WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface lithic components

  1. The lithics from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapustka, Katarína

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 36-38 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : lithics * Mesolithic * Nile region Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  2. Surface mount component jig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  3. Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

    2013-09-01

    Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (Ψ) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (model residence times and mass loss estimates for rounded clasts are used to estimate minimum attrition rates due to volcanic ash-blasting within the conduit (e.g., 12 cm3 s-1 for 25 cm clasts, sourced at 2500 m

  4. Surface modification of tribological components in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews a number of programs funded through the Engineered Tribological Interfaces (ETI) Task area of the Tribology Program that utilize energetic beams of atoms to enhance the mechanical and microstructural properties of near-surface regions to improve the tribological performance of critical components. The processes used in these programs include techniques based on chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, and ion implantation. A common feature of these techniques is their ability to produce dense and adherent modified surfaces without need for subsequent grinding/polishing treatments. Another feature of these techniques is their ability to introduce a wide range of elements into near-surface regions.

  5. Resource selection of lithic raw materials in the Middle Palaeolithic in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Constance L; Wilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    The work reported here uses several approaches to examine the costs and benefits associated with exploiting potential sources of lithic raw material in the Vaucluse, southern France, and then tests the results against the proportions of raw materials from various sources found in the lithic assemblage of a Middle Palaeolithic site, the Bau de l'Aubesier. A previously published equation designed to quantify the attractiveness of each source proves to be significantly correlated with source use, but the results show that it can be improved. We then individually test the components of the attractiveness equation (raw material quality, source extent, terrain difficulty, and the size and abundance of raw material pieces at the source) and additional variables (Calories expended to get from the source to the site using a straight-line route, Calories expended using a least-cost path, surface distance of the source from the site, and distance to the closest used source) using generalized linear models. Since very similar raw materials can be found at more than one source, we combine such similar sources into source areas, and test the area of the source area (AOSA) and the total area of sources within the source area (AOSISA), as two additional independent variables. The best model shows that raw material quality, source extent, abundance of large and very large rocks, and AOSISA, are positively correlated with use of sources, while terrain difficulty, abundance of small and medium rocks, Calories, and AOSA, are negatively correlated with source use. This shows that the hominins at the Bau de l'Aubesier optimized their raw material procurement to get the most good quality material that they could, while minimizing the time and energy spent getting and using it. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modifing the Surface Layers of Mechanical Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Slanec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the creation of thin surface layers prepared by the Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition Method (PACVD. Polished sample surfaces made of tool steel were used. An investigation of the dependence of layer thickness on process duration was carried out. The structure of the original surface and the structure of the coated surface were evaluated and compared. The microhardness of the surface areas was also measured.

  7. Mathematical and computer modeling of component surface shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashkov, A.

    2016-04-01

    The process of shaping technical surfaces is an interaction of a tool (a shape element) and a component (a formable element or a workpiece) in their relative movements. It was established that the main objects of formation are: 1) a discriminant of a surfaces family, formed by the movement of the shape element relatively the workpiece; 2) an enveloping model of the real component surface obtained after machining, including transition curves and undercut lines; 3) The model of cut-off layers obtained in the process of shaping. When modeling shaping objects there are a lot of insufficiently solved or unsolved issues that make up a single scientific problem - a problem of qualitative shaping of the surface of the tool and then the component surface produced by this tool. The improvement of known metal-cutting tools, intensive development of systems of their computer-aided design requires further improvement of the methods of shaping the mating surfaces. In this regard, an important role is played by the study of the processes of shaping of technical surfaces with the use of the positive aspects of analytical and numerical mathematical methods and techniques associated with the use of mathematical and computer modeling. The author of the paper has posed and has solved the problem of development of mathematical, geometric and algorithmic support of computer-aided design of cutting tools based on computer simulation of the shaping process of surfaces.

  8. Surfaces: processing, coating, decontamination, pollution, etc. Surface mastering to prevent component corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucault, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors, AREVA uses several nickel-based alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role hold by the component surface state in their life duration. In this paper, we present four examples of problem encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of processes for the surface control of the repaired components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in term of analysis means to improve the surface knowledge and control of the manufactured components. (author)

  9. Can hand laterality be identified through lithic technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargalló, Amèlia; Mosquera, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for inferring handedness from lithic evidence. The study was conducted by means of an experimental programme in stone-knapping, after which the resulting lithic products (tools) were analysed. These lithic tools were produced by 15 inexpert knappers (8 right-handed and 7 left-handed), because we were not able to find a statistically significant number of left-handed expert knappers. We considered inexpert knappers to include individuals who had never struck two pebbles together, as well as individuals who were quite familiar with prehistoric tools and had had some degree of practice. The Mann-Whitney U test proved that all of them produced flakes with the same technical features, so within this sample expertise was not a factor that affected the presence or absence of the technical features analysed to determine hand laterality. The results of the experiment indicate that no single variable can be used to determine the laterality of the knapper, but rather the evidence of handedness lies in the combination of several variables. Furthermore, not all the flakes display the entire set of significant features. Therefore this study concludes that it is not possible to determine the handedness of a knapper through a single variable present on his or her flakes, but it may be possible to determine laterality by examining a combination of technical variables on a number of his or her pieces. Archaeologically, only well-preserved knapping events with numerous refitting products can be assigned to a left- or a right-handed knapper.

  10. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  11. Early micromovement of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, J O; Ding, M; Varmarken, J E

    2012-01-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) can detect early micromovement in unstable implant designs which are likely subsequently to have a high failure rate. In 2010, the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) was withdrawn because of a high failure rate. In 19 ASR femoral components, the mean micromovement...

  12. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  13. Non-conventional laser surface hardening for axisymmetric components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Erica; Battiato, Nadine; Ascari, Alessandro; Fortunato, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    A new process, based on ring spot geometry, is presented for laser surface hardening of large cylindrical com-ponents. The proposed technique leads to a very hard, deep and uniform treated area along the entire work piece surface without introducing a tempered zone, making the process very attractive compared to conventional induction hardening that exhibits both low energy efficiency and poor flexibility. A complete physical model is presented for the process, together with a study of the influence of process parameters on the final outcome. The results of an extensive validation campaign, carried out following the AISI1040 standard, are also reported.

  14. A divergent heritage for complex organics in Isheyevo lithic clasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M.M.E.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Kasama, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Primitive meteorites are samples of asteroidal bodies that contain a high proportion of chemically complex organic matter (COM) including prebiotic molecules such as amino acids, which are thought to have been delivered to Earth via impacts during the early history of the Solar System. Thus......, understanding the origin of COM, including their formation pathway(s) and environment(s), is critical to elucidate the origin of life on Earth as well as assessing the potential habitability of exoplanetary systems. The Isheyevo CH/CBb carbonaceous chondrite contains chondritic lithic clasts with variable......-clasts are characterized by a more 15N-rich bulk nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N = 200–650‰) relative to H-clasts (δ15N = 50–180‰) and contain extremely 15N-rich domains with δ15N populations, which we...

  15. "15 Minutes Of Fame": exploring the temporal dimension of middle pleistocene lithic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallos, J

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses the spatial and temporal dimensions of knapping routines through analysis of refit data. Many reconstructions of lithic tool production utilising refit data concentrate upon 'how' a piece of stone is taken apart, and less often consider the 'when' and 'where'. Lower Palaeolithic artefacts are frequently viewed as belonging to simplistic technical systems in which tools were made and used as and when required, showing little temporal depth. Modern knappers can replicate the components of the Acheulean toolkit, such as a biface, in around 15 minutes. The predominant use of local raw materials and the relatively simple reduction sequences observed on many Middle Pleistocene sites has given rise to the view that Acheulean hominins possessed an immediate approach to technology, and that artefacts did not stay in the technological system very long. In contrast, other researchers have stressed the increased planning abilities of hominins in relation to their stone tool-making and using routines. Increased planning abilities are often cited as a diagnostic feature of modern human cognition. As such, tracing the emergence of these abilities is an important avenue of research in human evolution. The aim of this paper is to investigate how the process of lithic production was organised on several Middle Pleistocene sites in northwest Europe. By comparing refitting sequences from several primary context sites, the different stages of reduction present at these locations can be reconstructed. Since refit sets record the work carried out in one place and time by an individual, they can be used to reconstruct the spatial and temporal dimension of these past technological activities. The analysis shows fragmentation of reduction sequences was a common occurrence, suggesting a more dynamic approach to tool-making and using activities than has previously been recognised. The analysis provides a description of these artefact dynamics, and discusses the underlying

  16. Surface composition of biomedical components by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.; Baxter, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Materials used for replacement body parts must satisfy a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and mechanical ability to handle the task with regard to strength, wear and durability. When using a CVD coated carbon fibre reinforced carbon ball, the surface must be ion implanted with uniform dose of nitrogen ions in order to make it wear resistant. The mechanism by which the wear resistance is improved is one of radiation damage and the required dose of about 10 16 cm -2 can have a tolerance of about 20%. To implant a spherical surface requires manipulation of the sample within the beam and control system (either computer or manually operated) to enable uniform dose all the way from polar to equatorial regions on the surface. A manipulator has been designed and built for this purpose. In order to establish whether the dose is uniform, nuclear reaction analysis using the reaction 14 N(d,α) 12 C is an ideal method of profiling. By taking measurements at a number of points on the surface, the uniformity of nitrogen dose can be ascertained. It is concluded that both Rutherford Backscattering and Nuclear Reaction Analysis can be used for rapid analysis of surface composition of carbon based materials used for replacement body components. 2 refs., 2 figs

  17. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author) [fr

  18. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  19. Analysis of shape correctness of surfaces of diamond burnished components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Gyula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In these days, diamond burnishing is frequently used for final finishing manufacturing operations of components. Diamond burnishing belongs to cold plastic manufacturing procedures. When using this technique, the following advantages can be obtained: micro-hardness of near surface layer is increasing; surface roughness is improving and the shape correctness is also improving. This paper deals with how the different technological parameters of burnishing, such as the feed rate, the burnishing speed and the burnishing force effect on the cylindricity of the burnished workpiece. The experiment was done on some specimen having outer cylindrical surfaces. The experiments were executed by the Taguchi type Full Factorial Experiment Design method with which empirical formulas can be efficiently created. The measurements of the cylindricity of specimens were done with a circular and position error measuring. From the measured data, special improvement ratios were calculated in order to define the appropriate range of technological parameters which results high improvements. Further aim was to compare the measured values of different cylindricity parameters.

  20. Surfaces: processing, coating, decontamination, pollution, etc. Surface mastering to prevent component corrosion; Surfaces: traitement, revetements, decontamination, pollution, etc. Maitrise de la surface pour prevenir la corrosion des composants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucault, M. [Departement Corrosion Chimie, AREVA Centre Technique, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2012-07-01

    In the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors, AREVA uses several nickel-based alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role hold by the component surface state in their life duration. In this paper, we present four examples of problem encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of processes for the surface control of the repaired components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in term of analysis means to improve the surface knowledge and control of the manufactured components. (author)

  1. Testing of Liquid Metal Components for Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Godfroy, T. J.; Schoenfeld, M.; Webster, K.; Briggs, M. H.; Geng, S. M.; Adkins, H. E.; Werner, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to perform testing at both the module/component level and in near prototypic reactor configurations using a non-nuclear test methodology allowed for evaluation of two components critical to the development of a potential nuclear fission power system for the lunar surface. A pair of 1 kW Stirling power convertors, similar to the type that would be used in a reactor system to convert heat to electricity, were integrated into a reactor simulator system to determine their performance using pumped NaK as the hot side working fluid. The performance in the pumped-NaK system met or exceed the baseline performance measurements where the converters were electrically heated. At the maximum hot-side temperature of 550 C the maximum output power was 2375 watts. A specially-designed test apparatus was fabricated and used to quantify the performance of an annular linear induction pump that is similar to the type that could be used to circulate liquid metal through the core of a space reactor system. The errors on the measurements were generally much smaller than the magnitude of the measurements, permitting accurate performance evaluation over a wide range of operating conditions. The pump produced flow rates spanning roughly 0.16 to 5.7 l/s (2.5 to 90 GPM), and delta p levels from less than 1 kPa to 90 kPa (greater than 0.145 psi to roughly 13 psi). At the nominal FSP system operating temperature of 525 C the maximum efficiency was just over 4%.

  2. Corrugated metal surface with pillars for terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguide components

    KAUST Repository

    Yuehong, Xu

    2018-01-12

    In the terahertz regime, due to perfect conductivity of most metals, it is hard to realize a strong confinement of Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) although a propagation loss could be sufficiently low. We experimentally demonstrated a structure with periodic pillars arranged on a thin metal surface that supports bound modes of spoof SPPs at terahertz (THz) frequencies. By using scanning near-field THz microscopy, the electric field distribution above the metal surface within a distance of 130 μm was mapped. The results proved that this structure could guide spoof SPPs propagating along subwavelength waveguides, and at the same time reduce field expansion into free space. Further, for the development of integrated optical circuits, several components including straight waveguide, S-bend, Y-splitter and directional couplers were designed and characterized by the same method. We believe that the waveguide components proposed here will pave a new way for the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at THz frequencies.

  3. An Instrument for Inspecting Aspheric Optical Surfaces and Components Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Phase I proposal to develop an extremely versatile optical inspection tool for determining the optical figure of aspheric optical components, such as test...

  4. Multi-component joint analysis of surface waves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moura, R.M.M.; Moustafa, S.S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, AUG (2015), s. 128-138 ISSN 0926-9851 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : surface waves * surface wave dispersion * seismic data acquisition * seismic data inversion * velocity spectrum Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2015

  5. The Martian Dust Cycle: Investigation of the Surface Lifting Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James R.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the nature of the annual cycle of suspended dust in the martian atmosphere. This has been undertaken to understand the dynamical processes responsible for lifting dust from the surface, locations where dust is preferentially lifted, and preferred sites for dust deposition upon the surface. Our efforts have involved carrying out a number of numerical simulations with the Ames Mars General Circulation Model (GCM) interactively coupled with an aerosol transport/ micro-physical model. The model generates an annual dust cycle similar to that observed. Various feedbacks are present in the atmosphere/ surface system which enter into the generation of the cycle. Several locations are primary surface sources of dust, while much of the remaining planet's surface acts a sink for suspended dust.

  6. The LithicUB project: A virtual lithotheque of siliceous rocks at the University of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The LithicUB project began in 2009 with two main objectives. The first objective was to make available to the scientific community the description and classification of a set of siliceous rocks that had been recovered from different surveys. The second to make public the lithotheque as a useful tool for archaeological research, related to the procurement and management of lithic raw materials in Prehistory. Thanks to several research projects that have been carried out, the number of samples is steadily increasing and diversifying, including siliceous rocks collected in Spain, Portugal, France, Jordan and Israel.

  7. A discrete surface growth model for two components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nashar, H.F.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    2000-04-01

    We present a ballistic deposition model for the surface growth of a binary species A and C. Numerical simulations of the growth kinetics show a deviation from the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, model valid for only one kind of deposited particles. The study also shows that when the deposition of particles with less active bonds occurs more frequently the voids under the surface become relevant. However, the increase in overhang/voids processes under the moving interface does not strengthen greatly the local surface gradient. (author)

  8. Study of Huizhou architecture component point cloud in surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runmei; Wang, Guangyin; Ma, Jixiang; Wu, Yulu; Zhang, Guangbin

    2017-06-01

    Surface reconfiguration softwares have many problems such as complicated operation on point cloud data, too many interaction definitions, and too stringent requirements for inputing data. Thus, it has not been widely popularized so far. This paper selects the unique Huizhou Architecture chuandou wooden beam framework as the research object, and presents a complete set of implementation in data acquisition from point, point cloud preprocessing and finally implemented surface reconstruction. Firstly, preprocessing the acquired point cloud data, including segmentation and filtering. Secondly, the surface’s normals are deduced directly from the point cloud dataset. Finally, the surface reconstruction is studied by using Greedy Projection Triangulation Algorithm. Comparing the reconstructed model with the three-dimensional surface reconstruction softwares, the results show that the proposed scheme is more smooth, time efficient and portable.

  9. Stress corrosion cracking of Ni-based alloys in PWR primary water. Component surface control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucault, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the PWR plant primary circuit, FRAMATOME-ANP uses several nickel-base alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role played by the surface state of the components in their life duration. In this paper, we present two examples of problems encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of a process for the surface control of the repair components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in terms of analysis methods to improve the surface knowledge and the control of the manufactured components. (author)

  10. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded...

  11. Laser-assisted surface cleaning of metallic components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Keywords. YAG laser, oxide layer, contamination, cleaning. Abstract. Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon and ThO2 particulates from zircaloy surface was achieved using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer from the tungsten ribbon was identified as spallation ...

  12. Laser-assisted surface cleaning of metallic components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... 1Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur 401 504, India ... taining to nuclear industry in the field of nuclear fuel fabrication and radioactive waste management. As we know .... ThO2 powder taken along with a small quantity of isopropyl alcohol on the surface of. 240.

  13. Laser-assisted surface cleaning of metallic components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... for effective utilization of uranium and thorium reserves to fulfill the ever growing need of energy [3]. ... nism of laser-assisted removal of ThO2 particulates off the metal surface and present here results of some ... samples (tungsten ribbon, thoria-contaminated zircaloy metal) were irradiated inside a chamber ...

  14. Soil Structure - A Neglected Component of Land-Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, S.; Or, D.; Walko, R. L.; Vereecken, H.; Kollet, S. J.; Young, M.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Hengl, T.; Agam, N.; Avissar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Soil structure is largely absent in most standard sampling and measurements and in the subsequent parameterization of soil hydraulic properties deduced from soil maps and used in Earth System Models. The apparent omission propagates into the pedotransfer functions that deduce parameters of soil hydraulic properties primarily from soil textural information. Such simple parameterization is an essential ingredient in the practical application of any land surface model. Despite the critical role of soil structure (biopores formed by decaying roots, aggregates, etc.) in defining soil hydraulic functions, only a few studies have attempted to incorporate soil structure into models. They mostly looked at the effects on preferential flow and solute transport pathways at the soil profile scale; yet, the role of soil structure in mediating large-scale fluxes remains understudied. Here, we focus on rectifying this gap and demonstrating potential impacts on surface and subsurface fluxes and system wide eco-hydrologic responses. The study proposes a systematic way for correcting the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions—accounting for soil-structure—with major implications for near saturated hydraulic conductivity. Modification to the basic soil hydraulic parameterization is assumed as a function of biological activity summarized by Gross Primary Production. A land-surface model with dynamic vegetation is used to carry out numerical simulations with and without the role of soil-structure for 20 locations characterized by different climates and biomes across the globe. Including soil structure affects considerably the partition between infiltration and runoff and consequently leakage at the base of the soil profile (recharge). In several locations characterized by wet climates, a few hundreds of mm per year of surface runoff become deep-recharge accounting for soil-structure. Changes in energy fluxes, total evapotranspiration and vegetation productivity

  15. Forerunners of the New Epoch in Lithic Chipped Industries of the Moravian Young Eneolithic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopacz, J.; Přichystal, A.; Šebela, Lubomír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2016), s. 105-118 ISSN 2453-8612 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Moravia and Czech Silesia * East part of the Czech Republic * Young Eneolithic * lithic chipped industry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology https://fphil.uniba.sk/fileadmin/fif/katedry_pracoviska/karch/MusArch/1_1/105-118.pdf

  16. Two-component injection moulding simulation of ABS-POM micro structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Islam, Aminul

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component micro injection moulding (μIM) processes such as two-component (2k) μIM are the key technologies for the mass fabrication of multi-material micro products. 2k-μIM experiments involving a miniaturized test component with micro features in the sub-mm dimensional range and moulding a...... process. Flow front predictions are compared with experimental results using the short shots technique over the whole miniaturized component and within the surface micro structures....

  17. Turbine component having surface cooling channels and method of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Trimmer, Andrew Lee; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu

    2017-09-05

    A component for a turbine engine includes a substrate that includes a first surface, and an insert coupled to the substrate proximate the substrate first surface. The component also includes a channel. The channel is defined by a first channel wall formed in the substrate and a second channel wall formed by at least one coating disposed on the substrate first surface. The component further includes an inlet opening defined in flow communication with the channel. The inlet opening is defined by a first inlet wall formed in the substrate and a second inlet wall defined by the insert.

  18. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of GEOSAT sea surface height, SSMI surface wind speed, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, D.; Zlotnicki, V.; Newman, J.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1991-01-01

    Monthly mean global distributions for 1988 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map. Distributions are included for sea surface height variation estimated from GEOSAT; surface wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on NOAA spacecrafts; and the Cartesian components of the 10m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting. Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation value are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  19. Principal component analysis for surface reflection components and structure in facial images and synthesis of facial images for various ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Misa; Toyota, Saori; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Ogawa-Ochiai, Keiko; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, principal component analysis is applied to the distribution of pigmentation, surface reflectance, and landmarks in whole facial images to obtain feature values. The relationship between the obtained feature vectors and the age of the face is then estimated by multiple regression analysis so that facial images can be modulated for woman aged 10-70. In a previous study, we analyzed only the distribution of pigmentation, and the reproduced images appeared to be younger than the apparent age of the initial images. We believe that this happened because we did not modulate the facial structures and detailed surfaces, such as wrinkles. By considering landmarks and surface reflectance over the entire face, we were able to analyze the variation in the distributions of facial structures and fine asperity, and pigmentation. As a result, our method is able to appropriately modulate the appearance of a face so that it appears to be the correct age.

  20. Lithic raw material procurement in the Moravian Neolithic: the search for extra-regional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kuča

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of lithic raw material procurement can contribute to the study of ancient networks. Petrographic analysis combined with systematic mapping of raw material outcrops has been conducted in Moravia and adjacent territories by A. Přichystal over a period of more than three decades. Combined with well excavated (including wet-screening and 14C (radiometric dated sites,allows us to study changes in the distribution networks of raw materials during the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.

  1. Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature state-space components

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — State-Space Decomposition of Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C....

  2. Printing transferable components using microstructured elastomeric surfaces with pressure modulated reversible adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, Etienne; Rogers, John A.; Kim, Seok; Carlson, Andrew

    2016-08-09

    In a method of printing a transferable component, a stamp including an elastomeric post having three-dimensional relief features protruding from a surface thereof is pressed against a component on a donor substrate with a first pressure that is sufficient to mechanically deform the relief features and a region of the post between the relief features to contact the component over a first contact area. The stamp is retracted from the donor substrate such that the component is adhered to the stamp. The stamp including the component adhered thereto is pressed against a receiving substrate with a second pressure that is less than the first pressure to contact the component over a second contact area that is smaller than the first contact area. The stamp is then retracted from the receiving substrate to delaminate the component from the stamp and print the component onto the receiving substrate. Related apparatus and stamps are also discussed.

  3. Identifying apple surface defects using principal components analysis and artifical neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial neural networks and principal components were used to detect surface defects on apples in near-infrared images. Neural networks were trained and tested on sets of principal components derived from columns of pixels from images of apples acquired at two wavelengths (740 nm and 950 nm). I...

  4. Book review: Seeing Lithics: A Middle-range Theory for Testing for Cultural Transmission in the Pleistocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Davenport-Mackey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeing Lithics represents a doctoral thesis submitted to Harvard University by Gilbert Tostevin in 2000. Tostevin is currently a professor of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota and has written extensively on human evolution, lithic technology, Old World archaeology, and Palaeolithic archaeology. These interests can be clearly seen in this book which develops a new theoretical and analytical approach to the study of cultural transmission in the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition. 

  5. Identification of New Lithic Clasts in Lunar Breccia 14305 by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Carpenter, Paul K.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

    2014-01-01

    From 1969 to 1972, Apollo astronauts collected 382 kg of rocks, soils, and core samples from six locations on the surface of the Moon. The samples were initially characterized, largely by binocular examination, in a custom-built facility at Johnson Space Center (JSC), and the samples have been curated at JSC ever since. Despite over 40 years of study, demand for samples remains high (500 subsamples per year are allocated to scientists around the world), particularly for plutonic (e.g., anorthosites, norites, etc.) and evolved (e.g., granites, KREEP basalts) lithologies. The reason for the prolonged interest is that as new scientists and new techniques examine the samples, our understanding of how the Moon, Earth, and other inner Solar System bodies formed and evolved continues to grow. Scientists continually clamor for new samples to test their emerging hypotheses. Although all of the large Apollo samples that are igneous rocks have been classified, many Apollo samples are complex polymict breccias that have previously yielded large (cm-sized) igneous clasts. In this work we present the initial efforts to use the non-destructive techniques of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and micro x-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) to identify large lithic clasts in Apollo 14 polymict breccia sample 14305. The sample in this study is 14305,483, a 150 g slab of regolith breccia 14305 measuring 10x6x2 cm (Figure 1a). The sample was scanned at the University of Texas High-Resolution X-ray CT Facility on an Xradia MicroXCT scanner. Two adjacent overlapping volumes were acquired at 49.2 micrometer resolution and stitched together, resulting in 1766 slices. Each volume was acquired at 100 kV accelerating voltage and 98 mA beam current with a 1 mm CaF2 filter, with 2161 views gathered over 360deg at 3 seconds acquisition time per view. Micro-XRF analyses were done at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri on an EDAX Orbis PC micro-XRF instrument. Multiple scans were made at 40 k

  6. The study on surface characteristics of high transmission components by 3D printing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hui-Jean; Huang, Chien-Yao; Wang, Wan-Hsuan; Lin, Ping-Hung; Tsay, Ho-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2017-06-01

    3D printing is a high freedom fabrication technique. Any components, which designed by 3D design software or scanned from real parts, can be printed. The printing materials include metals, plastics and biocompatible materials etc. Especially for those high transmission components used in optical system or biomedical field can be printed, too. High transmission lens increases the performances of optical system. And high transmission cover or shell using in biomedical field helps observers to see the structures inside, such as brain, bone, and vessels. But the surface of printed components is not transparent, even the inside layer is transparent. If we increase the transmittance of surface, the components which fabricated by 3D printing process could have high transmission. In this paper, we using illuminating and polishing methods to improve the transmittance of printing surface. The illuminating time is the experiment parameters in illuminating method. The roughness and transmission of printing components are the evaluating targets. A 3D printing machine, Stratasys Connex 500, has been used to print high transmittance components in this paper. The surface transmittance of printing components is increasing above 80 % by polishing method.

  7. Lithic landscapes: early human impact from stone tool production on the central Saharan environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2015-01-01

    Humans have had a major impact on the environment. This has been particularly intense in the last millennium but has been noticeable since the development of food production and the associated higher population densities in the last 10,000 years. The use of fire and over-exploitation of large mammals has also been recognized as having an effect on the world's ecology, going back perhaps 100,000 years or more. Here we report on an earlier anthropogenic environmental change. The use of stone tools, which dates back over 2.5 million years, and the subsequent evolution of a technologically-dependent lineage required the exploitation of very large quantities of rock. However, measures of the impact of hominin stone exploitation are rare and inherently difficult. The Messak Settafet, a sandstone massif in the Central Sahara (Libya), is littered with Pleistocene stone tools on an unprecedented scale and is, in effect, a man-made landscape. Surveys showed that parts of the Messak Settafet have as much as 75 lithics per square metre and that this fractured debris is a dominant element of the environment. The type of stone tools--Acheulean and Middle Stone Age--indicates that extensive stone tool manufacture occurred over the last half million years or more. The lithic-strewn pavement created by this ancient stone tool manufacture possibly represents the earliest human environmental impact at a landscape scale and is an example of anthropogenic change. The nature of the lithics and inferred age may suggest that hominins other than modern humans were capable of unintentionally modifying their environment. The scale of debris also indicates the significance of stone as a critical resource for hominins and so provides insights into a novel evolutionary ecology.

  8. Adsorption-Driven Surface Segregation of the Less Reactive Alloy Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Jerker; Calle Vallejo, Federico; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Counterintuitive to expectations and all prior observations of adsorbate-induced surface segregation of the more reactive alloy component (the one forming the stronger bond with the adsorbate), we show that CO adsorption at elevated pressures and temperatures pulls the less reactive Cu to the sur......Counterintuitive to expectations and all prior observations of adsorbate-induced surface segregation of the more reactive alloy component (the one forming the stronger bond with the adsorbate), we show that CO adsorption at elevated pressures and temperatures pulls the less reactive Cu...... to the surface of a CuPt near-surface alloy. The Cu surface segregation is driven by the formation of a stable self-organized CO/CuPt surface alloy structure and is rationalized in terms of the radically stronger Pt−CO bond when Cu is present in the first surface layer of Pt. The results, which are expected...... to apply to a range of coinage (Cu, Ag)/Pt-group bimetallic surface alloys, open up new possibilities in selective and dynamical engineering of alloy surfaces for catalysis....

  9. Quantitative measurement of in-plane acoustic field components using surface-mounted fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Richard O.; Dhawan, Rajat R.; Gunther, Michael F.; Murphy, Kent A.

    1993-01-01

    Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors have been used to obtain calibrated, quantitative measurements of the in-plane displacement components associated with the propagation of ultrasonic elastic stress waves on the surfaces of solids. The frequency response of the sensor is determined by the internal spacing between the two reflecting fiber endface surfaces which form the Fabry-Perot cavity, a distance which is easily controlled during fabrication. With knowledge of the material properties of the solid, the out-of-plane displacement component of the wave may also be determined, giving full field data.

  10. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  11. Friction surfacing for enhanced surface protection of marine engineering components: erosion-corrosion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, S.; Balasubramanian, V.; Balakrishnan, M.

    2016-08-01

    Good mechanical properties combined with outstanding corrosion-resistance properties of cast nickel-aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy lead to be a specific material for many marine applications, including ship propellers. However, the erosion-corrosion resistance of cast-NAB alloy is not as good as wrought NAB alloy. Hence, in this investigation, an attempt has been made to improve the erosion-corrosion resistance of cast NAB alloy by depositing wrought (extruded) NAB alloy applying the friction surfacing (FS) technique. Erosion-corrosion tests were carried out in slurries composed of sand particles of 3.5% NaCl solution. Silica sand having a nominal size range of 250-355 μm is used as an erodent. Specimens were tested at 30° and 90° impingement angles. It is observed that the erosion and erosion-corrosion resistance of friction surfaced NAB alloy exhibited an improvement as compared to cast NAB alloy. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the erosion tracks developed on the cast NAB alloy were wider and deeper than those formed on the friction surfaced extruded NAB alloy.

  12. Microclimatic models. Estimation of components of the energy balance over land surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, M.; Venaelaeinen, A.; Tourula, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Climates at regional scale are strongly dependent on the interaction between atmosphere and its lower boundary, the oceans and the land surface mosaic. Land surfaces influence climate through their albedo, and the aerodynamic roughness, the processes of the biosphere and many soil hydrological properties; all these factors vary considerably geographically. Land surfaces receive a certain portion of the solar irradiance depending on the cloudiness, atmospheric transparency and surface albedo. Short-wave solar irradiance is the source of the heat energy exchange at the earth`s surface and also regulates many biological processes, e.g. photosynthesis. Methods for estimating solar irradiance, atmospheric transparency and surface albedo were reviewed during the course of this project. The solar energy at earth`s surface is consumed for heating the soil and the lower atmosphere. Where moisture is available, evaporation is one of the key components of the surface energy balance, because the conversion of liquid water into water vapour consumes heat. The evaporation process was studied by carrying out field experiments and testing parameterisation for a cultivated agricultural surface and for lakes. The micrometeorological study over lakes was carried out as part of the international `Northern Hemisphere Climatic Processes Experiment` (NOPEX/BAHC) in Sweden. These studies have been aimed at a better understanding of the energy exchange processes of the earth`s surface-atmosphere boundary for a more accurate and realistic parameterisation of the land surface in atmospheric models

  13. Lithic raw material procurement for projectiles points in the prehistory of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María López Mazz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on current research on early colonisation of the Atlantic coast of South America during the early Holocene. We present advances in the investigation of raw material procurement at the Rincón de los Indios site, located in the eastern part of Uruguay. The technological studies suggest that some aspects of different styles of projectile points are related with environmental adaptation processes, experienced by the first American people in the New World. The occupation of new spaces and new forms of exploitation of resources changes the organisation of lithic technology. The distance to good quality rocks were critical for the opportunities and economic organisation of hunting groups. The study of changes in lithic procurement strategies for projectile points helps us develop a more comprehensive knowledge of this important social adaptation process which occurred during this period. These patterns started to become stabilised in the latter part of the early Holocene across the extended territory and confirm the efficient land occupation associated an intensive hunter-gatherer economies.

  14. Stone Tool Manufacture Strategies and Lithic Raw Material Exploitation in Coastal Patagonia, Argentina: A Multivariate Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cardillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to characterize strategies of artifact manufacture and lithic raw material exploitation along San Matías Gulf coast, Argentina, using multifactorial and cluster analysis. Multifactorial analysis is a relatively new method that has yet to be used for archaeological analysis; it has the advantage that it allows us to describe data using different groups of qualitative or quantitative variables at the same time. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted on multifactorial axis in a bid to identify grouping patterns. The results obtained from the combination of these two methods suggest that they may be useful in characterizing technological strategies in the study area. Furthermore, they may also be a powerful exploratory and characterization tool able to generate explanations at low spatial scales. The application of these methods on San Matías Gulf study case suggests that along the western and northern coasts of this Gulf the most important variables in determining differences in resource use were the fragmentation ratio and lithic raw materials used in artifact manufacture.

  15. Principal Component Surface (2011) for St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER) in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)....

  16. [Studies on the interaction of blood components with ultra-smooth polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, T.H. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). School of Medicine

    1989-04-17

    This report is in three parts, though each is briefly described data is provided. The three parts address (1) radioiodination of human thrombin and fibrinogen; (2) interaction of blood components with ultra- smooth polymer surfaces; and (3) initial studies of Tecoflex and treated Tecoflex cups with normal serum samples.

  17. Two-component injection moulding simulation of ABS-POM micro structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Islam, Aminul

    2013-01-01

    a pair of thermoplastic materials (ABS and POM) were conducted. Three dimensional process simulations based on the finite element method have been performed to explore the capability of predicting filling pattern shape at component-level and surface micro feature-level in a polymer/polymer overmoulding...

  18. Ultrasonic detection technology based on joint robot on composite component with complex surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Juan; Xu, Chunguang; Zhang, Lan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2014-02-18

    Some components have complex surface, such as the airplane wing and the shell of a pressure vessel etc. The quality of these components determines the reliability and safety of related equipment. Ultrasonic nondestructive detection is one of the main methods used for testing material defects at present. In order to improve the testing precision, the acoustic axis of the ultrasonic transducer should be consistent with the normal direction of the measured points. When we use joint robots, automatic ultrasonic scan along the component surface normal direction can be realized by motion trajectory planning and coordinate transformation etc. In order to express the defects accurately and truly, the robot position and the signal of the ultrasonic transducer should be synchronized.

  19. NEXAFS characterization of DNA components and molecular-orientation of surface-bound DNA oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Newton T.; Lee, C.-Y.; Gamble, Lara J.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Castner, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Single stranded DNA oligomers (ssDNA) immobilized onto solid surfaces forms the basis for several biotechnological applications such as DNA microarrays, affinity separations, and biosensors. Surface structure of Surface-bound oligomers is expected to significantly influence their biological activity and interactions with the environment. In this study near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) is used to characterize the components of DNA (nucleobases, nucleotides and nucleosides) and the orientation information of surface-bound ssDNA. The K-edges of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have spectra with features that are characteristic of the different chemical species present in the nucleobases of DNA. The effect of addition of the DNA sugar and phosphate components on the NEXAFS K-edge spectra was also investigated. The polarization-dependent nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS data show significant changes for different orientations of surface bound ssDNA. These results establish NEXAFS as a powerful technique for chemical and structural characterization of surface-bound DNA oligomers

  20. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  1. Characterizing Mediterranean Land Surfaces as Component of the Regional Climate System by Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Koslowsky, D.; Menenti, M.; Nerry, F.; Otterman, Joseph; Starr, D.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive areas in the Mediterranean region are subject to land degradation and desertification. The high variability of the coupling between the surface and the atmosphere affects the regional climate. Relevant surface characteristics, such as spectral reflectance, surface emissivity in the thermal-infrared region, and vegetation indices, serve as "primary" level indicators for the state of the surface. Their spatial, seasonal and interannual variability can be monitored from satellites. Using relationships between these primary data and combining them with prior information about the land surfaces (such as topography, dominant soil type, land use, collateral ground measurements and models), a second layer of information is built up which specifies the land surfaces as a component of the regional climate system. To this category of parameters which are directly involved in the exchange of energy, momentum and mass between the surface and the atmosphere, belong broadband albedo, thermodynamic surface temperature, vegetation types, vegetation cover density, soil top moisture, and soil heat flux. Information about these parameters finally leads to the computation of sensible and latent heat fluxes. The methodology was tested with pilot data sets. Full resolution, properly calibrated and normalized NOAA-AVHRR multi-annual primary data sets are presently compiled for the whole Mediterranean area, to study interannual variability and longer term trends.

  2. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Dissolution Theory for Multi-Component Solid/Liquid Surfaces Involving Surface Adsorption and Radiolysis Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R B

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical expression is developed for the dissolution rate response for multi-component radioactive materials that have surface adsorption kinetics and radiolysis kinetics when wetted by a multi-component aqueous solution. An application for this type of dissolution response is the performance evaluation of multi-component spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) for long term interim storage and for geological disposition. Typically, SNF compositions depend on initial composition, uranium oxide and metal alloys being most common, and on reactor burnup which results in a wide range of fission product and actinide concentrations that decay by alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. These compositional/burnup ranges of SNFs, whether placed in interim storage or emplaced in a geologic repository, will potentially be wetted by multi-component aqueous solutions, and these solutions may be further altered by radiolytic aqueous species due to three radiation fields. The solid states of the SNFs are not thermodynamically stable when wetted and will dissolve, with or without radiolysis. The following development of a dissolution theory is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of energy reactions and energy transport across a solid-liquid phase change discontinuity that propagates at a quasi-steady, dissolution velocity. The integral form of the energy balance equation is used for this spatial surface discontinuity analysis. The integral formulation contains internal energy functional of classical thermodynamics for both the SNFs' solid state and surface adsorption species, and the adjacent liquid state, which includes radiolytic chemical species. The steady-state concentrations of radiolytic chemical species are expressed by an approximate analysis of the decay radiation transport equation. For purposes of illustration a modified Temkin adsorption isotherm was assumed for the surface adsorption kinetics on an arbitrary, finite area of the solid-liquid dissolution interface. For

  3. Simulated plasma facing component measurements for an in situ surface diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Z. S.; Whyte, D. G.

    2010-10-01

    The ideal in situ plasma facing component (PFC) diagnostic for magnetic fusion devices would perform surface element and isotope composition measurements on a shot-to-shot (˜10 min) time scale with ˜1 μm depth and ˜1 cm spatial resolution over large areas of PFCs. To this end, the experimental adaptation of the customary laboratory surface diagnostic—nuclear scattering of MeV ions—to the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is being guided by ACRONYM, a Geant4 synthetic diagnostic. The diagnostic technique and ACRONYM are described, and synthetic measurements of film thickness for boron-coated PFCs are presented.

  4. Improvement in the surface quality of structural components produced by the RTM-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaeli, W.; Dyckhoff, J. [Institute of Plastics Processing, Aachen (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    During the production of long or continuous fiber reinforced structural components in Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM), surface defects like voids, pinholes or unevenness frequently occur. These have to be repaired by manual labor before final painting. The conditions for the formation of voids in the laminate as well as surface defects are investigated by model experiments, making use of a window mould. Generally the resin is assumed to flow through the fiber reinforcement in a plug flow. The investigations indicate that advance either in the nonwovens of the surface or in the center of the laminate depends on the flow front velocity. This can be attributed to a superposition of capillary and flow effects. In order to obtain a high surface quality, the flow front velocity has to be kept within a material-related band width. Otherwise, areas of air enclosure in the laminate or surface defects like pinholes will result. With the aid of a steel mould with a large area, procedural variants are investigated to reduce surface faults and to decrease the air content in the laminate. The analysis indicates that the air content can be significantly reduced by injecting the resin into a cavity filled with gaseous acetone and increasing the cavity pressure during the time of curing. Furthermore the long and short-term waviness of the surface is improved by these process modifications.

  5. [Determination of film thickness, component and content based on glass surface by using XRF spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Ma, Mi-Xia; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2013-12-01

    Film thickness, component and content based on glass surface were determined by using XRF technic, measure condition and instrument work condition in every layer were set and adjusted for the best measure effect for every element. Background fundamental parameter (BG-FP) method was built up. Measure results with this method were consistent with the actual preparation course and the method could fit to production application.

  6. Quantitative determination of the intensities of known components in spectra obtained from surface analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Linear least-squares methods have been used to quantitatively decompose experimental data obtained from surface analytical techniques into its separate components. The mathematical procedure for accomplishing this is described and examples are given of the use of this method with data obtained from Auger electron spectroscopy [both N(E) and derivative], x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The requirements on the quality of the data are discussed

  7. Integrated-Optics Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a new class of components for integrated optics, based on the propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in a dielectric. These novel components can provide guiding of light as well as coupling and splitting from/into a number...... fabricated and optically characterized. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0.8 mm are found for directional couplers with waveguides separated 4 and 0 µm, respectively. LR-SPP-based waveguides and waveguide components are modeled using the effective-refractive-index method and a good agreement...... with experimental results is obtained. The interaction of LR-SPPs with photonic crystals (PCs) is also studied. The PC structures are formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold film. The LR-SPP transmission through...

  8. Identifying Major Transitions in the Evolution of Lithic Cutting Edge Production Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Muller

    Full Text Available The notion that the evolution of core reduction strategies involved increasing efficiency in cutting edge production is prevalent in narratives of hominin technological evolution. Yet a number of studies comparing two different knapping technologies have found no significant differences in edge production. Using digital analysis methods we present an investigation of raw material efficiency in eight core technologies broadly representative of the long-term evolution of lithic technology. These are bipolar, multiplatform, discoidal, biface, Levallois, prismatic blade, punch blade and pressure blade production. Raw material efficiency is assessed by the ratio of cutting edge length to original core mass. We also examine which flake attributes contribute to maximising raw material efficiency, as well as compare the difference between expert and intermediate knappers in terms of cutting edge produced per gram of core. We identify a gradual increase in raw material efficiency over the broad sweep of lithic technological evolution. The results indicate that the most significant transition in efficiency likely took place with the introduction of small foliate biface, Levallois and prismatic blade knapping, all introduced in the Middle Stone Age / Middle Palaeolithic among early Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. This suggests that no difference in raw material efficiency existed between these species. With prismatic blade technology securely dated to the Middle Palaeolithic, by including the more recent punch and pressure blade technology our results dispel the notion that the transition to the Upper Palaeolithic was accompanied by an increase in efficiency. However, further increases in cutting edge efficiency are evident, with pressure blades possessing the highest efficiency in this study, indicating that late/epi-Palaeolithic and Neolithic blade technologies further increased efficiency.

