WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface learning strategies

  1. The Use of Deep and Surface Learning Strategies among Students Learning English as a Foreign Language in an Internet Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Noa

    2006-01-01

    Background: The learning context is learning English in an Internet environment. The examination of this learning process was based on the Biggs and Moore's teaching-learning model (Biggs & Moore, 1993). Aim: The research aims to explore the use of the deep and surface strategies in an Internet environment among EFL students who come from…

  2. The use of deep and surface learning strategies among students learning English as a foreign language in an Internet environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Noa

    2006-12-01

    The learning context is learning English in an Internet environment. The examination of this learning process was based on the Biggs and Moore's teaching-learning model (Biggs & Moore, 1993). The research aims to explore the use of the deep and surface strategies in an Internet environment among EFL students who come from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results of the research may add an additional level to the understanding of students' functioning in the Internet environment. One hundred fourty-eight Israeli junior and high school students participated in this research. The methodology was based on special computer software: Screen Cam, which recorded the students' learning process. In addition, expert judges completed a questionnaire which examined and categorized the students' learning strategies. The research findings show a clear preference of participants from all socio-economic backgrounds towards the surface learning strategy. The findings also showed that students from the medium to high socio-economic background used both learning strategies more frequently than low socio-economic students. The results reflect the habits that students acquire during their adjustment process throughout their education careers. A brief encounter with the Internet learning environment apparently cannot change norms or habits, which were acquired in the non-Internet learning environment.

  3. Student Teachers' Learning about Child Sexual Abuse Strategies for Primary School: An Exploratory Study of Surface and Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores student teachers' understandings of child sexual abuse and strategies to deal with it that are appropriate for the primary school classroom. Evidence of surface and deep learning were obtained from a content analysis of student teachers' responses to an essay-type exam question, using Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives.…

  4. Teaching learning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chugunova, N.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes instructional approaches focused on teaching. The paper discusses four learning strategies: rehearsal, elaboration, organization, and monitoring. Because it makes learning a collective experience, the reciprocal teaching method encourages students to become a community of learners

  5. Towards effective learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, Anouk Simone

    2015-01-01

    To become self-regulative in learning, students should be able to deploy various learning strategies in a flexible way. For this, they require specific knowledge and skills, referred to as metacognition. Metacognition is a complex concept that is difficult for teachers to teach to their students.

  6. Learning strategies of gifted pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses learning strategies of gifted pupils. The purpose of this research is to determine the characteristics of gifted pupils’ learning strategies and compare them to those of their schoolmates. We will also compare learning strategies of gifted female pupils and male pupils. Lastly, we will determine how learning strategies of gifted pupils correlates with how they evaluate their learning. The theoretical part of this paper will define the concept of giftedness and learning...

  7. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  8. Language Learning Strategies: Classification and Pedagogical Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.

  9. Learning strategies: a synthesis and conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattie, John A. C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a model of learning that proposes that various learning strategies are powerful at certain stages in the learning cycle. The model describes three inputs and outcomes (skill, will and thrill), success criteria, three phases of learning (surface, deep and transfer) and an acquiring and consolidation phase within each of the surface and deep phases. A synthesis of 228 meta-analyses led to the identification of the most effective strategies. The results indicate that there is a subset of strategies that are effective, but this effectiveness depends on the phase of the model in which they are implemented. Further, it is best not to run separate sessions on learning strategies but to embed the various strategies within the content of the subject, to be clearer about developing both surface and deep learning, and promoting their associated optimal strategies and to teach the skills of transfer of learning. The article concludes with a discussion of questions raised by the model that need further research.

  10. Learning style and learning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, Pat; Robottorn, John

    2011-01-01

    Two important factors need attention when contemplating how and where to use the new computer-based learning technologies. Firstly, in order to select the right kind of software, it is necessary to have a clear picture of the desired outcomes of a particular learning situation. There are many varieties of interactive multimedia available, and matching the tool to the job should be an early consideration. Of equal, if not greater importance, is the question of whether, for a particular learner...

  11. Learning strategies during clerkships and their effects on clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lohuizen, M T; Kuks, J B M; van Hell, E A; Raat, A N; Cohen-Schotanus, J

    2009-11-01

    Previous research revealed relationships between learning strategies and knowledge acquisition. During clerkships, however, students' focus widens beyond mere knowledge acquisition as they further develop overall competence. This shift in focus can influence learning strategy use. We explored which learning strategies were used during clerkships and their relationship to clinical performance. Participants were 113 (78%) clerks at the university hospital or one of six affiliated hospitals. Learning strategies were assessed using the 'Approaches to Learning at Work Questionnaire' (deep, surface-rational and surface-disorganised learning). Clinical performance was calculated by taking the mean of clinical assessment marks. The relationship between learning strategies and clinical performance was explored using regression analysis. Most students (89%) did not clearly prefer a single learning strategy. No relationship was found between learning strategies and clinical performance. Since overall competence comprises integration of knowledge, skills and professional behaviour, we assume that students without a clear preference use more than one learning strategy. Finding no relationship between learning strategies and clinical performance reflects the complexity of clinical learning. Depending on circumstances it may be important to obtain relevant information quickly (surface-rational) or understand material thoroughly (deep). In future research we will examine when and why students use different learning strategies.

  12. Learning human multimodal dialogue strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rieser, V.; Lemon, O.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of different machine learning methods in combination with feature selection techniques to explore human multimodal dialogue strategies and the use of those strategies for automated dialogue systems. We learn policies from data collected in a Wizard-of-Oz study where different human 'wizards' decide whether to ask a clarification request in a multimodal manner or else to use speech alone. We first describe the data collection, the coding scheme and annotated corpus, and ...

  13. Self-access learning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineeva, S. A.

    2004-07-01

    The object of this paper is self-access language learning and facilities self-access learners can use in their target language learning. The focus is on the beliefs of teachers and students, their changing roles in the class, and some self-access strategies and practical ideas to be helpful in the development and maintenance of self-access.

  14. E-Learning Strategy for Earning Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The study enlightens the effectiveness of e-learning strategy in learning English among the in-service teachers who are studying B.Ed in School of Distance Education, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. E-learning strategy is a life long learning strategy for earning in-service teachers. It is a strategy of remaining in employment, which can be…

  15. Redesigning Language Learning Strategy Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Bambang Setiyadi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study a total of 79 university students of a 3-month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what learning strategies language Indonesian learners used and how the strategies were classified. To increase the internal consistency of the hypotesized scales, Cronbach Alpha coefficients of internal consistency were computed for each scale of skill-based areas, namely: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Correlation analysis was also conducted to see how variance of speaking, listening, reading and writing in language learning strategy questionnare were correlated. The result shows that each skill-based scale has realatively high reliability with alpha .73, .67, .69, .80 for listening, speaking, reading, and writing respectively. It is also found out that the four scales are significantly and positively correlated. The classification of learning strategies based on the language skills is a new way of learning strategy measurement, which may be worth considering in the Indonesian context in which English is learned as a foreign language.

  16. Study strategies and approaches to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    showed a weak correlation between the student’s main learning approach as defined by the ratio of the deep approach score to the surface approach score and the student’s study intensity as identified by the ratio of non-scheduled independent activities to scheduled teacher-controlled activities......In this study students’ study strategies have been compared to their approaches to learning. The time students spend on different study activities has been investigated at the Technical University of Denmark, and as a pilot project a few students also filled in a reduced version of Bigg's Study...... Process Questionnaire to identify their approach to learning. It was hypothesised that the students’ learning approach would depend more on the quality of the study work than on the quantity; that an active and reflective study strategy was required to obtain deep conceptual understanding. The result...

