structures has remained controversial....... In this Letter we propose an analytical model combining acoustic radiation loss with intrinsic loss. The model accurately predicts the resulting mode-dependent Qs of low-stress silicon-rich and high-stress stoichiometric SiN membranes. The large acoustic mismatch of the low-stress membrane to the substrate seems......, and cantilevers) SiN resonators extracted from literature, suggesting surface loss as ubiquitous damping mechanism in thin SiN resonators with Qsurf=βh and β=6×1010±4×1010  m−1. Based on the intrinsic loss the maximal achievable Qs and Qf products for SiN membranes and strings are outlined....

  13. The impact of microgeometry pistons with a stepped bearing surface for the friction loss of the internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblewski Emil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the results of experimental piston friction losses on stepped bearing surface microgeometry obtained on the test rig. This test rig is equipped with special temperature control system, which provides better stability to temperature than in standard systems. The results of station tests was discussed. Tests was analyzed depending the moment caused by the friction on the oil temperature in the oil sump. Specified conclusions allow to assess the impact of the stepped profile of the pistons bearing surface microgeometry for different values of engine speed and the oil temperature at the friction losses in the main kinematic engine node which is piston-cylinder.

  14. Sensitivity of coefficients for converting entrance surface dose and kerma-area product to effective dose and energy imparted to the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.; Sandborg, M.; Persliden, J.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the conversions from entrance surface dose (ESD) or kerma-area product (KAP) to effective dose (E) or to energy imparted to the patient (ε) to the likely variations in tube potential, field size, patient size and sex which occur in clinical work. As part of a factorial design study for chest and lumbar spine examinations, the tube potentials were varied to be ±10% of the typical values for the examinations while field sizes and the positions of the field centres were varied to be representative of values drawn from measurements on patient images. Variation over sex and patient size was based on anthropomorphic phantoms representing males and females of ages 15 years (small adult) and 21 years (reference adult). All the conversion coefficients were estimated using a mathematical phantom programmed with the Monte Carlo code EGS4 for all factor combinations and analysed statistically to derive factor effects. In general, the factors studied behaved independently in the sense that interaction of the physical factors generally gave no more than a 5% variation in a conversion coefficient. Taken together, variation of patient size, sex, field size and field position can lead to significant variation of E/KAP by up to a factor of 2, of E/ESD by up to a factor of 3, of ε/KAP by a factor of 1.3 and of ε/ESD by up to a factor of 2. While KAP is preferred to determine ε, the results show no strong preference of KAP over ESD in determining E. The mean absorbed dose D-bar in the patient obtained by dividing ε (determined using KAP) by the patient's mass was found to be the most robust measure of E. (author)

  15. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  16. Weight loss and changes in surface roughness of denture base and reline materials after simulated toothbrushing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Lucia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Salles, Débora da Silva Lopes; Jorge, Janaina Habib

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the weight loss and the surface roughness of acrylic resins after simulated brushing tests. Ten specimens of each material (Tokuyama Rebase II-TR, New Truliner-NT, Ufi Gel Hard-UH and Lucitone 550-L) were made. The wear loss (mg) by weight and the surface roughness (Ra μm) of each specimen was determined before and after brushing. The specimens were placed on the brushing machine and a total of 20,000 brushing cycles was performed. The results of weight loss and roughness values were submitted to the anova followed by the Tukey's test (p = 0.05). The mean weight loss of material L was statistically higher (p 0.05). Only for L, toothbrushing increased the surface roughness. After toothbrushing, there was no significant difference between the roughness values of materials L and NT. The highest mean weight loss during the simulated toothbrushing tests was observed for L. Before the toothbrushing tests, the NT exhibited the highest mean roughness. Brushing resulted in increase in roughness only for resin L. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Analytical Calculation of Magnetic Field Distribution and Stator Iron Losses for Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent-magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs are widely used in electric vehicles owing to many advantages, such as high power density, high efficiency, etc. Iron losses can account for a significant component of the total loss in permanent-magnet (PM machines. Consequently, these losses should be carefully considered during the PMSM design. In this paper, an analytical calculation method has been proposed to predict the magnetic field distribution and stator iron losses in the surface-mounted permanent magnet (SPM synchronous machines. The method introduces the notion of complex relative air-gap permeance to take into account the effect of slotting. The imaginary part of the relative air-gap permeance is neglected to simplify the calculation of the magnetic field distribution in the slotted air gap for the surface-mounted permanent-magnet (SPM machine. Based on the armature reaction magnetic field analysis, the stator iron losses can be estimated by the modified Steinmetz equation. The stator iron losses under load conditions are calculated according to the varying d-q-axis currents of different control methods. In order to verify the analysis method, finite element simulation results are compared with analytical calculations. The comparisons show good performance of the proposed analytical method.

  18. Influence of surface losses and the self-pumping effect on current-voltage characteristics of a long Josephson junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratov, A.L.; Sobolev, A.S.; Koshelets, V.P.

    2007-01-01

    )] in the millimeter and submillimeter range. The study is performed in the frame of a modified sine-Gordon model, which includes surface losses, self-pumping effect, and in an empirical way the superconducting gap. The electromagnetic coupling to the environment is modeled by a simple resistor-capacitor load (RC load...

  19. Vertical and horizontal surface displacements near Jakobshavn Isbræ driven by melt-induced and dynamic ice loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Spada, G.

    2013-01-01

    of surface elevations from 2006, 2009, and 2010. However, horizontal displacements during 2010–2012 at KAGA and ILUL are directed more towards the west suggesting a change in the spatial distribution of the ice mass loss. In addition, we observe an increase in the uplift rate during 2010–2012 as compared...

  20. Incidence of loss of heterozygosity at p53 and BRCA1 loci in serous surface carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezado, M M; Moskaluk, C A; Bryant, B; Mills, S E; Merino, M J

    1999-02-01

    Serous surface carcinoma (SSC) is a neoplasm histologically indistinguishable from typical serous carcinomas that arise from the ovary but has a distinct clinical presentation. It is characterized by widespread peritoneal dissemination at presentation, but the ovaries are grossly normal in size and shape. If the carcinoma involves the ovaries microscopically, the tumor is confined to the surface or is minimally invasive. The recognition of this entity is important, because in some studies it appears to have a poorer prognosis than stage-matched serous cancers of the ovary. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the p53 (17p) and BRCA1 (17q) tumor suppressor genes has been frequently identified in sporadic ovarian carcinomas. Although 17p LOH is correlated with common p53 gene mutations, inactivating mutations of the BRCA1 gene are uncommon in sporadic ovarian cases. In contrast, germline BRCA1 mutations are responsible for some hereditary forms of ovarian cancer, where it has been suggested that germline BRCA1 mutations confer a more favorable prognosis. In this study, 12 sporadic SSC were assessed for the presence of allelic deletions on the p53 and BRCA1 gene loci. DNA from both tumor and normal cells was obtained for LOH studies using tissue microdissection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed with the polymorphic DNA markers TP53 (17p13.1/p53 gene) and D17S579 (17q/BRCA1 gene). LOH in the p53 and BRCA1 loci was detected in 62.5% and 66.6% of the cases, respectively. In 50% of tumors informative for both markers, it is possible that an entire chromosome may be lost. In conclusion, we have shown that LOH of the p53 and BRCA1 loci is a frequent event in sporadic SSC, similar to what has been described in the usual form of serous ovarian carcinoma. Mutational analysis will be necessary to determine the exact role of these genes in this group of tumors.

  1. Evaluation of the use of partition coefficients and molecular surface properties as predictors of drug absorption: a provisional biopharmaceutical classification of the list of national essential medi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NU Rahman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Partition coefficients (log D and log P and molecular surface area (PSA are potential predictors of the intestinal permeability of drugs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate and compare these intestinal permeability indicators.   Methods: Aqueous solubility data were obtained from literature or calculated using ACD/Labs and ALOGPS. Permeability data were predicted based on log P, log D at pH 6.0 (log D6.0, and PSA.  Results: Metoprolol's log P, log D6.0 and a PSA of <65 Å correctly predicted 55.9%, 50.8% and 54.2% of permeability classes, respectively. Labetalol's log P, log D6.0, and PSA correctly predicted 54.2%, 64.4% and 61% of permeability classes, respectively. Log D6.0 correlated well (81% with Caco-2 permeability (Papp. Of the list of national essential medicines, 135 orally administered drugs were classified into biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS. Of these, 57 (42.2%, 28 (20.7%, 44 (32.6%, and 6 (4.4% were class I, II, III and IV respectively. Conclusion: Log D6.0 showed better prediction capability than log P. Metoprolol as permeability internal standard was more conservative than labetalol.

  2. A New Global Potential Energy Surface for the Hydroperoxyl Radical, HO2: Reaction Coefficients for H + O2 and Vibrational Splittings for H Atom Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A new analytic global potential energy surface describing the hydroperoxyl radical system H((sup 2)S) + O2(X (sup 3)Sigma((sup -)(sub g))) (reversible reaction) HO2 ((X-tilde) (sup 2)A'') (reversible reaction) O((sup 3)P) + O H (X (sup 2)Pi) has been fitted using the ab initio complete active space SCF (self-consistent-field)/externally contracted configuration interaction (CASSCF/CCI) energy calculations of Walch and Duchovic. Results of quasiclassical trajectory studies to determine the rate coefficients of the forward and reverse reactions at combustion temperatures will be presented. In addition, vibrational energy levels were calculated using the quantum DVR-DGB (discrete variable representation-distributed Gaussian basis) method and the splitting due to H atom migration is investigated. The material of the proposed presentation was reviewed and the technical content will not reveal any information not already in the public domain and will not give any foreign industry or government a competitive advantage.

  3. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  4. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  5. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  6. Surface area loss and increased sphericity account for the splenic entrapment of subpopulations of Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Safeukui

    Full Text Available Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens revealed innate retention of numerous cultured Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected red blood cells (ring-iRBCs. Ring-iRBC retention was confirmed by a microsphiltration device, a microbead-based technology that mimics the mechanical filtering function of the human spleen. However, the cellular alterations underpinning this retention remain unclear. Here, we use ImageStream technology to analyze infected RBCs' morphology and cell dimensions before and after fractionation with microsphiltration. Compared to fresh normal RBCs, the mean cell membrane surface area loss of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uninfected co-cultured RBCs (uRBCs was 14.2% (range: 8.3-21.9%, 9.6% (7.3-12.2% and 3.7% (0-8.4, respectively. Microsphilters retained 100%, ∼50% and 4% of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uRBCs, respectively. Retained ring-iRBCs display reduced surface area values (estimated mean, range: 17%, 15-18%, similar to the previously shown threshold of surface-deficient RBCs retention in the human spleen (surface area loss: >18%. By contrast, ring-iRBCs that successfully traversed microsphilters had minimal surface area loss and normal sphericity, suggesting that these parameters are determinants of their retention. To confirm this hypothesis, fresh normal RBCs were exposed to lysophosphatidylcholine to induce a controlled loss of surface area. This resulted in a dose-dependent retention in microsphilters, with complete retention occurring for RBCs displaying >14% surface area loss. Taken together, these data demonstrate that surface area loss and resultant increased sphericity drive ring-iRBC retention in microsphilters, and contribute to splenic entrapment of a subpopulation of ring-iRBCs. These findings trigger more interest in malaria research fields, including modeling of infection kinetics, estimation of parasite load, and analysis of risk factors for severe clinical forms. The determination of the threshold of

  7. Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bramorski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR and tortuosity (T and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage soil (NTS and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking soil (CTS. Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity, demonstrating the importance of the tillage system for the physical surface conditions, favoring water retention and infiltration in the soil. The increase in surface roughness by the tillage treatments was considerably greater than its reduction by rain action. The surface roughness and tortuosity had more influence on the soil volume lost by surface runoff than in the conventional treatment. Possibly, other variables influenced soil and water losses from the no-tillage treatments, e.g., soil type, declivity, slope length, among others not analyzed in this study.

  8. Friction coefficient and effective interference at the implant-bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Niklas B; Morlock, Michael M; Bishop, Nicholas E

    2015-09-18

    Although the contact pressure increases during implantation of a wedge-shaped implant, friction coefficients tend to be measured under constant contact pressure, as endorsed in standard procedures. Abrasion and plastic deformation of the bone during implantation are rarely reported, although they define the effective interference, by reducing the nominal interference between implant and bone cavity. In this study radial forces were analysed during simulated implantation and explantation of angled porous and polished implant surfaces against trabecular bone specimens, to determine the corresponding friction coefficients. Permanent deformation was also analysed to determine the effective interference after implantation. For the most porous surface tested, the friction coefficient initially increased with increasing normal contact stress during implantation and then decreased at higher contact stresses. For a less porous surface, the friction coefficient increased continually with normal contact stress during implantation but did not reach the peak magnitude measured for the rougher surface. Friction coefficients for the polished surface were independent of normal contact stress and much lower than for the porous surfaces. Friction coefficients were slightly lower for pull-out than for push-in for the porous surfaces but not for the polished surface. The effective interference was as little as 30% of the nominal interference for the porous surfaces. The determined variation in friction coefficient with radial contact force, as well as the loss of interference during implantation will enable a more accurate representation of implant press-fitting for simulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  10. Vicinage effects in energy loss and electron emission during grazing scattering of heavy molecular ions from a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yuanhong; Wang Younian; Miskovic, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    Vicinage effects in the energy loss and the electron emission spectra are studied in the presence of Coulomb explosion of swift, heavy molecular ions, during their grazing scattering from a solid surface. The dynamic response of the surface is treated by means of the dielectric theory within the specular reflection model using the plasmon pole approximation for the bulk dielectric function, whereas the angle-resolved energy spectra of the electrons emitted from the surface are obtained on the basis of the first-order, time-dependent perturbation theory. The evolution of the charge states of the constituent ions in the molecule during scattering is described by a nonequilibrium extension of the Brandt-Kitagawa model. The molecule scattering trajectories and the corresponding Coulomb explosion dynamics are evaluated for the cases of the internuclear axis being either aligned in the beam direction or randomly oriented in the directions parallel to the surface. Our calculations show that the vicinage effect in the energy loss is generally weaker for heavy molecules than for light molecules. In addition, there is clear evidence of the negative vicinage effect in both the energy loss and the energy spectra of the emitted electrons for molecular ions at lower speeds and with the axis aligned in the direction of motion

  11. Force Field Benchmark of Organic Liquids: Density, Enthalpy of Vaporization, Heat Capacities, Surface Tension, Isothermal Compressibility, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Dielectric Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleman, Carl; van Maaren, Paul J; Hong, Minyan; Hub, Jochen S; Costa, Luciano T; van der Spoel, David

    2012-01-10

    The chemical composition of small organic molecules is often very similar to amino acid side chains or the bases in nucleic acids, and hence there is no a priori reason why a molecular mechanics force field could not describe both organic liquids and biomolecules with a single parameter set. Here, we devise a benchmark for force fields in order to test the ability of existing force fields to reproduce some key properties of organic liquids, namely, the density, enthalpy of vaporization, the surface tension, the heat capacity at constant volume and pressure, the isothermal compressibility, the volumetric expansion coefficient, and the static dielectric constant. Well over 1200 experimental measurements were used for comparison to the simulations of 146 organic liquids. Novel polynomial interpolations of the dielectric constant (32 molecules), heat capacity at constant pressure (three molecules), and the isothermal compressibility (53 molecules) as a function of the temperature have been made, based on experimental data, in order to be able to compare simulation results to them. To compute the heat capacities, we applied the two phase thermodynamics method (Lin et al. J. Chem. Phys.2003, 119, 11792), which allows one to compute thermodynamic properties on the basis of the density of states as derived from the velocity autocorrelation function. The method is implemented in a new utility within the GROMACS molecular simulation package, named g_dos, and a detailed exposé of the underlying equations is presented. The purpose of this work is to establish the state of the art of two popular force fields, OPLS/AA (all-atom optimized potential for liquid simulation) and GAFF (generalized Amber force field), to find common bottlenecks, i.e., particularly difficult molecules, and to serve as a reference point for future force field development. To make for a fair playing field, all molecules were evaluated with the same parameter settings, such as thermostats and barostats

  12. Hybrid and fully-etched surface implants in periodontally healthy patients: A comparative retrospective study on marginal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinato, Sergio; Bernardello, Fabio; Sassatelli, Paolo; Zaffe, Davide

    2017-08-01

    Human studies on implants with the same design but with different surfaces are lacking at the present time. The aim of this study was to compare the survival rate of and marginal bone loss (MBL) around 2 types of implants with the same design, but with different surfaces: fully "sandblasted and double-etched" (SDE) implants and hybrid (H) implants, with an apical SDE-surface and a coronal machined-surface. The SDE- and H-surfaces were previously analyzed under SEM and profilometer. Implants were placed in partially edentulous periodontally healthy patients requiring single implant-restoration, in either mandible or maxilla, with cement-retained prosthetic restoration. Twelve months after prosthetic loading, MBL in relation to prosthetic abutment height (AH), calculated radiographically, was statistically analyzed. SEM and profilometer analyses revealed no differences between the SDE-surfaces of either SDE- or H-implants. Transverse ridges and grooves characterized the machined portion of H-implants, clearly influencing the profilometer analysis. In 75 patients, 37 SDE and 38 H-implants were placed and all functioned completely after 12 months. In both SDE- and H-groups, MBL had a significant inverse relationship with AH, with greater intercept and negative slope for SDE-group and intersection of the 2 regression lines at AH = 2 mm. A 100% survival rate was recorded for SDE- and H-implants placed in pristine bone of periodontally healthy patients; MBL was limited and similar in both SDE- and H-groups; the higher the prosthetic AH, the lesser the MBL around implants; H-implants could reduce bone loss most effectively with abutments lower than 2 mm, realistically exploitable on thin biotypes; SDE-implants could reduce bone loss most effectively with abutments greater than 2 mm, realistically exploitable on thick biotypes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Energetics and optimum motion of oscillating lifting surfaces. [energy losses of rigid wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    Low-frequency, unsteady, lifting-line theory is used to characterize the energetics and optimum motion of an unswept rigid wing oscillating harmonically in an inviscid, incompressible flow. The energetics calculations account for the leading edge suction force, the power absorbed in the wing oscillations, and the energy loss rate produced by vortex shedding. Optimization is achieved by minimizing the average energy loss rate in relation to a given thrust, and a unique solution is found in the three dimensional case for low, reduced frequencies. The two-dimensional solution is nonunique, a condition which is examined in terms of the normal modes of the energy loss rate matrix. An invisible mode with a hydrodynamic efficiency of 100 pct is obtained in the two-dimensional case, causing the nonuniqueness of the solution by yielding no fixed positive thrust through perfect unsteady feathering.

  14. Biochar-amended filter socks reduce herbicide losses via tile line surface inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing water in depressions and behind terraces in fields with subsurface drainage systems can result in reduced crop yields. This concern can be partially alleviated by installing surface inlets that reduce the duration of ponding. Unfortunately, these inlets provide an open conduit for surface w...

  15. Domestic water buffaloes: Access to surface water, disease prevalence and associated economic losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Abid, Muhammad; Zhang, Huiming; Cui, Weijun; Ul Hasson, Shabeh

    2018-06-01

    Given the shortage and non-availability of freshwater in Pakistan, wastewater is being used for bathing water buffaloes; however, this has a negative impact on animal welfare. Although there is a vast literature on indirect linkages between wastewater and animal productivity, studies focusing on the direct impacts of water buffaloes bathing in wastewater on animal productivity and economic losses are rare. Therefore, using 360 domestic water buffalo farms, this study examines the expenditure and production losses associated with bathing (in wastewater and freshwater) and non-bathing water buffaloes by employing partial budgeting and resource adjustment component techniques. Furthermore, it investigates the prevalence of animal diseases and associated economic effects using correlation analysis and propensity score matching techniques, respectively. The findings reveal that compared to their counterparts (freshwater bathing and non-bathing water buffaloes), buffaloes bathing in wastewater are at increased risk of clinical mastitis, foot and mouth disease (FMD) and tick infestation. Moreover, the use of wastewater for bathing buffaloes also leads to higher economic and production losses by affecting milk productivity, causing premature culling, and reducing slaughter value. The findings of the double-log model show that economic losses are higher if buffaloes bathe in wastewater within 30 min after milking, as there are more chances that those buffaloes would be exposed to bacterial penetration in the teat ducts, which may result in intramammary infection. According to the propensity score matching method, the higher economic damages per month are associated with buffaloes bathing in wastewater and freshwater, 155 and 110 USD per farm, respectively. The study findings reference the need for policies to restrict wastewater access by water buffaloes, and a regular check of and access to cool clean water wallows for bathing during hot summer days, to reduce excess

  16. Analyzing surface EMG signals to determine relationship between jaw imbalance and arm strength loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Quang Dang Khoa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relationship between dental occlusion and arm strength; in particular, the imbalance in the jaw can cause loss in arm strength phenomenon. One of the goals of this study was to record the maximum forces that the subjects can resist against the pull-down force on their hands while biting a spacer of adjustable height on the right or left side of the jaw. Then EMG measurement was used to determine the EMG-Force relationship of the jaw, neck and arms muscles. This gave us useful insights on the arms strength loss due to the biomechanical effects of the imbalance in the jaw mechanism. Methods In this study to determine the effects of the imbalance in the jaw to the strength of the arms, we conducted experiments with a pool of 20 healthy subjects of both genders. The subjects were asked to resist a pull down force applied on the contralateral arm while biting on a firm spacer using one side of the jaw. Four different muscles – masseter muscles, deltoid muscles, bicep muscles and trapezoid muscles – were involved. Integrated EMG (iEMG and Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD were used to analyze the EMG signals. Results The results showed that (1 Imbalance in the jaw causes loss of arm strength contra-laterally; (2 The loss is approximately a linear function of the height of the spacers. Moreover, the iEMG showed the intensity of muscle activities decreased when the degrees of jaw imbalance increased (spacer thickness increased. In addition, the tendency of Higuchi fractal dimension decreased for all muscles. Conclusions This finding indicates that muscle fatigue and the decrease in muscle contraction level leads to the loss of arm strength.

  17. The TX-model - a quantitative heat loss analysis of district heating pipes by means of IR surface temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinki, Heimo [ZW Energiteknik, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analysing the temperature profile at the ground surface above buried district heating pipes in such a way that would enable the quantitative determination of heat loss from the pair of pipes. In practical applications, it is supposed that this temperature profile is generated by means of advanced IR-thermography. For this purpose, the principle of the TX - model has been developed, based on the fact that the heat losses from pipes buried in the ground have a temperature signature on the ground surface. Qualitative analysis of this temperature signature is very well known and in practical use for detecting leaks from pipes. These techniques primarily make use of relative changes of the temperature pattern along the pipe. In the quantitative heat loss analysis, however, it is presumed that the temperature profile across the pipes is related to the pipe heat loss per unit length. The basic idea is that the integral of the temperature profile perpendicular to the pipe, called TX, is a function of the heat loss, but is also affected by other parameters such as burial depth, heat diffusivity, wind, precipitation and so on. In order to analyse the parameters influencing the TX- factor, a simulation model for the energy balance at the ground surface has been developed. This model includes the heat flow from the pipe to the surface and the heat exchange at the surface with the environment due to convection, latent heat change, solar and long wave radiation. The simulation gives the surprising result that the TX factor is by and large unaffected during the course of a day even when the sun is shining, as long as other climate conditions are relatively stable (low wind, no rain, no shadows). The results from the simulations were verified at different sites in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and USA through a co-operative research program organised and partially financed by the IEA District Heating Programme, Task III, and

  18. The Role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on Recent Greenland Surface Mass Loss and Mass Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, M.; Alexander, P.; Porter, D. F.; Fettweis, X.; Luthcke, S. B.; Mote, T. L.; Rennermalm, A.; Hanna, E.

    2017-12-01

    Despite recent changes in Greenland surface mass losses and atmospheric circulation over the Arctic, little attention has been given to the potential role of large-scale atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal variability of mass loss and partitioning of the GrIS mass loss. Using a combination of satellite gravimetry measurements, outputs of the MAR regional climate model and reanalysis data, we show that changes in atmospheric patterns since 2013 over the North Atlantic region of the Arctic (NAA) modulate total mass loss trends over Greenland together with the spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss partitioning. For example, during the 2002 - 2012 period, melting persistently increased, especially along the west coast, as a consequence of increased insulation and negative NAO conditions characterizing that period. Starting in 2013, runoff along the west coast decreased while snowfall increased substantially, when NAO turned to a more neutral/positive state. Modeled surface mass balance terms since 1950 indicate that part of the GRACE-period, specifically the period between 2002 and 2012, was exceptional in terms of snowfall over the east and northeast regions. During that period snowfall trend decreased to almost 0 Gt/yr from a long-term increasing trend, which presumed again in 2013. To identify the potential impact of atmospheric patterns on mass balance and its partitioning, we studied the spatial and temporal correlations between NAO and snowfall/runoff. Our results indicate that the correlation between summer snowfall and NAO is not stable during the 1950 - 2015 period. We further looked at changes in patterns of circulation using self organizing maps (SOMs) to identify the atmospheric patterns characterizing snowfall during different periods. We discuss potential implications for past changes and future GCM and RCM simulations.

  19. Surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of neonicotinoids and companion herbicides at edge-of-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, François; Giroux, Isabelle; Thériault, Georges; Gagnon, Patrick; Corriveau, Julie

    2017-05-01

    With their application as seed coatings, the use of neonicotinoid insecticides increased dramatically during the last decade. They are now frequently detected in aquatic ecosystems at concentrations susceptible to harm aquatic invertebrates at individual and population levels. This study intent was to document surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of two common neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam and clothianidin) compared to those of companion herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate, S-metolachlor and mesotrione) at the edge of a 22.5-ha field under a corn-soybean rotation. A total of 14 surface runoff and tile drain discharge events were sampled over two years. Events and annual unit mass losses were computed using flow-weighted concentrations and total surface runoff and tile drain flow volumes. Detection frequencies close to 100% in edge-of-field surface runoff and tile drain water samples were observed for thiamethoxam and clothianidin even though only thiamethoxam had been applied in the first year. In 2014, thiamethoxam median concentrations in surface runoff and tile drain samples were respectively 0.46 and 0.16 μg/L, while respective maximum concentrations of 2.20 and 0.44 μg/L were measured in surface runoff and tile drain samples during the first post-seeding storm event. For clothianidin, median concentrations in surface runoff and tile drain samples were 0.02 and 0.01, μg/L, and respective maximum concentrations were 0.07 μg/L and 0.05 μg/L. Surface runoff and tile drain discharge were key transport mechanisms with similar contributions of 53 and 47% of measured mass losses, respectively. Even if thiamethoxam was applied at a relatively low rate and had a low mass exportation value (0.3%), the relative toxicity was one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of the other chemicals applied in 2014 and 2015. Companion herbicides, except glyphosate in tile drains, exceeded their water quality guideline during one sampling campaign after

  20. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...... resistivity optimization outperforms the surface impedance optimization in terms of the reproducibility....

  1. Tooth surface loss, prevalence and associated risk factors among 12-14 years school children in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhouri, N M; Ziada, H M; Ahmed, G I; Kamis, A H

    2010-12-01

    Investigate Tooth Surface Loss TSL, among 12-14 years school children in Khartoum State, Sudan; evaluate pattern, severity and determine relationship between TSL, dietary habits and socio-economical status. Cross sectional survey among primary public and private schools. Cluster sample of 1,138 12 to 14-year old students from both public and private school. Mild and moderate TSL was measured on buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular incisors and canines and occlusal, buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars. Surfaces scored according to criterion described by the National Survey of Child Dental Health. The prevalence of TSL was found to be 74%. Mild and moderate TSL was detected on palatal surfaces of maxillary central incisors followed by occlusal surfaces of mandibular molars. TSL into the pulp was not detected. A high prevalence of 74% was found with mild and moderate TSL with no pulpal involvement. There was an association between consumption of erosive foods and the prevalence of TSL. Socio-economic status and gender did not present significant differences.

  2. On a model for the prediction of the friction coefficient in mixed lubrication based on a load-sharing concapt with measured surface roughness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akchurin, Aydar; Bosman, Rob; Lugt, Pieter Martin; van Drogen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A new model was developed for the simulation of the friction coefficient in lubricated sliding line contacts. A half-space-based contact algorithm was linked with a numerical elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication solver using the load-sharing concept. The model was compared with an existing asperity-based

  3. Influence of Non-Perfect Step Input Concentration at the Feed Side of the Membrane Surface on the Diffusion Coefficient Evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, Jiřina; Fialová, Kateřina; Petričkovič, Roman; Kudrna, V.; Uchytil, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2006), s. 246-251 ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS401250509; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : diffusion coefficient * flux * dispersion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.073, year: 2006

  4. Loss of surface enamel after bracket debonding : An in-vivo and ex-vivo evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pont, Huib Berghauser; Özcan, Mutlu; Bagis, Bora; Ren, Yijin

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the surface enamel after bracket debonding and residual resin removal. METHODS: Thirty patients (female, 20; male, 10; mean age, 18.4 years) who completed orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances (Twin Brackets, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif)

  5. Studying substrate effects on localized surface plasmons in an individual silver nanoparticle using electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiyoshi, Yoshifumi; Nemoto, Takashi; Kurata, Hiroki, E-mail: kurata@eels.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2017-04-15

    In this study, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was used to investigate surface plasmons in a single silver nanoparticle (NP) on a magnesium oxide substrate, employing an incident electron trajectory parallel to the substrate surface. This parallel irradiation allowed a direct exploration of the substrate effects on localized surface plasmon (LSP) excitations as a function of the distance from the substrate. The presence of the substrate was found to lower the symmetry of the system, such that the resonance energies of LSPs were dependent on the polarization direction relative to the substrate surface. The resulting mode splitting could be detected by applying different electron trajectories, providing results similar to those previously obtained from optical studies using polarized light. However, the LSP maps obtained by STEM-EELS analysis show an asymmetric intensity distribution with the highest intensity at the top surface of the NP (that is, far from the substrate), a result that is not predicted by optical simulations. We show that modifications of the applied electric field by the substrate cause this asymmetric intensity distribution in the LSP maps.

  6. Sources of pesticide losses to surface waters and groundwater at field and landscape scales

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Anna M. L.