  9. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ∼ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity

  10. Surface engineering glass-metal coatings designed for induction heating of ceramic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Amir Azam; Labbe, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    The term Surface Engineering is of relatively recent origin and use, however, the use of coatings and treatments to render surfaces of materials more suitable for certain application or environment is not new. With the advent of Vacuum Technology, Surface Engineering has gained a whole new impetus, whereby expensive materials with adequate mechanical, chemical and thermal properties are being coated or treated on their surfaces in order to achieve what is called as Surface Engineered materials. The present paper presents an overview of recent achievements in Surface Engineering and gives a detailed view of a specific application where glass-metal composite coatings were deposited on ceramic components in order to render them sensitive to induction heating. Sintered glaze coatings containing silver particles in appropriate concentration can be used for the induction heating of porcelain. Mixtures of glass ceramic powders with silver are used to prepare self-transfer patterns, which are deposited over porcelain. Several configurations of these coatings, which are aesthetic to start with, are employed and heating patterns are recorded. The microstructure of these coatings is discussed in relation to the heating ability by a classical household induction system. The results show that this technique is practical and commercially viable

  11. Surface engineering glass-metal coatings designed for induction heating of ceramic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. A.; Labbe, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The term Surface Engineering is of relatively recent origin and use, however, the use of coatings and treatments to render surfaces of materials more suitable for certain application or environment is not new. With the advent of Vacuum Technology, Surface Engineering has gained a whole new impetus, whereby expensive materials with adequate mechanical, chemical and thermal properties are being coated or treated on their surfaces in order to achieve what is called as Surface Engineered materials. The present paper presents an overview of recent achievements in Surface Engineering and gives a detailed view of a specific application where glass-metal composite coatings were deposited on ceramic components in order to render them sensitive to induction heating. Sintered glaze coatings containing silver particles in appropriate concentration can be used for the induction heating of porcelain. Mixtures of glass ceramic powders with silver are used to prepare self-transfer patterns, which are deposited over porcelain. Several configurations of these coatings, which are aesthetic to start with, are employed and heating patterns are recorded. The microstructure of these coatings is discussed in relation to the heating ability by a classical household induction system. The results show that this technique is practical and commercially viable. (author)

  12. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Sidén, Johan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan; Hummelgård, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed. (paper)

  13. GumPack: A Personal Health Assistant with Reconfigurable Surface Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejia Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wearable and everyday-carry medical devices can improve quality of life for individuals that need frequent health monitoring. Such tools can supplement ubiquitous home care environments populated with medical sensors, extending the reach of these environments and increasing the freedom of their occupants. This paper presents the concept design for an everyday-carry medical device called a ‘GumPack’: a small cuboid-shaped device that offers wireless connectivity and plug-and-play surface components, where a component can be a biomedical sensor or a wireless network coordinator that manages a body area network. This geometrical layout optimizes access to surface-based medical hardware mounted on a small form factor. The device offers substantive computing power, supports local component reconfigurability, and promotes interoperability with medical device coordination environments. The GumPack is envisioned to be a personal health assistant carried in a pocket or handbag that can operate alone or interface to, e.g., a cell phone.

  14. Lactic acid bacteria in dairy food: surface characterization and interactions with food matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgain, J; Scher, J; Francius, G; Borges, F; Corgneau, M; Revol-Junelles, A M; Cailliez-Grimal, C; Gaiani, C

    2014-11-01

    This review gives an overview of the importance of interactions occurring in dairy matrices between Lactic Acid Bacteria and milk components. Dairy products are important sources of biological active compounds of particular relevance to human health. These compounds include immunoglobulins, whey proteins and peptides, polar lipids, and lactic acid bacteria including probiotics. A better understanding of interactions between bioactive components and their delivery matrix may successfully improve their transport to their target site of action. Pioneering research on probiotic lactic acid bacteria has mainly focused on their host effects. However, very little is known about their interaction with dairy ingredients. Such knowledge could contribute to designing new and more efficient dairy food, and to better understand relationships between milk constituents. The purpose of this review is first to provide an overview of the current knowledge about the biomolecules produced on bacterial surface and the composition of the dairy matter. In order to understand how bacteria interact with dairy molecules, adhesion mechanisms are subsequently reviewed with a special focus on the environmental conditions affecting bacterial adhesion. Methods dedicated to investigate the bacterial surface and to decipher interactions between bacteria and abiotic dairy components are also detailed. Finally, relevant industrial implications of these interactions are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermographic analysis of plasma facing components covered by carbon surface layer in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarein, Jean-Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Tokamaks are reactors based on the thermonuclear fusion energy with magnetic confinement of the plasma. In theses machines, several MW are coupled to the plasma for about 10 s. A large part of this power is directed towards plasma facing components (PFC). For better understanding and control the heat flux transfer from the plasma to the surrounding wall, it is very important to measure the surface temperature of the PFC and to estimate the imposed heat flux. In most of tokamaks using carbon PFC, the eroded carbon is circulating in the plasma and redeposited elsewhere. During the plasma operations, this leads at some locations to the formation of thin or thick carbon layers usually poorly attached to the PFC. These surface layers with unknown thermal properties complicate the calculation of the heat flux from IR surface temperature measurements. To solve this problem, we develop first, inverse method to estimate the heat flux using thermocouple (not sensitive to the carbon surface layers) temperature measurements. Then, we propose a front face pulsed photothermal method allowing an estimation of layers thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity and the thermal contact resistance between the layer and the tile. The principle is to study with an infrared sensor, the cooling of the layer surface after heating by a short laser pulse, this cooling depending on the thermal properties of the successive layers. (author) [fr

  16. Components of the regular surface array of Aquaspirillum serpens MW5 and their assembly in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, M L; Murray, R G

    1984-02-01

    The two-layered regular surface array of Aquaspirillum serpens MW5 was removed from cell envelopes and dissociated into subunits by treatment with 6 M urea. The surface components reassembled onto an outer membrane surface and self-assembled into planar sheets in vitro in the presence of Ca2+ or Sr2+. The two layers were removed sequentially from cell envelopes by a two-step extraction procedure involving initial treatment with a high-pH buffer to remove the outermost surface layer and subsequent treatment with 6 M urea to remove the innermost layer. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the outer and inner layers of the array were composed of two proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 and 150,000, respectively. The two layers assembled sequentially; the 150,000-molecular-weight protein formed an array on an outer membrane surface, and the 125,000-molecular-weight protein required that array as a template for its in vitro assembly.

  17. The contribution of inflammasome components on macrophage response to surface nanotopography and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Susan; Bachhuka, Akash; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Implantable devices have become an established part of medical practice. However, often a negative inflammatory host response can impede the integration and functionality of the device. In this paper, we interrogate the role of surface nanotopography and chemistry on the potential molecular role of the inflammasome in controlling macrophage responses. To achieve this goal we engineered model substrata having precisely controlled nanotopography of predetermined height and tailored outermost surface chemistry. Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were harvested from genetically engineered mice deficient in the inflammasome components ASC, NLRP3 and AIM2. These cells were then cultured on these nanoengineered substrata and assessed for their capacity to attach and express pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our data provide evidence that the inflammasome components ASC, NLRP3 and AIM2 play a role in regulating macrophage adhesion and activation in response to surface nanotopography and chemistry. The findings of this paper are important for understanding the inflammatory consequences caused by biomaterials and pave the way to the rational design of future implantable devices having controlled and predictable inflammatory outcomes.

  18. Surface inspection system for industrial components based on shape from shading minimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotan, Muhammed; Öz, Cemil

    2017-12-01

    An inspection system using estimated three-dimensional (3-D) surface characteristics information to detect and classify the faults to increase the quality control on the frequently used industrial components is proposed. Shape from shading (SFS) is one of the basic and classic 3-D shape recovery problems in computer vision. In our application, we developed a system using Frankot and Chellappa SFS method based on the minimization of the selected basis function. First, the specialized image acquisition system captured the images of the component. To eliminate noise, wavelet transform is applied to the taken images. Then, estimated gradients were used to obtain depth and surface profiles. Depth information was used to determine and classify the surface defects. Also, a comparison made with some linearization-based SFS algorithms was discussed. The developed system was applied to real products and the results indicated that using SFS approaches is useful and various types of defects can easily be detected in a short period of time.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of Seals for Dust Mitigation of Mechanical Components for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Handschuh, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Component tests were conducted on spring-loaded Teflon seals to determine their performance in keeping lunar simulant out of mechanical component gearbox, motor, and bearing housings. Baseline tests were run in a dry-room without simulant for 10,000 cycles to determine wear effects of the seal against either anodized aluminum or stainless steel shafts. Repeat tests were conducted using lunar simulants JSC-1A and LHT-2M. Finally, tests were conducted with and without simulant in vacuum at ambient temperature. Preliminary results indicate minimal seal and shaft wear through 10,000 cycles, and more importantly, no simulant was observed to pass through the seal-shaft interface. Future endurance tests are planned at relevant NASA Lunar Surface System architecture shaft sizes and operating conditions.

  20. Response Surface Modeling of Combined-Cycle Propulsion Components using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, C. J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Three examples of response surface modeling with CFD are presented for combined cycle propulsion components. The examples include a mixed-compression-inlet during hypersonic flight, a hydrogen-fueled scramjet combustor during hypersonic flight, and a ducted-rocket nozzle during all-rocket flight. Three different experimental strategies were examined, including full factorial, fractionated central-composite, and D-optimal with embedded Plackett-Burman designs. The response variables have been confined to integral data extracted from multidimensional CFD results. Careful attention to uncertainty assessment and modeling bias has been addressed. The importance of automating experimental setup and effectively communicating statistical results are emphasized.

  1. Proceedings of the joint meeting on Plasma Surface Interaction (PSI) and Plasma Facing Components (PFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The joint meeting on Plasma Surface Interaction (PSI) and Plasma Facing Components (PFC) was held in Naka Fusion Establishment on December 1, 2000. This meeting has been held to enhance information exchange between PSI and PFC researchers. In the present meeting, there were 11 presentations which covered current status of PSI and PFC studies for large fusion devices such as ITER, JT-60 and LHD, and basic studies on Hydrogen isotope behavior in the fusion material. This report includes abstracts and view graphs of these presentations. (author)

  2. Principal component analysis of bacteria using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicheteau, Jason; Christesen, Steven D.

    2006-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) provides rapid fingerprinting of biomaterial in a non-destructive manner. The problem of tissue fluorescence, which can overwhelm a normal Raman signal from biological samples, is largely overcome by treatment of biomaterials with colloidal silver. This work presents a study into the applicability of qualitative SER spectroscopy with principal component analysis (PCA) for the discrimination of four biological threat simulants; Bacillus globigii, Pantoea agglomerans, Brucella noetomae, and Yersinia rohdei. We also demonstrate differentiation of gram-negative and gram-positive species and as well as spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus globigii.

  3. Principal component analysis for surface reflection components and structure in the facial image and synthesis of the facial image in various ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Misa; Toyota, Saori; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Ogawa-Ochiai, Keiko; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, principal component analysis is applied to pigmentation distributions, surface reflectance components and facial landmarks in the whole facial images to obtain feature values. Furthermore, the relationship between the obtained feature vectors and age is estimated by multiple regression analysis to modulate facial images in woman of ages 10 to 70. In our previous work, we analyzed only pigmentation distributions and the reproduced images looked younger than the reproduced age by the subjective evaluation. We considered that this happened because we did not modulate the facial structures and detailed surfaces such as wrinkles. By analyzing landmarks represented facial structures and surface reflectance components, we analyzed the variation of facial structures and fine asperity distributions as well as pigmentation distributions in the whole face. As a result, our method modulate the appearance of a face by changing age more appropriately.

  4. Modification of the cellulosic component of hemp fibers using sulfonic acid derivatives: Surface and thermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G; Bressler, David C

    2015-12-10

    The aim of this study was to characterize the surface, morphological, and thermal properties of hemp fibers treated with two commercially available, inexpensive, and water soluble sulfonic acid derivatives. Specifically, the cellulosic component of the fibers were targeted, because cellulose is not easily removed during chemical treatment. These acids have the potential to selectively transform the surfaces of natural fibers for composite applications. The proposed method proceeds in the absence of conventional organic solvents and high reaction temperatures. Surface chemical composition and signature were measured using gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS data from the treated hemp fibers were characterized by measuring the reduction in O/C ratio and an increase in abundance of the C-C-O signature. FTIR confirmed the reaction with the emergence of peaks characteristic of disubstituted benzene and amino groups. Grafting of the sulfonic derivatives resulted in lower surface polarity. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that treated fibers were characterized by lower percent degradation between 200 and 300 °C, and a higher initial degradation temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protection of surface assets on Mars from wind blown jettisoned spacecraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Jettisoned Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) hardware from landing spacecraft have been observed by orbiting spacecraft, strewn over the Martian surface. Future Mars missions that land spacecraft close to prelanded assets will have to use a landing architecture that somehow minimises the possibility of impacts from these jettisoned EDLS components. Computer modelling is used here to investigate the influence of wind speed and direction on the distribution of EDLS components on the surface. Typical wind speeds encountered in the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) were found to be of sufficient strength to blow items having a low ballistic coefficient, i.e. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs) or parachutes, onto prelanded assets even when the lander itself touches down several kilometres away. Employing meteorological measurements and careful characterisation of the Martian PBL, e.g. appropriate wind speed probability density functions, may then benefit future spacecraft landings, increase safety and possibly help reduce the delta v budget for Mars landers that rely on aerodynamic decelerators.

  6. Mechanism study of initial filamentary damage in optical components owing to surface contamination particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Lei, Zemin; Lu, Xingqiang; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-07-01

    Contaminations existing inevitably in high-power laser facilities modulate laser beams and decrease beam quality. This study set up a detection system to study the mechanism of initial filamentary damage in optical components induced by surface contaminations. The effect of ordinary solid particles, liquid particles, and solid-liquid mixed particles on the near-field intensity distribution of laser beam was studied and analyzed statistically. The experiment results show that pure solid particles make the beam generate diffraction rings with dark center usually in the shadow of the particles which is a weak intensity modulation; pure liquid particles focus the localized beam into a bright spot rapidly, but it is diffracted away soon; solid-liquid mixed particles cause diffraction rings with strongly bright center, but the high local intensity can be diffracted away only after a longer distance, which is one of the reason that induces the initial filamentary damage to optical components. The research results can predict the likelihood of component damage, and the corresponding preventive measures help to keep the safe operation of high-power laser facilities.

  7. Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology for Rocket Engine Component Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Papita, Nilay; Shyy, Wei; Tucker, P. Kevin; Griffin, Lisa W.; Haftka, Raphael; Fitz-Coy, Norman; McConnaughey, Helen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this work is to compare the performance of response surface methodology (RSM) and two types of neural networks (NN) to aid preliminary design of two rocket engine components. A data set of 45 training points and 20 test points obtained from a semi-empirical model based on three design variables is used for a shear coaxial injector element. Data for supersonic turbine design is based on six design variables, 76 training, data and 18 test data obtained from simplified aerodynamic analysis. Several RS and NN are first constructed using the training data. The test data are then employed to select the best RS or NN. Quadratic and cubic response surfaces. radial basis neural network (RBNN) and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) are compared. Two-layered RBNN are generated using two different training algorithms, namely solverbe and solverb. A two layered BPNN is generated with Tan-Sigmoid transfer function. Various issues related to the training of the neural networks are addressed including number of neurons, error goals, spread constants and the accuracy of different models in representing the design space. A search for the optimum design is carried out using a standard gradient-based optimization algorithm over the response surfaces represented by the polynomials and trained neural networks. Usually a cubic polynominal performs better than the quadratic polynomial but exceptions have been noticed. Among the NN choices, the RBNN designed using solverb yields more consistent performance for both engine components considered. The training of RBNN is easier as it requires linear regression. This coupled with the consistency in performance promise the possibility of it being used as an optimization strategy for engineering design problems.

  8. Mathematical modelling of ultrasonic testing of components with defects close to a non-planar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlund, Jonathan; Bostroem, Anders

    2011-05-01

    Nondestructive testing with ultrasound is a standard procedure in the nuclear power industry. To develop and qualify the methods extensive experimental work with test blocks is usually required. This can be very time-consuming and costly and it also requires a good physical intuition of the situation. A reliable mathematical model of the testing situation can, therefore, be very valuable and cost-effective as it can reduce experimental work significantly. A good mathematical model enhances the physical intuition and is very useful for parametric studies, as a pedagogical tool, and for the qualification of procedures and personnel. The aim of the present report is to describe work that has been performed to model ultrasonic testing of components that contain a defect close to a nonplanar surface. For nuclear power applications this may be a crack or other defect on the inside of a pipe with a diameter change or connection. This is an extension of the computer program UTDefect, which previously only admits a planar back surface (which is often applicable also to pipes if the pipe diameter is large enough). The problems are investigated in both 2D and 3D, and in 2D both the simpler anti-plane (SH) and the in-plane (P-SV) problem are studied. The 2D investigations are primarily solved to get a 'feeling' for the solution procedure, the discretizations, etc. In all cases an integral equation approach with a Green's function in the kernel is taken. The nonplanar surface is treated by the boundary element method (BEM) where a division of the surface is made in small elements. The defects are mainly cracks, strip-like (in 2D) or rectangular (in 3D), and these are treated with more analytical methods. In 2D also more general defects are treated with the help of their transition (T) matrix. As in other parts of UTDefect the ultrasonic probes in transmission and reception are included in the model. In 3D normalization by a side drilled hole is possible. Some numerical results

  9. Lithic technological responses to Late Pleistocene glacial cycling at Pinnacle Point Site 5-6, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle S.; Oestmo, Simen; Pereira, Telmo; Ranhorn, Kathryn L.; Schoville, Benjamin J.; Marean, Curtis W.

    2017-01-01

    There are multiple hypotheses for human responses to glacial cycling in the Late Pleistocene, including changes in population size, interconnectedness, and mobility. Lithic technological analysis informs us of human responses to environmental change because lithic assemblage characteristics are a reflection of raw material transport, reduction, and discard behaviors that depend on hunter-gatherer social and economic decisions. Pinnacle Point Site 5–6 (PP5-6), Western Cape, South Africa is an ideal locality for examining the influence of glacial cycling on early modern human behaviors because it preserves a long sequence spanning marine isotope stages (MIS) 5, 4, and 3 and is associated with robust records of paleoenvironmental change. The analysis presented here addresses the question, what, if any, lithic assemblage traits at PP5-6 represent changing behavioral responses to the MIS 5-4-3 interglacial-glacial cycle? It statistically evaluates changes in 93 traits with no a priori assumptions about which traits may significantly associate with MIS. In contrast to other studies that claim that there is little relationship between broad-scale patterns of climate change and lithic technology, we identified the following characteristics that are associated with MIS 4: increased use of quartz, increased evidence for outcrop sources of quartzite and silcrete, increased evidence for earlier stages of reduction in silcrete, evidence for increased flaking efficiency in all raw material types, and changes in tool types and function for silcrete. Based on these results, we suggest that foragers responded to MIS 4 glacial environmental conditions at PP5-6 with increased population or group sizes, ‘place provisioning’, longer and/or more intense site occupations, and decreased residential mobility. Several other traits, including silcrete frequency, do not exhibit an association with MIS. Backed pieces, once they appear in the PP5-6 record during MIS 4, persist through MIS

  10. Dataset on the evidence of bee products processing: A functional definition of a specialized type of macro-lithic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Ache

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The database includes spatial, chronological and technological information about the analyzed tools in the article entitled “Evidence of bee products processing: a functional definition of a specialized type of macro-lithic tool” (Ache et al., 2017 [1]. The technological information refers to the tool type, its rock type, weight, state of preservation, morphology, metrical data and functional features. We also provide an index of acronyms to properly understand the dataset published here.

  11. Lithic technological responses to Late Pleistocene glacial cycling at Pinnacle Point Site 5-6, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Wilkins

    Full Text Available There are multiple hypotheses for human responses to glacial cycling in the Late Pleistocene, including changes in population size, interconnectedness, and mobility. Lithic technological analysis informs us of human responses to environmental change because lithic assemblage characteristics are a reflection of raw material transport, reduction, and discard behaviors that depend on hunter-gatherer social and economic decisions. Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 (PP5-6, Western Cape, South Africa is an ideal locality for examining the influence of glacial cycling on early modern human behaviors because it preserves a long sequence spanning marine isotope stages (MIS 5, 4, and 3 and is associated with robust records of paleoenvironmental change. The analysis presented here addresses the question, what, if any, lithic assemblage traits at PP5-6 represent changing behavioral responses to the MIS 5-4-3 interglacial-glacial cycle? It statistically evaluates changes in 93 traits with no a priori assumptions about which traits may significantly associate with MIS. In contrast to other studies that claim that there is little relationship between broad-scale patterns of climate change and lithic technology, we identified the following characteristics that are associated with MIS 4: increased use of quartz, increased evidence for outcrop sources of quartzite and silcrete, increased evidence for earlier stages of reduction in silcrete, evidence for increased flaking efficiency in all raw material types, and changes in tool types and function for silcrete. Based on these results, we suggest that foragers responded to MIS 4 glacial environmental conditions at PP5-6 with increased population or group sizes, 'place provisioning', longer and/or more intense site occupations, and decreased residential mobility. Several other traits, including silcrete frequency, do not exhibit an association with MIS. Backed pieces, once they appear in the PP5-6 record during MIS 4, persist

  12. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, ARGOS buoy drift, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, D.; Knauss, W.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1991 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft; Cartesian components of free-drifting buoys which are tracked by the ARGOS navigation system on NOAA satellites; and Cartesian components of the 10-m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation value are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  13. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, ARGOS buoy drift, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, D.; Knauss, W.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1990 are proposed with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States (US) Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft; Cartesian components of free drifting buoys which are tracked by the ARGOS navigation system on NOAA satellites; and Cartesian components on the 10-m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation values are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  14. Upper Palaeolithic lithic raw material sourcing in Central and Northern Portugal as an aid to reconstructing hunter-gatherer societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the study of lithic raw materials used in Upper Palaeolithic occupations preserved in caves, rockshelters and open-air sites from two different geological environments in Portugal. For the sites located in the Lusitanian Basin, flint or silcrete sources are easily available in close vicinity. The Côa Valley sites, located in the Iberian Massif, are within a geological environment where restricted fine-grained vein quartz and siliceous metamorphic rocks are available, but no flint or silcrete, even though both are present in the archaeological assemblages. Data from the two clusters of sites are compared with a third newly located site in the Lower Vouga valley, at the limit of the Iberian Massif with the Lusitanian Basin, where quartz vein raw material types are locally available and flint is about 40 kilometres distant. This study reveals prehistoric adaptations to these different geological contexts, with shorter networks for the Lusitanian basin sites contrasting with the long distance ones for the Côa Valley, and the Vouga site at an intermediary position. Finally, we propose that lithic raw material supply networks, defined by a GIS least-cost algorithm, could be used as a proxy not only for territoriality in the case of local and regional lithic raw material sources, but also to infer long-distance social networks between different Palaeolithic human groups, created and maintained to promote the access to asymmetrically distributed resources.

  15. Derivation of a heterogeneous lithic fragment in the Bovedy L-group chondrite from impact-melted porphyritic chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, A. E.; Keil, K.; Taylor, G. J.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Bogard, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of petrographic, compositional and dating analyses of a light-colored lithic fragment in the L-group Bovedy meteorite that has a composition different from that of the host chondrite. Polished thin sections of the lithic fragment, host, and the fragment-host boundary were examined microscopically and analyzed by electron microprobe, metallic Ni-Fe, and instrumental neutron activation techniques; chips of the fragment were also used for Ar-39/Ar-40 dating and oxygen isotope analyses. The poikilitic textures, olivine, low-Ca pyroxene and kamacite composition and low Na2O, K2O and P2O5 contents of the fragment indicate that it represents a solidified, slightly fractionated impact melt formed from a source rich in porphyritic chondrules. A progressive increase on MgO content across the fragment is accounted for by the heterogeneous nucleation of MgO-rich phases. The Ar data indicate that the Bovedy lithic fragment and its host were partly degassed of radiogenic Ar less than 0.94 billion years ago, probably due to shock. The data are consistent with a cooling rate of about 5 C/million years through 500 C, which must have resulted from the burial of the assemblage beneath insulating material on the parent body at depths of at least several km.

  16. The Separation of Blood Components Using Standing Surface Acoustic Waves (SSAWs Microfluidic Devices: Analysis and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The separation of blood components (WBCs, RBCs, and platelets is important for medical applications. Recently, standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW microfluidic devices are used for the separation of particles. In this paper, the design analysis of SSAW microfluidics is presented. Also, the analysis of SSAW force with Rayleigh angle effect and its attenuation in liquid-loaded substrate, viscous drag force, hydrodynamic force, and diffusion force are explained and analyzed. The analyses are provided for selecting the piezoelectric material, width of the main microchannel, working area of SAW, wavelength, minimum input power required for the separation process, and widths of outlet collecting microchannels. The design analysis of SSAW microfluidics is provided for determining the minimum input power required for the separation process with appropriated the displacement contrast of the particles.The analyses are applied for simulation the separation of blood components. The piezoelectric material, width of the main microchannel, working area of SAW, wavelength, and minimum input power required for the separation process are selected as LiNbO3, 120 μm, 1.08 mm2, 300 μm, 371 mW. The results are compared to other published results. The results of these simulations achieve minimum power consumption, less complicated setup, and high collecting efficiency. All simulation programs are built by MATLAB.

  17. Antibacterial performance of polypropylene nonwoven fabric wound dressing surfaces containing passive and active components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Zhirong, E-mail: xinzhirong2012@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Du, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Hao; Sun, Miao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Yan, Shunjie [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luan, Shifang, E-mail: sfluan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PNVP and PHMG components were covalently immobilized on PP{sub NWF} surface. • PP{sub NWF}-g-PNVP-PHMG possessed bacterial adhesion-resistant and bactericidal capabilities. • PP{sub NWF}-g-PNVP-PHMG obviously suppressed platelet and red blood cell adhesion. - Abstract: A growing number of wound dressing-related nosocomial infections necessitate the development of novel antibacterial strategies. Herein, polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP{sub NWF}) was facilely modified with passive and active antibacterial components, namely photografting polymerization both N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers, and the introduction of guanidine polymer through the reaction between active amino groups and epoxy groups. The modified samples were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Water contact angle measurement, antibacterial test, platelet and red blood cell adhesion were used to evaluate the hydrophilicity, antibacterial properties and hemocompatibility of the samples. It was found that the antibacterial properties were obviously enhanced, meanwhile significantly suppressing platelet and red blood cell adhesion after the above modification. This PP{sub NWF} samples that possess antifouling and antimicrobial properties, have great potential in wound dressing applications.

  18. Antibacterial performance of polypropylene nonwoven fabric wound dressing surfaces containing passive and active components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Zhirong; Du, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Hao; Sun, Miao; Yan, Shunjie; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PNVP and PHMG components were covalently immobilized on PP NWF surface. • PP NWF -g-PNVP-PHMG possessed bacterial adhesion-resistant and bactericidal capabilities. • PP NWF -g-PNVP-PHMG obviously suppressed platelet and red blood cell adhesion. - Abstract: A growing number of wound dressing-related nosocomial infections necessitate the development of novel antibacterial strategies. Herein, polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP NWF ) was facilely modified with passive and active antibacterial components, namely photografting polymerization both N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers, and the introduction of guanidine polymer through the reaction between active amino groups and epoxy groups. The modified samples were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Water contact angle measurement, antibacterial test, platelet and red blood cell adhesion were used to evaluate the hydrophilicity, antibacterial properties and hemocompatibility of the samples. It was found that the antibacterial properties were obviously enhanced, meanwhile significantly suppressing platelet and red blood cell adhesion after the above modification. This PP NWF samples that possess antifouling and antimicrobial properties, have great potential in wound dressing applications.

  19. A Krebs Cycle Component Limits Caspase Activation Rate through Mitochondrial Surface Restriction of CRL Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, Lior; Braun, Tslil; Braverman, Carmel; Kaplan, Yosef; Ravid, Liat; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Arama, Eli

    2016-04-04

    How cells avoid excessive caspase activity and unwanted cell death during apoptotic caspase-mediated removal of large cellular structures is poorly understood. We investigate caspase-mediated extrusion of spermatid cytoplasmic contents in Drosophila during spermatid individualization. We show that a Krebs cycle component, the ATP-specific form of the succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (A-Sβ), binds to and activates the Cullin-3-based ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) complex required for caspase activation in spermatids. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that this interaction occurs on the mitochondrial surface, thereby limiting the source of CRL3 complex activation to the vicinity of this organelle and reducing the potential rate of caspase activation by at least 60%. Domain swapping between A-Sβ and the GTP-specific SCSβ (G-Sβ), which functions redundantly in the Krebs cycle, show that the metabolic and structural roles of A-Sβ in spermatids can be uncoupled, highlighting a moonlighting function of this Krebs cycle component in CRL activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of explosives on the surface of banknotes by Raman hyperspectral imaging and independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana R; Correa, Deleon N; Zacca, Jorge J; Logrado, Lucio Paulo Lima; Poppi, Ronei J

    2015-02-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology using Raman hyperspectral imaging and chemometric methods for identification of pre- and post-blast explosive residues on banknote surfaces. The explosives studied were of military, commercial and propellant uses. After the acquisition of the hyperspectral imaging, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the pure spectra and the distribution of the corresponding image constituents. The performance of the methodology was evaluated by the explained variance and the lack of fit of the models, by comparing the ICA recovered spectra with the reference spectra using correlation coefficients and by the presence of rotational ambiguity in the ICA solutions. The methodology was applied to forensic samples to solve an automated teller machine explosion case. Independent component analysis proved to be a suitable method of resolving curves, achieving equivalent performance with the multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method. At low concentrations, MCR-ALS presents some limitations, as it did not provide the correct solution. The detection limit of the methodology presented in this study was 50 μg cm(-2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Eddy current technique for detecting and sizing surface cracks in steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecco, V.S.; Carter, J.R.; Sullivan, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Cracking has occurred in pressure vessel nozzles and girth welds due to thermal fatigue. Pipe welds, welds in support structures, and welds in reactor vault liner panels in nuclear facilities have failed because of cracks. Cracking can also occur in turbine rotor bore surfaces due to high cycle fatigue. Dye penetrant, magnetic particle and other surface NDT methods are used to detect cracks but cannot be used for depth sizing. Crack depth can be measured with various NDT methods such as ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), potential drop, and eddy current. The TOFD technique can be difficult to implement on nozzle welds and is best suited for sizing deep cracks (>5 mm). The conventional eddy current method is easy to implement, but crack sizing is normally limited to shallow cracks ( 2 mm) cracks. Eddy current testing (ET) techniques are readily amenable to remote/automatic inspections. These new probes could augment present magnetic particle (MT) and dye penetrant (PT) testing through provision of reliable defect depth information. Reliable crack sizing permits identification of critical cracks for plant life extension and licensing purposes. In addition, performing PT and MT generates low level radioactive waste in some inspection applications in nuclear facilities. Replacing these techniques with ET for some components will eliminate some of this radioactive waste. (author)

  2. Detecting geothermal anomalies and evaluating LST geothermal component by combining thermal remote sensing time series and land surface model data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, M.; Vaughan, R. G.; Ettema, J.; Izquierdo-Verdiguier, E.; Hecker, C. A.; van der Meer, F. D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores for the first time the possibilities to use two land surface temperature (LST) time series of different origins (geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite data and Noah land surface modelling, LSM), to detect geothermal anomalies and extract the geothermal component of

  3. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori cells and their surface components to HeLa cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchère, J L; Blaser, M J

    1990-12-01

    Four Helicobacter pylori strains were used to develop in vitro methods to assess adherence to HeLa cells. Using direct detection by microscopy, adhesion scores increased with the initial bacteria-to-cell ratio. The urease method assessed H. pylori bound to HeLa cells by their urease activity. The percentage of the original inoculum adhering to HeLa cells remained constant for initial ratios from 10(2) to 10(5) bacteria per cell. An ELISA using anti-H. pylori serum assessed whole bacteria or components bound to HeLa cell fractions. By all three methods, the four H. pylori strains were adherent to HeLa cells or membranes whereas Campylobacter fetus and Providencia control strains were not. The adherence of H. pylori whole cells decreased following extraction with saline, water, or glycine buffer and most of the superficial adhering material (SAM) was present in the saline or water extracts. SAM bound better to HeLa membranes than to calf fetuin or bovine serum albumin (BSA); binding was inhibited by preincubation of SAM with HeLa membranes but not with fetuin or BSA or by pretreatment of HeLa membranes with neuraminidase. These data indicate that SAM has a specific receptor on the HeLa cell membranes. By gel exclusion chromatography of bacterial extracts, the most adherent components were found in the fractions which also contained the highest urease activity; these fractions included urease subunit antigens. We conclude that adherence of H. pylori can be assessed by microtiter assays and involves bacterial surface material which co-purifies with urease and is different from the N-acetyl-neuraminyl-lactose binding hemagglutinin.

  4. Retention Forces between Titanium and Zirconia Components of Two-Part Implant Abutments with Different Techniques of Surface Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Maltzahn, Nadine Freifrau; Holstermann, Jan; Kohorst, Philipp

    2016-08-01

    The adhesive connection between titanium base and zirconia coping of two-part abutments may be responsible for the failure rate. A high mechanical stability between both components is essential for the long-term success. The aim of the present in-vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different surface modification techniques and resin-based luting agents on the retention forces between titanium and zirconia components in two-part implant abutments. A total of 120 abutments with a titanium base bonded to a zirconia coping were investigated. Two different resin-based luting agents (Panavia F 2.0 and RelyX Unicem) and six different surface modifications were used to fix these components, resulting in 12 test groups (n = 10). The surface of the test specimens was mechanically pretreated with aluminium oxide blasting in combination with application of two surface activating primers (Alloy Primer, Clearfil Ceramic Primer) or a tribological conditioning (Rocatec), respectively. All specimens underwent 10,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C in a moist environment. A pull-off test was then conducted to determine retention forces between the titanium and zirconia components, and statistical analysis was performed (two-way anova). Finally, fracture surfaces were analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. No significant differences were found between Panavia F 2.0 and RelyX Unicem. However, the retention forces were significantly influenced by the surface modification technique used (p zirconia copings were pretreated with aluminium oxide blasting, and with the application of Clearfil Ceramic Primer. Surface modification techniques crucially influence the retention forces between titanium and zirconia components in two-part implant abutments. All adhesion surfaces should be pretreated by sandblasting. Moreover, a phosphate-based primer serves to enhance long-term retention of the components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Ceramic Surface Treatment with a Single-component Primer: Resin Adhesion to Glass Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Mayara; Prochnow, Catina; Marchionatti, Ana Maria Estivalete; Baldissara, Paolo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Wandscher, Vinicius Felipe

    2018-04-19

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of composite cement bonded to two machined glass ceramics and its durability, comparing conventional surface conditioning (hydrofluoric acid + silane) to a one-step primer (Monobond Etch & Prime). Machined slices of lithium disilicate ceramic (LDC) (IPS e.max CAD) and feldspathic ceramic (FC) (VITA Mark II) glass ceramics were divided into two groups (n = 10) according to two factors: 1. surface treatment: HF+S (ca 5% hydrofluoric acid [IPS Ceramic Etching GEL] + silane coupling agent [SIL; Monobond Plus]) or MEP (single-component ceramic conditioner; Monobond Etch & Prime); 2. storage condition: baseline (without aging; tested 24 h after cementing) or aged (70 days of water storage + 12,000 thermal cycles). Composite cement (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to starch matrices on the treated ceramic surfaces and photoactivated. A μSBS test was performed (0.5 mm/min) and the failure pattern was determined. Contact angle and micromorphological analyses were also performed. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test (α = 5%). For both ceramic materials, HF+S resulted in higher mean μSBS (MPa) at baseline (LDC: HF+S 21.2 ± 2.2 > MEP 10.4 ± 2.4; FC: HF+S 19.6 ± 4.3 > MEP 13.5 ± 5.4) and after aging (LDC: HF+S 14.64 ± 2.31 > MEP 9 ± 3.4; FC HF+S: 14.73 ± 3.33 > MEP 11.1 ± 3.3). HF+S resulted in a statistically significant decrease in mean μSBS after aging (p = 0.0001), while MEP yielded no significant reduction. The main failure type was adhesive between composite cement and ceramic. HF+S resuted in the lowest contact angle. Hydrofluoric acid + silane resulted in higher mean μSBS than Monobond Etch & Prime for both ceramics; however, Monobond Etch & Prime had stable bonding after aging.

  6. Two component silicone modified epoxy foul release coatings: Effect of modulus, surface energy and surface restructuring on pseudobarnacle and macrofouling behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, S.K.; Chavan, J.G.; Sasane, Savita; Jagannath; Patri, M.; Samui, A.B.; Chakraborty, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Two component silicone modified epoxy resin based low surface energy and non-toxic foul release coatings were developed. Silicone modified epoxy resin with 15 and 30% silicone content was used as component A and a polyether diamine (Jeffamine-500) was used as the component B. Free standing films were prepared by casting a mixture of components A and B in stoichiometric proportions. The surface composition, surface topography and wetting properties of the coatings were studied by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle goniometry respectively. The mechanical properties of the cured films were evaluated by tensile measurements as well as dynamic mechanical analysis. Pseudobarnacles made of aluminium studs were attached to the coated panels and adhesion tests were carried out by a pseudobarnacle tester. Coated panels were exposed in Mumbai harbor for fouling studies for a period of 90 days. Surface restructuring studies of the coatings upon immersion in seawater were carried out by measuring the changes in advancing and receding contact angles by contact angle goniometry. The effect of surface energy, modulus and surface restructuring of the coatings on the macrofouling and pseudobarnacle adhesion properties has been discussed in detail.

  7. The Influence of the Tool Surface Texture on Friction and the Surface Layers Properties of Formed Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šugárová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological texturing of forming tool surfaces has high potential to reduce friction and tool wear and also has impact on the surface layers properties of formed material. In order to understand the effect of different types of tool textures, produced by nanosecond fibre laser, on the tribological conditions at the interface tool-formed material and on the integrity of formed part surface layers, the series of experimental investigations have been carried out. The coefficient of friction for different texture parameters (individual feature shape, including the depth profile of the cavities and orientation of the features relative to the material flow was evaluated via a Ring Test and the surface layers integrity of formed material (surface roughness and subsurface micro hardness was also experimentally analysed. The results showed a positive effect of surface texturing on the friction coefficients and the strain hardening of test samples material. Application of surface texture consisting of dimple-like depressions arranged in radial layout contributed to the most significant friction reduction of about 40%. On the other hand, this surface texture contributed to the increase of surface roughness parameters, Ra parameter increased from 0.49 μm to 2.19 μm and the Rz parameter increased from 0.99 μm to 16.79 μm.

  8. The effect of laser pulse width on laser-induced damage at K9 and UBK7 components surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinda; Ba, Rongsheng; Zheng, Yinbo; Yuan, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Chen, Bo

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effects of laser pulse width on laser-induced damage. We measured the damage threshold of K9 glass and UBK7 glass optical components at different pulse width, then analysis pulse-width dependence of damage threshold. It is shown that damage threshold at different pulse width conforms to thermal restriction mechanism, Because of cm size laser beam, defect on the optical component surface leads to laser-induced threshold decreased.

  9. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afiqah Arham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The hydroxyl groups of the polyphenols are capable to act as reducing agent for reduction reaction. The effect of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration were evaluated using central composite design which consists of 20 experimental runs. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to estimate the optimum parameters in extracting polyphenols from the palm leaves. The correspondence analysis of the results yielded a quadratic model which can be used to find optimum conditions of extraction process. The optimum extraction condition of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration are 70°C, at 70°C of 10 minutes, respectively. Total polyphenols were determined by application of the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method and the extract was found contain of 8 mg GAE/g dry palm leaves at optimum conditions. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.95-100 [How to cite this article: Arham, N.A., Mohamad, N.A.N., Jai, J., Krishnan, J., Noorsuhana Mohd Yusof, N.M. (2013. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis. International Journal of Science and

  10. Evaluation of the Cutting Force Components and the Surface Roughness in the Milling Process of Micro- and Nanocrystalline Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habrat W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocristalline pure titanium in comparison to microcrystalline titanium is characterized by better mechanical properties which influence its wider usability. The aim of the research was to evaluate whether the grain size of pure titanium (micro- and nanocrystalline has influence on the cutting force components and the surface roughness in the milling process. Models of cutting force components for both materials were prepared and differences between the results were examined. The feed rate effect on selected parameters of surface roughness after milling of micro- and nanocrystalline pure titanium was determined.

  11. Surface-Active Agents for Isolation of the Core Component of Avian Myeloblastosis Virus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Kurt

    1972-01-01

    Sixty-one surface-active agents were evaluated in a procedure designed to assess their ability to remove the envelope from the core component of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV). The procedure consisted of centrifugation of intact AMV through a series of sucrose gradients each containing an upper layer of agent at one of eight concentrations between 0.01 and 10%. The effectiveness of an agent in producing AMV cores was indicated by (i) the appearance of light-scattering bands in the region of core buoyant density in gradient tubes; (ii) the range of surfactant concentration over which these bands appeared; and (iii) an electron microscopy assessment by the negative-staining technique of the relative proportion of core to non-core material in each of these bands. Six nonionic surfactants were selected by this screening method for comparison in regard to recovery of core protein and endogenous ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase activity, as well as further morphologic evaluation by electron microscopy. The nonionic surfactants of the polyoxyethylene alcohol class (particularly, Sterox SL) were most effective. Nonionic surfactants of the polyoxyethylene alkylphenol class (particularly, Nonidet P-40) were also effective. Sterox SL and Nonidet P-40 each gave a more than fivefold increase in specific activity of endogenous RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, and each gave a low recovery of core protein. Sterox SL did not interfere to the extent that Nonidet P-40 did in procedures which involved spectrophotometric assay at 260 nm. The use of Sterox SL resulted in the least envelope contamination of core preparations by electron microscopy examination, the most recovery of protein and endogenous RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity, and a core buoyant density in sucrose of 1.27 g/ml. Images PMID:4112071

  12. Influence of surface-energy components of Ni-P-TiO2-PTFE nanocomposite coatings on bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Qi

    2011-08-02

    The influence of total surface energy on bacterial adhesion has been investigated intensively with the frequent conclusion that bacterial adhesion is less on low-energy surfaces. However, there are also a number of contrary findings that high-energy surfaces have a smaller biofouling tendency. Recently, it was found that the CQ ratio, which is defined as the ratio of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) apolar to electron donor surface-energy components of substrates, has a strong correlation to bacterial adhesion. However, the electron donor surface-energy components of substrates varied over only a very limited range. In this article, a series of Ni-P-TiO(2)-PTFE nanocomposite coatings with wide range of surface-energy components were prepared using an electroless plating technique. The bacterial adhesion and removal on the coatings were evaluated with different bacteria under both static and flow conditions. The experimental results demonstrated that there was a strong correlation between bacterial attachment (or removal) and the CQ ratio. The coatings with the lowest CQ ratio had the lowest bacterial adhesion or the highest bacterial removal, which was explained using the extented DLVO theory.

  13. Process chain for fabrication of anisotropic optical functional surfaces on polymer components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Zhang, Yang; Regi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce a process chain for fabrication of anisotropic optical functional surfaces on polymer products. Thesurface features under investigation are composed of micro serrated ridges. The scope was to maximize the visible contrast betweenhorizontally orthogonal textured surfaces...

  14. Surface roughness characterization of cast components using 3D optical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    made in green sand moulds and the surface roughness parameter (Sa) values were compared with those of the standards. Sa parameter suffices for the evaluation of casting surface texture. The S series comparators showed a better description of the surface of castings after shot blasting than the A series...

  15. Lithic technology of the “St Site Complex” from Peninj (Lake Natron, Tanzania: Analysis of an African Oldowan assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Torre Sáinz, Ignacio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work a sistematic analysis of the lithic materials from the ST Site Complex (Lake Natron, Tanzania is presented. This complex is composed of a cluster of eleven archaeological sites, which share a topographic proximity and the same stratigraphic position. They are located above Tuff 1 in the Upper Sandy Clays of the Humbu Formation of Peninj, dated around 1,6-1,4 ma. Lithic artefacts from each archaeological site will be analysed together from a technological perspective, focusing on the relevance of the conclusions obtained for knowledge of the African Oldowan.

    En este trabajo se presenta un análisis sistemático de los materiales líticos hasta ahora estudiados en el Complejo ST de Peninj, en el lago Natron (Tanzania. Este complejo está constituido por un grupo de 11 yacimientos arqueológicos muy próximos topográficamente y situados en la misma posición estratigráfica, por encima de la Toba 1 en las Upper Sandy Cáliz (Arcillas Arenosas Superiores de la Formación Humbu de Peninj, cuya cronología se estima entre los 1,6-1,4 ma. Desde una perspectiva tecnológica, se estudiarán conjuntamente los objetos líticos recuperados en cada uno de estos yacimientos, incidiendo en la relevancia de las conclusiones obtenidas para el conocimiento del Olduvayense africano.

  16. Multivariate perspectives on change and continuity in the Middle Stone Age lithics from Klasies River Mouth, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Grant S

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines variability and the emergence of the Howiesons Poort within the Middle Stone Age lithic technologies of Klasies River Mouth. Here I present a pattern recognition study using multivariate statistical techniques examining the data presented by [Singer, R., Wymer, J.J., 1982. The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River Mouth in South Africa. Chicago University Press, Chicago]. Using this model, the Middle Stone Age (MSA) lithics from Klasies River Mouth load on three main factors: (1) a Levallois flake manufacture factor, (2) a blade manufacture factor, and (3) a worked point factor. The MSA I assemblage from Cave 1 and the MSA II assemblage from Shelter 1a correlate strongly with the worked point factor, the MSA II assemblage from Cave 1 correlates strongly with the Levallois factor, and the Howiesons Poort assemblage from Shelter 1a correlates strongly with the blade factor. The Howiesons Poort from Shelter 1a is differs more from all other industries than the remaining industries do from each other. In addition, the Howiesons Poort from Cave 2 groups closely with the MSA III assemblage from Shelter 1a due to similarities in raw material frequencies.