  17. Machine learning for evolution strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces numerous algorithmic hybridizations between both worlds that show how machine learning can improve and support evolution strategies. The set of methods comprises covariance matrix estimation, meta-modeling of fitness and constraint functions, dimensionality reduction for search and visualization of high-dimensional optimization processes, and clustering-based niching. After giving an introduction to evolution strategies and machine learning, the book builds the bridge between both worlds with an algorithmic and experimental perspective. Experiments mostly employ a (1+1)-ES and are implemented in Python using the machine learning library scikit-learn. The examples are conducted on typical benchmark problems illustrating algorithmic concepts and their experimental behavior. The book closes with a discussion of related lines of research.

  18. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  19. Learning Strategy Training in English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulselvi, M. Evangelin

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental task of schools is to endow students with strategies, which enable them to elaborate, transform, contrast and critically rebuild knowledge, that develops strategic knowledge. Learning strategy is the specific action to make the students better in learning a second language. Learning Strategy Training is based on problems the…

  20. MUET Preparation Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Li Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students. The instrument used in this study called “MUET Preparation Language Strategy Use Inventory” is an adapted and bilingual questionnaire designed by Cohen, Oxford and Chi (2005 known as Language Strategy Use Inventory. Forty items were analyzed and they comprised of the four skills tested in MUET which is listening, speaking, reading and writing. Data were analyzed by performing frequency analysis. The findings revealed that the listening skill is the most frequently used, while the writing skill is the least frequently used. Only the listening skill has high frequency of use, while the reading, speaking and writing skills fall under the range of moderate frequency of use. There were variations in responses with regard to the use of LLS among Form Six students in secondary schools. The findings had practical implications.

  1. Simulated trust: a cheap social learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Ahn, René M C; Barakova, Emilia I

    2009-11-01

    Animals use heuristic strategies to determine from which conspecifics to learn socially. This leads to directed social learning. Directed social learning protects them from copying non-adaptive information. So far, the strategies of animals, leading to directed social learning, are assumed to rely on (possibly indirect) inferences about the demonstrator's success. As an alternative to this assumption, we propose a strategy that only uses self-established estimates of the pay-offs of behavior. We evaluate the strategy in a number of agent-based simulations. Critically, the strategy's success is warranted by the inclusion of an incremental learning mechanism. Our findings point out new theoretical opportunities to regulate social learning for animals. More broadly, our simulations emphasize the need to include a realistic learning mechanism in game-theoretic studies of social learning strategies, and call for re-evaluation of previous findings.

  2. Surface, Deep, and Transfer? Considering the Role of Content Literacy Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Hattie, John

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an organizational review of content literacy instructional strategies to forward a claim that some strategies work better for surface learning, whereas others are more effective for deep learning and still others for transfer learning. The authors argue that the failure to adopt content literacy strategies by disciplinary…

  3. Language Learning Strategies ff EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    YAPICI, Gökhan Edge; BADA, Dr. Erdoğan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe individual language learning strategies employed by EFL learners graduate students of social sciences SS and basic applied sciences SA at Çukurova University The study also targets to compare the two groups in terms of strategy use in order to observe if there are any differences in the use of strategy type The strategy types to be dealt with here are metacognitive cognitive and social affective Key Words: Language Learning Strategies Learnin...

  4. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative learning strategies based on word networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue-Tian-Yi; Jia, Zi-Yang; Tang, Yong; Xiong, Jason Jie; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Learning English requires a considerable effort, but the way that vocabulary is introduced in textbooks is not optimized for learning efficiency. With the increasing population of English learners, learning process optimization will have significant impact and improvement towards English learning and teaching. The recent developments of big data analysis and complex network science provide additional opportunities to design and further investigate the strategies in English learning. In this paper, quantitative English learning strategies based on word network and word usage information are proposed. The strategies integrate the words frequency with topological structural information. By analyzing the influence of connected learned words, the learning weights for the unlearned words and dynamically updating of the network are studied and analyzed. The results suggest that quantitative strategies significantly improve learning efficiency while maintaining effectiveness. Especially, the optimized-weight-first strategy and segmented strategies outperform other strategies. The results provide opportunities for researchers and practitioners to reconsider the way of English teaching and designing vocabularies quantitatively by balancing the efficiency and learning costs based on the word network.

  6. The surface learned from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H.; Kim, W. D.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, I would like to introduce the emerging surface of nature. The surface in nature, has the multi and optimized function with well organized structure. There are so many examples that we learn and apply to technology. First example is self-cleaning surface. Some plants (such as lotus leaf, taro leaf) and the wings of many large-winged insects (such as moth, butterfly, dragonfly) remain their surface clean in the very dirty environment. This self cleaning effect is accomplished by the superhydrophobic surfaces which exhibit the water contact angle of more than 150° with low sliding angle. Generally, the superhydrophobic surface is made up the two factors. One is the surface composition having the low surface tension energy. The other is the surface morphology of hierarchical structure of micro and nano size. Because almost nature surface have the hierarchical structures range from macro to nano size, their topography strength their function to adjust the life in nature environment. The other example is the surface to use for drag reduction. The skin friction drag causes eruptions of air or water resulting in greater drag as the speed is increased. This drag requires more energy to overcome. The shark skin having the fine sharp-edged grooves about 0.1 mm wide known riblet reduces in skin friction drag by being far away the vortex. Among a lot of fuctional surface, the most exciting surface the back of stenocara a kind of desert beetles. Stenocara use the micrometre-sized patterns of hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions on their backs to capture water from fog. This fog-collecting structure improves the water collection of fog-capture film, condenser, engine, and future building. Here, the efforts to realize these emerging functional surfaces in nature on technology are reported with the fabrication method and their properties, especially for the control of surface wettability.

  7. Language Learning Strategy Use and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafournia, Narjes

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the differences across the varying levels of EFL learners in the frequency and choice of learning strategies. Using a reading test, questionnaire, and parametric statistical analysis, the findings yielded up discrepancies among the participants in the implementation of language-learning strategies concerning their…

  8. Teaching Strategies to Improve Algebra Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiek, Rose Mary; Larson, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student learning is the primary goal of every teacher of algebra. Teachers seek strategies to help all students learn important algebra content and develop mathematical practices. The new Institute of Education Sciences[IES] practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students"…

  9. Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Diana

    2015-01-01

    "Teaching and Learning Strategies" is a practical guide for pre-service teachers who know and understand the content of the curriculum and are looking for additional tools to teach it effectively. This book will help students to develop a comprehensive knowledge of teaching and learning strategies, which is essential in ensuring lessons…

  10. Counselling strategies for students learning and career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling strategies for students learning and career development in secondary schools in Nigeria. ... These counselling strategies can promote learning and explore career decisions and choices for personal satisfaction and happiness. Career development is a life-long process and could be promoted with effective ...

  11. Exploration of Learning Strategies Associated With Aha Learning Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2016-01-01

    Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments.

  12. Mutual Learning in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    Mutual learning among the Member States is the primary purpose of the employment policy of the European Union. The two most important questions in this regard are how learning occurs and how much learning takes place. In this article I argue that the existing analyses of the effects of learning...... in the European employment strategy have been either determined by the sender's interests or have underestimated how mutual learning between countries takes place. In stead the article develops a constructivist approach to learning and uses it to generate some concrete hypothesis about when learning in committees...... is most likely to take place. Afterwards, this constructivist approach is used to analyse the institutional framework surrounding the European employment strategy in order to evaluate whether the potential for learning is optimal. Finally, the article concludes that even though some basic premises...