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide residues in groundwater and surface waters may harm aquatic ecosystems and result in a deterioration of drinking water quality. EU legislation and policy emphasize risk management and risk reduction for pesticides to ensure long-term, sustainable use of water across Europe. Different tools applicable at scales ranging from farm to national and EU scales are required to meet the needs of the various managers engaged with the task of protecting water resources. The use of computer-bas...

  7. Memory effect on energy losses of charged particles moving parallel to solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwei, C.M.; Tu, Y.H.; Hsu, Y.H.; Tung, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical derivations were made for the induced potential and the stopping power of a charged particle moving close and parallel to the surface of a solid. It was illustrated that the induced potential produced by the interaction of particle and solid depended not only on the velocity but also on the previous velocity of the particle before its last inelastic interaction. Another words, the particle kept a memory on its previous velocity, v , in determining the stopping power for the particle of velocity v. Based on the dielectric response theory, formulas were derived for the induced potential and the stopping power with memory effect. An extended Drude dielectric function with spatial dispersion was used in the application of these formulas for a proton moving parallel to Si surface. It was found that the induced potential with memory effect lay between induced potentials without memory effect for constant velocities v and v. The memory effect was manifest as the proton changes its velocity in the previous inelastic interaction. This memory effect also reduced the stopping power of the proton. The formulas derived in the present work can be applied to any solid surface and charged particle moving with arbitrary parallel trajectory either inside or outside the solid

  8. Numerical simulation and experimental study on farmland nitrogen loss to surface runoff in a raindrop driven process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayun; Tong, Juxiu; Xia, Chuanan; Hu, Bill X.; Zhu, Hao; Yang, Rui; Wei, Wenshuo

    2017-06-01

    It has been widely recognized that surface runoff from agricultural field is an important non-point pollution source, which however, the chemical transfer amount in the process is very difficult to be quantified in field since some variables and natural factors are hard to control, such as rainfall intensity, temperature, wind speeds and soil spatial heterogeneity, which may significantly affect the field experimental results. Therefore, a physically based nitrogen transport model was developed and tested with the so called semi-field experiments (i.e., artificial rainfall was used instead of natural rainfall, but other conditions were natural) in this paper. Our model integrated the raindrop driven process and diffusion effect with the simplified nitrogen chain reactions. In this model, chemicals in the soil surface layer, or the 'exchange layer', were transformed into the surface runoff layer due to raindrop impact. The raindrops also have a significant role on the diffusion process between the exchange layer and the underlying soil. The established mathematical model was solved numerically through the modified Hydrus-1d source code, and the model simulations agreed well with the experimental data. The modeling results indicate that the depth of the exchange layer and raindrop induced water transfer rate are two important parameters for the simulation results. Variation of the water transfer rate, er, can strongly influence the peak values of the NO-3-N and NH+4-N concentration breakthrough curves. The concentration of NO-3-N is more sensitive to the exchange layer depth, de, than NH+4-N. In general, the developed model well describes the nitrogen loss into surface runoff in a raindrop driven process. Since the raindrop splash erosion process may aggravate the loss of chemical fertilizer, choosing an appropriate fertilization time and application method is very important to prevent the pollution.

  9. Comparison of Surface Runoff Generation, and Soil and Nutrient Loss in Kakhk Treated and Representative Watersheds, Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Davoodi Moghadam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is vital to control land degradation, for conserving precious natural treasures. Quantification of runoff production and soil and nutrient loss from wild lands under different managerial systems is one of the scientific and optimal management in agriculture and natural resources, as a major component of sustainable development. Many researches have been conducted to assess the effects of different land uses on soil erosion and runoff generation throughout the globe. Most of which, mainly verified the detrimental effects of human intervention on land degradation. However, limited comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted to consider the amount of surface runoff generation, and soil and nutrient loss from watersheds with different management patterns viz. untreated and treated small watersheds. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to compare surface runoff generation,soil and nutrient loss in Kakhk treated and untreated watersheds with an area ca. 222 ha and precipitation of some 243 mm per annum. Other physical and geological characteristics of the paired watersheds were also similar to allow assessing the effects of study measures on soil, water and nutrient losses. The area under consideration has been located in Khorasan Razavi Province in northeastern Iran. The present study was performed in plots with standard size of 22.1 × 1.8 m in treating and representative areas, with three replicates and on the storm basis occurred during early 2011 and mid-2014. The treated plots were covered by biological measures viz. seeding, bunching and exclusre. The study plots have been situated on eastern,western and northern aspects with respective slope of 55, 40 and 40 %. The entire runoff from study plots were collected in a container in 0.5×1×1 m. The sediment concentration was also measured in 2-liter samples taken from the container after a complete mixing of the entire collected runoff. The sample was

  10. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars

    OpenAIRE

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O.; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 108 to 26.8 × 108 M−1cm−1. Measured values correl...

  11. Pronounced chemical response of Subarctic lakes to climate-driven losses in surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler L.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Koch, Joshua C.; Bertram, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Losses in lake area have been observed for several Arctic and Subarctic regions in recent decades, with unknown consequences for lake ecosystems. These reductions are primarily attributed to two climate-sensitive mechanisms, both of which may also cause changes in water chemistry: (i) increased imbalance of evaporation relative to inflow, whereby increased evaporation and decreased inflow act to concentrate solutes into smaller volumes; and (ii) accelerated permafrost degradation, which enhances sublacustrine drainage while simultaneously leaching previously frozen solutes into lakes. We documented changes in nutrients [total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP)] and ions (calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium) over a 25 year interval in shrinking, stable, and expanding Subarctic lakes of the Yukon Flats, Alaska. Concentrations of all six solutes increased in shrinking lakes from 1985–1989 to 2010–2012, while simultaneously undergoing little change in stable or expanding lakes. This created a present-day pattern, much weaker or absent in the 1980s, in which shrinking lakes had higher solute concentrations than their stable or expanding counterparts. An imbalanced evaporation-to-inflow ratio (E/I) was the most likely mechanism behind such changes; all four ions, which behave semiconservatively and are prone to evapoconcentration, increased in shrinking lakes and, along with TN and TP, were positively related to isotopically derived E/I estimates. Moreover, the most conservative ion, chloride, increased >500% in shrinking lakes. Conversely, only TP concentration was related to probability of permafrost presence, being highest at intermediate probabilities. Overall, the substantial increases of nutrients (TN >200%, TP >100%) and ions (>100%) may shift shrinking lakes towards overly eutrophic or saline states, with potentially severe consequences for ecosystems of northern lakes.

  12. Pronounced chemical response of Subarctic lakes to climate-driven losses in surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler L; Lindberg, Mark S; Schmutz, Joel A; Heglund, Patricia J; Rover, Jennifer; Koch, Joshua C; Bertram, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    Losses in lake area have been observed for several Arctic and Subarctic regions in recent decades, with unknown consequences for lake ecosystems. These reductions are primarily attributed to two climate-sensitive mechanisms, both of which may also cause changes in water chemistry: (i) increased imbalance of evaporation relative to inflow, whereby increased evaporation and decreased inflow act to concentrate solutes into smaller volumes; and (ii) accelerated permafrost degradation, which enhances sublacustrine drainage while simultaneously leaching previously frozen solutes into lakes. We documented changes in nutrients [total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP)] and ions (calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium) over a 25 year interval in shrinking, stable, and expanding Subarctic lakes of the Yukon Flats, Alaska. Concentrations of all six solutes increased in shrinking lakes from 1985-1989 to 2010-2012, while simultaneously undergoing little change in stable or expanding lakes. This created a present-day pattern, much weaker or absent in the 1980s, in which shrinking lakes had higher solute concentrations than their stable or expanding counterparts. An imbalanced evaporation-to-inflow ratio (E/I) was the most likely mechanism behind such changes; all four ions, which behave semiconservatively and are prone to evapoconcentration, increased in shrinking lakes and, along with TN and TP, were positively related to isotopically derived E/I estimates. Moreover, the most conservative ion, chloride, increased >500% in shrinking lakes. Conversely, only TP concentration was related to probability of permafrost presence, being highest at intermediate probabilities. Overall, the substantial increases of nutrients (TN >200%, TP >100%) and ions (>100%) may shift shrinking lakes towards overly eutrophic or saline states, with potentially severe consequences for ecosystems of northern lakes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Loss of surface horizon of an irrigated soil detected by radiometric images of normalized difference vegetation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The use of the soil in the Humid Pampa of Argentina has changed since the mid-1990s from agricultural-livestock production (that included pastures with direct grazing) to a purely agricultural production. Also, in recent years the area under irrigation by central pivot has been increased to 150%. The waters used for irrigation are sodium carbonates. The combination of irrigation and rain increases the sodium absorption ratio of soil (SARs), consequently raising the clay dispersion and reducing infiltration. This implies an increased risk of soil loss. A reduction in the development of white clover crop (Trifolium repens L.) was observed at an irrigation plot during 2015 campaign. The clover was planted in order to reduce the impact of two maize (Zea mays L.) campaigns under irrigation, which had increased soil SAR and deteriorated soil structure. SPOT-5 radiometric normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images were used to determine two zones of high and low production. In each zone, four random points were selected for further geo-referenced field sampling. Two geo-referenced measures of effective depth and surface soil sampling were carried out in each point. Texture of soil samples was determined by Pipette Method of Sedimentation Analysis. Data exploratory analysis showed that low production zone had a media effective depth = 80 cm and silty clay loam texture, while high production zone had a media effective depth > 140 cm and silt loam texture. The texture class of the low production zone did not correspond to prior soil studies carried out by the INTA (National Institute of Agricultural Technology), which showed that those soil textures were silt loam at surface and silty clay loam at sub-surface. The loss of the A horizon is proposed as a possible explanation, but further research is required. Besides, the need of a soil cartography actualization, which integrates new satellite imaging technologies and geo-referenced measurements with soil sensors is

  14. High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Studies of Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide Adsorption on Germanium Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Anthony G.

    The first high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) studies of the oxidation and nitridation of germanium surfaces are reported. Both single crystal Ge(111) and disordered surfaces were studied. Surfaces were exposed to H, O_2, NO, N _2O, and N, after cleaning in ultra-high vacuum. The Ge surfaces were found to be non-reactive to molecular hydrogen (H_2) at room temperature. Exposure to atomic hydrogen (H) resulted hydrogen adsorption as demonstrated by the presence of Ge-H vibrational modes. The HREEL spectrum of the native oxide of Ge characteristic of nu -GeO_2 was obtained by heating the oxide to 200^circC. Three peaks were observed at 33, 62, and 106 meV for molecular oxygen (O_2) adsorbed on clean Ge(111) at room temperature. These peaks are indicative of dissociative bonding and a dominant Ge-O-Ge bridge structure. Subsequent hydrogen exposure resulted in a shift of the Ge-H stretch from its isolated value of 247 meV to 267 meV, indicative of a dominant +3 oxidation state. A high density of dangling bonds and defects and deeper oxygen penetration at the amorphous Ge surface result in a dilute bridge structure with a predominant +1 oxidation state for similar exposures. Molecules of N_2O decompose at the surfaces to desorbed N_2 molecules and chemisorbed oxygen atoms. In contrast, both oxygen and nitrogen are detected at the surfaces following exposure to NO molecules. Both NO and N_2O appear to dissociate and bond at the top surface layer. Molecular nitrogen (N_2) does not react with the Ge surfaces, however, a precursor Ge nitride is observed at room temperature following exposure to nitrogen atoms and ions. Removal of oxygen by heating of the NO-exposed surface to 550^circC enabled the identification of the Ge-N vibrational modes. These modes show a structure similar to that of germanium nitride. This spectrum is also identical to that of the N-exposed surface heated to 550^circC. Surface phonon modes of the narrow-gap semiconducting

  15. Neutrophil mobilization by surface-glycan altered Th17-skewing bacteria mitigates periodontal pathogen persistence and associated alveolar bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P Settem

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone (tooth-supporting bone erosion is a hallmark of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease that often leads to tooth loss. Periodontitis is caused by a select group of pathogens that form biofilms in subgingival crevices between the gums and teeth. It is well-recognized that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in these biofilms is responsible for modeling a microbial dysbiotic state, which then initiates an inflammatory response destructive to the periodontal tissues and bone. Eradication of this pathogen is thus critical for the treatment of periodontitis. Previous studies have shown that oral inoculation in mice with an attenuated strain of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia altered in O-glycan surface composition induces a Th17-linked mobilization of neutrophils to the gingival tissues. In this study, we sought to determine if immune priming with such a Th17-biasing strain would elicit a productive neutrophil response against P. gingivalis. Our data show that inoculation with a Th17-biasing T. forsythia strain is effective in blocking P. gingivalis-persistence and associated alveolar bone loss in mice. This work demonstrates the potential of O-glycan modified Tannerella strains or their O-glycan components for harnessing Th17-mediated immunity against periodontal and other mucosal pathogens.

  16. Loss Prediction and Thermal Analysis of Surface-Mounted Brushless AC PM Machines for Electric Vehicle Application Considering Driving Duty Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computationally efficient loss prediction procedure and thermal analysis of surface-mounted brushless AC permanent magnet (PM machine considering the UDDS driving duty cycle by using a lumped parameters’ thermal model. The accurate prediction of loss and its variation with load are essential for thermal analysis. Employing finite element analysis (FEA to determine loss at every load point would be computationally intensive. Here, the finite element analysis and/or experiment based computationally efficient winding copper and iron loss and permanent magnet (PM power loss models are employed to calculate the electromagnetic loss at every operation point, respectively. Then, the lumped parameter thermal method is used to analyse the thermal behaviour of the driving PM machine. Experiments have been carried out to measure the temperature distribution in a motor prototype. The calculation and experiment results are compared and discussed.

  17. Measurements of average heat-transfer and friction coefficients for subsonic flow of air in smooth tubes at high surface and fluid temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Leroy V; Lowdermilk, Warren H; Desmon, Leland G

    1951-01-01

    An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through smooth tubes for an over-all range of surface temperature from 535 degrees to 3050 degrees r, inlet-air temperature from 535 degrees to 1500 degrees r, Reynolds number up to 500,000, exit Mach number up to 1, heat flux up to 150,000 btu per hour per square foot, length-diameter ratio from 30 to 120, and three entrance configurations. Most of the data are for heat addition to the air; a few results are included for cooling of the air. The over-all range of surface-to-air temperature ratio was from 0.46 to 3.5.

  18. Measuring surface-water loss in Honouliuli Stream near the ‘Ewa Shaft, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sarah N.

    2017-05-30

    The Honolulu Board of Water Supply is currently concerned with the possibility of bacteria in the pumped water of the ‘Ewa Shaft (State well 3-2202-21). Groundwater from the ‘Ewa Shaft could potentially be used to meet future potable water needs in the ‘Ewa area on the island of O‘ahu. The source of the bacteria in the pumped water is unknown, although previous studies indicate that surface water may be lost to the subsurface near the site. The ‘Ewa Shaft consists of a vertical shaft, started near the south bank of Honouliuli Stream at an altitude of about 161 feet, and two horizontal infiltration tunnels near sea level. The shaft extracts groundwater from near the top of the freshwater lens in the Waipahu-Waiawa aquifer system within the greater Pearl Harbor Aquifer Sector, a designated Water Management Area.The surface-water losses were evaluated with continuous groundwater-level data from the ‘Ewa Shaft and a nearby monitoring well, continuous stream-discharge data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 16212490 (Honouliuli Stream at H-1 Freeway near Waipahu), and seepage-run measurements in Honouliuli Stream and its tributary. During storms, discharge at the Honouliuli Stream gaging station increases and groundwater levels at ‘Ewa Shaft and a nearby monitoring well also increase. The concurrent increase in water levels at ‘Ewa Shaft and the nearby monitoring well during storms indicates that regional groundwater-level changes related to increased recharge, reduced withdrawals (due to a decrease in demand during periods of rainfall), or both may be occurring; although these data do not preclude the possibility of local recharge from Honouliuli Stream. Discharge measurements from two seepage runs indicate that surface water in the immediate area adjacent to ‘Ewa Shaft infiltrates into the streambed and may later reach the groundwater system developed by the ‘Ewa Shaft. The estimated seepage loss rates in the vicinity of

  19. Perdas endógenas e coeficientes de absorção aparente e real do magnésio em caprinos Endogenous losses and coefficients of apparent and true absorption of magnesium in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Regina Alcalde

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a absorção aparente, estimar as perdas endógenas fecais e a absorção real do Mg e determinar a ingestão ad libitum da água de beber e a concentração de Mg no soro sangüíneo de caprinos da raças Anglonubiana (AN e Saanen (SN. Foram usados doze caprinos, seis de cada raça, com 19,8 kg PV médio. Dietas semipurificadas (baixo teor de Mg à base de quirera de arroz, glúten de milho e celulose foram suplementadas com MgO, para se obterem os níveis de 0,05 (sem supplementação 0,20 e 0,35% Mg (%MS. Os níveis de Mg influenciaram os coeficientes de absorção aparente de Mg e Ca, com valores médios de 57,8; 73,9; e 73,2% para Mg e 55,7; 39,6; e 49,5% para Ca, para dietas com níveis 0,05; 0,20; e 0,35% de Mg, respectivamente. Entretanto, para os coeficientes de absorção aparente de P, Na e K, não houve efeito de níveis de Mg na dieta. Os resultados de absorção real de Mg apresentaram interação de níveis de Mg e raças. A média para raça NA, no nível 0,05% Mg, foi de 61,0% e para os níveis 0,20 e 0,35% Mg, 77,2 e 73,2%, respectivamente. Entretanto, para a raça SN, as médias foram 73,3; 75,5; e 76,0%, para os mesmos níveis, sem diferenças. A digestibilidade de matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato não-nitrogenado diminuiu com os níveis crescentes de Mg nas dietas. As excreções fecais (7,0; 20,8; e 34,4 mg/kg PV0,75.d e urinárias (3,9; 30,8; e 44,6 mg/kg PV0,75.d de Mg elevaram-se com o aumento dos níveis crescentes de Mg nas dietas. Houve, também, influência dos níveis de Mg dietético sobre as concentrações de Mg do soro sangüíneo (1,74; 2,23; e 2,80 mg/dL para níveis de 0,05; 0,20; e 0,35% de Mg, respectivamente.The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent absorption, to estimate the endogenous fecal losses and the true absorption of Mg and to determine the ad libitum drinking water ingestion and the Mg serum concentration for Anglonubian

  20. Mitigation of soiling losses in solar collectors: Removal of surface-adhered dust particles using an electrodynamic screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyah, Arash

    Particulate contamination of the optical surfaces of solar collectors, often called "soiling", can have a significant deteriorating impact on energy yield due to the absorption and scattering of incident light. Soiling has more destructive effect on concentrated solar systems than on flat-plate photovoltaic panels, as the former are incapable of converting scattered sunlight. The first part of this thesis deals with the soiling losses of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), and concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems in operation in several regions of the world. Influential parameters in dust accumulation losses, as well as different cleaning mechanisms in pursuit of restoring the efficiency of soiled systems, have been thoroughly investigated. In lieu of the most commonly-practiced manual cleaning method of using high-pressure water jets, the concept of automatic dust removal using the electrostatic forces of electrodynamic screen (EDS) technology is in a developmental stage and on its way toward commercialization. This thesis provides comprehensive analytical solutions for the electric potential and electric field distribution in EDS devices having different configurations. Numerical simulations developed using finite element analysis (FEA) software have corroborated the analytical solutions which can easily be embedded into software programs for particle trajectory simulations while also providing flexibility and generality in the study on the effect of different parameters of the EDS on the electric field and ensuing dust-removal performance. Evaluation and comparison of different repelling and attracting forces exerted on dust particles is of utmost importance to a detailed analysis of EDS performance in dust removal. Hence, the balance of electrostatic and adhesion forces, including van der Waals and capillary forces, have received significant attention in this dissertation. Furthermore, different numerical analyses have been

  1. Calculation of illuminance distribution and its coefficient of variation in infinitely long interior with luminous surface ceiling by Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo simulation ni yoru tenjomen kogen wo motsu mugencho shitsunal no shodo bunpu to hendo keisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, M. (The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan))

    1991-01-15

    Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) was applied to the estimation of illuminance distribution in infinitely long interiors which had visual obstructions and luminous surface ceilings, and its coefficient of variation (percentage of standard deviation to average value) was studied. The illuminance distributions obtained by MCS were compared with those calculated by theoretical equations hased on teh contour integration method, and the conservation law of photon bundles was also investigated. As a result, it was concluded that MCS results of direct illuminance distributions agree with those obtained by contour integration method in infinitely long concave interiors which have luminous surface ceilings of various shapes and four visual obstructions. The coefficient of variation varies noteworthily when visual obstructions are located in asymmetrical positions. The uniformity in illuminance distributions is improved by transparent visual obstructions. The conservation law of photon bundles holds well in the concave interiors with transparent visual obstructions. Therefore, it seems that MCS technique for illuminance calculation is a very powerful tool in infinite long concave interior spaces. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  3. Temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients for the reaction of C2H4 + HO2 on the C2H4O2H potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, JunJiang; Xu, JiaQi; Li, ZeRong; Tan, NingXin; Li, XiangYuan

    2015-04-02

    The potential energy surface (PES) for reaction C2H4 + HO2 was examined by using the quantum chemical methods. All rates were determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 composite method combined with conventional transition state theory(TST), variational transition-state theory (VTST) and Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus/master-equation (RRKM/ME) theory. The geometries optimization and the vibrational frequency analysis of reactants, transition states, and products were performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level. The composite CBS-QB3 method was applied for energy calculations. The major product channel of reaction C2H4 + HO2 is the formation C2H4O2H via an OH(···)π complex with 3.7 kcal/mol binding energy which exhibits negative-temperature dependence. We further investigated the reactions related to this complex, which were ignored in previous studies. Thermochemical properties of the species involved in the reactions were determined using the CBS-QB3 method, and enthalpies of formation of species were compared with literature values. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with those available from literature and given in modified Arrhenius equation form, which are serviceable in combustion modeling of hydrocarbons. Finally, in order to illustrate the effect for low-temperature ignition of our new rate constants, we have implemented them into the existing mechanisms, which can predict ethylene ignition in a shock tube with better performance.

  4. Effects of wastewater discharge on formation of Fe plaque on root surface and radial oxygen loss of mangrove roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, N. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Tam, N.F.Y., E-mail: bhntam@cityu.edu.h [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong, M.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Baptist University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-02-15

    Effects of wastewater discharge on radial oxygen loss (ROL), formation of iron (Fe) plaque on root surface, and their correlations in Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Poir and Excoecaria agallocha L. were investigated. ROL along a lateral root increased more rapidly in control than that in strong wastewater (with pollutant concentrations ten times of that in municipal sewage, 10NW) treatment, but less Fe plaque was formed in control for both plants. For B. gymnorrhiza receiving 10NW, Fe plaque formation was more at basal and mature zones than at root tip, while opposite trend was shown in E. agallocha. At day 0, the correlation between ROL and Fe plaque was insignificant, but negative and positive correlations were found in 10NW and control, respectively, at day 105, suggesting that more ROL was induced leading to more Fe plaque. However, excess Fe plaque also served as a 'barrier' to prevent excessive ROL in 10NW plants. - Correlation between Fe plaque formation and ROL.

  5. Broiler Litter × Industrial By-Products Reduce Nutrients and Microbial Losses in Surface Runoff When Applied to Forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Ardeshir; Read, John J; Brooks, John P; Miles, Dana; Feng, Gary; Jenkins, Johnie N

    2017-03-01

    The inability to incorporate broiler litter (BL) into permanent hayfields and pastures leads to nutrient accumulation near the soil surface and increases the potential transport of nutrients in runoff. This study was conducted on Marietta silt loam soil to determine the effect of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum and lignite on P, N, C, and microbial concentrations in runoff. Treatments were (i) control (unfertilized) and (ii) BL at 13.4 Mg ha alone or (iii) treated with either FGD gypsum or lignite applied at 20% (w/w) (2.68 Mg ha). Rainfall simulators were used to produce a 5.6 cm h storm event sufficient in duration to cause 15 min of continuous runoff. Repeated rains were applied at 3-d intervals to determine how long FGD gypsum and lignite are effective in reducing loss of litter-derived N, P, and C from soil. Application of BL increased N, P, and C concentrations in runoff as compared to the control. Addition of FGD gypsum reduced ( 20%. Thus, BL treated with FGD and lignite can be considered as cost-effective management practices in the mitigation of P, N, and C and possibly microbial concentration in runoff. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  7. Nutrient, metal and microbial loss in surface runoff following treated sludge and dairy cattle slurry application to an Irish grassland soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, D.P. [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland); Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Healy, M.G. [Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Fleming, G.T.A. [Microbiology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Grant, J. [Teagasc, Ashtown, Co. Dublin (Ireland); Wall, D. [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland); Morrison, L. [Earth and Ocean Sciences and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Cormican, M. [School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway, Co. Galway (Ireland); Fenton, O., E-mail: owen.fenton@teagasc.ie [Teagasc, Environment Research Centre, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford (Ireland)

    2016-01-15

    Treated municipal sewage sludge (“biosolids”) and dairy cattle slurry (DCS) may be applied to agricultural land as an organic fertiliser. This study investigates losses of nutrients in runoff water (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)), metals (copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)), and microbial indicators of pollution (total and faecal coliforms) arising from the land application of four types of treated biosolids and DCS to field micro-plots at three time intervals (24, 48, 360 h) after application. Losses from biosolids-amended plots or DCS-amended plots followed a general trend of highest losses occurring during the first rainfall event and reduced losses in the subsequent events. However, with the exception of total and faecal coliforms and some metals (Ni, Cu), the greatest losses were from the DCS-amended plots. For example, average losses over the three rainfall events for dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen from DCS-amended plots were 5 and 11.2 mg L{sup −1}, respectively, which were in excess of the losses from the biosolids plots. When compared with slurry treatments, for the parameters monitored biosolids generally do not pose a greater risk in terms of losses along the runoff pathway. This finding has important policy implications, as it shows that concern related to the reuse of biosolids as a soil fertiliser, mainly related to contaminant losses upon land application, may be unfounded. - Highlights: • This study investigated surface runoff of contaminants from biosolids in field plots. • Contaminants investigated were nutrients, metals, microbes and trace elements. • Compared to slurry, biosolids do not pose a greater risk of contaminant losses. • Fears concerning contaminant losses from land applied biosolids may be unfounded.

  8. Management of tooth surface loss of varying etiology with full mouth all ceramic computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Famila Bettie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical form of a tooth can undergo changes leading to loss of tooth form. The loss of tooth surface can be due to varying etiology. Dental caries, attrition, abrasion, erosion, involving any surface of the tooth can lead to loss of tooth structure. The rate of tooth destruction may proceed to such an extent that the esthetics, function and comfort may be lost. The role of a practioner lies in identification and screening of such case and motivate for oral rehabilitation that includes habit cessation. Computerized dentistry has raised the bar as far as esthetic restorations are concerned. Demanding esthetics has made zirconia crowns as the material of choice in full mouth rehabilitations. However, appropriate treatment planning with scientific evidence and a recommended treatment protocol with careful implementation results in successful restorations and satisfied patients.

  9. Radial Oxygen Loss in the Rhizosphere of Wild Rice as a Control On Root Surface Mineral Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K.; Trejo, B.; LaFond-Hudson, S.

    2017-12-01

    Wild rice (Zizania palustris) is an aquatic plant native to the Great Lakes region that is culturally and nutritionally significant for the Ojibwe people of Northern Minnesota. Concern for the future health of wild rice populations has increased amidst ongoing pressures from proposed mining projects that risk sulfate contamination to natural waters. Although sulfate itself is not toxic to wild rice, bacteria living in anoxic sediments use the sulfate as an electron acceptor, converting it to sulfide, which subsequently precipitates in the form of iron-sulfide on the root surface of wild rice. These precipitates are linked to lowered viability of wild rice. Most wetland plants are able to shield against the harmful accumulation of these precipitates through a process known as radial oxygen loss (ROL), in which oxygen leaches from roots into anoxic sediments to form protective iron-oxide plaques. This mechanism, however, had yet to be experimentally confirmed in wild rice. In this study, we eliminated the potential for ROL to occur in wild rice prior to the reproductive phase, and measured the rates of iron-sulfide accumulation on the roots and in associated sediments. We compared these data with the geochemical composition of roots and sediment from wild rice that accumulated iron-sulfide precipitate during the reproductive phase. In doing so, we demonstrate that ROL is indeed a mechanism by which wild rice protects itself against sulfide exposure, and examine the nuances of ROL as it relates to the life cycle of wild rice. The better we understand the vulnerability of wild rice across its life cycle and comparative rates of both toxic and protective precipitate accumulation, the better we can approach wild rice conservation.

  10. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  11. Effect of system variables involved in packed column SFC of nevirapine as model analyte using response surface methodology: application to retention thermodynamics, solute transfer kinetic study and binary diffusion coefficient determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Neerej; Agrawal, Himani; Paradkar, A R; Mahadik, K R

    2005-08-31

    A multifactor optimization technique is successfully applied to study the effect of simultaneously varying the system variables on feasibility of nevirapine analysis by packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (PC-SFC). The optimal conditions were determined with the aid of the response surface methodology using 3(3) factorial designs. The method is based on methanol-modified carbon dioxide as the mobile phase at flow rate of 3.0 ml/min with elution through a JASCO Finepak SIL-5, [C18 (5-micron, 25 cm x 4.6 mm, i.d.)] column using photodiode array detection. The method has been successfully used to analyze commercial solid dosage form to assess the chromatographic performance of SFC system. The present work briefs the thermodynamic applications of PC-SFC with an emphasis on the results of nevirapine. The foremost of such applications is the determination of solute diffusion coefficient in supercritical mobile phase by Taylor-Aris peak broadening technique.

  12. The application of rational approximation in the calculation of a temperature field with a non-linear surface heat-transfer coefficient during quenching for 42CrMo steel cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Heming; Huang, Xieqing; Fan, Jiang; Wang, Honggang

    1999-10-01

    The calculation of a temperature field has a great influence upon the analysis of thermal stresses and stains during quenching. In this paper, a 42CrMo steel cylinder was used an example for investigation. From the TTT diagram of the 42CrMo steel, the CCT diagram was simulated by mathematical transformation, and the volume fraction of phase constituents was calculated. The thermal physical properties were treated as functions of temperature and the volume fraction of phase constituents. The rational approximation was applied to the finite element method. The temperature field with phase transformation and non-linear surface heat-transfer coefficients was calculated using this technique, which can effectively avoid oscillationin the numerical solution for a small time step. The experimental results of the temperature field calculation coincide with the numerical solutions.