  17. Measurement of the surface morphology of plasma facing components on the EAST tokamak by a laser speckle interferometry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongbei, WANG; Xiaoqian, CUI; Yuanbo, LI; Mengge, ZHAO; Shuhua, LI; Guangnan, LUO; Hongbin, DING

    2018-03-01

    The laser speckle interferometry approach provides the possibility of an in situ optical non-contacted measurement for the surface morphology of plasma facing components (PFCs), and the reconstruction image of the PFC surface morphology is computed by a numerical model based on a phase unwrapping algorithm. A remote speckle interferometry measurement at a distance of three meters for real divertor tiles retired from EAST was carried out in the laboratory to simulate a real detection condition on EAST. The preliminary surface morphology of the divertor tiles was well reproduced by the reconstructed geometric image. The feasibility and reliability of this approach for the real-time measurement of PFCs have been demonstrated.

  18. Assessment of total equivalent strain at the surface of strain controlled axisymmetric components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.; Smith, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case N 47 (ASME) specifies rules for assessing fatigue and creep damage to components operating at elevated temperatures. Two routes are specified, namely an elastic route and an inelastic route. This paper considers the possibility of using this approach to thermally shocked components where primary loads are negligible. (orig./GL)

  19. Application of Box-Behnken Design and Response Surface Methodology for Surface Roughness Prediction Model of CP-Ti Powder Metallurgy Components Through WEDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arunangsu; Sarkar, Susenjit; Karanjai, Malobika; Sutradhar, Goutam

    2018-04-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate and characterize the machining parameters (such as surface roughness, etc.) of uni-axially pressed commercially pure titanium sintered powder metallurgy components. Powder was uni-axially pressed at designated pressure of 840 MPa to form cylindrical samples and the green compacts were sintered at 0.001 mbar for about 4 h with sintering temperature varying from 1350 to 1450 °C. The influence of the sintering temperature, pulse-on and pulse-off time at wire-EDM on the surface roughness of the preforms has been investigated thoroughly. Experiments were conducted under different machining parameters in a CNC operated wire-cut EDM. The surface roughness of the machined surface was measured and critically analysed. The optimum surface roughness was achieved under the conditions of 6 μs pulse-on time, 9 μs pulse-off time and at sintering temperature of 1450 °C.

  20. Application of Box-Behnken Design and Response Surface Methodology for Surface Roughness Prediction Model of CP-Ti Powder Metallurgy Components Through WEDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arunangsu; Sarkar, Susenjit; Karanjai, Malobika; Sutradhar, Goutam

    2017-06-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate and characterize the machining parameters (such as surface roughness, etc.) of uni-axially pressed commercially pure titanium sintered powder metallurgy components. Powder was uni-axially pressed at designated pressure of 840 MPa to form cylindrical samples and the green compacts were sintered at 0.001 mbar for about 4 h with sintering temperature varying from 1350 to 1450 °C. The influence of the sintering temperature, pulse-on and pulse-off time at wire-EDM on the surface roughness of the preforms has been investigated thoroughly. Experiments were conducted under different machining parameters in a CNC operated wire-cut EDM. The surface roughness of the machined surface was measured and critically analysed. The optimum surface roughness was achieved under the conditions of 6 μs pulse-on time, 9 μs pulse-off time and at sintering temperature of 1450 °C.

  1. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Svenja K.; Hauf, Katharina; Vieira, Josélio; Heinrich, Stefan; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations.

  2. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, Svenja K; Hauf, Katharina; Heinrich, Stefan; Vieira, Josélio; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations. (paper)

  3. Adding a Performance-Based Component to Surface Warfare Officer Bonuses: Will it Affect Retention?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carman, Aron S; Mudd, Ryan M

    2008-01-01

    ... Authorization and the current officer inventory beginning at 9 years of commissioned service. The objective of this study was to analyze the 13-year retention effect of adding a performance-based component to the SWO Critical Skills Bonus (CSB...

  4. An Instrument for Inspecting Aspheric Optical Surfaces and Components, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Phase II SBIR proposal to develop an extremely versatile optical inspection tool for aspheric optical components and optics that are not easily inspected...

  5. An Instrument for Inspecting Aspheric Optical Surfaces and Components, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Phase I proposal to develop an extremely versatile optical inspection tool for determining the optical figure of aspheric optical components, such as test...

  6. The surface tension of pure liquids. Thermodynamic components and corresponding states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    1999-01-01

    From the temperature dependency of surface and interfacial tensions the surface excess energy and entropy per unit area can be obtained. The excess energy is a liquid-specific property; it varies over about three decades between liquid helium and molten metals. On the other hand, the excess entropy

  7. Influence of the hydrostatic stress component on critical surface expansion in forging compound products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorm, T; Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras

    1974-01-01

    of a superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the critical surface expansion during a forging process. The critical surface expansion appears to decrease with increasing hydrostatic pressure. This may be due to the fact that the close contact between the materials necessary to obtain bonding is created by a micro...

  8. Laser structuring and modification of surfaces for chemical and medical micro components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremus-Koebberling, Elke A.; Gillner, Arnold

    2003-11-01

    In the production of micro devices for applications in chemistry, biotechnology and medical technologies surface properties become more and more important. The microscale topography and surface chemistry have influence on wetting properties and cell behavior. Therefore the design of material surface determines the success of artificial devices in contact with biological systems. For applications in the field of medical implants laser technologies have been developed for micro structuring of polymers to modify the surface properties with respect to wettability and controlled cell growth. The technology is based on excimer laser treatment of polymer surfaces using laser wavelength 193 nm (ArF) with different fluences and cumulated energies. Depending on the processing parameters and examined polymers either hydrophobic or hydrophilic surfaces can be increased. The water contact angle of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for example can be increased from 113° to approx. 150° so that the surface exhibits the so called lotus effect. The laser generated micro patterns reveal influence on cell density and cell distribution which can be used for cell guidance. Results for cell growing experiments are shown for different polymers.

  9. Advancement of the arc-waterjet cutting to a gouging process for contaminated surface activity of steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.W.; Bruening, D.

    1990-01-01

    The technique of arc-waterjet cutting had to be progressed so that it is possible to gouge the surface of metallic components of nuclear power plants. With applicable cutting parameters depending on the thickness of the contamination the surface had to be gouged and converted to a granulation that is to remove. A continously pulled out wire electrode strikes an arc to the workpeace by short circuit and melts both. A concentric around the wire placed waterjet is able to wash the liquid metal away. With a computer numeric control it is possible to remove the surface of metal up to a deep penetration of 4 to 5 mm. With arc waterjet gouging a remote-controlled removal of contaminated surface activity in shutdowned nuclear power plants under water is possible. (orig./HP) With 15 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs [de

  10. Double Lap Shear Testing of Coating-Modified Ice Adhesion to Specific Shuttle Component Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrick, M. G; Mulherin, Nathan D; Coutermarsh, Barry A; Durell, Glenn D; Curtis, Leslie A; St. Clair, Terry L; Weiser, Erik S; Cano, Roberto J; Smith, Trent M; Stevenson, Charles G; Martinez, Eloy C

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this experimental program were to optimize the effectiveness of an icephobic coating for use on several Space Shuttle surfaces, to evaluate the effects of adding an ultraviolet light absorber (UVA...

  11. Effect of metal surface composition on deposition behavior of stainless steel component dissolved in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Norikatsu; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro

    1988-01-01

    Deposition behavior of corrosion products has been investigated to clarify the effect of metal surface composition on the deposition process in liquid sodium. For the study a sodium loop made of Type 304 stainless steel was employed. Deposition test pieces, which were Type 304 stainless steel, iron, nickel or Inconel 718, were immersed in the sodium pool of the test pot. Corrosion test pieces, which were Type 304 stainless steel, 50 at% Fe-50 at%Mn and Inconel 718, were set in a heater pin assembly along the axial direction of the heater pin surface. Sodium temperatures at the outlet and inlet of the heater pin assembly were controlled at 943 and 833 K, respectively. Sodium was purified at a cold trap temperature of 393 K and the deposition test was carried out for 4.3 x 10 2 - 2.9 x 10 4 ks. Several crystallized particles were observed on the surface of the deposition test pieces. The particles had compositions and crystal structures which depended on both the composition of deposition test pieces and the concentration of iron and manganese in sodium. Only iron-rich particles having a polyhedral shape deposited on the iron surface. Two types of particles, iron-rich α-phase and γ-phase with nearly the same composition as stainless steel, were deposited on Type 304 stainless steel. A Ni-Mn alloy was deposited on the nickel surface in the case of a higher concentration of manganese in sodium. On the other hand, for a lower manganese concentration, a Fe-Ni alloy was precipitated on the nickel surface. Particles deposited on nickel had a γ-phase crystal structure similar to the deposition test piece of nickel. Hence, the deposition process can be explained as follows: Corrosion products in liquid sodium were deposited on the metal surface by forming a metal alloy selectively with elements of the metal surface. (author)

  12. Characterizing Surface Energy Budget Components in Urban Regions Using Combination of Flux Tower Observations and Satellite Remote Sensing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Vant-hull, B.; Ramamurthy, P.; Blake, R.; Prakash, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban and built regions because of their lack of surface moisture and their surface impermeability significantly perform differently in surface energy budget than natural and non-urban regions. Characterizing the effect and the response of each surface type in the cities can help to increase our understanding of climate, anthropogenic heat, and urban heat islands. Both ground observations and remote sensing observations are important when the extent of the heat energy balance components in big cities is targeted. This is study aims to provide a novel approach to use ground observations and map the maxima and minima air temperature in New York City using satellite measurements. Complete energy balance stations are installed over distinct materials such as concrete, asphalt, and rooftops. The footprint of these stations is restricted to the individual materials. The energy balance stations monitor the sensible and latent heat fluxes through eddy covariance method. To account for the incoming and outgoing radiation, a 4-component radiometer is used that can observe both incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. Moreover, satellite observations from Landsat 8 are utilized to classify the city surfaces to distinct defined surfaces where ground observations were performed. The mapped temperatures will be linked to MODIS surface temperatures to develop a model that can downscale MODIS skin temperatures to fine resolution air temperature over urban regions. The results are compared with ground observations, which they reveal a great potential of using synergetic use of flux tower observations and satellite measurement to study urban surface energy budget. The results of this study can enhance our understanding about urban heat islands as well as climate studies and their effects on the environment.

  13. Influences of surface and solvent on retention of HEMA/mixture components after evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Fernanda C P; Wang, Linda; Pereira, Lúcia C G; de Andrade e Silva, Safira M; Júnior, Luiz M; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the retention of solvents within experimental HEMA/solvent primers after two conditions for solvent evaporation: from a free surface or from dentine surface. Experimental primers were prepared by mixing 35% HEMA with 65% water, methanol, ethanol or acetone (v/v). Aliquots of each primer (50 microl) were placed on glass wells or they were applied to the surface of acid-etched dentine cubes (2mm x 2mm x 2mm) (n=5). For both conditions (i.e. from free surface or dentine cubes), change in primers mass due to solvent evaporation was gravimetrically measured for 10min at 51% RH and 21 degrees C. The rate of solvent evaporation was calculated as a function of loss of primers mass (%) over time. Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls (pevaporation rate (%/min) depending on the solvent present in the primer and the condition for evaporation (from free surface or dentine cubes) (pevaporation for HEMA/acetone primer was almost 2- to 10-times higher than for HEMA/water primer depending whether evaporation occurred, respectively, from a free surface or dentine cubes. The rate of solvent evaporation varied with time, being in general highest at the earliest periods. The rate of solvent evaporation and its retention into HEMA/solvent primers was influenced by the type of the solvent and condition allowed for their evaporation.

  14. Design and Analysis of a Micromechanical Three-Component Force Sensor for Characterizing and Quantifying Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Q.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roughness, which can represent the trade-off between manufacturing cost and performance of mechanical components, is a critical predictor of cracks, corrosion and fatigue damage. In order to measure polished or super-finished surfaces, a novel touch probe based on three-component force sensor for characterizing and quantifying surface roughness is proposed by using silicon micromachining technology. The sensor design is based on a cross-beam structure, which ensures that the system possesses high sensitivity and low coupling. The results show that the proposed sensor possesses high sensitivity, low coupling error, and temperature compensation function. The proposed system can be used to investigate micromechanical structures with nanometer accuracy.

  15. Relative importance of modularity and other morphological attributes on different types of lithic point weapons: assessing functional variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando González-José

    Full Text Available The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as "near decomposable units" in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric

  16. A probability index for surface zonda wind occurrence at Mendoza city through vertical sounding principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Federico; Norte, Federico; Araneo, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain an index for predicting the probability of occurrence of zonda event at surface level from sounding data at Mendoza city, Argentine. To accomplish this goal, surface zonda wind events were previously found with an objective classification method (OCM) only considering the surface station values. Once obtained the dates and the onset time of each event, the prior closest sounding for each event was taken to realize a principal component analysis (PCA) that is used to identify the leading patterns of the vertical structure of the atmosphere previously to a zonda wind event. These components were used to construct the index model. For the PCA an entry matrix of temperature ( T) and dew point temperature (Td) anomalies for the standard levels between 850 and 300 hPa was build. The analysis yielded six significant components with a 94 % of the variance explained and the leading patterns of favorable weather conditions for the development of the phenomenon were obtained. A zonda/non-zonda indicator c can be estimated by a logistic multiple regressions depending on the PCA component loadings, determining a zonda probability index \\widehat{c} calculable from T and Td profiles and it depends on the climatological features of the region. The index showed 74.7 % efficiency. The same analysis was performed by adding surface values of T and Td from Mendoza Aero station increasing the index efficiency to 87.8 %. The results revealed four significantly correlated PCs with a major improvement in differentiating zonda cases and a reducing of the uncertainty interval.

  17. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  18. Modelling Earth's surface topography: decomposition of the static and dynamic components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerri, Mattia; Cammarano, Fabio; Tackley, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    topography maps and perform instantaneous mantle flow modelling to calculate the dynamic topography. We explore the effects of proposed mantle 1-D viscosities and also test a 3D pressure- and temperature-dependent viscosity model. We find that the patterns of residual and dynamic topography are robust.......19). The correlation slightly improves when considering only the very long-wavelength components of the maps (average = ∼0.23). We therefore conclude that a robust determination of dynamic topography is not feasible since current uncertainties affecting crustal density, mantle density and mantle viscosity are still......Contrasting results on the magnitude of the dynamic component of topography motivate us to analyse the sources of uncertainties affecting long wavelength topography modelling. We obtain a range of mantle density structures from thermo-chemical interpretation of available seismic tomography models...

  19. Response surface optimization of the medium components for the production of biosurfactants by probiotic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, L; Teixeira, J; Oliveira, R; van der Mei, HC

    Optimization of the medium for biosurfactants production by probiotic bacteria (Lactococcus lactis 53 and Streptococcus thermophilus A) was carried out using response surface methodology. Both biosurfactants were proved to be growth-associated, thus the desired response selected for the optimization

  20. Atmospheric components of the surface energy budget over young sea ice: Results from the N-ICE2015 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Von P.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Cohen, Lana; Murphy, Sarah Y.; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-08-01

    The Norwegian young sea ice campaign obtained the first measurements of the surface energy budget over young, thin Arctic sea ice through the seasonal transition from winter to summer. This campaign was the first of its kind in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic. This study describes the atmospheric and surface conditions and the radiative and turbulent heat fluxes over young, thin sea ice. The shortwave albedo of the snow surface ranged from about 0.85 in winter to 0.72-0.80 in early summer. The near-surface atmosphere was typically stable in winter, unstable in spring, and near neutral in summer once the surface skin temperature reached 0°C. The daily average radiative and turbulent heat fluxes typically sum to negative values (-40 to 0 W m-2) in winter but then transition toward positive values of up to nearly +60 W m-2 as solar radiation contributes significantly to the surface energy budget. The sensible heat flux typically ranges from +20-30 W m-2 in winter (into the surface) to negative values between 0 and -20 W m-2 in spring and summer. A winter case study highlights the significant effect of synoptic storms and demonstrates the complex interplay of wind, clouds, and heat and moisture advection on the surface energy components over sea ice in winter. A spring case study contrasts a rare period of 24 h of clear-sky conditions with typical overcast conditions and highlights the impact of clouds on the surface radiation and energy budgets over young, thin sea ice.

  1. Determining the impact of urban components on land surface temperature of Istanbul by using remote sensing indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaş Balçik, Filiz

    2014-02-01

    For the past 60 years, Istanbul has been experiencing an accelerated urban expansion. This urban expansion is leading to the replacement of natural surfaces by various artificial materials. This situation has a critical impact on the environment due to the alteration of heat energy balance. In this study, the effect upon the urban heat island (UHI) of Istanbul was analyzed using 2009 dated Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data. An Index Based Built-up Index (IBI) was used to derive artificial surfaces in the study area. To produce the IBI index, Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Built-up Index, and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index were calculated. Land surface temperature (LST) distribution was derived from Landsat 5 TM images using a mono-window algorithm. In addition, 24 transects were selected, and different regression models were applied to explore the correlation between LST and IBI index. The results show that artificial surfaces have a positive exponential relationship with LST rather than a simple linear one. An ecological evaluation index of the region was calculated to explore the impact of both the vegetated land and the artificial surfaces on the UHI. Therefore, the quantitative relationship of urban components (artificial surfaces, vegetation, and water) and LST was examined using multivariate statistical analysis, and the correlation coefficient was obtained as 0.829. This suggested that the areas with a high rate of urbanization will accelerate the rise of LST and UHI in Istanbul.

  2. Experimental investigation of surface determination process on multi-material components for dimensional computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges de Oliveira, Fabrício; Stolfi, Alessandro; Bartscher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    and suitable surface determination settings, limits a better acceptance of CT as a CMS. Moreover, standard CT users are subject to the algorithms and boundary conditions implied by the use of commercial analysis software. In this context, this paper is concerned with the experimental evaluation...... of the influence of surface determination process on multi-material measurements, using functions available in the commercial CT data analysis software Volume Graphics VGStudio Max 2.2.6. Calibrated step gauges made of different materials, i.e. PEEK, PPS, and Al were used as reference standards. The step gauges...... were assembled in such a way as to have different multi-material X-ray absorption ratios. Comparative measurements of mono-material assemblies were performed as well. Different segmentation processes were considered (e.g. ISO-50%, local threshold, region growing, etc.), patch-based bidirectional length...

  3. SURFACE FILMS TO SUPPRESS FIELD EMISSION IN HIGH-POWER MICROWAVE COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay l

    2014-02-07

    Results are reported on attempts to reduce the RF breakdown probability on copper accelerator structures by applying thin surface films that could suppress field emission of electrons. Techniques for application and testing of copper samples with films of metals with work functions higher than copper are described, principally for application of platinum films, since platinum has the second highest work function of any metal. Techniques for application of insulating films are also described, since these can suppress field emission and damage on account of dielectric shielding of fields at the copper surface, and on account of the greater hardness of insulating films, as compared with copper. In particular, application of zirconium oxide films on high-field portions of a 11.424 GHz SLAC cavity structure for breakdown tests are described.

  4. The complex dynamics of the seasonal component of USA's surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vecchio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the climate system has been investigated by analyzing the complex seasonal oscillation of monthly averaged temperatures recorded at 1167 stations covering the whole USA. We found the presence of an orbit-climate relationship on time scales remarkably shorter than the Milankovitch period {related to the nutational forcing}. The relationship manifests itself through occasional destabilization of the phase of the seasonal component due to the local changing of balance between direct insolation and the net energy received by the Earth. Quite surprisingly, we found that the local intermittent dynamics is modulated by a periodic component of about 18.6 yr due to the nutation of the Earth, which represents the main modulation of the Earth's precession. The global effect in the last century results in a cumulative phase-shift of about 1.74 days towards earlier seasons, in agreement with the phase shift expected from the Earth's precession. The climate dynamics of the seasonal cycle can be described through a nonlinear circle-map, indicating that the destabilization process can be associated to intermittent transitions from quasi-periodicity to chaos.

  5. Plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of extracellular component of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-04-01

    To achieve the quantitative optical non-invasive diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation therapies, the instrumental technique to extract extracellular spectra from whole blood was developed. In the circuit, the continuous blood flow was generated by a centrifugal blood pump. The oxygen saturation was maintained 100% by an oxygenator. The developed glass optical flow cell was attached to the outlet tubing of the oxygenator. The halogen lamp including the light from 400 to 900 nm wavelength was used for the light source. The light was guided into an optical fiber. The light emitted by the fiber was collimated and emitted to the flow cell flat surface at the incident angle of 45 degrees. The light just reflected on the boundary between inner surface of the flow cell and plasma at 45 degrees was detected by the detection fiber. The detected light was analyzed by a spectral photometer. The obtained spectrum from 400 to 600nm wavelength was not changed with respect to the hematocrit. In contrast, the signal in the spectral range was changed when the plasma free hemoglobin increased. By using two spectral range, 505+/-5 nm and 542.5+/-2.5 nm, the differential spectrum was correlated with the free hemoglobin at R2=0.99. On the other hand, as for the hematocrit, the differential spectrum was not correlated at R2=0.01. Finally, the plasma free hemoglobin was quantified with the accuracy of 22+/-19mg/dL. The result shows that the developed plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy (PSRS) can extract the plasma spectrum from flowing whole blood.

  6. Stress corrosion cracking of Ni-based alloys in PWR primary water. Component surface control; Corrosion sous contrainte des alliages a base nickel en milieu primaire des reacteurs a eaux pressurisee. Maitrise de la surface des composants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucault, M. [AREVA, Centre Technique Framatome ANP, Dept. Corrosion Chimie, 71 - Le Creusot (France)

    2004-06-01

    In the PWR plant primary circuit, FRAMATOME-ANP uses several nickel-base alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role played by the surface state of the components in their life duration. In this paper, we present two examples of problems encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of a process for the surface control of the repair components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in terms of analysis methods to improve the surface knowledge and the control of the manufactured components. (author)

  7. Antibacterial performance of polypropylene nonwoven fabric wound dressing surfaces containing passive and active components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhirong; Du, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Hao; Sun, Miao; Yan, Shunjie; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-03-01

    A growing number of wound dressing-related nosocomial infections necessitate the development of novel antibacterial strategies. Herein, polypropylene non-woven fabric (PPNWF) was facilely modified with passive and active antibacterial components, namely photografting polymerization both N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers, and the introduction of guanidine polymer through the reaction between active amino groups and epoxy groups. The modified samples were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Water contact angle measurement, antibacterial test, platelet and red blood cell adhesion were used to evaluate the hydrophilicity, antibacterial properties and hemocompatibility of the samples. It was found that the antibacterial properties were obviously enhanced, meanwhile significantly suppressing platelet and red blood cell adhesion after the above modification. This PPNWF samples that possess antifouling and antimicrobial properties, have great potential in wound dressing applications.

  8. Wear surface damage of a Stainless Steel EN 3358 aeronautical component subjected to sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Felli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the failure analysis of an aircraft component subjected to several episodes of in service failure, resulted in loss of the aircraft safety. Modern aircrafts are provided with mechanical systems which have the task to open not pressurized hatches during landing. The components of such systems are subject to considerable mechanical stresses in harsh environment (presence of moisture and pollutants, significant and sudden temperature variations. The system is constituted by a sliding piston, a related nipple and by a locking system consisting of 4 steel spheres which are forced into a countersink machined on the piston when the hatches is open. The whole system is activated by a preloaded spring. The machined parts, nipple and piston, are made of EN3358 steel (X3CrNiMo13-8-2, a precipitation hardening stainless steel with very low content of carbon often used in the aerospace. The samples provided by the manufacturer present different types of damage all referable to phenomena relative to the sliding of the piston inside the nipple. The present paper describes the different damage observed and the microstructure of the material, then are reported the results obtained from the characterization of the material of the samples by means of optical and electronic microscopy, carried out to define the mechanisms involved in the system seizure. In order to define the primary cause of failure and to propose solutions to be adopted, also analyzing the criticality of using this PH stainless steel for this application, the results of different tests were compared with system design and working data.

  9. GEOEPIDERM – AN ECOLOGICAL CONCEPT THAT INTEGRATES SOIL COVER WITH ASSOCIATED LAND SURFACE COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Munteanu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new concept of the “Epiderm of the Earth” introduced by the 2006 edition of the WRB-SR, the idea of “geoepiderm” has been developed. Besides its holistic meaning, by including both soil and non-soil materials found in the first 2 meters of the land surface, the term “geoepiderm” has a strong ecological sense, by suggesting similarity with the skin of the living organisms, as such, this concept is fully concordant with that of “Gaia” (Living Earth developed by James Lovelock. According to the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the soil and not soil coverings from the earth surface, ten kinds (classes of ‘geoepiderms” have been identified:1 – Protoderma (Entiderma– the primitive (emerging geoepiderm (mainly non-soil materials; five main subtypes: a Regoderma, b Leptoderma, c Areniderma, d Fluviderma and e Gleyoderma, were identified;2 – Cryoderma (Geliderma – geoepiderm of cold, mainly artic and subartic, regions with mean annual soil temperature <00C (often with perennial frozen subsoil - permafrost:3 – Arididerma – geoepiderm of arid regions and salt affected lands with limited or scarce available moisture; two subtypes: a Desertiderma, b Saliderma4 – Inceptiderma (or Juvenilederma – with 2 subtypes: a Cambiderma – a young (incipiently developed geoepiderm and b Andiderma, geoepiderm developed in volcanic materials;5 – Euderma – nutrient rich geoepiderm with two main subtypes: a Cherniderma (or Molliderma and b Luviderma (or Alfiderma;6 – Oligoderma – geoepiderm with low macro-nutrient and weatherable minerals content with 2 subtypes: a Podziderma (or Spodiderma and b Acriderma (or Ultiderma;7 – Ferriderma (Oxiderma or Senilederma – geoepiderm strongly weathered and with iron and aluminium hydroxides enrichment and low weatherable minerals reserve;8 – Vertiderma (Contractilederma – Contractile geoepiderm, developed from swelling clays;9 – Histoderma (Organiderma

  10. Effects of size reduction on deformation, microstructure, and surface roughness of micro components for micro metal injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Xin-da; Li, Xiang; Qi, Xiao-tong; Qu, Xuan-hui

    2017-09-01

    The fabrication of 17-4PH micro spool mandrils by micro metal injection molding was described here. The effects of size reduction on deformation, microstructure and surface roughness were studied by comparing a ϕ500 μm micro post and a ϕ1.7 mm cylinder after debinding and sintering. Experimental results show that slumping of the micro posts occurred due to a dramatic increase in outlet vapor pressure initiated at the thermal degradation onset temperature and the moment of gravity. Asymmetrical stress distribution within the micro component formed during the cooling stage may cause warping. Prior solvent debinding and adjustment in a thermal debinding scheme were useful for preventing the deformation of the micro components. Smaller grain size and higher micro hardness due to impeded grain growth were observed for the micro posts compared with the ϕ1.7 mm cylinder. Surface roughness increased with distance from the gate of the micro spool mandril due to melt front advancement during mold filling and the ensuing pressure distribution. At each position, surface roughness was dictated by injection molding and increased slightly after sintering.

  11. First accelerator test of vacuum components with laser-engineered surfaces for electron-cloud mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatroni, Sergio; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Elisa; Neupert, Holger; Nistor, Valentin; Perez Fontenla, Ana Teresa; Taborelli, Mauro; Chiggiato, Paolo; Malyshev, Oleg; Valizadeh, Reza; Wackerow, Stefan; Zolotovskaya, Svetlana A.; Gillespie, W. Allan; Abdolvand, Amin

    2017-11-01

    Electron cloud mitigation is an essential requirement for high-intensity proton circular accelerators. Among other solutions, laser engineered surface structures (LESS) present the advantages of having potentially a very low secondary electron yield (SEY) and allowing simple scalability for mass production. Two copper liners with LESS have been manufactured and successfully tested by monitoring the electron cloud current in a dipole magnet in the SPS accelerator at CERN during the 2016 run. In this paper we report on these results as well as the detailed experiments carried out on samples—such as the SEY and topography studies—which led to an optimized treatment in view of the SPS test and future possible use in the HL-LHC.

  12. Modeling Earth's surface topography: decomposition of the static and dynamic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerri, M.; Cammarano, F.; Tackley, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Isolating the portion of topography supported by mantle convection, the so-called dynamic topography, would give us precious information on vigor and style of the convection itself. Contrasting results on the estimate of dynamic topography motivate us to analyse the sources of uncertainties affecting its modeling. We obtain models of mantle and crust density, leveraging on seismic and mineral physics constraints. We use the models to compute isostatic topography and residual topography maps. Estimates of dynamic topography and associated synthetic geoid are obtained by instantaneous mantle flow modeling. We test various viscosity profiles and 3D viscosity distributions accounting for inferred lateral variations in temperature. We find that the patterns of residual and dynamic topography are robust, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.74 and 0.71, respectively. The amplitudes are however poorly constrained. For the static component, the considered lithospheric mantle density models result in topographies that differ, on average, 720 m, with peaks reaching 1.7 km. The crustal density models produce variations in isostatic topography averaging 350 m, with peaks of 1 km. For the dynamic component, we obtain peak-to-peak topography amplitude exceeding 3 km for all the tested mantle density and viscosity models. Such values of dynamic topography produce geoid undulations that are not in agreement with observations. Assuming chemical heterogeneities in the lower mantle, in correspondence with the LLSVPs (Large Low Shear wave Velocity Provinces), helps to decrease the amplitudes of dynamic topography and geoid, but reduces the correlation between synthetic and observed geoid. The correlation coefficients between the residual and dynamic topography maps is always less than 0.55. In general, our results indicate that, i) current knowledge of crust density, mantle density and mantle viscosity is still limited, ii) it is important to account for all the various

  13. Surface Composition of the Non-Ice Component on Icy Satellites and Ring Particles in the Saturn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Pearson, N.; Perlman, Z. S.; Bradley, E. T.; Hendrix, A.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Filacchione, G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M. M.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; Sotin, C.; Nelson, R.

    2013-12-01

    Saturn's icy satellites and ring particle surfaces have long been known to be composed mostly of frozen water. However, all surfaces show an absorption due to a non-water-ice component whose identity has not been well understood. In the near infrared, water ice has strong absorptions which limit detectability of other trace components. Similarly, at wavelengths less than about 0.18 microns, water is very absorbing. However, in the ~0.2 to ~1 micron range, water ice has low absorption and trace components are readily detected. Classical interpretations of the UV absorber and dark material on outer Solar System satellites have been varying amounts of tholins and carbon. However, tholins have spectral structure not seen in the icy spectra in the Saturn System. Many silicates also have UV spectral structure that reject them from contributing significantly to the observed spectral signatures. We have constructed a new UV spectrometer and a new environment chamber for studying the spectral properties of materials from 0.1 to 15 microns. In our survey of the spectral properties of materials so far, we find that small amounts of metallic iron and iron oxides in the icy surfaces are compatible with and can explain the UV, visible and near-infrared spectra of icy surfaces in the Saturn system (0.12 to 5.1 microns) using data from the Cassini UltraViolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The wide range of observed UV-NIR (0.1-5 micron) spectral signatures provide strong constraints on composition and grain size distribution, including grain sizes of the ice. Spectra of the Saturnian rings and icy satellites indicate they have a large range of ice grain sizes, from tens of microns to sub-micron. Sub-micron ice grains create unusual spectral properties, which are seen in the spectra of the rings and satellites of Saturn and on satellites further out in the Solar System. Clark et al. (2012, Icarus v218, p831) showed that VIMS

  14. Physicochemical characterization of engineered nanoparticles under physiological conditions: effect of culture media components and particle surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatisson, Julien; Quevedo, Ivan R; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2012-03-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in commercial products has increased substantially over the last few years. Some research has been conducted in order to determine whether or not such materials are cytotoxic, but questions remain regarding the role that physiological media and sera constituents play in ENP aggregation or stabilization. In this study, several characterization methods were used to evaluate the particle size and surface potential of 6 ENPs suspended in a number of culture media and in the presence of different culture media constituents. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were employed for size determinations. Results were interpreted on the basis of ENP surface potentials evaluated from particle electrophoretic mobilities (EPM). Measurements made after 24h of incubation at 37°C showed that the cell culture medium constituents had only moderate impact on the physicochemical properties of the ENP, although incubation in bovine serum albumin destabilized the colloidal system. In contrast, most of the serum proteins increased colloidal stabilization. Moreover, the type of ENP surface modification played a significant role in ENP behavior whereby the complexity of interactions between the ENPs and the medium components generally decreased with increasing complexity of the particle surface. This investigation emphasizes the importance of ENP characterization under conditions that are representative of cell culture media or physiological conditions for improved assessments of nanoparticle cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, Alexej; Richter, Katharina; Sell, Stephan; Fenske, Mandus; Tornow, Christian; Stenzel, Volkmar; Grunwald, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  16. Laser Surface Treatment of Hydro and Thermal Power Plant Components and Their Coatings: A Review and Recent Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, B. S.

    2015-11-01

    High-power diode laser (HPDL) surface modification of hydro and thermal power plant components is of the utmost importance to minimize their damages occurring due to cavitation erosion, water droplet erosion, and particle erosion (CE, WDE, and PE). Special emphasis is given on the HPDL surface treatment of martensitic and precipitate-hardened stainless steels, Ti6Al4V alloy, plasma ion nitro-carburized layers, high pressure high velocity oxy-fuel and twin-wire arc sprayed coatings. WDE test results of all these materials and coatings in `untreated' and `HPDL- treated at 1550 °C' conditions, up to 8.55 million cycles, are already available. Their WDE testing was further continued up to 10.43 million cycles. The X20Cr13 and X10CrNiMoV1222, the most common martensitic stainless steels used in hydro and thermal power plants, were HPDL surface treated at higher temperature (1650 °C) and their WDE test results were also obtained up to 10.43 million cycles. It is observed that the increased HPDL surface temperature from 1550 to 1650 °C has resulted in significant improvement in their WDE resistances because of increased martensitic (ά) phase at higher temperature. After conducting long-range WDE tests, the correlation of CE, WDE, and PE resistances of these materials and protective coatings with their mechanical properties such as fracture toughness and microhardness product, ultimate resilience, modified resilience, and ultimate modified resilience has been reviewed and discussed. One of the edges of a 500 MW low pressure steam turbine moving blade (X10CrNiMoV1222 stainless steel) was HPDL surface treated at 1550 °C and its radii of curvatures and deflections were measured. These were compared with the data available earlier from a flat rectangular sample of similar composition and identical HPDL surface temperature.

  17. A USE-WEAR ANALYSIS OF THE KNAPPED LITHIC GRAVE GOODS FROM GRUTA DO MORGADO SUPERIOR (TOMAR, PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Morgado Superior cave is a karst cave located in the municipality of Tomar (Santarém, Portugal. As other caves of the same area, it has provided stratigraphic data and votive deposits falling within the Holocene, more precisely in a diachronic time range that extends from the Neolithic to the early Bronze Age. In the Morgado Superior cave there are multiple burials with a few votive objects like jars, bone artefacts and lithic tools (blades, arrowheads etc., beads, pendants, and other decorative items in association with more than 8,000 human bones: the number of the grave goods elements is low if compared with the number of individuals buried in the cave. Concerning the use-wear study, we analyzed the grave goods in order to understand both their meaning in this funerary context and their function in the economy of this prehistoric society. We focused on the most representative elements of the grave goods: arrowheads and knapped lithic artefacts. This study led us to understand that the majority of the grave goods were everyday objects but with a strong symbolic value. Since in the Morgado Superior Cave there are a lot of grave goods showing prior breaks, their symbolic value does not seem to be lost even if the objects were broken. Thus, the use-wear analysis of the grave goods from the Morgado Superior Cave allowed us to identify the strong symbolic value of these elements for that human community, but at the same time to hypothesize a funerary practice that did not provide a special respect for the body and the grave goods of those dead previously buried in the cave. For these reasons we hypothesize a progressive spoliation (probably ritual of the previous grave goods. Through the use-wear study of the knapped lithic assemblage of the Morgado Superior Cave it was possible to reconstruct part of the ritual activities that were carried out in the site: the 90% of the lithic artefacts are used objects, all of the artefacts have been

  18. Use wear analysis of quartzite lithic implements from the Middle Palaeolithic site of Lagoa do Bando (Central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Luigi Francesco Berruti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Palaeolithic site of Lagoa do Bando is an open air site in a lacustrian context located at 570 m a.s.l. in the municipality of Mação in the center of Portugal. The site was discovered in 2011, during an emergency excavation, and resulted on the recovery of a Middle Palaeolithic lithic assemblage mainly composed of fine grained quartzite implements of expedient, discoid and Levallois technology. Use wear analysis was conducted on 41 artifacts formed through discoid and Levallois technology. Twenty one of these artifacts revealed use wear traces. Ten of them show traces of wood work, five have traces of butchering activities, three present traces of meat processing and two present undetermined traces. The site is located at an atypically high elevation for an open air site and there is evidence of a high rate of woodworking activity, rare in the Middle Palaeolithic occupations. The woodworking activities are possibly linked to the exploitation of woody local resources (maybe for the construction of hunting blinds and not only with to the manufacture and maintenance of spears and shafts. These results converge with the interpretation of this site as a temporary hunting site integrated in a complex pattern of occupation of the area between the river valleys and the top of low mountains.

  19. A dynamic monitoring approach for the surface morphology evolution measurement of plasma facing components by means of speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbei; Cui, Xiaoqian; Feng, Chunlei; Li, Yuanbo; Zhao, Mengge; Luo, Guangnan; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-11-01

    Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) in a magnetically confined fusion plasma device will be exposed to high heat load and particle fluxes, and it would cause PFCs' surface morphology to change due to material erosion and redeposition from plasma wall interactions. The state of PFCs' surface condition will seriously affect the performance of long-pulse or steady state plasma discharge in a tokamak; it will even constitute an enormous threat to the operation and the safety of fusion plasma devices. The PFCs' surface morphology evolution measurement could provide important information about PFCs' real-time status or damage situation and it would help to a better understanding of the plasma wall interaction process and mechanism. Meanwhile through monitoring the distribution of dust deposition in a tokamak and providing an upper limit on the amount of loose dust, the PFCs' surface morphology measurement could indirectly contribute to keep fusion operational limits and fusion device safety. Aiming at in situ dynamic monitoring PFCs' surface morphology evolution, a laboratory experimental platform DUT-SIEP (Dalian University of Technology-speckle interferometry experimental platform) based on the speckle interferometry technique has been constructed at Dalian University of Technology (DUT) in China. With directional specific designing and focusing on the real detection condition of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), the DUT-SIEP could realize a variable measurement range, widely increased from 0.1 μm to 300 μm, with high spatial resolution (adopted from EAST has been measured, and the feasibility and reliability of this new experimental platform have been demonstrated.

  20. Techno-Cultural Characterization of the MIS 5 (c. 105 - 90 Ka Lithic Industries at Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Douze

    Full Text Available Blombos Cave is well known as an important site for understanding the evolution of symbolically mediated behaviours among Homo sapiens during the Middle Stone Age, and during the Still Bay in particular. The lower part of the archaeological sequence (M3 phase contains 12 layers dating to MIS 5 with ages ranging from 105 to 90 ka ago (MIS 5c to 5b that provide new perspectives on the technological behaviour of these early humans. The new data obtained from our extensive technological analysis of the lithic material enriches our currently limited knowledge of this time period in the Cape region. By comparing our results with previously described lithic assemblages from sites south of the Orange River, we draw new insights on the extent of the techno-cultural ties between these sites and the M3 phase at Blombos Cave and highlight the importance of this phase within the Middle Stone Age cultural stratigraphy.

  1. Origin, Development and Decline of Monolithic Pillars and the Continuity of the Tradition in Polylithic, Non-Lithic and Structural Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krishnamurthy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with one such creations of Man, i.e. the tradition of erecting free standing monolithic pillars - its origin, growth and decline and the continuity of the tradition of erecting such pillars in its changed polylithic (from Greek word polloi = many + lithic = stone, non-lithic and structural forms. No exact reason can be found, pointing it to be the exact cause for the decline in the tradition of erecting monolithic pillar and its transformation. In this paper the authors try to analyse various phenomenon likesocio-political, economic and technical aspects which may have lead to their decline and subsequently their continuity in a changed form in Indian context.

  2. Efficient numerical methods for simulating surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-08-01

    Surface tension significantly impacts subsurface flow and transport, and it is the main cause of capillary effect, a major immiscible two-phase flow mechanism for systems with a strong wettability preference. In this paper, we consider the numerical simulation of the surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces. Major numerical challenges include that the system of the Euler-Lagrange equations is solved on the infinite interval and the coefficient matrix is not positive definite. We construct a linear transformation to reduce the Euler-Lagrange equations, and naturally introduce a path function, which is proven to be a monotonic function of the spatial coordinate variable. By using the linear transformation and the path function, we overcome the above difficulties and develop the efficient methods for calculating the interface and its interior compositions. Moreover, the computation of the surface tension is also simplified. The proposed methods do not need to solve the differential equation system, and they are easy to be implemented in practical applications. Numerical examples are tested to verify the efficiency of the proposed methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Eneolithic hillfort Starý Zámek near Jevišovice. A contribution to lithic chipped industry research in southwestern Moravia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, Lubomír; Přichystal, A.; Humpolová, A.; Prokeš, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2015), s. 59-117 ISSN 1211-7250 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Jevišovice * hillfort Starý Zámek * lithic chipped industry * Funnel Beaker culture * Jevišovice culture Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://arub.avcr.cz/miranda2/ export /sitesavcr/arub/prehled-vyzkumu/prehled-vydanych-cisel/files/PV56_1_studie_3.pdf

  4. Archaeological Investigations in the Gainesville Lake Area of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. Volume III. Gainesville Lake Area Lithics: Chronology, Technology and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    96 Benton Cluster ..... .................... 98 Morrow Mountain-White Springs Cluster ......... 98 Eva Cluster...technology differed from that of Miller II. Thermal alteration occurs on over 80 percent of the Hiller II lithic materials and over 90 percent of the...and Kneberg (1961) found 94 percent of the Benton types at the Eva site just above the Morrow Mountain V occupation in the lower levels of the Big

  5. Facile Synthesis of Smart Nanocontainers as Key Components for Construction of Self-Healing Coating with Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Wang, MingDong; Wang, Cheng; Feng, Jing; Li, JianSheng; Wang, LianJun; Fu, JiaJun

    2016-12-01

    SiO2-imidazoline nanocomposites (SiO2-IMI) owning high loading capacity of corrosion inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMID), and a special acid/alkali dual-stimuli-accelerated release property have been synthesized via a one-step modified Stöber method. SiO2-IMI were uniformly distributed into the hydrophobic SiO2 sol to construct "host"-"guest" feedback active coating with a superhydrophobic surface (SiO2-IMI@SHSC) on aluminium alloy, AA2024, by dip-coating technique. SiO2-IMI as "guest" components have good compatibility with "host" sol-gel coating, and more importantly, once localized corrosion occurs on the surface of AA2024, SiO2-IMI can simultaneously respond to the increase in environmental pH around corrosive micro-cathodic regions and decrease in pH near micro-anodic regions, promptly releasing HMID to form a compact molecular film on the damaged surface, inhibiting corrosion spread and executing a self-healing function. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) was applied to illustrate the suppression process of cathodic/anodic corrosion activities. Furthermore, benefiting from the superhydrophobic surface, SiO2-IMI@SHSC remained its protective ability after immersion in 0.5 M NaCl solution for 35 days, which is far superior to the conventional sol-gel coating with the same coating thickness. The facile fabrication method of SiO2-IMI simplifies the construction procedure of SiO2-IMI@SHSC, which have great potential to replace non-environmental chromate conversion coatings for practical use.