  13. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  14. Strategies for optimizing DNA hybridization on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravan, Hadi; Kashanian, Soheila; Sanadgol, Nima; Badoei-Dalfard, Arastoo; Karami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Specific and predictable hybridization of the polynucleotide sequences to their complementary counterparts plays a fundamental role in the rational design of new nucleic acid nanodevices. Generally, nucleic acid hybridization can be performed using two major strategies, namely hybridization of DNA or RNA targets to surface-tethered oligonucleotide probes (solid-phase hybridization) and hybridization of the target nucleic acids to randomly distributed probes in solution (solution-phase hybridization). Investigations into thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of these two strategies showed that hybridization on surfaces is less favorable than that of the same sequence in solution. Indeed, the efficiency of DNA hybridization on surfaces suffers from three constraints: (1) electrostatic repulsion between DNA strands on the surface, (2) steric hindrance between tethered DNA probes, and (3) nonspecific adsorption of the attached oligonucleotides to the solid surface. During recent years, several strategies have been developed to overcome the problems associated with DNA hybridization on surfaces. Optimizing the probe surface density, application of a linker between the solid surface and the DNA-recognizing sequence, optimizing the pH of DNA hybridization solutions, application of thiol reagents, and incorporation of a polyadenine block into the terminal end of the recognizing sequence are among the most important strategies for enhancing DNA hybridization on surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Students’ Learning Strategies for Developing Speaking Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan A. Gani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to study the learning strategies used by both low and high performance speaking students in developing their speaking skills as well as the differences between the learning strategies used by both groups of learners. The reason for conducting this research was the fact that the competency of many students in speaking English was still considered unsatisfactory in Banda Aceh. We postulated that one aspect involved in the process of developing speaking skills was the learning strategies used by the learners. In this study, the data was collected through field research by means of documents, questionnaires, and interviews. The result of this study indicated that high performance speaking students had better balance in using all kinds of learning strategies (memory, cognitive, compensatory, metacognitive, affective, and social for enhancing their speaking skills; the same could not be found with low performance speaking students. Besides, the high performance students employed more learning strategies consciously and appropriately compared to the low performance students. Based on the research results, it is suggested that students should be trained to be more aware of their own speaking learning strategies. They should use appropriate language learning strategies more consciously, purposefully, and frequently to be more successful in developing their speaking skills.

  17. Mutual Learning in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    in the European employment strategy have been either determined by the sender's interests or have underestimated how mutual learning between countries takes place. In stead the article develops a constructivist approach to learning and uses it to generate some concrete hypothesis about when learning in committees...... is most likely to take place. Afterwards, this constructivist approach is used to analyse the institutional framework surrounding the European employment strategy in order to evaluate whether the potential for learning is optimal. Finally, the article concludes that even though some basic premises...

  18. Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbing, Jana; Koidl, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Abbing, J. & Koidl, K. (2006). Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  19. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  20. Learning Strategies-A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    better long-term retention of materials than a control treatment . Techniques are described. Diekhoff, G. M. (1982, September). How to teach how to learn... Dyslexia . Baltimore, MD: York Press. Cook, L.K. & Mayer, R.E. (1983). Reading strategies training for meaningful learning from prose. In M. Pressley

  1. Motivation and Its Relationship with Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunzhen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates motivation that influences heritage and non-heritage students' learning of Chinese, and its relationship with Chinese language learning strategies (LLS). The study uses Deci and Ryan's typology--"Intrinsic Motivation" and "Extrinsic Motivation", for the investigation, examining issues such as: (1) What…

  2. The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Regina G.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory,…

  3. Management Strategies for Promoting Teacher Collective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…

  4. Using Technology to Support Visual Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Blanche; Puckett, Kathleen; Rakes, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    Visual learning is a strategy for visually representing the structure of information and for representing the ways in which concepts are related. Based on the work of Ausubel, these hierarchical maps facilitate student learning of unfamiliar information in the K-12 classroom. This paper presents the research base for this Type II computer tool, as…

  5. Relationship between Learning Strategies and Academic Achievement in Medical College and Graduate Medical School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hong-Im; Jeon, Woo Tack; Yang, Eunbae B

    2010-09-01

    Cognitive researchers assume that learning strategies are related to three types of learning processes: 'surface learning,' 'strategy learning,' and 'deep learning.' A 'deep learning' approach is widely accepted to be associated with long-term success in medical school, contributing to the development of doctors who take desirable approaches to self-directed learning and studying in medical practice. Therefore, this study measured how medical students learn and determined whether the use of learning strategies differs between high and low academic performers. In addition, we compared medical college students with graduate medical school students with regard to the use of learning strategies. To explore the learning strategies of students and their relation to academic achievement, we performed LIST (Learning Strategies in Higher Education Inventory) in a sample of 111 Year 1 medical students. Medical students with high academic performance scored higher in most learning strategies than low performers. Additionally, learning strategies were used more frequently by graduate medical school students than medical students, specifically with regard to organization, elaboration, critical thinking, and time management. We conclude that learning strategy instruments provide information that enables medical students to optimize their study. To foster deep learning and intrinsic motivation in students, it might also be necessary to adopt more changes in teaching and assessment in medical schools.

  6. Learning Strategies at Work and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemer, Hannah Deborah; Borges-Andrade, Jairo Eduardo; Cassiano, Simone Kelli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the prediction of current and evolutionary perceptions of professional development through five learning strategies at work and through training and how individual and job characteristics predict those strategies. Design/methodology/approach: Variables were measured in a cross-sectional survey, with 962…

  7. TRAINING OF LEARNING STRATEGIES IN WRITING ESSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Edi Winarto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Writing essay is still considered difficult for English students to master. The students are expected to be able to express their ideas correctly without making any chance of messages to be misinterpreted by the readers; therefore, they have to know and use the best or the most appropriate ways to write. The purpose of writing this article is to introduce learning strategies and the possibility of training of learning strategies in writing essay to English students. The first strategy is integration of strategy with the process of writing essay: pre-writing, writing draft, and post-writing activities. The second is training learning strategies, such as memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, affective, and social strategies to students to make writing essay easier, faster, more enjoyable, more effective, and more self-directed to achieve the desired result in their writing. To get better result of improvement, the model of training of learning strategies in writing essay should be applied and developed based on the appropriateness of teachers, learners, subjects, and situations.

  8. Language Learning Strategies of Multilingual Adults Learning Additional Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Violetta

    2017-01-01

    The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…

  9. [Learning strategies and computer lectures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Pascale; Marchand, Claire; Crozet, Cyril

    2012-12-01

    French nurse schools use more and more frequently scanned lecture courses because of their partnership with universities. This study was aimed to identify the training strategies set up by nursing students with regard to lecture courses given by CD-ROM/DVD, as well as their perceptions of such an educational system. 88 nursing students (second semester) answered a questionnaire; 62 were collected, from which a frequency study was led. Students attempt to set up in-depth training strategies but do not succeed significantly and spare much efforts. It does result discouragement with lack of motivation in regard to their training. Using CD-ROM without adapted didactic environment disturb the development of requested training strategies compared to socio-constructivist principles it does refer to.

  10. Language Learning Strategies of EFL College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Furwana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were (1 to investigate the most dominant language learning strategies (LLS used by sixth semester students of English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty at UIN Alauddin Makassar and (2 to find out the differences of using LLS between high achieving students and low achieving students. The result of the quantitative data through questionnaire showed that (1 metacognitive strategies was the most dominant LLS used, and (2 the high achieving students used metacognitive strategies with the highest preference and low achieving students used compensation strategies with the highest preference. The result of the qualitative data through think aloud showed that (1 the most dominant LLS employed by students were listening music, utilizing time for practicing and self-evaluating, (2 the most dominant LLS used by high achieving students were utilizing time for practicing, practicing English together and self-evaluating, whereas the most dominant LLS used by low achieving students were listening music, asking friend and selecting topic. The data were collected through documentation used to classify high achieving students and low achieving students based on their grade point average. It is concluded that the most dominant language learning strategies employed by students was metacognitive strategies. High achieving students employed different strategy than low achieving students. High achieving students used learning strategies more frequently than low achieving students.