  13. Quantifying the Impact of Seasonal and Short-term Manure Application Decisions on Phosphorus Loss in Surface Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Peter A; Good, Laura W; Jokela, William E; Karthikeyan, K G; Arriaga, Francisco J; Stock, Melanie

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) management is a research and policy issue due to P loss from fields and water quality degradation. Better information is needed on the risk of P loss from dairy manure applied in winter or when runoff is imminent. We used the SurPhos computer model and 108 site-years of weather and runoff data to assess the impact of these two practices on dissolved P loss. Model results showed that winter manure application can increase P loss by 2.5 to 3.6 times compared with non-winter applications, with the amount increasing as the average runoff from a field increases. Increased P loss is true for manure applied any time from late November through early March, with a maximum P loss from application in late January and early February. Shifting manure application to fields with less runoff can reduce P loss by 3.4 to 7.5 times. Delaying manure application when runoff is imminent can reduce P loss any time of the year, and sometimes quite significantly, but the number of times that application delays will reduce P loss is limited to only 3 to 9% of possible spreading days, and average P loss may be reduced by only 15% for winter-applied manure and 6% for non-winter-applied manure. Overall, long-term strategies of shifting manure applications to low runoff seasons and fields can potentially reduce dissolved P loss in runoff much more compared with near-term, tactical application decisions of avoiding manure application when runoff is imminent. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. A novel compensation method of insertion losses for wavelet inverse-transform processors using surface acoustic wave devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenke; Zhu, Changchun

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the possibility of compensating for the insertion losses of the wavelet inverse-transform processors using SAW devices. The motivation for this work was prompted by the processors which are of large insertion losses. In this paper, the insertion losses are the key problem of the wavelet inverse-transform processors using SAW devices. A novel compensation method of the insertion losses is achieved in this study. When the output ends of the wavelet inverse-transform processors are respectively connected to the amplifiers, their insertion losses can be compensated for. The bandwidths of the amplifiers and their adjustment method are also given in this paper. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  15. Finite element model for beef chilling using CFD-generated heat transfer coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Q.T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Trujillo, F.J. [Food Science Australia, 11 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); McPhail, N. [Food Science Australia, P.O. Box 3312, Tingalpa DC, Brisbane, QLD 4173 (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    A combined model of the beef chilling process is presented, in which computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to estimate the local heat and mass transfer coefficients, assuming uniform surface temperatures, and a set of 2-D finite element grids was used to solve the heat transfer equation in the product, which has an elongated shape. Another set of 1-D grids was used to solve the water transport equation near the surface of the meat. The surface transfer coefficients were calculated for various combinations of air orientations and speeds, and summarised in a set of regression equations. The model was verified by existing and new data on heat load, temperatures, weight loss and surface water activity. (author)

  16. ASOS Surface Extinction Coefficient by STI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — ASOS_STI represents a 250-station subset of the national ASOS SURF_MET dataset. The unique feature of this data is that the visibility sensor values are available in...

  17. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...

  18. Comparison of luminescence, energy resolution and light loss coefficient of Gd{sub 1.53}La{sub 0.47}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce and Lu{sub 1.9}Y{sub 0.1}SiO{sub 5}:Ce scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yawai, Nattasuda; Wantong, Kriangkrai [Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Chewpraditkul, Weerapong, E-mail: weerapong.che@kmutt.ac.th [Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Murakami, Rikito; Horiai, Takahiko [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kurosawa, Shunsuke [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Nikl, Martin [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnicka 10, 16253 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-01

    The luminescence and scintillation properties of Gd{sub 1.53}La{sub 0.47}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce (GPSLa23.5%:Ce) scintillators were investigated and compared to those of Lu{sub 1.9}Y{sub 0.1}SiO{sub 5}:Ce (LYSO:Ce) scintillators. At 662 keV γ-rays, the light yield of 33,500±3300 ph/MeV obtained for GPSLa23.5%:Ce is higher than that of 28,100±2800 ph/MeV obtained for LYSO:Ce. The energy resolution of 4.8±0.2% obtained for GPSLa23.5%:Ce is much better than that of 8.2±0.3% obtained for LYSO:Ce due to its better intrinsic resolution and proportionality of light yield. The light yield and energy resolution for α- rays, as well as a light yield ratio under excitation with α - and γ - rays (α/γ ratio) were also determined. The intrinsic light yield and light loss coefficient under excitation with 662 keV γ-rays were evaluated. The total attenuation coefficient at 60 keV and 662 keV γ - rays was also determined and compared with the theoretical one calculated using the WinXCom program. - Highlights: • Scintillation properties of GPSLa23.5%:Ce have been compared to LYSO:Ce. • Light yield and energy resolution of GPSLa23.5%:Ce is superior to LYSO:Ce. • Light loss coefficient of GPSLa23.5%:Ce is larger than that of LYSO:Ce. • The α/γ ratio of GPSLa23.5%:Ce is larger than that of LYSO:Ce. • Attenuation coefficient at 60 and 662 keV γ-rays has been determined.

  19. Reflection and absorption coefficients for use in room acoustic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Two ideas to improve the boundary conditions for room acoustic simulations are presented. First, all rooms have finite boundary surfaces, thereby a reflection coefficient for finite surfaces should be physically more suitable than that for infinitely large surfaces. Second, absorption coefficients...

  20. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-07-30

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 10 8 to 26.8 × 10 8 M -1 cm -1 . Measured values correlate with those obtained from theoretical models of the NStars using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which we use to simulate the extinction spectra of the nanostars. Finally, because NStars are typically used in biological applications, we conjugate DNA and antibodies to the NStars and calculate the footprint of the bound biomolecules.

  1. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  2. 3D spectrum imaging of multi-wall carbon nanotube coupled π-surface modes utilising electron energy-loss spectra acquired using a STEM/Enfina system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seepujak, A.; Bangert, U.; Gutierrez-Sosa, A.; Harvey, A.J.; Blank, V.D.; Kulnitskiy, B.A.; Batov, D.V.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have utilised electron energy-loss (EEL) spectra acquired in the plasmon (2-10 eV) regime in order to probe delocalised π-electronic states of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Interpretation of electron energy loss (EEL) spectra of MWCNTs in the 2-10 eV regime. Carbon (accepted for publication); Blank et al. J. Appl. Phys. 91 (2002) 1657). In the present contribution, EEL spectra were acquired from a 2D raster defined on a bottle-shaped MWCNT, using a Gatan UHV Enfina system attached to a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The technique utilised to isolate and sequentially filter each of the volume and surface resonances is described in detail. Utilising a scale for the intensity of a filtered mode enables one to 'see' the distribution of each resonance in the raster. This enables striking 3D resonance-filtered spectrum images (SIs) of π-collective modes to be observed. Red-shift of the lower energy split π-surface resonance provides explicit evidence of π-surface mode coupling predicted for thin graphitic films (Lucas et al. Phys. Rev. B 49 (1994) 2888). Resonance-filtered SIs are also compared to non-filtered SIs with suppressed surface contributions, acquired utilising a displaced collector aperture. The present filtering technique is seen to isolate surface contributions more effectively, and without the significant loss of statistics, associated with the displaced collector aperture mode. Isolation of collective modes utilising 3D resonance-filtered spectrum imaging, demonstrates a valuable method for 'pinpointing' the location of discrete modes in irregularly shaped nanostructures

  3. Broiler litter x industrial by-products reduce nutrients and microbial losses in surface runoff when applied to forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainfall simulations were used to determine the effect of broiler litter (BL) treated with N and P immobilizing agents on nutrient losses from a bermudagrass (Cynodon doctylon) hayfield on Marietta silt loam (Fine-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Fluvaquentic Eutrudepts). The experimental design w...

  4. Soil fertility in deserts: a review on the influence of biological soil crusts and the effect of soil surface disturbance on nutrient inputs and losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.; Phillips, S.; Duniway, M.; Belnap, J.

    2003-01-01

    Sources of desert soil fertility include parent material weathering, aeolian deposition, and on-site C and N biotic fixation. While parent materials provide many soil nutrients, aeolian deposition can provide up to 75% of plant-essential nutrients including N, P, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Cu, and Fe. Soil surface biota are often sticky, and help retain wind-deposited nutrients, as well as providing much of the N inputs. Carbon inputs are from both plants and soil surface biota. Most desert soils are protected by cyanobacterial-lichen-moss soil crusts, chemical crusts and/or desert pavement. Experimental disturbances applied in US deserts show disruption of soil surfaces result in decreased N and C inputs from soil biota by up to 100%. The ability to glue aeolian deposits in place is compromised, and underlying soils are exposed to erosion. The ability to withstand wind increases with biological and physical soil crust development. While most undisturbed sites show little sediment production, disturbance by vehicles or livestock produce up to 36 times more sediment production, with soil movement initiated at wind velocities well below commonly-occurring wind speeds. Soil fines and flora are often concentrated in the top 3 mm of the soil surface. Winds across disturbed areas can quickly remove this material from the soil surface, thereby potentially removing much of current and future soil fertility. Thus, disturbances of desert soil surfaces can both reduce fertility inputs and accelerate fertility losses.

  5. Loss of ecosystem services due to chronic pollution of forests and surface waters in the Adirondack region (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M.; Caputo, Jesse; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Sustaining recent progress in mitigating acid pollution could require lower emissions caps that will give rise to real or perceived tradeoffs between healthy ecosystems and inexpensive energy. Because most impacts of acid rain affect ecosystem functions that are poorly understood by policy-makers and the public, an ecosystem services (ES) framework can help to measure how pollution affects human well-being. Focused on the Adirondack region (USA), a global ‘hot-spot’ of acid pollution, we measured how the chronic acidification of the region's forests, lakes, and streams has affected the potential economic and cultural benefits they provide to society. We estimated that acid-impaired hardwood forests provide roughly half of the potential benefits of forests on moderate to well-buffered soils – an estimated loss of ∼ $10,000 ha−1 in net present value of wood products, maple syrup, carbon sequestration, and visual quality. Acidic deposition has had only nominal impact – relative to the effects of surficial geology and till depth – on the capacity of Adirondack lakes and streams to provide water suitable for drinking. However, as pH declines in lakes, the estimated value of recreational fishing decreases significantly due to loss of desirable fish such as trout. Hatchery stocking programs have partially offset the pollution-mediated losses of fishery value, most effectively in the pH range 4.8–5.5, but are costly and limited in scope. Although any estimates of the monetary ‘damages’ of acid rain have significant uncertainties, our findings highlight some of the more tangible economic and cultural benefits of pollution mitigation efforts, which continue to face litigation and political opposition.

  6. Loss of ecosystem services due to chronic pollution of forests and surface waters in the Adirondack region (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Lawrence, Gregory B; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2017-04-15

    Sustaining recent progress in mitigating acid pollution could require lower emissions caps that will give rise to real or perceived tradeoffs between healthy ecosystems and inexpensive energy. Because most impacts of acid rain affect ecosystem functions that are poorly understood by policy-makers and the public, an ecosystem services (ES) framework can help to measure how pollution affects human well-being. Focused on the Adirondack region (USA), a global 'hot-spot' of acid pollution, we measured how the chronic acidification of the region's forests, lakes, and streams has affected the potential economic and cultural benefits they provide to society. We estimated that acid-impaired hardwood forests provide roughly half of the potential benefits of forests on moderate to well-buffered soils - an estimated loss of ∼ $10,000 ha -1 in net present value of wood products, maple syrup, carbon sequestration, and visual quality. Acidic deposition has had only nominal impact - relative to the effects of surficial geology and till depth - on the capacity of Adirondack lakes and streams to provide water suitable for drinking. However, as pH declines in lakes, the estimated value of recreational fishing decreases significantly due to loss of desirable fish such as trout. Hatchery stocking programs have partially offset the pollution-mediated losses of fishery value, most effectively in the pH range 4.8-5.5, but are costly and limited in scope. Although any estimates of the monetary 'damages' of acid rain have significant uncertainties, our findings highlight some of the more tangible economic and cultural benefits of pollution mitigation efforts, which continue to face litigation and political opposition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The substrate effect in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons in gold and silver nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Christensen, Thomas; Beleggia, Marco

    2017-01-01

    , as in optical measurements, the substrate material can modify the acquired signal. Here, we have investigated how the EELS signal recorded from supported silver and gold spheroidal nanoparticles at different electron beam impact parameter positions is affected by the choice of a dielectric substrate material......Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has become increasingly popular for detailed characterization of plasmonic nanostructures, owing to the unparalleled spatial resolution of this technique. The typical setup in EELS requires nanoparticles to be supported on thin substrates. However...

  8. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    λ. Using this we shall determine the ... Univalent; starlike; meromorphic functions; subordination; coefficient bounds; inverse ...... [6] FitzGerald C H, Quadratic inequalities and coefficient estimates for Schlicht functions, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal.

  9. In-out asymmetry of surface excitations in reflection-electron-energy-loss spectra of polycrystalline Al

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salvat-Pujol, F.; Werner, W. S. M.; Novák, M.; Jiříček, Petr; Zemek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 20 (2014), "205435-1"-"205435-7" ISSN 1098-0121 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101202 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface excitation * in-out asymmetry * REELS * Al Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  10. How effective would solar geoengineering be at offsetting surface mass balance losses of the ice-sheets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, P. J.; Keith, D.

    2016-12-01

    Studies of the sea-level rise response to solar geoengineering suggest that it could be highly effective at reducing sea-level rise by reducing thermal expansion of ocean waters and reducing the melting of land ice. However, all studies to date have employed simplistic treatments of surface mass balance where melt is a function only of surface air temperature and many have not had explicit treatments of accumulation. Solar geoengineering would counteract the longwave forcing of elevated greenhouse gas concentrations by reducing incoming solar radiation, changing the seasonal, latitudinal and vertical distribution of energy within the climate system. Climate model simulations suggest that solar geoengineering deployed to counter future warming from rising greenhouse gas concentrations could partially offset many climate trends associated with rising greenhouse gas concentrations, however it would lead to a suppression of the hydrological cycle as well as leading to substantial residual regional climate changes. In this study the response of the surface mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to solar geoengineering will be investigated. Multi-model results from G1, the idealized solar insolation reduction experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), will be compared against results from the abrupt4×CO2 and piControl experiment. The energy and mass balance of the ice sheets, as well as the broader climate response in the polar regions will be analysed in the GeoMIP ensemble. This analysis will be complemented by offline surface mass balance simulations, including both those which directly simulate the energy balance and by those which use approximations based on surface air temperatures. This analysis will help to determine whether previous studies have over- or under-estimated the efficacy of solar geoengineering at offsetting future sea-level rise.

  11. Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...

  12. An alternative coefficient for sound absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Kuipers, E.R.; de Boer, Andries; Sas, P; Jonckheere, S.; Moens, D.

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic absorption coefficient is a number that indicates which fraction of the incident acoustic power impinging on a surface is being absorbed. The incident acoustic power is obtained by spatial integration of the incident intensity, which is (classically) defined as the time-averaged

  13. Determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, D.; Bosman, F.; Peters, T.; Plasschaert, F.

    The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient (htc) is determined under different loading conditions by using a computer aided method. The thermal load has been applied mathematically as well as experimentally to the coronal surface of an axisymmetric tooth model. To verify the assumptions

  14. Development of anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibodies after HBs antigen loss in HIV-hepatitis B virus co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Anders; Canini, Laetitia; Gozlan, Joël; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Fonquernie, Laurent; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Lacombe, Karine

    2017-10-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-seroconversion, or loss of HBsAg and acquisition of anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibodies, defines functional cure of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. After HBsAg-loss, little is known regarding the development of anti-HBs antibodies and even less so in individuals co-infected with HIV. To determine anti-HBs antibody kinetics after HBsAg-loss and explore determinants of HBsAg-seroconversion in HIV-HBV co-infected patients. Patients enrolled in the French HIV-HBV cohort were included if they had >1 study visit after HBsAg-loss. Individual patient kinetics of anti-HBs antibody levels were modeled over time using mixed-effect non-linear regression, whereby maximum specific growth rate and maximal level of antibody production were estimated from a Gompertz growth equation. Fourteen (4.6%) of 308 co-infected patients followed in the cohort exhibited HBsAg-loss, all of whom were undergoing antiretroviral therapy. Nine (64.3%) of these patients achieved HBsAg-seroconversion during a median 3.0 years (IQR=1.1-5.1) after HBsAg-loss. Across individuals with HBsAg-seroconversion, the fastest rates of antibody growth ranged between 0.57-1.93year -1 (population maximum growth rate=1.02) and antibody production plateaued between 2.09-3.66 log 10 mIU/mL at the end of follow-up (population maximal antibody levels=2.66). Patients with HBsAg-seroconversion had substantial decreases in HBV DNA viral loads (P=0.03) and proportion with elevated ALT levels (P=0.02) and HBeAg-positive serology (P=0.08). No such differences were observed in those without HBsAg-seroconversion. Most co-infected patients with HBsAg-seroconversion produced and maintained stable antibody levels, yet kinetics of anti-HBs production were much slower compared to those observed post-vaccination or after clearance of acute HBV-infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical Characterizations of Surface Polished Polycrystalline YAG (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) Fibers (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-02

    Using a confocal microscope , the rough surface of the polycrystalline YAG fiber was found to be dominant light scattering. To remove surface...the effect of surface roughness on light propagation and scattering coefficient in fibers, and lasing tests of these fibers. Lasing is demonstrated in...based on the mechanical test data, but the loss coefficient could not be lowered further to levels necessary for lasing. Using a confocal microscope

  16. Neurodegenerative disease mutations in TREM2 reveal a functional surface and distinct loss-of-function mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Daniel L.; Alexander-Brett, Jennifer M.; Karch, Celeste M.; Cruchaga, Carlos; Colonna, Marco; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brett, Thomas J. (WU-MED)

    2016-12-20

    Genetic variations in the myeloid immune receptor TREM2 are linked to several neurodegenerative diseases. To determine how TREM2 variants contribute to these diseases, we performed structural and functional studies of wild-type and variant proteins. Our 3.1 Å TREM2 crystal structure revealed that mutations found in Nasu-Hakola disease are buried whereas Alzheimer’s disease risk variants are found on the surface, suggesting that these mutations have distinct effects on TREM2 function. Biophysical and cellular methods indicate that Nasu-Hakola mutations impact protein stability and decrease folded TREM2 surface expression, whereas Alzheimer’s risk variants impact binding to a TREM2 ligand. Additionally, the Alzheimer’s risk variants appear to epitope map a functional surface on TREM2 that is unique within the larger TREM family. These findings provide a guide to structural and functional differences among genetic variants of TREM2, indicating that therapies targeting the TREM2 pathway should be tailored to these genetic and functional differences with patient-specific medicine approaches for neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Influence of strand surface condition on interstrand contact resistance and coupling loss in NbTi-wound Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Sumption, M D; Scanlan, R M; Nijhuis, A; ten Kate, H H J; Kim, S W; Wake, M; Shintomi, T

    1999-01-01

    Presented in this work are the results of directly measured and AC- loss-derived interstrand contact resistance (ICR) measurements performed magnetically or resistively on bare-Cu and coated-strand pairs, calorimetrically on $9 11-strand Rutherford cables wound with strands that had been coated with various metallic and insulating layers, and calorimetrically and magnetically on 28-strand Rutherford cables (LHC-type) wound with bare-Cu-, Ni-, and $9 stabrite-plated strands. Comparisons are made of the effects of various conditions of heat treatment, HT (time and temperature), and pressure (applied during HT and then either maintained or re-applied during measurement). The $9 resulting ICRs are compared and interpreted in terms of the oxide layer on the strand coating and its response to curing conditions. (66 refs).

  18. Assessment of regional gray matter loss in dementia with Lewy bodies: a surface-based MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rosie; Colloby, Sean J; Blamire, Andrew M; O'Brien, John T

    2015-01-01

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of cortical thinning in subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and normal aging and investigate the relationship between cortical thickness and clinical measures. Study participants (31 DLB, 30 AD, and 33 healthy comparison subjects) underwent 3-Tesla T1-weighted MRI and completed clinical and cognitive assessments. We used the FreeSurfer analysis package to measure cortical thickness and investigated the patterns of cortical thinning across groups. Cortical thinning in AD was found predominantly in the temporal and parietal areas extending into the frontal lobes (N = 63, df = 59, t >3.3, p 3.6, p 2.8, p matter loss in DLB and highlights important structural imaging differences between the conditions. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation for Loss of Lubrication Performance of Black Oxide, Superfinished, and As-Ground Surfaces for Use in Rotorcraft Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    LoL loading progression during run-in ..............................6 Table 6 Revised load stages for the LS LoL protocol...loading progression during run-in Stage Elapsed time (s) Load (N) Stress (GPa) 1 60 20 0.76 2 60 40 0.95 3 60 60 1.09 4 60 80 1.20 5 60 100...characteristic of the surface features is the roughness before and after experimentation. Table 10 and Fig. 17 show the arithmetic average of 3-D

  20. The role of drainage ditches in greenhouse gas emissions and surface leaching losses from a cutaway peatland cultivated with a perennial bioenergy crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyvonen, N.P.; Huttunen, J.T.; Shurpali, N.J.; Lind, S.E.; Marushchak, M.E.; Martikainen, P.J. [University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Science], E-mail: niina.hyvonen@uef.fi; Heitto, L. [Environmental Research of Savo-Karjala Ltd, Kuopio (Finland)

    2013-06-01

    We studied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from drainage ditches and leaching losses in a boreal cutaway peatland cultivated with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) for bioenergy. The objectives of the study were to assess to what extent GHG emissions from drainage ditches and leaching of carbon and nutrients via surface drainage contribute to the total losses of carbon and nitrogen from the site. The emissions of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} were measured with static chamber methods for three years and leaching losses for seven years. On average, the drainage ditches (covering 6% of the study site area) released 10% of the total CH{sub 4} emission (0.33 g m{sup -2} a{sup -1}), and 1% and 5% of the total N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Leaching of total nitrogen and phosphorous were 0.31 and 0.03 g m{sup -2} a{sup -1}, respectively. Leaching values were lower than those reported for agricultural catchments in general. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of field-measured radon diffusion coefficients with laboratory-measured coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepel, E.A.; Silker, W.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare radon diffusion coefficients determined for 0.1-m depths of soils by a steady-state method in the laboratory and diffusion coefficients evaluated from radon fluxes through several-fold greater depths of the same soils covering uranium-mill tailings. The coefficients referred to diffusion in the total pore volume of the soils and are equivalent to values for the quantity, D/P, in the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Uranium Milling prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two soils were tested: a well-graded sand and an inorganic clay of low plasticity. For the flux evaluations, radon was collected by adsorption on charcoal following passive diffusion from the soil surface and also from air recirculating through an aluminum tent over the soil surface. An analysis of variance in the flux evaluations showed no significant difference between these two collection methods. Radon diffusion coefficients evaluated from field data were statistically indistinguishable, at the 95% confidence level, from those measured in the laboratory; however, the low precision of the field data prevented a sensitive validation of the laboratory measurements. From the field data, the coefficients were calculated to be 0.03 +- 0.03 cm 2 /s for the sand cover and 0.0036 +- 0.0004 cm 2 /s for the clay cover. The low precision in the coefficients evaluated from field data was attributed to high variation in radon flux with time and surface location at the field site

  2. Long-term marginal bone loss in 217 machined-surface implants placed in 68 patients with 5 to 9 years of follow-up: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Mari, Javier; Mir-Orfila, Pedro; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate marginal bone loss (mBL) adjacent to dental implants with a machined surface with at least 5 years of function. Machined-surface implants with a minimum follow-up of 5 years were included in the study. Recorded clinical parameters included plaque and gingival bleeding indices, smoking habit (nonsmoker, 0 to 10 cigarettes/day, or more than 10 cigarettes/day), presence of periodontal disease (healthy or periodontally compromised), and compliance with periodontal maintenance. Marginal bone loss (mBL) was assessed radiographically around the implants using the long-cone parallel technique. Sixty-eight participants who received 217 implants were included in the study. No late failures occurred. The mean duration of follow-up was 6.7 years (range, 5 to 9 years). The mean mBL after 5 to 9 years was 0.43 threads (± 1.12 threads) (0.26 mm). Thirteen implants (6.0%) showed a mBL of at least three threads. Multiple linear regression (R2 = 0.229) showed that implants in patients with poor periodontal maintenance and implants placed in periodontally compromised patients were significantly associated with greater mBL (P implants. Regular periodontal maintenance visits every 3 to 6 months, especially in periodontally compromised patients, have to be considered paramount to maintain peri-implant bone levels over the long term.

  3. Dependence of sputtering coefficient on ion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colligon, J.S.; Patel, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The sputtering coefficient of polycrystalline gold bombarded by 10-40 keV Ar + ions had been measured as a function of total ion dose and shown to exhibit oscillations in magnitude between 30 and 100%. Possible experimental errors which would give rise to such an oscillation have been considered, but it is apparent that these factors are unable to explain the measurements. It is proposed that a change in the Sublimation Energy associated with either bulk damage or formation of surface topographical features arising during ion bombardment may be responsible for the observed variations in sputtering coefficient. (author)

  4. Surface engineering of zirconium particles by molecular layer deposition: Significantly enhanced electrostatic safety at minimum loss of the energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lijun; Yan, Ning; Hao, Haixia; An, Ting; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Because of its high volumetric heat of oxidation, Zr powder is a promising high energy fuel/additive for rocket propellants. However, the application of Zr powder is restricted by its ultra-high electrostatic discharge sensitivity, which poses great hazards for handling, transportation and utilization of this material. By performing molecular layer deposition of polyimide using 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic anhydride and ethylenediamine as the precursors, Zr particles can be uniformly encapsulated by thin layers of the polymer. The thicknesses of the encapsulation layers can be precisely controlled by adjusting the number of deposition cycle. High temperature annealing converts the polymer layer into a carbon coating. Results of thermal analyses reveal that the polymer or carbon coatings have little negative effect on the energy release process of the Zr powder. By varying the thickness of the polyimide or carbon coating, electrostatic discharge sensitivity of the Zr powder can be tuned in a wide range and its uncontrolled ignition hazard can be virtually eliminated. This research demonstrates the great potential of molecular layer deposition in effectively modifying the surface properties of highly reactive metal based energetic materials with minimum sacrifices of their energy densities.

  5. Early Alterations in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells and Induction of Ovarian Epithelial Tumors Triggered by Loss of FSH Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Chen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the behavior of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE, which plays a central role in ovarian cancer etiology. It has been suggested that incessant ovulation causes OSE changes leading to transformation and that high gonadotropin levels during postmenopause activate OSE receptors, inducing proliferation. We examined the chronology of OSE changes, including tumor appearance, in a mouse model where ovulation never occurs due to deletion of follitropin receptor. Changes in epithelial cells were marked by pan-cytokeratin (CK staining. Histologic changes and CK staining in the OSE increased from postnatal day 2. CK staining was observed inside the ovary by 24 days and increased thereafter in tumor-bearing animals. Ovaries from a third of aged (1 year mutant mice showed CK deep inside, indicating cell migration. These tumors resembled serous papillary adenoma of human ovaries. Weak expression of GATA-4 and elevation of PCNA, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and plateletderived growth factor receptors α and β in mutants indicated differences in cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Thus, we report that OSE changes occur long before epithelial tumors appear in FORKO mice. Our results suggest that neither incessant ovulation nor follicle-stimulating hormone receptor presence in the OSE is required for inducing ovarian tumors; thus, other mechanisms must contribute to ovarian tumorigenesis.

  6. Surface roughness effect on ultracold neutron interaction with a wall and implications for computer simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S. S.; Desai, A. M.; Kaufman, C.

    2009-01-01

    We review the diffuse scattering and the loss coefficient in ultracold neutron reflection from slightly rough surfaces, report a surprising reduction in loss coefficient due to roughness, and discuss the possibility of transition from quantum treatment to ray optics. The results are used in a computer simulation of neutron storage in a recent neutron lifetime experiment that re-ported a large discrepancy of neutron lifetime with the current particle data value. Our partial re-analysis suggest...

  7. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  8. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Conductive hearing loss (CHL) occurs because of a mechanical problem in the outer or middle ear. This may be ...

  9. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Laser-Microtextured Surface Collar on Marginal Bone Loss and Peri-Implant Soft Tissue Response: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaozhao; Zhang, Yujiao; Li, Junying; Wang, Hom-Lay; Yu, Haiyang

    2017-07-01

    A laser-microtextured surface (LMS) dental implant collar appears to promote a more tooth-like gingival collagen fiber attachment, which may help to stabilize peri-implant tissues. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the clinical effect of an LMS versus non-LMS collar on crestal bone level and peri-implant soft tissue response. Electronic and manual literature searches were performed by two independent reviewers for articles written in English up to December 2016. Studies were included if they were human clinical trials with the purpose of evaluating the impact of an LMS collar on peri-implant hard and soft tissues. Cumulative marginal bone loss (MBL), probing depth (PD), and survival rate (SR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to show the performance of LMS implant collars. MBL, PD, and SR data were analyzed with a random effects model to compare the influence of LMS collars with non-LMS collars (e.g., roughened surface and machined surface). Fifteen human clinical studies (three randomized controlled trials, six cohort studies, and six case series) with 772 implants met the inclusion criteria. For the overall data, the weighted mean MBL was 0.72 mm (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.85 mm), PD was 1.81 mm (95% CI: 1.13 to 2.49 mm), and SR was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95 to 0.98). MBL around an LMS collar was significantly less than around machined-surface collars (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -0.77; 95% CI: -1.01 to -0.52; I 2 = 95.2%; P surface group (WMD: -1.34; 95% CI: -1.62 to -1.05; I 2 = 81.4%; P surface groups (WMD: -0.04; 95% CI: -0.16 to 0.08; I 2 = 0.0%; P = 0.75). No statistically significant difference was found for SR between the LMS and non-LMS groups (risk ratio: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.97 to 1.04; I 2 = 0.0%; P = 0.91). Meta-analysis showed that an LMS collar can reduce the amount of MBL and PD compared with a machined-surface collar. Due to high heterogeneity between the included studies, results should be interpreted cautiously.