  6. Facile Synthesis of Smart Nanocontainers as Key Components for Construction of Self-Healing Coating with Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Wang, MingDong; Wang, Cheng; Feng, Jing; Li, JianSheng; Wang, LianJun; Fu, JiaJun

    2016-04-01

    SiO2-imidazoline nanocomposites (SiO2-IMI) owning high loading capacity of corrosion inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMID), and a special acid/alkali dual-stimuli-accelerated release property have been synthesized via a one-step modified Stöber method. SiO2-IMI were uniformly distributed into the hydrophobic SiO2 sol to construct "host"-"guest" feedback active coating with a superhydrophobic surface (SiO2-IMI@SHSC) on aluminium alloy, AA2024, by dip-coating technique. SiO2-IMI as "guest" components have good compatibility with "host" sol-gel coating, and more importantly, once localized corrosion occurs on the surface of AA2024, SiO2-IMI can simultaneously respond to the increase in environmental pH around corrosive micro-cathodic regions and decrease in pH near micro-anodic regions, promptly releasing HMID to form a compact molecular film on the damaged surface, inhibiting corrosion spread and executing a self-healing function. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) was applied to illustrate the suppression process of cathodic/anodic corrosion activities. Furthermore, benefiting from the superhydrophobic surface, SiO2-IMI@SHSC remained its protective ability after immersion in 0.5 M NaCl solution for 35 days, which is far superior to the conventional sol-gel coating with the same coating thickness. The facile fabrication method of SiO2-IMI simplifies the construction procedure of SiO2-IMI@SHSC, which have great potential to replace non-environmental chromate conversion coatings for practical use.

  7. X-37 C-Sic CMC Control Surface Components Development [Status of the NASA/Boeing/USAF Orbital Vehicle and Related Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G; Rivers, H. Kevin; Chen, Victor L.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon/Silicon-Carbide (C-Sic) ceramic matrix composite (CMC) flaperon and ruddervator control surface components are being developed for the X-37 Orbital Vehicle (OV). The results of the prior NASA LaRC led work, aimed at developing C-Sic flaperon and ruddervator components for the X-37, will be reviewed. The status of several on-going and/or planned NASA, USAF, and Boeing programs that will support the development of control surface components for the X-37 OV will also be reviewed. The overall design and development philosophy being employed to assemble a team(s) to develop both: (a) C-Sic hot structure control surface components for the X-37 OV, and (b) carbon-carbon (C-C) hot structure components (a risk-reduction backup option for the OV), will be presented.

  8. Protective structures on the surface of zirconium components of light water reactor cores: Formation, testing, and prototype equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begrambekov, L. B.; Gordeev, A. A.; Evsin, A. E., E-mail: evsin@plasma.mephi.ru; Ivanova, S. V.; Kaplevsky, A. S.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The results of tests of plasma treatment of zirconium and deposition of protective yttrium coatings used as the methods of protection of zirconium components of light water reactor cores against hydrogenation are detailed. The amount of hydrogen in the treated sample exposed to superheated steam for 2500 h at temperature T = 400°C and pressure p = 1 atm was five times lower than the corresponding value for the untreated one. The amount of hydrogen in the sample coated with yttrium remained almost unchanged in 4000 h of exposure. A plasma method for rapid testing for hydrogen resistance is proposed. The hydrogenation rate provided by this method is 700 times higher than that in tests with superheated steam. The results of preliminary experiments confirm the possibility of constructing a unit for batch processing of the surfaces of fuel rod claddings.

  9. Protective structures on the surface of zirconium components of light water reactor cores: Formation, testing, and prototype equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begrambekov, L. B.; Gordeev, A. A.; Evsin, A. E.; Ivanova, S. V.; Kaplevsky, A. S.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.

    2015-12-01

    The results of tests of plasma treatment of zirconium and deposition of protective yttrium coatings used as the methods of protection of zirconium components of light water reactor cores against hydrogenation are detailed. The amount of hydrogen in the treated sample exposed to superheated steam for 2500 h at temperature T = 400°C and pressure p = 1 atm was five times lower than the corresponding value for the untreated one. The amount of hydrogen in the sample coated with yttrium remained almost unchanged in 4000 h of exposure. A plasma method for rapid testing for hydrogen resistance is proposed. The hydrogenation rate provided by this method is 700 times higher than that in tests with superheated steam. The results of preliminary experiments confirm the possibility of constructing a unit for batch processing of the surfaces of fuel rod claddings.

  10. Theoretical insight of physical adsorption for a single-component adsorbent+adsorbate system: I. Thermodynamic property surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon; Koyama, Shigeru; Srinivasan, Kandadai

    2009-02-17

    Thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent+adsorbate system are derived and developed from the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics, thermodynamic requirements of chemical equilibrium, Gibbs law, and Maxwell relations. They enable us to compute the entropy and enthalpy of the adsorbed phase, the isosteric heat of adsorption, specific heat capacity, and the adsorbed phase volume thoroughly. These equations are very simple and easy to handle for calculating the energetic performances of any adsorption system. We have shown here that the derived thermodynamic formulations fill up the information gap with respect to the state of adsorbed phase to dispel the confusion as to what is the actual state of the adsorbed phase. We have also discussed and established the temperature-entropy diagrams of (i) CaCl2-in-silica gel+water system for cooling applications, and (ii) activated carbon (Maxsorb III)+methane system for gas storage.

  11. Effects and Interactions of Medium Components on Laccase from a Marine-Derived Fungus Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralata Raghukumar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various synthetic medium components and their interactions with each other ultimately impact laccase production in fungi. This was studied using a laccasehyper-producing marine-derived basidiomycete, Cerrena unicolor MTCC 5159. Inducible laccases were produced in the idiophase only after addition of an inducer such as CuSO4. Concentration of carbon and nitrogen acted antagonistically with respect to laccase production. A combination of low nitrogen and high carbon concentration favored both biomass and laccase production. The most favorable combination resulted in 917 U L-1 of laccase. After sufficient growth had occurred, addition of a surfactant such as Tween 80 positively impacted biomass and increased the laccase activity to around 1,300 U L-1. Increasing the surface to volume ratio of the culture vessel further increased its activity to almost 2,000 U L-1.

  12. A countermeasure for external stress corrosion cracking in piping components by means of residual stress improvement on the outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Umemoto, Tadahiro

    1988-01-01

    Many techniques have been proposed as countermeasures for the External Stress Corrosion Cracking (ESCC) on austenitic stainless steel piping caused by sea salt particles. However, not one seems perfect. The method proposed here is an expansion of IHSI (Induction Heating Stress Improvement) which has been successfully implemented in many nuclear power plants as a remedy for Intergranular Stress Corrossion Cracking. The proposed method named EIHSI (External IHSI) can make the residual stress compressive on the outer surface of the piping components. In order to confirm the effectiveness of EIHSI, one series of tests were conducted on a weld joint between the pipe flange and the straight pipe. The measured residual stresses and also the results of the cracking test revealed that EIHSI is a superior method to suppress the ESCC. The outline of EIHSI and the verification tests are presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single-Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: I. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2009-02-17

    Thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system are derived and developed from the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics, thermodynamic requirements of chemical equilibrium, Gibbs law, and Maxwell relations. They enable us to compute the entropy and enthalpy of the adsorbed phase, the isosteric heat of adsorption, specific heat capacity, and the adsorbed phase volume thoroughly. These equations are very simple and easy to handle for calculating the energetic performances of any adsorption system. We have shown here that the derived thermodynamic formulations fill up the information gap with respect to the state of adsorbed phase to dispel the confusion as to what is the actual state of the adsorbed phase. We have also discussed and established the temperature-entropy diagrams of (i) CaCl 2-in-silica gel + water system for cooling applications, and (ii) activated carbon (Maxsorb III) + methane system for gas storage. © Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Optimization of medium components for production of chitin deacetylase byBacillus amyloliquefaciensZ7, using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuanhao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Shengjie; Zhou, Guoying; Liu, Junang

    2014-03-04

    Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the medium components for the chitin deacetylase (CDA) activity from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Z7. Plackett-Burman design was applied to determine the specific medium components affecting CDA activity and found that starch, chitin and MgSO 4 were critical in augmenting CDA activity. These significant parameters were further optimized using Box-Behnken RSM and the optimum concentrations of starch, chitin and MgSO 4 were found to be 24.4, 8.8 and 0.19 g/L, respectively. The optimum medium composition was chitin 8.8 g/L, starch 24.4 g/L, yeast extract 10g/L, MgSO 4 0.19 g/L, K 2 HPO 4 0.3 g/L and NaCl 5 g/L. Under these optimal conditions, the CDA activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Z7 increased distinctly from 18.75 to 27.48 U/mL (46.6% increase in total yield).

  15. Reliability Study of Solder Paste Alloy for the Improvement of Solder Joint at Surface Mount Fine-Pitch Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in metal costs has forced the electronics industry to provide new materials and methods to reduce costs, while maintaining customers’ high-quality expectations. This paper considers the problem of most electronic industries in reducing costly materials, by introducing a solder paste with alloy composition tin 98.3%, silver 0.3%, and copper 0.7%, used for the construction of the surface mount fine-pitch component on a Printing Wiring Board (PWB. The reliability of the solder joint between electronic components and PWB is evaluated through the dynamic characteristic test, thermal shock test, and Taguchi method after the printing process. After experimenting with the dynamic characteristic test and thermal shock test with 20 boards, the solder paste was still able to provide a high-quality solder joint. In particular, the Taguchi method is used to determine the optimal control parameters and noise factors of the Solder Printer (SP machine, that affects solder volume and solder height. The control parameters include table separation distance, squeegee speed, squeegee pressure, and table speed of the SP machine. The result shows that the most significant parameter for the solder volume is squeegee pressure (2.0 mm, and the solder height is the table speed of the SP machine (2.5 mm/s.

  16. Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage

  17. Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.

    1996-12-01

    This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

  18. Quality assurance in ceramic materials and components. High-resolution non-destructive testing especially of ceramic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, H.; Hoffmann, B.; Morsch, A.; Arnold, W.; Schneider, E.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the influence of defects on the failure behavior of ceramic materials under four-point bending stress. In this connection various Si 3 N 4 and SiC materials with and without artificially introduced defect particles (Fe, WC, Si, pores) were examined by the following non-destructive test methods: photoacoustic microscopy, scanning laser acoustic microscopy, microfocus roentgenoscopy and ultrasound transit-time measurements. Finally, a four-point bending test and a fracture-mechanical evaluation of the fracture-incuding defects were carried out at the Institute for reliability and failure studies in mechanical engineering of the University of Karlsruhe. According to the type of stress the samples predominantly failed in the case of defects in the surface zone of the side in tension. Among the ndt methods applied the photoacoustic microscopy as a typical surface testing method could predict most of the fracture-inducing defects (30-50 %) without causing destruction. In this connection a different detection sensitivity which corresponds to the thermal reflection factors became apparent according to the type of defect. Furthermore the reports describes the results of some preliminary tests on ndt of green ceramics. In these investigations both the microfocus roentgenoscopy test and the roentgen computed tomography showed a high potential of detecting inhomogeneities and defects in green Si 3 N 4 and SiC components. (orig.) [de

  19. Assessing regional crop water demand using a satellite-based combination equation with a land surface temperature component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Maria Carmen; Garcia, Monica; Tornos, Lucia; Recuero, Laura; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia; Juana, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of daily evapotranspiration at regional levels is fundamental for improving agricultural and hydrological management, especially in water-scarce and climatic change vulnerable regions, like the Mediterranean basin. Regional estimates of daily crop evapotranspiration (ET) have been historically based on combination equations, such as Penman-Monteith or Priestley-Taylor, forced with weather-data inputs. However, the requirements for long term in-situ data, limit the application of such traditional approaches and algorithms using satellite-data without field calibrations bridge this gap by estimating long-term ET at the pixel level from local to global scales. Land surface temperature is a key variable tracking land surface moisture status. However, it has not been included in satellite ET approaches based on combination equations. In this study, a land surface temperature component was used to estimate soil surface conductance based on an apparent thermal inertia index. A process-based model was applied to estimate surface energy fluxes including daily ET based on a modified version of the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model at 1km pixel resolution during a chrono-sequence spanning for more than a decade (2002-2013). The thermal-PT-JPL model was forced with vegetation, albedo, reflectance and temperature products from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from both Aqua and Terra satellites. The study region, B-XII Irrigation District of the Lower Guadalquivir, is one of the largest irrigated areas in Spain but it has scarce in-situ micrometeorological or eddy covariance data. The final aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal version of PT-JPL model versus a lumped hydrological model to assess crop evapotranspiration deficits and long-term water consumption trends in the area. The results showed that the thermal-PT-JPL model is a suitable and simple tool requiring only air temperature and incoming solar

  20. Detecting geothermal anomalies and evaluating LST geothermal component by combining thermal remote sensing time series and land surface model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Mireia; Vaughan, R. Greg; Ettema, J.; Izquierdo-Verdiguier, E.; Hecker, C. A.; van der Meer, F.D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores for the first time the possibilities to use two land surface temperature (LST) time series of different origins (geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite data and Noah land surface modelling, LSM), to detect geothermal anomalies and extract the geothermal component of LST, the LSTgt. We hypothesize that in geothermal areas the LSM time series will underestimate the LST as compared to the remote sensing data, since the former does not account for the geothermal component in its model.In order to extract LSTgt, two approaches of different nature (physical based and data mining) were developed and tested in an area of about 560 × 560 km2 centered at the Kenyan Rift. Pre-dawn data in the study area during the first 45 days of 2012 were analyzed.The results show consistent spatial and temporal LSTgt patterns between the two approaches, and systematic differences of about 2 K. A geothermal area map from surface studies was used to assess LSTgt inside and outside the geothermal boundaries. Spatial means were found to be higher inside the geothermal limits, as well as the relative frequency of occurrence of high LSTgt. Results further show that areas with strong topography can result in anomalously high LSTgt values (false positives), which suggests the need for a slope and aspect correction in the inputs to achieve realistic results in those areas. The uncertainty analysis indicates that large uncertainties of the input parameters may limit detection of LSTgt anomalies. To validate the approaches, higher spatial resolution images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data over the Olkaria geothermal field were used. An established method to estimate radiant geothermal flux was applied providing values between 9 and 24 W/m2 in the geothermal area, which coincides with the LSTgt flux rates obtained with the proposed approaches.The proposed approaches are a first step in estimating LSTgt

  1. On Possible Similarity Solutions for Three-Dimensional Incompressible Laminar Boundary-Layer Flows Over Developable Surfaces and with Proportional Mainstream Velocity Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Arthur G.

    1958-01-01

    Analysis is presented on the possible similarity solutions of the three-dimensional, laminar, incompressible, boundary-layer equations referred to orthogonal, curvilinear coordinate systems. Requirements of the existence of similarity solutions are obtained for the following: flow over developable surface and flow over non-developable surfaces with proportional mainstream velocity components.

  2. A critical assessment of direct radiative effects of different aerosol types on surface global radiation and its components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Xiangao

    2014-01-01

    A critical assessment of direct radiative effects of different aerosol types on surface global, direct and diffuse radiation is presented. The analysis is based on measurements of aerosol optical properties and surface solar radiation (SSR) of cloud-free days at the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) and Aerosol Robotic Network station (AERONET) of Xianghe over the North China Plain between October 2004 and May 2012. Six aerosol types are classified based on aerosol size and absorption from the AERONET retrieval products, including two coarse-mode dominated aerosol types: dust (DU: fine mode fraction (FMF)<0.4) and polluted dust (PD: FMF within 0.4–0.7) and four fine-mode dominated aerosol types (FMF>0.7) but with different single scattering albedo (SSA): highly absorbing (HA: SSA<0.85), moderately absorbing (MA: SSA within 0.85–0.90), slightly absorbing (SA: SSA within 0.90–0.95) and very weakly absorbing (WA: SSA>0.95). Dramatic differences in aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE) on global SSR and its components between the six aerosol types have been revealed. ADRE efficiency on global SSR for solar zenight angle (SZA) between 55° and 65° ranges from −106 W m −2 for WA to −181 W m −2 for HA. The minimum ADRE efficiency on diffuse SSR is derived for HA aerosols, being 113 W m −2 that is about half of that by DU, the maximum value of six aerosol types. ADRE efficiency on global SSR by DU and PD (−141 to −150 W m −2 for SZA between 55° and 65°) is comparable to that by MA, although 100 W m −2 more direct SSR is extincted by DU and PD than by MA. DU and PD induce more diffuse SSR than MA that offsets larger reduction of direct SSR by DU and PD. Implications of the results to related researches are detailed discussed. The results are derived from aerosol and radiation data in the North China Plain, however the method can be used to any other stations with similar measurements. - Highlights: • A statistical method is developed to

  3. Parsimonious classification of binary lacunarity data computed from food surface images using kernel principal component analysis and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Abdullah; Valous, Nektarios A; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Lacunarity is about quantifying the degree of spatial heterogeneity in the visual texture of imagery through the identification of the relationships between patterns and their spatial configurations in a two-dimensional setting. The computed lacunarity data can designate a mathematical index of spatial heterogeneity, therefore the corresponding feature vectors should possess the necessary inter-class statistical properties that would enable them to be used for pattern recognition purposes. The objectives of this study is to construct a supervised parsimonious classification model of binary lacunarity data-computed by Valous et al. (2009)-from pork ham slice surface images, with the aid of kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), using a portion of informative salient features. At first, the dimension of the initial space (510 features) was reduced by 90% in order to avoid any noise effects in the subsequent classification. Then, using KPCA, the first nineteen kernel principal components (99.04% of total variance) were extracted from the reduced feature space, and were used as input in the ANN. An adaptive feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier was employed to obtain a suitable mapping from the input dataset. The correct classification percentages for the training, test and validation sets were 86.7%, 86.7%, and 85.0%, respectively. The results confirm that the classification performance was satisfactory. The binary lacunarity spatial metric captured relevant information that provided a good level of differentiation among pork ham slice images. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tracing the stellar component of low surface brightness Milky Way dwarf galaxies to their outskirts. I. Sextans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuéndez, L.; Battaglia, G.; Irwin, M.; Bermejo-Climent, J. R.; McMonigal, B.; Bate, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.; Conn, A. R.; de Boer, T. J. L.; Gallart, C.; Guglielmo, M.; Ibata, R.; McConnachie, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Fernando, N.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We present results from deep and very spatially extended CTIO/DECam g and r photometry (reaching out to 2 mag below the oldest main-sequence turn-off and covering 20 deg2) around the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We aim to use this dataset to study the structural properties of Sextans overall stellar population and its member stars in different evolutionary phases, as well as to search for possible signs of tidal disturbance from the Milky Way, which would indicate departure from dynamical equilibrium. Methods: We performed the most accurate and quantitative structural analysis to-date of Sextans' stellar components by applying Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain methods to the individual stars' positions. Surface density maps are built by statistically decontaminating the sample through a matched filter analysis of the colour-magnitude diagram, and then analysed for departures from axisymmetry. Results: Sextans is found to be significantly less spatially extended and more centrally concentrated than early studies suggested. No statistically significant distortions or signs of tidal disturbances were found down to a surface brightness limit of 31.8 mag/arcsec2 in V-band. We identify an overdensity in the central regions that may correspond to previously reported kinematic substructure(s). In agreement with previous findings, old and metal-poor stars such as Blue Horizontal Branch stars cover a much larger area than stars in other evolutionary phases, and bright Blue Stragglers (BSs) are less spatially extended than faint ones. However, the different spatial distribution of bright and faint BSs appears consistent with the general age and metallicity gradients found in Sextans' stellar component. This is compatible with Sextans BSs having formed by evolution of binaries and not necessarily due to the presence of a central disrupted globular cluster, as suggested in the literature. We provide structural parameters for the various populations analysed and make

  5. Electrochemical treatment of simulated textile wastewater with industrial components and Levafix Blue CA reactive dye: Optimization through response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerbahti, Bahadir K.; Tanyolac, Abdurrahman

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of simulated textile wastewater was studied on iron electrodes in the presence of NaCl electrolyte in a batch electrochemical reactor. The simulated textile wastewater was prepared from industrial components based on the real mercerized and non-mercerized cotton and viscon process, being first in literature. The highest COD, color and turbidity removals were achieved as 93.9%, 99.5%, and 82.9%, respectively, at 40% pollution load, 8 V applied potential, 37.5 g/L electrolyte concentration and 30 deg. C reaction temperature. The electrochemical treatment of industrial textile wastewater was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), where applied potential and electrolyte concentration were to be minimized while COD, color and turbidity removal percents were maximized at 100% pollution load. In a specific batch run under the optimum conditions of 30 deg. C reaction temperature, 25 g/L electrolyte concentration and 8 V applied potential applied with 35.5 mA/cm 2 current density at 100% pollution load, COD, color and turbidity removals were realized as 61.6%, 99.6% and 66.4%, respectively

  6. Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) binds complement component C4b and confers bloodstream survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jennifer A; Lin, Yi-Pin; Kessler, Julie R; Sato, Hiromi; Leong, John M; Coburn, Jenifer

    2017-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, a disease that can result in carditis, and chronic and debilitating arthritis and/or neurologic symptoms if left untreated. Bb survives in the midgut of the Ixodes scapularis tick, or within tissues of immunocompetent hosts. In the early stages of infection, the bacteria are present in the bloodstream where they must resist clearance by the innate immune system of the host. We have found a novel role for outer surface protein C (OspC) from B. burgdorferi and B. garinii in interactions with the complement component C4b and bloodstream survival in vivo. Our data show that OspC inhibits the classical and lectin complement pathways and competes with complement protein C2 for C4b binding. Resistance to complement is important for maintenance of the lifecycle of Bb, enabling survival of the pathogen within the host as well as in the midgut of a feeding tick when ospC expression is induced. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Optimization for supercritical CO2 extraction with response surface methodology and component analysis of Sapindus mukorossi oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Xiao, Xin-yu; Ge, Fa-huan

    2012-02-01

    To study the extraction conditions of Sapindus mukorossi oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction and identify its components. Optimized SFE-CO2 Extraction by response surface methodology and used GC-MS to analysie Sapindus mukorossi oil compounds. Established the model of an equation for the extraction rate of Sapindus mukorossi oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction, and the optimal parameters for the Supercritical CO2 Extraction determined by the equation were: the extraction pressure was 30 MPa, temperature was 40 degrees C; The separation I pressure was 14 MPa, temperature was 45 degrees C; The separation II pressure was 6 MPa, temperature was 40 degrees C; The extraction time was 60 min and the extraction rate of Sapindus mukorossi oil of 17.58%. 22 main compounds of Sapindus mukorossi oil extracted by supercritical CO2 were identified by GC-MS, unsaturated fatty acids were 86.59%. This process is reliable, safe and with simple operation, and can be used for the extraction of Sapindus mukorossi oil.

  8. Simulation of Time-Varying Spatially Uniform Pressure and Near-Surface Wind Flows on Building Components and Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seraphy Y. Shen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new full-scale (FS testing apparatus for conducting performance evaluations of FS building envelope systems. The simulator can generate spatially uniform, time-varying pressure conditions associated with Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale Category 5 winds while compensating for large air leakage through the specimen and also operate a high-speed wind tunnel, both with dynamic control. This paper presents system details, operating characteristics, and an early case study on the performance of large sectional door systems under wind pressure loading. Failure mechanisms are discussed, and finite element modeling is validated for two specimens. It demonstrates successful dynamic load control for large component and cladding systems, as well as simulation of flows near the building surface. These capabilities serve to complement other FS wind tunnel facilities by offering tools to generate ultimate load conditions on portions of the building. Further, the paper successfully demonstrates the utility of combining physical testing and computational analysis as a matter of routine, which underscores the potential of evolving FS testing to encompass cyber–physical approaches.

  9. US-Japan workshop Q-181 on high heat flux components and plasma-surface interactions for next devices: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, R.T. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yamashina, T. [ed.] [Hokkadio Univ. (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    This report contain viewgraphs of papers from the following sessions: plasma facing components issues for future machines; recent PMI results from several tokamaks; high heat flux technology; plasma facing components design and applications; plasma facing component materials and irradiation damage; boundary layer plasma; plasma disruptions; conditioning and tritium; and erosion/redeposition.

  10. US-Japan workshop Q-181 on high heat flux components and plasma-surface interactions for next devices: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.; Yamashina, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contain viewgraphs of papers from the following sessions: plasma facing components issues for future machines; recent PMI results from several tokamaks; high heat flux technology; plasma facing components design and applications; plasma facing component materials and irradiation damage; boundary layer plasma; plasma disruptions; conditioning and tritium; and erosion/redeposition

  11. Surface chemistry of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan, E-mail: Jayasheelan.Vaithilingam@nottingham.ac.uk [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Prina, Elisabetta [School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Goodridge, Ruth D.; Hague, Richard J.M. [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Edmondson, Steve [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Rose, Felicity R.A.J. [School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Christie, Steven D.R. [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) has previously been shown to be a viable method for fabricating biomedical implants; however, the surface chemistry of SLM fabricated parts is poorly understood. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface chemistries of (a) SLM as-fabricated (SLM-AF) Ti6Al4V and (b) SLM fabricated and mechanically polished (SLM-MP) Ti6Al4V samples and compared with (c) traditionally manufactured (forged) and mechanically polished Ti6Al4V samples. The SLM–AF surface was observed to be porous with an average surface roughness (Ra) of 17.6 ± 3.7 μm. The surface chemistry of the SLM-AF was significantly different to the FGD-MP surface with respect to elemental distribution and their existence on the outermost surface. Sintered particles on the SLM-AF surface were observed to affect depth profiling of the sample due to a shadowing effect during argon ion sputtering. Surface heterogeneity was observed for all three surfaces; however, vanadium was witnessed only on the mechanically polished (SLM-MP and FGD-MP) surfaces. The direct and indirect 3T3 cell cytotoxicity studies revealed that the cells were viable on the SLM fabricated Ti6Al4V parts. The varied surface chemistry of the SLM-AF and SLM-MP did not influence the cell behaviour. - Highlights: • Surface chemistry of selective laser melted (SLM) Ti6Al4V parts was compared with conventionally forged Ti6Al4V parts. • The surface elemental compositions of the SLM as-fabricated surfaces were significantly different to the forged surface. • Surface oxide-layer of the SLM as-fabricated was thicker than the polished SLM surfaces and the forged Ti6Al4V surfaces.

  12. Biosorption of diethyl phthalate ester by living and nonliving Burkholderia cepacia and the role of its cell surface components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Si; Li, Langlang; Chen, Anwei; Zeng, Qingru; Xia, Hao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the dibutyl phthalate (DBP) binding properties of a DBP-tolerant bacterium (B. cepacia) were characterized in terms of adsorption kinetics and isotherm. Living and nonliving cells both exhibited rapid removal of DBP, achieving more than 80% of maximum sorption within 30 min of contact and reached the equilibrium after 3 h. The adsorption isotherms were well fitted with the Sips model and the nonliving cells have greater biosorption capacity and affinity for DBP than the living cells. Furthermore, the absence of an active mechanism dependent on metabolism implied that the DBP bioaccumulation by living cells was mainly attribute to passive surface binding. The optimum pH for DBP adsorption by living and nonliving cells were both observed to be 6.0. The biosorptive mechanism of DBP binding by B. cepacia was further confirmed by FTIR analysis and various chemical treatments. FTIR results indicated that the phosphate and CH 2 groups on B. cepacia were the main bounding sites for DBP. Furthermore, 2.28, 2.15, 1.93 and 0.87 g of pretreated cells were obtained from 2.40 g of native cells via extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), superficial layer-capsule, lipids components and cell membrane removal treatments, respectively. Total binding amount of DBP on the native cells, EPS-removed cells, capsule-removed cells, lipids-extracted cells and membrane-removed cells were 26.69, 24.84, 24.93, 16.11 and 10.80 mg, respectively, suggesting that the cell wall lipids, proteins or peptidoglycan might play important roles in the sorption of DBP by B. cepacia. The information could be applied in understanding on the mobility, transport and ultimate fate of PAEs in soil and related environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface tension of different sized single-component droplets, according to macroscopic data obtained using the lattice gas model and the critical droplet size during phase formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.; Zaitseva, E. S.; Rabinovich, A. B.

    2017-10-01

    Size dependences of the surface tension of spherical single-component droplets are calculated using equations of the lattice gas model for 19 compounds. Parameters of the model are found from experimental data on the surface tension of these compounds for a macroscopic planar surface. The chosen low-molecular compounds satisfy the law of corresponding states. To improve agreement with the experimental data, Lennard-Jones potential parameters are varied within 10% deviations. The surface tensions of different sized equilibrium droplets are calculated at elevated and lowered temperatures. It is found that the surface tension of droplets grows monotonically as the droplet size increases from zero to its bulk value. The droplet size R 0 corresponding to zero surface tension corresponds to the critical size of the emergence of a new phase. The critical droplet sizes in the new phase of the considered compounds are estimated for the first time.

  14. Shallow-seated explosions in the construction of the Motukorea tuff ring (Auckland, New Zealand): Evidence from lithic and sedimentary characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Németh, Károly; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Kereszturi, Gábor

    2015-10-01

    At least 52 eruption centres are scattered within the 360 km2 Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). Motukorea, now an island in the Waitemata Harbour, is one of 39 AVF volcanoes that experienced a phreatomagmatic explosive phase, before a magmatic phase. The volcano erupted through a 200-300 m-thick, consolidated, mudstone/sandstone sequence of the Miocene Waitemata Group, which overlies the Waipapa Terrane greywacke basement. Detailed field descriptions of the sedimentary characteristics of the early phreatomagmatic deposits were carried out, along with examination of lithics. The ejecta ring deposit comprises 55 to 60 vol.% lithics, of which Waitemata Group fragments constitute approximately 90 vol.%, whereas < 10 vol.% are Waipapa fragments, suggesting a dominance of shallow fragmentation. The sedimentary characteristics of the stratigraphic sequence at Motukorea suggest a dominance of wet surges at the beginning of the eruption with progression into drier sequences upwards. This is reflected in increasing inter-bedded juvenile-pyroclast-dominated fall deposits up-sequence. These characteristics are attributed to the changing hydrogeological conditions within the diatreme and the host rocks. These findings shed light on the eruption dynamics of phreatomagmatic eruptions through consolidated rocks in the AVF and enable the depiction of a scenario of future eruptions within the field in similar substrates.

  15. Surface chemistry of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Prina, Elisabetta; Goodridge, Ruth D; Hague, Richard J M; Edmondson, Steve; Rose, Felicity R A J; Christie, Steven D R

    2016-10-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) has previously been shown to be a viable method for fabricating biomedical implants; however, the surface chemistry of SLM fabricated parts is poorly understood. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface chemistries of (a) SLM as-fabricated (SLM-AF) Ti6Al4V and (b) SLM fabricated and mechanically polished (SLM-MP) Ti6Al4V samples and compared with (c) traditionally manufactured (forged) and mechanically polished Ti6Al4V samples. The SLM-AF surface was observed to be porous with an average surface roughness (Ra) of 17.6±3.7μm. The surface chemistry of the SLM-AF was significantly different to the FGD-MP surface with respect to elemental distribution and their existence on the outermost surface. Sintered particles on the SLM-AF surface were observed to affect depth profiling of the sample due to a shadowing effect during argon ion sputtering. Surface heterogeneity was observed for all three surfaces; however, vanadium was witnessed only on the mechanically polished (SLM-MP and FGD-MP) surfaces. The direct and indirect 3T3 cell cytotoxicity studies revealed that the cells were viable on the SLM fabricated Ti6Al4V parts. The varied surface chemistry of the SLM-AF and SLM-MP did not influence the cell behaviour. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NYGREN,RICHARD E.; STAVROS,DIANA T.

    2000-06-01

    The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed.

  17. Radiation reflection from star surface reveals the mystery of interpulse shift and appearance of high frequency components in the Crab pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorovich, V. M.; Trofymenko, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    A new mechanism of radiation emission in the polar gap of a pulsar is discussed. It is based on the curvature radiation which is emitted by positrons moving towards the surface of neutron star along field lines of the inclined magnetic field and reflects from the surface. This mechanism explains the mystery of the interpulse shift and appearance of additional components in the emission of Crab pulsar at high frequencies discovered by Moffett and Hankins twenty years ago. We discuss coherence, energy flux and spectrum of the reflected radiation, appearance and disappearance of the interpulse position shift with the frequency increase. It is also possible that a nonlinear reflection (stimulated scattering) from the star surface is observed in the form of HF components. The frequency drift of these components, discovered by Hankins, Jones and Eilek, is discussed. The nonlinear reflection is associated with “Wood’s anomaly” at the diffracted waves grazing along the star surface. Two components can arise due to slow and fast waves which are present in the magnetospheric plasma. The possible scheme of their appearance due to birefringence at the reflection is also proposed.

  18. Components of near-surface energy balance derived from satellite soundings – Part 1: Net available energy

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mallick; A. Jarvis; G. Wohlfahrt; G. Kiely; T. Hirano; A. Miyata; S. Yamamoto; L. Hoffmann

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a relatively simple method for recovering global fields of near-surface net available energy (the sum of the sensible and latent heat flux or the difference between the net radiation and surface heat accumulation) using satellite visible and infra-red products derived from the AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) and MODIS (MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) platforms. The method focuses on first specifying net surface radiation by con...

  19. Simulated studies of wear and friction in total hip prosthesis components with various ball sizes and surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swikert, M. A.; Johnson, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a newly designed total hip joint simulator. The apparatus closely simulates the complex motions and loads of the human hip in normal walking. The wear and friction of presently used appliance configurations and materials were determined. A surface treatment of the metal femoral ball specimens was applied to influence wear. The results of the investigation indicate that wear can be reduced by mechanical treatment of metal femoral ball surfaces. A metallographic examination and surface roughness measurements were made.

  20. System architecture and operational analysis of medium displacement unmanned surface vehicle sea hunter as a surface warfare component of distributed lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS OF MEDIUM DISPLACEMENT UNMANNED SURFACE VEHICLE SEA HUNTER AS A SURFACE WARFARE...traceability, requirements and capabilities while determining the architecture framework in accordance with the Department of Defense Architectural

  1. Effects and interactions of medium components on laccase from a marine-derived fungus using response surface methodology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Garg, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    The effects of various synthetic medium components and their interactions with each other ultimately impact laccase production in fungi. This was studied using a laccase-hyper-producing marine-derived basidiomycete, Cerrena unicolor MTCC 5159...

  2. Surface layer properties of dough liquor components: Are they key parameters in gas retention in bread dough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2006-01-01

    Gas cell stability during bread making is controlled by both surface and bulk properties. This paper is focused on studying the surface properties of the water-soluble phase of the dough, the dough liquor (with and without lipids), as well as the composition of the air/water interface. Using

  3. Cell surface hydrophobicity: a key component in the degradation of polyethylene succinate by Pseudomonas sp. AKS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribedi, P; Sil, A K

    2014-02-01

    Polyethylene succinate (PES) contains hydrolysable ester bonds that make it a potential substitute for polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP). Towards bioremediation of PES, we have already reported that a new strain of Pseudomonas, Pseudomonas sp. AKS2, can efficiently degrade PES and hypothesized that cell surface hydrophobicity plays an important role in this degradation process. In this study, our efforts were targeted towards establishing a correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity and PES degradation. We have manipulated cell surface hydrophobicity of AKS2 by varying concentrations of glucose and ammonium sulphate in the growth medium and subsequently examined the extent of PES degradation. We observed an increase in PES degradation by AKS2 with an increase in cell surface hydrophobicity. The increased surface hydrophobicity caused an enhanced biofilm formation on PES surface that resulted in better polymer degradation. The current study establishes a direct correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity of an organism and its potential to degrade a nonpolar polymer like PES. Cell surface hydrophobicity manipulation can be used as an important strategy to increase bioremediation of nonpolar polymer like PES. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Surface Layer Properties of Dough Liquor Components: Are They Key Parameters in Gas Retention in Bread Dough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo Martin, C.; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Gas cell stability during bread making is controlled by both surface and bulk properties. This paper is focused on studying the surface properties of the water-soluble phase of the dough, the dough liquor (with and without lipids), as well as the composition of the air/water interface. Using

  5. Surface tensions of multi-component mixed inorganic/organic aqueous systems of atmospheric significance: measurements, model predictions and importance for cloud activation predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the physical properties of aerosol particles, it is necessary to adequately capture the behaviour of the ubiquitous complex organic components. One of the key properties which may affect this behaviour is the contribution of the organic components to the surface tension of aqueous particles in the moist atmosphere. Whilst the qualitative effect of organic compounds on solution surface tensions has been widely reported, our quantitative understanding on mixed organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems is limited. Furthermore, it is unclear whether models that exist in the literature can reproduce the surface tension variability for binary and higher order multi-component organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems of atmospheric significance. The current study aims to resolve both issues to some extent. Surface tensions of single and multiple solute aqueous solutions were measured and compared with predictions from a number of model treatments. On comparison with binary organic systems, two predictive models found in the literature provided a range of values resulting from sensitivity to calculations of pure component surface tensions. Results indicate that a fitted model can capture the variability of the measured data very well, producing the lowest average percentage deviation for all compounds studied. The performance of the other models varies with compound and choice of model parameters. The behaviour of ternary mixed inorganic/organic systems was unreliably captured by using a predictive scheme and this was dependent on the composition of the solutes present. For more atmospherically representative higher order systems, entirely predictive schemes performed poorly. It was found that use of the binary data in a relatively simple mixing rule, or modification of an existing thermodynamic model with parameters derived from binary data, was able to accurately capture the surface tension variation with concentration. Thus

  6. The effect of cultureware surfaces on functional and structural components of differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, N.; Weiszenstein, M.; Pala, J.; Halada, Petr; Šeda, O.; Elkalaf, M.; Trnka, J.; Kovář, J.; Polak, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2015), s. 919-936 ISSN 1425-8153 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cell culture * Proteomics * Cultureware surface Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2015

  7. Surface texturing of Si3N4–SiC ceramic tool components by pulsed laser machining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, LC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Article Type: Full Length Article Keywords: silicon nitride; pulsed laser machining; surface texturing; material removal; roughness Corresponding Author: Mrs. Lerato Criscelda Tshabalala, MTech Corresponding Author's Institution: Tshwane... show the material response to various laser parameters (pulse energy and pulse overlap). For this article, we only focused on profiling the material removal depth, scan width, material removal rates and the surface roughness after using two...

  8. Calculation of the surface water pollution index in the evaluation of environmental component of product life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Аскольдович Проскурнин

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment feasibility of the combined effect of the product life cycle on the environment is grounded. As an example, the pollution of surface waters at the production stage is considered in the article. A mechanism of ranking indicators of surface water pollution according to their importance is proposed. An algorithm for checking the consistency of the statistical expert judgment in determining weight coefficient for the indicators of pollution, based on the use of the concordance coefficient, is given

  9. Polysiloxane layers created by sol-gel and photochemistry: ideal surfaces for rapid, low-cost and high-strength bonding of epoxy components to polydimethylsiloxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Elisabeth; Deshpande, Kaustubh; Kotz, Frederik; Schild, Dieter; Keller, Nico; Heissler, Stefan; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Länge, Kerstin; Neumann, Christiane; Rapp, Bastian E

    2015-04-07

    In this article we introduce and compare three techniques for low-cost and rapid bonding of stereolithographically structured epoxy components to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). In short, we first create a polysiloxane layer on the epoxy surface via silane surface coupling and polymerization. Afterwards, the modified epoxy surface can be bonded to a PDMS component at room temperature using a handheld corona discharger, which is a commonly used low-cost technique for bonding two PDMS components. Using these methods bonds of desirable strength can be generated within half an hour. Depending on the epoxy resin, we found it necessary to modify the silanization procedure. Therefore, we provide a total of three different silanization techniques that allow bonding of a wide variety of stereolithographically structurable epoxy resins. The first technique is a UV-light induced silanization process which couples a silane that contains an epoxy-ring ((3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS)). For surfaces that cannot be modified with this silane we use dimethoxydimethylsilane (DMDMS). This silane can either be coupled to the surface by a sol-gel process or UV-light induced polymerisation. The sol-gel process which is a heat induced surface modification technique results in high bond strengths. Because of the heat which triggers the sol-gel process, this technique is limited to epoxy polymers with high glass transition temperatures. For the majority of stereolithographically structured epoxy resins which typically have glass transition temperatures of around 60 °C the light-induced bonding technique is preferable. For all three techniques we performed DIN EN-conform tensile testing demonstrating maximum bond strengths of up to 350 kPa which is comparable with bond strengths reported for PDMS-to-PDMS bonds. For all bond methods, long-term stability as well as hydrolytic stability was assessed.

  10. Comparative acid-base properties of the surface of components of the CdTe-ZnS system in series of substitutional solid solutions and their analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Kasatova, I. Yu.

    2011-07-01

    The acid-base properties of the surface of solid solutions and binary components of the CdTe-ZnS system are studied by hydrolytic adsorption, nonaqueous conductometric titration, mechanochemistry, IR spectroscopy, and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The strength, nature, and concentration of acid centers on the original surface and that exposed to CO are determined. The changes in acid-base properties in dependence on the composition of the system under investigation in the series of CdB6, ZnB6 analogs are studied.

  11. New Experiments and a Model-Driven Approach for Interpreting Middle Stone Age Lithic Point Function Using the Edge Damage Distribution Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Benjamin J; Brown, Kyle S; Harris, Jacob A; Wilkins, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) is associated with early evidence for symbolic material culture and complex technological innovations. However, one of the most visible aspects of MSA technologies are unretouched triangular stone points that appear in the archaeological record as early as 500,000 years ago in Africa and persist throughout the MSA. How these tools were being used and discarded across a changing Pleistocene landscape can provide insight into how MSA populations prioritized technological and foraging decisions. Creating inferential links between experimental and archaeological tool use helps to establish prehistoric tool function, but is complicated by the overlaying of post-depositional damage onto behaviorally worn tools. Taphonomic damage patterning can provide insight into site formation history, but may preclude behavioral interpretations of tool function. Here, multiple experimental processes that form edge damage on unretouched lithic points from taphonomic and behavioral processes are presented. These provide experimental distributions of wear on tool edges from known processes that are then quantitatively compared to the archaeological patterning of stone point edge damage from three MSA lithic assemblages-Kathu Pan 1, Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, and Die Kelders Cave 1. By using a model-fitting approach, the results presented here provide evidence for variable MSA behavioral strategies of stone point utilization on the landscape consistent with armature tips at KP1, and cutting tools at PP13B and DK1, as well as damage contributions from post-depositional sources across assemblages. This study provides a method with which landscape-scale questions of early modern human tool-use and site-use can be addressed.

  12. Proceedings of US/Japan Workshop (97FT5-06) on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Richard; Kureczko, Diana

    1998-10-01

    The 1997 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices was held at the Warwick Regis Hotel in San Francisco, California, on December 8-11, 1997. There were 53 presentations as well as discussions on technical issues and on planning for future collaborations, and 35 researchers from japan and the US participated in the workshop. Over the last few years, with the strong emphasis in the US on technology for ITER, there has been less work done in the US fusion program on basic plasma materials interaction and this change in emphasis workshops. The program this year emphasized activities that were not carried out under the ITER program and a new element this year in the US program was planning and some analysis on liquid surface concepts for advanced plasma facing components. The program included a ceremony to honor Professor Yamashina, who was retiring this year and a special presentation on his career

  13. An algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of aerosols: 2. Information content analysis for aerosol parameters and principal components of surface spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weizhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Reid, Jeffrey S.

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes the second part of a series of investigation to develop algorithms for simultaneous retrieval of aerosol parameters and surface reflectance from the future hyperspectral and geostationary satellite sensors such as Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of POllution (TEMPO). The information content in these hyperspectral measurements is analyzed for 6 principal components (PCs) of surface spectra and a total of 14 aerosol parameters that describe the columnar aerosol volume Vtotal, fine-mode aerosol volume fraction, and the size distribution and wavelength-dependent index of refraction in both coarse and fine mode aerosols. Forward simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer are conducted for 5 surface types (green vegetation, bare soil, rangeland, concrete and mixed surface case) and a wide range of aerosol mixtures. It is shown that the PCs of surface spectra in the atmospheric window channel could be derived from the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance in the conditions of low aerosol optical depth (AOD ≤ 0.2 at 550 nm), with a relative error of 1%. With degree freedom for signal analysis and the sequential forward selection method, the common bands for different aerosol mixture types and surface types can be selected for aerosol retrieval. The first 20% of our selected bands accounts for more than 90% of information content for aerosols, and only 4 PCs are needed to reconstruct surface reflectance. However, the information content in these common bands from each TEMPO individual observation is insufficient for the simultaneous retrieval of surface's PC weight coefficients and multiple aerosol parameters (other than Vtotal). In contrast, with multiple observations for the same location from TEMPO in multiple consecutive days, 1-3 additional aerosol parameters could be retrieved. Consequently, a self-adjustable aerosol retrieval algorithm to account for surface types, AOD conditions, and multiple-consecutive observations is recommended to derive

  14. Effect of geometry on the surface characteristics of steel components AISI 4140 nitrited by DC-pulsed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calahonra, C; De Las Heras, E; De La Serena, F; Corengia, P; Ybarra, G; Svoboda, H

    2004-01-01

    Steel AISI 4140 pieces containing cylindrical pinholes with different diameters and depths were nitrited by plasma, in an atmosphere of 25% N 2 + 75% H 2 under a DC-pulsed glow discharge for 15 h. The samples were nitrited to study the influence of the sizes of the pinholes on the uniformity of the compound layer, on the depth of the zone of diffusion and on the surface and subsurface micro-hardness. The results showed that nitriding pieces with pinholes introduces variations in the electric parameters and modifies the uniformity of the coat of compounds formed, altering the mechanical properties of the surface and subsurface (CW)

  15. New challenges in the study of lithic raw materials in central Italy at the dawn of metal working societies: La Pietra and other radiolarite quarry-workshops in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sem Scaramucci

    2016-09-01

    In conclusion, even if some methodological questions remain open, we verified the feasibility of this programme of geographical, geological and geochemical characterizations and need now to increase our dataset in order to reconstruct a viable picture of Copper age lithic economy in central-southern Tuscany.