  11. RECOGNIZING PERSONAL LEARNING STYLES AND USING LEARNING STRATEGIES WHILE LEARNING ENGLISH IN AN ELECTRONIC ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Jurickova, Radka

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of language skills among academics of VSB-Technical University of Ostrava in an LMS Moodle e-learning environment with regard to individual learning styles and strategies while learning a foreign language. A student’s individual learning style plays an essential role in effective foreign language acquisition, therefore recognizing their own learning style and using the right strategies to reinforce their particular curriculum can lead to effective learning...

  12. Hi-Tek Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Selman; Jerry Selman

    2011-01-01

    Unorthodox ways currently used in colleges to accelerate the velocity of learning are reviewed. To augment persuasion and articulation ability of business school students, stand-up comedy is used (University of Chicago). Song writing, storytelling and improvisation (VanderbiltUniversity-Owens Management), and for Shakespearean motivation for other management skills at the corporate execu-tive level (Northrup Grumman). Food chow-down, before and during classes, including pizza and chocolate ca...

  13. [Motivation and learning strategies in pediatric residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Carrada-Legaria, Sol; Reyes-Lagunes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is an internal mood that moves individuals to act, points them in certain directions, and maintains them in activities, playing a very important role in self-regulated learning and academic performance. Our objective was to evaluate motivation and self-regulation of knowledge in pediatric residents in a third-level hospital, and to determine if there are differences according to the type of specialty and sociodemographic variables. All residents who agreed to participate responded to the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Cronbach alpha was performed to determine reliability. The mean value of each subscale was compared with Student's t test or ANOVA, correlation of subscales with Pearson test. A value of p≤0.05 was considered significant. We included 118 residents. The questionnaire was highly reliable (α=0.939). There were no significant differences in motivation or learning strategies according to sex, marital status, or age. Those residents studying a second or third specialization had significantly higher scores in elaboration, critical thinking, and peer learning. There were significant correlations between intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy with the development of knowledge strategies such as elaboration, critical thinking, and metacognitive self-regulation. Our students present average-to-high scores of motivation and knowledge strategies, with a significant difference according to type of specialization. There is a high correlation between motivation and knowledge strategies.

  14. Learning how to learn: Meta-learning strategies for the challenges of learning pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Nursing students have difficulty with pharmacology courses because of the complicated nomenclature and the difficulty of applying drug information to actual patient care. As part of a new pharmacology course being created, meta-learning strategies designed to diminish the difficulties of learning this difficult content were part of the course pedagogy. Strategies were demonstrated, reviewed in class, and implemented through homework assignments. The setting was an Academic Health Center's School of Nursing in the southern United States. Participants were third-year nursing students in an undergraduate nursing program. Surveys of students' opinions of learning gains were conducted at the end of the course over several semesters. In addition, pharmacology scores on a standardized exit exam were compared prior to implementing the course and after. Students reported learning dry material more easily, having greater confidence, and finding substantial value in the learning strategies. Students indicated the most helpful strategies, in descending order, as follows: making charts to compare and contrast drugs and drug classes, writing out drug flash cards, making or reviewing creative projects, prioritizing information, making or using visual study aids, and using time and repetition to space learning. Implementation of the new course improved pharmacology scores on a standardized exit exam from 67.0% to 74.3%. Overall response to learning strategies was positive, and the increase in the pharmacology standardized exit exam scores demonstrated the effectiveness of this instructional approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Teaching strategies developing competence to learn

    OpenAIRE

    Špalová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Essay discusses teaching strategies to learn non-native-speaking pupils at Czech basic schools whose language competencies are not developed enough to handle common classes during the process of education. Author suggests using of special working-papers helping them to overcome the language barrier and to extend their knowledge of specific school subjects. KEYWORDS: instructional strategy, teaching methods, working-papers, non-native-speaking pupils

  16. Language Learning Strategies of EFL College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Furwana

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the research were (1) to investigate the most dominant language learning strategies (LLS) used by sixth semester students of English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty at UIN Alauddin Makassar and (2) to find out the differences of using LLS between high achieving students and low achieving students. The result of the quantitative data through questionnaire showed that (1) metacognitive strategies was the most dominant LLS used, and (2) the high achieving students used metacogni...

  17. Evaluation of teaching and learning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Lechner

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing awareness of the importance of teaching and learning in universities and the need to move towards evidence-based teaching, it behooves the professions to re-examine their educational research methodology. While the what, how and why of student learning have become more explicit, the professions still struggle to find valid methods of evaluating the explosion of new innovation in teaching/learning strategies. This paper discusses the problems inherent in applying traditional experimental design techniques to advances in educational practice.

  18. Parallel strategy for optimal learning in perceptrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neirotti, J P

    2010-01-01

    We developed a parallel strategy for learning optimally specific realizable rules by perceptrons, in an online learning scenario. Our result is a generalization of the Caticha-Kinouchi (CK) algorithm developed for learning a perceptron with a synaptic vector drawn from a uniform distribution over the N-dimensional sphere, so called the typical case. Our method outperforms the CK algorithm in almost all possible situations, failing only in a denumerable set of cases. The algorithm is optimal in the sense that it saturates Bayesian bounds when it succeeds.

  19. Who Knows? Metacognitive Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    To make good use of learning from others (social learning), we need to learn from the right others; from agents who know better than we do. Research on social learning strategies (SLSs) has identified rules that focus social learning on the right agents, and has shown that the behaviour of many animals conforms to these rules. However, it has not asked what the rules are made of, that is, about the cognitive processes implementing SLSs. Here, I suggest that most SLSs depend on domain-general, sensorimotor processes. However, some SLSs have the characteristics tacitly ascribed to all of them. These metacognitive SLSs represent 'who knows' in a conscious, reportable way, and have the power to promote cultural evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategies for Better Learning of English Grammar: Chinese vs. Thais

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supakorn, Patnarin; Feng, Min; Limmun, Wanida

    2018-01-01

    The success of language learning significantly depends on multiple sets of complex factors; among these are language-learning strategies of which learners in different countries may show different preferences. Needed areas of language learning strategy research include, among others, the strategy of grammar learning and the context-based approach…

  1. Blackboxing: social learning strategies and cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-05-05

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) enable humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents to make adaptive decisions aboutwhenthey should copy other agents, andwhothey should copy. Behavioural ecologists and economists have discovered an impressive range of SLSs, and explored their likely impact on behavioural efficiency and reproductive fitness while using the 'phenotypic gambit'; ignoring, or remaining deliberately agnostic about, the nature and origins of the cognitive processes that implement SLSs. Here I argue that this 'blackboxing' of SLSs is no longer a viable scientific strategy. It has contributed, through the 'social learning strategies tournament', to the premature conclusion that social learning is generally better than asocial learning, and to a deep puzzle about the relationship between SLSs and cultural evolution. The puzzle can be solved by recognizing that whereas most SLSs are 'planetary'--they depend on domain-general cognitive processes--some SLSs, found only in humans, are 'cook-like'--they depend on explicit, metacognitive rules, such ascopy digital natives. These metacognitive SLSs contribute to cultural evolution by fostering the development of processes that enhance the exclusivity, specificity, and accuracy of social learning. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Applying learning strategy questionnaires: problems and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellings, G.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In ‘multi-method’ research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their