  11. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  12. Changes in Electrokinetic Coupling Coefficients of Granite under Triaxial Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kuwano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic phenomena are believed to be the most likely origin of electromagnetic signals preceding or accompanying earthquakes. The intensity of the source current due to the electrokinetic phenomena is determined by the fluid flux and the electrokinetic coupling coefficient called streaming current coefficient; therefore, how the coefficient changes before rupture is essential. Here, we show how the electrokinetic coefficients change during the rock deformation experiment up to failure. The streaming current coefficient did not increase before failure, but continued to decrease up to failure, which is explained in terms of the elastic closure of capillary. On the other hand, the streaming potential coefficient, which is the product of the streaming current coefficient and bulk resistivity of the rock, increased at the onset of dilatancy. It may be due to change in bulk resistivity. Our result indicates that the zeta potential of the newly created surface does not change so much from that of the preexisting fluid rock interface.

  13. Response surface modeling to predict fluid loss from beef strip loins and steaks injected with salt and phosphate with or without a dehydrated beef protein water binding adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Austin C; Goad, Carla L; Lou, Xingqiu; Morgan, J Brad; Koh, Chern Lin; Deakins, Alisha Parsons; Mireles DeWitt, Christina A

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted using response surface methodology to predict fluid loss from injected beef strip steaks as influenced by levels of salt and sodium phosphates (SP) in the injection brine. Also, a beef-based dehydrated beef protein (DBP) water binding ingredient was evaluated. Paired U.S. select beef strip loins were quartered before being injected with 110% of initial weight with brines containing various concentrations of salt and SP (CON) or salt, SP and 5% DBP. Steaks were sliced, overwrapped and stored in the dark for 4d. Purge values ranged from 0.6% to 4.6% for CON and 0.3% to 2.1% for DBP. Fluid losses when accounting for the fluid lost from injection to slicing were as high as 6.8% for CON brines, but only 2.8% for DBP brines. The equations generated here and the DBP product could help producers achieve acceptable purge while reducing sodium use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Secondary-electron-emission losses in multistage depressed collectors and traveling-wave-tube efficiency improvements with carbon collector electrode surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramins, P.; Ebihara, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Secondary-electron-emission losses in multistage depressed collectors (MDC's) and their effects on overall traveling-wave-tube (TWT) efficiency were investigated. Two representative TWT's and several computer-modeled MDC's were used. The experimental techniques provide the measurement of both the TWT overall and the collector efficiencies. The TWT-MDC performance was optimized and measured over a wide range of operating conditions, with geometrically identical collectors, which utilized different electrode surface materials. Comparisons of the performance of copper electrodes to that of various forms of carbon, including pyrolytic and iisotropic graphites, were stressed. The results indicate that: (1) a significant improvement in the TWT overall efficiency was obtained in all cases by the use of carbon, rather than copper electrodes, and (2) that the extent of this efficiency enhancement depended on the characteristics of the TWT, the TWT operating point, the MDC design, and collector voltages. Ion textured graphite was found to be particularly effective in minimizing the secondary-electron-emission losses. Experimental and analytical results, however, indicate that it is at least as important to provide a maximum amount of electrostatic suppression of secondary electrons by proper MDC design. Such suppression, which is obtained by ensuring that a substantial suppressing electric field exists over the regions of the electrodes where most of the current is incident, was found to be very effective. Experimental results indicate that, with proper MDC design and the use of electrode surfaces with low secondary-electron yield, degradation of the collector efficiency can be limited to a few percent.

  15. Comparação do Coeficiente Global de Perdas de Calor para casa de vegetação aquecida usando diferentes técnicas para eficiência energética Comparison of overall heat loss coefficient to warm greenhouse applying energy saving techiniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso E. L. de Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O Coeficiente Global de Perdas de Calor (U permite o equacionamento das necessidades térmicas de uma casa de vegetação climatizada. No presente trabalho, determinou-se esse coeficiente cujo referencial foi uma casa de vegetação localizada em Madri (Espanha, em que foram utilizadas medidas noturnas de temperatura do ar no interior, no exterior, bem como o consumo de energia para aquecimento. As comparações entre as técnicas de aquecimento utilizadas foram: solo radiante e aerotermos combinados com duas técnicas que visavam a promover melhor aproveitamento térmico, ou seja, a utilização de cobertura plástica formando dupla capa ou a utilização de túnel plástico. Os menores coeficientes foram conseguidos para a utilização de solo radiante com túnel e aerotermos com dupla capa com 7,19 W m-2 ºC-1 e 9,11 W m-2 ºC-1, respectivamente; o maior valor dentre os coeficientes nas condições estudadas foi 15,13 W m-2 ºC-1 ao considerar o uso de aerotermos sem utilização de plásticos. Conclui-se, portanto, que os resultados comprovam o melhor rendimento térmico para as técnicas ensaiadas.The Global Heat Loss Coefficient (U allows some answers about thermal requirements of climatic greenhouse. This trial determined this coefficient for a greenhouse in Madrid (Spain where night measurements of inside and outside air temperature as well as energy consumption to heat were used. Comparisons were accomplished among the used heating techniques as: radiant floor and heat fan combined with two techniques aiming to promote a better thermal which means the use of a plastic covering forming a double couple or the use of a plastic tunnel. The lowest coefficients for the use of radiant soil with tunnel and heat fan with double couple were respectively 7.19 W m-2 ºC-1 and 9.11 W m-2 ºC-1 and the largest value was 15.13 W m-2 ºC-1 for the heat fan use without plastics. Therefore, the results registered best thermal efficiency for the tested

  16. Identification of aerodynamic coefficients with a neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kristina Anne

    2000-11-01

    longitudinal-motion coefficients of a twin-jet, transport aircraft. A localized feature is introduced into the lift-coefficient surface and performance of the model. The network learns new information from the dynamic-training data patterns, without loss of information in regions distant from the dynamic maneuvers. Approximation performance is evaluated with respect to both training and generalization data sets.

  17. Permeability dependence of streaming potential coefficient in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, L.D.; Sprik, R.

    2015-01-01

    In theory, the streaming potential coefficient depends not only on the zeta potential but also on the permeability of the rocks that partially determines the surface conductivity of the rocks. However, in practice, it is hard to show the permeability dependence of streaming potential coefficients

  18. A Longitudinal Hepatitis B Vaccine Cohort Demonstrates Long-lasting Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Cellular Immunity Despite Loss of Antibody Against HBV Surface Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Brenna C; Spradling, Philip R; Bruden, Dana J T; Zanis, Carolyn; Case, Samantha; Choromanski, Tammy L; Apodaca, Minjun; Brogdon, Hazel D; Dwyer, Gaelen; Snowball, Mary; Negus, Susan; Bruce, Michael G; Morishima, Chihiro; Knall, Cindy; McMahon, Brian J

    2016-07-15

    Long-lasting protection resulting from hepatitis B vaccine, despite loss of antibody against hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (anti-HBs), is undetermined. We recruited persons from a cohort vaccinated with plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine in 1981 who have been followed periodically since. We performed serological testing for anti-HBs and microRNA-155 and assessed HBV-specific T-cell responses by enzyme-linked immunospot and cytometric bead array. Study subgroups were defined 32 years after vaccination as having an anti-HBs level of either ≥10 mIU/mL (group 1; n = 13) or anti-HBs level, tested positive for tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 10, or interleukin 6 production by HBV surface antigen-specific T cells. The frequency of natural killer T cells correlated with the level of anti-HBs (P = .008). The proportion of participants who demonstrated T-cell responses to HBV core antigen varied among the cytokines measured, suggesting some natural exposure to HBV in the study group. No participant had evidence of breakthrough HBV infection. Evidence of long-lasting cellular immunity, regardless of anti-HBs level, suggests that protection afforded by primary immunization with plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine during childhood and adulthood lasts at least 32 years. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Transport coefficients in copper vapor arc plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal, A.M.; Rahhaoui, B.; Vacquie, S.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of copper vapors modifies the properties of arc discharges. The paper deals with a region not investigated earlier, where in the core of the positive column of very short or high current arcs there is a high copper concentration. At these values the relative losses take a greater part in the energy balance. Using the charged-charged collision integrals, the transport coefficients (axial temperature, thermal and electric conductivity, viscosity) of the plasma with higher copper vapor concentration are calculated as the function of the arc current intensity. (D.Gy.)

  20. Abrasive wear and surface roughness of contemporary dental composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-min; Zhang, Hongyu; Choe, Hyo-Sun; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Hong, Guang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear and surface roughness of 20 currently available commercial dental composite resins, including nanofilled, supra-nanofilled, nanohybrid and microhybrid composite resins. The volume loss, maximum vertical loss, surface roughness (R(a)) and surface morphology [Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] were determined after wear. The inorganic filler content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The result showed that the volume loss and vertical loss varied among the materials. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of wear volume loss and filler content (wt%) was 0.283. SEM micrographs revealed nanofilled composites displayed a relatively uniform wear surfaces with nanoclusters protrusion, while the performance of nanohybrid composites varied. The abrasive wear resistance of contemporary dental composite resins is material-dependent and cannot be deduced from its category, filler loading and composite matrix; The abrasive wear resistance of some flowable composites is comparable to the universal/posterior composite resins.

  1. Does plant uptake or low soil mineral-N production limit mineral-N losses to surface waters and groundwater from soils under grass in summer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Ambreen; McClean, Colin J.; Cresser, Malcolm S.

    2013-01-01

    Summer minima and autumn/winter maxima in nitrate concentrations in rivers are reputedly due to high plant uptake of nitrate from soils in summer. A novel alternative hypothesis is tested here for soils under grass. By summer, residual readily mineralizable plant litter from the previous autumn/winter is negligible and fresh litter input low. Consequently little mineral-N is produced in the soil. Water-soluble and KCl-extractable mineral N in fresh soils and soils incubated outdoors for 7 days have been monitored over 12 months for soil transects at two permanent grassland sites near York, UK, using 6 replicates throughout. Vegetation-free soil is shown to produce very limited mineral-N in summer, despite the warm, moist conditions. Litter accumulates in autumn/winter and initially its high C:N ratio favours N accumulation in the soil. It is also shown that mineral-N generated monthly in situ in soil substantially exceeds the monthly mineral-N inputs via wet deposition at the sites. -- Highlights: •Soil mineral-N has been measured over a year at two grassland sites in the UK. •Rates of mineral-N production have also been measured in vegetation-free soils. •In summer, though soils were warm and moist, rate of mineral-N production was low. •The effect is attributed to low litter inputs in summer when grass is growing well. •Low mineral-N production in summer must be limiting N losses to fresh waters. -- Low mineral-N production in soils under grass limits summer N losses to surface- and ground-waters

  2. Kuznetsov equation with variable coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    like solutions of the PDE in (2+1) dimension with variable coefficients. ... Shivamoggi [12] gives only four polynomial conservation laws of the ZK equation ..... [3] P J Olver, Application of Lie group to differential equation (Springer, New York,.

  3. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  4. ArcNEMO, a spatially distributed nutrient emission model developed in Python to quantify losses of nitrogen and phosphorous from agriculture to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Opstal, Mattias; Tits, Mia; Beckers, Veronique; Batelaan, Okke; Van Orshoven, Jos; Elsen, Annemie; Diels, Jan; D'heygere, Tom; Van Hoof, Kor

    2014-05-01

    Pollution of surface water bodies with nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) from agricultural sources is a major problem in areas with intensive agriculture in Europe. The Flemish Environment Agency requires information on how spatially explicit policy measures on manure and fertilizer use, and changes in land use and soil management affect the N and P concentration in the surface waters in the region of Flanders, Belgium. To assist in this, a new spatially distributed, mechanistic nutrient emission model was developed in the open-source language Python. The model is called ArcNEMO (Nutrient Emission MOdel). The model is fully integrated in ArcGIS, but could be easily adapted to work with open-source GIS software. In Flanders, detailed information is available each year on the delineation of each agricultural parcel and the crops grown on them. Parcels are linked to farms, and for each farm yearly manure and fertilizer use is available. To take full advantage of this information and to be able to simulate nutrient losses to the high-density surface water network, the model makes use of grid cells of 50 by 50m. A fertilizer allocation model was developed to calculate from the yearly parcel and farm data the fertilizer and manure input per grid cell for further use in the ArcNEMO-model. The model architecture was chosen such that the model can be used to simulate spatially explicit monthly discharge and losses of N and P to the surface water for the whole of Flanders (13,500 km²) over periods of 10-20 years. The extended time period is necessary because residence times in groundwater and the rates of organic matter turnover imply that water quality reacts slowly to changes of land use and fertilization practices. Vertical water flow and nutrient transport in the unsaturated zone are described per grid cell using a cascading bucket-type model with daily time steps. Groundwater flow is described by solving the 2D-groundwater flow equation using an explicit numerical

  5. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Masuda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients

  6. Coefficient of friction and wear rate effects of different composite nanolubricant concentrations on Aluminium 2024 plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, N. N. M.; Azmi, W. H.; Redhwan, A. A. M.; Sharif, M. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Wear of sliding parts and operational machine consistency enhancement can be avoided with good lubrication. Lubrication reduce wear between two contacting and sliding surfaces and decrease the frictional power losses in compressor. The coefficient of friction and wear rate effects study were carried out to measure the friction and anti-wear abilities of Al2O3-SiO2 composite nanolubricants a new type of compressor lubricant to enhanced the compressor performances. The tribology test rig employing reciprocating test conditions to replicate a piston ring contact in the compressor was used to measure the coefficient of friction and wear rate. Coefficient of friction and wear rate effects of different Al2O3-SiO2/PAG composite nanolubricants of Aluminium 2024 plate for 10-kg load at different speed were investigated. Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in the Polyalkylene Glycol (PAG 46) lubricant using two-steps method of preparation. The result shows that the coefficient friction and wear rate of composite nanolubricants decreased compared to pure lubricant. The maximum reduction achievement for friction of coefficient and wear rate by Al2O3-SiO2 composite nanolubricants by 4.78% and 12.96% with 0.06% volume concentration. Therefore, 0.06% volume concentration is selected as the most enhanced composite nanolubricants with effective coefficient of friction and wear rate reduction compared to other volume concentrations. Thus, it is recommended to be used as the compressor lubrication to enhanced compressor performances.

  7. TransCom model simulations of CH4 and related species: linking transport, surface flux and chemical loss with CH4 variability in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Palmer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemistry-transport model (CTM intercomparison experiment (TransCom-CH4 has been designed to investigate the roles of surface emissions, transport and chemical loss in simulating the global methane distribution. Model simulations were conducted using twelve models and four model variants and results were archived for the period of 1990–2007. All but one model transports were driven by reanalysis products from 3 different meteorological agencies. The transport and removal of CH4 in six different emission scenarios were simulated, with net global emissions of 513 ± 9 and 514 ± 14 Tg CH4 yr−1 for the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Additionally, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 was simulated to check the interhemispheric transport, radon (222Rn to check the subgrid scale transport, and methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3 to check the chemical removal by the tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH. The results are compared to monthly or annual mean time series of CH4, SF6 and CH3CCl3 measurements from 8 selected background sites, and to satellite observations of CH4 in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Most models adequately capture the vertical gradients in the stratosphere, the average long-term trends, seasonal cycles, interannual variations (IAVs and interhemispheric (IH gradients at the surface sites for SF6, CH3CCl3 and CH4. The vertical gradients of all tracers between the surface and the upper troposphere are consistent within the models, revealing vertical transport differences between models. An average IH exchange time of 1.39 ± 0.18 yr is derived from SF6 time series. Sensitivity simulations suggest that the estimated trends in exchange time, over the period of 1996–2007, are caused by a change of SF6 emissions towards the tropics. Using six sets of emission scenarios, we show that the decadal average CH4 growth rate likely reached equilibrium in the early 2000s due to the flattening of anthropogenic emission growth since the late 1990s. Up to

  8. Non-constant retardation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Gu Zhijie; Yang Yue'e; Li Shushen

    2004-12-01

    Retardation coefficient is one of the important parameters used in transport models describing radionuclide migration in geological media and usually regarded as a constant in the models. The objectives of the work are to understand: (1) Whether the retardation coefficient, R d , is a constant? (2) How much effect is R d on calculated consequence if R d is not constant? (3) Is the retardation coefficient derived from distribution coefficient, k d , according to conventional equation suitable for safety assessment? The objectives are achieved through test and analysis of the test results on radionuclide migration in unsaturated loess. It can be seen from the results that retardation coefficient, R d , of 85 Sr is not constant and increases with water content, θ, under unsaturated condition. R d , of 85 Sr derived from k d according to conventional equation can not be used for safety assessment. R d , used for safety assessment should be directly measured, rather than derived from k d . It is shown from calculation that the effect of R d on calculated consequence is very considerable. (authors)

  9. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1 an(−λ, f )zn for z ∈ D. (1.4). One of the well-known extremal problems in the theory of univalent functions is to esti- mate the modulus of the Taylor coefficients an(−λ, f ) given by (1.4). This problem has been extensively studied in the literature ...

  10. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  11. Influence of roughness parameters on coefficient of friction under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy technique. For a given surface texture, the ... Figure 3 shows the results of the correlation analysis between surface roughness parameters and coefficient of friction under ... ious roughness parameters the plowing component is controlled by the roughness parameter,. Del a. Table 2.

  12. Determination of the Static Friction Coefficient from Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a physics laboratory exercise for determining the coefficient of static friction between two surfaces. The circular motion of a coin placed on the surface of a rotating turntable has been studied. For this purpose, the motion is recorded with a high-speed digital video camera recording at 240 frames s[superscript-1], and the…

  13. Effect of Variable Manning Coefficients on Tsunami Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Rees, D.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulations are commonly used to help estimate tsunami hazard, improve evacuation plans, issue or cancel tsunami warnings, inform forecasting and hazard assessments and have therefore become an integral part of hazard mitigation among the tsunami community. Many numerical codes exist for simulating tsunamis, most of which have undergone extensive benchmarking and testing. Tsunami hazard or risk assessments employ these codes following a deterministic or probabilistic approach. Depending on the scope these studies may or may not consider uncertainty in the numerical simulations, the effects of tides, variable friction or estimate financial losses, none of which are necessarily trivial. Distributed manning coefficients, the roughness coefficients used in hydraulic modeling, are commonly used in simulating both riverine and pluvial flood events however, their use in tsunami hazard assessments is primarily part of limited scope studies and for the most part, not a standard practice. For this work, we investigate variations in manning coefficients and their effects on tsunami inundation extent, pattern and financial loss. To assign manning coefficients we use land use maps that come from the New Zealand Land Cover Database (LCDB) and more recent data from the Ministry of the Environment. More than 40 classes covering different types of land use are combined into major classes such as cropland, grassland and wetland representing common types of land use in New Zealand, each of which is assigned a unique manning coefficient. By utilizing different data sources for variable manning coefficients, we examine the impact of data sources and classification methodology on the accuracy of model outputs.

  14. Mitochondrial superoxide generation enhances P2X7R-mediated loss of cell surface CD62L on naive human CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John G; Carter, Edward; Kilty, Iain; MacKenzie, Amanda B; Ward, Stephen G

    2013-02-15

    Migration of naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes into lymphoid tissue is essential for their activation and subsequent roles in adaptive immunity. The adhesion molecule L-selectin (CD62L), critical for this process, is highly expressed on naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes and is downregulated upon T lymphocyte activation. We demonstrate protein expression of P2X7R on naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes and show functional channel activity in whole-cell patch clamp recordings. CD62L downregulation occurs rapidly in response to extracellular ATP, a process that is blocked by selective antagonists of P2X7R. This loss of surface CD62L expression was not associated with externalization of phosphatidylserine. While investigating the mechanisms for this process, we revealed that pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial complex I or III, but not inhibition of NADPH oxidase, enhanced P2X7R-dependent CD62L downregulation by increasing ATP potency. Enhanced superoxide generation in the mitochondria of rotenone- and antimycin A-treated cells was observed and may contribute to the enhanced sensitivity of P2X7R to ATP. P2X7R-dependent exposure of phosphatidylserine was also revealed by preincubation with mitochondrial uncouplers prior to ATP treatment. This may present a novel mechanism whereby P2X7R-dependent phosphatidylserine exposure occurs only when cells have enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation. The clearance of apoptotic cells may therefore be enhanced by this mechanism which requires functional P2X7R expression.

  15. Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…

  16. Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.

  17. Irrational "Coefficients" in Renaissance Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation. Christoff Rudolff (1525) was the first to admit them in special cases, and subsequently they appear more liberally in Cardano (1539), Scheubel (1550), Bombelli (1572), and others, though most algebraists continued to ban them. We survey this development by examining the texts that show irrational coefficients and those that argue against them. We show that the debate took place entirely in the conceptual context of premodern, "cossic" algebra, and persisted in the sixteenth century independent of the development of the new algebra of Viète, Decartes, and Fermat. This was a formal innovation violating prevailing concepts that we propose could only be introduced because of the growing autonomy of notation from rhetorical text.

  18. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions can cause hair loss, including: Hormonal changes. Hormonal changes and imbalances can cause temporary hair loss. This could be due to pregnancy, childbirth or the onset of menopause. Hormone levels are also affected by the thyroid ...

  19. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall hair thinning and not bald patches. Full-body hair loss. Some conditions and medical treatments, such as ... in the loss of hair all over your body. The hair usually grows back. Patches of scaling that spread ...

  20. Viscoelastic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.

  1. The viscous slip coefficient for a binary gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knackfuss, Rosenei F.

    2009-01-01

    For a moderately small rarefaction, the Navier-Stokes equations are associated with of the slip boundary condition, i e the velocity of the gas on the surface is different from zero at the surface, but its tangential component, depends on the profile distribution of velocity and temperature near the surface. The slip for the velocity profile near the surface is determined by the viscous slip coefficient. The viscous slip coefficient can be determined solving the equation of the Boltzmann or the kinetic equations which are simplified forms of Boltzmann equation with respect to the operator of collision. For this reason, in this work is presented the derivation of the solution of the viscous-slip problem for the mixtures of two noble gases, based on the McCormack model that is developed in terms of an analytical version of the discrete ordinates method has been applied with excellent results, to derive solutions to several problems in rarefied gas dynamics. To complete the problem, include the gas-surface interaction, based on the model of Cercignani-Lampis, which, unlike the model of Maxwell, has two accommodation coefficients: the coefficient of accommodation of tangential moment and the energy accommodation coefficient kinetics due to normal component of velocity. (author)

  2. Pressure drop coefficient of laminar Newtonian flow in axisymmetric diffusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, S.; Pinho, F.T.

    2006-01-01

    The laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in axisymmetric diffusers has been numerically investigated to evaluate the pressure-loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number, diffusion angle and expansion ratio. The numerical simulations were carried out with a finite-volume based code using non-orthogonal collocated grids and second order accurate differencing schemes to discretize all terms of the transport equations. The calculations were carried out for Reynolds numbers between 2 and 200, diffusion angles from 0 deg. to 90 deg. and expansion ratios of 1.5 and 2 and the data are presented in tabular form and as correlations. A simplified 1D theoretical analysis helped explain the various contributions to the loss coefficient and its difference relative to the reversible pressure variation due to differences between the actual and fully developed friction losses, distortions of the velocity profiles and pressure non-uniformity upstream and downstream of the expansion section

  3. Proposal of reference stress for a surface flaw on a cylindrical component from a review-with-comparison of the local metal loss assessment rule between API 579-1 and the p-M diagram method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Kenji; Konosu, Shinji; Ohno, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The Remaining Strength Factor (RSF) approach in Part 5 of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 is an assessment method for a cylindrical component with a local metal loss based on surface correction factors. Also, reference stress solutions that are applied in the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) method for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw are provided in Annex D using surface correction factors. In the recently-developed p-M diagram method, the reference stress solution for local metal loss evaluation in a cylindrical component is derived using bulging factors, which are similar but not identical to the surface correction factors used in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1. This paper describes the results of a comparative study among the RSF approach, reference stress solutions for the FAD method, and the p-M diagram method, in terms of plastic collapse evaluation of a cylindrical component. These results were compared with the FEA and experimental results to confirm how these estimated stresses could be validated. This study also involves recommended reference stress solutions for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw or a local metal loss, which should be adopted as fitness-for-service rules, and a discussion on the influence of the design margin of the construction code on allowable flaw depth. - Highlights: → We compared local metal loss assessment rule between API 579-1 and the p-M method. → Experiments and FEA verified the p-M estimate stress state around a flaw accurate. → API 579-1 for local metal loss may underestimate stress state for certain conditions. → Existing reference stresses for crack-like flaws may underestimate stress state too. → We propose the reference stress for a surface flaw subjected to pressure and moment.

  4. Connections among soil, ground, and surface water chemistries characterize nitrogen loss from an agricultural landscape in the upper Missouri River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, W. Adam; Ewing, Stephanie A.; Jones, Clain A.; Payn, Robert A.; Brookshire, E. N. Jack; Klassen, Jane K.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Weissmann, Gary S.

    2018-01-01

    Elevated nitrate in shallow aquifers is common in agricultural areas and remediation requires an understanding of nitrogen (N) leaching at a variety of spatial scales. Characterization of the drivers of nitrate leaching at the mesoscale level (102-103 km2) is needed to bridge from field-scale observations to the landscape-scale context, allowing informed water resource management decisions. Here we explore patterns in nitrate leaching rates across a depositional landform in the northern Great Plains within the Upper Missouri Basin, where the predominant land use is non-irrigated small grain production, and nitrate-N concentrations above 10 mg L-1 are common. The shallow Moccasin terrace (260 km2) aquifer is bounded in vertical extent by underlying shale and is isolated from mountain front stream recharge, such that aquifer recharge is dominated by infiltration of precipitation through agricultural soils. This configuration presents a simple landform-scale water balance that we leveraged to estimate leaching rates using groundwater nitrate concentrations and surface water discharge, and quantify uncertainty using a Monte Carlo approach based on spatial variation in observations of groundwater nitrate concentrations. A participatory research approach allowed local farmer knowledge of the landscape to be incorporated into the study design, improved selection of and access to sample sites, and enhanced prospects for addressing nitrate leaching through collaborative understanding of system hydrology. Mean landform-scale nitrate-N leaching rates were 11 and 18 kg ha-1 yr-1 during the 2012-2014 study for the two largest catchments draining the terrace. Over a standard three-year crop rotation, these leaching rates represent 19-31% of typical fertilizer N application rates; however, leaching losses are likely derived not only from fertilizer but also from soil organic N mineralization, and are apparently higher during the post-fallow phase of the crop rotation. Groundwater

  5. An experimental assembly for precise measurement of thermal accommodation coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Wayne M.; Castañeda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John R.; Gallis, Michael A.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    An experimental apparatus has been developed to determine thermal accommodation coefficients for a variety of gas-surface combinations. Results are obtained primarily through measurement of the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux between parallel plates separated by a gas-filled gap. Measured heat-flux data are used in a formula based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations to determine the coefficients. The assembly also features a complementary capability for measuring the variation in gas density between the plates using electron-beam fluorescence. Surface materials examined include 304 stainless steel, gold, aluminum, platinum, silicon, silicon nitride, and polysilicon. Effects of gas composition, surface roughness, and surface contamination have been investigated with this system; the behavior of gas mixtures has also been explored. Without special cleaning procedures, thermal accommodation coefficients for most materials and surface finishes were determined to be near 0.95, 0.85, and 0.45 for argon, nitrogen, and helium, respectively. Surface cleaning by in situ argon-plasma treatment reduced coefficient values by up to 0.10 for helium and by ˜0.05 for nitrogen and argon. Results for both single-species and gas-mixture experiments compare favorably to DSMC simulations.

  6. An experimental assembly for precise measurement of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Wayne M; Castañeda, Jaime N; Torczynski, John R; Gallis, Michael A; Rader, Daniel J

    2011-03-01

    An experimental apparatus has been developed to determine thermal accommodation coefficients for a variety of gas-surface combinations. Results are obtained primarily through measurement of the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux between parallel plates separated by a gas-filled gap. Measured heat-flux data are used in a formula based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations to determine the coefficients. The assembly also features a complementary capability for measuring the variation in gas density between the plates using electron-beam fluorescence. Surface materials examined include 304 stainless steel, gold, aluminum, platinum, silicon, silicon nitride, and polysilicon. Effects of gas composition, surface roughness, and surface contamination have been investigated with this system; the behavior of gas mixtures has also been explored. Without special cleaning procedures, thermal accommodation coefficients for most materials and surface finishes were determined to be near 0.95, 0.85, and 0.45 for argon, nitrogen, and helium, respectively. Surface cleaning by in situ argon-plasma treatment reduced coefficient values by up to 0.10 for helium and by ∼0.05 for nitrogen and argon. Results for both single-species and gas-mixture experiments compare favorably to DSMC simulations.

  7. Integral linear momentum balance in combining flows for calculating the pressure drop coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollmann, A.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for calculating the loss coefficient in combining flows in tee functions are obtained by an integral linear momentum balance. It is a practice, when solving this type of problem, to neglect the pressure difference in the upstream location as well as the wall-fluid interaction in the lateral branch of the junction. In this work it is demonstrated the influence of the above parameters on the loss coefficient based on experimental values and by apropriate algebraic manipulation of the loss coefficient values published by previous investigators. (Author) [pt

  8. Simulation of diatomic gas-wall interaction and accommodation coefficients for negative ion sources and accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Brescaccin, L.

    2016-01-01

    Particle-wall interactions determine in different ways the operating conditions of plasma sources, ion accelerators, and beams operating in vacuum. For instance, a contribution to gas heating is given by ion neutralization at walls; beam losses and stray particle production—detrimental for high current negative ion systems such as beam sources for fusion—are caused by collisional processes with residual gas, with the gas density profile that is determined by the scattering of neutral particles at the walls. This paper shows that Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies at the nano-scale can provide accommodation parameters for gas-wall interactions, such as the momentum accommodation coefficient and energy accommodation coefficient: in non-isothermal flows (such as the neutral gas in the accelerator, coming from the plasma source), these affect the gas density gradients and influence efficiency and losses in particular of negative ion accelerators. For ideal surfaces, the computation also provides the angular distribution of scattered particles. Classical MD method has been applied to the case of diatomic hydrogen molecules. Single collision events, against a frozen wall or a fully thermal lattice, have been simulated by using probe molecules. Different modelling approximations are compared

  9. Simulation of diatomic gas-wall interaction and accommodation coefficients for negative ion sources and accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, E.; Brescaccin, L.; Serianni, G.