  16. Influence of sodium chloride and weak organic acids (flux residues) on electrochemical migration of tin on surface mount chip components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    The electrolytic properties of sodium chloride and no-clean solder flux residue, and their effects on electrochemical migration and dendrite growth on surface mount chip capacitors were investigated. The leakage current dependency on concentration of contaminants was measured by a solution...

  17. Surface texturing of Si3N4–SiC ceramic tool components by pulsed laser machining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, LC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional abrasive techniques such as grinding and lapping have long been used in the surface conditioning of engineering materials. However, in the processing of hard and brittle materials like silicon nitride (Si(sub3)N(sub4)), machining...

  18. Investigation of Surface Treatments to Improve the Friction and Wear of Titanium Alloys for Diesel Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cooley, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Melanie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bansal, Dinesh G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    2012-09-20

    This final report summarizes experimental and analytical work performed under an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, and UT-Battelle LLC. The project was directed by Jerry Gibbs, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Propulsion Materials Program, with management by D. P. Stinton and J. A. Haynes of ORNL. Participants included Peter J. Blau (Principal Investigator), Kevin M. Cooley (senior technician), Melanie J. Kirkham (materials scientist) of the Materials Science and Technology Division or ORNL, and Dinesh G. Bansal, a post doctoral fellow employed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and who, at the time of this writing, is an engineer with Cummins, Inc. This report covers a three-year effort that involved two stages. In the first stage, and after a review of the literature and discussions with surface treatment experts, a series of candidate alloys and surface treatments for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was selected for initial screening. After pre-screening using an ASTM standard test method, the more promising surface treatments were tested in Phase 2 using a variable loading apparatus that was designed and built to simulate the changing load patterns in a typical connecting rod bearing. Information on load profiles from the literature was supplemented with the help of T.C. Chen and Howard Savage of Cummins, Inc. Considering the dynamic and evolving nature of materials technology, this report presents a snapshot of commercial and experimental bearing surface technologies for titanium alloys that were available during the period of this work. Undoubtedly, further improvements in surface engineering methods for titanium will evolve.

  19. Estimating the maritime component of aerosol optical depth and its dependency on surface wind speed using satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lehahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Six years (2003–2008 of satellite measurements of aerosol parameters from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and surface wind speeds from Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E, and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, are used to provide a comprehensive perspective on the link between surface wind speed and marine aerosol optical depth over tropical and subtropical oceanic regions. A systematic comparison between the satellite derived fields in these regions allows to: (i separate the relative contribution of wind-induced marine aerosol to the aerosol optical depth; (ii extract an empirical linear equation linking coarse marine aerosol optical depth and wind intensity; and (iii identify a time scale for correlating marine aerosol optical depth and surface wind speed. The contribution of wind induced marine aerosol to aerosol optical depth is found to be dominated by the coarse mode elements. When wind intensity exceeds 4 m/s, coarse marine aerosol optical depth is linearly correlated with the surface wind speed, with a remarkably consistent slope of 0.009±0.002 s/m. A detailed time scale analysis shows that the linear correlation between the fields is well kept within a 12 h time frame, while sharply decreasing when the time lag between measurements is longer. The background aerosol optical depth, associated with aerosols that are not produced in-situ through wind driven processes, can be used for estimating the contributions of terrestrial and biogenic marine aerosol to over-ocean satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth.

  20. Long-term changes in net radiation and its components above a pine forest and a grass surface in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term measurements (1974–1993 and 1996, respectively) of the net radiation (Q), global radiation (G), reflected global radiation (R), long-wave atmospheric radiation (A) and thermal radiation (E) of a pine forest in Southern Germany (index p) and of a grass surface in Northern Germany (index g) are compared. The influence of changes in surface properties is discussed. There are, in the case of the pine stand, forest growth and forest management and in the case of the grass surface, the shifting of the site from a climatic garden to a horizontal roof. Both series of radiant fluxes are analyzed with respect to the influences of the weather (cloudiness, heat advection). To eliminate the different influence of the solar radiation of the two sites, it is necessary to normalize by means of the global radiation G, yielding the radiation efficiency Q/G, the albedo R/G=α and the normalized long-wave net radiation (A+E)/G. Furthermore, the long-term mean values and the long-term trend of yearly mean values are discussed and, moreover, a comparison is made of individual monthly values. Q p is twice as large as Q g . The reason for this is the higher values of G and A above the pine forest and half values of α p compared to α g . E p is only a little greater than E g . The time series of the radiation fluxes show the following trends: Q p declines continuously despite a slight increase of G p . This is mainly due to the long-wave radiation fluxes. The net radiation of the grass surface Q g shows noticeably lower values after the merging of the site. This phenomenon is also dominated by the long-wave radiation processes. Although the properties of both site surfaces alter, E p and E g remain relatively stable. A p and A g show a remarkable decrease however. The reason for this is to be found in a modification of the heat advection, showing a more pronounced impact on the more continentally exposed site (pine forest). Compared to α g , α p shows only a small

  1. Human platelet glycoprotein Ia. One component is only expressed on the surface of activated platelets and may be a granule constituent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienz, D.; Clemetson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glycoprotein Ia (GP Ia) is a relatively minor component of human blood platelets thought to be a receptor involved in collagen-induced platelet activation. However, some difficulties exist with the definition of this glycoprotein. The expression of GP Ia on resting (prostacyclin analogue-treated) and thrombin-activated platelets was compared by surface labeling with 125 I-lactoperoxidase. Intact platelets or platelets solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate were labeled with periodate/[ 3 H]NaBH 4 . Analysis on two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels showed that GP Ia is very poorly labeled in resting platelets. After activation a new spot (GP Ia*) appears with the same relative molecular mass as GP Ia under reducing conditions. GP Ia and Ia* can be clearly separated by two-dimensional nonreduced/reduced gel electrophoresis. Therefore, two glycoproteins which have been termed GP Ia exist in platelets with similar molecular weight and pI under reducing conditions. One of these (GP Ia*) is only surface-labeled when platelets are activated, indicating that it is only exposed on the surface of activated platelets. Supernatant from activated platelets contains this glycoprotein as well as other granule components. This glycoprotein is missing in platelets from two patients with collagen-response defects

  2. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yohji; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m 2 , which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  3. In Vitro Propagation of Pink Lapacho: Response Surface Methodology and Factorial Analysis for Optimisation of Medium Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Enrique Larraburu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Handroanthus impetiginosus, pink lapacho, is a timber, ornamental, and medicinal tree. Experiments on the in vitro propagation of H. impetiginosus were conducted using nodal segments cultivated in both Murashige and Skoog salts with Gamborg vitamins (MSG and Woody Plant Medium (WPM with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA and indole butyric acid (IBA. Morphogenic responses were differentially affected by salt compositions and their interactions with plant growth regulators in each micropropagation stage. According to response surface analysis, the optimum multiplication rate with 1 μM IBA ranged from 16.7 to 21.3 μM BA in WPM, and the inhibitors of endogenous auxins could increase multiplication rates. A pulse with 50 μM IBA in 1/2 MSG produced 83% rooting with 3.2 roots per shoots and higher fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. In the acclimatisation stage, 50% of plants survived after 1 year. This methodology optimised the culture media for the in vitro propagation of the H. impetiginosus clonal pool and could be applied to related species, several of which are categorised as vulnerable on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List.

  4. First results and surface analysis strategy for plasma-facing components after JET operation with the ITER-like wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likonen, J.; Alves, E.; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Coad, J. P.; Hakola, A.; Heinola, K.; Koivuranta, S.; Matthews, G. F.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Stan-Sion, C.; Widdowson, A.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2014-04-01

    During the carbon wall operations of JET since 2001, an extensive post-mortem analysis programme has been carried out under the JET Task Force Fusion Technology and a similar analysis programme is underway for the JET-ILW tiles removed during the 2012 shutdown. The first post-mortem results from the JET ITER-like wall tiles have shown that the overall amount of deposition on the divertor tiles and on remote divertor areas has been reduced by more than an order of magnitude with respect to JET-C. In addition, the obtained data indicate a possible interaction between Be and W such as the formation of mixed Be-W layers. This could be due to the surface roughness of the tiles, or could be caused by diffusion or even alloying. Ion-beam analyses and secondary ion mass spectrometry techniques give only elemental information, so other techniques such as x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and nuclear microprobing are required. Since the nature of deposition and erosion has changed during the JET-ILW operations, a change in the post-mortem analysis programme is needed. For example, no cross-sectional samples from the sloping parts of tiles 4 and 6 are required. A strategy for post-mortem analyses of the marker-coated tiles will be presented in this paper.

  5. Degradation of the starch components amylopectin and amylose by barley α-amylase 1: Role of surface binding site 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Willum; Kramhøft, Birte; Bozonnet, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Barley α-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1, EC 3.2.1.1) contains two surface binding sites, SBS1 and SBS2, involved in the degradation of starch granules. The distinct role of SBS1 and SBS2 remains to be fully understood. Mutational analysis of Tyr-380 situated at SBS2 previously revealed that Tyr-380...... is required for binding of the amylose helix mimic, β-cyclodextrin. Also, mutant enzymes altered at position 380 displayed reduced binding to starch granules. Similarly, binding of wild type AMY1 to starch granules was suppressed in the presence of β-cyclodextrin. We investigated the role of SBS2 by comparing...... kinetic properties of the wild type AMY1 and the Y380A mutant enzyme in hydrolysis of amylopectin, amylose and β-limit dextrin, and the inhibition by β-cyclodextrin. Progress curves of the release of reducing ends revealed a bi-exponential hydrolysis of amylopectin and β-limit dextrin, whereas hydrolysis...

  6. The lithic industry of Sima del Elefante (Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) in the context of Early and Middle Pleistocene technology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lombera-Hermida, Arturo; Bargalló, Amèlia; Terradillos-Bernal, Marcos; Huguet, Rosa; Vallverdú, Josep; García-Antón, Maria-Dolores; Mosquera, Marina; Ollé, Andreu; Sala, Robert; Carbonell, Eudald; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Xosé-Pedro

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the lithic assemblages documented at Sima del Elefante (TE) and their importance in the context of the Early and Middle Pleistocene human occupation of Europe. We also study changes in human behaviour within the context of the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Sierra de Atapuerca. This site has characteristics that are of great value for the study of human evolution. The lower levels of TE (Units TE7-TE14) are an essential reference for understanding the early stages of the colonization of Europe. The TE9c level has provided stone tools (Mode 1), faunal remains, and human fossils dated to 1.22 Ma (millions of years ago). Moreover, this is one of the few European sites with a stratigraphic sequence that includes remains of human occupations predating the Jaramillo subchron (Early Pleistocene) and from the Late Middle Pleistocene (Units TE18-TE19). Despite this, the presence of archaeologically sterile units (TE15-17) prevents us from establishing a continuous relationship between the Early and Middle Pleistocene human settlements and, consequently, between their technological and behavioural differences. We can, however compare the technological and palaeoeconomic strategies adopted by different species of hominins during two key phases of the occupation of Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Principal Component Analysis in Grey Based Taguchi Method for Optimization of Multiple Surface Quality Characteristics of 6061-T4 Aluminum in CNC End Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saurav; Routara, Bharat Chandra; Bandyopadhyay, Asish; Mahapatra, Siba Sankar

    2011-01-01

    The present study highlights a multi-objective optimization problem by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) coupled with grey based Taguchi method through a case study in CNC end milling of 6061-T4 Aluminum. The study aimed at evaluating the best process environment which could simultaneously satisfy multiple requirements of surface quality. In view of the fact, that traditional Taguchi method cannot solve a multi-objective optimization problem; to overcome this limitation, grey relation theory has been coupled with Taguchi method. Furthermore, to follow the basic assumption of Taguchi method i.e. quality attributes should be uncorrelated or independent; which is not always satisfied in practical situation. To overcome this shortcoming the study applied Principal Component analysis to eliminate response correlation and to evaluate independent or uncorrelated quality indices called Principal Components which were aggregated to compute an overall quality index denoted as overall grey relational grade which was optimized (minimized) finally. The study combined PCA and grey based Taguchi method for predicting optimal setting. Optimal result was verified through confirmatory test.

  8. Residues essential for Panton-Valentine leukocidin S component binding to its cell receptor suggest both plasticity and adaptability in its interaction surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit-Joseph Laventie

    Full Text Available Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a bicomponent staphylococcal leukotoxin, is involved in the poor prognosis of necrotizing pneumonia. The present study aimed to elucidate the binding mechanism of PVL and in particular its cell-binding domain. The class S component of PVL, LukS-PV, is known to ensure cell targeting and exhibits the highest affinity for the neutrophil membrane (Kd∼10(-10 M compared to the class F component of PVL, LukF-PV (Kd∼10(-9 M. Alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to identify the residues involved in LukS-PV binding to the neutrophil surface. Nineteen single alanine mutations were performed in the rim domain previously described as implicated in cell membrane interactions. Positions were chosen in order to replace polar or exposed charged residues and according to conservation between leukotoxin class S components. Characterization studies enabled to identify a cluster of residues essential for LukS-PV binding, localized on two loops of the rim domain. The mutations R73A, Y184A, T244A, H245A and Y250A led to dramatically reduced binding affinities for both human leukocytes and undifferentiated U937 cells expressing the C5a receptor. The three-dimensional structure of five of the mutants was determined using X-ray crystallography. Structure analysis identified residues Y184 and Y250 as crucial in providing structural flexibility in the receptor-binding domain of LukS-PV.

  9. The cell surface membrane proteins Cdo and Boc are components and targets of the Hedgehog signaling pathway and feedback network in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzen, Toyoaki; Allen, Benjamin L; Cole, Francesca; Kang, Jong-Sun; Krauss, Robert S; McMahon, Andrew P

    2006-05-01

    Cdo and Boc encode cell surface Ig/fibronectin superfamily members linked to muscle differentiation. Data here indicate they are also targets and signaling components of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. Although Cdo and Boc are generally negatively regulated by Hedgehog (HH) signaling, in the neural tube Cdo is expressed within the Shh-dependent floor plate while Boc expression lies within the dorsal limit of Shh signaling. Loss of Cdo results in a Shh dosage-dependent reduction of the floor plate. In contrast, ectopic expression of Boc or Cdo results in a Shh-dependent, cell autonomous promotion of ventral cell fates and a non-cell-autonomous ventral expansion of dorsal cell identities consistent with Shh sequestration. Cdo and Boc bind Shh through a high-affinity interaction with a specific fibronectin repeat that is essential for activity. We propose a model where Cdo and Boc enhance Shh signaling within its target field.

  10. Surface mu heavy chain signals down-regulation of the V(D)J-recombinase machinery in the absence of surrogate light chain components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Gunther R; Mundt, Cornelia; Parker, Mathew; Pelanda, Roberta; Mårtensson, Inga-Lill; Winkler, Thomas H

    2004-06-07

    Early B cell development is characterized by stepwise, ordered rearrangement of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (HC) and light (LC) chain genes. Only one of the two alleles of these genes is used to produce a receptor, a phenomenon referred to as allelic exclusion. It has been suggested that pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signals are responsible for down-regulation of the VDJH-recombinase machinery (Rag1, Rag2, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT]), thereby preventing further rearrangement on the second HC allele. Using a mouse model, we show that expression of an inducible muHC transgene in Rag2-/- pro-B cells induces down-regulation of the following: (a) TdT protein, (b) a transgenic green fluorescent protein reporter reflecting endogenous Rag2 expression, and (c) Rag1 primary transcripts. Similar effects were also observed in the absence of surrogate LC (SLC) components, but not in the absence of the signaling subunit Ig-alpha. Furthermore, in wild-type mice and in mice lacking either lambda5, VpreB1/2, or the entire SLC, the TdT protein is down-regulated in muHC+LC- pre-B cells. Surprisingly, muHC without LC is expressed on the surface of pro-/pre-B cells from lambda5-/-, VpreB1-/-VpreB2-/-, and SLC-/- mice. Thus, SLC or LC is not required for muHC cell surface expression and signaling in these cells. Therefore, these findings offer an explanation for the occurrence of HC allelic exclusion in mice lacking SLC components.

  11. Study of laser-induced damage on the exit surface of silica components in the nanosecond regime in a multiple wavelengths configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambonneau, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, laser-induced damage phenomenon on the surface of fused silica components is investigated in the nanosecond regime. This phenomenon consists in an irreversible modification of the material. In the nanosecond regime, laser damage is tightly correlated to the presence of non-detectable precursor defects which are a consequence of the synthesis and the polishing of the components. In this thesis, we investigate laser damage in a multiple wavelengths configuration. In order to better understand this phenomenon in these conditions of irradiation, three studies are conducted. The first one focuses on damage initiation. The results obtained in the single wavelength configurations highlight a coupling in the multiple wavelengths one. A comparison between the experiments and a model developed during this thesis enables us to improve the knowledge of the fundamental processes involved during this damage phase. Then, we show that post mortem characterizations of damage morphology coupled to an accurate metrology allow us to understand both the nature and also the chronology of the physical mechanisms involved during damage formation. The proposed theoretical scenario is confirmed through various experiments. Finally, we study damage growth in both the single and the multiple wavelengths cases. Once again, this last configuration highlights a coupling between the wavelengths. We show the necessity to account for the spatial characteristics of the laser beams during a growth session. (author) [fr

  12. A critical assessment of the Protoaurignacian lithic technology at Fumane Cave and its implications for the definition of the earliest Aurignacian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, Armando; Conard, Nicholas J; Peresani, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In the scenario of the spread of the anatomically modern humans (AMHs) into Europe, the techno-complex known as Protoaurignacian is defined by the production of blades and bladelets within a single and continuous stone knapping sequence from the same core as the result of its progressive reduction. However, the growing re-evaluation of some assemblages is revealing that bladelets are frequently obtained from independent reduction sequences, hence discouraging the direct application of the model developed in southwestern France. High-resolution regional signatures are thus needed to reconstruct a more accurate portrait of the AMH colonization dynamic. Northeastern Italy, with the key site of Fumane Cave, is one among the regions of Mediterranean Europe worthy of consideration for reconstructing this colonization process and its cultural dynamics. Within the framework of a critical discussion of the technological definition of the Protoaurignacian and its relationship with contemporaneous industries on a regional and supra-regional scale, we present the results of a detailed analysis of the lithic technology from units A2-A1 based on reduction sequence and attribute analyses. Results show that bladelets are the first goal of production and they do not originate from reduced blade cores but from a broad range of independent and simultaneous core reduction strategies. One implication is that the most commonly used technological trait that is said to define the Protoaurignacian has been over-emphasized and that the Protoaurignacian is technologically consistent across its geographical extent. Additional data based on carinated core technology imply that this techno-complex shares a common technological background with the Early Aurignacian and that no features are restricted to one of the two facies. Furthermore, the major difference between the Protoaurignacian and Early Aurignacian appears to be more typological in nature, with retouched bladelets being less common in

  13. Character of intermolecular interaction in pyridine-argon complex: Ab initio potential energy surface, internal dynamics, and interrelations between SAPT energy components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarewicz, Jan, E-mail: jama@amu.edu.pl; Shirkov, Leonid [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-05-28

    The pyridine-Ar (PAr) van der Waals (vdW) complex is studied using a high level ab initio method. Its structure, binding energy, and intermolecular vibrational states are determined from the analytical potential energy surface constructed from interaction energy (IE) values computed at the coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbatively included triple excitations with the augmented correlation consistent polarized valence double-ζ (aug-cc-pVDZ) basis set complemented by midbond functions. The structure of the complex at its global minimum with Ar at a distance of 3.509 Å from the pyridine plane and shifted by 0.218 Å from the center of mass towards nitrogen agrees well with the corresponding equilibrium structure derived previously from the rotational spectrum of PAr. The PAr binding energy D{sub e} of 392 cm{sup −1} is close to that of 387 cm{sup −1} calculated earlier at the same ab initio level for the prototypical benzene-Ar (BAr) complex. However, under an extension of the basis set, D{sub e} for PAr becomes slightly lower than D{sub e} for BAr. The ab initio vdW vibrational energy levels allow us to estimate the reliability of the methods for the determination of the vdW fundamentals from the rotational spectra. To disclose the character of the intermolecular interaction in PAr, the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) is employed for the analysis of different physical contributions to IE. It is found that SAPT components of IE can be approximately expressed in the binding region by only two of them: the exchange repulsion and dispersion energy. The total induction effect is negligible. The interrelations between various SAPT components found for PAr are fulfilled for a few other complexes involving aromatic molecules and Ar or Ne, which indicates that they are valid for all rare gas (Rg) atoms and aromatics.

  14. Character of intermolecular interaction in pyridine-argon complex: Ab initio potential energy surface, internal dynamics, and interrelations between SAPT energy components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarewicz, Jan; Shirkov, Leonid

    2016-05-28

    The pyridine-Ar (PAr) van der Waals (vdW) complex is studied using a high level ab initio method. Its structure, binding energy, and intermolecular vibrational states are determined from the analytical potential energy surface constructed from interaction energy (IE) values computed at the coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbatively included triple excitations with the augmented correlation consistent polarized valence double-ζ (aug-cc-pVDZ) basis set complemented by midbond functions. The structure of the complex at its global minimum with Ar at a distance of 3.509 Å from the pyridine plane and shifted by 0.218 Å from the center of mass towards nitrogen agrees well with the corresponding equilibrium structure derived previously from the rotational spectrum of PAr. The PAr binding energy De of 392 cm(-1) is close to that of 387 cm(-1) calculated earlier at the same ab initio level for the prototypical benzene-Ar (BAr) complex. However, under an extension of the basis set, De for PAr becomes slightly lower than De for BAr. The ab initio vdW vibrational energy levels allow us to estimate the reliability of the methods for the determination of the vdW fundamentals from the rotational spectra. To disclose the character of the intermolecular interaction in PAr, the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) is employed for the analysis of different physical contributions to IE. It is found that SAPT components of IE can be approximately expressed in the binding region by only two of them: the exchange repulsion and dispersion energy. The total induction effect is negligible. The interrelations between various SAPT components found for PAr are fulfilled for a few other complexes involving aromatic molecules and Ar or Ne, which indicates that they are valid for all rare gas (Rg) atoms and aromatics.

  15. Primitive Extracellular Lipid Components on the Surface of the Charophytic Alga Klebsormidium flaccidum and Their Possible Biosynthetic Pathways as Deduced from the Genome Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Satoshi; Hori, Koichi; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Kobayashi, Atsuko; Kato, Tsubasa; Yuno-Ohta, Naoko; Nobusawa, Takashi; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Klebsormidium flaccidum is a charophytic alga living in terrestrial and semiaquatic environments. K. flaccidum grows in various habitats, such as low-temperature areas and under desiccated conditions, because of its ability to tolerate harsh environments. Wax and cuticle polymers that contribute to the cuticle layer of plants are important for the survival of land plants, as they protect against those harsh environmental conditions and were probably critical for the transition from aquatic microorganism to land plants. Bryophytes, non-vascular land plants, have similar, but simpler, extracellular waxes and polyester backbones than those of vascular plants. The presence of waxes in terrestrial algae, especially in charophytes, which are the closest algae to land plants, could provide clues in elucidating the mechanism of land colonization by plants. Here, we compared genes involved in the lipid biosynthetic pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana to the K. flaccidum and the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genomes, and identified wax-related genes in both algae. A simple and easy extraction method was developed for the recovery of the surface lipids from K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Although these algae have wax components, their surface lipids were largely different from those of land plants. We also investigated aliphatic substances in the cell wall fraction of K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Many of the fatty acids were determined to be lipophilic monomers in K. flaccidum, and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed that their possible binding mode was distinct from that of A. thaliana. Thus, we propose that K. flaccidum has a cuticle-like hydrophobic layer composed of lipids and glycoproteins, with a different composition from the cutin polymer typically found in land plant cuticles.

  16. Simulation of erosion and deposition processes of many-component surface layers in fusion devices; Simulation von Erosion- und Depositionsprozessen mehrkomponentiger Oberflaechenschichten in Fusionsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, S.

    2007-02-15

    The present choice of first wall materials in ITER will unavoidably lead to the formation of mixed carbon, tungsten and beryllium layers. Predictive modelling of erosion processes, impurity transport and deposition processes is important. For this the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO can be used. In this thesis ERO has been coupled to the existing Monte-Carlo code SDTrimSP to describe material mixing processes in wall components correctly. SDTrimSP describes the surface by calculating the transport of ions in solids. It keeps track of the depth dependent material concentration caused by the implantation of projectiles in the solid. The calculation of movements of the recoil atoms within the solid gives reflection coefficients and sputtering yields. Since SDTrimSP does not consider chemical processes a new method has been developed to implement chemical erosion of carbon by the impact of hydrogen projectiles. The new code ERO-SDTrimSP was compared to TEXTOR experiments which were carried out to study the formation of mixed surface layers. In these experiments methane CH4 was injected through drillings in graphite and tungsten spherical limiters into the plasma. A pronounced substrate dependence was observed. The deposition efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the locally deposited to the injected amount of carbon, was 4% for graphite and 0.3% for tungsten. The deposition-dominated area on the graphite limiter covers a five times larger area than on the tungsten limiter. Modelling of this experiment with ERO-SDTrimSP also showed a clear substrate dependence with 2% deposition efficiency for graphite and less than 0.5% for tungsten. An important result of the comparison between experiment and simulation was that the effective sticking of hydrocarbon radicals hitting the surface must be negligible. Furthermore, it was shown that local re-deposited carbon layers are 10 times more effectively eroded than ordinary graphite. Simulation of the impurity transport in the plasma was checked

  17. Enhanced mycelial biomass production of the hairy bracket mushroom, Trametes hirsuta (Higher Basidiomycetes), by optimizing medium component with Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongling; Liu, Xueming; Zhao, Xiangjie; Xu, Yujuan; Ma, Rongxia

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analyses based on experimental designs were applied to optimize the medium components for mycelial biomass production by Trametes hirsuta in shake flask cultivation. First, the effects of different carbon resources (glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, fructose, soluble starch and potato), nitrogen resources (yeast extract, peptone, (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NH4Cl, peanut powder, soybean powder) and mineral elements (CaCl2, ZnSO4·7H2O, FeSO4·7H2O, MnSO4·H2O, CuSO4·7H2O) on mycelial biomass production were investigated using a univariate design. Second, a Plackett-Burman design was applied to identify the significant variables that principally influenced the mycelial biomass production, and the path of steepest ascent was pursued to approach the regions of optimal value of the significant variables. Subsequently, these significant variables were optimized using the Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. Ultimately, the optimized medium conditions were composed of sucrose 25.65 g·L-1, MgSO4·7H2O 1.24 g·L-1, and FeSO4·7H2O 3.36 g·L-1, and the yield of mycelial biomass reached 15.45 g·L-1, which represents an approximately 1.6-fold increase above the initial yield.

  18. A study on the impact of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on the viscosity of PEG melt suspensions using surface plots and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ching Mien; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of the rheological behaviour of polymer melt suspensions is crucial in pharmaceutical manufacturing, especially when processed by spray congealing or melt extruding. However, a detailed comparison of the viscosities at each and every temperature and concentration between the various grades of adjuvants in the formulation will be tedious and time-consuming. Therefore, the statistical method, principal component analysis (PCA), was explored in this study. The composite formulations comprising polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) of ten different grades (K100 LV, K4M, K15M, K100M, E15 LV, E50 LV, E4M, F50 LV, F4M and Methocel VLV) at various concentrations were prepared and their viscosities at different temperatures determined. Surface plots showed that concentration of HPMC had a greater effect on the viscosity compared to temperature. Particle size and size distribution of HPMC played an important role in the viscosity of melt suspensions. Smaller particles led to a greater viscosity than larger particles. PCA was used to evaluate formulations of different viscosities. The complex viscosity profiles of the various formulations containing HPMC were successfully classified into three clusters of low, moderate and high viscosity. Formulations within each group showed similar viscosities despite differences in grade or concentration of HPMC. Formulations in the low viscosity cluster were found to be sprayable. PCA was able to differentiate the complex viscosity profiles of different formulations containing HPMC in an efficient and time-saving manner and provided an excellent visualisation of the data.

  19. Utilization of satellite remote sensing data on land surface characteristics in water and heat balance component modeling for vegetation covered territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Uspensky, Alexander; Startseva, Zoya; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    The model of vertical water and heat transfer in the "soil-vegetation-atmosphere" system (SVAT) for vegetation covered territory has been developed, allowing assimilating satellite remote sensing data on land surface condition as well as accounting for heterogeneities of vegetation and meteorological characteristics. The model provides the calculation of water and heat balance components (such as evapotranspiration Ev, soil water content W, sensible and latent heat fluxes and others ) as well as vertical soil moisture and temperature distributions, temperatures of soil surface and foliage, land surface brightness temperature for any time interval within vegetation season. To describe the landscape diversity soil constants and leaf area index LAI, vegetation cover fraction B, and other vegetation characteristics are used. All these values are considered to be the model parameters. Territory of Kursk region with square about 15 thousands km2 situated in the Black Earth zone of Central Russia was chosen for investigation. Satellite-derived estimates of land surface characteristics have been constructed under cloud-free condition basing AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and EOS Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat-8, -9 data. The developed technologies of AVHRR data thematic processing have been refined providing the retrieval of surface skin brightness temperature Tsg, air foliage temperature Ta, efficient surface temperature Ts.eff and emissivity E, as well as derivation of vegetation index NDVI, B, and LAI. The linear regression estimators for Tsg, Ta and LAI have been built using representative training samples for 2003-2009 vegetation seasons. The updated software package has been applied for AVHRR data thematic processing to generate named remote sensing products for various dates of the above vegetation seasons. The error statistics of Ta, Ts.eff and Тsg derivation has been investigated for various samples using comparison with in-situ measurements that has given RMS errors in the

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its correlation with basal membrane components laminin-5 and collagen type IV in paediatric burn patients measured with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRI) biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremijewicz, Artur; Matuszczak, Ewa; Sankiewicz, Anna; Tylicka, Marzena; Komarowska, Marta; Tokarzewicz, Anna; Debek, Wojciech; Gorodkiewicz, Ewa; Hermanowicz, Adam

    2018-01-30

    The purpose of this study was the determination of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its correlation with basal membrane components laminin-5 and collagen type IV in the blood plasma of burn patients measured with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRI) biosensors. 31 children scalded by hot water who were managed at the Department of Paediatric Surgery between 2014-2015, after primarily presenting with burns in 4-20% TBSA were included into the study (age 9 months up to 14 years, mean age 2,5+1 years). There were 10 girls and 21 boys. Venous blood samples were drawn 2-6h, and 12-16h after the thermal injury, and on the subsequent days 3, 5 and 7. The matrix metalloproteinase-2, collagen type IV and laminin-5 concentrations were assessed using Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging by the investigators blinded to the other data. The MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV concentrations in the blood plasma of patients with burns, were highest 12-16h after thermal injury, the difference was statistically significant. The MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV concentrations measured 3 days, 5 days and 7 days after the thermal injury, slowly decreased over time, and on the 7th day reached the normal range, when compared with the concentration measured in controls. Current work is the first follow-up study regarding MMP-2 in burns. MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV levels were elevated early after burn injury in the plasma of studied patients, and were highest 12-16h after the injury. MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV levels were not proportional to the severity of the burn. We believe in the possibility that the gradual decrease of MMP-2, collagen type IV and laminin-5 concentrations could be connected with the process of healing, but to prove it, more investigation is needed in this area. The SPR imaging biosensor is a good diagnostic tool for determination of MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV in blood plasma of patients with burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Project of integrity assessment of flawed components with structural discontinuity (IAF). Data book for estimation stress intensity factor. Surface crack on ICM housing for penetration in reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The project of Integrity Assessment of Flawed Components with Structural Discontinuity (IAF) was entrusted to Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) from Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and started from FY 2001. And then, it was taken over to Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) which was established in October 2003 and carried out until FY 2007. In the IAF project, weld joints between nickel based alloys and low alloy steels around penetrations in reactor vessel, safe-end of nozzles and shroud supports were selected from among components and pipe arrangements in nuclear power plants, where high residual stresses were generated due to welding and complex structure. Residual stresses around of the weld joints were estimated by finite element analysis method (FEM) with a general modeling method, then the reasonability and the conservativeness was evaluated. In addition, for postulated surface crack of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), a simple calculation method of stress intensity factor (K) required to estimate the crack growth was proposed and the effectiveness was confirmed. JNES compiled results of the IAF project into Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis of Weld Joint, and Data Book of Simplified Stress Intensity Factor Calculation for Penetration of Reactor as typical Structure Discontinuity, respectively. Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis in Weld Joint. 1. Butt Weld Joint of Small Diameter Cylinder (4B Sch40) (JNES-RE-2012-0005), 2. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (One-Side Groove Joint (JNES-RE-2012-0006), 3. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (Large Diameter Both-Side Groove Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0007), 4. Weld Joint around Penetrations in Reactor Vessel (Insert Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0008), 5. Weld Joint in Shroud Support (H8, H9, H10 and H11 Welds) (JNES-RE-2012-0009), 6. Analysis Model of Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint Applied Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) (JNES-RE-2012-0010). Data Book of

  2. Coupling non invasive and fast sampling of proteins from work of art surfaces to surface plasmon resonance biosensing: Differential and simultaneous detection of egg components for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, S; Carretti, E; Dei, L; Baglioni, P; Minunni, M

    2016-11-15

    Despite the wide application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to a broad area of interests, from environment to food analysis, from drug discovery to diagnostics, its exploitation in cultural heritage conservation is still unexplored. Water-based highly viscous polymeric dispersions (HVPD) composed by partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate (PVA), borax, and water, were recently developed and successfully applied for the selective removal of surface degradation patinas (i.e. protein materials, natural resins etc.) from paintings of historical and artistic interest. This approach is here coupled for the first time to a SPR biosensor to simultaneously recognize albumen, yolk, or their mixtures in HVPD extracts. Ovalbumin and immunoglobulin Y are selected as analytes for egg white and yolk recognition, respectively. The biosensor was first characterized on standard analytes within the range 0-400mgL(-1) and then on fresh and dried egg albumen and yolk down to 2·10(^4) and 1·10(^5) dilution factors, respectively. Once optimized, the biosensor was combined to the HVPD application on simulated and real art samples for the evaluation of hen egg presence in the extract, i.e. albumen, yolk, or their co-presence in the matrix. For a contemporary 'sacred icon', realized by the traditional egg tempera procedure described by Cennino Cennini, the biosensor successfully distinguished different uses of egg components for the realization of painted and gilded areas, i.e. yolk and albumen, respectively. Finally, a XVIII century italian painting whose the realization technique is unknown, was tested confirming its egg tempera-based realization technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Erosional history of the Appalachians as recordeed in detrital zircon fission-track ages and lithic detritus in Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, C.W.; Naeser, N.D.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Weems, Robert E.; Southworth, C. Scott; Newell, Wayne L.

    2016-01-01

    and Maryland, sands of Early Cretaceous through late early Oligocene age do not yield any old zircons comparable in age to the old zircons found in bedrock in the western Appalachians. Very old zircons yielding FT ages >800 Ma are only encountered in Coastal Plain sands of middle early Miocene and younger age.Miocene and younger fluvial-deltaic deposits associated with the major mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain rivers that now head in the western Appalachians (the Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, Potomac, James, and Roanoke) contain abundant clasts of fossiliferous chert and quartzite and other distinctive rock types derived from Paleozoic rocks of the western Appalachians. These distinctive clasts have not been reported in older Coastal Plain sediments.The ZFT and lithic detritus data indicate that the drainage divide for one or more east-flowing mid-Atlantic rivers migrated west into the western Appalachians, and the river(s) began transporting western Appalachian detritus to the Atlantic Coastal Plain, sometime between the late early Oligocene and middle early Miocene. By no later than late middle Miocene most if not all of the major rivers that now head west of the Blue Ridge were transporting western Appalachian detritus to the Coastal Plain. Prior to the drainage divide migrating into the western Appalachians, the ZFT data are consistent with the dominant source of Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments being detritus from the Piedmont and main part of the Blue Ridge, with possible input from distant volcanic sources.The ZFT data suggest that the rapid increase in the rate of siliciclastic sediment accumulation in middle Atlantic margin offshore basins that peaked in the middle Miocene and produced almost 30 percent of the total volume of post-rift siliciclastic sediments in the offshore basins began in the early Miocene when Atlantic river(s) gained access to the relatively easily eroded Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the western Appalachians.

  4. Mean surface fields of heat budget components over the warm pool in the Bay of Bengal during post-monsoon season

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, D.P.; Rao, B.P.

    Surface meteorological data collected onboard research vessels ORV Sagarkanya and Gaveshani during 1983-85 have been used in these studies. The analysis revealed that the Mean Sea surface temperature (SST was greater than 28 degrees C (designated...

  5. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  6. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film with a fine magnetic tip sensitive to a well-defined magnetization component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsuyama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a micrometer-sized magnetic tip integrated onto the write head of a hard disk drive for spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM in the modulated tip magnetization mode. Using SP-STM, we measured a well-defined in-plane spin-component of the tunneling current of the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film. The spin asymmetry of the NiFe film was about 1.3% within the bias voltage range of -3 to 1 V. We obtained the local spin component image of the sample surface, switching the magnetic field of the sample to reverse the sample magnetization during scanning. We also obtained a spin image of the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film evaporated on the recording medium of a hard disk drive.

  7. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  8. Component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.; Schofield, Peter; Seymour, W.A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A method for non-destructive testing of an industrial component to ascertain if it is a single crystal, and to find the crystal orientations of those parts of the component which are single crystals, involves irradiating the component with a monochromatic collimated neutron beam. Diffracted neutron beams are observed live by means of LiF/ZnS composite screen, an image intensifier and a television camera and screen. (author)

  9. Proposal of reference stress for a surface flaw on a cylindrical component from a review-with-comparison of the local metal loss assessment rule between API 579-1 and the p-M diagram method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Kenji; Konosu, Shinji; Ohno, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The Remaining Strength Factor (RSF) approach in Part 5 of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 is an assessment method for a cylindrical component with a local metal loss based on surface correction factors. Also, reference stress solutions that are applied in the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) method for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw are provided in Annex D using surface correction factors. In the recently-developed p-M diagram method, the reference stress solution for local metal loss evaluation in a cylindrical component is derived using bulging factors, which are similar but not identical to the surface correction factors used in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1. This paper describes the results of a comparative study among the RSF approach, reference stress solutions for the FAD method, and the p-M diagram method, in terms of plastic collapse evaluation of a cylindrical component. These results were compared with the FEA and experimental results to confirm how these estimated stresses could be validated. This study also involves recommended reference stress solutions for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw or a local metal loss, which should be adopted as fitness-for-service rules, and a discussion on the influence of the design margin of the construction code on allowable flaw depth. - Highlights: → We compared local metal loss assessment rule between API 579-1 and the p-M method. → Experiments and FEA verified the p-M estimate stress state around a flaw accurate. → API 579-1 for local metal loss may underestimate stress state for certain conditions. → Existing reference stresses for crack-like flaws may underestimate stress state too. → We propose the reference stress for a surface flaw subjected to pressure and moment.

  10. Proceedings of Japan-U.S. workshop P-196 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.N.; Yamashina, T.

    1993-03-01

    The Japan-US Workshop P-196 was successfully carried out in Kyushu University, Chikushi Campus, from November 17 to 19. The major concern was on the research and development required both for international Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Large Helical Device (LHD). Most of the discussion items was similar to that of the last workshop, e.g. PFC and PSI in Large Device, High Heat Flux Component, Laboratory Studies and Neutron Damage. The presentation number concerning High Heat Flux Component was largest. (J.P.N.)

  11. Effect of enzymatic desialylation of human serum amyloid P component on surface exposure of laser photo CIDNP (chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) - reactive histidine, tryptophan and tyrosine residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Siebert, H.-C; André, S.; Reuter, G.; Gabius, H.-J.; Kaptein, R.

    1995-01-01

    The human pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP) exhibits no microheterogeneity in its complex di-antennary glycan. To elucidate whether the removal of sialic acids from this glycoprotein might affect the accessibility of certain amino acid residues of the protein we employed the laser photo

  12. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  13. Surface Tension of Binary Mixtures Including Polar Components Modeled by the Density Gradient Theory Combined with the PC-SAFT Equation of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Planková, Barbora; Hrubý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 5 (2013), s. 792-812 ISSN 0195-928X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/11/P046; GA ČR GA101/09/1633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : chemical polarity * gradient theory * surface tension Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.623, year: 2013 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s10765-012-1207-z

  14. THE PAR (PEER ASSESSMENT RATING CALCULATION ON 2 DIMENSIONAL TEETH MODEL IMAGE FOR THE CENTERLINE COMPONENT AND TEETH SEGMENTATION ON THE OCCLUSAL SURFACE TEETH MODEL IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Arief Wisesa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The PAR (Peer Assessment Rating Index is used by orthodontists around the world to calculate the severeness of a malocclusion. A malocclusion is a dental disease where the teeth are not properly aligned. In Indonesia, the number of malocclusion is relatively high. The occurrence of orthodontics who can treat malocclusion is also low in Indonesia. In 2013, a research is done to create the telehealth monitoring system to provide better treatment of malocclusion in Indonesia. The research is further improved by using different Adaptive Multiple Thresholding methods to segmentate the image. The result will be used to calculate the Centerline component of the PAR Index. The result is a system that could calculate the PAR Index automatically and is compared to the results using manual method.

  15. Functional and structural changes in human erythrocyte surface after irradiation by UV waves of various wavelengths. Report 2. Adsorption of alcyan blue by external premembranous components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artsishevskaya, R.A.; Samoylova, K.A.

    1983-12-01

    A method developed previously by the authors for quantitative determination of external premembranous layers of cells was used to determine the extent to which shortwave ultraviolet (SUV) radiation influences the status of this structure in human erythrocytes. An erythrocyte suspension from freshly prepared donor blood stabilized by heparin or glugicir was prepared and irradiated as previously described. Manifestation of external premembranous layers in nonirradiated and irradiated erythrocytes was judged by the adsorption of a cationic phthalocyanine dye. Optimal staining conditions were found: concentration of cell suspension 10Y cells/ml, concentration of dye solution 0.005%, staining time 10 minutes. The influence of SUV on adsorption of erythrocytes results in a reliable decrease in dye sorption. Small and medium doses cause a reduction in sorption, while the highest dose used, 3720 J/m2, causes an increase of 19.5% in dye sorption, sometimes up to 40-50%. It is thought that structural perturbation of the erythrocyte surface may cause activation not only of ABO and Rh antigens, but also other antigens, as well as changes in a number of properties and functions of the cells which involve specialized cell surface systems such as receptors and enzyme groups. 24 references.

  16. Component Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND According to statistics of American Society of Plastic Surgeons, cosmetic rhinoplasty was the second most frequently performed cosmetic surgery. This study shares the experiences with component rhinoplasty. METHODS From 2004 to 2010, all patients underwent aesthetic nasal surgery were enrolled. The patients requiring only correction of septal deviation and those presenting with cleft lip nasal deformity were excluded. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia with ope...