  3. Identifying Language Learning Strategies: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    This is a small scale, inductive, ethnographic study whose objective is to explore the language learning strategies used by the students of different languages at a language program at the university level. Students of English, French, Portuguese, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Italian, and German participate in the study. Three instruments are used…

  4. Facilitating vocabulary learning through metacognitive strategy training and learning journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Luz Trujillo Becerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a mixed- method action research study carried out with participants from three public high schools in different regions in Colombia: Bogotá, Orito and Tocaima.  The overall aim of this study was to analyze whether training in the use of metacognitive strategies (MS through learning journals could improve the participants’ vocabulary learning. The data, collected mainly through students’ learning journals, teachers’ field notes, questionnaires and mind maps, was analyzed following the principles of grounded theory. The results suggested that the training helped participants to develop metacognitive awareness of their vocabulary learning process and their lexical competence regarding daily routines.  Participants also displayed some improvements in critical thinking and self-directed attitudes that could likewise benefit their vocabulary learning. Finally, the study proposes that training in metacognitive and vocabulary strategies should be implemented in language classrooms to promote a higher degree of student control over learning and to facilitate the transference of these strategies to other areas of knowledge.

  5. Individual strategies in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Ingmar; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2009-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been used extensively to study theories of learning, but compelling conclusions cannot be drawn without an analysis of individual strategies. We describe a new statistical method for doing so, based on the increasingly popular framework of latent variable models, which is especially suited to capture heterogeneity in participants' responses. We applied the method of latent class regression models, in which the intercept and regression coefficients can have different values in different latent groups of participants; each latent group represents different reliance on the potentially available sources of knowledge in AGL, such as grammaticality and fragment overlap. The results indicate that grammaticality and fragment overlap can be understood as distinct aspects of learning performance, as evidenced by different groups of participants adopting predominantly one or the other strategy in a series of comparable datasets from AGL studies.

  6. Subsistence styles shape human social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Luke; Molleman, Lucas

    2017-04-28

    Social learning is a fundamental element of human cognition. Learning from others facilitates the transmission of information that helps individuals and groups rapidly adjust to new environments and underlies adaptive cultural evolution1-6. While basic human propensities for social learning are traditionally assumed to be species-universal1,7, recent empirical studies show that they vary between individuals and populations8-13. Yet the causes of this variation remain poorly understood9. Here we show that interdependence in everyday social and economic activities can strongly amplify social learning. With an experimental decision-making task we examine individual versus social learning in three recently diverged populations of a single-ethnic group, whose subsistence styles require varying degrees of interdependence. Interdependent pastoralists and urban dwellers have markedly higher propensities for social learning than independent horticulturalists, who predominantly rely on individual payoff information. These results indicate that everyday social and economic practices can mould human social learning strategies and they highlight the flexibility of human cognition to change with local ecology. Our study further suggests that shifts in subsistence styles - which can occur when humans inhabit new habitats or cultural niches2 - can alter reliance on social learning and may therefore impact the ability of human societies to adapt to novel circumstances.

  7. Regulating approaches to learning: Testing learning strategy convergences across a year at university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K; Vermunt, Jan D

    2018-03-01

    Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences. Develop and test a person-centred longitudinal model of learning strategies across the first-year university experience. Japanese university students (n = 933) completed surveys (deep and surface approaches to learning; self, external, and lack of regulation) at the beginning and end of their first year. Following invariance and cross-sectional tests, latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was undertaken. Initial difference testing supported small but significant differences for self-/external regulation. Fit indices supported a four-group model, consistent across both measurement points. These subgroups were labelled Low Quality (low deep approaches and self-regulation), Low Quantity (low strategy use generally), Average (moderate strategy use), and High Quantity (intense use of all strategies) strategies. The stability of these groups ranged from stable to variable: Average (93% stayers), Low Quality (90% stayers), High Quantity (72% stayers), and Low Quantity (40% stayers). The three largest transitions presented joint shifts in processing/regulation strategy preference across the year, from adaptive to maladaptive and vice versa. Person-centred longitudinal findings presented patterns of learning transitions that different students experience during their first year at university. Stability/variability of students' strategy use was linked to the nature of initial subgroup membership. Findings also indicated strong connections between processing and regulation strategy changes across first-year university experiences. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  8. Introducing the Strategy of Lifelong Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Jelenc

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This year was announced the Y ear of Lifelong Learning by the European Union. If we want to make good use of all the advantages brought by information society the information revolution must be accompanied by the revolution in learning; this the learning capacity of the en tire population will be increased. True adoption of the lifelong learning strategy means changing educational system drastically, especially eliminating the presen! monopoly of school education. Thus the institutions whose primary activity is not education (e. g. enterprises, cultural and research institutions, associations, voluntary organizations, organized groups should be equally acknowledged as educators. Knowledge is of crucial importance for Slovenia. Although we have strong schooling tradition, much can be achieved in the field of non-formal education by reasonable and sustained policy. Various study groups, "knowledge agency" and centres for organized autonomous learning are active in our country. In orderto forma holistic lifelong learning strategy in Slovenia adult education should be included in the educational system, adequate management achieved, adequate education legislation passed and/or the present one supplemented, the network of performers and programmes defined, new centres for adult education developed as well as adequate personnel trained.

  9. Maximing Learning Strategies to Promote Learner Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning a new language is ultimately to be able to communicate with it. Encouraging a sense of responsibility on the part of the learners is crucial for training them to be proficient communicators. As such, understanding the strategies that they employ in acquiring the language skill is important to come to ideas of how to promote learner autonomy. Research recently conducted with three different groups of learners of English at the tertiary education level in Malang indicated that they used metacognitive and social startegies at a high frequency, while memory, cognitive, conpensation, and affective strategies were exercised at a medium frewuency. This finding implies that the learners have acquired some degrees of autonomy because metacognive strategies requires them to independently make plans for their learning activities as well as evaluate the progress, and social strategies requires them to independently enhance communicative interactions with other people. Further actions are then to be taken increase their learning autonomy, that is by intensifying the practice of use of the other four strategy categories, which are not yet applied intensively.

  10. Developing and Evaluating a Strategy for Learning from Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombartzky, Uwe; Ploetzner, Rolf; Schlag, Sabine; Metz, Berthold

    2010-01-01

    Based on current theories of multimedia learning, we propose a strategy for learning from animations. Two different experimental studies were conducted in order to evaluate the strategy. In the first study, 22 sixth graders learned from an animation without the strategy while 21 students were encouraged to make use of the proposed strategy during…

  11. Metacognitive strategies in learning sight-singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of a wider study that is based on interdisciplinary research of sight-singing (psychology and music education. Our intention was to join the psychological knowledge of cognitive processes on the one hand, and the practical approach of music teachers, based on methods, techniques and procedures of mastering sight-reading-singing skills on the other. We aimed: 1. to determine the kinds and levels of strategies that music students use in the cognitive processes involved during sight-singing; 2. to explore strategies of problem solving when difficulties appear; 3. to investigate the self-evaluation perspectives of students; and 4. to relate students' learning experience to the strategies used. The sample consisted of 89 music students from higher music education in Belgrade and The Hague. They filled in the questionnaire based on self-reports, covering general data about their music education background, different issues of sight-singing, such as planning, problem solving, monitoring and evaluation of outcomes, and three melodic examples written in different musical styles. Results showed that strategies used during sight-singing can be roughly sorted into three groups that differ according to the 'key accent' given: cognitive, intuitive and no-strategy. The music cognitive strategies involved cover three levels of musical organization and representation: a relying on smaller chunks of the musical piece, referring to existing knowledge and learning experience; b leaning on a slightly 'bigger picture' of familiar patterns; and c mental representation of melodic/rhythmic/harmonic structures. When faced with a problem, half of the students employed analytic approaches. Comparisons between sub-samples showed, for example, that future performing musicians more often used 'tone-to-tone' thinking and 'bottom-up' strategies in approaching musical structure, while music theory students had better insight into the whole and used