    2016-02-01

    Particle-wall interactions determine in different ways the operating conditions of plasma sources, ion accelerators, and beams operating in vacuum. For instance, a contribution to gas heating is given by ion neutralization at walls; beam losses and stray particle production—detrimental for high current negative ion systems such as beam sources for fusion—are caused by collisional processes with residual gas, with the gas density profile that is determined by the scattering of neutral particles at the walls. This paper shows that Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies at the nano-scale can provide accommodation parameters for gas-wall interactions, such as the momentum accommodation coefficient and energy accommodation coefficient: in non-isothermal flows (such as the neutral gas in the accelerator, coming from the plasma source), these affect the gas density gradients and influence efficiency and losses in particular of negative ion accelerators. For ideal surfaces, the computation also provides the angular distribution of scattered particles. Classical MD method has been applied to the case of diatomic hydrogen molecules. Single collision events, against a frozen wall or a fully thermal lattice, have been simulated by using probe molecules. Different modelling approximations are compared.

  10. Simulation of diatomic gas-wall interaction and accommodation coefficients for negative ion sources and accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, E; Brescaccin, L; Serianni, G

    2016-02-01

    Particle-wall interactions determine in different ways the operating conditions of plasma sources, ion accelerators, and beams operating in vacuum. For instance, a contribution to gas heating is given by ion neutralization at walls; beam losses and stray particle production-detrimental for high current negative ion systems such as beam sources for fusion-are caused by collisional processes with residual gas, with the gas density profile that is determined by the scattering of neutral particles at the walls. This paper shows that Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies at the nano-scale can provide accommodation parameters for gas-wall interactions, such as the momentum accommodation coefficient and energy accommodation coefficient: in non-isothermal flows (such as the neutral gas in the accelerator, coming from the plasma source), these affect the gas density gradients and influence efficiency and losses in particular of negative ion accelerators. For ideal surfaces, the computation also provides the angular distribution of scattered particles. Classical MD method has been applied to the case of diatomic hydrogen molecules. Single collision events, against a frozen wall or a fully thermal lattice, have been simulated by using probe molecules. Different modelling approximations are compared.

  11. The Influence of Particle Charge on Heterogeneous Reaction Rate Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of particle charge on heterogeneous reaction rates are presented. Many atmospheric particles, whether liquid or solid are charged. This surface charge causes a redistribution of charge within a liquid particle and as a consequence a perturbation in the gaseous uptake coefficient. The amount of perturbation is proportional to the external potential and the square of the ratio of debye length in the liquid to the particle radius. Previous modeling has shown how surface charge affects the uptake coefficient of charged aerosols. This effect is now included in the heterogeneous reaction rate of an aerosol ensemble. Extension of this analysis to ice particles will be discussed and examples presented.

  12. Study of transport coefficients of nanodiamond nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryazhnikov, M. I.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzei, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental data on the thermal conductivity coefficient and viscosity coefficient of nanodiamond nanofluids are presented. Distilled water and ethylene glycol were used as the base fluid. Dependences of transport coefficients on concentration are obtained. It was shown that the thermal conductivity coefficient increases with increasing nanodiamonds concentration. It was shown that base fluids properties and nanodiamonds concentration affect on the rheology of nanofluids.

  13. Data of ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, Al2O3 PERC cell performance, and cell efficiency loss mechanisms of Al2O3 PERC cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to the recently published article ‘20.8% industrial PERC solar cell: ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, efficiency loss mechanisms analysis and roadmap to 24%’ (Huang et al., 2017 [1]. This paper is about passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC structures and it describes the quality of the Al2O3 rear-surface passivation layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD, in relation to the processing parameters (e.g. pre-clean treatment, deposition temperature, growth per cycle, and film thickness and to the cell efficiency loss mechanisms. This dataset is made public in order to contribute to the limited available public data on industrial PERC cells, to be used by other researchers.

  14. Data of ALD Al2O3rear surface passivation, Al2O3PERC cell performance, and cell efficiency loss mechanisms of Al2O3PERC cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibing; Lv, Jun; Bao, Yameng; Xuan, Rongwei; Sun, Shenghua; Sneck, Sami; Li, Shuo; Modanese, Chiara; Savin, Hele; Wang, Aihua; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    This data article is related to the recently published article '20.8% industrial PERC solar cell: ALD Al 2 O 3 rear surface passivation, efficiency loss mechanisms analysis and roadmap to 24%' (Huang et al., 2017) [1]. This paper is about passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) structures and it describes the quality of the Al 2 O 3 rear-surface passivation layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), in relation to the processing parameters (e.g. pre-clean treatment, deposition temperature, growth per cycle, and film thickness) and to the cell efficiency loss mechanisms. This dataset is made public in order to contribute to the limited available public data on industrial PERC cells, to be used by other researchers.

  15. Data of ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, Al2O3 PERC cell performance, and cell efficiency loss mechanisms of Al2O3 PERC cell

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Haibing; Lv, Jun; Bao, Yameng; Xuan, Rongwei; Sun, Shenghua; Sneck, Sami; Li, Shuo; Modanese, Chiara; Savin, Hele; Wang, Aihua; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    This data article is related to the recently published article ‘20.8% industrial PERC solar cell: ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, efficiency loss mechanisms analysis and roadmap to 24%’ (Huang et al., 2017) [1]. This paper is about passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) structures and it describes the quality of the Al2O3 rear-surface passivation layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), in relation to the processing parameters (e.g. pre-clean treatment, deposition temperature, g...

  16. Heat transfer coefficient between UO2 and Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, A.M.; Stoute, R.L.

    1962-06-01

    This paper provides some experimental values of the heat-transfer coefficient between UO 2 and Zircaloy-2 surfaces in contact under conditions of interfacial pressure, temperature, surface roughness and interface atmosphere, that are relevant to UO 2 /Zircaloy-2 fuel elements operating in pressurized-water power reactors. Coefficients were obtained from eight UO 2 / Zircaloy-2 pairs in atmospheres of helium, argon, krypton or xenon, at atmosphere pressure and in vacuum. Interfacial pressures were varied from 50 to 550 kgf/cm 2 while surface roughness heights were in the range 0.2 x 10 -4 to 3.5 x 10 -4 cm. The effect on the coefficients of cycling the interfacial pressure, of interface gas pressure and of temperature were examined. The experimental values of the coefficients were used to test the predictions of expressions for the heat-transfer between two solids in contact. For the particular UO 2 / Zircaloy-2 pairs examined, numerical values were assigned to several parameters that related the surface roughnesses to either the radius of solid/solid contact spots or to the mean thickness of the interface voids and that accounted for the imperfect accommodation of the void gas on the test surfaces. (author)

  17. On the friction coefficient of straight-chain aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Lorenzo; Drossinos, Yannis

    2011-04-15

    A methodology to calculate the friction coefficient of an aggregate in the continuum regime is proposed. The friction coefficient and the monomer shielding factors, aggregate-average or individual, are related to the molecule-aggregate collision rate that is obtained from the molecular diffusion equation with an absorbing boundary condition on the aggregate surface. Calculated friction coefficients of straight chains are in very good agreement with previous results, suggesting that the friction coefficients may be accurately calculated from the product of the collision rate and an average momentum transfer, the latter being independent of aggregate morphology. Langevin-dynamics simulations show that the diffusive motion of straight-chain aggregates may be described either by a monomer-dependent or an aggregate-average random force, if the shielding factors are appropriately chosen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Friction Experiments for Dynamical Coefficient Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Arnoux

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study, including three experimental devices, is presented in order to investigate dry friction phenomena in a wide range of sliding speeds for the steel on steel contact. A ballistic setup, with an air gun launch, allows to estimate the friction coefficient between 20 m/s and 80 m/s. Tests are completed by an adaptation of the sensor on a hydraulic tensile machine (0.01 m/s to 3 m/s and a pin-on-disk tribometer mounted on a CNC lathe (1 to 30 m/s. The interactions at the asperity scale are characterized by a white light interferometer surface analysis.

  19. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface...... impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model...

  20. Energy Renovation of Buildings Utilizing the U-value Meter, a New Heat Loss Measuring Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Schiøtt Sørensen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new device with the ability to measure heat loss from building facades is proposed. Yet to be commercially developed, the U-value Meter can be used as stand-alone apparatus, or in combination with thermographic-equipment. The U-value meter complements thermographs, which only reproduce surface temperature and not the heat loss distribution. There is need for a device that measures the heat loss in a quantitative manner. Convective as well as radiative heat losses are captured and measured with a five-layer thermal system. Heat losses are measured in the SI-unit W/m2K. The aim is to achieve more cost-effective building renovation, and provide a means to check the fulfillment of Building Regulation requirements with respect to stated U-values (heat transmission coefficients. In this way it should be possible to greatly reduce energy consumption of buildings.

  1. Kerr scattering coefficients via isomonodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Bruno Carneiro da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Novaes, Fábio [International Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte,Av. Odilon Gomes de Lima 1722, Capim Macio, Natal-RN 59078-400 (Brazil)

    2015-11-23

    We study the scattering of a massless scalar field in a generic Kerr background. Using a particular gauge choice based on the current conservation of the radial equation, we give a generic formula for the scattering coefficient in terms of the composite monodromy parameter σ between the inner and the outer horizons. Using the isomonodromy flow, we calculate σ exactly in terms of the Painlevé V τ-function. We also show that the eigenvalue problem for the angular equation (spheroidal harmonics) can be calculated using the same techniques. We use recent developments relating the Painlevé V τ-function to Liouville irregular conformal blocks to claim that this scattering problem is solved in the combinatorial sense, with known expressions for the τ-function near the critical points.

  2. Loss of chance: what loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sara

    2006-05-01

    A recent New South Wales judgment, Rufo v Hosking, explored the concept of 'loss of a chance' in medical negligence claims. 'Loss of a chance' claims involve an allegation that the patient lost the chance of a better outcome as a result of the negligence of the medical practitioner. This article outlines the case and discusses the implications of the judgment for medical practitioners.

  3. Quantification of soil and water losses in an extensive olive orchard catchment in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Taguas, Encarnación; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2018-01-01

    A sound understanding of erosive processes at different scales can contribute substantially to the design of suitable management strategies. The main aim of this work was to evaluate key factors at the pedon scale that cause soil erosion to occur. To achieve this goal, we quantified infiltration, permeability, soil losses and runoff volumes in a small Southern Spanish catchment cultivated with olive orchards. To assess which factor contributed most to speeding up soil erosion, a Spearman rank coefficient and principal components analysis were carried out. The results confirmed low infiltration values (11.8 mm h-1) in the surface soil layers and high permeability values (24.6 mm h-1) in the sub-surface soil layers, and produced an average soil loss of 19.7 g m-2 and average runoff coefficients of 26.1%. Statistical analyses showed that: i) the generation of runoff was closely correlated with soil loss; and, ii) an increase in the vegetation cover helped reduce soil erosion. In comparison to larger areas such as a catchment, the pedon scale produced lower or similar soil losses and runoff coefficients in rainfall simulation conditions, although the influence of vegetation cover as a control factor was also detected.

  4. Coefficient of friction of a starved lubricated spur gear pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huaiju; Zhu, Caichao; Sun, Zhangdong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Song, Chaosheng

    2016-01-01

    The frictional power loss issue of gear pairs becomes an important concern in both industry and academia due to the requirement of the energy saving and the improvement of power density of gear drives. A thermal starved elastohydrodynamic lubrication model is developed to study the tribological performance of a spur gear pair under starved lubrication conditions. The contact pressure, the film thickness, the temperature rise, the frictional power loss, as well as the coefficient of friction are evaluated by considering the variation of the curvature radius, the sliding/rolling motion, and the load distribution of gear tooth within the meshing period. Effects of lubrication starvation condition, load and speed on the coefficient of friction are studied.

  5. Surface plasmon polariton amplification in semiconductor-graphene-dielectric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadoenkova, Yuliya S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod (Russian Federation); Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk (Ukraine); Moiseev, Sergey G. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Abramov, Aleksei S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kadochkin, Aleksei S.; Zolotovskii, Igor O. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Nanotechnologies of Microelectronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 32A Leninskiy Prosp., 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fotiadi, Andrei A. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Universite de Mons (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    A mechanism of amplification of surface plasmon polaritons due to the transfer of electromagnetic energy from a drift current wave into a far-infrared surface wave propagating along a semiconductor-dielectric boundary in waveguide geometry is proposed. A necessary condition of the interaction of these waves is phase matching condition, i. e., when the phase velocity of the surface wave approaches the drift velocity of charge carriers. It is shown that in the spectral region of the surface plasmon polariton slowing-down its amplification coefficient can reach values substantially exceeding the ohmic loss coefficient of the surface wave in the structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ...

  7. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person with memory loss needs a lot of support. It helps to show the person familiar objects, music, or and photos or play familiar music. Write down when the person should take any medicine or do other ...

  8. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair bulb. This is where the hair's color pigment, or melanin, is produced. Most people lose about ... diabetes or thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can ...

  9. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...... the ill parent. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the traumatic process of parental ABI that some children experience and emphasize the importance of family-centred interventions that include the children....

  10. A comparison of experimental and theoretical results for leakage, pressure distribution, and rotordynamic coefficients for annular gas seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, C. O.; Childs, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of seal behavior in rotordynamics is discussed and current annular seal theory is reviewed. A Nelson's analytical-computational method for determining rotordynamic coefficients for this type of compressible-flow seal is outlined. Various means for the experimental identification of the dynamic coefficients are given, and the method employed at the Texas A and M University (TAMU) test facility is explained. The TAMU test apparatus is described, and the test procedures are discussed. Experimental results, including leakage, entrance-loss coefficients, pressure distributions, and rotordynamic coefficients for a smooth and a honeycomb constant-clearance seal are presented and compared to theoretical results from Nelson's analysis. The results for both seals show little sensitivity to the running speed over the test range. Agreement between test results and theory for leakage through the seal is satisfactory. Test results for direct stiffness show a greater sensitivity to fluid pre-rotation than predicted. Results also indicate that the deliberately roughened surface of the honeycomb seal provides improved stability versus the smooth seal.

  11. Factorization of Transport Coefficients in Macroporous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    We prove the fundamental theorem about factorization of the phenomenological coefficients for transport in macroporous media. By factorization we mean the representation of the transport coefficients as products of geometric parameters of the porous medium and the parameters characteristic...

  12. Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.

    1985-01-01

    Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains

  13. Condensing heat transfer following a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotiuk, W.J.; Rubin, M.B.

    1978-01-01

    A new method for calculating the steam mass condensation energy removal rates on cold surfaces in contact with an air-steam mixture has been developed. This method is based on the principles of mass diffusion of steam from an area of high concentration to the condensing surface, which is an area of low steam concentration. This new method of calculating mass condensation has been programmed into the CONTEMPT-LT Mod 26 computer code, which calculates the pressure and temperature transients inside a light water reactor containment following a loss-of-coolant accident. The condensing heat transfer coefficient predicted by the mass diffusion method is compared to existing semi-empirical correlations and to the experimental results of the Carolinas Virginia Tube Reactor Containment natural decay test. Closer agreement with test results is shown in the calculation of containment pressure, temperature, and heat sink surface temperature using the mass diffusion condensation method than when using any existing semi-empirical correlation

  14. Effect of Opening the Sash of a Centre-Pivot Roof Window on Wind Pressure Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Wigö, Hans; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    . The wind pressures were defined in terms of wind pressure coefficients. Traditionally wind pressure coefficients are extracted from the analysis of sealed plain surface. These wind pressure coefficients are used to estimate the natural ventilation rate through windows/openings due to wind effect. Surface...... averaged wind pressure coefficients do not accurately estimate the airflow rates. Therefore, local wind pressure coefficients are needed especially for dynamic calculation of airflow rates. From the wind tunnel experiments, it is concluded that outward opening the sash can significantly affect the wind...... pressure distribution nearby the window. The use of wind pressure coefficients from the analysis of sealed plain surface may lead to erroneous estimation of airflow rate....

  15. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  16. Anomalous Seebeck coefficient in boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aselage, T.L.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Howard, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Boron carbides exhibit an anomalously large Seebeck coefficient with a temperature coefficient that is characteristic of polaronic hopping between inequivalent sites. The inequivalence in the sites is associated with disorder in the solid. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for materials prepared by different techniques provides insight into the nature of the disorder

  17. Coefficient rings of formal group laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchstaber, V M; Ustinov, A V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the coefficient rings of universal formal group laws which arise in algebraic geometry, algebraic topology and their application to mathematical physics. We also describe the homomorphisms of these coefficient rings coming from reductions of one formal group law to another. The proofs are based on the number-theoretic properties of binomial coefficients. Bibliography: 37 titles

  18. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  19. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  20. Criticality coefficient calculation for a small PWR using Monte Carlo Transport Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trombetta, Debora M.; Su, Jian, E-mail: dtrombetta@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chirayath, Sunil S., E-mail: sunilsc@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute, Texas A and M University, TX (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Computational models of reactors are increasingly used to predict nuclear reactor physics parameters responsible for reactivity changes which could lead to accidents and losses. In this work, preliminary results for criticality coefficient calculation using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX were presented for a small PWR. The computational modeling developed consists of the core with fuel elements, radial reflectors, and control rods inside a pressure vessel. Three different geometries were simulated, a single fuel pin, a fuel assembly and the core, with the aim to compare the criticality coefficients among themselves.The criticality coefficients calculated were: Doppler Temperature Coefficient, Coolant Temperature Coefficient, Coolant Void Coefficient, Power Coefficient, and Control Rod Worth. The coefficient values calculated by the MCNP code were compared with literature results, showing good agreement with reference data, which validate the computational model developed and allow it to be used to perform more complex studies. Criticality Coefficient values for the three simulations done had little discrepancy for almost all coefficients investigated, the only exception was the Power Coefficient. Preliminary results presented show that simple modelling as a fuel assembly can describe changes at almost all the criticality coefficients, avoiding the need of a complex core simulation. (author)

  1. Surface roughness effect on ultracold neutron interaction with a wall and implications for computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S. S.; Desai, A. M.; Kaufman, C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the diffuse scattering and the loss coefficient in ultracold neutron reflection from slightly rough surfaces, report a surprising reduction in loss coefficient due to roughness, and discuss the possibility of transition from quantum treatment to ray optics. The results are used in a computer simulation of neutron storage in a recent neutron lifetime experiment that reported a large discrepancy of neutron lifetime with the current particle data value. Our partial reanalysis suggests the possibility of systematic effects that were not included in this publication.

  2. Index-free heat kernel coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Anton E. M.

    1998-08-01

    Using index-free notation, we present the diagonal values 0264-9381/15/8/014/img1 of the first five heat kernel coefficients 0264-9381/15/8/014/img2 associated with a general Laplace-type operator on a compact Riemannian space without boundary. The fifth coefficient 0264-9381/15/8/014/img3 appears here for the first time. For the special case of a flat space, but with a gauge connection, the sixth coefficient is given too. Also provided are the leading terms for any coefficient, both in ascending and descending powers of the Yang-Mills and Riemann curvatures, to the same order as required for the fourth coefficient. These results are obtained by directly solving the relevant recursion relations, working in the Fock-Schwinger gauge and Riemann normal coordinates. Our procedure is thus non-covariant, but we show that for any coefficient the `gauged', respectively `curved', version is found from the corresponding `non-gauged', respectively `flat', coefficient by making some simple covariant substitutions. These substitutions being understood, the coefficients retain their `flat' form and size. In this sense the fifth and sixth coefficient have only 26 and 75 terms, respectively, allowing us to write them down. Using index-free notation also clarifies the general structure of the heat kernel coefficients. In particular, in flat space we find that from the fifth coefficient onward, certain scalars are absent. This may be relevant for the anomalies of quantum field theories in ten or more dimensions.

  3. International phosphorus workshop: diffuse phosphorus loss to surface water bodies--risk assessment, mitigation options, and ecological effects in river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvang, Brian; Rubaek, Gitte H; Heckrath, Goswin

    2009-01-01

    Agriculture is a major source of P to the aquatic environment in many countries. Although efforts have been made to improve the P utilization in agricultural production, which is reflected in modestly declining P surpluses in many countries, increasing agricultural P surpluses are still observed in some countries. The IPW5 Special Submission included in this issue addresses and discusses four key topics that emerged from the workshop: (i) managing agricultural P losses-effectiveness, uncertainties, and costs; (ii) P modeling at different scales; (iii) functioning of riparian buffers; (iv) ecological responses to P loadings and impacts of climate change. Each of these four topics interacts with each other as well as with the four tiers of the P Transfer Continuum (Source, Mobilization, Transport, and Ecological Effects). In this review paper we highlight the main outcomes of the workshop and the special collection of eight papers. Moreover, we identify the main gaps in our knowledge and future research directions on P, which are linked to important issues such as addressing scale effects, improved P models with the ability to quantify uncertainty, the linking of P losses with ecological effects, and climate change.

  4. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... law Sound level, decibels Duration, daily BASED ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, 2008 90 8 hours 92 6 hours 95 4 hours 97 3 hours 100 2 hours 102 1.5 hours 105 1 hour 110 30 minutes 115 15 minutes or less Complications Hearing loss can have a significant effect on your quality ...

  5. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark...

  6. Ion heat conduction losses in Extrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennfors, E.

    1989-08-01

    The classical ion heat conduction losses in Extrap discharges are calculated using polynomial magnetic field profiles and compared to the power input. For polynomials matched to magnetic field profiles measured in present experiments, these losses are small. By varying the coefficients of the polynomials, a region is found, where the power input can balance the classical heat conduction losses. Each set of coefficients corresponds to values of the parameters F and Θ used in RFP physics. The region determines a region in an F-Θ diagram, including the usual RFP region but extending to higher values of Θ and βΘ

  7. Dielectric response functions of the (000-1), (10-13) GaN single crystalline and disordered surfaces studied by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Jiříček, Petr; Zemek, Josef; Tougaard, S.; Paskova, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2011), 043507/1-043507/7 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/10/P028 Grant - others:MDA(US) HQ0147-09-C-0005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : GaN * REELS * optical constants * semiconductor surfaces Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.168, year: 2011

  8. Aluminum runway surface as possible aid to aircraft braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. D.; Pinkel, I. I.

    1973-01-01

    Several concepts are described for use singly or in combination to improve aircraft braking. All involve a thin layer of aluminum covering all or part of the runway. Advantage would derive from faster heat conduction from the tire-runway interface. Heating of tread surface with consequent softening and loss of friction coefficient should be reduced. Equations are developed indicating that at least 99 percent of friction heat should flow into the aluminum. Preliminary test results indicate a coefficient of sliding friction of 1.4, with predictably slight heating of tread. Elimination of conventional brakes is at least a remote possibility.

  9. Dependence of modal attenuation coefficient frequency variation on upper sediment attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintval, Wendy; Siegmann, William L.; Carey, William M.; Pierce, Allan D.; Lynch, James F.

    2005-04-01

    The range-averaged transmission loss increase in shallow water propagation depends critically on the intrinsic attenuation of the upper sediment. The attenuation coefficients of low-frequency (sandy-silty sediments are compared to numerical calculations, it is found that a nonlinear-frequency dependent attenuation is required with an exponent between 1.5 and 2. The question considered here is how the intrinsic upper-sediment attenuation produces such behavior. A recent simplification of the Biot model [A. D. Pierce et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2345 (2003)] has a power-law exponent of two. With this frequency-dependent bottom attenuation, a two-layer Pekeris waveguide yields modal attenuation coefficients that decrease with frequency as observed by Ingenito. However, a depth-dependent attenuation profile or a third near-surface layer with requisite properties can reverse this behavior. This suggests why higher-frequency numerical computations may require nonlinear frequency-dependent sediment profiles to calculate sound transmission accurately. [Work partially supported by ONR.

  10. Evidence for validity of ileal digestibility coefficients in monogastrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Daniel; de Lange, Cornelis F M

    2012-08-01

    Measures of amino acid (AA) digestibility are used widely to estimate bioavailability of AA in feed and food ingredients for monogastric animals. In principle, the digestibility assay is simpler than in vivo assessments of AA bioavailability and allows for simultaneous estimation of the bioavailability of all AA in an experimental diet. It is generally assumed that absorption of intact AA in the hindgut of monogastrics is minimal, even though colonocytes do contain AA transporters and have been shown to absorb AA. This assumption is supported by the observation that infusion of AA into the hindgut does not improve nitrogen balance in monogastrics. In addition, growth performance of monogastrics is more highly correlated with ileal than faecal AA digestibility. Therefore, ileal digestibility coefficients provide better estimates of AA bioavailability than faecal digestibility coefficients. Measures of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA are confounded with endogenous gut AA losses (EAAL). The curvilinear increase in AID of AA with increasing dietary AA level has been attributed to the relatively large contribution of EAAL to total ileal AA flows at low dietary AA levels. Subtracting basal EAAL from total ileal AA flows yields standardized ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients that appear to be more additive than AID coefficients in mixtures of feed ingredients. An implicit assumption when using SID AA coefficients in diet formulation is that the post-absorptive utilization of AA is not influenced by the dietary protein source. This assumption appears inappropriate when using feed or food ingredients that have been over-heated, induce large amounts of EAAL, or contain substantial amounts of fermentable fibre. Improved understanding of processes that contribute to the discrepancy between bioavailability and ileal digestibility will allow a more effective use of AA digestibility coefficients in diet formulation.

  11. Loss Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes work on the stochastic modelling of loss networks. Such systems have long been of interest to telephone engineers and are becoming increasingly important as models of computer and information systems. Throughout the century problems from this field have provided an impetus to the development of probability theory, pure and applied. This paper provides an introduction to the area and a review of recent work.

  12. Static coefficient of friction between stainless steel and PMMA used in cemented hip and knee implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, N; Groppetti, R; Senin, N

    2006-11-01

    Design of cemented hip and knee implants, oriented to improve the longevity of artificial joints, is largely based on numerical models. The static coefficient of friction between the implant and the bone cement is necessary to characterize the interface conditions in these models and must be accurately provided. The measurement of this coefficient using a repeatable and reproducible methodology for materials used in total hip arthroplasty is missing from the literature. A micro-topographic surface analysis characterized the surfaces of the specimens used in the experiments. The coefficient of friction between stainless steel and bone cement in dry and wet conditions using bovine serum was determined using a prototype computerized sliding friction tester. The effects of surface roughness (polished versus matt) and of contact pressure on the coefficient of friction have also been investigated. The serum influences little the coefficient of friction for the matt steel surface, where the mechanical interactions due to higher roughness are still the most relevant factor. However, for polished steel surfaces, the restraining effect of proteins plays a very relevant role in increasing the coefficient of friction. When the coefficient of friction is used in finite element analysis, it is used for the debonded stem-cement situation. It can thus be assumed that serum will propagate between the stem and the cement mantle. The authors believe that the use of a static coefficient of friction of 0.3-0.4, measured in the present study, is appropriate in finite element models.

  13. Asymmetrical slip propensity: required coefficient of friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-suk; Kim, Sukwon

    2013-07-31

    Most studies in performing slips and falls research reported their results after the ipsilateral leg of subjects (either right foot or left foot) was guided to contact the contaminated floor surface although many studies indicated concerns for asymmetries of legs in kinematic or kinetic variables. Thus, the present study evaluated if dominant leg's slip tendency would be different from non-dominant leg's slip tendency by comparing the Required Coefficient of Friction (RCOF) of the two lower limbs. Forty seven health adults participated in the present study. RCOF was measured when left or right foot of subjects contacted the force platforms respectively. Paired t-test was performed to test if RCOF and heel velocity (HCV) of dominant legs was different from that of non-dominant legs. It was suggested that the asymmetry in RCOFs and HCV between the two lower limbs existed. The RCOFs of non-dominant legs were higher than that of dominant legs. The results indicated that asymmetry in slip propensity, RCOF, was existed in lower extremity. The results from the study suggested that it would be benefit to include a variable, such as asymmetry, in slips and falls research.

  14. Influence of Laser Shock Texturing on W9 Steel Surface Friction Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yujie; Cui, Pengfei; Zhou, Jianzhong; Dai, Yibin; Guo, Erbin; Tang, Deye

    2017-09-01

    To improve surface friction property of high speed steel, micro-dent arrays on W9Mo3Cr4V surface were produced by laser shock processing. Friction test was conducted on smooth surface and texturing surface and effect of surface texturing density on friction property was studied. The results show that, under the same condition, friction coefficient of textured surface is lower than smooth surface with dent area density less than 6%, wear mass loss, width and depth of wear scar are smaller; Wear resistance of the surface is the best and the friction coefficient is the smallest when dent area density is 2.2%; Friction coefficient, wear mass loss, width and depth of wear scar increase correspondingly as density of dent area increases when dent area density is more than 2.2%. Abrasive wear and adhesive wear, oxidative wear appear in the wear process. Reasonable control of geometric parameters of surface texturing induced by laser shock processing is helpful to improve friction performance.

  15. Apparent Coefficient of Friction of Wheat on Denim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Charles V

    2017-07-31

    Calculation of the extraction force for a grain entrapment victim requires a coefficient of friction between the grain and the surface of the victim. Because denim is a common fabric for the work clothes that cover entrapment victims, the coefficient of friction between grain and denim becomes necessary. The purpose of this research was to calculate the apparent coefficient of friction of wheat on denim fabric using a proven procedure. The expectation is to improve the current understanding of conditions that influence extraction forces for victims buried in wheat. The apparent coefficient of friction of wheat on denim fabric was calculated to be 0.167 with a standard deviation of ±0.013. The wheat had a moisture content of 10.7% (w.b.) and bulk density of 778.5 kg m-3. The apparent coefficient of friction of wheat on denim was not significantly affected by pull speeds of 0.004, 0.008, and 0.021 mm s-1 nor normal grain pressures of 3.2, 4.8, 6.3, 7.9, and 11.1 kPa. This is a beginning of understanding the conditions that influence the extraction forces for grain entrapment victims. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  16. Adaptive Finite Element Methods for Elliptic Problems with Discontinuous Coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Elliptic PDEs with discontinuous diffusion coefficients occur in application domains such as diffusions through porous media, electromagnetic field propagation on heterogeneous media, and diffusion processes on rough surfaces. The standard approach to numerically treating such problems using finite element methods is to assume that the discontinuities lie on the boundaries of the cells in the initial triangulation. However, this does not match applications where discontinuities occur on curves, surfaces, or manifolds, and could even be unknown beforehand. One of the obstacles to treating such discontinuity problems is that the usual perturbation theory for elliptic PDEs assumes bounds for the distortion of the coefficients in the L∞ norm and this in turn requires that the discontinuities are matched exactly when the coefficients are approximated. We present a new approach based on distortion of the coefficients in an Lq norm with q < ∞ which therefore does not require the exact matching of the discontinuities. We then use this new distortion theory to formulate new adaptive finite element methods (AFEMs) for such discontinuity problems. We show that such AFEMs are optimal in the sense of distortion versus number of computations, and report insightful numerical results supporting our analysis. © 2013 Societ y for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  17. Air Flows in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian; Vollertsen, Jes

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results...... of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water...... surface drags were found by log-law models of the velocity distribution in turbulent flows to fit velocity profiles measured from the water surface and by integrating the water surface drags along the wetted perimeter, mean water surface drags were found and a measure of the water surface drag coefficient...