  17. Hyperfrequency components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  18. Evaluation for activities of component of Cyclotron-Based Epithermal Neutron Source (C-BENS) and the surface of concrete wall in irradiation room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, M; Tanaka, H; Fujita, K; Mitsumoto, T; Ono, K; Maruhashi, A; Sakurai, Y

    2011-12-01

    The workers employed in BNCT must enter the irradiation room just after an irradiation under the condition of remaining activities. To reduce the radiation exposure for the workers, it is important to identify the origins of the activities. In this research, the activities induced on the concrete wall surface were evaluated using MCNP-5 and the measurement results of thermal neutron distribution. Furthermore, the radioisotopes produced in the moderator were identified with a High Purity Germanium detector. It was found that the activities of the wall were mainly caused by (46)Sc, (60)Co and (152)Eu, and that (24)Na and (56)Mn were mainly produced in the moderator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ESTUDIO DE SECUENCIAS DE TALLA LÍTICA A TRAVÉS DE MODELOS EXPERIMENTALES EN ROCAS SILÍCEAS DEL CENTRO DE ARGENTINA (Study of lithic carving sequences through experimental models in siliceous rocks of central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pautassi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available La evidencia arqueológica dejada por los grupos humanos que habitaron el centro de Argentina (provincias de Córdoba y San Luis, desde las primeras ocupaciones hasta momentos previos a la conquista española, pone de manifiesto que estas poblaciones desarrollaron diversas estrategias y adaptaciones a lo largo del tiempo. Una de estas estrategias es la producción de artefactos líticos. En este trabajo, se aborda el estudio de las secuencias de reducción de clastos y de manufactura de bifaces experimentales aplicando la metodología de análisis «no tipológico» para el estudio de los desechos de talla. Estas experiencias fueron realizadas como resultado del análisis de la tecnología lítica de sitios arqueológicos ubicados en la localidad arqueológica de Estancia La Suiza, San Luis. La finalidad de este trabajo es comparar ciertos atributos de las lascas producto de la experimentación para diferenciar tipos de actividades de talla. Realizar esta propuesta nos permite presentar en otra oportunidad la comparación con el registro arqueológico, e intentar dilucidar cómo fueron los diferentes momentos en el proceso de talla. ENGLISH: The archaeological evidence left by the humans who occupied the center of Argentina (comprising the present territory of the provinces of Cordoba and San Luis, Argentina, from the earliest settlements until the moments before the Spanish conquest, shows that these populations developed different strategies and adaptations to the environment over time. One such strategy is the production of lithic artifacts. This contribution specifically addresses the study of sequence of cores and reducing manufacturing bifaces by applying the methodology of the “non-typological” analysis to the study of debitage. These experiments were conducted as a result of the analysis of the lithic technology of archaeological sites located at the archaeological locality of Estancia La Suiza, in San Luis province. The purpose of

  20. Local pressure components and interfacial tensions of a liquid film in the vicinity of a solid surface with a nanometer-scale slit pore obtained by the perturbative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, K; Shibahara, M

    2015-03-07

    A classical molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for a liquid-solid interfacial system with a nanometer-scale slit pore in order to reveal local thermodynamic states: local pressure components and interfacial tensions of a liquid film in the vicinity of the slit. The simulation also examined the transition mechanism between the two states of the liquid film: (a) liquid film on the slit and (b) liquid film in the slit, based on the local thermodynamic quantities from a molecular point of view. An instantaneous expression of the local pressure components and interfacial tensions, which is based on a volume perturbation, was presented to investigate time-dependent phenomena in molecular dynamics simulations. The interactions between the particles were described by the 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential, and effects of the fluid-solid interaction intensity on the local pressure components and interfacial tensions of the fluid in the vicinity of the slit were examined in detail by the presented perturbative method. The results revealed that the local pressure components tangential to the solid surface in the vicinity of the 1st fluid layer from the solid surface are different in a two dimensional plane, and the difference became pronounced in the vicinity of the corner of the slit, for cases where the fluid-solid interaction intensities are relatively strong. The results for the local interfacial tensions of the fluid inside the slit suggested that the local interfacial tensions in the vicinity of the 2nd and 3rd layers of the solid atoms from the entrance of the slit act as a trigger for the transition between the two states under the influence of a varying fluid-solid interaction.

  1. CARACTERIZACIÓN TECNOMORFOLÓGICA DE DOS CONJUNTOS LÍTICOS DEL HOLOCENO MEDIO EN LA ESTEPA FUEGUINA: LA ARCILLOSA 2 Y RÍO CHICO 1 / Technomorphological characterization of two lithic assemblages of the middle Holocene in the Fuegian Steppe: La Arcillosa 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Salemme

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de ampliar el conocimiento de la tecnología lítica asignable al Holoceno medio, en este artículo se presenta un análisis comparativo de dos conjuntos recuperados en posición estratigráfica, ambos depositados en un paleoacantilado de la costa atlántica de Tierra del Fuego: La Arcillosa 2, fechado entre 3690 ± 70 y 4440 ± 60 ARCP, y Río Chico 1, datado entre 4476 ± 43 y 5828 ± 46 ARCP. Son concheros de limitada extensión y escasa concentración, que representan ocupaciones breves y contienen material lítico y faunístico; por debajo del conchero de La Arcillosa 2 se verificó un evento de inhumación. La información aquí presentada contempla aspectos tecnomorfológicos, buscando con ello caracterizar los distintos contextos en el marco de las evidencias conocidas a nivel regional para este período. Los resultados apuntan a obtener una caracterización general de los conjuntos líticos asignables a dicha cronología.   Palabras clave: cazadores-recolectores; concheros; tecnología lítica; Holoceno medio; estepa fueguina   Technomorphological characterization of two lithic assemblages of the middle Holocene in the Fuegian Steppe: La Arcillosa 2 and Río Chico 1   Abstract This contribution presents a comparative analysis between two lithic assemblages coming from stratigraphy, with the main goal of improving the knowledge of the lithic artifacts assigned to middle Holocene. Both assemblages come from small shellmiddens deposited in a paleocliff of the Atlantic coast; they are scarcely concentrated and represent short occupations where faunal (vertebrates and invertebrates and lithic materials are associated. In one of these sites (LA2, a human skeleton was buried below the shell midden. Data herein presented describes technomorphological aspects. This study looks for the characterization of different lithic assemblages at a regional level in the framework of the known evidence for the middle Holocene.   Key

  2. Variance Components

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R; McCulloch, Charles E

    1992-01-01

    WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIES. The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. ". . .Variance Components is an excellent book. It is organized and well written, and provides many references to a variety of topics. I recommend it to anyone with interest in linear models.".

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE THICKNESS OF THE COMPONENTS OF A DOUBLE-LAYER NICKEL-CHROMIUM COATING BY MAGNETIC PONDEROMOTIVE METHOD WITH UNILATERAL ACCESS TO THE CONTROLLED SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Gnutenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of thick-layer nickel (up to 700 μm and chromium (up to 200 μm coatings has been widely used to give the combustion chamber of a liquid-propellant rocket engine the required operational properties. The main parameter that determines the ability of a coating to fulfill its function is its thickness and uniformity of its distribution. The main problem of current nondestructive methods for determining the thickness of coatings under consideration is that they can be used only at the stage of production of rocket engineering products, when there is an access to the product from the side of the inner wall of the combustion chamber before and after applying a chromium coating to the nickel sublayer. However, when an already finished product arrives at subsequent stages of assembly to another enterprise, there is often a need of incoming control of the thicknesses of coatings from nickel and chromium. In this case, it is not possible to apply existing control techniques to a finished product, or the use of these techniques leads to unacceptable errors in the results of measurements. The goal of the research was to develop a technique for nondestructive determination of the thickness of each component of the two-layer nickel-chromium coating by the magnetic ponderomotive method under conditions of unilateral access to the finished product from the side of the chromium coating.A new technique for nondestructive determination of the thicknesses of nickel and chromium coatings of the double-layer structure on a finished product without a priori data on the properties or thicknesses of these coatings or a product in general is proposed using a magnetic ponderomotive method.This newly developed technique is implemented in the thickness gauge TEP-XN1 of double-layer nickel- chromium coatings, which is successfully used by enterprises of the rocket and space industry of the Russian Federation.

  4. Structural changes of humic acids from sinking organic matter and surface sediments investigated by advanced solid-state NMR: Insights into sources, preservation and molecularly uncharacterized components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingdong; Tremblay, Luc; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2011-12-01

    carbohydrates and fused-ring aromatics detected in the present study likely represented an important part of molecularly uncharacterized components (MUC).

  5. Tracking polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congener patterns in Newark Bay surface sediment using principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tarek; Su, Steave

    2013-09-15

    PCB congener data for Newark Bay surface sediments were analyzed using PCA and PMF, and relationships between the outcomes from these two techniques were explored. The PCA scores plot separated the Lower Passaic River Mouth samples from North Newark Bay, thus indicating dissimilarity. Although PCA was able to identify subareas in the Bay system with specific PCB congener patterns (e.g., higher chlorinated congeners in Elizabeth River), further conclusions reading potential PCB source profiles or potential upland source areas were not clear for the PCA scores plot. PMF identified five source factors, and explained the Bay sample congener profiles as a mix of these Factors. This PMF solution was equivalent to (1) defining an envelope that encompasses all samples on the PCA scores plot, (2) defining source factors that plot on that envelope, and (3) explaining the congener profile for each Bay sediment sample (inside the scores plot envelope) as a mix of factors. PMF analysis allowed identifying characteristic features in the source factor congener distributions that allowed tracking of source factors to shoreline areas where PCB inputs to the Bay may have originated. The combined analysis from PCA and PMF showed that direct discharges to the Bay are likely the dominant sources of PCBs to the sediment. Review of historical upland activities and regulatory files will be needed, in addition to the PCA and PMF analysis, to fully reconstruct the history of operations and PCB releases around the Newark Bay area that impacted the Bay sediment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Parameterization of the Satellite-Based Model (METRIC for the Estimation of Instantaneous Surface Energy Balance Components over a Drip-Irrigated Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carrasco-Benavides

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to parameterize the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration model for estimating instantaneous values of albedo (shortwave albedo (αi, net radiation (Rni and soil heat flux (Gi, sensible (Hi and latent heat (LEi over a drip-irrigated Merlot vineyard (location: 35°25′ LS; 71°32′ LW; 125 m.a.s. (l. The experiment was carried out in a plot of 4.25 ha, processing 15 Landsat images, which were acquired from 2006 to 2009. An automatic weather station was placed inside the experimental plot to measure αi, Rni and Gi. In the same tower an Eddy Covariance (EC system was mounted to measure Hi and LEi. Specific sub-models to estimate Gi, leaf area index (LAI and aerodynamic roughness length for momentum transfer (zom were calibrated for the Merlot vineyard as an improvement to the original METRIC model. Results indicated that LAI, zom and Gi were estimated using the calibrated functions with errors of 4%, 2% and 17%, while those were computed using the original functions with errors of 58%, 81%, and 5%, respectively. At the time of satellite overpass, comparisons between measured and estimated values indicated that METRIC overestimated αi in 21% and Rni in 11%. Also, METRIC using the calibrated functions overestimated Hi and LEi with errors of 16% and 17%, respectively while it using the original functions overestimated Hi and LEi with errors of 13% and 15%, respectively. Finally, LEi was estimated with root mean square error (RMSE between 43 and 60 W∙m−2 and mean absolute error (MAE between 35 and 48 W∙m−2 for both calibrated and original functions, respectively. These results suggested that biases observed for instantaneous pixel-by-pixel values of Rni, Gi and other intermediate components of the algorithm were presumably absorbed into the computation of sensible heat flux as a result of the internal self-calibration of METRIC.

  7. TECNOLOGÍA LÍTICA Y CONTEXTO GEOARQUEOLÓGICO DE LA OCUPACIÓN TEMPRANA DEL SITIO 2 DE LA LOCALIDAD ARQUEOLÓGICA AMALIA, PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES (ARGENTINA / Lithic technology and geoarchaeological context in the early occupation of the archaeological...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Federico Bonnat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se exponen los resultados del análisis tecno-morfológico del conjunto artefactual lítico procedente de una pequeña cueva que compone un sector del Sitio 2 de la localidad arqueológica Amalia (LAA. El sitio se encuentra en un pequeño cerro ubicado en un ambiente de transición entre las sierras de Tandilia y Llanura Interserrana Bonaerense. El objetivo central es interpretar y discutir el contexto arqueológico correspondiente a la ocupación humana basal datada en la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. Este sitio fue utilizado de modo efímero y presenta materiales arqueológicos producidos sobre rocas transportadas desde afloramientos cercanos del sitio, de la región de Tandilia, como otras rocas cuya procedencia corresponde a lugares distantes que superan los 500 km. Se analiza también el contexto geoarqueológico donde se hallaron los artefactos líticos, el cual responde a un cambio en la sedimentación vinculado a oscilaciones en las condiciones paleoclimáticas propias del inicio de ciclos más húmedos. Abstract In this paper, we present the results of techno-morphological analysis carried on lithic artifacts from the site 2 of Amalia archaeological locality (LAA. This site is nestled on a small hill located in a transitional environment between two geological provinces: the Tandilia range and the Pampas plains. Our main goal is interpreting and discussing the archaeological context of the oldest human occupation dated to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The place was used as an ephemeral camp and presents evidences of many archaeological artifacts produced on different rock types transported from different regions of the Tandilia hills, as well as other rocks from sources located at 500 km from the site. In regard to the geoarchaeological context, the analyses show a change in the sedimentation, which is related to the fluctuations of the climatic conditions and indicate wetter cycles in the beginning

  8. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  9. Cosmogenic He and Ne in chondrules from clastic matrix and a lithic clast of Murchison: No pre-irradiation by the early sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, My E. I.; Huber, Liliane; Metzler, Knut; Busemann, Henner; Luginbuehl, Stefanie M.; Meier, Matthias M. M.; Maden, Colin; Wieler, Rainer

    2017-09-01

    other regolithic meteorites for which large occasional excesses of cosmogenic noble gases have been reported. Considering pre-irradiation in a regolith (2π exposure), the pre-exposure times for these four chondrules are at least between some 4 and 40 Ma near the very surface of the parent body, and even longer if they were buried deeper in the regolith.

  10. TECNOLOGÍA LÍTICA Y USO DIFERENCIAL DEL ESPACIO EN ESTANCIA LA SUIZA, SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA / Lithic technology and differential use of space in Estancia La Suiza, San Luis, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Sario

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo pretende contribuir, desde la perspectiva de la organización de la tecnología, al conocimiento de las ocupaciones cazadoras-recolectoras que habitaron las inmediaciones de la Sierra de la Estanzuela, en la provincia de San Luis, Argentina. Se explican cómo fueron las secuencias de producción de herramientas en los sitios de la localidad arqueológica Estancia La Suiza, a partir del análisis de los materiales líticos recuperados en excavación y prospecciones sistemáticas. Las metodologías propuestas para abordar este estudio corresponden al análisis nodular y más específicamente a una combinación del análisis tipológico y no tipológico. Los resultados permiten interpretar que en esta localidad hubo un uso diferencial del espacio, particularmente en dos sitios que son Estancia La Suiza 2 y Estancia La Suiza 3. Abstract This paper aims at gaining insight, from the angle of technological organization, into the hunter-gatherer communities that dwelled in the surrounding areas of Sierras de la Estanzuela, in the province of San Luis, Argentina. The sequence of tool development in the archaeological site of Estancia La Suiza is described from analysis of lithic materials from excavation and systematic surveys. The methods adopted for conducting this study form part of Minimal Nodule analysis (MANA and more specifically a combination of typological and non-typological analysis. Results indicate that this site evidences a differential use of space, more specifically found in Estancia La Suiza 2 and Estancia La Suiza 3. 

  11. Interactions between titanium surfaces and biological components

    OpenAIRE

    Pegueroles Neyra, Marta

    2009-01-01

    El conocimiento de las interacciones entre célula/proteína/biomaterial es fundamental para la ingeniería de superficies debido a las numerosas aplicaciones biomédicas y biotecnológicas que se están desarrollando así como al éxito clínico que han alcanzado muchos implantes. La respuesta biológica final inducida por los implantes está fuertemente influenciada por las interacciones superficiales entre los componentes biológicos y el material sintético. Las propiedades físicas y químicas de la su...

  12. Use of total internal reflection Raman (TIR) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to analyze component separation in thin offset ink films after setting on coated paper surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivioja, Antti; Hartus, Timo; Vuorinen, Tapani; Gane, Patrick; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina

    2013-06-01

    The interactive behavior of ink constituents with porous substrates during and after the offset print process has an important effect on the quality of printed products. To help elucidate the distribution of ink components between the retained ink layer and the substrate, a variety of spectroscopic and microscopic analysis techniques have been developed. This paper describes for the first time the use of total internal reflection (TIR) Raman spectroscopy to analyze the penetration behavior of separated offset ink components (linseed oil, solid color pigment) in coated papers providing chemically intrinsic information rapidly, nondestructively, and with minimal sample preparation. In addition, the already widely applied technique of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was evaluated in parallel and compared. The results of the ATR-IR Raman clearly revealed an improvement in uppermost depth resolution compared with values previously published from other nondestructive techniques, and the method is shown to be capable of providing new knowledge of the setting of thin (0.25-2 μm) offset ink films, allowing the spreading and the penetration behavior on physically different paper coating surfaces to be studied.

  13. High thermal load component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1996-01-01

    A cooling tube made of a pure copper is connected to the inner portion of an armour (heat resistant member) made of an anisotropic carbon/carbon composite (CFC) material. The CFC material has a high heat conductivity in longitudinal direction of fibers and has low conductivity in perpendicular thereto. Fibers extending in the armour from a heat receiving surface just above the cooling tube are directly connected to the cooling tube. A portion of the fibers extending from a heat receiving surface other than portions not just above the cooling tube is directly bonded to the cooling tube. Remaining fibers are disposed so as to surround the cooling tube. The armour and the cooling tube are soldered using an active metal flux. With such procedures, high thermal load components for use in a thermonuclear reactor are formed, which are excellent in a heat removing characteristic and hardly causes defects such as crackings and peeling. (I.N.)

  14. Hot gas path component cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  15. Estimativas das componentes da radiação solar incidente em superfícies inclinadas baseadas na radiação global horizontal Estimates of solar radiation components on a tilted surface based on global horizontal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson P. Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas equações estatísticas de estimativas com agrupamentos de dados anuais e mensais e suas respectivas validações, para as componentes global, direta e difusa da radiação solar incidente em superfícies inclinadas a 12,85, 22,85 e 32,85º, com face para o Norte, nas condições climáticas e geográficas de Botucatu, SP. Empregou-se as frações das três componentes da radiação a do topo da atmosfera em correlação com o coeficiente de transmissividade atmosférica do plano horizontal, em uma base de dados de abril/1998 a dezembro/2007, cujas medidas nas três inclinações ocorreram em diferentes períodos, todavia concomitantes ao plano horizontal. O aumento do ângulo de inclinação da superfície propiciou aumento do espalhamento dos valores diários do índice de claridade para superfícies inclinada e horizontal. Nos agrupamentos anuais os piores desempenhos foram verificados na estimativa da radiação difusa diária para superfície inclinada, com valores máximos de espalhamentos iguais a 3,89 MJ m-2 d-1 (43,65% e ajustamento em torno de 62%. Na estimativa das componentes global e direta da radiação solar nos planos inclinados, podem ser aplicadas, tanto as equações anuais como as mensais, com desempenhos dependentes das condições climáticas.Statistics equations and validations with groups of annual and monthly data were evaluated for global, direct and diffuse solar radiation components incident on the tilted surface to 12.85, 22.85 and 32.85° with the face North, in climate and geographical conditions of Botucatu, SP. It was employed the fractions of three components of extraterrestrial radiation in correlation with the coefficient clearness index horizontal plane, in a database of April/1998 to December/2007, whose measures at different periods in three inclinations, however concomitant to the horizontal plane. Increasing the angle of the surface led to increased scattering of the daily values of

  16. Mars on Earth: Analog basaltic soils and particulates from Lonar Crater, India, include Deccan soil, shocked soil, reworked lithic and glassy ejecta, and both shocked and unshocked baked zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    "There is no perfect analog for Mars on Earth" [first line of Hipkin et al. (2013) Icarus, 261-267]. However, fieldwork and corresponding sample analyses from laboratory instrumentation (to proxy field instruments) has resulted in the finding of unique analog materials that suggest that detailed investigations of Lonar Crater, India would be beneficial to the goals of the Mars Program. These are briefly described below as Analog Processes, Materials, and Fieldwork. Analog Processes: The geologic history of Lonar Crater emulates localities on Mars with 1.) flood basaltic volcanism with interlayer development of 2.) baked zones or "boles" and 3.) soil formation. Of six flows, the lower three are aqueously altered by groundwater to produce a range of 4.) alteration products described below. The impact event 570 ka produced a range of 5.) impactites including shocked baked zones, shocked soils, and altered basalt shocked to a range of shock pressures [Kieffer et al., 1976]. Analog Materials: 65 Ma Deccan basalt contains augite and labradorite. Baked zones are higher in hematite and other iron oxides. Soil consists of calcite and organic matter. Several basalts with secondary alteration are listed here and these mirror alteration on Mars: hematite, chlorite, serpentine, zeolite, and palagonite, with varying combinations of these with primary igneous minerals. All of these materials (#1 through 4 above) are shocked to a range of shocked pressures to produce maskelynite, flowing plagioclase glass, vesiculated plagioclase glass, and complete impact melts. Shocked soils contain schlieren calcite amidst comminuted grains of augite, labradorite, and these glasses. Shocked baked zones unsurprisingly have a petrographic texture similar to hornfels, another product of contact metamorphism. Analog Fieldwork: The ejecta consists of two layers: 8 m of lithic breccia with unshocked and fractured basalts under a 1 m suevite consisting of all ranges of shock pressure described above

  17. Interactions between photodegradation components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Yadollah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09, very low P-value (2 = 0.999, adjusted R-squared (Radj2 = 0.998, predicted R-squared (Rpred2 = 0.994 and the adequate precision (95.94. Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method.

  18. Plasmonic components fabrication via nanoimprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A review report on nanoimprinted plasmonic components is given. The fabrication of different metal–dielectric geometries and nanostructured surfaces that support either propagating or localized surface plasmon modes is discussed. The main characteristics and advantages of the nanoimprint technology...... for the fabrication of various plasmonic structures are outlined. The discussion of plasmonic waveguiding structures focuses on planar waveguides based on metal strips embedded into a dielectric and on profiled metal surfaces. Nanoimprint-based fabrication of two-dimensional nanostructured plasmonic surfaces...... for enhanced transmission studies and sensor applications is also discussed. Throughout the report, the main fabrication schemes are described, as well as the challenges facing future manufacturing of plasmonic components for device applications....

  19. Further description of the petrology of the Topopah Spring member of the paintbrush tuff in drill holes UE25A-1 and USW-G1 and of the lithic-rich tuff in USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, P.I.; Caporuscio, F.A.; Bish, D.L.

    1981-11-01

    The Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the Lithic-rich tuff and two Tertiary volcanic units that occur in cores from drill holes UE25a-1 and USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Recently they have been suggested as possibly suitable for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive waste. Earlier petrologic characterization of these units is augmented here. The Topopah Spring Member (approximately 350 m thick) has two compound cooling units. The upper, thinner unit is densely welded to vitrophyric. The lower unit ranges from nonwelded to vitrophyric, and its nonwelded base is extensively zeolitized to clinoptilolite and mordenite. Heulandite occurs as fracture fill in the overlying vitrophyric part, but zeolites are absent above that vitrophyre. Here primary devitrification plus vapor-phase crystallization dominate the mineralogy. Vapor-phase effects are especially prominent between the two vitrophyres in both cores and include numerous large lithophysal cavities throughout most of this moderately to densely welded tuff. The Lithic-rich tuff extends from 1203 to 1506 m in the USW-G1 drill core. It is nonwelded to partly welded but is well indurated due to pervasive intergrowths of authigenic minerals. These phases are analcime, albite, alkali feldspar, sericite, chlorite and quartz. The transition from analcime to secondary albite corresponds to Iijima's zeolite Zone IV boundary, and this boundary appears in USW-G1 at 1326 m. However, analcime remains as a prominent phase through most of the Lithic-rich tuff. Further work is necessary to assess the suitability of either of these horizons for a waste repository. In the Topopah Spring Member, both mechanical and hydrologic properties of thick lithophysal zone must be studied, as well as the complete sequence of fracture fill. For both units, zeolite and clay mineral stabilities need to be investigated

  20. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....

  1. A case hardened component of titanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to a case hardened component of a titanium alloy, the component having a diffusion zone of a thickness of at least 50 μιτι, as calculated from the surface of the component, the diffusion zone comprising oxygen and carbon in solid solution and having a distinct phase...

  2. Surface contamination of the LIL optical components and their evolution after laser irradiation (1. series of experiments); La pollution surfacique de la LIL et son evolution sur un composant optique soumis a une irradiation laser (1. serie d'experiences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmier, St.; Garcia, S.; Lamaignere, L.; Manac' h, P.; Rullier, J.L.; Tovena, I

    2006-07-01

    In the context of the Laser Megajoule project, a study has been carried out to observe the correlation between particle contamination at the surface of the optical components and laser irradiation. The experiments consist in placing silica samples in the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) environment more precisely around the frequency conversion crystals and beam focusing area. Particle contamination at the surface samples is characterized and quantified. Then its behaviour under 1064 nm laser irradiation is observed. From the results of this first series of experiments, it appears that on irradiated silica samples treated with anti reflection coatings, surface particles or contamination can induce a surface defect. (author)

  3. ESTUDIOS PETROGRÁFICOS Y DE CORTES DELGADOS PARA LA IDENTIFICACIÓN DE MATERIAS PRIMAS LÍTICAS EN EL SECTOR NORTE DEL VALLE DE HUALFÍN (CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA (Petrographic and Thin Section Analysis for the Identification of Raw Lithic Materials in the Northern Area of the Hualfín Valley (Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Lynch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del siguiente trabajo se centra en el análisis macroscópico y en estudios petrográficos microscópicos realizados sobre materiales líticos arqueológicos recuperados de los sitios Villavil y Villavil 2 (Hualfín, Catamarca, Argentina. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron identificar las materias primas utilizadas en la manufactura de artefactos asociados a ocupaciones del periodo de Desarrollos Regionales/Inka (ca. 900 al 1400 d. C. y, en base a la información geológica de la zona, se realizaron observaciones acerca de su posible procedencia. Esto permitió discutir las hipótesis planteadas con anterioridad acerca de las prácticas relacionadas con su aprovisionamiento. ENGLISH: The main objective of this study is the macroscopic and microscopic petrographic analysis of lithic materials recovered from the sites of Villavil and Villavil 2 (Hualfín, Catamarca, Argentina. The results obtained from this analysis allowed for the identification of the raw materials used in the manufacture of artifacts associated with Regional Developments/Inka Period (ca. 900 to 1400 A.D. occupations. Based on regional geological information, we are able to posit the source locations of these raw materials. This allows for a discussion of previous hypotheses regarding practices of lithic procurement in the area.

  4. ACERCA DEL USO DE PULIDORES O LITOS NO MODIFICADOS EN LA PRODUCCIÓN CERÁMICA DEL SITIO VILLAVIL (PROVINCIA DE CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA (On the Use of Unmodified Lithic Polishers in the Ceramic Production of the Villavil Site (Province of Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Lynch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo tiene como objetivo profundizar el conocimiento sobre las actividades que se desarrollaron en el sitio Villavil, localizado al norte del valle de Hualfín, provincia de Catamarca, Argentina. Se analizaron las características tecnomorfológicas y funcionales de los conjuntos cerámicos, como así también del material lítico asociado a la producción cerámica de uno de los recintos que conforman el sitio (Recinto Rectangular 1. Los resultados obtenidos han permitido profundizar acerca de las distintas etapas de producción cerámica y de los elementos líticos que habrían participado en su proceso de manufactura. ENGLISH: The main objective of this paper is to improve the knowledge of the ancient activities in the site of Villavil, located in the northern Hualfin Valley, Catamarca, Argentina. The techno-morphology, functional ceramic characteristics, and lithic material associated to ceramic production from one structure forming the archaeological site (Rectangular Structure 1 has been analyzed. These results have helped to better understand the different stages of ceramic production and the lithic elements that would have been part of the manufacturing process.

  5. [Study of the effect of surface-active agents on living cells, used as component parts in microemulsions, based on their chemical structures and critical micelle-formative concentration (CMC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujhelyi, Zoltán; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Bácskay, Ildikó

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the cellular effects of two nonionic amphiphilic tenside groups and their mixtures on human Caco-2 cell monolayers as dependent upon their chemical structures and physicochemical properties. The first group of polyethylene glycol esters is represented by Polysorbates and Labrasol alone and in blends, while the members of the second group:Capryol 90, Capryol PGMC, Lauroglycol 90 and Lauroglycol FCC were used as propylene glycol esters. They are increasingly used in SMEDDS as recent tensides or co-tensides to increase the solubility of hydrophobic drug. Critical micelle concentration was measured by determination of surface tension. CMC refers to the ability of solubilization of surfactants. Cytotoxicity tests were performed on Caco-2 cell monolayers by MTT and LDH methods. Caco-2 cell monolayers are convenient and reliable in vitro models of the gastrointestinal tract. Paracellular permeability was examined with Lucifer yellow assays. The integrity of cell monolayers was observed by TransEpithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) measurements. Tight junction alterations effected by the surfactants were also characterized as evidence for paracellular pathway. Changes in sub cellular localization of the tight junction proteins: ZO-1, Claudin-land beta-cathenin, were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy.The results of cytotoxicity assays were in agreement and showed significant differences among the cytotoxic properties of surfactants in a concentration-dependent manner. Polysorbates 20, 60, 80 are the most toxic compounds. In the case of Labrasol, the degree of esterification and lack of sorbit component decreased cytotoxicity. If the hydrophyl head was changed from polyethylene glycol to propylene glycol, the main determined factor of cytotoxicity was the monoester content and the length of carbon chain. In our CMC experiments, we found that only Labrasol showed expressed cytotoxicity above the CMC. It refers to good

  6. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  7. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the

  8. Thermochemical nanolithography components, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedo, Elisa; Marder, Seth R.; de Heer, Walt A.; Szoskiewicz, Robert J.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Jones, Simon C.; Okada, Takashi; Wang, Debin; Curtis, Jennifer E.; Henderson, Clifford L.; Hua, Yueming

    2013-06-18

    Improved nanolithography components, systems, and methods are described herein. The systems and methods generally employ a resistively heated atomic force microscope tip to thermally induce a chemical change in a surface. In addition, certain polymeric compositions are also disclosed.

  9. Inspection of disposal canisters components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, J.

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the inspection techniques of disposal canister components. Manufacturing methods and a description of the defects related to different manufacturing methods are described briefly. The defect types form a basis for the design of non-destructive testing because the defect types, which occur in the inspected components, affect to choice of inspection methods. The canister components are to nodular cast iron insert, steel lid, lid screw, metal gasket, copper tube with integrated or separate bottom, and copper lid. The inspection of copper material is challenging due to the anisotropic properties of the material and local changes in the grain size of the copper material. The cast iron insert has some acoustical material property variation (attenuation, velocity changes, scattering properties), which make the ultrasonic inspection demanding from calibration point of view. Mainly three different methods are used for inspection. Ultrasonic testing technique is used for inspection of volume, eddy current technique, for copper components only, and visual testing technique are used for inspection of the surface and near surface area

  10. Radiation damage in components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Tomehachi

    1977-01-01

    The performance change of typical capacitors and resistors in electronic components by Co-60 γ-irradiation from the 1320 Ci source was examined in the range of 10 5 to 10 8 R. Specifically, the characteristic change during irradiation and the recovery after irradiation were continuously observed. The capacity change is +2.4% at maximum in ceramic and metallized paper capacitors, and -2.4% at maximum in mylar and paper capacitors. It is also +-0.4% at maximum in mica and polystyrene capacitors. Some of these capacitors showed the recovery of the capacity change, but the others did not. Dielectric loss varied by 15% at larger dose in some capacitors, and the recovery was not observed. While, the insulation resistance of the resistors of 10 15 Ω or more lowered to 10 13 Ω or less after 10 to 30 sec. irradiation, but recovered soon nearly to the initial values after irradiation was interrupted. The resistance change of carbon film resistors is about 0.2 to 2%, and recovered to the initial values in 100 hours after irradiation. The resistance change of composition resistors is large over the range of -13 to +35%, besides, no sign of recovery was seen. In carbon film resistors, the surface insulated type indicated far better results which are assumed to be caused by the selection of element materials and the forming of coating materials. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  12. Elastic and viscous bond components in the adhesion of colloidal particles and fibrillated streptococci to QCM-D crystal surfaces with different hydrophobicities using Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westen, Rebecca; Sharma, Prashant K; De Raedt, Hans; Vermue, Ijsbrand; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2017-09-27

    A quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) can measure molecular mass adsorption as well as register adhesion of colloidal particles. However, analysis of the QCM-D output to quantitatively analyze adhesion of (bio)colloids to obtain viscoelastic bond properties is still a subject of debate. Here, we analyze the QCM-D output to analyze the bond between two hydrophilic streptococcal strains 91 nm long and without fibrillar surface appendages and micron-sized hydrophobic polystyrene particles on QCM-D crystal surfaces with different hydrophobicities, using the Kelvin-Voigt model and the Maxwell model. A Poisson distribution was implemented in order to determine the possible virtues of including polydispersity when fitting model parameters to the data. The quality of the fits did not indicate whether the Kelvin-Voigt or the Maxwell model is preferable and only polydispersity in spring-constants improved the fit for polystyrene particles. The Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell models both yielded higher spring-constants for the bald streptococcus than for the fibrillated one. In both models, the drag coefficients increased for the bald streptococcus with the ratio of electron-donating over electron-accepting parameters of the crystal surface, while for the fibrillated strain the drag coefficient was similar on all crystal surfaces. Combined with the propensity of fibrillated streptococci to bind to the sensor crystal as a coupled-resonator above the crystal surface, this suggests that the drag experienced by resonator-coupled, hydrophilic particles is more influenced by the viscosity of the bulk water than by interfacial water adjacent to the crystal surface. Hydrophilic particles that lack a surface tether are mass-coupled just above the crystal surface and accordingly probe the drag due to the thin layer of interfacial water that is differently structured on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. Hydrophobic particles without a surface tether are also mass

  13. Surface and Interface Characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry...

  14. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  15. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  16. Principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bro, R.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is one of the most important and powerful methods in chemometrics as well as in a wealth of other areas. This paper provides a description of how to understand, use, and interpret principal component analysis. The paper focuses on the use of principal component analysis

  17. Integrated shaping and finishing of polymer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Winands, G.J.J.; Theelen, M.J.; Hovestad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of multiple functions in single components is pursued in order to manufacture at less cost smaller and smarter polymer micro devices. A method to achieve this is surface activation, i.e. fully or patterned changing of the surface properties. Examples are moulded interconnect devices with

  18. The influence of the chemical and physical component of the plasma etching of the surface of gallium arsenide on the etching rate in the chloride plasma of the combined discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimin, V. S.; Tominov, R. V.; Eskov, A. V.; Krasnoborodko, S. Y.; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, experimental studies were carried out on the formation of a microrelief on the surface of gallium arsenide substrates. The surface was modified by the method of plasma etching. Etching was carried out in a medium of chloride gas. In the work, the etching rates of the surface of gallium arsenide depend on the power of the inductively coupled plasma source. The etching rate of gallium arsenide was 28.2 nm / min, 24.9 nm / min, 27.8 nm / min, at inductively coupled plasma power values of 200 W, 400 W and 600 W. In the same work, the patterns of etching rate of gallium arsenide surface Taking into account the capacity of the capacitive plasma and the voltage of the shift. The etching rate of gallium arsenide was 516.7 nm / min, 559.5 nm / min, 603.3 nm / min, with capacitive plasma power values of 10 W, 35 W and 70 W, respectively. These results can be used to form a modified surface for the subsequent epitaxial growth of quantum dots based on gallium arsenide.

  19. Climatic Reliability of Electronic Devices and Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the climatic reliability issues of electronic devices and components with a focus on the metals/alloys usage on PCB a surface together with cleanliness issues, humidity interaction on PCB a surface, and PCB a design and device design aspects. The miniaturization...... of electronic systems and the explosive increase in their usage has increased the climatic reliability issues of electronics devices and components, especially when metal/alloy parts are exposed on the PCB assembly surface or embedded within the multilayer laminate. Problems are compounded by the fact...

  20. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  1. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  2. Chemical stabilization of graphite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistrika, Alexander A.; Lerner, Michael M.

    2018-04-03

    Embodiments of a device, or a component of a device, including a stabilized graphite surface, methods of stabilizing graphite surfaces, and uses for the devices or components are disclosed. The device or component includes a surface comprising graphite, and a plurality of haloaryl ions and/or haloalkyl ions bound to at least a portion of the graphite. The ions may be perhaloaryl ions and/or perhaloalkyl ions. In certain embodiments, the ions are perfluorobenzenesulfonate anions. Embodiments of the device or component including stabilized graphite surfaces may maintain a steady-state oxidation or reduction surface current density after being exposed to continuous oxidation conditions for a period of at least 1-100 hours. The device or component is prepared by exposing a graphite-containing surface to an acidic aqueous solution of the ions under oxidizing conditions. The device or component can be exposed in situ to the solution.

  3. Hot gas path component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward

    2017-09-12

    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  4. CORE COMPONENT POT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTIN RL; OMBERG RP

    1975-12-19

    The core component pot is an open top vessel used to hold both new and irradiated core components for storage in the IDS and for holding the components submerged in sodium while being trasported inside CLEM. The top of the CCP is equipped with a grapple lip which is engaged by the hoisting grapples. Heat for maintaining the preheat of new components and dissipation of decay heat of irradiated fuel assemblies is conducted between the wall of the pot and the surrounding environment by thermal radiation and convection.

  5. Mechanical component screening for scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J. L.; Quinn, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The critical mechanical components of the scan mirror mechanism are described and their evaluation and screening procedures are discussed. A bumper/damper unit is used in the design to reverse motion of the mirror and effect scan and retrace cycles. A wear evaluation was conducted on the bumper impact surfaces that established nylon 6-10 as an acceptable material. The elastomeric dampers were subjected to thermal vacuum tests for condensables and outgassing as well as parametric life tests. The flexure pivots that support the mirror were tested to establish a curve of stress plotted as a function of cycles to failure for rotational operation. The pivots met the life requirement of 150,000,000 cycles at a + or - 2.9 deg amplitude during fatigue testing. Screening procedures were established for dampers and flexure pivots to obtain flight quality components.

  6. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...... of the components. It covers everything from biocompatible surfaces of IR absorbent or reflective surfaces to surfaces with specific properties within low friction, hardness, corrosion, colors, etc. The book includes more than 400 pages detailing virtually all analysis methods for examining at surfaces....

  7. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representi...

  8. Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-07-02

    Selectivity, that is, to produce one molecule out of many other thermodynamically feasible product molecules, is the key concept to develop 'clean manufacturing' processes that do not produce byproducts (green chemistry). Small differences in potential energy barriers for elementary reaction steps control which reaction channel is more likely to yield the desired product molecule (selectivity), instead of the overall activation energy for the reaction that controls turnover rates (activity). Recent studies have demonstrated the atomic- or molecular-level tailoring of parameters such as the surface structures of active sites that give rise to nanoparticle size and shape dependence of turnover rates and reaction selectivities. Here, we highlight seven molecular components that influence reaction selectivities. These include: surface structure, adsorbate-induced restructuring, adsorbate mobility, reaction intermediates, surface composition, charge transport, and oxidation states for model metal single crystal and colloid nanoparticle catalysts. We show examples of their functioning and describe in-situ instruments that permit us to investigate their roles in surface reactions.

  9. Development of an Operational Calibration Methodology for the Landsat Thermal Data Archive and Initial Testing of the Atmospheric Compensation Component of a Land Surface Temperature (LST Product from the Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cook

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Landsat program has been producing an archive of thermal imagery that spans the globe and covers 30 years of the thermal history of the planet at human scales (60–120 m. Most of that archive’s absolute radiometric calibration has been fixed through vicarious calibration techniques. These calibration ties to trusted values have often taken a year or more to gather sufficient data and, in some cases, it has been over a decade before calibration certainty has been established. With temperature being such a critical factor for all living systems and the ongoing concern over the impacts of climate change, NASA and the United States Geological Survey (USGS are leading efforts to provide timely and accurate temperature data from the Landsat thermal data archive. This paper discusses two closely related advances that are critical steps toward providing timely and reliable temperature image maps from Landsat. The first advance involves the development and testing of an autonomous procedure for gathering and performing initial screening of large amounts of vicarious calibration data. The second advance discussed in this paper is the per-pixel atmospheric compensation of the data to permit calculation of the emitted surface radiance (using ancillary sources of emissivity data and the corresponding land surface temperature (LST.

  10. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  11. Space laser components reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Space environment presents unique challenges for operation of optics and optical coatings as part of laser systems. Besides testing components and sub-systems on the component qualification level, the extended testing of complete laser systems like flight modules under acceptance level conditions is an effective way to determine the reliability and long term stability, mitigating the mission risk. Hence, optics as part of high power space laser systems have to be extensively tested in view...

  12. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  13. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Impact test of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  15. Fatigue Reliability of Casted Wind Turbine Components Due to Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    of component are considered and the surface and sub-surface defects categorized. Furthermore, a model to estimate the probability of failure by fatigue due to the defects is proposed. This model is used to estimate the failure location of component and it is compared to models of defect distributions...

  16. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  17. Hot gas path component having near wall cooling features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2017-11-28

    A method for providing micro-channels in a hot gas path component includes forming a first micro-channel in an exterior surface of a substrate of the hot gas path component. A second micro-channel is formed in the exterior surface of the hot gas path component such that it is separated from the first micro-channel by a surface gap having a first width. The method also includes disposing a braze sheet onto the exterior surface of the hot gas path component such that the braze sheet covers at least of portion of the first and second micro-channels, and heating the braze sheet to bond it to at least a portion of the exterior surface of the hot gas path component.

  18. Encyclopedia of Software Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lloyd V. (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

  19. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  20. Cosmic ray charged component variations at sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charakhchyan, T. N.; Okhlopkov, V. P.; Krasotkin, A. F.; Svirzhevskij, N. S.; Charakhchyan, L. A.

    Results of measuring the cosmic ray charged component using devices installed at the Olen'ya station (the Murmansk region), in Dolgoprudny town (the Moscow region), and in Mirny (Antarctic continent) are investigated. The analysis has shown that apart from solar origin and seasonal variations there are annual variations of cosmic ray charged component. By results of comparing annual variations of the charged component on the Earth surface to data of neutron and muon components a conclusion is made that annual variations of the charge component on the Earth surface appear to be a manifestation of cosmic ray zonal modulation and are not connected with variations of galactic cosmic rays.

  1. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined......This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  2. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor

    2017-10-17

    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  3. INO Project components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Construction of an underground laboratory and surface facilities near Pottipuram village in Theni district of Tamil Nadu. Construction of the massive 50 kton magnetised Iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study properties of neutrinos.

  4. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    of the components. It covers everything from biocompatible surfaces of IR absorbent or reflective surfaces to surfaces with specific properties within low friction, hardness, corrosion, colors, etc. The book includes more than 400 pages detailing virtually all analysis methods for examining at surfaces.......This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...... it possible to examine surfaces all the way down to their atomic layers and also to perform realistic durability tests. The many surface techniques are described in clear and simple language, and the book is richly illustrated with detailed drawings and photos. It also deals with replacing environmentally...

  5. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  6. Component Reengineering Workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2004-01-01

    In mature domains, a number of competing product lines may emerge, and from the point of view of customers of such product lines, reengineering and reuse of assets across product lines from different vendors becomes important. To address this issue we present a low-cost approach, component...... reengineering workshops, for assessing reengineering costs of reusing components between different product lines. The approach works on the level of software architectures, and relies critically on input from various (technical) stakeholders. It has been validated through case studies that are also presented...