  12. Do Young Learners Exploit the Same Learning Strategies as Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrozková, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Learning strategies are considered to be one of the key factors affecting the learning process, its effectiveness and study results. They are important for lifelong learning of foreign languages and as a learning skill they represent a priority in the process of European globalization and integration. Moreover, learning strategies as a foreign…

  13. The Relationships among Middle School Students' Motivational Orientations, Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintic-Gilbert, Megan S.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Haimovitz, Kyla

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which middle school students' (N = 90) learning strategies mediated the relationship between their motivational orientations and academic achievement. Survey data revealed that higher degrees of intrinsic motivation predicted the use of both deep and surface learning strategies, whereas higher degrees of…

  14. How People Learn in an Asynchronous Online Learning Environment: The Relationships between Graduate Students' Learning Strategies and Learning Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Beomkyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between learners' learning strategies and learning satisfaction in an asynchronous online learning environment. In an attempt to shed some light on how people learn in an online learning environment, one hundred and sixteen graduate students who were taking online learning courses…

  15. Task Demands in OSCEs Influence Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Alexandre; Laflamme, Jonathan; Leppink, Jimmie; Côté, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis"). When studying for HDPE, students will dedicate more time to hypothesis-driven discussions and practice than when studying for a part-task OSCE ("Perform the shoulder exam"). It is expected that the whole-task nature of HDPE will lead to a hypothesis-oriented use of the learning resources, a frequent use of adjustment strategies, and persistence with learning. In a mixed-methods study, 40 medical students were randomly paired and filmed while studying together for two hypothetical OSCE stations. Each 25-min study period began with video cues asking to study for either a part-task OSCE or an HDPE. In a crossover design, sequences were randomized for OSCEs and contents (shoulder or spine). Time-on-task for discussions or practice were categorized as "hypothesis-driven" or "sequence of signs and maneuvers." Content analysis of focus group interviews summarized students' perception of learning resources, adjustment strategies, and persistence with learning. When studying for HDPE, students allocate significantly more time for hypothesis-driven discussions and practice. Students use resources contrasting diagnoses and report persistence with learning. When studying for part-task OSCEs, time-on-task is reversed, spent on rehearsing a sequence of signs and maneuvers. OSCEs with

  16. Integrated Surface Power Strategy for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) study team evaluated surface power needs for a conceptual crewed 500-day Mars mission. This study had four goals: 1. Determine estimated surface power needed to support the reference mission; 2. Explore alternatives to minimize landed power system mass; 3. Explore alternatives to minimize Mars Lander power self-sufficiency burden; and 4. Explore alternatives to minimize power system handling and surface transportation mass. The study team concluded that Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) oxygen propellant production drives the overall surface power needed for the reference mission. Switching to multiple, small Kilopower fission systems can potentially save four to eight metric tons of landed mass, as compared to a single, large Fission Surface Power (FSP) concept. Breaking the power system up into modular packages creates new operational opportunities, with benefits ranging from reduced lander self-sufficiency for power, to extending the exploration distance from a single landing site. Although a large FSP trades well for operational complexity, a modular approach potentially allows Program Managers more flexibility to absorb late mission changes with less schedule or mass risk, better supports small precursor missions, and allows a program to slowly build up mission capability over time. A number of Kilopower disadvantages-and mitigation strategies-were also explored.

  17. Language Learning Strategies used by Students learning Kiswahili1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Success in learning a second language nevertheless an African language has proven a tremendous effort on the part of foreign adult learners enrolled in universities. Motivation and attitude as well as the strategies used by the learners themselves play an important role. However, the greatest challenge for this group of ...

  18. Situated Cognition and Strategies for Meaningful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Díaz Barriga Arceo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the principles underlying situated cognition linked to the Vygotskian sociocultural perspective, which state that situated cognition is both a part and the result of activity, context and culture. It highlights the importance of mediation, the joint construction of meaning and the mechanism of adapted assistance. There are examples of instructional approaches which vary in cultural relevance and the type of social activity they elicit. It also presents a number of meaningful learning strategies based on situated experiential teaching (authentic problem solving, learning while in service, case studies, projects, situated simulation, among others. Finally, the paper deals with the potentiality of empowerment.

  19. Investigation the Relationship among Language Learning Strategies, English Self-Efficacy, and Explicit Strategy Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship among EFL college learners' language learning strategies, English self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction from the perspectives of Social Cognitive Theory. Three constructs, namely language learning strategies, English learning self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction, were…

  20. Strategies of learning in the process of transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the learning and innovation strategies of manufacturing companies in the economies of transformation.......The paper deals with the learning and innovation strategies of manufacturing companies in the economies of transformation....

  1. Learning strategies during clerkships and their effects on clinical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lohuizen, M. T.; Kuks, J. B. M.; van Hell, E. A.; Raat, A. N.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous research revealed relationships between learning strategies and knowledge acquisition. During clerkships, however, students' focus widens beyond mere knowledge acquisition as they further develop overall competence. This shift in focus can influence learning strategy use. Aim:

  2. Improving Recall Using Database Management Systems: A Learning Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of microcomputer database management systems to facilitate the instructional uses of learning strategies relating to information processing skills, especially recall. Two learning strategies, cross-classification matrixing and node acquisition and integration, are highlighted. (Author/LRW)

  3. EXPLORING STAIN PEKALONGAN STUDENTS’ STRATEGIES IN LEARNING ENGLISH LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Tuti Hastuti

    2014-01-01

    This study explored college students’strategies in learning English language. Two questions were presented. The first question is what strategies are used by the students in learning English language and the second question is how do the students use strategies in learning English language. To answer the first question, 49 college students gave respond on Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) questionnaire. Then, to answer the last question, five students participated in Think Aloud...

  4. Civic Engagement and Organizational Learning Strategies for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tami L.; Mendez, Jesse P.

    2014-01-01

    Students succeed in college by engaging with faculty, peers, and the community. Institutional leaders can utilize organizational learning strategies to learn what works to support civic learning outcomes and student success.

  5. Learning rational temporal eye movement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A

    2016-07-19

    During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events.

  6. EXPLORING STAIN PEKALONGAN STUDENTS’ STRATEGIES IN LEARNING ENGLISH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Hastuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored college students’strategies in learning English language. Two questions were presented. The first question is what strategies are used by the students in learning English language and the second question is how do the students use strategies in learning English language. To answer the first question, 49 college students gave respond on Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL questionnaire. Then, to answer the last question, five students participated in Think Aloud Protocol (TAP sessions. The data analysis from SILL questionnaire showed that the students were medium user of strategies in learning English language. The strategies then ranked from social strategies, followed by metacognitive, cognitive, affective, compensation, and memory strategies at the latter posi- tion. Then, to find out how the students use strategies in learning English language, think aloud protocol (TAP sessions presented that the students made use of three major strategies in learning English language cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, and compensation strategies. These three strategies were used by the students in three different activities (understanding reading passage, dealing with unfamiliar words or phrases and self-awareness as the study was limited to reading skills. In conclusion, the students made use of different strategies when doing particular task given to them. At this point, students in some ways have the ability to learn by themselves, that is by using strategies as lecturers cannot always facilitate students’ learning, especially when lecturers teach large classes.