  18. Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.

  19. Extended obstruction tensors and renormalized volume coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, C. Robin

    2009-01-01

    The behavior under conformal change of the renormalized volume coefficients associated to a pseudo-Riemannian metric is investigated. It is shown that they define second order fully nonlinear operators in the conformal factor whose algebraic structure is elucidated via the introduction of "extended obstruction tensors". These together with the Schouten tensor constitute building blocks for the coefficients in the ambient metric expansion. The renormalized volume coefficients have recently bee...

  20. The effect analysis of conic coefficient error based on data measured from Talysurf and simulation of Zernike coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Jiang; Liu, Kai; Song, Chong; Peng, Qiu; Peng, Wang; Li, Gang

    2016-09-01

    Derivation of the conic coefficient error of practical aspheric optic surface is quite significant to aspheric machining accuracy, optical system imaging quality analysis and decomposition analysis of optical lenses. The primary mirror of R-c telescope system was tested by Taylor Hobson Talysurf. The practical surface was fitted using Zernike polynomials based on the date measured from Talysurf. Though taking the Zernike coefficients into the optical system, the effect of the aberration which was brought by optical machining to the optical system imaging quality was obtained. The analysis shows that the spherical aberration was brought into the optical system because of the figure error of the primary mirror. And the value of the spherical aberration was same to the practical alignment result. Then the conicoid aspherical degree of the primary mirror was tested by the Talysurf. The machining deviation of the conic coefficient was gotten though comparing the conicoid aspherical degree of the practical primary mirror with that of the perfect primary mirror. The practical conic coefficient was calculated by the deviation. Taking the practical conic coefficient into the R-c telescope system, the degradation of the optical system imaging quality was known. Also the spherical aberration was brought into the optical system. Experimental results show that the value of the spherical aberration analyzed by the two methods is same and consist with the practical alignment result. That is to say that the conic coefficient changed due to machining error of the conicoid aspherical degree. Because of the change the spherical aberration was attached to primary mirror. And which caused the optical system imaging quality declined. Finally, corrector was designed to balance the spherical aberration of the primary mirror. Ensure that the optical system imaging quality meet the requirement.

  1. Index-free Heat Kernel Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    van de Ven, Anton E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Using index-free notation, we present the diagonal values of the first five heat kernel coefficients associated with a general Laplace-type operator on a compact Riemannian space without boundary. The fifth coefficient appears here for the first time. For a flat space with a gauge connection, the sixth coefficient is given too. Also provided are the leading terms for any coefficient, both in ascending and descending powers of the Yang-Mills and Riemann curvatures, to the same order as require...

  2. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  3. Loss of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Surface Expression in Heart Failure Underlies Dysregulation of Action Potential Duration and Myocardial Vulnerability to Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Gao

    Full Text Available The search for new approaches to treatment and prevention of heart failure is a major challenge in medicine. The adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP channel has been long associated with the ability to preserve myocardial function and viability under stress. High surface expression of membrane KATP channels ensures a rapid energy-sparing reduction in action potential duration (APD in response to metabolic challenges, while cellular signaling that reduces surface KATP channel expression blunts APD shortening, thus sacrificing energetic efficiency in exchange for greater cellular calcium entry and increased contractile force. In healthy hearts, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII phosphorylates the Kir6.2 KATP channel subunit initiating a cascade responsible for KATP channel endocytosis. Here, activation of CaMKII in a transaortic banding (TAB model of heart failure is coupled with a 35-40% reduction in surface expression of KATP channels compared to hearts from sham-operated mice. Linkage between KATP channel expression and CaMKII is verified in isolated cardiomyocytes in which activation of CaMKII results in downregulation of KATP channel current. Accordingly, shortening of monophasic APD is slowed in response to hypoxia or heart rate acceleration in failing compared to non-failing hearts, a phenomenon previously shown to result in significant increases in oxygen consumption. Even in the absence of coronary artery disease, failing myocardium can be further injured by ischemia due to a mismatch between metabolic supply and demand. Ischemia-reperfusion injury, following ischemic preconditioning, is diminished in hearts with CaMKII inhibition compared to wild-type hearts and this advantage is largely eliminated when myocardial KATP channel expression is absent, supporting that the myocardial protective benefit of CaMKII inhibition in heart failure may be substantially mediated by KATP channels. Recognition of Ca

  4. Restoration of endodontically treated teeth with major hard tissue loss - influence of post surface design on pull-out bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andreas Thomas Alfred; Binus, Stefanie Martina; Holzschuh, Barbara; Petschelt, Anselm; Powers, John M; Berthold, Christine

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the influence of post surface design and luting system on bond strength of quartz-fiber-reinforced composite posts (QFRCPs) luted to root canal dentin. Single-rooted bovine teeth (n = 650) were randomly assigned (13 groups, n = 50), sectioned, endodontically treated, filled, and post space (length 8 mm) prepared. Custom-made plain-surfaced fiber posts (PSXRO) and (both RTD) macroretentive Macro-Lock Post Illusion X-RO (MLXRO) were inserted into the post spaces using six luting systems: Ketac Cem (KC), Fuji Plus (FP), RelyX Unicem, Multilink Primer_Multilink, Sealbond Ultima_CoreCem, and LuxaBond_LuxaCore Z. As control, a titanium post was cemented with KC. After water storage (24 h, 37°C), pull-out test was performed, followed by failure mode assessment. Bond strength was calculated in MPa and analyzed using anova, Dunnett-T3-test, and Student's t-test with Bonferroni correction. Post design and luting system significantly influenced the bond strength [MPa] (P < 0.05). Compared with the control 4.3 (1.5), all test groups exhibited higher bond strengths (P < 0.05), except for group PSXRO/KC 4.2 (1.0). The remaining bond strengths were PSXRO: FP 8.6 (1.5), RelyX Unicem 10.4 (3.4), Multilink Primer_Multilink 12.7 (3.0), SealBond Ultima_CoreCem 12.7 (3.0), LuxaBond_LuxaCore Z 15.7 (2.5), and MLXRO: KC 7.2 (2.2), FP 13.4 (2.5), RelyX Unicem 9.2 (2.9), Multilink Primer_Multilink 12.5 (4.5), SealBond Ultima_CoreCem 13.7 (4.6), LuxaBond_LuxaCore Z 20.6 (2.2). The bond strengths of MLXRO were higher than those of PSXRO when luted with KC, FP, and LuxaBond_LuxaCore Z (P < 0.05). The post surface design and luting system selection influenced the bond strength of conventionally and adhesively luted QFRCPs to bovine root canal dentin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Interface losses in multimaterial resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, L.G.; Amato, B.; Larsen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    vibrational modes to achieve a total of more than 3000 experimental points that allow us to quantify the contribution of surface and volume intrinsic (material related) losses in MEMS resonators. We conclude that the losses in the interface between silicon nitride and aluminum is a very important contributor......We present an extensive study shedding light on the role of surface and bulk losses in micromechanical resonators. We fabricate thin silicon nitride membranes of different sizes and we coat them with different thicknesses of metal. We later characterize the 81 lowest out-of-plane flexural...

  6. Coefficient of restitution of sports balls: A normal drop test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Adli; Ismail, K. A.

    2012-09-01

    Dynamic behaviour of bodies during impact is investigated through impact experiment, the simplest being a normal drop test. Normally, a drop test impact experiment involves measurement of kinematic data; this includes measurement of incident and rebound velocity in order to calculate a coefficient of restitution (COR). A high speed video camera is employed for measuring the kinematic data where speed is calculated from displacement of the bodies. Alternatively, sensors can be employed to measure speeds, especially for a normal impact where there is no spin of the bodies. This paper compares experimental coefficients of restitution (COR) for various sports balls, namely golf, table tennis, hockey and cricket. The energy loss in term of measured COR and effects of target plate are discussed in relation to the material and construction of these sports balls.

  7. Measurement and modeling of interface heat transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollett, A.D.; Lewis, H.D.; Dunn, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of preliminary work on the modeling and measurement of the heat transfer coefficients of metal/mold interfaces is reported. The system investigated is the casting of uranium in graphite molds. The motivation for the work is primarily to improve the accuracy of process modeling of prototype mold designs at the Los Alamos Foundry. The evolution in design of a suitable mold for unidirectional solidification is described, illustrating the value of simulating mold designs prior to use. Experiment indicated a heat transfer coefficient of 2 kW/m 2 /K both with and without superheat. It was possible to distinguish between solidification due to the mold and that due to radiative heat loss. This permitted an experimental estimate of the emissivity, epsilon = 0.2, of the solidified metal

  8. Coefficient of restitution of sports balls: A normal drop test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haron, Adli; Ismail, K A

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic behaviour of bodies during impact is investigated through impact experiment, the simplest being a normal drop test. Normally, a drop test impact experiment involves measurement of kinematic data; this includes measurement of incident and rebound velocity in order to calculate a coefficient of restitution (COR). A high speed video camera is employed for measuring the kinematic data where speed is calculated from displacement of the bodies. Alternatively, sensors can be employed to measure speeds, especially for a normal impact where there is no spin of the bodies. This paper compares experimental coefficients of restitution (COR) for various sports balls, namely golf, table tennis, hockey and cricket. The energy loss in term of measured COR and effects of target plate are discussed in relation to the material and construction of these sports balls.

  9. Prediction of Sliding Friction Coefficient Based on a Novel Hybrid Molecular-Mechanical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Jianmei; Sheng, Chenxing; Li, Zhixiong

    2018-08-01

    Sliding friction is a complex phenomenon which arises from the mechanical and molecular interactions of asperities when examined in a microscale. To reveal and further understand the effects of micro scaled mechanical and molecular components of friction coefficient on overall frictional behavior, a hybrid molecular-mechanical model is developed to investigate the effects of main factors, including different loads and surface roughness values, on the sliding friction coefficient in a boundary lubrication condition. Numerical modelling was conducted using a deterministic contact model and based on the molecular-mechanical theory of friction. In the contact model, with given external loads and surface topographies, the pressure distribution, real contact area, and elastic/plastic deformation of each single asperity contact were calculated. Then asperity friction coefficient was predicted by the sum of mechanical and molecular components of friction coefficient. The mechanical component was mainly determined by the contact width and elastic/plastic deformation, and the molecular component was estimated as a function of the contact area and interfacial shear stress. Numerical results were compared with experimental results and a good agreement was obtained. The model was then used to predict friction coefficients in different operating and surface conditions. Numerical results explain why applied load has a minimum effect on the friction coefficients. They also provide insight into the effect of surface roughness on the mechanical and molecular components of friction coefficients. It is revealed that the mechanical component dominates the friction coefficient when the surface roughness is large (Rq > 0.2 μm), while the friction coefficient is mainly determined by the molecular component when the surface is relatively smooth (Rq friction coefficient are recommended.

  10. Geopotential coefficient determination and the gravimetric boundary value problem: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoeberg, Lars E.

    1989-01-01

    New integral formulas to determine geopotential coefficients from terrestrial gravity and satellite altimetry data are given. The formulas are based on the integration of data over the non-spherical surface of the Earth. The effect of the topography to low degrees and orders of coefficients is estimated numerically. Formulas for the solution of the gravimetric boundary value problem are derived.

  11. Semi-empirical model for heat transfer coefficient in liquid metal turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1982-01-01

    The heat transfer by forced convection in a metal liquid turbulent flow for circular ducts is analyzed. An analogy between the momentum and heat in the wall surface, is determined, aiming to determine an expression for heat transfer coefficient in function of the friction coefficient. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Probability based calibration of pressure coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Ole; Pedersen, Marie Louise; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    .3, the Eurocode partial factor of 1.5 for variable actions agrees well with the inherent uncertainties of wind actions when the pressure coefficients are determined using wind tunnel test results. The increased bias and uncertainty when pressure coefficients mainly are based on structural codes lead to a larger...

  13. Problems with Discontinuous Diffusion/Dispersion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferraris

    2012-01-01

    accurate on smooth solutions and based on a special numerical treatment of the diffusion/dispersion coefficients that makes its application possible also when such coefficients are discontinuous. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence of the numerical approximation and show a good behavior on a set of benchmark problems in two space dimensions.

  14. Parabolic by Shilov systems with variable coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Litovchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the parabolic instability of the Shilov systems to change their coefficients, the definition parabolicity of Shilov for systems with time-dependent $t$ coefficients, unlike the definition parabolicity of Petrovsky, is formulated by imposing conditions on the matricant of corresponding dual by Fourier system. For parabolic systems by Petrovsky with time-dependent coefficients, these conditions are the property of a matricant, which follows directly from the definition of parabolicity. In connection with this, the question of the wealth of the class Shilov systems with time-dependent coefficients is important.A new class of linear parabolic systems with partial derivatives to the first order by the time $t$ with time-dependent coefficients is considered in this work. It covers the class by Petrovsky systems with time-dependent younger coefficients. A main part of differential expression of each such system is parabolic (by Shilov expression with constant coefficients. The fundamental solution of the Cauchy problem for systems of this class is constructed by the Fourier transform method. Also proved their parabolicity by Shilov. Only the structure of the system and the conditions on the eigenvalues of the matrix symbol were used. First of all, this class characterizes the wealth by Shilov class of systems with time-dependents coefficients.Also it is given a general method for investigating a fundamental solution of the Cauchy problem for Shilov parabolic systems with positive genus, which is the development of the well-known method of Y.I. Zhitomirskii.

  15. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  16. Prediction of friction coefficients for gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. F.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical relations are used for correlating laminar and turbulent friction coefficients for gases, with large variations in the physical properties, flowing through smooth tubes. These relations have been used to correlate friction coefficients for hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air.

  17. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  18. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  19. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...

  20. Regularity of the interband light absorption coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In experimental studies the absorption coefficient is a means to study the band gaps at ... to l2( ), where. ⊂ Zd is a finite set. (usually taken to be a lattice cube centred at the origin) and λ±,uλ± are eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of H. ±. ,ω . Then the interband light absorption coefficient A for such finite volume models can.

  1. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  2. Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.

  3. Gini coefficient as a life table function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a toolkit for measuring and analyzing inter-individual inequality in length of life by Gini coefficient. Gini coefficient and four other inequality measures are defined on the length-of-life distribution. Properties of these measures and their empirical testing on mortality data suggest a possibility for different judgements about the direction of changes in the degree of inequality by using different measures. A new computational procedure for the estimation of Gini coefficient from life tables is developed and tested on about four hundred real life tables. The estimates of Gini coefficient are precise enough even for abridged life tables with the final age group of 85+. New formulae have been developed for the decomposition of differences between Gini coefficients by age and cause of death. A new method for decomposition of age-components into effects of mortality and composition of population by group is developed. Temporal changes in the effects of elimination of causes of death on Gini coefficient are analyzed. Numerous empirical examples show: Lorenz curves for Sweden, Russia and Bangladesh in 1995, proportional changes in Gini coefficient and four other measures of inequality for the USA in 1950-1995 and for Russia in 1959-2000. Further shown are errors of estimates of Gini coefficient when computed from various types of mortality data of France, Japan, Sweden and the USA in 1900-95, decompositions of the USA-UK difference in life expectancies and Gini coefficients by age and cause of death in 1997. As well, effects of elimination of major causes of death in the UK in 1951-96 on Gini coefficient, age-specific effects of mortality and educational composition of the Russian population on changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient between 1979 and 1989. Illustrated as well are variations in life expectancy and Gini coefficient across 32 countries in 1996-1999 and associated changes in life expectancy and Gini

  4. Experimental approach for measuring cylindrical flexoelectric coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Liu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Tonghui; Xu, Minglong; Shen, Shengping

    2017-10-01

    Flexoelectricity is a property of dielectric materials by which applied strain gradients induce electric polarizations within dielectric materials. Experimental research into the tensor components of the flexoelectric coefficient is essential. In this work, an experimental approach for measurement of the flexoelectric coefficient tensor components in cylindrical coordinates is developed. Two different experimental methods are designed to obtain the two related unknown flexoelectric coefficient tensor components. Theoretical and finite element analyses are developed and simplified for each experiment, and the related designs are then tested to obtain the coupled electric polarization charges. The two unknown flexoelectric coefficient tensor components of polyvinylidene fluoride are then decoupled. This work provides an experimental method that can be used to obtain multiple unknown flexoelectric coefficient tensor components in solid dielectric materials.

  5. Identification of soil P fractions that are associated with P loss from surface runoff under various cropping systems and fertilizer rates on sloped farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghua Li

    Full Text Available Soil phosphorus (P fractions and runoff P concentration were measured to understand the fate of soil P entering surface runoff water during summer cropping season of different double cropping systems under two fertilizer regimes. The dominant form of runoff P was particulate P (PP. Runoff total P (TP was higher at the vegetative growth stage and lower at the crop reproductive stage. TP and PP were derived mainly from soil Olsen-P, Al-P and Fe-P and amounts increased with sediment content in runoff water. Runoff P discharge was closely related to the changes in soil P forms. Soil Olsen-P, mainly consisting of some Ca2-P and Al-P, was increased by elevating fertilizer rate. Along with crop growth, there were active interconversions among Olsen-P, Org-P, Fe-P and O-Al-P in the soil, and some available P converted into Ca10-P, with O-Fe-P possibly being a transitional form for this conversion. The oilseed rape/corn system had less runoff TP at the early stage, and wheat/sweet potato system had a lower runoff P at the late stage. Intercropping corn with sweet potato in the field with oilseed rape as a previous crop may be helpful for alleviating runoff P load during the summer in this region.

  6. Identification of soil P fractions that are associated with P loss from surface runoff under various cropping systems and fertilizer rates on sloped farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghua; Wang, Baona; Yang, Tewu; Zhu, Duanwei; Nie, Zhongnan; Xu, Junchi

    2017-01-01

    Soil phosphorus (P) fractions and runoff P concentration were measured to understand the fate of soil P entering surface runoff water during summer cropping season of different double cropping systems under two fertilizer regimes. The dominant form of runoff P was particulate P (PP). Runoff total P (TP) was higher at the vegetative growth stage and lower at the crop reproductive stage. TP and PP were derived mainly from soil Olsen-P, Al-P and Fe-P and amounts increased with sediment content in runoff water. Runoff P discharge was closely related to the changes in soil P forms. Soil Olsen-P, mainly consisting of some Ca2-P and Al-P, was increased by elevating fertilizer rate. Along with crop growth, there were active interconversions among Olsen-P, Org-P, Fe-P and O-Al-P in the soil, and some available P converted into Ca10-P, with O-Fe-P possibly being a transitional form for this conversion. The oilseed rape/corn system had less runoff TP at the early stage, and wheat/sweet potato system had a lower runoff P at the late stage. Intercropping corn with sweet potato in the field with oilseed rape as a previous crop may be helpful for alleviating runoff P load during the summer in this region. PMID:28650990

  7. Variação espacial da perda de solo por erosão em diferentes superfícies geomórficas Spatial variation of the soil loss for erosion in different geomorphic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton César Costa Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência das superfícies geomórficas na variação espacial da perda de solo por erosão na região de Pereira Barreto, São Paulo (SP. Os solos foram amostrados nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, georreferenciados, com intervalos de 350m, na profundidade de 0,0-0,2m, totalizando 67 pontos. Foram feitas determinações da composição granulométrica e do conteúdo de matéria orgânica. Foram avaliados os fatores de erosão locais, tais como erosividade (R, erodibilidade (K, fator topográfico (LS, uso e manejo (C, práticas conservacionistas (P, potencial natural de erosão (PNE, perda de solo com e sem práticas conservacionistas (A e *A, tolerância de perda de solo (T e risco de erosão (RE. As variáveis A, PNE e RE apresentaram forte correlação espacial com o fator topográfico (LS, indicando a forte relação do relevo sobre os fatores de erosão. As perdas de solo (A e *A apresentaram comportamento coerente com a conceituação de superfícies geomórficas, evidenciando as relações de dependência do processo erosivo do solo aos ambientes geomórficos.The objective of this research was to study the influence of the geomorphic surfaces in the spatial variations of the soil loss by erosion in the Pereira Barreto region, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in 67 points, in a depth of 0.0-0.2m, located in a 350m regular grid to measure the particle size distribution and organic matter content. The local erosion factors were determined: erosivity (R, erodibility (K, topographical factor (LS, use and tillage (C, and conservation tillage (P, natural potential of erosion (PNE, soil loss with and without conservation tillage (A, soil loss tolerance (T and erosion risk (RE. The variables A, PNE and RE presented great spatial correlation with the topographical factor (LS, indicating the influence of the relief on the erosion factors. The soil losses (A and A * presented

  8. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions of o...... in the literature, indicating limitations and possibilities of radiant ceiling systems improvement.......The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions...... and convection or as one total parameter, but this choice may lead to different considerations about thermal performance of the system. In order to perform correct evaluations, it is therefore extremely important to use the proper reference temperature. The obtained values confirm tendencies found...

  9. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 1. Collection of the distribution coefficient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)

  10. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Shahid

    Full Text Available Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT, hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig. Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number. Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number ‘3’ and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number. Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects. Keywords: Mach number, Reynolds number, Blunt body, Altitude effect, Angle of attacks

  11. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faiza; Hussain, Mukkarum; Baig, Mirza Mehmood; Haq, Ihtram ul

    Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT), hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig). Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number). Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number '3' and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number). Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number) and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number) slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number) at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects.

  12. Weight-loss medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescription weight loss drugs; Diabetes - weight loss drugs; Obesity - weight loss drugs; Overweight - weight loss drugs ... Several weight-loss medicines are available. About 5 to 10 pounds (2 to 4.5 kilograms) can be lost by ...

  13. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  14. An eight-legged tactile sensor to estimate coefficient of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Chen; Rodpongpun, Sura; Luo, William; Isaacson, Nathan; Kark, Lauren; Khamis, Heba; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that a tangential force larger than the maximum static friction force is required to initiate the sliding motion between two objects, which is governed by a material constant called the coefficient of static friction. Therefore, knowing the coefficient of static friction is of great importance for robot grippers which wish to maintain a stable and precise grip on an object during various manipulation tasks. Importantly, it is most useful if grippers can estimate the coefficient of static friction without having to explicitly explore the object first, such as lifting the object and reducing the grip force until it slips. A novel eight-legged sensor, based on simplified theoretical principles of friction is presented here to estimate the coefficient of static friction between a planar surface and the prototype sensor. Each of the sensor's eight legs are straight and rigid, and oriented at a specified angle with respect to the vertical, allowing it to estimate one of five ranges (5 = 8/2 + 1) that the coefficient of static friction can occupy. The coefficient of friction can be estimated by determining whether the legs have slipped or not when pressed against a surface. The coefficients of static friction between the sensor and five different materials were estimated and compared to a measurement from traditional methods. A least-squares linear fit of the sensor estimated coefficient showed good correlation with the reference coefficient with a gradient close to one and an r(2) value greater than 0.9.

  15. Effect of electrostatic field on dynamic friction coefficient of pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Aghkhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Separation and grading of agricultural products from the production to supply, has notable importance. The separation can be done based on physical, electrical, magnetic, optical properties and etc. It is necessary for any development of new systems to study enough on the properties and behavior of agricultural products. Some characteristics for separation are size (length, width and thickness, hardness, shape, density, surface roughness, color, speed limit, aerodynamic properties, electrical conductivity, elasticity and coefficient of static friction point. So far, the friction properties of agricultural products used in the separating process, but the effect of electrostatic charging on static and dynamic coefficients of friction for separation had little attention. The aim of this study was to find out the interactions between electrostatic and friction properties to find a way to separate products that separation is not possible with conventional methods or not sufficiently accurate. In this paper, the separation of close and smiley pistachios by electrostatic charging was investigated. Materials and Methods: Kallehghoochi pistachio cultivar has the top rank in production in Iran. Therefore, it was used as a sample. The experimental design that used in this study, had moisture content at three levels (24.2, 14.5 and 8.1 percent, electric field intensity at three levels (zero, 4000 and 7000 V, speed of movement on the surface at three levels (1300, 2500 and 3300 mm per minute, friction surface (galvanized sheet iron, aluminum and flat rubber and pistachio type at two levels (filled splits and closed that was measured and analyzed in completely randomized factorial design. A friction measuring device (built in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad used to measure the friction force. It has a removable table that can move in two directions with adjustable speed. The test sample put into the vessel with internal dimensions of 300 × 150

  16. Virial coefficients of anisotropic hard solids of revolution: The detailed influence of the particle geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Elisabeth; Hellmann, Robert; Wagner, Joachim

    2017-11-28

    We provide analytical expressions for the second virial coefficients of differently shaped hard solids of revolution in dependence on their aspect ratio. The second virial coefficients of convex hard solids, which are the orientational averages of the mutual excluded volume, are derived from volume, surface, and mean radii of curvature employing the Isihara-Hadwiger theorem. Virial coefficients of both prolate and oblate hard solids of revolution are investigated in dependence on their aspect ratio. The influence of one- and two-dimensional removable singularities of the surface curvature to the mutual excluded volume is analyzed. The virial coefficients of infinitely thin oblate and infinitely long prolate particles are compared, and analytical expressions for their ratios are derived. Beyond their dependence on the aspect ratio, the second virial coefficients are influenced by the detailed geometry of the particles.

  17. Piezo- and elasto-optic coefficients for calcium tungstate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytsyk, B G; Demyanyshyn, N M; Solskii, I M; Sakharuk, O M

    2016-11-10

    A general equation describing the rotation of an optical indicatrix of tetragonal crystals (4, 4¯, 4/m symmetry classes) around the X3 axis (optical axis) depending on the direction of uniaxial pressure in the plane perpendicular to crystal optical axis is written. Partial cases of the general equation, when pressure is acting along the X1 (X2) axis or along the diagonal between the X1 and X2 axes, are received. The values of piezo-optic coefficients (POCs) π61, π16, and π45 are determined by the conoscopic method on the basis of the appropriate equations. Other POCs πim are determined by the interferometric method. All components of the matrix of elasto-optic coefficients are also determined as pin=πimCmn. These results are being compared to the ones received on the basis of wave-mechanical calculations. Objective pin values are necessary to build indicative surfaces of the elasto-optic effect and to find maximums of these surfaces and appropriate maximum values of acousto-optic quality coefficients.

  18. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Ya Gao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green–Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  19. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is       1.486

  20. Explicit formulas for Clebsch-Gordan coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki-Bujnowski, G.

    1975-01-01

    The problem is to obtain explicit algebraic formulas of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for high values of angular momentum. The method of solution is an algebraic method based on the Racah formula using the FORMAC programming language. (Auth.)

  1. Second coefficient of viscosity in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Robert L.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Zheng, Zhonquan

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic attenuation measurements in air were analyzed in order to estimate the second coefficient of viscosity. Data over a temperature range of 11 C to 50 C and at relative humidities between 6 percent and 91 percent were used. This analysis showed that the second coefficient of viscosity varied between 1900 and 20,000 times larger than the dynamic or first coefficient of viscosity over the temperature and humidity range of the data. In addition, the data showed that the molecular relaxation effects, which are responsible for the magnitude of the second coefficient of viscosity, place severe limits on the use of time-independent, thermodynamic equations of state. Compressible flows containing large streamwise velocity gradients, like shock waves, which cause significant changes in particle properties to occur during time intervals shorter than hundredths of seconds, must be modeled using dynamic equations of state. The dynamic model approach is described briefly.

  2. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  3. Form coefficient of helical toroidal solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, V.Z.; Kunchenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    For toroidal solenoids with continuous spiral coil, winded according to the laws of equiinclined and simple cylindrical spirals with homogeneous, linearly increasing to the coil periphery and ''Bitter'' distribution of current density, the analytical expressions for the dependence between capacity consumed and generated magnetic field, expressions for coefficients of form similar to Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids are obtained and dependence of the form coefficient and relative volume of solenoid conductor on the number of revolutions of screw line per one circumvention over the large torus radius is also investigated. Analytical expressions of form coefficients and graphical material permit to select the optimum geometry as to capacity consumed both for spiral (including ''force-free'') and conventional toroidal solenoids of magnetic systems in thermonulear installations

  4. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Runoff Coefficient C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation District (RTD)s light rail tracks were modeled to determine the Rational Method : runoff coefficient, C, values corresponding to ballasted tracks. To accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a : rain...

  5. Phosphorus loss by surface runoff in no-till system under mineral and organic fertilization Perda de fósforo via escoamento superficial no sistema plantio direto sob adubação mineral e orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oromar João Bertol

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The no-till system has been intensively used in the state of Paraná, Brazil, and it has increased the nutrients level at the soil surface. This has contributed for nutrient losses via runoff and consequently, off-site water pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate phosphorus loss in surface runoff by simulated rainfall on an Oxisol, under no-till system following application of mineral fertilizer and liquid swine manure. Nitrogen, soil and water losses from the same study are reported in a separated paper. The application of liquid swine manure, compared with mineral fertilization, increased runoff concentration of total P, particulate P and dissolved reactive P by 193%, 111% and 506%, respectively, averaged for all rainfall intensities. Independently on the fertilizer source, the highest rainfall intensity provided the greatest concentration and loads of P in runoff.O sistema plantio direto tem sito intensivamente utilizado no Estado do Paraná Brasil o qual tem aumentado os níveis de nutrientes na superfície do solo. Isto tem contribuído para a perda de nutrientes via escoamento superficial e consequentemente com a poluição não pontual das águas. Avaliou-se a perda de fósforo via escoamento superficial ocasionado por chuva simulada sobre um Latossolo originário de basalto, em sistema plantio direto submetido à aplicação de fertilizante mineral e dejeto líquido de suíno. As perdas de nitrogênio, solo e água deste mesmo estudo foram publicadas em outro artigo. A aplicação de dejeto líquido suíno, comparado com o fertilizante mineral, aumentou a concentração de P total, P particulado e P dissolvido reativo em 193%, 111% e 506%, respectivamente, na média das chuvas. Independentemente da fonte de fertilizante, a chuva de maior intensidade proporcionou maior concentração e quantidade perdida de P no escoamento superficial.