  7. Identification and characterization of new Leishmania promastigote surface antigens, LaPSA-38S and LiPSA-50S, as major immunodominant excreted/secreted components of L. amazonensis and L. infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel; Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Veyrier, Renaud; Cibrelus, Prisca; Cavaleyra, Mireille; Maquaire, Sarah; Moreaux, Jérôme; Lemesre, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that sera from dogs vaccinated with excreted/secreted antigens (ESA) of Leishmania infantum promastigotes (LiESAp) mainly recognized an immunodominant antigen of 54 kDa. An anti-LiESAp-specific IgG2 humoral response was observed and associated to Th1-type response in vaccinated dogs. This response was highly correlated with a long-lasting and strong LiESAp-vaccine protection toward L. infantum experimental infection. In addition, it was also shown that dogs from the vaccinated group developed a selective IgG2 response against an immunodominant antigen of 45 kDa of Leishmania amazonensis ESA promastigotes (LaESAp). In order to identify and characterize these immunodominant antigens, a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb F5) was produced by immunization against LaESAp. It was found to recognize the major antigenic targets of both LaESAp and LiESAp. Analysis with mAb F5 of L. amazonensis amastigote and promastigote cDNA expression libraries enabled the identification of clones encoding proteins with significant structural homology to the promastigote surface antigens named PSA-2/gp-46. Among them, one clone presented a full-length cDNA and encoded a novel L. amazonensis protein of 38.6 kDa calculated molecular mass (LaPSA-38S) sharing an amino acid sequence consistent with that of the PSA polymorphic family and a N-terminal signal peptide, characteristic of a secreted protein. We then screened a L. infantum promastigote DNA cosmid library using a cDNA probe derived from the LaPSA-38S gene and identified a full-length clone of a novel excreted/secreted protein of L. infantum with a calculated molecular mass of 49.2 kDa and named LiPSA-50S. The fact that a significant immunological reactivity was observed against PSA, suggests that these newly identified proteins could have an important immunoregulatory influence on the immune response. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that (i) these proteins were naturally excreted/secreted by viable

  8. conformational complexity of complement component C3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The complement system is an important part of the immune system and critical for the elimination of pathogens. In mammals the complement system consists of an intricate set of about 35 soluble and cell-surface plasma proteins. Central to complement is component C3, a large protein of 1,641 residues.

  9. Modelling, design and realization of microfluidic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decades, miniaturization of electrical components and systems has assumed large proportions. The reason for these developments is the application of etch and deposition techniques in the IC-production (integrated circuit), which allows a large amount of functionality per surface

  10. Spain's nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  11. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  12. Grey component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A.; Derks, E.P.P.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Smilde, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of principal component analysis (PCA) models of complex biological or chemical data can be cumbersome because in PCA the decomposition is performed without any knowledge of the system at hand. Prior information of the system is not used to improve the interpretation. In this paper

  13. Molecular Models Candy Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William F.

    2007-01-01

    An explanation of various principles of chemistry in a paper by Fanny Ennever by the use of candy is described. The paper explains components of sucrose and the invert sugar that results from the hydrolysis of sucrose and will help students in determining whether the products are indeed hydrates of carbon.

  14. Component lifetime modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.F.; Verweij, J.F.; Brombacher, A.C.; Brombacher, A.C.; Lunenborg, M.M.; Lunenborg, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    There are two approaches to component lifetime modelling. The first one uses a reliability prediction method as described in the (military) handbooks with the appropriate models and parameters. The advantages are: (a) It takes into account all possible failure mechanisms. (b) It is easy to use. The

  15. Euler principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  16. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  17. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Developing a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  19. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...... in a Matlab toolbox, is demonstrated for non-negative decompositions and compared with non-negative matrix factorization.......In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  20. Adaptable component frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki; Simonsen, Bo

    2009-01-01

    for vector, which is undoubtedly the most used container of the C++ standard library. In particular, we specify the details of a vector implementation that is safe with respect to referential integrity and strong exception safety. Additionally, we report the experiences and lessons learnt from......The CPH STL is a special edition of the STL, the containers and algorithms part of the C++ standard library. The specification of the generic components of the STL is given in the C++ standard. Any implementation of the STL, e.g. the one that ships with your standard-compliant C++ compiler, should...... the development of component frameworks which we hope to be of benefit to persons engaged in the design and implementation of generic software libraries....

  1. Surface contamination of the LIL optical components and their evolution after laser irradiation (2.series of experiments); La pollution surfacique de la LIL et son evolution sur un composant optique soumis a une irradiation laser (2.serie d'experiences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmier, S.; Garcia, S.; Lamaignere, L.; Manac' h, P.; Rullier, J.L.; Tovena, I. [Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, Dept. des Lasers de Puissance, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the context of the Laser Megajoule project (LMJ), a study has been carried out to understand the effect of particle contamination at the surface of optical components. With the object to achieve this purpose, samples were placed as particles collectors in the LMJ prototype, i.e. the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL). We report more specifically particle contamination in the LIL amplifiers section. Particles densities that we measured show that contamination is independent of the sample location in the amplifiers section and also independent of their surface quality. Chemical analyses of collected particles show a majority of organic compounds. Laser irradiations of the silica samples at various fluence levels between 2 and 15 J/cm{sup 2} at a wavelength o64 nm and a pulse duration of 6.5 ns reveal a weak laser cleaning effect. An irreversible surface modification was sometimes observed on silica samples with antireflection coating. However, this effect does not grow after several laser irradiations at 15 J/cm{sup 2}. (authors)

  2. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  3. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  4. Analysis Components Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    ssification a the marg ford and h ures such ge of this l s integratio PREVIOUS WRI ities. For in annotating ame meanin ck by valid rest. These ansion...ent to rder. order. rder el has d to the val, and learning , which ibrary is oo! and feature ovides a Analys 4 4 1 is Component THIS DOCU... learn m tor Machin sed to give to re-rank be execut he model w s the follow ed by any the trainin ciated with ation of the the docume all terms

  5. Impedance of accelerator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.

    1996-05-01

    As demands for high luminosity and low emittance particle beams increase, an understanding of the electromagnetic interaction of these beams with their vacuum chamber environment becomes more important in order to maintain the quality of the beam. This interaction is described in terms of the wake field in time domain, and the beam impedance in frequency domain. These concepts are introduced, and related quantities such as the loss factor are presented. The broadband Q = 1 resonator impedance model is discussed. Perturbation and coaxial wire methods of measurement of real components are reviewed

  6. Automotive component failures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available [ However\\ in the presence of a stress concentration the ultimate tensile stress can be exceeded before the ultimate shear stress is reached\\ resulting in a tensile failure 0 [ 2[6[ Metallo`raphy and Ener`y Dispersive Spectroscopy "EDS# A microspecimen...\\ Vol[ 4\\ No[ 1\\ pp[ 018 030\\ 0887 0887 Elsevier Science Ltd[ All rights reserved\\ Pergamon Printed in Great Britain 0249 5296:87 ,08[99 9[99 PII] S0249 5296"87#99909 6 AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT FAILURES A[ M[ HEYES Advanced Engineering and Testing...

  7. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    .g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... acting as carcinogens) to health-protective effects (e.g., flavonoids ameliorating detrimental effects of mitochondrial oxidative stress). In particular, secondary plant metabolites along with vitamins, specific types of macronutrients and live bacteria (probiotics) as well as substances promoting...

  8. Mesh Retrieval by Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Ayellet; Zuckerberger, Emanuel

    This paper examines the application of the human vision theories of Marr and Biederman to the retrieval of three-dimensional objects. The key idea is to represent an object by an attributed graph that consists of the object's meaningful components as nodes, where each node is fit to a basic shape. A system that realizes this approach was built and tested on a database of about 400 objects and achieves promising results. It is shown that this representation of 3D objects is very compact. Moreover, it gives rise to a retrieval algorithm that is invariant to non-rigid transformations and does not require normalization.

  9. Prognostics for Microgrid Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Abhinav

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

  10. Chondrites and their Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.

    2003-12-01

    What are Chondrites?Chondrites are meteorites that provide the best% clues to the origin of the solar system. They are the oldest known rocks - their components formed during the birth of the solar system ca. 4,567 Ma - and their abundances of nonvolatile elements are close to those in the solar photosphere. Chondrites are broadly ultramafic in composition, consisting largely of iron, magnesium, silicon, and oxygen. The most abundant constituents of chondrites are chondrules, which are igneous particles that crystallized rapidly in minutes to hours. They are composed largely of olivine and pyroxene, commonly contain metallic Fe,Ni and are 0.01-10 mm in size. Some chondrules are rounded as they were once entirely molten but many are irregular in shape because they were only partly melted or because they accreted other particles as they solidified. Chondrites themselves were never molten. The definition of a chondrite has expanded recently with the discovery in Antarctica and the Sahara Desert of extraordinary meteorites with chondrules 10-100 μm in size, and chondrites so rich in metallic Fe,Ni that they were initially classified as iron meteorites with silicate inclusions. Thus, in meteoritics, as in other fields of planetary science, new discoveries sometimes require definitions to be modified.Chondrites are so diverse in their mineralogical and textural characteristics that it is not possible to describe a typical chondrite. We show one with diversely textured chondrules including prominent, aesthetically pleasing, rounded chondrules (Figure 1(a)), and another with more uniformly textured chondrules (Figure 1(b)). Owing to the high abundance of rounded or droplet chondrules in the abundant, so-called "ordinary" chondrites ( Figure 1(a)), studies of the origin of chondrules have commonly been based on these chondrites. (7K)Figure 1. Maps showing magnesium concentrations in two chondrites: (a) PCA91082, a CR2 carbonaceous chondrite, and (b) Tieschitz, an H/L3

  11. Component Based Testing with ioco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bijl, H.M.; Rensink, Arend; Tretmans, G.J.

    Component based testing concerns the integration of components which have already been tested separately. We show that, with certain restrictions, the ioco-test theory for conformance testing is suitable for component based testing, in the sense that the integration of fully conformant components is

  12. Component Composition Using Feature Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Klose, Karl; Mitschke, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    In general, components provide and require services and two components are bound if the first component provides a service required by the second component. However, certain variability in services - w.r.t. how and which functionality is provided or required - cannot be described using standard i...

  13. Component failure data handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentillon, C.D.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data

  14. Impedance and component heating

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Mounet, N; Pieloni, T; Salvant, B

    2015-01-01

    The impedance is a complex function of frequency, which represents, for the plane under consideration (longitudinal, horizontal or vertical), the force integrated over the length of an element, from a “source” to a “test” wave, normalized by their charges. In general, the impedance in a given plane is a nonlinear function of the test and source transverse coordinates, but it is most of the time sufficient to consider only the first few linear terms. Impedances can influence the motion of trailing particles, in the longitudinal and in one or both transverse directions, leading to energy loss, beam instabilities, or producing undesirable secondary effects such as excessive heating of sensitive components at or near the chamber wall, called beam-induced RF heating. The LHC performance limitations linked to impedances encountered during the 2010-2012 run are reviewed and the currently expected situation during the HL-LHC era is discussed.

  15. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  16. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem......Low-power base stations such as e.g. Femto-cells are one of the candidates for high data rate provisioning in local areas, such as residences, apartment complexes, business offices and outdoor hotspot scenarios. Unfortunately, the benefits are not without new challenges in terms of interference...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  17. Solar bowl component efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hair, E.A.; Green, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory has published two volumes on the economic evaluation of various proposed configurations and plant sizes for the four solar thermal technologies. These are the latest in a series of publications sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) on plant and operational costs and are more complete in that they include calculations of electrical output. These latest Battelle volumes use the 1976 solar data from Barstow, Calif., and by calculating or estimating the energy conversion efficiency of each element in the process from sun to electricity predict the output and cost of electricity from different plant sizes for each of the four technologies. In this paper a comparison is presented of the component efficiencies developed by Battelle and those of the solar bowl at Crosbyton, Tex

  18. Optical communication components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay

    2004-03-01

    We review and contrast key technologies developed to address the optical components market for communication applications. We first review the component requirements from a network perspective. We then look at different material systems, compare their properties, and describe the functions achieved to date in each of them. The material systems reviewed include silica fiber, silica on silicon, silicon on insulator, silicon oxynitride, sol-gels, polymers, thin-film dielectrics, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, magneto-optic materials, and birefringent crystals. We then describe the most commonly used classes of optical device technology and present their pros and cons as well as the functions achieved to date in each of them. The technologies reviewed include passive, actuation, and active technologies. The passive technologies described include fused fibers, dispersion-compensating fiber, beam steering, Bragg gratings, diffraction gratings, holographic elements, thin-film filters, photonic crystals, microrings, and birefringent elements. The actuation technologies include thermo-optics, electro-optics, acousto-optics, magneto-optics, electroabsorption, liquid crystals, total internal reflection technologies, and mechanical actuation. The active technologies include heterostructures, quantum wells, rare-earth doping, dye doping, Raman amplification, and semiconductor amplification. We also investigate the use of different material systems and device technologies to achieve building-block functions, including lasers, amplifiers, detectors, modulators, polarization controllers, couplers, filters, switches, attenuators, isolators, circulators, wavelength converters, chromatic dispersion compensators, and polarization mode dispersion compensators. Some of the technologies presented are well established in the industry and in some cases have reached the commodity stage, others have recently become ready for commercial introduction, while some others

  19. Artificial TE-mode surface waves at metal surfaces mimicking surface plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhijun; Zuo, Xiaoliu; Guan, Tengpeng; Chen, Wei

    2014-02-24

    Manipulation of light in subwavelength scale can be realized with metallic nanostructures for TM-polarization components due to excitation of surface plasmons. TE-polarization components of light are usually excluded in subwavelength metal structures for mesoscopic optical interactions. Here we show that, by introducing very thin high index dielectric layers on structured metal surfaces, pseudo surface polarization currents can be induced near metal surfaces, which bring to excitation of artificial TE-mode surface waves at the composite meta-surfaces. This provides us a way to manipulate TE-polarized light in subwavelength scale. Typical properties of the artificial surface waves are further demonstrate for their excitation, propagation, optical transmission, and enhancement and resonances of the localized fields, mimicking those of surface plasmon waves.

  20. Calumenin interacts with serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Jacobsen, Christian; Honoré, Bent

    2000-01-01

    with calumenin in the presence of Ca(2+). Amino acid sequencing identified this protein as serum amyloid P component (SAP). Furthermore, we verified and characterized the calumenin-SAP interaction by the surface plasmon resonance technique. The findings indicate that calumenin may participate...... in the immunological defense system and could be involved in the pathological process of amyloidosis that leads to formation of amyloid deposits seen in different types of tissues. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-14...

  1. Automated Induction Thermography of Generator Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldammer, M.; Mooshofer, H.; Rothenfusser, M.; Bass, J.; Vrana, J.

    2010-02-01

    Using Active Thermography defects such as cracks can be detected fast and reliably. Choosing from a wide range of excitation techniques the method can be adapted to a number of tasks in non-destructive evaluation. Induction thermography is ideally suited for testing metallic components for cracks at or close to the surface. In power generation a number of components are subjected to high loads and stresses—therefore defect detection is crucial for a safe operation of the engines. Apart from combustion turbines this also applies to generators: At regular inspection intervals even small cracks have to be detected to avoid crack growth and consequently failure of the component. As an imaging technique thermography allows for a fast 100% testing of the complete surface of all relevant parts. An automated setup increases the cost effectiveness of induction thermography significantly. Time needed to test a single part is reduced, the number of tested parts per shift is increased, and cost for testing is reduced significantly. In addition, automation guarantees a reliable testing procedure which detects all critical defects. We present how non-destructive testing can be automated using as an example an industrial application at the Siemens sector Energy, and a new induction thermography setup for generator components.

  2. Control component structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a control component structure comprising: a spider having a plurality of arms, at least one spider bore formed in said plurality of arms, said spider bore including an enlarged recess and a small recess with an upright truncated conical section forming a transition from the enlarged recess to the small recess, and a burnable poison rod including a tube terminating in transverse end, a plug with a chamfered end that leads into a cylindrical portion, said cylindrical portion of the plug snugly fitting within the tube and terminating in a radially protruding shoulder which engages the transverse end of the tube to which it is welded, and a stem protruding in the longitudinal direction from the central portion of the shoulder having a longitudinal stem bore extending through about half of the length of the stem, at least part of the stem which defines the stem bore being fixed within the truncated conical section, the enlarged recess and the small recess of the spider by outward deformation of that part of the stem in order to releasably attach the rod to the spider, said stem being adapted to substantially reshape itself by movement of the rod in a longitudinal direction with respect to the spider bore, while maintaining the structural integrity of the poison rod and maintaining the structural integrity of the spider

  3. Magnesium for Crashworthy Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, T.; Easton, M.; Schmidt, R.

    Most applications of magnesium in automobiles are for nonstructural components. However, the light weight properties of magnesium make it attractive in structural applications where energy absorption in a crash is critical. Because most deformation in a crash occurs as bending rather than simple tension or compression, the advantages of magnesium are greater than anticipated simply from tensile strength to weight ratios. The increased thickness possible with magnesium strongly influences bending behavior and theoretical calculations suggest almost an order of magnitude greater energy absorption with magnesium compared to the same weight of steel. The strain rate sensitivity of steel is of concern for energy absorption. Mild steels exhibit a distinct yield point which increases with strain rate. At strain rates typical of vehicle impact, this can result in strain localization and poor energy absorption. Magnesium alloys with relatively low aluminum contents exhibit strain rate sensitivity, however, this is manifest as an increase in work hardening and tensile / yield ratio. This behavior suggests that the performance of magnesium alloys in terms of energy absorption actually improves at high strain rates.

  4. Aurignacian in Moravia. New geochronological, lithic and settlement data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demidenko, Y. E.; Škrdla, Petr; Nejman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 108, prosinec (2017), s. 5-38 ISSN 0031-0506 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800010801; GA ČR GA15-19170S Keywords : Central Europe * Moravia * in situ new sites * Middle and Evolved Aurignacian * settlement pattern peculiarities Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  5. Shikarpur lithic assemblage: New questions regarding Rohri chert blade production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusmita Gadekar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent excavations at Shikarpur, a fortified Harappan site situated near the Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat, Western India, brought to light a large collection of Rohri chert blades.  Chert found in the Rohri hill near Sukkur in Sindh, central Pakistan is distinctive and easily identifiable. The wide distribution of standardized Rohri chert blades is often regarded as a testimony to the Harappan efficiency in long distance trade and craft production.  The possibility of localized production of Rohri chert blades in Gujarat is often negated due to the constraints of raw-material availability.  The absence of Rohri chert working debitage from most of the sites in Gujarat, has lent support to this position. The Shikarpur Rohri blade assemblage however incorporates more than 650 blades, a large fluted blade-core and a few Rohri chert debitage.  These have led the excavators to suggest that some of the blades found at Shikarpur were locally produced from raw materials brought to the site from the Rohri hills.  Typo-technological features of the Rohri chert assemblage from Shikarpur have been analysed in this background. These along with metrical features of the assemblage are compared with Rohri chert assemblages from other major Harappan sites in the region to check the validity of the proposed ‘limited local production’.

  6. Surface engineering and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguero, A.

    2007-01-01

    Surface engineering addresses the modification of the microstructure and/or composition of the surface of components by mechanical, physical or chemical methods that may imply adding a material in order to change the surface properties of said components. One of its most important consequences is the significant increase of the useful life of a variety of components in a large number of industrial applications. Moreover, it contributes to energy savings by increasing efficiencies as it allows higher combustion temperatures, by allowing the use of lighter components and by significant friction reduction. In this paper, surface engineering is introduced, as well as its different modalities, examples of industrial applications and positive and negative environmental impacts. (Author) 29 refs

  7. Towards Prognostics for Electronics Components

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electronics components have an increasingly critical role in avionics systems and in the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is...

  8. Software Components for Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Muthu; Nair, T. R. Gopalakrsihnan; Selvarani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Service-oriented computing has emerged as the new area to address software as a service. This paper proposes a model for component based development for service-oriented systems and have created best practice guidelines on software component design.

  9. Prestressing Shock Resistant Mechanical Components and Mechanisms Made from Hard, Superelastic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and an apparatus confer full superelastic properties to the active surface of a mechanical component constructed of a superelastic material prior to service. A compressive load is applied to the active surface of the mechanical component followed by removing the compressive load from the active surface whereby substantially all load strain is recoverable after applying and removing of subsequent compressive loads.

  10. Automated laser fabrication of cemented carbide components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C. P.; Khajepour, A.

    2008-07-01

    Automated Laser Fabrication (ALFa) is one of the most rapidly growing rapid-manufacturing technologies. It is similar to laser cladding at process level with different end applications. In general, laser cladding technique is used to deposit materials on the substrate either to improve the surface properties or to refurbish the worn-out parts, while ALFa is capable of near net shaping the components by layer-by-layer deposition of the material directly from CAD model. This manufacturing method is very attractive for low volume manufacturing of hard materials, as near net shaping minimizes machining of hard material and subsequently brings significant savings in time and costly material. To date, many researchers have used this technology to fabricate components using various alloy steels, nickel-based alloys and cobalt-based alloys. In the present study, the work is extended to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) composites. A set of comprehensive experiments was carried out to study the effect of processing parameters during multi-layer fabrication. The process parameters were optimized for the component-level fabrication. Fabricated components were subjected to dye-penetrant testing, three-point flexural testing, hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The test results revealed that the laser-fabricated material was defect free and more ductile in nature. Thus, ALFa technology, not only produced the quality components, but also minimized machining of hard material and brought significant saving of time and costly WC-Co material.

  11. Statistics of Shared Components in Complex Component Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, Andrea; Gherardi, Marco; Caselle, Michele; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Osella, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    Many complex systems are modular. Such systems can be represented as "component systems," i.e., sets of elementary components, such as LEGO bricks in LEGO sets. The bricks found in a LEGO set reflect a target architecture, which can be built following a set-specific list of instructions. In other component systems, instead, the underlying functional design and constraints are not obvious a priori, and their detection is often a challenge of both scientific and practical importance, requiring a clear understanding of component statistics. Importantly, some quantitative invariants appear to be common to many component systems, most notably a common broad distribution of component abundances, which often resembles the well-known Zipf's law. Such "laws" affect in a general and nontrivial way the component statistics, potentially hindering the identification of system-specific functional constraints or generative processes. Here, we specifically focus on the statistics of shared components, i.e., the distribution of the number of components shared by different system realizations, such as the common bricks found in different LEGO sets. To account for the effects of component heterogeneity, we consider a simple null model, which builds system realizations by random draws from a universe of possible components. Under general assumptions on abundance heterogeneity, we provide analytical estimates of component occurrence, which quantify exhaustively the statistics of shared components. Surprisingly, this simple null model can positively explain important features of empirical component-occurrence distributions obtained from large-scale data on bacterial genomes, LEGO sets, and book chapters. Specific architectural features and functional constraints can be detected from occurrence patterns as deviations from these null predictions, as we show for the illustrative case of the "core" genome in bacteria.

  12. Components of Burden: Interventive Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosberg, Jordan I.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studied 127 informal caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients to determine correlates of 5 components of burden as measured by Cost of Care Index. Significant relationships between predictor variables and burden components suggest that global scores and measures of burden do not identify specific problem areas relative to various components of…

  13. Unblockable Compositions of Software Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruzhen; Faber, Johannes; Liu, Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    . To this end, we develop an algorithm to compute the unblockable interaction behavior, called the interface model of a component, from its execution model. Based on this model, we introduce composition operators for the components and prove important compositionality results, showing the conditions under which......We present a new automata-based interface model describing the interaction behavior of software components. Contrary to earlier component- or interface-based approaches, the interface model we propose specifies all the non-blockable interaction behaviors of a component with any environment...

  14. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  15. Processes for coating or sealing electronic components with synthetic varnishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrugia, M.; Allard, M.

    1981-01-01

    A method of coating or sealing electrical or electronic components with a synthetic resin composition is described which consists of moving each component along a fixed path through a coating station at which at least one surface of the component receives a coating of synthetic resin and then moving each component through a beam of ionising radiation (ultra-violet or beta radiation) for a sufficient time to induce polymerisation of the resin. Suitable resin compositions for the process are listed. (U.K.)

  16. Dual phase magnetic material component and method of forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Laura Cerully; DiDomizio, Richard; Johnson, Francis

    2017-04-25

    A magnetic component having intermixed first and second regions, and a method of preparing that magnetic component are disclosed. The first region includes a magnetic phase and the second region includes a non-magnetic phase. The method includes mechanically masking pre-selected sections of a surface portion of the component by using a nitrogen stop-off material and heat-treating the component in a nitrogen-rich atmosphere at a temperature greater than about 900.degree. C. Both the first and second regions are substantially free of carbon, or contain only limited amounts of carbon; and the second region includes greater than about 0.1 weight % of nitrogen.

  17. Force spectroscopy of hepatocytic extracellular matrix components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsunthon, R., E-mail: YongsuntR@Corning.com [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States); Baker, W.A.; Bryhan, M.D.; Baker, D.E.; Chang, T.; Petzold, O.N.; Walczak, W.J.; Liu, J.; Faris, R.A.; Senaratne, W.; Seeley, L.A.; Youngman, R.E. [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    We present atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy data of live hepatocytes (HEPG2/C3A liver cell line) grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium, a complex solution of salts and amino acids commonly used for cell culture. Contact-mode imaging and force spectroscopy of this system allowed correlation of cell morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) properties with substrate properties. Force spectroscopy analysis of cellular 'footprints' indicated that the cells secrete large polymers (e.g., 3.5 {mu}m contour length and estimated MW 1000 kDa) onto their substrate surface. Although definitive identification of the polymers has not yet been achieved, fluorescent-labeled antibody staining has specified the presence of ECM proteins such as collagen and laminin in the cellular footprints. The stretched polymers appear to be much larger than single molecules of known ECM components, such as collagen and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, thus suggesting that the cells create larger entangled, macromolecular structures from smaller components. There is strong evidence which suggests that the composition of the ECM is greatly influenced by the hydrophobicity of the substrate surface, with preferential production and/or adsorption of larger macromolecules on hydrophobic surfaces.

  18. Rumble surfaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Institute for Transport and Road

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  19. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  20. Open Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Integrated Circuit ( ASIC ) processor components. As used here, the HDL was applied to the Verilog, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC...and a number of existing tests were migrated and ported into it. The motivation for selecting a unit test framework was to improve and enforce the...Interface ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuit BSV Bluespec System Verilog CBD Component-Based Development CDK Component Developer’s Kit

  1. Active Component Responsibility in Reserve Component Pre- and Postmobilization Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    President Lyndon Johnson refused to mobi- lize the RCs (MacCarley, 2012, pp. 38–39). 8 Active Component Responsibility in Reserve Component...ARFORGENwhitePaper1aug2011v3g2g.pdf Pernin, Christopher G., Dwayne M. Butler, Louay Constant, Lily Geyer, Duncan Long, Dan Madden, John E. Peters, James D. Powers

  2. SBA Network Components & Software Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s Network Components & Software Inventory contains a complete inventory of all devices connected to SBA’s network including workstations, servers, routers,...

  3. Components selection for ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingiuc, C.; Vidican, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a synthesis of methods and activities realized for the selection of critical components to assure plant safety and availability (as electricity supplier). There are presented main criteria for selection, screening process. For the resulted categories of components shall be applied different category of maintenance (condition oriented, scheduled or corrective), function of the importance and financial effort necessary to fulfil the task. 1. Systems and components screening for plant safety assurance For the systems selection, from Safety point of view, was necessary first, to define systems which are dangerous in case of failure (mainly by rupture/ release of radioactivity) and the safety systems which have to mitigate the effects. This is realized based on accident analysis (from Safety Report). Also where taken in to account the 4 basic Safety Principles: 'Reactor shut down; Residual heat removal; Radioactivity products confinement; NPP status monitoring in normal and accident conditions'. Following step is to establish safety support systems, which have to action to assure main safety systems operation. This could be realized based on engineering judgement, or on PSA Level I analysis. Finally shall be realized chains of the support systems, which have to work, till primary systems. For the critical components selection, was realized a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), considering the components effects of failures, on system safety function. 2. Systems and components screening for plant availability assurance The work was realized in two steps: Systems screening; Components screening The systems screening, included: General, analyze of the plant systems list and the definition of those which clearly have to run continue to assure the nominal power; Realization of a complex diagram to define interdependence between the systems (e.g. PHT and auxiliaries, moderator and auxiliaries, plant electrical diagram); Fill of special

  4. APS beamline standard components handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  5. APS beamline standard components handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  6. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  7. Secure coupling of hardware components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Joosten, H.J.M.; Knobbe, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    A method and a system for securing communication between at least a first and a second hardware components of a mobile device is described. The method includes establishing a first shared secret between the first and the second hardware components during an initialization of the mobile device and,

  8. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue

  9. Statistical inference on variance components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdooren, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    In several sciences but especially in animal and plant breeding, the general mixed model with fixed and random effects plays a great role. Statistical inference on variance components means tests of hypotheses about variance components, constructing confidence intervals for them, estimating them,

  10. ITER components cooling: Satisfying the distinct needs of systems and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ployhar, Steven James, E-mail: steve.ployhar@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Gopalapillai, Babulal; Teodoros, Liliana Cristina; Dell Orco, Giovanni [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Kumar, Ajith; Gupta, Dinesh; Patel, Nirav; Jadhav, Mahesh Ashok [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India)

    2014-10-15

    The ITER Tokamak requires multiple auxiliary systems to initiate, support, and monitor the fusion reaction. Heat produced by these systems, as well as the heat produced by the fusion reaction itself is collected by the ITER Cooling Water System (CWS) and rejected to the atmosphere. The CWS is composed of several systems designed for specific cooling roles. One of these systems is the Component Cooling Water System 2 (CCWS-2) whose function is to collect the heat from auxiliary client systems and components and transfer it to the Heat Rejection System. Clients are located throughout the site and have different requirements in terms of pressure, temperature, temperature variation, flow, metallurgy of wetted surfaces, and water quality. To satisfy these different requirements the CCWS-2 is divided into four separate loops, each of which has different operating parameters. For example, the CCWS-2A loop is designed to cool components with wetted surfaces of copper and primarily serves the radio-frequency heating systems, magnet power supplies, and neutral beam injector system components. This paper describes the evolution of the CCWS-2 system to match the needs of groups of compatible clients, and describes the development of the preliminary design of one of its loops, CCWS-2A, to meet individual client needs.

  11. Component reliability for electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

  12. L’industrie lithique magdalénienne du gisement de plein-air de la Corne-de-Rollay (Couleuvre, Allier : entre respect des normes et variabilité des chaînes opératoires The Magdalenian lithic industry from the openair site of la Corne-de-Rollay (Couleuvre, Allier: production standards and production lines variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Angevin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Le site de la Corne-de-Rollay (Couleuvre, Allier correspond à un vaste gisement de plein-air localisé sur le sommet d’un plateau de basse altitude, entre val de Cher et val d’Allier. La présente contribution expose les résultats de l’étude effectuée sur l’industrie lithique provenant de l’occupation magdalénienne de ce dernier gisement. Réalisée à partir de deux grands types de matériaux (les silex marins allochtones et les roches siliceuses d’origine locale, cette industrie témoigne de la mise en œuvre de plusieurs schémas opératoires de débitage ayant pour finalité principale la production de lames et de lamelles. La forte variabilité des schémas opératoires rencontrés dans la production lamellaire nous a conduit à nous interroger sur le degré d’autonomie accordé aux différents systèmes de production, visant à la confection de supports aux caractéristiques morpho-techniques parfois proches et aux propriétés morpho-fonctionnelles pouvant souvent être considérées comme analogues ou complémentaires. Cette dernière réalité nous invite donc à envisager sous un jour nouveau le phénomène particulier de “ ramification des chaînes opératoires ” (Bourguignon et al. 2004, pouvant répondre à des objectifs de production semblables, mais s’établissant dans le cadre d’échelles de temps distinctes. In fine, l’attribution chrono-culturelle de cet assemblage au Magdalénien moyen est discutée.La Corne-de-Rollay (Couleuvre, Allier is a vast open-air camp-site located on the top of a small plateau, between Cher valley and Allier valley. Here are presented the results of a study of the lithic industry from the Magdalenian occupation of this settlement. Composed of two large groups of raw materials (flint and local siliceous rocks, this industry shows several operative schemes to produce blades and bladelets. The high variability of different bladelets production techniques leads us to

  13. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1 component prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1987-06-01

    Current probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods for nuclear power plants utilize seismic ''fragilities'' - probabilities of failure conditioned on the severity of seismic input motion - that are based largely on limited test data and on engineering judgment. Under the NRC Component Fragility Research Program (CFRP), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed and demonstrated procedures for using test data to derive probabilistic fragility descriptions for mechanical and electrical components. As part of its CFRP activities, LLNL systematically identified and categorized components influencing plant safety in order to identify ''candidate'' components for future NRC testing. Plant systems relevant to safety were first identified; within each system components were then ranked according to their importance to overall system function and their anticipated seismic capacity. Highest priority for future testing was assigned to those ''very important'' components having ''low'' seismic capacity. This report describes the LLNL prioritization effort, which also included application of ''high-level'' qualification data as an alternate means of developing probabilistic fragility descriptions for PRA applications

  14. Surface density profile and surface tension of the one-component classical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballone, P.; Senatore, G.; Trieste Univ.; Tosi, M.P.; Oxford Univ.

    1982-08-01

    The density profile and the interfacial tension of two classical plasmas in equilibrium at different densities are evaluated in the square-density-gradient approximation. For equilibrium in the absence of applied external voltage, the profile is oscillatory in the higher-density plasma and the interfacial tension is positive. The amplitude and phase of these oscillations and the magnitude of the interfacial tension are related to the width of the background profile. Approximate representations of the equilibrium profile by matching of its asymptotic forms are analyzed. A comparison with computer simulation data and a critical discussion of a local-density theory are also presented. (author)

  15. Ageing of zirconium alloy components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Shah, Priti Kotak; Dubey, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    India has two types (pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs)) of commercial nuclear reactors in operation, in addition to research reactors. Many of the life limiting critical components in these reactors are fabricated from zirconium alloys. The progressive degradation of these components caused by the cumulative exposure of high energy neutron irradiation with increasing period of reactor operation was monitored to assess the degree of ageing. The components/specimens examined included fuel element claddings removed from BWRs, pressure tubes and garter springs removed from PHWRs and calandria tube specimens used in PHWRs. The tests included tension test (for cladding, garter spring), fracture toughness test (for pressure tube), crush test (for garter spring), and measurement of irradiation induced growth (for calandria tube). Results of various tests conducted are presented and applications of the test results are elaborated for residual life estimation/life extension of the components.

  16. Metallurgical Laboratory and Components Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In the field of metallurgy, TTC is equipped to run laboratory tests on track and rolling stock components and materials. The testing lab contains scanning-electron,...

  17. Semantic Issues for Component Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, Beverly

    2001-01-01

    The availability of components that can be assembled together to build customized system promises to decrease software development costs and, one hopes, also increase the reliability of the resulting system...

  18. Component Processes in Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes alternative theoretical positions regarding (a) the component information processes used in analogical reasoning and (b) strategies for combining these processes. Also presents results from three experiments on analogical reasoning. (Author/RK)

  19. Passive Microwave Components and Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    State-of-the-art microwave systems always require higher performance and lower cost microwave components. Constantly growing demands and performance requirements of industrial and scientific applications often make employing traditionally designed components impractical. For that reason, the design...... and development process remains a great challenge today. This problem motivated intensive research efforts in microwave design and technology, which is responsible for a great number of recently appeared alternative approaches to analysis and design of microwave components and antennas. This book highlights...... techniques. Modelling and computations in electromagnetics is a quite fast-growing research area. The recent interest in this field is caused by the increased demand for designing complex microwave components, modeling electromagnetic materials, and rapid increase in computational power for calculation...

  20. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  1. Spherical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2016-01-01

    We study surfaces of constant positive Gauss curvature in Euclidean 3-space via the harmonicity of the Gauss map. Using the loop group representation, we solve the regular and the singular geometric Cauchy problems for these surfaces, and use these solutions to compute several new examples. We give...

  2. Multiview Bayesian Correlated Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamronn, Simon Due; Poulsen, Andreas Trier; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2015-01-01

    are identical. Here we propose a hierarchical probabilistic model that can infer the level of universality in such multiview data, from completely unrelated representations, corresponding to canonical correlation analysis, to identical representations as in correlated component analysis. This new model, which...... we denote Bayesian correlated component analysis, evaluates favorably against three relevant algorithms in simulated data. A well-established benchmark EEG data set is used to further validate the new model and infer the variability of spatial representations across multiple subjects....

  3. Spectral decomposition of asteroid Itokawa based on principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Sumire C.; Sugita, Seiji; Kamata, Shunichi; Ishiguro, Masateru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Tatsumi, Eri; Sasaki, Sho

    2018-01-01

    The heliocentric stratification of asteroid spectral types may hold important information on the early evolution of the Solar System. Asteroid spectral taxonomy is based largely on principal component analysis. However, how the surface properties of asteroids, such as the composition and age, are projected in the principal-component (PC) space is not understood well. We decompose multi-band disk-resolved visible spectra of the Itokawa surface with principal component analysis (PCA) in comparison with main-belt asteroids. The obtained distribution of Itokawa spectra projected in the PC space of main-belt asteroids follows a linear trend linking the Q-type and S-type regions and is consistent with the results of space-weathering experiments on ordinary chondrites and olivine, suggesting that this trend may be a space-weathering-induced spectral evolution track for S-type asteroids. Comparison with space-weathering experiments also yield a short average surface age (component of Itokawa surface spectra is consistent with spectral change due to space weathering and that the spatial variation in the degree of space weathering is very large (a factor of three in surface age), which would strongly suggest the presence of strong regional/local resurfacing process(es) on this small asteroid.

  4. Component having cooling channel with hourglass cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christian X; Lee, Ching-Pang

    2015-04-28

    A cooling channel (36, 36B, 63-66) cools inner surfaces (48, 50) of exterior walls (41, 43) of a component (20, 60). Interior side surfaces (52, 54) of the channel converge to a waist (W2), forming an hourglass shaped transverse profile (46). The inner surfaces (48, 50) may have fins (44) aligned with the coolant flow (22). The fins may have a transverse profile (56A, 56B) highest at mid-width of the inner surfaces (48, 50). Turbulators (92) may be provided on the side surfaces (52, 54) of the channel, and may urge the coolant flow toward the inner surfaces (48, 50). Each turbulator (92) may have a peak (97) that defines the waist of the cooling channel. Each turbulator may have a convex upstream side (93). These elements increase coolant flow in the corners (C) of the channel to more uniformly and efficiently cool the exterior walls (41, 43).

  5. The system of underwater CCTV inspection for reactor internal components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rong

    1997-12-01

    During the operation of nuclear power plant, the reactor internal components are greatly scoured and vibrated by flowing water. So the structural integrity and surface sludge for reactor internal components are needed to be inspected during refuelling. Thus an inspection system is developed, in which the camera inspects underwater at different height and different direction by mechanical elevator and the image of closed-circuit television (CCTV) is mixed with digital coordinate of the camera position for re-inspection. It is the first system for inspection of reactor internal components in China. This system has been used 4 times in the inspection of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant successfully

  6. Analysis of Minor Component Segregation in Ternary Powder Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asachi Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported. It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture.

  7. Reduction of surface erosion in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossing, T.D.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the major processes leading to surface erosion in fusion reactors are reviewed briefly, including blistering by implanted gas, sputtering by ions, atoms, and neutrons, and vaporization by local heating. Surface erosion affects the structural integrity and limits the lifetime of reactor components exposed to plasma radiation. In addition, some of the processes leading to surface erosion also cause the release of plasma contaminants. Methods proposed to reduce surface erosion have included control of surface temperature, selection of materials with a favorable microstructure, chemical and mechanical treatment of surfaces, and employment of protective surface coatings, wall liners, and divertors. The advantages and disadvantages of some of these methods are discussed

  8. Airport Surface Network Architecture Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Lawas-Grodek, Fran; Ellis, Brenda L.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, airport surface communications are fragmented across multiple types of systems. These communication systems for airport operations at most airports today are based dedicated and separate architectures that cannot support system-wide interoperability and information sharing. The requirements placed upon the Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) systems in airports are rapidly growing and integration is urgently needed if the future vision of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) 2025 concept are to be realized. To address this and other problems such as airport surface congestion, the Space Based Technologies Project s Surface ICNS Network Architecture team at NASA Glenn Research Center has assessed airport surface communications requirements, analyzed existing and future surface applications, and defined a set of architecture functions that will help design a scalable, reliable and flexible surface network architecture to meet the current and future needs of airport operations. This paper describes the systems approach or methodology to networking that was employed to assess airport surface communications requirements, analyze applications, and to define the surface network architecture functions as the building blocks or components of the network. The systems approach used for defining these functions is relatively new to networking. It is viewing the surface network, along with its environment (everything that the surface network interacts with or impacts), as a system. Associated with this system are sets of services that are offered by the network to the rest of the system. Therefore, the surface network is considered as part of the larger system (such as the NAS), with interactions and dependencies between the surface network and its users, applications, and devices. The surface network architecture includes components such as addressing/routing, network management, network

  9. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Gravesen, B.

    2012-01-01

    was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol‐gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol‐gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol‐gel component in coatings...

  10. Electronic components with yttrium- and bismuth-based high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daginnus, M.; Guettler, B.

    1992-01-01

    This project investigates the fabrication of microwave components by use of high-Tc superconductors. Detailed descriptions are given of the manufacturing and use of active Y-Ba-Cu-O components. The surface resistance of thin films used in high-quality passive microwave components such as resonators and filters is measured and optimized. (orig./MM) [de

  11. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-22

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  12. Convex surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of convex surfaces focuses on extrinsic geometry and applications of the Brunn-Minkowski theory. It also examines intrinsic geometry and the realization of intrinsic metrics. 1958 edition.

  13. Surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S. da; Teixeira, M.V.

    1986-06-01

    The general methods of surface decontamination used in laboratory and others nuclear installations areas, as well as the procedures for handling radioactive materials and surfaces of work are presented. Some methods for decontamination of body external parts are mentioned. The medical supervision and assistance are required for internal or external contamination involving or not lesion in persons. From this medical radiation protection decontamination procedures are determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  15. Mechanical design of machine components

    CERN Document Server

    Ugural, Ansel C

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical Design of Machine Components, Second Edition strikes a balance between theory and application, and prepares students for more advanced study or professional practice. It outlines the basic concepts in the design and analysis of machine elements using traditional methods, based on the principles of mechanics of materials. The text combines the theory needed to gain insight into mechanics with numerical methods in design. It presents real-world engineering applications, and reveals the link between basic mechanics and the specific design of machine components and machines. Divided into three parts, this revised text presents basic background topics, deals with failure prevention in a variety of machine elements and covers applications in design of machine components as well as entire machines. Optional sections treating special and advanced topics are also included.Key Features of the Second Edition:Incorporates material that has been completely updated with new chapters, problems, practical examples...

  16. Surface phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Frederik

    1991-01-01

    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  17. Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldiri Salvado

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.

  18. Fabricating plasmonic components for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed.......We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed....

  19. Radiation effects on eye components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durchschlag, H.; Fochler, C.; Abraham, K.; Kulawik, B.

    1999-08-01

    The most important water-soluble components of the vertebrate eye (lens proteins, aqueous humor, vitreous, hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid) have been investigated in aqueous solution, after preceding X- or UV-irradiation. Spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrophoretic, hydrodynamic and analytic techniques have been applied, to monitor several radiation damages such as destruction of aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids, aggregation, crosslinking, dissociation, fragmentation, and partial unfolding. Various substances were found which were able to protect eye components effectively against radiation, some of them being also of medical relevance.

  20. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  1. Exotic statistics on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbo, T.D.; March-Russel, J.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the allowed spectrum of statistics for n identical spinless particles on an arbitrary closed two-manifold M, by using a powerful topological approach to the study of quantum kinematics. On a surface of genus g≥1 statistics other than Bose or Fermi can only be obtained by utilizing multi-component state vectors transforming as an irreducible unitary representation of the fundamental group of the n-particle configuration space. These multi-component (or nonscalar) quantizations allow the possibility of fractional statistics, as well as other exotic, nonfractional statistics some of whose properties we discuss. On an orientable surface of genus g≥0 only anyons with rational statistical parameter θ/π=p/q are allowed, and their number is restricted to be sq-g+1 (selement ofZ). For nonorientable surfaces only θ=0, π are allowed. Finally, we briefly comment on systems of spinning particles and make a comparison with the results for solitons in the O(3)-invariant nonlinear sigma model with space manifold M. (orig.)