  7. Memory Strategy Instruction, Contextual Learning and ESP Vocabulary Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, Derin; Ozbulgan, Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in vocabulary learning strategies given that they are found to facilitate second/foreign language vocabulary learning and recall. As many learners do not develop sufficient mastery of the strategy repertoire, explicit instruction on vocabulary learning strategies may help them to become…

  8. Learning Strategy Preference and Personality Type: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Gary J.; McNeil, Rita C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of learning strategy preference to personality type. Learning strategy preference was identified with the "A"ssessing "T"he "L"earning Strategies of "A"dult"S" (ATLAS), and personality type was measured with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The…

  9. The Influence of Pronunciation Learning Strategies on Mastering English Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokoszewska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the role of strategies in learning the pronunciation of the target language. First, an outline of various general classifications of language learning strategies is provided. Next, pronunciation learning strategies are defined and their various taxonomies are presented. This is followed by the description of the study…

  10. Mental Time Travel, Memory and the Social Learning Strategies Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, L.; Rendell, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    The social learning strategies tournament was an open computer-based tournament investigating the best way to learn in a changing environment. Here we present an analysis of the impact of memory on the ability of strategies entered into the social learning strategies tournament (Rendell, Boyd, et al., 2010) to modify their own behavior to suit a…

  11. Metacognition and Successful Learning Strategies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railean, Elena, Ed.; Alev Elçi, Ed.; Elçi, Atilla, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Metacognition plays an important role in numerous aspects of higher educational learning strategies. When properly integrated in the educational system, schools are better equipped to build more efficient and successful learning strategies for students in higher education. "Metacognition and Successful Learning Strategies in Higher…

  12. How Instructional Strategies Impact Students' Learning, Motivation, and Learning Strategies in Introductory Geology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D.; Budd, D. A.; Stempien, J. A.; Kraft, K.; Matheney, R. K.; McConnell, D.; Wirth, K. R.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Geoscience Affective Research Network (GARNET) quantified the relationship between classroom teaching styles, student learning, and students’ motivations and attitudes for 14 different instructors at 2 community colleges, a private college, and 4 large public universities. Instruction was characterized with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP). The 0-100 scale reflects the span between traditional instructor-centered lecture and interactive, student-centered courses. Every participating instructor was observed at least twice. Student learning was measured using a 15-question concept inventory (CI) focused on geologic time and plate tectonics. Twelve questions were from the Geologic Concept Inventory of Libarkin and Anderson (2005) and 3 questions were added on relative time. Students’ affective domain was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), 81 questions that define 15 motivation and cognitive subcategories. 1152 students completed both surveys in the 2nd and 14th weeks of their class during the 2008-2010 academic years. RTOP scores ranged from 19 to 87. Learning gains ranged from 18.6% to 47.4% with students learning significantly more from instructors with higher RTOP scores. Learning gains and RTOP positively covary (R2 = 0.67). Adjusting for questions on which students scored high prior to instruction (>90% correct), results in an even stronger relationship (R2 = 0.89). Higher RTOP scores correlate to significant declines in many aspects of student motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic goals, task value, control of learning, and effort regulation). Declines occur mainly in lower and/or middle performing students as measured by grades. The highest performing students only show declines with respect to their control of learning beliefs. Students’ self-efficacy also declines with increasing use of student-student interactions. Higher RTOP scores only exhibit positive correlations to a few aspects of

  13. The Communication Strategy Of Japanese Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Prasetiani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Communication Strategy is a systematic technique used by foreign language learners to express their ideas when faced with the difficulty of communicating because of the limitations of second language mastery. It also occurs in Japanese language learners at the basic level of the Department Education Japanese of Semarang State University. Primary Japanese language learners have passed the stage of mastery of simple-level linguistic rules, so they havea tendency to pursue in various ways to make their message acceptable. The characteristic of the communication form of the strategy is that students directly translate an utterance literally in the concept of their mother tongue and use the terminology in the mother tongue and English in Japanese utterance. The reasons that influence the use of these communication strategies are that students' grammar and vocabulary skills are insufficient to communicate in various fields as they are still in the early learning stages.

  14. Using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning in Assessing Motivation and Learning Strategies of Generation 1.5 Korean Immigrant Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Stoffa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential of utilizing the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL as instruments in measuring Generation 1.5 students' motivation and their use of language learning strategies. The MSLQ was of particular interest because it contains both a basic motivation subscale as well as a motivation/language learning strategies subscale. Participants of this study were 104 Generation 1.5 Korean immigrant students who were members of Korean communities located in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Participants provided general demographic information and completed both scales in a counterbalanced manner. Results indicated that while the two scales do have some similar content, the scales do not overlap entirely and appeared to measure two discrete indices. Results also indicated that a moderate correlation between MSLQ learning strategies and SILL learning strategies was found as well as between the SILL total score and the MSLQ total score.

  15. Latent Class Analysis of Students' Mathematics Learning Strategies and the Relationship between Learning Strategy and Mathematical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Su-Wei; Tai, Wen-Chun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how various mathematics learning strategies affect the mathematical literacy of students. The data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) data of Taiwan. The PISA learning strategy survey contains three types of learning strategies: elaboration, control, and…

  16. Explanation and generalization in young children's strategy learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, K; Siegler, R S

    1999-01-01

    Children often learn new problem-solving strategies by observing examples of other people's problem-solving. When children learn a new strategy through observation and also explain the new strategy to themselves, they generalize the strategy more widely than children who learn a new strategy but do not explain. We tested three hypothesized mechanisms through which explanations might facilitate strategy generalization: more accurate recall of the new strategy's procedures; increased selection of the new strategy over competing strategies; or more effective management of the new strategy's goal structure. Findings supported the third mechanism: Explanations facilitated generalization through the creation of novel goal structures that enabled children to persist in use of the new strategy despite potential interference from competing strategies. The facilitative effect of explanation did vary with children's age and did not vary between explanations children created by themselves versus explanations they learned from the experimenter.

  17. Not-so-social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia; Pearce, John M

    2015-03-07

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) are rules specifying the conditions in which it would be adaptive for animals to copy the behaviour of others rather than to persist with a previously established behaviour or to acquire a new behaviour through asocial learning. In behavioural ecology, cultural evolutionary theory and economics, SLSs are studied using a 'phenotypic gambit'-from a purely functional perspective, without reference to their underlying psychological mechanisms. However, SLSs are described in these fields as if they were implemented by complex, domain-specific, genetically inherited mechanisms of decision-making. In this article, we suggest that it is time to begin investigating the psychology of SLSs, and we initiate this process by examining recent experimental work relating to three groups of strategies: copy when alternative unsuccessful, copy when model successful and copy the majority. In each case, we argue that the reported behaviour could have been mediated by domain-general and taxonomically general psychological mechanisms; specifically, by mechanisms, identified through conditioning experiments, that make associative learning selective. We also suggest experimental manipulations that could be used in future research to resolve more fully the question whether, in non-human animals, SLSs are mediated by domain-general or domain-specific psychological mechanisms. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of sensory experience on motor learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shou-Han; Oetomo, Denny; Tan, Ying; Mareels, Iven; Burdet, Etienne

    2015-02-15

    It is well known that the central nervous system automatically reduces a mismatch in the visuomotor coordination. Can the underlying learning strategy be modified by environmental factors or a subject's learning experiences? To elucidate this matter, two groups of subjects learned to execute reaching arm movements in environments with task-irrelevant visual cues. However, one group had previous experience of learning these movements using task-relevant visual cues. The results demonstrate that the two groups used different learning strategies for the same visual environment and that the learning strategy was influenced by prior learning experience. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Multidimensional (OLAP) Analysis for Designing Dynamic Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeva, A.; Deliyska, B.