  6. Estimation of Okun Coefficient for Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    KORI YAHIA, Abdellah

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of Okun’s (1962) relationship for Algeria for the 1970- 2015 period. Two methodologies are employed to estimate the Okun coefficient: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) linear model and a Bayesian Normal Linear Regression model. The results indicate an Okun coefficient of about -0.2 which suggests some rigidity of the labour market in Algeria.

  7. Measuring Resource Inequality: The Gini Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Catalano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from work done by the authors at the Mathematics for Social Justice Workshop held in June of 2007 at Middlebury College. We provide a description of the Gini coefficient and some discussion of how it can be used to promote quantitative literacy skills in mathematics courses. The Gini Coefficient was introduced in 1921 by Italian statistician Corrado Gini as a measure of inequality. It is defined as twice the area between two curves. One, the Lorenz curve for a given population with respect to a given resource, represents the cumulative percentage of the resource as a function of the cumulative percentage of the population that shares that percentage of the resource. The second curve is the line y = x which is the Lorenz curve for a population which shares the resource equally. The Gini coefficient can be interpreted as the percentage of inequality represented in the population with respect to the given resource. We propose that the Gini coefficient can be used to enhance students’ understanding of calculus concepts and provide practice for students in using both calculus and quantitative literacy skills. Our examples are based mainly on distribution of energy resources using publicly available data from the Energy Information Agency of the United States Government. For energy resources within the United States, we find that by household, the Gini coefficient is 0.346, while using the 51 data points represented by the states and Washington D.C., the Gini coefficient is 0.158. When we consider the countries of the world as a population of 210, the Gini coefficient is 0.670. We close with ideas for questions which can be posed to students and discussion of the experiences two other mathematics instructors have had incorporating the Gini coefficient into pre-calculus-level mathematics classes.

  8. Measurements of the Drag Coefficient of Simulated Micrometeoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, M.; Munsat, T.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The dust accelerator facility operated at the University of Colorado is used to simulate meteoric ablation, including measuring the ionization efficiency over a wide range of velocities (e.g., DeLuca et al., Planet. Space Sci., submitted, 2017). This presentation reports on the most recent experimental measurements of the drag coefficient that determines the particles' slowdown from their frictional interaction with the atmosphere. The measurements indicate that meteors experience considerably more slowdown than usually assumed. The simulated meteors consisted of submicron sized aluminum particles shot into an air chamber held at 200 mTorr pressure at velocities between 1 - 10 km/s using the dust accelerator and meteor ablation facility. The slowdown is calculated from precise timing measurements made using pickup tube detectors placed upstream and near the entrance to the air chamber, and an impact detector inside the air chamber at the downstream end of the chamber. Supporting modeling calculations show that the particles have little or no mass loss during their interaction with air and thus constant radius can be assumed. Preliminary results for the drag coefficient calculated from these timing measurements reveal that the aluminum particles have a drag coefficient of 1.51 ± 0.24 in air, which is higher than typically assumed in meteoric ablation models (usually 0.5 to 1), indicating that meteors may experience more air drag than previously assumed. More detailed measurements over a wider parameter range are underway.

  9. Pendulum mass affects the measurement of articular friction coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akelman, Matthew R; Teeple, Erin; Machan, Jason T; Crisco, Joseph J; Jay, Gregory D; Fleming, Braden C

    2013-02-01

    Friction measurements of articular cartilage are important to determine the relative tribologic contributions made by synovial fluid or cartilage, and to assess the efficacy of therapies for preventing the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Stanton's equation is the most frequently used formula for estimating the whole joint friction coefficient (μ) of an articular pendulum, and assumes pendulum energy loss through a mass-independent mechanism. This study examines if articular pendulum energy loss is indeed mass independent, and compares Stanton's model to an alternative model, which incorporates viscous damping, for calculating μ. Ten loads (25-100% body weight) were applied in a random order to an articular pendulum using the knees of adult male Hartley guinea pigs (n=4) as the fulcrum. Motion of the decaying pendulum was recorded and μ was estimated using two models: Stanton's equation, and an exponential decay function incorporating a viscous damping coefficient. μ estimates decreased as mass increased for both models. Exponential decay model fit error values were 82% less than the Stanton model. These results indicate that μ decreases with increasing mass, and that an exponential decay model provides a better fit for articular pendulum data at all mass values. In conclusion, inter-study comparisons of articular pendulum μ values should not be made without recognizing the loads used, as μ values are mass dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the local power peaking coefficients obtained by the method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Method: A plurality of representative values for the local power distribution determined by the nuclear constant calculation for one fuel assembly are memorized regarding each of the burn-up degree and the void coefficient on every positions and fuel types in fuel rod assemblies. While on the other hand, the representative values for the local power distribution as described above are compensated by a compensation coefficient considering the effect of adjacent segments and a control rod compensation coefficient considering the effect due to the control rod insertion relative to the just-mentioned compensation coefficient. Then, the maximum value among them is selected to determine the local power peaking coefficient at each of the times and each of the segments, which is monitored. According to this system, the calculation and the working required for the fitting work depending on the combination of fuel types are no more required at all to facilitate the maintenance as well. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Dust resuspension and transport modeling for loss of vacuum accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humrickhouse, P.W.; Corradini, M.L.; Sharpe, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma surface interactions in tokamaks are known to create significant quantities of dust, which settles onto surfaces and accumulates in the vacuum vessel. In ITER, a loss of vacuum accident may result in the release of dust which will be radioactive and/or toxic, and provides increased surface area for chemical reactions or dust explosion. A new method of analysis has been developed for modeling dust resuspension and transport in loss of vacuum accidents. The aerosol dynamic equation is solved via the user defined scalar (UDS) capability in the commercial CFD code Fluent. Fluent solves up to 50 generic transport equations for user defined scalars, and allows customization of terms in these equations through user defined functions (UDF). This allows calculation of diffusion coefficients based on local flow properties, inclusion of body forces such as gravity and thermophoresis in the convection term, and user defined source terms. The code accurately reproduces analytical solutions for aerosol deposition in simple laminar flows with diffusion and gravitational settling. Models for dust resuspension are evaluated, and code results are compared to available resuspension data, including data from the Toroidal Dust Mobilization Experiment (TDMX) at the Idaho National Laboratory. Extension to polydisperse aerosols and inclusion of coagulation effects is also discussed. (orig.)

  12. Water column attenuation coefficient estimations in Alqueva reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potes, Miguel; João Costa, Maria; Salgado, Rui; Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Bortoli, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    The vertical structure of the underwater radiative absorption plays an important role in the thermal dynamics of the water surface layer and consequently on the energy budget at the water-lake interface. Thus, a better estimation of the irradiance at different levels is relevant to understand the lake-air interactions. The main purpose of this dataset of measurements is to estimate the spectral attenuation coefficient of the water column. The apparatus exploited in this work are composed of an optical cable linked to a portable FieldSpec UV/VNIR (ASD). This version has hemispherical field-of-view (FOV) of 180° allowing for measurements under all range of solar zenith. In situ water spectral reflectances were also obtained to help in the validation of satellite water leaving reflectances obtained from satellite spectroradiometers. It is intention of the team to develop an algorithm to derive the attenuation coefficient from satellite data in this reservoir.

  13. Substrates for zero temperature coefficient Love wave sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, B; Vellekoop, M J

    2000-01-01

    Microacoustic Love wave delay lines show high sensitivity to perturbations such as mass depositions on the wave-guide surface. Furthermore, because of their shear polarization, Love waves are ideally suited for liquid sensing applications. Using a Love wave delay line as feedback element in an oscillator allows the realization of viscosity sensors, and, using a chemical interface, chemical sensors, where the output signal is the oscillation frequency. To achieve a high effective sensitivity, the cross-sensitivity to temperature has to be kept low. We outline the proper choice of a material and especially focus on the influence of crystal cut and the major device design parameters (mass sensitivity and coupling coefficient) on the temperature coefficient of the sensor.

  14. Lattice cell diffusion coefficients. Definitions and comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Definitions of equivalent diffusion coefficients for regular lattices of heterogeneous cells have been given by several authors. The paper begins by reviewing these different definitions and the unification of their derivation. This unification makes clear how accurately each definition (together with appropriate cross-section definitions to preserve the eigenvalue) represents the individual reaction rates within the cell. The approach can be extended to include asymmetric cells and whereas before, the buckling describing the macroscopic flux shape was real, here it is found to be complex. A neutron ''drift'' coefficient as well as a diffusion coefficient is necessary to produce the macroscopic flux shape. The numerical calculation of the various different diffusion coefficients requires the solutions of equations similar to the ordinary transport equation for an infinite lattice. Traditional reactor physics codes are not sufficiently flexible to solve these equations in general. However, calculations in certain simple cases are presented and the theoretical results quantified. In difficult geometries, Monte Carlo techniques can be used to calculate an effective diffusion coefficient. These methods relate to those already described provided that correlation effects between different generations of neutrons are included. Again, these effects are quantified in certain simple cases. (author)

  15. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  16. Radon emanation coefficients in sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.; Baranova, A.; Sykora, I.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution the results of the study of an influence of the water content on the emanation coefficient for two sandy soil samples are reported. These samples were chosen on the because of the long-term continual monitoring of the 222 Rn concentration just in such types of soils and this radon concentration showed the significant variations during a year. These variations are chiefly given in connection with the soil moisture. Therefore, the determination of the dependence of the emanation coefficient of radon on the water content can help to evaluate the influence of the soil moisture variations of radon concentrations in the soil air. The presented results show that the emanation coefficient reaches the constant value in the wide interval of the water content for both sandy soil samples. Therefore, in the common range of the soil moisture (5 - 20 %) it is impossible to expect the variations of the radon concentration in the soil air due to the change of the emanation coefficient. The expressive changes of the radon concentration in the soil air can be observed in case of the significant decrease of the emanation coefficient during the soil drying when the water content decreases under 5 % or during the complete filling of the soil pores by the water. (authors)

  17. [Determination of a Friction Coefficient for THA Bearing Couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbka, M; Nečas, D; Bartošík, J; Hartl, M; Křupka, I; Galandáková, A; Gallo, J

    2015-01-01

    The wear of articular surfaces is considered one of the most important factors limiting the life of total hip arthroplasty (THA). It is assumed that the particles released from the surface of a softer material induce a complex inflammatory response, which will eventually result in osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Implant wear is related to a friction coefficient which depends on combination of the materials used, roughness of the articulating surfaces, internal clearance, and dimensions of the prosthesis. The selected parameters of the bearing couples tested were studied using an experimental device based on the principle of a pendulum. Bovine serum was used as a lubricant and the load corresponded to a human body mass of 75 kg. The friction coefficient was derived from a curve of slowdown of pendulum oscillations. Roughness was measured with a device working on the principle of interferometry. Clearance was assessed by measuring diameters of the acetabular and femoral heads with a 3D optical scanner. The specimens tested included unused metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene and ceramic-on-ceramic bearing couples with the diameters of 28 mm and 36 mm. For each measured parameter, an arithmetic mean was calculated from 10 measurements. 1) The roughness of polyethylene surfaces was higher by about one order of magnitude than the roughness of metal and ceramic components. The Protasul metal head had the least rough surface (0.003 μm). 2) The ceramic-on-ceramic couples had the lowest clearance. Bearing couples with polyethylene acetabular liners had markedly higher clearances ranging from 150 μm to 545 μm. A clearance increased with large femoral heads (up to 4-fold in one of the couple tested). 3) The friction coefficient was related to the combination of materials; it was lowest in ceramic-on-ceramic surfaces (0.11 to 0.12) and then in ceramic-on-polyethylene implants (0.13 to 0.14). The friction coefficient is

  18. Variability of Measured Runoff and Soil Loss from Field Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Asadzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Field plots are widely used in studies related to the measurements of soil loss and modeling of erosion processes. Research efforts are needed to investigate factors affecting the data quality of plots. Spatial scale or size of plots is one of these factors which directly affects measuring runoff and soil loss by means of field plots. The effect of plot size on measured runoff or soil loss from natural plots is known as plot scale effect. On the other hand, variability of runoff and sediment yield from replicated filed plots is a main source of uncertainty in measurement of erosion from plots which should be considered in plot data interpretation processes. Therefore, there is a demand for knowledge of soil erosion processes occurring in plots of different sizes and of factors that determine natural variability, as a basis for obtaining soil loss data of good quality. This study was carried out to investigate the combined effects of these two factors by measurement of runoff and soil loss from replicated plots with different sizes. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the variability of runoff and soil loss data seven plots, differing in width and length, were constructed in a uniform slope of 9% at three replicates at Koohin Research Station in Qazvin province. The plots were ploughed up to down slope in September 2011. Each plot was isolated using soil beds with a height of 30 cm, to direct generated surface runoff to the lower part of the plots. Runoff collecting systems composed of gutters, pipes and tankswere installed at the end of each plot. During the two-year study period of 2011-2012, plots were maintained in bare conditions and runoff and soil loss were measured for each single event. Precipitation amounts and characteristics were directly measured by an automatic recording tipping-bucket rain gauge located about 200 m from the experimental plots. The entire runoff volume including eroded sediment was measured on

  19. Research of fuel temperature control in fuel pipeline of diesel engine using positive temperature coefficient material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As fuel temperature increases, both its viscosity and surface tension decrease, and this is helpful to improve fuel atomization and then better combustion and emission performances of engine. Based on the self-regulated temperature property of positive temperature coefficient material, this article used a positive temperature coefficient material as electric heating element to heat diesel fuel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine. A kind of BaTiO3-based positive temperature coefficient material, with the Curie temperature of 230°C and rated voltage of 24 V, was developed, and its micrograph and element compositions were also analyzed. By the fuel pipeline wrapped in six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, its resistivity–temperature and heating characteristics were tested on a fuel pump bench. The experiments showed that in this installation, the surface temperature of six positive temperature coefficient ceramics rose to the equilibrium temperature only for 100 s at rated voltage. In rated power supply for six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, the temperature of injection fuel improved for 21°C–27°C within 100 s, and then could keep constant. Using positive temperature coefficient material to heat diesel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine, the injection mass per cycle had little change, approximately 0.3%/°C. This study provides a beneficial reference for improving atomization of high-viscosity liquids by employing positive temperature coefficient material without any control methods.

  20. Computation of Clebsch-Gordan and Gaunt coefficients using binomial coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, I.I.; Oezmen, A.; Atav, Ue

    1995-01-01

    Using binomial coefficients the Clebsch-Gordan and Gaunt coefficients were calculated for extremely large quantum numbers. The main advantage of this approach is directly calculating these coefficients, instead of using recursion relations. Accuracy of the results is quite high for quantum numbers l 1 , and l 2 up to 100. Despite direct calculation, the CPU times are found comparable with those given in the related literature. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature (“meshed” network to negative curvature (“core concentric” network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.

  2. Nozzle geometry variations on the discharge coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. Alam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical works have been conducted to investigate the effect of nozzle geometries on the discharge coefficient. Several contoured converging nozzles with finite radius of curvatures, conically converging nozzles and conical divergent orifices have been employed in this investigation. Each nozzle and orifice has a nominal exit diameter of 12.7×10−3 m. A 3rd order MUSCL finite volume method of ANSYS Fluent 13.0 was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations in simulating turbulent flows through various nozzle inlet geometries. The numerical model was validated through comparison between the numerical results and experimental data. The results obtained show that the nozzle geometry has pronounced effect on the sonic lines and discharge coefficients. The coefficient of discharge was found differ from unity due to the non-uniformity of flow parameters at the nozzle exit and the presence of boundary layer as well.

  3. Control in the coefficients with variational crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

    2012-01-01

    We study convergence of discontinuous Galerkin-type discretizations of the problems of control in the coefficients of uniformly elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). As a model problem we use that of the optimal design of thin (Kirchhoff) plates, where the governing equations are of the......We study convergence of discontinuous Galerkin-type discretizations of the problems of control in the coefficients of uniformly elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). As a model problem we use that of the optimal design of thin (Kirchhoff) plates, where the governing equations...... to “volumetric” Lebesgue norm, changes of the coefficients is generally speaking not continuous. We utilize the lifting formulation of the discontinuous Galerkin method to deal with this issue.Our main result is that limit points of sequences of designs verifying discrete versions of stationarity can also...

  4. Optical distortion coefficients of laser windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of describing and evaluating thermal lensing phenomena that occur as a result of the absorption of laser light in solid windows. The aberration-function expansion method is applied for deriving the two optical distortion coefficients χ + and χ - that characterize the degradation in light intensity at the Gaussian focus of an initially diffraction-limited laser beam passing through a weakly absorbing stress-birefringent window. In a pulsed mode of operation, the concept of an effective optical distortion coefficient. χ eff, which properly combines the coefficients χ + and χ - in terms of potential impact on focal irradiances, then leads to the definition of a figure of merit for distortion. The theory and the calculations presented in this papers provide simple analytical tools for predicting the optical performance of a window-material candidate in a specific system's environment

  5. Correlation Coefficients of Probabilistic Hesitant Fuzzy Elements and Their Applications to Evaluation of the Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-xing Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Correlation coefficient is one of the broadly use indexes in multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM processes. However, some important issues related to correlation coefficient utilization within probabilistic hesitant fuzzy environments remain to be addressed. The purpose of this study is introduced a MCDM method based on correlation coefficients utilize probabilistic hesitant fuzzy information. First, the covariance and correlation coefficient between two PHFEs is introduced, the properties of the proposed covariance and correlation coefficient are discussed. In addition, the northwest corner rule to obtain the expected mean related to the multiply of two PHFEs is introduced. Second, the weighted correlation coefficient is proposed to make the proposed MCDM method more applicable. And the properties of the proposed weighted correlation coefficient are also discussed. Finally, an illustrative example is demonstrated the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed method. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the correlation coefficient propose in this paper lies in the interval [−1, 1], which not only consider the strength of relationship between the PHFEs but also whether the PHFEs are positively or negatively related. The advantage of this method is it can avoid the inconsistency of the decision-making result due to the loss of information.

  6. Aerodynamic losses calculation of a turbine blade with film cooling with forward and backward injection by numerical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Anil

    Thermal efficiency and power output of gas turbines can be increased by increasing the turbine blade inlet temperature. However, the main problem is the durability of the turbine blade due to the thermal stress on it at high temperature. This has led to the development of film cooling technology, in which coolant is injected from a series of cooling holes made on the blade surface to form an insulating blanket over the blade surface. However, it has to pay the aerodynamic penalties due to the injection of coolant, which are not fully understood. Pressure loss coefficient is one of the easy and widely used parameters to determine the aerodynamic loss occurred on a turbine blade. The losses occurred on the turbine blade with forward injection and backward injection cooling are studied at a different blowing ratios by a numerical simulation, which shows that the loss is higher in the case of backward injection than in forward injection. Fan-shaped cooling holes are also considered to compare with the cylindrical holes. It is observed that the loss is increased due to the fan-shaped holes in the forward injection whereas there is not a substantial difference due to the fan-shaped holes in the backward injection. The aerodynamic loss due to the location of coolant injection is studied by using injection from the leading edge, pressure side, suction side and trailing edge respectively. The study is performed to determine the effect of incidence angles and coolant injection angles on the aerodynamic loss.

  7. Experimental estimate of energy accommodation coefficient at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, I. S.; Lee, D.; Song, J.; Choi, M.

    2001-11-01

    The energy accommodation coefficient (EAC), which is used to characterize gas-surface interactions, was experimentally estimated at high temperatures. A method utilizing laser irradiation to heat up nanoparticles that are generated in a flame was proposed. From the obtained dependence of particle temperature upon laser power, the EAC was derived to be approximately equal to 0.005, which agrees nicely with our recent rigorous theoretical result. It indicates that the efficiency of heat transfer between gas and particles is sufficiently small in high temperature system at large Knudsen numbers.

  8. Criterions for fixing regulatory seismic acceleration coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    1988-03-01

    Acceleration coeffficients to be taken into account in seismic areas for calculation of structures are defined in national seismic regulations. Joined to the described qualitative requirements, these coefficients represent a balance between precaution costs and avoided damages, both in terms of material repairing costs and damage to human life. Persons in charge of fixing these coefficients must be informed of corresponding quantitative aspects. Data on seismic motions occurrencies and consequences are gathered here and convoluted to mean damage evaluations. Indications on precaution costs are joined, which shows that currently recommended levels of seismic motions are high relatively to financial profitability, and represent in fact an aethical choice about human life value [fr

  9. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  10. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    , in many cases such a coefficient would be highly appreciated, e.g. in interaction of industry and research or for the distinction and selection of suitable building materials throughout design and practise. This article first highlights the importance of drying experiments for hygrothermal...... and defined as a new and independent material parameter. It contains information about the moisture transport properties throughout the wide range of moisture contents from hygroscopic up to saturation. With this new and valuable coefficient, it is now possible to distinguish and select building materials...

  11. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, H. P., E-mail: patel.harshal2@gmail.com; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakore@rediffmail.com; Prajapati, A. V., E-mail: anand0prajapati@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Sonvane, Y. A., E-mail: yas@ashd.svnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  12. Reaction rate calculations via transmission coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Alder, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transmission coefficient of a wavepacket traversing a potential barrier can be determined by steady state calculations carried out in imaginary time instead of by real time dynamical calculations. The general argument is verified for the Eckart barrier potential by a comparison of transmission coefficients calculated from real and imaginary time solutions of the Schroedinger equation. The correspondence demonstrated here allows a formulation for the reaction rate that avoids difficulties due to both rare events and explicitly time dependent calculations. 5 refs., 2 figs

  13. Characterization of skin friction coefficient, and relationship to stratum corneum hydration in a normal Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y H; Song, S P; Luo, W; Elias, P M; Man, M Q

    2011-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that some cutaneous biophysical properties vary with age, gender and body sites. However, the characteristics of the skin friction coefficient in different genders and age groups have not yet been well established. In the present study, we assess the skin friction coefficient in a larger Chinese population. A total of 633 subjects (300 males and 333 females) aged 0.15-79 years were enrolled. A Frictiometer FR 770 and Corneometer CM 825 (C&K MPA 5) were used to measure the skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration, respectively, on the dorsal surface of the hand, the forehead and the canthus. In the females, the maximum skin friction coefficients on both the canthus and the dorsal hand skin were observed around the age of 40 years. In the males, the skin friction coefficient on the dorsal hand skin gradually increased from 0 to 40 years of age, and changed little afterward. Skin friction coefficients on some body sites were higher in females than in age-matched males in some age groups. On the canthus and the dorsal hand skin of females, a positive correlation was found between skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration (p friction coefficient was positively correlated with stratum corneum hydration on the forehead and the dorsal hand skin (p friction coefficient varies with age, gender and body site, and positively correlates with stratum corneum hydration on some body sites. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Practical methods to define scattering coefficients in a room acoustics computer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Xiangyang; Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    of obtaining the data becomes quite time consuming thus increasing the cost of design. In this paper, practical methods to define scattering coefficients, which is based on an approach of modeling surface scattering and scattering caused by limited size of surface as well as edge diffraction are presented...

  15. Estimation of water absorption coefficient using the TDR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Majerek, Dariusz; Brzyski, Przemysław; Sobczuk, Henryk; Raczkowski, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    Moisture accumulation and transport in the building barriers is an important feature that influences building performance, causing serious exploitation problems as increased energy use, mold and bacteria growth, decrease of indoor air parameters that may lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). One of the parameters that is used to describe moisture characteristic of the material is water absorption coefficient being the measure of capillary behavior of the material as a function of time and the surface area of the specimen. As usual it is determined using gravimetric methods according to EN 1925:1999 standard. In this article we demonstrate the possibility of determination of water absorption coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. TDR is an electric technique that had been adopted from soil science and can be successfully used for real-time monitoring of moisture transport in building materials and envelopes. Data achieved using TDR readouts show high correlation with standard method of moisture absorptivity coefficient determination.

  16. The coefficient of restitution of pressurized balls: a mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgallas, Alex; Landry, Gaëtan

    2016-01-01

    Pressurized, inflated balls used in professional sports are regulated so that their behaviour upon impact can be anticipated and allow the game to have its distinctive character. However, the dynamics governing the impacts of such balls, even on stationary hard surfaces, can be extremely complex. The energy transformations, which arise from the compression of the gas within the ball and from the shear forces associated with the deformation of the wall, are examined in this paper. We develop a simple mechanistic model of the dependence of the coefficient of restitution, e, upon both the gauge pressure, P_G, of the gas and the shear modulus, G, of the wall. The model is validated using the results from a simple series of experiments using three different sports balls. The fits to the data are extremely good for P_G > 25 kPa and consistent values are obtained for the value of G for the wall material. As far as the authors can tell, this simple, mechanistic model of the pressure dependence of the coefficient of restitution is the first in the literature. *%K Coefficient of Restitution, Dynamics, Inflated Balls, Pressure, Impact Model

  17. Enamel mineral loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nicola X; Joiner, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    To summarise the chemical, biological and host factors that impact enamel mineral loss, to highlight approaches to contemporary management of clinical conditions involving mineral loss and summarise emerging trends and challenges in this area. "Medline" and "Scopus" databases were searched electronically with the principal key words tooth, enamel, *mineral*, caries and erosion. Language was restricted to English and original studies and reviews were included. Conference papers and abstracts were excluded. Enamel mineral loss leads to the degradation of the surface and subsurface structures of teeth. This can impact their shape, function, sensitivity and aesthetic qualities. Dental caries is a multifactorial disease caused by the simultaneous interplay of dietary sugars, dental plaque, the host and time. There is a steady decline in dental caries in developed countries and the clinical management of caries is moving towards a less invasive intervention, with risk assessment, prevention, control, restoration and recall. Tooth wear can be caused by erosion, abrasion and attrition. Dental erosion can be the result of acid from intrinsic sources, such as gastric acids, or extrinsic sources, in particular from the diet and consumption of acidic foods and drinks. Its prevalence is increasing and it increases with age. Clinical management requires diagnosis and risk assessment to understand the underlying aetiology, so that optimal preventative measures can be implemented. Overall, prevention of enamel mineral loss from caries and tooth wear should form the basis of lifelong dental management. Evidence based oral hygiene and dietary advice is imperative, alongside preventive therapy, to have a healthy lifestyle, whilst retaining hard tooth tissue. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS-. P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and an optical ...

  19. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  20. Tracking Time-Varying Coefficient-Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    1999-01-01

    A conditional parametric ARX-model is an ARX-model in which the parameters re replaced by smooth functions of an, possibly multivariate, externalinput signal. These functions are called coefficient functions is suggested. Essentially, in its most simple form, this method is a combination of recur...

  1. Ideal related K-theory with coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilers, Soren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...

  2. Regularity of the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC), in a symmetric form, in the case of random operators on the -dimensional lattice. We show that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the density of states.

  3. Prediction of longitudinal dispersion coefficient using multivariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. River water quality; artificial neural network; longitudinal dispersion coefficient; pollution transmission ... Error indices showed that MARS model has suitable performanceand is more accurate compared to multi-layer neural network model and empirical formulas. Results ofthe Gamma test and MARS model ...

  4. Friction Coefficient Determination by Electrical Resistance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunyagi, A.; Kandrai, K.; Fülöp, Z.; Kapusi, Z.; Simon, A.

    2018-01-01

    A simple and low-cost, DIY-type, Arduino-driven experiment is presented for the study of friction and measurement of the friction coefficient, using a conductive rubber cord as a force sensor. It is proposed for high-school or college/university-level students. We strongly believe that it is worthwhile planning, designing and performing Arduino…

  5. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement...

  6. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  7. Modelling of power-reactivity coefficient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strmensky, C.; Petenyi, V.; Jagrik, J.; Minarcin, M.; Hascik, R.; Toth, L.

    2005-01-01

    Report describes results of modeling of power-reactivity coefficient analysis on power-level. In paper we calculate values of discrepancies arisen during transient process. These discrepancies can be arisen as result of experiment evaluation and can be caused by disregard of 3D effects on neutron distribution. The results are critically discussed (Authors)

  8. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  9. Infinite matrices, wavelet coefficients and frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the action of A on f∈L2(ℝ and on its wavelet coefficients, where A=(almjklmjk is a double infinite matrix. We find the frame condition for A-transform of f∈L2(ℝ whose wavelet series expansion is known.

  10. Rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence has been advanced that the rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO right arrow N2 + O has a small positive temperature dependence at the high temperatures (900 to 1500 K) that prevail in the terrestrial middle and upper thermosphere by Siskind and Rusch (1992), and at the low temperatures (100 to 200 K) of the Martian lower thermosphere by Fox (1993). Assuming that the rate coefficient recommended by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluation (DeMore et al., 1992) is accurate at 300 K, we derive here the low temperature value of the activation energy for this reaction and thus the rate coefficient that best fits the Viking 1 measured NO densities. We find that the fit is acceptable for a rate coefficient of about 1.3 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-400/T) and better for a value of about 2.5 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-600/T)cu cm/s.

  11. Cohomology with coefficients for operadic coalgebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corepresentations of a coalgebra over a quadratic operad are defined, and various characterizations of them are given. Cohomology of such an operadic coalgebra with coefficients in a corepresentation is then studied. Author Affiliations. Anita Majumdar1 Donald Yau2. Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of ...

  12. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  13. Power coefficient anomaly in Joyo, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Yamashita, Yoshioki; Sasaki, Makoto; Nara, Yoshihiko.

    1981-12-01

    In this report, the presumption about the mechanism having caused the power coefficient anomaly in Joyo during the 75 MW power-raising test in 1979 is described. After the previous report, the new information about the results of the post-irradiation examination and the analysis of the power coefficient of Joyo were able to be obtained. From these information, the mechanism of causing the anomaly was presumed as follows. In 50 MW operation, the fuel burnup reached about 10,000 MWD/ton at the end of second cycle, and produced fission gas was almost retained in fuel pellets. When the power was raised from 50 MW to 75 MW for the first time, the fission gas began to be released when 50 MW was somewhat exceeded. The fission gas release caused the temperature rise and cracking of fuel pellets, and elongated fuel stack length abruptly. These phenomena induced to enlarge the fuel expansion reactivity effect and Doppler reactivity effect, and caused the anomalous behavior of power coefficient. After reaching 75 MW, the fuel stack length did not respond normally to reactor power change, and the magnitude of power coefficient became smaller. The reactivity was lost considerably from the core after the anomaly. (Kako, I.)