  2. An automatic chip structure optical inspection system for electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhichao; Xue, Bindang; Liang, Jiyuan; Wang, Ke; Chen, Junzhang; Liu, Yunhe

    2018-01-01

    An automatic chip structure inspection system based on machine vision is presented to ensure the reliability of electronic components. It consists of four major modules, including a metallographic microscope, a Gigabit Ethernet high-resolution camera, a control system and a high performance computer. An auto-focusing technique is presented to solve the problem that the chip surface is not on the same focusing surface under the high magnification of the microscope. A panoramic high-resolution image stitching algorithm is adopted to deal with the contradiction between resolution and field of view, caused by different sizes of electronic components. In addition, we establish a database to storage and callback appropriate parameters to ensure the consistency of chip images of electronic components with the same model. We use image change detection technology to realize the detection of chip images of electronic components. The system can achieve high-resolution imaging for chips of electronic components with various sizes, and clearly imaging for the surface of chip with different horizontal and standardized imaging for ones with the same model, and can recognize chip defects.

  3. Air Advising: A Critical Component of Joint Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    to air advising. It is important for surface components to artic - ulate their air advising requirements through their geographic combatant commands...improve their political , military, and economic stability and security. However, the Air Force can deliver even more positive foreign policy

  4. Robotics-Components and Subsystems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 12. Robotics - Components and Subsystems. J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 12 December 1999 pp 76-82. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/12/0076-0082 ...

  5. Potting procedure for electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, A. G.; Zimmerman, J.

    1977-01-01

    Potting process is modified to effect a match more closely between embedded electronic components, potting mediums, and thermal environment. Application of room-temperature vulcanizing silicone rubber band cured in modified thermal cycle minimizes coil-to-resin adhesion and thus lowers stresses between transformer and potting compound.

  6. Fabrication of plastic microfluidic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter M.; Matson, Dean W.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Hammerstrom, D. J.

    1998-09-01

    Plastic components have many advantages, including ease of fabrication, low cost, chemical inertness, lightweight, and disposability. We report on the fabrication of three plastics-based microfluidic components: a motherboard, a dialysis unit, and a metal sensor. Microchannels, headers, and interconnects were produced in thin sheets (>=50 microns) of polyimide, PMMA, polyethylene, and polycarbonate using a direct-write excimer laser micromachining system. Machined sheets were laminated by thermal and adhesive bonding to form leak-tight microfluidic components. The microfluidic motherboard borrowed the `functionality on a chip' concept from the electronics industry and was the heart of a complex microfluidic analytical device. The motherboard platform was designed to be tightly integrated and self-contained (i.e., liquid flows are all confined within machined microchannels), reducing the need for tubing with fluid distribution and connectivity. This concept greatly facilitated system integration and miniaturization. As fabricated, the motherboard consisted of three fluid reservoirs connected to micropumps by microchannels. The fluids could either be pumped independently or mixed in microchannels prior to being directed to exterior analytical components via outlet ports. The microdialysis device was intended to separate electrolytic solutes from low volume samples prior to mass spectrometric analysis. The device consisted of a dialysis membrane laminated between opposed serpentine microchannels containing the sample fluid and a buffer solution. The laminated metal sensor consisted of fluid reservoirs, micro-flow channels, micropumps, mixing channels, reaction channels, and detector circuitry.

  7. A forgotten component of biodiversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 4. Clipboard: Helminth richness in Arunachal Pradesh fishes: A forgotten component of biodiversity. Amit Tripathi. Volume 36 Issue 4 September 2011 pp 559-561. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Factor Analysis via Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, Peter M.; de Leeuw, Jan

    2011-01-01

    When the factor analysis model holds, component loadings are linear combinations of factor loadings, and vice versa. This interrelation permits us to define new optimization criteria and estimation methods for exploratory factor analysis. Although this article is primarily conceptual in nature, an illustrative example and a small simulation show…

  9. COMPONENT ELEMENTS OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Tamoshina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communications are the specific communication program of the company. It consists of: advertising, which is intended for informing about commodity and accommodations (services; encouragement of marketing- sales augmentation for acceleration of marketing; straight marketing, that provide with personal contacts, flexibility and ability to make a bargain; public relations - all that components are promoting and uphold the image of the firm.

  10. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  11. Large component regulatory relief in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.L.; Boyle, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The dismantling of retired nuclear power and test facilities required the transport of reactor vessels, reactor vessel heads, pressurizers, reactor coolant pumps, and steam generators; whereas the replacement of degraded components to continue operations has been generally limited to pressurized water reactor steam generators, and more recently, reactor heads. These components are quite large and massive, measuring up to 20 feet in diameter and 70 feet in length and weighing 50 to 600 tons. Issue Several issues arose, due to the implementation of the 1985 IAEA transportations regulations in the United States, on the practical matters of how to characterize the components and comply with the transportation regulations. The concept of a Surface Contaminated Object (SCO) was new to many in the U.S., and the large components were not readily amenable to transportation under the regulations. It was apparent that most of the components should be considered as SCO. However, it was not certain that the contamination limits for inaccessible areas could be met due to non-uniform contamination deposition; nor could the interior areas be readily surveyed without on-site dismantlement of the large component. Additionally, while the components were generally substantial in design and construction due to their use as pressure vessels under other codes, the current regulations required packages that met tests such as for stacking and free drop that would pose severe engineering challenges, prohibitive costs, or logistical difficulties during transport, due to the size and weight of the components being transport

  12. Calumenin interacts with serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Jacobsen, Christian; Honoré, Bent

    2000-01-01

    We recently reported the identification of human calumenin, a novel Ca(2+) binding, transformation-sensitive and secreted protein [Vorum et al. (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1386, 121-131; Vorum et al. (1999) Exp. Cell Res. 248, 473-481] belonging to the family of multiple EF-hand proteins...... with calumenin in the presence of Ca(2+). Amino acid sequencing identified this protein as serum amyloid P component (SAP). Furthermore, we verified and characterized the calumenin-SAP interaction by the surface plasmon resonance technique. The findings indicate that calumenin may participate...... in the immunological defense system and could be involved in the pathological process of amyloidosis that leads to formation of amyloid deposits seen in different types of tissues. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-14...

  13. Overview of the model component in ECOCLIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, Camilla; Boegh, Eva; Bendtsen, J

    and atmospheric models. We will use the model system to 1) quantify the potential effects of climate change on ecosystem exchange of GHG and 2) estimate the impacts of changes in management practices including land use change and nitrogen (N) loads. Here the various model components will be introduced......As part of the Danish strategic research project ECOCLIM: Ecosystems Surface Exchange of Greenhouse Gases in an Environment of Changing Anthropogenic and Climate forcing a model system will be developed. This model system will be based on both terrestrial and marine ecosystems in order to be able...... to describe the exchange of GHG with main focus on carbon dioxide (CO2) and the exchange above the Danish terrestrial biosphere as well as above Danish waters including fjords. The construction of the model system is based on data from new, existing and previous field experiments and on improved ecosystem...

  14. Tritium Removal from Carbon Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Coad, J.P.; Federici, G.

    2003-01-01

    Tritium removal is a major unsolved development task for next-step devices with carbon plasma-facing components. The 2-3 order of magnitude increase in duty cycle and associated tritium accumulation rate in a next-step tokamak will place unprecedented demands on tritium removal technology. The associated technical risk can be mitigated only if suitable removal techniques are demonstrated on tokamaks before the construction of a next-step device. This article reviews the history of codeposition, the tritium experience of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) and the tritium removal rate required to support ITER's planned operational schedule. The merits and shortcomings of various tritium removal techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on oxidation and laser surface heating

  15. Ice Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2017-05-01

    Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, Ih. Despite its prevalence, Ih remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.

  16. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties and Surface Forces of Fluorite Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyong; Xie, Lei; Cui, Xin; Hu, Yuehua; Sun, Wei; Zeng, Hongbo

    2018-02-20

    Fluorite is the most important mineral source for producing fluorine-based chemicals and materials in a wide range of engineering and technological applications. In this work, atomic force microscopy was employed, for the first time, to probe the surface interactions and adhesion energy of model oleic acid (a commonly used surface modification organics for fluorite) molecules on fluorite surfaces with different orientations in both air and aqueous solutions at different pH conditions. Fitted with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory, the force results during surface approaching demonstrate the anisotropy in the surface charge of different orientations, with the {111} surface exhibiting a higher magnitude of surface charge, which could be attributed to the difference in the atomic composition. The adhesion measured during surface retraction shows that model oleic acid molecules have a stronger adhesion with the {100} surface than with the {111} surface in both air and aqueous solutions. The anisotropic adhesion energy was analyzed in relation to the surface atom (especially calcium) activity, which was supported by the surface free energy results calculated based on a three-probe-liquid method. Each calcium atom on the {100} surface with four dangling bonds is more active than the calcium atom on the {111} surface with only one dangling bond, supported by a larger value of the Lewis acid component for the {100} surface. The model oleic acid molecules present in the ionic form at pH 9 exhibit a higher adhesion energy with fluorite surfaces as compared to their molecular form at pH 6, which was related to the surface activity of different forms. The adhesion energy measured in solution is much lower than that in air, indicating that the solvent exerts an important influence on the interactions of organic molecules with mineral surfaces. The results provide useful information on the fundamental understanding of surface interactions and adhesion energy of organic

  17. Feasibility and Testing of Additive Manufactured Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Hummelt, Ed [Eaton Corporation; Solovyeva, Lyudmila [Eaton Corporation

    2016-09-01

    This project focused on demonstrating the ability to fabricate two parts with different geometry: an arc flash interrupter and a hydraulic manifold. Eaton Corporation provided ORNL solid models, information related to tolerances and sensitive parameters of the parts and provided testing and evaluation. ORNL successfully manufactured both components, provided cost models of the manufacturing (materials, labor, time and post processing) and delivered test components for Eaton evaluation. The arc flash suppressor was fabricated using the Renishaw laser powder bed technology in CoCrMo while the manifold was produced from Ti-6Al-4V using the Arcam electron beam melting technology. These manufacturing techniques were selected based on the design and geometrical tolerances required. A full-scale manifold was produced on the Arcam A2 system (nearly 12 inches tall). A portion of the manifold was also produced in the Arcam Q10 system. Although a full scale manifold could not be produced in the system, a full scale manifold is expected to have similar material properties, geometric accuracy, and surface finish as could be fabricated on an Arcam Q20 system that is capable of producing four full scale manifolds in a production environment. In addition to the manifold, mechanical test specimens, geometric tolerance artifacts, and microstructure samples were produced alongside the manifold. The development and demonstration of these two key components helped Eaton understand the impact additive manufacturing can have on many of their existing products. By working within the MDF and leveraging ORNL’s manufacturing and characterization capabilities, the work will ensure the rapid insertion and commercialization of this technology.

  18. Surfacing Moves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    such as schedules, machines, and aging bodies. To this end, the article also experiments with ‘surfacing’ as an ethnographic heuristic for figuring these different ‘spatial-timings’. The article concludes that surfacing matters not only in senior home care but also in the field-desks of ethnographic analysis....

  19. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  20. Nuclear power plant component protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ruf, R.; Dorner, H.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a nuclear power plant installation which includes a concrete biological shield forming a pit in which a reactor pressure vessel is positioned. A steam generator on the outside of the shield is connected with the pressure vessel via coolant pipe lines which extend through the shield, the coolant circulation being provided by a coolant pump which is also on the outside of the shield. To protect these components on the outside of the shield and which are of mainly or substantially cylindrical shape, semicylindrical concrete segments are interfitted around them to form complete outer cylinders which are retained against outward separation radially from the components, by rings of high tensile steel which may be interspaced so closely that they provide, in effect, an outer steel cylinder. The invention is particularly applicable to pressurized-water coolant reactor installations

  1. Cylinder components properties, applications, materials

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the ever-increasing requirements to be met by gasoline and diesel engines in terms of CO2 reduction, emission behavior, weight, and service life, a comprehensive understanding of combustion engine components is essential today. It is no longer possible for professionals in automotive engineering to manage without the corresponding expertise, whether they work in the field of design, development, testing, or maintenance. This technical book provides in-depth answers to questions about design, production, and machining of cylinder components. In this second edition, every section has been revised and expanded to include the latest developments in the combustion engine. Content Piston rings Piston pins and piston pin circlips Bearings Connecting rods Crankcase and cylinder liners Target audience Engineers in the field of engine development and maintenanceLecturers and students in the areas of mechanical engineering, engine technology, and vehicle constructionAnyone interested in technology Publisher MAH...

  2. Processing of Activated Core Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friske, A.; Gestermann, G.; Finkbeiner, R.

    2003-02-26

    Used activated components from the core of a NPP like control elements, water channels from a BWR, and others like in-core measurement devices need to be processed into waste forms suitable for interim storage, and for the final waste repository. Processing of the activated materials can be undertaken by underwater cutting and packaging or by cutting and high-pressure compaction in a hot cell. A hot cell is available in Germany as a joint investment between GNS and the Karlsruhe Research Center at the latter's site. Special transport equipment is available to transport the components ''as-is'' to the hot cell. Newly designed underwater processing equipment has been designed, constructed, and operated for the special application of NPP decommissioning. This equipment integrates an underwater cutting device with an 80 ton force underwater in-drum compactor.

  3. Metal binding by food components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning

    For calcium binding: Electrochemical method (calcium ion selective electrode) combined with quantum mechanical calculations (density functional theory) were used to investigate the calcium binding affinity of the amino acids and small glycine peptides. The effects of the ionic strength and p......, synergistic effect in calcium binding was found for the small glycine peptide rather than amino acids mixtures with the enhanced driving force up to -6 kJ/mol. Such study provides useful information for the future development of calcium supplements. For zinc binding: Isothermal titration calorimetry...... titration calorimetry and quantum mechanical calculations. This is due to the zinc binding affinity of the relatively softer ligands (investigated food components) will become much stronger than citrate or phytate when they present together in aqueous solution. This mechanism indicates these food components...

  4. HG ion thruster component testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cathodes, isolators, and vaporizers are critical components in determining the performance and lifetime of mercury ion thrusters. The results of life tests of several of these components are reported. A 30-cm thruster CIV test in a bell jar has successfully accumulated over 26,000 hours. The cathode has undergone 65 restarts during the life test without requiring any appreciable increases in starting power. Recently, all restarts have been achieved with only the 44 volt keeper supply with no change required in the starting power. Another ongoing 30-cm Hg thruster cathode test has successfully passed the 10,000 hour mark. A solid-insert, 8-cm thruster cathode has accumulated over 4,000 hours of thruster operation. All starts have been achieved without the use of a high voltage ignitor. The results of this test indicate that the solid impregnated insert is a viable neutralizer cathode for the 8-cm thruster.

  5. Component processes underlying future thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Ortoleva, Claudia; Jumentier, Sabrina; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the component processes underlying the ability to imagine future events, using an individual-differences approach. Participants completed several tasks assessing different aspects of future thinking (i.e., fluency, specificity, amount of episodic details, phenomenology) and were also assessed with tasks and questionnaires measuring various component processes that have been hypothesized to support future thinking (i.e., executive processes, visual-spatial processing, relational memory processing, self-consciousness, and time perspective). The main results showed that executive processes were correlated with various measures of future thinking, whereas visual-spatial processing abilities and time perspective were specifically related to the number of sensory descriptions reported when specific future events were imagined. Furthermore, individual differences in self-consciousness predicted the subjective feeling of experiencing the imagined future events. These results suggest that future thinking involves a collection of processes that are related to different facets of future-event representation.

  6. Tritium in fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.; Talbot, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    When tritium is used in a fusion energy experiment or reactor, several implications affect and usually restrict the design and operation of the system and involve questions of containment, inventory, and radiation damage. Containment is expected to be particularly important both for high-temperature components and for those components that are prone to require frequent maintenance. Inventory is currently of major significance in cases where safety and environmental considerations limit the experiments to very low levels of tritium. Fewer inventory restrictions are expected as fusion experiments are placed in more-remote locations and as the fusion community gains experience with the use of tritium. However, the advent of power-producing experiments with high-duty cycle will again lead to serious difficulties based principally on tritium availability; cyclic operations with significant regeneration times are the principal problems

  7. Reformulating Component Identification as Document Analysis Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, H.G.; Lormans, M.; Zhou, J.

    2007-01-01

    One of the first steps of component procurement is the identification of required component features in large repositories of existing components. On the highest level of abstraction, component requirements as well as component descriptions are usually written in natural language. Therefore, we can

  8. Stochastic Modeling Of Wind Turbine Drivetrain Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    reliable components are needed for wind turbine. In this paper focus is on reliability of critical components in drivetrain such as bearings and shafts. High failure rates of these components imply a need for more reliable components. To estimate the reliability of these components, stochastic models...

  9. Behavior Protocols for Software Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Višňovský, Stanislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2002), s. 1056-1076 ISSN 0098-5589 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030902; GA ČR GA201/99/0244 Grant - others:Eureka(XE) Pepita project no.2033 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : behavior protocols * component-based programming * software architecture Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2002

  10. Component based modelling of piezoelectric ultrasonic actuators for machining applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A.; Salah, M.; Ahmed, N.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonically Assisted Machining (UAM) is an emerging technology that has been utilized to improve the surface finishing in machining processes such as turning, milling, and drilling. In this context, piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers are being used to vibrate the cutting tip while machining at predetermined amplitude and frequency. However, modelling and simulation of these transducers is a tedious and difficult task. This is due to the inherent nonlinearities associated with smart materials. Therefore, this paper presents a component-based model of ultrasonic transducers that mimics the nonlinear behaviour of such a system. The system is decomposed into components, a mathematical model of each component is created, and the whole system model is accomplished by aggregating the basic components' model. System parameters are identified using Finite Element technique which then has been used to simulate the system in Matlab/SIMULINK. Various operation conditions are tested and performed to demonstrate the system performance.

  11. Component based modelling of piezoelectric ultrasonic actuators for machining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A; Ahmed, N; Salah, M; Silberschmidt, V V

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonically Assisted Machining (UAM) is an emerging technology that has been utilized to improve the surface finishing in machining processes such as turning, milling, and drilling. In this context, piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers are being used to vibrate the cutting tip while machining at predetermined amplitude and frequency. However, modelling and simulation of these transducers is a tedious and difficult task. This is due to the inherent nonlinearities associated with smart materials. Therefore, this paper presents a component-based model of ultrasonic transducers that mimics the nonlinear behaviour of such a system. The system is decomposed into components, a mathematical model of each component is created, and the whole system model is accomplished by aggregating the basic components' model. System parameters are identified using Finite Element technique which then has been used to simulate the system in Matlab/SIMULINK. Various operation conditions are tested and performed to demonstrate the system performance

  12. Thermal loads on tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    Power loadings experienced by tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and during off-normal events are discussed. A model for power and particle flow in the tokamak boundary layer is presented and model predictions are compared to infrared measurements of component heating. The inclusion of the full three-dimensional geometry of the components and of the magnetic flux surface is very important in the modeling. Experimental measurements show that misalignment of component armour tile surfaces by only a millimeter can lead to significant localized heating. An application to the design of plasma-facing components for future machines is presented. Finally, thermal loads expected during tokamak disruptions are discussed. The primary problems are surface melting and vaporization due to localized intense heating during the disruption thermal quench and volumetric heating of the component armour and structure due to localised impact of runaway electrons. (author)

  13. Low Friction Surfaces for Low Temperature Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar and other extraterrestrial environments put extreme demands on moving mechanical components. Gears must continue to function and surfaces must continue to...

  14. Surface modification of bioceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkawa, Akira

    Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp] is a major inorganic component of bone and teeth tissues and has the excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconductivity. The interactions between HAp and protein or cell have been studied. The HAp related bioceramics such as bone substitute, coating substance of metal implants, inorganic-polymer composites, and cell culture. We described two methods; (1) surface modification of HAp using organosilane; (2) fabrication of HAp ultra-thin layer on gold surface for protein adsorption analyzed with QCM-D technique. The interfacial interaction between collagen and HAp in a nano-region was controlled by depositing the organosilane of n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS: -CH3) or aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS: -NH2) with a chemical vapor deposition method. The morphologies of collagen adsorbed on the surfaces of HAp and HAp deposited with APTS were similar, however that of the surface with ODS was apparently different, due to the hydrophobic interaction between the organic head group of -CH3 and residual groups of collagen. We present a method for coating gold quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) sensor with ultra-thin layer of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals evenly covering and tightly bound to the surface. The hydroxyapatite sensor operated in liquid with high stability and sensitivity. The in-situ adsorption mechanism and conformational change of fibrinogen on gold, titanium and hydroxyapatite surfaces were investigated by QCM-D technique and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The study indicates that the hydroxyapatite sensor is applicable for qualitative and conformational analysis of protein adsorption.

  15. Impact of surface integrity on machining productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    Surface integrity data developed in recent years have brought into critical focus many situations where component performance is dependent upon the characteristics of machined surfaces. The surface integrity behavior of important structural materials--steel, nickel, and titanium base alloys--described. Surfaces characteristically produced by milling, grinding, electrical discharge machining, and electrochemical machining are illustrated. These same surfaces are characterized in terms of residual stress profiles and fatigue behavior. Specific instances where surface integrity information has been used to overcome production problems or to enhance the reliability of components are cited. Examples of situations where relative insensitivity to metal removal variables has permitted significant reductions in machining costs are also discussed. Finally, manufacturing methods necessary to achieve adequate surface integrity are described, along with suggestions for the control of processing through adequate specifications and inspection procedures. 14 figures

  16. Minimal Surfaces for Hitchin Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiongling; Dai, Song

    2018-01-01

    . In this paper, we investigate the properties of immersed minimal surfaces inside symmetric space associated to a subloci of Hitchin component: $q_n$ and $q_{n-1}$ case. First, we show that the pullback metric of the minimal surface dominates a constant multiple of the hyperbolic metric in the same conformal...... class and has a strong rigidity property. Secondly, we show that the immersed minimal surface is never tangential to any flat inside the symmetric space. As a direct corollary, the pullback metric of the minimal surface is always strictly negatively curved. In the end, we find a fully decoupled system......Given a reductive representation $\\rho: \\pi_1(S)\\rightarrow G$, there exists a $\\rho$-equivariant harmonic map $f$ from the universal cover of a fixed Riemann surface $\\Sigma$ to the symmetric space $G/K$ associated to $G$. If the Hopf differential of $f$ vanishes, the harmonic map is then minimal...

  17. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is proposed that Freeman's discovery that the extrapolated central surface brightness of spiral galaxies is approximately constant can be simply explained if the galaxies contain a spheroidal component which dominates the light in their outer isophotes. Calculations of an effective central surface brightness indicate a wide spread of values. This requires either a wide spread in disc properties or significant spheroidal components or, most probably, both. (author)

  18. Surface Microstructure Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    2005-01-01

    topography is transcribed onto the plastic part through complex mechanisms. This replication however, is not perfect, and the replication quality depends on the plastic material properties, the topography itself, and the process conditions. This paper describes and discusses an investigation of injection......In recent years polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection moulding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection moulding the mould surface...... moulding of surface microstructures. Emphasis is put on the ability to replicate surface microstructures under normal injection moulding conditions, notably with low cost materials at low mould temperatures. The replication of surface microstructures in injection moulding has been explored...

  19. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  20. Experimental qualification of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliot, P.; Fronte, T.; Genty, F.

    1988-01-01

    In the process of showing the adequacy of the seismic design of French PWR reactor, Fermat has repeatedly used dynamic testing on actual nuclear reactor components both on site and in manufacturing shops. The objective and results of a few representative examples of this on-site experimental verification are presented in this paper: the experimental dynamic analysis of a manipulator crane; the investigation of the seismic behaviour of fuel storage racks equipped with aseismic bearing devices. Difficulties to select satisfactory testing methods are also discussed for the particular case of the electrical cabinets. (author)

  1. Management of Talar Component Subsidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Yuan; Myerson, Mark S

    2017-06-01

    Component subsidence has been found to be the top complication that leads to failure of the total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). The cause of subsidence formation is unclear, and is multifactorial. Talar subsidence is more frequently met than tibial subsidence, and the subsequent big bone loss is demanding to handle. As a revision treatment option, neither a revision TAA nor a salvage ankle and/or hindfoot arthrodesis procedure is easy to perform or can obtain a definite outcome. The Salto XT can be used to treat most of the TAA systems available for use in the United States with acceptable short-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetooptical current transformer. 2: Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulich, H; Beck, W; Douklias, N; Harms, H; Papp, A; Schneider, H

    1980-11-15

    In this second part, the most important components of a magnetooptical current transformer are described and their suitability is discussed. Today He-Ne gas lasers and laser diodes seem to meet best the requirements of the light source. Single-mode optical fibers are capable of transmitting polarized light without depolarization. A fiber coil wound on a special coil former is used as a measuring sensor. Two P-I-N photodiodes, together with an analog electronic circuit, transform the optical into an electrical measuring signal.

  3. Lifetime of superheated steam components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklossa, K.H.; Oude-Hengel, H.H.; Kraechter, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The current evaluation schemes in use for judging the lifetime expectations of superheated steam components are compared with each other. The influence of pressure and temperature fluctuations, the differences in the strength of the wall, and the spread band of constant-strainrates are critically investigated. The distribution of these contributory effects are demonstrated in the hight of numerous measuring results. As an important supplement to these evaluation schemes a newly developed technique is introduced which is designed to calculate failure probabilities. (orig./RW) [de

  4. ANTHROPOLOGICAL COMPONENT OF DESCARTES’ ONTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii M. Malivskyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to outline and comprehend the Descartes’ theory about anthropological component of ontology as the most important part of his philosophy. The accomplishment of this purpose covers the successive solution of the following tasks: 1 review of the research literature concerning the problem of human’s presence and the individual nature of truth; 2 emphasize the ambivalence of the basic intention of his legacy; 3 justify the thesis about constitutivity of human’s presence and comprehend passions as the form of disclosure of ontology’s anthropological component. Methodology. The use of the euristic potential of phenomenology, postpositivism and postmodernism makes it possible to emphasize the multiple-layer and multiple-meaning classical philosophy works, to comprehend the limitation and scarcity of the naïve-enlightening vision of human nature and to look for a new reception of European classics that provides the overcoming of established nihilism and pessimism concerning the interpretation of human nature. Scientific novelty. It is the first time that anthropological component of Descartes’ ontology became an object of particular attention. It previously lacked attention because of following main reasons: 1 traditional underestimating of the fact of Descartes’ legacy incompleteness as an unrealized anthropological project and 2 lack of proper attention to the individual nature of truth. The premise for its constructive overcoming is the attention to ambivalence of the basic intention and the significance of ethics in the philosopher’s legacy. His texts and research literature allow confirming the constitutive nature of human’s presence and passions as the key form of disclosure of the ontology anthropological component. Conclusions. The established tradition of interpretation the Descartes’ philosophizing nature as the filiation process of impersonal knowledge loses its cogency these days. The

  5. Anthropological Component of Descartes’ Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii M. Malivskyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to outline and comprehend the Descartes’ theory about anthropological component of ontology as the most important part of his philosophy. The accomplishment of this purpose covers the successive solution of the following tasks: 1 review of the research literature concerning the problem of human’s presence and the individual nature of truth; 2 emphasize the ambivalence of the basic intention of his legacy; 3 justify the thesis about constitutivity of human’s presence and comprehend passions as the form of disclosure of ontology’s anthropological component. Methodology. The use of the euristic potential of phenomenology, postpositivism and postmodernism makes it possible to emphasize the multiple-layer and multiple-meaning classical philosophy works, to comprehend the limitation and scarcity of the naïve-enlightening vision of human nature and to look for a new reception of European classics that provides the overcoming of established nihilism and pessimism concerning the interpretation of human nature. Scientific novelty. It is the first time that anthropological component of Descartes’ ontology became an object of particular attention. It previously lacked attention because of following main reasons: 1 traditional underestimating of the fact of Descartes’ legacy incompleteness as an unrealized anthropological project and 2 lack of proper attention to the individual nature of truth. The premise for its constructive overcoming is the attention to ambivalence of the basic intention and the significance of ethics in the philosopher’s legacy. His texts and research literature allow confirming the constitutive nature of human’s presence and passions as the key form of disclosure of the ontology anthropological component. Conclusions. The established tradition of interpretation the Descartes’ philosophizing nature as the filiation process of impersonal knowledge loses its cogency these days. The

  6. Surface tension of compositions of polyhexametyleneguanidine hydrochloride - surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumargaliyeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We made up songs bactericidal polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacyde with the surface-active substances - anionic sodium dodecylsulfate, cationic cetylpyridinium bromide, and nonionic Tween-80 and measured the surface tension of water solutions. The study showed that the composition metacyde with surface-active agents have a greater surface activity than the individual components.

  7. Surface tension of compositions of polyhexametyleneguanidine hydrochloride - surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kumargaliyeva; A. Aubakirova; G. Burumbaeva; K. Musabekov; S. Aidarova

    2012-01-01

    We made up songs bactericidal polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacyde) with the surface-active substances - anionic sodium dodecylsulfate, cationic cetylpyridinium bromide, and nonionic Tween-80 and measured the surface tension of water solutions. The study showed that the composition metacyde with surface-active agents have a greater surface activity than the individual components.

  8. Surface tension of compositions of polyhexametyleneguanidine hydrochloride - surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumargaliyeva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We made up songs bactericidal polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacyde with the surface-active substances - anionic sodium dodecylsulfate, cationic cetylpyridinium bromide, and nonionic Tween-80 and measured the surface tension of water solutions. The study showed that the composition metacyde with surface-active agents have a greater surface activity than the individual components.

  9. Parametric functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Peijun; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach in functional data analysis to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). Most existing FPCA approaches use a set of flexible basis functions such as B-spline basis to represent the FPCs, and control the smoothness of the FPCs by adding roughness penalties. However, the flexible representations pose difficulties for users to understand and interpret the FPCs. In this article, we consider a variety of applications of FPCA and find that, in many situations, the shapes of top FPCs are simple enough to be approximated using simple parametric functions. We propose a parametric approach to estimate the top FPCs to enhance their interpretability for users. Our parametric approach can also circumvent the smoothing parameter selecting process in conventional nonparametric FPCA methods. In addition, our simulation study shows that the proposed parametric FPCA is more robust when outlier curves exist. The parametric FPCA method is demonstrated by analyzing several datasets from a variety of applications. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Safety engineering with COTS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Halloran, Mark; Hall, Jon G.; Rapanotti, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Safety-critical systems are becoming more widespread, complex and reliant on software. Increasingly they are engineered through (COTS) (Commercial Off The Shelf) components to alleviate the spiralling costs and development time, often in the context of complex supply chains. A parallel increased concern for safety has resulted in a variety of safety standards, with a growing consensus that a safety life cycle is needed which is fully integrated with the design and development life cycle, to ensure that safety has appropriate influence on the design decisions as system development progresses. In this article we explore the application of an integrated approach to safety engineering in which assurance drives the engineering process. The paper reports on the outcome of a case study on a live industrial project with a view to evaluate: its suitability for application in a real-world safety engineering setting; its benefits and limitations in counteracting some of the difficulties of safety engineering with (COTS) components across supply chains; and, its effectiveness in generating evidence which can contribute directly to the construction of safety cases. - Highlights: • Assurance as effective driver for COTS-based safety-critical system development. • Engages stakeholders, captures requirements and provides rich traceability. • Shares appropriate safety requirements across the supply chain.

  11. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  12. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  13. Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Julliette M

    2012-02-03

    LPS tolerance has been the focus of extensive scientific and clinical research over the last several decades in an attempt to elucidate the sequence of changes that occur at a molecular level in tolerized cells. Tolerance to components of gram-positive bacterial cell walls such as bacterial lipoprotein and lipoteichoic acid is a much lesser studied, although equally important, phenomenon. This review will focus on cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components and examines the alterations in cell surface receptor expression, changes in intracellular signaling, gene expression and cytokine production, and the phenomenon of cross-tolerance.

  14. Hydrogen isotope inventories in plasma facing components of ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, K.; Maier, H.; Franzen, P.; Grambole, D.; Schleussner, D.

    1999-01-01

    Deuterium inventories have been measured in plasma facing components of ASDEX Upgrade. Nearly 60% of the total D-inventory was observed in the lower inner divertor target plate in redeposited layers of low-Z material. The outer divertor, however, was found to be dominated by erosion processes and correspondingly retained a much lower amount of deuterium. The D-inventory at the main chamber plasma facing components can be explained by a model employing implantation of charge-exchange neutrals, which yields very good agreement with the experimental findings for all surfaces not exposed to direct ion fluxes. (author)

  15. Electrochemical sensor for monitoring electrochemical potentials of fuel cell components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Harold R.; Breault, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor comprised of wires, a sheath, and a conduit can be utilized to monitor fuel cell component electric potentials during fuel cell shut down or steady state. The electrochemical sensor contacts an electrolyte reservoir plate such that the conduit wicks electrolyte through capillary action to the wires to provide water necessary for the electrolysis reaction which occurs thereon. A voltage is applied across the wires of the electrochemical sensor until hydrogen evolution occurs at the surface of one of the wires, thereby forming a hydrogen reference electrode. The voltage of the fuel cell component is then determined with relation to the hydrogen reference electrode.

  16. Coating power RF components with TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Hahn, E.

    1995-03-01

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used

  17. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  18. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...... on the bare surfaces, surfaces with an adsorbed oil layer, and surfaces after being exposed to aqueous salt solutions. This showed that the silica surface became more hydrophobic after oil adsorption, while the wettability of the calcium carbonate surface was not significantly changed by adsorption of an oil...... layer. A surface energy component analysis based on the acid base theory showed that oil adsorption on the surfaces depends upon apolar, acidic, and basic oil components of the crude oil and that the adsorbed oil components differ for adsorption to silica and calcium carbonate. Desorption of the crude...

  19. Selection of independent components based on cortical mapping of electromagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Fen

    2012-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely used to attenuate interference caused by noise components from the electromagnetic recordings of brain activity. However, the scalp topographies and associated temporal waveforms provided by ICA may be insufficient to distinguish functional components from artifactual ones. In this work, we proposed two component selection methods, both of which first estimate the cortical distribution of the brain activity for each component, and then determine the functional components based on the parcellation of brain activity mapped onto the cortical surface. Among all independent components, the first method can identify the dominant components, which have strong activity in the selected dominant brain regions, whereas the second method can identify those inter-regional associating components, which have similar component spectra between a pair of regions. For a targeted region, its component spectrum enumerates the amplitudes of its parceled brain activity across all components. The selected functional components can be remixed to reconstruct the focused electromagnetic signals for further analysis, such as source estimation. Moreover, the inter-regional associating components can be used to estimate the functional brain network. The accuracy of the cortical activation estimation was evaluated on the data from simulation studies, whereas the usefulness and feasibility of the component selection methods were demonstrated on the magnetoencephalography data recorded from a gender discrimination study.

  20. Adaptive Response Surface Techniques in Reliability Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Faber, M. H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1993-01-01

    Problems in connection with estimation of the reliability of a component modelled by a limit state function including noise or first order discontinuitics are considered. A gradient free adaptive response surface algorithm is developed. The algorithm applies second order polynomial surfaces...

  1. Automatic procedures for computing complete configuration geometry from individual component descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Raymond L.; Adams, Mary S.

    1994-01-01

    Procedures are derived for developing a complete airplane surface geometry starting from component descriptions. The procedures involve locating the intersection lines of adjacent components and omitting any regions for which part of one surface lies within the other. The geometry files utilize the wave-drag (Harris) format, and output files are written in Hess format. Two algorithms are used: one, if both intersecting surfaces have airfoil cross sections; the other, if one of the surfaces has circular cross sections. Some sample results in graphical form are included.

  2. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  3. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  4. Understanding symmetrical components for power system modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C

    2017-01-01

    This book utilizes symmetrical components for analyzing unbalanced three-phase electrical systems, by applying single-phase analysis tools. The author covers two approaches for studying symmetrical components; the physical approach, avoiding many mathematical matrix algebra equations, and a mathematical approach, using matrix theory. Divided into seven sections, topics include: symmetrical components using matrix methods, fundamental concepts of symmetrical components, symmetrical components –transmission lines and cables, sequence components of rotating equipment and static load, three-phase models of transformers and conductors, unsymmetrical fault calculations, and some limitations of symmetrical components.

  5. On Bayesian Principal Component Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Quinn, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 9 (2007), s. 4101-4123 ISSN 0167-9473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Principal component analysis ( PCA ) * Variational bayes (VB) * von-Mises–Fisher distribution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.029, year: 2007 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V8V-4MYD60N-6&_user=10&_coverDate=05%2F15%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=b8ea629d48df926fe18f9e5724c9003a

  6. Components of attention in synesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Nordfang, Maria; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common forms of synesthesia is between colors and graphemes (Colizoli, Murre, & Rouw, 2012). Numerous studies have investigated different aspects of attention and synesthesia, e.g. effects of Stroop-like interference by colors that are incongruent with the synesthetic experience...... synesthesia (Mattingley, 2009). Results from the present experiment show that synesthesia affects both speed of processing (C) and the number of objects that can be retained in visual short-term memory (K). Participants were faster at encoding characters that were colored congruently with their synesthesia....... Here we attempt to isolate how speci¿ c components of attention are affected by grapheme-color synesthesia. Eight carefully screened healthy participants with synesthesia reported the letters in brie¿ y presented, post-masked arrays of letters and digits. On half the trials, the letters and digits were...

  7. Component codification and identification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannenbaecker, K.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture covers the codification in power stations during the erection phase and commercial operation phase. A diagram gives a survey. There are three basic-codifications for application; 1) Kraftwerk-Kennzeichen-System (KKS) for marking each component in orientated systems, for marking electrical orientated positions in cubicals, switch gears etc. and for marking rooms in buildings; 2) Ordnungssystem (OS) for cost calculation and ordering; 3) Unterlagenarten-Schluessel (UAS) for letters, reports etc. and for documentation. The OS is developed on the principle of cost account number and is therefore close to the organization of each supplier and his special form of design and constrution. KKS has only to mark hardware. Therefore all German owners, consultants, authorities and suppliers develop KKS together and conform to it in DIN 407119. (ORU) [de

  8. LCA profiles for building components:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2016-01-01

    , a new approach explores how environmental information on building components can be simplified for strategic use early in the design process in a Danish context. In this paper, life cycle assessments (LCAs) are undertaken for several hundred typical external wall solutions, based on relevant standards....... A full bivariate linear regression analysis is performed, showing statistically significant correlations with strong direct relationships between environmental impact categories. A simplified LCA profile consisting of total primary energy, global warming potential and acidification potential is developed....... This simplified LCA profile presents environmental data in a more understandable way, creating a strategic overview that can be easily used by non-technical clients and construction professionals in the early design stages. This has a scientific and statistical validity generated by environmental assessment...

  9. Rosin components identified in diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlberg, A T; Magnusson, K

    1996-03-01

    As part of the investigation of sources of exposure to rosin allergens, disposable diapers (napkins) common on the Swedish market were analyzed, using gas chromatography, to detect the main rosin compounds. Rosin components were detected in all diapers, the highest amounts in those from the 2 major producers. In these diapers, more rosin was found in the top layer, which is in close contact with the skin than in the fluff. Despite the possibly minimal risk of induction of sensitization to rosin allergens in diapers, there is a real risk of elicitation of dermatitis in sensitive individuals, especially since penetration is enhanced by occlusion and irritation. Such material is not only used for infant diapers, but also for adult incontinence products and feminine hygiene products.

  10. The magnet components database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, M.J.; Leedy, R.; Saltmarsh, C.; Tompkins, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The philosophy, structure, and usage of MagCom, the SSC magnet components database, are described. The database has been implemented in Sybase (a powerful relational database management system) on a UNIX-based workstation at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL); magnet project collaborators can access the database via network connections. The database was designed to contain the specifications and measured values of important properties for major materials, plus configuration information (specifying which individual items were used in each cable, coil, and magnet) and the test results on completed magnets. The data will facilitate the tracking and control of the production process as well as the correlation of magnet performance with the properties of its constituents. 3 refs., 9 figs

  11. High surface area calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

  12. Nanostructured surfaces for microfluidics and sensing applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel Thomas (Arizona State University); Piech, Marcin (United Technologies Corp.); Schneider, John F.; Vail, Sean (Arizona State University); Hayes, Mark A. (Arizona State University); Garcia, Anthony A.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Gust, D (Arizona State University); Yang, Dongqing (Arizona State University)

    2007-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the use of light to move liquids on a photoresponsive monolayer, providing a new method for delivering analyses in lab-on-chip environments for microfluidic systems. The light-driven motion of liquids was achieved on photoresponsive azobenzene modified surfaces. The surface energy components of azobenzene modified surfaces were calculated by Van Oss theory. The motion of the liquid was achieved by generation of a surface tension gradient by isomerization of azobenzene monolayers using UV and Visible light, thereby establishing a surface energy heterogeneity on the edge of the droplet. Contact angle measurements of various solvents were used to demonstrate the requirement for fluid motion.

  13. Hot gas path component cooling system having a particle collection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2018-02-20

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component includes a substrate having an outer surface and an inner surface. The inner surface defines at least one interior space. A passage is formed in the substrate between the outer surface and the inner surface. An access passage is formed in the substrate and extends from the outer surface to the inner space. The access passage is formed at a first acute angle to the passage and includes a particle collection chamber. The access passage is configured to channel a cooling fluid to the passage. Furthermore, the passage is configured to channel the cooling fluid therethrough to cool the substrate.

  14. Hot gas path component having cast-in features for near wall cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2018-04-10

    A hot gas path component includes a substrate having an outer surface and an inner surface. The inner surface of the substrate defines at least one interior space. At least a portion of the outer surface of the substrate includes a recess formed therein. The recess includes a bottom surface and a groove extending at least partially along the bottom surface of the recess. A cover is disposed within the recess and covers at least a portion of the groove. The groove is configured to channel a cooling fluid therethrough to cool the cover.

  15. Library thermohydraulic components for training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelao Caruana, M. J.; Di Benedetto, A.; Pierini, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The thermohydraulic components Library was modeled in MatLab/Simulink®. This library owns Pipe type components (pump, control valve and / or heaters), storage tanks (Open, Closed and Equilibrium Water Vapor-Air) and Heat Exchangers (Co-Current, Counter-Current and U-tubes). Each component can be attached to other components through the component library Header, in order to create a more complex thermal-hydraulic system which in turn can interact with other thermal-hydraulic systems. (author)

  16. Robust topology design of periodic grating surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Modern nanoscale manufacturing techniques allow for a high degree of flexibility in designing surface microstructures and nanostructures. Injection molding of nanosized features allows for mass production of plastic components with a tailored nanostructure producing specific optical effects...... depending on the purpose. This work details the use of topology optimization for designing periodic polymer grating surfaces with complex optical properties. A method based on robust topology optimization is formulated for designing the nanostructure of plastic surfaces with extreme reflection...

  17. The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of a galaxy with a prominent bulge and a dominant extremely low surface brightness disc component is reported. The profile of this galaxy is very similar to the recently discovered giant low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1. The disc central surface brightness is found to be ∼ 26.4 Rμ, some 1.5 mag fainter than Malin 1 and thus by far the lowest yet observed. (author)

  18. The varieties of surface alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    Four aspects of ion-beam modification are reviewed: structural changes, in which crystalline phases are converted to amorphous, amorphous phases are converted to crystalline, or ordered crystalline forms evolve to random crystalline forms; topographical changes, which include the development of facets on flat surfaces, the development of cliffs at grain boundaries, the development of ripples on obliquely bombarded surfaces, and the evolution of blunt asperities, foreign particles, or vertical surfaces into cones or pyramids; bombardment-induced electronic changes, which include the consequences of chemical changes due to the composition of the incident beam, carrier injection due to energy deposition, chemical changes due to recoil implantation, and chemical changes due to preferential sputtering; and compositional changes, which in binary alloys consist mainly of a preferential loss of the component with the lower surface binding energy or larger size. 122 refs.; 32 figs.; 9 tabs

  19. Corrosion prevention of magnesium surfaces via surface conversion treatments using ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin

    2016-09-06

    A method for conversion coating a magnesium-containing surface, the method comprising contacting the magnesium-containing surface with an ionic liquid compound under conditions that result in decomposition of the ionic liquid compound to produce a conversion coated magnesium-containing surface having a substantially improved corrosion resistance relative to the magnesium-containing surface before said conversion coating. Also described are the resulting conversion-coated magnesium-containing surface, as well as mechanical components and devices containing the conversion-coated magnesium-containing surface.

  20. Manufacturing technologies of components for the aeronautical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Miguélez, Henar

    2008-01-01

    The team “Manufacturing Technologies” offers his experience in the research on manufacturing processes for applications in the aeronautical industry. Moreover, The team have developed works on light alloys machining, material damage related with manufacturing process and prediction of surface integrity parameters using numerical simulation. The developments are achieved in a multidisciplinary approach to a problem in the manufacturing of components for the aeronautical industry. Solutions are...