  14. A Graphical Interpretation of Probit Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William E.; Waldman, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that, when discrete choice models are taught, particularly the probit model, it is the method rather than the interpretation of the results that is emphasized. This article provides a graphical technique for interpretation of an estimated probit coefficient that will be useful in statistics and econometrics courses. (GG)

  15. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    mary production and diffuse attenuation coeffi- cient (Austin 1981; Sathyendranath et al 2000). The Indian IRS-P3 ... oceanic and coastal production of phytoplank- ton (Tyler 1975; Pennock and Sharp 1986). As a result basic ... cient to the plant pigment content. The term dif- fuse attenuation coefficient, most commonly used.

  16. Recursive harmonic analysis for computing Hansen coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel Sharaf, Mohamed; Hassan Selim, Hadia

    2010-12-01

    We report on a simple pure numerical method developed for computing Hansen coefficients by using a recursive harmonic analysis technique. The precision criteria of the computations are very satisfactory and provide materials for computing Hansen's and Hansen's like expansions, and also to check the accuracy of some existing algorithms.

  17. Skidding Coefficients on an Alluvial Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. N. Darwin

    1965-01-01

    The Southern Hardwoods Laboratory is studying the influence of ground conditions and load characteristics on the performance of skidding vehicles in southern bottom lands. The exploratory test was aimed at evaluating the effects of bark on skidding coefficients, but it also yielded information on other log characteristics and on effects of soil moisture.

  18. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The effective stress coefficient, introduced by Biot, is used for predicting effective stress or pore pressure in the subsurface. It is not a constant value. It is different for different types of sediment and it is stress dependent. We used a model, based on contact between the grains to describe...

  19. Method for producing ceramic composition having low friction coefficient at high operating temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Jr., James

    1988-01-01

    A method for producing a stable ceramic composition having a surface with a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance at high operating temperatures. A first deposition of a thin film of a metal ion is made upon the surface of the ceramic composition and then a first ion implantation of at least a portion of the metal ion is made into the near surface region of the composition. The implantation mixes the metal ion and the ceramic composition to form a near surface composite. The near surface composite is then oxidized sufficiently at high oxidizing temperatures to form an oxide gradient layer in the surface of the ceramic composition.

  20. Friction coefficient and limiter load test analysis by flexibility coefficient model of Hold-Down Spring of nuclear reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Linjun

    2017-01-01

    The friction force between the contact surfaces of a reactor internal hold-down spring (HDS) and core barrel flanges can directly influence the axial stiffness of an HDS. However, friction coefficient cannot be obtained through theoretical analysis. This study performs a mathematical deduction of the physical model of an HDS. Moreover, a mathematical model of axial load P, displacement δ, and flexibility coefficient is established, and a set of test apparatuses is designed to simulate the preloading process of the HDS. According to the experimental research and theoretical analysis, P-δ curves and the flexibility coefficient λ are obtained in the loading processes of the HDS. The friction coefficient f of the M1000 HDS is further calculated as 0.224. The displacement limit load value (4,638 kN) can be obtained through a displacement limit experiment. With the friction coefficient considered, the theoretical load is 4,271 kN, which is relatively close to the experimental result. Thus, the friction coefficient exerts an influence on the displacement limit load P. The friction coefficient should be considered in the design analysis for HDS.

  1. Friction coefficient and limiter load test analysis by flexibility coefficient model of Hold-Down Spring of nuclear reactor vessel internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Linjun [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Mechanical Engineering; Xue, Guohong; Zhang, Ming [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, Shanghai (China)

    2017-11-15

    The friction force between the contact surfaces of a reactor internal hold-down spring (HDS) and core barrel flanges can directly influence the axial stiffness of an HDS. However, friction coefficient cannot be obtained through theoretical analysis. This study performs a mathematical deduction of the physical model of an HDS. Moreover, a mathematical model of axial load P, displacement δ, and flexibility coefficient is established, and a set of test apparatuses is designed to simulate the preloading process of the HDS. According to the experimental research and theoretical analysis, P-δ curves and the flexibility coefficient λ are obtained in the loading processes of the HDS. The friction coefficient f of the M1000 HDS is further calculated as 0.224. The displacement limit load value (4,638 kN) can be obtained through a displacement limit experiment. With the friction coefficient considered, the theoretical load is 4,271 kN, which is relatively close to the experimental result. Thus, the friction coefficient exerts an influence on the displacement limit load P. The friction coefficient should be considered in the design analysis for HDS.

  2. Eddy current losses at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovsky, V.; Meerovich, V.; Slonim, M.

    1993-01-01

    The present paper analyses effect of thermal processes on eddy-current losses in construction elements of cryogenic and superconducting devices. Maxwell's equations coupled with heat-conduction equation are solved with taking into account the dependence of resistivity, heat capacity and heat-transfer coefficient on temperature. Analysis of losses as a function of magnetic field, frequency and geometry factors is given for the case of thin strip in a uniform magnetic field. It is shown that losses calculated with taking into account the thermal processes may differ from those obtained at constant temperature

  3. Parametric investigation of cylinder and jacket side convective heat transfer coefficients of gasoline engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamangil, M.I.; Kaynakli, O.; Surmen, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to realize a parametric determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient of a gasoline engine on both the in-cylinder and jacket sides. The combustion products have been determined as a function of excess air coefficient. Cylinder temperature and pressure have been calculated with a simplistic model based on the First Law of Thermodynamics. The in-cylinder heat transfer coefficient is evaluated by using two different expressions; one a specific form of Annand's equation and the other the Woschni equation. Newton's convective heat transfer equation has been utilized to obtain the heat transfer coefficient between the engine block and the cooling water. This process is based on some temperature measurements at various locations in the cooling space, as the distance between the tip of the temperature sensor and the inner cylinder surface is varied for each location. We determined values of both coefficients for various engine parameters

  4. In situ measurements of the oblique incidence sound absorption coefficient for finite sized absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottink, Marco; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    for the finiteness of the absorber. A sound field model, which accounts for scattering from the finite absorber edges, assuming plane wave incidence is derived. A significant influence of the finiteness on the radiation impedance and the corresponding absorption coefficient is found. A finite surface method, which......Absorption coefficients are mostly measured in reverberation rooms or with impedance tubes. Since these methods are only suitable for measuring the random incidence and the normal incidence absorption coefficient, there exists an increasing need for absorption coefficient measurement of finite...... absorbers at oblique incidence in situ. Due to the edge diffraction effect, oblique incidence methods considering an infinite sample fail to measure the absorption coefficient at large incidence angles of finite samples. This paper aims for the development of a measurement method that accounts...

  5. Inter-annual and spatial variability of Hamon potential evapotranspiration model coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Bock, Andy; Markstrom, Steven L.; Atkinson, R. Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Monthly calibrated values of the Hamon PET coefficient (C) are determined for 109,951 hydrologic response units (HRUs) across the conterminous United States (U.S.). The calibrated coefficient values are determined by matching calculated mean monthly Hamon PET to mean monthly free-water surface evaporation. For most locations and months the calibrated coefficients are larger than the standard value reported by Hamon. The largest changes in the coefficients were for the late winter/early spring and fall months, whereas the smallest changes were for the summer months. Comparisons of PET computed using the standard value of C and computed using calibrated values of C indicate that for most of the conterminous U.S. PET is underestimated using the standard Hamon PET coefficient, except for the southeastern U.S.

  6. Estimated Drag Coefficients and Wind Structure of Hurricane Frances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedler, S. E.; Niiler, P. P.; Stammer, D.; Terrill, E.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the Coupled Boundary Layers Air Sea Transfer (CBLAST) experiment, an array of drifters and floats was deployed from an aircraft just ahead of Hurricane Frances during it's passage to the northwest side of the Caribbean Island chain in August, 2004. The ocean and surface air conditions prior to, during, and after Hurricane Frances were documented by multiple sensors. Two independent estimates of the surface wind field suggest different storm structures. NOAA H*WINDS, an objectively analyzed product using a combination of data collected at the reconnaissance flight level, GPS profilers (dropwindsondes), satellites, and other data, suggest a 40km radius of maximum wind. A product based on the radial momentum equation balance using \\ital{in-situ} surface pressure data and wind direction measurements from the CBLAST drifter array suggests that the radius of maximum winds was 15km. We used a regional version of the MITGCM model with closed boundaries and realistic temperature and salinity fields which was forced with these wind field products to determine which wind field leads to circulation and SST structures that are most consistent with observed sea surface temperature fields and float profile data. Best estimates of the surface wind structure are then used to estimate the appropriate drag coefficient corresponding to the maximum velocity. Our results are compared with those obtained previously.

  7. Heat transfer coefficient as parameter describing ability of insulating liquid to heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Zbigniew; Gościński, Przemysław; Bródka, Bolesław

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the measurements of heat transfer coefficient of insulating liquids used in transformers. The coefficient describes an ability of the liquid to heat transport. On the basis of the coefficient, effectiveness of cooling system of electric power devices can be estimated. Following liquids were used for the measurements: mineral oil, synthetic ester and natural ester. It was assumed that surface heat load is about 2500 W·m-2, which is equal the load of transformer windings. A height of heat element was 1.6 m, because it makes possible steady distribution of temperature on its surface. The measurements of heat transfer coefficient was made as a function of various position of heat element (vertical, horizontal). In frame of horizontal position of heat element, three suppositions were analysed: top, bottom, and side.

  8. Anisotropic dehydration of hydrogel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Cheneler, David; Grover, Liam M; Adams, Michael J; Anastasiadis, Spiros H; Bowen, James

    2017-12-01

    Efforts to develop tissue-engineered skin for regenerative medicine have explored natural, synthetic, and hybrid hydrogels. The creation of a bilayer material, with the stratification exhibited by native skin, is a complex problem. The mechanically robust, waterproof epidermis presents the stratum corneum at the tissue/air interface, which confers many of these protective properties. In this work, we explore the effect of high temperatures on alginate hydrogels, which are widely employed for tissue engineering due to their excellent mechanical properties and cellular compatibility. In particular, we investigate the rapid dehydration of the hydrogel surface which occurs following local exposure to heated surfaces with temperatures in the range 100-200 °C. We report the creation of a mechanically strengthened hydrogel surface, with improved puncture resistance and increased coefficient of friction, compared to an unheated surface. The use of a mechanical restraint during heating promoted differences in the rate of mass loss; the rate of temperature increase within the hydrogel, in the presence and absence of restraint, is simulated and discussed. It is hoped that the results will be of use in the development of processes suitable for preparing skin-like analogues; application areas could include wound healing and skin restoration.

  9. Material balance and diets in biological life support systems: a relationship with a coefficient of closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Somova, L. A.

    Biological life support systems (BLSS) of various coefficients of closure were considered The basic coefficient of closure was accepted equal to 66%. With increase in coefficient of closure food requirements for the greater degree should be satisfied due to the manufacture of food inside the BLSS. In this connection food values were estimated both in the basic variant, and in those with increased coefficients of closure. Metabolic massflow rates were estimated at the input and output of the BLSS as well as inside it. Human massflow rates were submitted on the basis of characteristics of the 'reference man'. Stoichiometric synthesis - degradation equations of organic substances in the BLSS were obtained. A problem of nitrogen imbalance was shown to occur under an incomplete BLSS closure. To compensate losses of nitrogen with urine and feces, food and nitrogen-containing additives should be introduced into the BLSS.

  10. Response of fuzzy tungsten surfaces to pulsed plasma bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, D.; Doerner, R.P.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Miyamoto, M.; Nagata, M.; Sakuma, I.; Shoda, K.; Ueda, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Damage of fuzzy tungsten surfaces due to a transient plasma load is characterized in terms of mass loss, surface morphology, and optical properties. A single D pulsed (∼0.1–0.2 ms) plasma shot with surface absorbed energy density of ∼1.1 MJ m −2 leads to a mass loss of ∼80 μg, which cannot be explained by physical sputtering. Thus, macroscopic erosion processes such as droplets and dust release as well as arcing are thought to be responsible for the mass loss. In fact, scanning electron microscopy observations reveal the melting of the tips of fuzz and arc tracks. The optical reflectivity of the damaged (melted) surface is measured to be higher than that of an undamaged fuzzy surface (below ∼0.01%). Spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that the refractive index, n, and extinction coefficient, k, increase from n ≈ 1 and k ≈ 0 for an undamaged fuzzy surface with an increase in the degree of damage of fuzz

  11. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  12. Auger coefficient in GaInN-based laser structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draeger, Alexander Daniel; Netzel, Carsten; Brendel, Moritz; Joenen, Holger; Rossow, Uwe; Hangleiter, Andreas [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Todays GaInN-based light emitting devices such as LEDs and laser diodes show excellent properties in terms of quantum efficiency or threshold current in the violet-blue spectral region. With increasing wavelength towards the green this performance decreases strongly. In particular at longer wavelengths, the quantum efficiency decreases for higher current densities, called the efficiency droop. This phenomenon is still subject to intensive research and different mechanisms such as Auger recombination, losses due to dislocations and carrier escape have been named as possible explanations. We combine optical gain measurements using the variable stripe length technique with model calculations of the optical gain spectra to derive the carrier lifetime. From the dependence of the inverse effective lifetime on carrier density we determine the recombination coefficients for radiative, nonradiative and Auger recombination. The Auger coefficients we obtained are about 1-2 x 10{sup -31} cm{sup 6}/s for GaInN quantum wells with 2.5eV

  13. Effect of the refraction factor of a plastic fiber shell on the internal reflection coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pkrksypkin, A.I.; Ponomarev, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    Results of pilot studies of the effect of refraction factor of plastic fiber shell on the coefficient of light internal reflection in the fiber are presented. It is pointed, that the shell does not absorb the light, but effects the surface layer of the fiber centre so, that dependence of the coefficient of internal reflection on refraction factor of the shell may be described using Fresnel formulae. It is shown, that coefficient of internal reflection decreases with the increase of refraction factor. Technique to determine volume length of scintillation light absorption in the fiber is suggested

  14. Predicted sound absorption coefficients of absorber materials lined in a chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present study was aimed to measurement of sound absorption coefficient of mineral wool and determination of their absorption ability. Materials and Methods: Mineral wool was used to find noise absorption coefficient. Random and normal sound absorption coefficient values were predicted. Then, the measures of transmission loss calculated as an overall value, for applied absorbent material and bare sheet metal. Results: The measured values of noise with one octave band frequency demonstrated an attenuation of 5.5-7 dB for these frequencies. The absorption coefficients of materials showed that mineral wool had more normal sound coefficients than its random sound absorption coefficient values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that predicted normal sound absorption coefficients of used mineral wool materials were near to the areas of standard line. It seems that the amount or thickness of absorbent lining was a main reason of noise reduction in low band frequencies. Mineral wool has a higher density and can provide better acoustical and insulating results than fiberglass. Besides, mineral wool doesn′t lose its insulating value when wet and has an outstanding resistance to fire.

  15. Weyl q-coefficients for uq(3) and Racah q -coefficients for suq(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asherova, R.M.; Smirnov, Yu.F.; Tolstoy, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    With the aid of the projection-operator technique, the general analytic expression for the elements of the matrix that relates the U and T bases of an arbitrary finite-dimensional irreducible representation of the uq(3) quantum algebra (Weyl q-coefficients) is obtained for the case where the deformation parameter q is not equal to a square root of unity. The procedure for resummation of q-factorial expressions is used to prove that, modulo phase factors, these Weyl q-coefficients coincide with Racah q-coefficients for the suq(2) quantum algebra. It is also shown that, on the basis of one general formula, the q-analogs of all known general analytic expressions for the 6j symbols (and Racah coefficients) of the Lie algebras of the angular momentum can be obtained by using this resummation procedure. The symmetry properties of these q coefficients are discussed. The result is formulated in the following way: the general formulas for the q-6j symbols (Racah q-coefficients) of the suq(2) quantum algebra are obtained from the general formulas for the conventional 6j symbols (Racah coefficients) of the su(2) Lie algebra by replacing directly all factorials with q-factorials, the symmetry properties of the q-6j symbols being completely coincident with the symmetry properties of the conventional 6j symbols

  16. Improved method for measuring fluid loss at simulated fracture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, R.R.; Deysarkar, A.K.; Callanan, M.J.; Kohlhaas, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A test apparatus is designed to carry out dynamic as well as static fluid loss tests of fracturing fluids. This test apparatus simulates the pressure difference, temperature, rate of shear, duration of shear, and fluid flow pattern expected under fracture conditions. For a typical crosslinked fracturing fluid, experimental results indicate that fluid loss values can be a function of temperature, pressure differential, rate of shear, and degree of non-Newtonian behavior of the fracturing fluid. A mathematical development is presented to calculate the fracturing fluid coefficient obtained from laboratory studies assuming this to be a combination of fracturing fluid coefficient and filter cake coefficient.

  17. Instability analysis and drag coefficient prediction on a swept RAE2822 wing with constant lift coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenrong JING

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Swept wing is widely used in civil aircraft, whose airfoil is chosen, designed and optimized to increase the cruise speed and decrease the drag coefficient. The parameters of swept wing, such as sweep angle and angle of attack, are determined according to the cruise lift coefficient requirement, and the drag coefficient is expected to be predicted accurately, which involves the instability characteristics and transition position of the flow. The pressure coefficient of the RAE2822 wing with given constant lift coefficient is obtained by solving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation numerically, and then the mean flow is calculated by solving the boundary layer (BL equation with spectral method. The cross-flow instability characteristic of boundary layer of swept wing in the windward and leeward is analyzed by linear stability theory (LST, and the transition position is predicted by eN method. The drag coefficient is numerically predicted by introducing a laminar/turbulent indicator. A simple approach to calculate the lift coefficient of swept wing is proposed. It is found that there is a quantitative relationship between the angle of attack and sweep angle when the lift coefficient keeps constant; when the angle of attack is small, the flow on the leeward of the wing is stable. when the angle of attack is larger than 3°, the flow becomes unstable quickly; with the increase of sweep angle or angle of attack the disturbance on the windward becomes more unstable, leading to the moving forward of the transition position to the leading edge of the wing; the drag coefficient has two significant jumping growth due to the successive occurrence of transition in the windward and the leeward; the optimal range of sweep angle for civil aircraft is suggested.

  18. Meromorphic univalent function with negative coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dernek

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Mn be the classes of regular functions f(z=z−1+a0+a1z+… defined in the annulus 00, (n∈ℕ0, where I0f(z=f(z, If(z=(z−1−z(z−1−2∗f(z, Inf(z=I(In−1f(z, and ∗ is the Hadamard convolution. We denote by Γn=Mn⋃Γ, where Γ denotes the class of functions of the form f(z=z−1+∑k=1∞|ak|zk. We obtained that relates the modulus of the coefficients to starlikeness for the classes Mn and Γn, and coefficient inequalities for the classes Γn.

  19. Head-wave coefficients in anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Reflections and transmissions from interfaces can generate head waves. Although the kinematic properties of head waves are modelled simply using ray concepts, the dynamic properties require an extension of ray theory or the use of wave theory. Head waves are important in exploration and crustal seismology as they indicate the existence of an interface and the velocity of the generating wave. Head waves have been described in the literature for isotropic media but the extension to anisotropic media seems to be lacking. The expressions for the head-wave coefficients using ray concepts or wave theory differ, and their equality is not obvious. This paper extends the theory for head-wave coefficients to anisotropic media using both ray theory and wave theory, and generalizes the proof of equality of the two methods. Simple numerical examples confirm this equality and indicate how the head-wave results can be calculated in anisotropic media and included in a ray-tracing algorithm.

  20. Gate Control Coefficient Effect on CNFET Characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanudin, Rahmat; Ma'Radzi, Ahmad Alabqari; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2009-01-01

    The development of carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNFET) as alternative to existing transistor technology has long been published and discussed. The emergence of this device offers new material and structure in building a transistor. This paper intends to do an analysis of gate control coefficient effect on CNFET performance. The analysis is based on simulation study of current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of ballistic CNFET. The simulation study used the MOSFET-like CNFET mathematical model to establish the device output characteristic. Based on the analysis of simulation result, it is found that the gate control coefficient contributes to a significant effect on the performance of CNFET. The result also shown the parameter could help to improve the device performance in terms of its output and response as well. Nevertheless, the characteristic of the carbon nanotube that acts as the channel is totally important in determining the performance of the transistor as a whole.

  1. Doppler coefficient measurements in Zebra Core 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.R.; Wheeler, R.C.

    1965-11-01

    Measurements using a central hot loop in Zebra Core 5 are described. Results are given for the Doppler coefficients found in a number of assemblies with PuO 2 and 16% PuO 2 /84% depleted UO 2 pins, loaded with different combinations of steel, sodium or void pins. The mixed oxide results are in general about 20% more negative than was calculated using the FD2 data set, but agreement is good if the plutonium contributions in the calculations are omitted. The small positive Doppler coefficient calculated for Pu239 was not observed, and two measurements indicated instead a small negative effect. The Doppler effect in the mixed oxide systems was found to vary approximately as 1/T. The results from the empty loop and non-fissile assemblies indicate either a small negative Doppler effect in steel or alternatively the presence of an unexplained expansion effect. (author)

  2. The coefficient of friction, particularly of ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The static and dynamic coefficients of friction are defined, and values from 0.3 to 0.6 are quoted for common materials. These drop to about 0.15 when oil is added as a lubricant. Water ice at temperatures not far below 0 °C is remarkable for low coefficients of around 0.05 for static friction and 0.04–0.02 for dynamic friction, but these figures increase as the temperature diminishes. Reasons for the slipperiness of ice are summarized, but they are still not entirely clear. One hypothesis suggests that it is related to the transient formation of a lubricating film of liquid water produced by frictional heating. If this is the case, some composition melting a little above ambient temperatures might provide a skating rink that did not require expensive refrigeration. Various compositions have been tested, but an entirely satisfactory material has yet to be found

  3. Surface phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Frederik

    1991-01-01

    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  4. Analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August, H.J.; Wernisch, J.

    1989-01-01

    Several analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient for massive homogeneous samples are compared with experimental data, directing special attention to the dependence of this quantity on the electron acceleration energy. It is shown that this dependence generally cannot be neglected. The expression proposed by Hunger and Kuechler turns out to be better than that of Love and Scott, although even the better formula can be slightly improved by a small modification. (author)

  5. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    The effective stress coefficient, introduced by Biot, is used for predicting effective stress or pore pressure in the subsurface. It is not a constant value. It is different for different types of sediment and it is stress dependent. We used a model, based on contact between the grains to describ...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  6. Varying coefficients model with measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2008-06-01

    We propose a semiparametric partially varying coefficient model to study the relationship between serum creatinine concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among kidney donors and patients with chronic kidney disease. A regression model is used to relate serum creatinine to GFR and demographic factors in which coefficient of GFR is expressed as a function of age to allow its effect to be age dependent. GFR measurements obtained from the clearance of a radioactively labeled isotope are assumed to be a surrogate for the true GFR, with the relationship between measured and true GFR expressed using an additive error model. We use locally corrected score equations to estimate parameters and coefficient functions, and propose an expected generalized cross-validation (EGCV) method to select the kernel bandwidth. The performance of the proposed methods, which avoid distributional assumptions on the true GFR and residuals, is investigated by simulation. Accounting for measurement error using the proposed model reduced apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR among different clinical data sets derived from kidney donor and chronic kidney disease source populations.

  7. Analysis of the internal heat losses in a thermoelectric generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Eriksen, Dan

    2014-01-01

    and radiative heat losses, including surface to surface radiation. For radiative heat losses it is shown that for the temperatures considered here, surface to ambient radiation is a good approximation of the heat loss. For conductive heat transfer the module efficiency is shown to be comparable to the case...... to decrease for increased heat loss. The leg dimensions are varied for all heat losses cases and it is shown that the ideal way to construct a TEG module with minimal heat losses and maximum efficiency is to either use a good insulating material between the legs or evacuate the module completely, and use...

  8. Determination of entrance loss coefficients for pre-cast reinforced concrete box culverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    There is an increased interest in constructing Pre-Cast (PC) Twin and Triple Reinforced Concrete Box (RCB) culverts : in Iowa due to the efficiency associated with their production in controlled environment and decrease of the construction : time at ...

  9. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  10. What's Hearing Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss There are a few different types of hearing loss: conductive , sensorineural , mixed (conductive and sensory combined), neural , and central . Conductive (say: kun- duk -tiv) hearing loss. This happens when there is a problem with ...

  11. OI Issues: Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss can occur at any age, including childhood. Conductive Hearing Loss : Usually results from a physical problem in the ... This type of test can determine if the hearing loss is conductive or sensorineural. Adults who have an identified hearing ...

  12. Mass Loss from Betelgeuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A. M. S.

    2013-05-01

    Betelgeuse is just starting to produce a wind which is thick enough to form dust. However, the grains seem to coalesce at much greater distances than those in "dust-driven" winds from later-stage AGB and RSG stars. Is the mass loss mechanism different, and how will it evolve? We know a great deal about the kinematics of the more evolved winds, thanks to sub-au imaging using masers, and easily-resolved CO shells, but Betelgeuse is a much fainter target, only resolved with great difficulty (although ALMA will change that). On the other hand, Betelgeuse was the first star other than the Sun to be imaged in detail in the radio as well as optical. Radio studies from the photosphere to the astropause will reveal: How is mass lost from the stellar surface? In what form is this returned to the ISM? These results could even help to answer: How will Betelgeuse evolve in the next few millennia?

  13. Mitochondrial Superoxide Generation Enhances P2X7R-mediated Loss of Cell Surface CD62L on Naïve Human CD4+ T Lymphocytes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John G.; Carter, Edward; Kilty, Iain; MacKenzie, Amanda B.; Ward, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Migration of naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes into lymphoid tissue is essential for their activation and subsequent roles in adaptive immunity. The adhesion molecule CD62L, critical for this process, is highly expressed on naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes and is down-regulated upon T lymphocyte activation. We demonstrate protein expression of P2X7R on naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes and show functional channel activity in whole cell patch clamp recordings. CD62L down-regulation occurs rapidly in response to extracellular ATP, a process which is blocked by selective antagonists of P2X7R. This loss of surface CD62L expression was not associated with externalization of phosphatidyl serine. While investigating the mechanisms for this process we revealed that pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial complex I or III, but not inhibition of NADPH oxidase, enhanced P2X7R dependent CD62L down-regulation by increasing ATP potency. Enhanced superoxide generation in the mitochondria of Rotenone and Antimycin A treated cells was observed and may contribute to the enhanced sensitivity of P2X7R to ATP. P2X7R dependent exposure of phosphatidylserine was also revealed by pre-incubation with mitochondrial un-couplers prior to ATP treatment. This may present a novel mechanism whereby P2X7R dependent PS exposure occurs only when cells have enhanced mitochondrial ROS generation. The clearance of apoptotic cells may therefore be enhanced by this mechanism which requires functional P2X7R expression. PMID:23319734

  14. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  15. Identification of Correlated GRACE Monthly Harmonic Coefficients Using Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piretzidis, D.; Sra, G.; Sideris, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    This study explores new methods for identifying correlation errors in harmonic coefficients derived from monthly solutions of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission using pattern recognition and neural network algorithms. These correlation errors are evidenced in the differences between monthly solutions and can be suppressed using a de-correlation filter. In all studies so far, the implementation of the de-correlation filter starts from a specific minimum order (i.e., 11 for RL04 and 38 for RL05) until the maximum order of the monthly solution examined. This implementation method has two disadvantages, namely, the omission of filtering correlated coefficients of order less than the minimum order and the filtering of uncorrelated coefficients of order higher than the minimum order. In the first case, the filtered solution is not completely free of correlated errors, whereas the second case results in a monthly solution that suffers from loss of geophysical signal. In the present study, a new method of implementing the de-correlation filter is suggested, by identifying and filtering only the coefficients that show indications of high correlation. Several numerical and geometric properties of the harmonic coefficient series of all orders are examined. Extreme cases of both correlated and uncorrelated coefficients are selected, and their corresponding properties are used to train a two-layer feed-forward neural network. The objective of the neural network is to identify and quantify the correlation by providing the probability of an order of coefficients to be correlated. Results show good performance of the neural network, both in the validation stage of the training procedure and in the subsequent use of the trained network to classify independent coefficients. The neural network is also capable of identifying correlated coefficients even when a small number of training samples and neurons are used (e.g.,100 and 10, respectively).

  16. On separation of exchange term from the coefficient of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The purpose of this analysis is to introduce the separated exchange coefficient and to graphically investigate it. This coefficient, depending on the electromagnetic constant plus two coefficients of the electromechanical and magnetomechanical couplings, form the coefficient of magnetoelectromechanical coupling ...

  17. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R

    2012-07-01

    Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.

  18. Determination of coefficient matrices for ARMA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh Tri.

    1990-10-01

    A new recursive algorithm for determining coefficient matrices of ARMA model from measured data is presented. The Yule-Walker equations for the case of ARMA model are derived from the ARMA innovation equation. The recursive algorithm is based on choosing appropriate form of the operator functions and suitable representation of the (n+1)-th order operator functions according to ones with the lower order. Two cases, when the order of the AR part is equal to one of the MA part, and the optimal case, were considered. (author) 5 refs

  19. Kinetic coefficients in isotopically disordered crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhernov, Arkadii P; Inyushkin, Alexander V

    2002-01-01

    Peculiarities of the behavior of kinetic coefficients, like thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, and thermoelectric power, in isotopically disordered materials are reviewed in detail. New experimental and theoretical results on the isotope effects in the thermal conductivity of diamond, Ge, and Si semiconductors are presented. The suppression effect of phonon-drag thermopower in the isotopically disordered Ge crystals is discussed. The influence of dynamic and static crystal lattice deformations on the electric conductivity of metals as well as on the ordinary phonon spectrum deformations is considered. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Peltier coefficient measurement in a thermoelectric module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, Javier; Casanovas, Alejandro; Chimeno, José María

    2013-01-01

    A new method for measuring the Peltier coefficient in a thermocouple X/Y based on the energy balance at the junction has been proposed recently. This technique needs only the hot and cold temperatures of a thermoelectric module when an electric current flows through it as the operational variables. The temperature evolutions of the two module sides provide an evident and accurate idea of the Peltier effect. From these temperatures, the heat transfer between the module and the ambient is also evaluated. The thermoelectric phenomena are described in the framework of an observable theory. Based on this procedure, an experiment is presented for a university teaching laboratory at the undergraduate level. (paper)