    2010-10-01

    Learning strategy in an intelligent learning system is generally elaborated on the basis of assessment of the following factors: learner's time for reaction, content of the learning object, amount of learning material in a learning object, learning object specification, e-learning medium and performance control. Current work proposes architecture for dynamic learning strategy design by implementing multidimensional analysis model of learning factors. The analysis model concerns on-line analytical processing (OLAP) of learner's data structured as multidimensional cube. Main components of the architecture are analysis agent for performing the OLAP operations on learner data cube, adaptation generator and knowledge selection agent for performing adaptive navigation in the learning object repository. The output of the analysis agent is involved in dynamic elaboration of learning strategy that fits best to learners profile and behavior. As a result an adaptive learning path for individual learner and for learner groups is generated.

  20. [Relationship between self-directed learning with learning styles and strategies in medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ortega B, Javiera; Parra P, Paula; Ortiz M, Liliana; Matus B, Olga; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2014-11-01

    Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direction. Schmeck learning strategies scale and Honey and Alonso (CHAEA) scales were used to evaluate learning styles and strategies. Theoretical learning style and deep processing learning strategy had positive correlations with self-direct learning. Medical students with theoretical styles and low retention of facts are those with greater ability to self-direct their learning. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between learning styles and strategies with SDL in medical students. The acquired knowledge will allow the adjustment of teaching strategies to encourage SDL.

  1. Local Learning Strategies for Wake Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Alsalman, Mohamad; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Swimming agents, biological and engineered alike, must navigate the underwater environment to survive. Tasks such as autonomous navigation, foraging, mating, and predation require the ability to extract critical cues from the hydrodynamic environment. A substantial body of evidence supports the hypothesis that biological systems leverage local sensing modalities, including flow sensing, to gain knowledge of their global surroundings. The nonlinear nature and high degree of complexity of fluid dynamics makes the development of algorithms for implementing localized sensing in bioinspired engineering systems essentially intractable for many systems of practical interest. In this work, we use techniques from machine learning for training a bioinspired swimmer to learn from its environment. We demonstrate the efficacy of this strategy by learning how to sense global characteristics of the wakes of other swimmers measured only from local sensory information. We conclude by commenting on the advantages and limitations of this data-driven, machine learning approach and its potential impact on broader applications in underwater sensing and navigation.

  2. Learning Predictive Statistics: Strategies and Brain Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Shen, Yuan; Tino, Peter; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2017-08-30

    When immersed in a new environment, we are challenged to decipher initially incomprehensible streams of sensory information. However, quite rapidly, the brain finds structure and meaning in these incoming signals, helping us to predict and prepare ourselves for future actions. This skill relies on extracting the statistics of event streams in the environment that contain regularities of variable complexity from simple repetitive patterns to complex probabilistic combinations. Here, we test the brain mechanisms that mediate our ability to adapt to the environment's statistics and predict upcoming events. By combining behavioral training and multisession fMRI in human participants (male and female), we track the corticostriatal mechanisms that mediate learning of temporal sequences as they change in structure complexity. We show that learning of predictive structures relates to individual decision strategy; that is, selecting the most probable outcome in a given context (maximizing) versus matching the exact sequence statistics. These strategies engage distinct human brain regions: maximizing engages dorsolateral prefrontal, cingulate, sensory-motor regions, and basal ganglia (dorsal caudate, putamen), whereas matching engages occipitotemporal regions (including the hippocampus) and basal ganglia (ventral caudate). Our findings provide evidence for distinct corticostriatal mechanisms that facilitate our ability to extract behaviorally relevant statistics to make predictions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Making predictions about future events relies on interpreting streams of information that may initially appear incomprehensible. Past work has studied how humans identify repetitive patterns and associative pairings. However, the natural environment contains regularities that vary in complexity from simple repetition to complex probabilistic combinations. Here, we combine behavior and multisession fMRI to track the brain mechanisms that mediate our ability to adapt to

  3. Strategies of the Students' Learning at a Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Sobíšková, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the topic of the students' learning strategies at a primary school. The strategies are demonstrated at an example of a foreign language. Based on this example, more general rules for using strategies in other areas are being searched. The strategies are understood as specific steps and methods used in the learning process. They are anchored in the curriculum documents, in particular under the learning competence. The theoretical part of the thesis is based on ex...

  4. RECOGNIZING PERSONAL LEARNING STYLES AND USING LEARNING STRATEGIES WHILE LEARNING ENGLISH IN AN ELECTRONIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurickova, Radka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of language skills among academics of VSB-Technical University of Ostrava in an LMS Moodle e-learning environment with regard to individual learning styles and strategies while learning a foreign language. A student’s individual learning style plays an essential role in effective foreign language acquisition, therefore recognizing their own learning style and using the right strategies to reinforce their particular curriculum can lead to effective learning. The Department of Languages at the VSB-Technical University of Ostrava has decided to implement e-learning forms of education into English Language Teaching (ELT in the form of optimized adaptive e-courses. The paper describes the objective of providing an optimized adaptive e-learning environment respecting preferred learning styles with a narrower focus on the perceptual preferences (VAK of the presented curriculum and with regard to recommended learning strategies to be used while learning. This e-learning environment is being developed in accordance with the Common European Framework of References for Languages and its key language competences divided into two main categories: receptive skills and productive skills.

  5. [Teaching practices and learning strategies in health careers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Z, Constanza; Pérez V, Cristhian; Torres A, Graciela; Fasce H, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Medical Education, according to the constructivist education paradigm, puts students as the protagonists of the teaching and learning process. It demands changes in the practice of teaching. However, it is unclear whether this new model is coherent with the teachers’ ways to cope with learning. To analyze the relationship between teaching practices and learning strategies among teachers of health careers in Chilean universities. The Teaching Practices Questionnaire and Learning Strategies Inventory of Schmeck were applied to 200 teachers aged 24 to 72 years (64% females). Teachers use different types of teaching practices. They commonly use deep and elaborative learning strategies. A multiple regression analysis showed that learning strategies had a 13% predictive value to identify student-centered teaching, but they failed to predict teacher-centered teaching. Teaching practices and learning strategies of teachers are related. Teachers frequently select constructivist model strategies, using different teaching practices in their work.

  6. Learning strategies in table tennis using inverse reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelling, Katharina; Boularias, Abdeslam; Mohler, Betty; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Peters, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Learning a complex task such as table tennis is a challenging problem for both robots and humans. Even after acquiring the necessary motor skills, a strategy is needed to choose where and how to return the ball to the opponent's court in order to win the game. The data-driven identification of basic strategies in interactive tasks, such as table tennis, is a largely unexplored problem. In this paper, we suggest a computational model for representing and inferring strategies, based on a Markov decision problem, where the reward function models the goal of the task as well as the strategic information. We show how this reward function can be discovered from demonstrations of table tennis matches using model-free inverse reinforcement learning. The resulting framework allows to identify basic elements on which the selection of striking movements is based. We tested our approach on data collected from players with different playing styles and under different playing conditions. The estimated reward function was able to capture expert-specific strategic information that sufficed to distinguish the expert among players with different skill levels as well as different playing styles.

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Based Learning Environment for Teachers: Assessment of Learning Strategies in Learning Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Glogger, Inga; Holzäpfel, Lars; Kappich, Julian; Schwonke, Rolf; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Training teachers to assess important components of self-regulated learning such as learning strategies is an important, yet somewhat neglected, aspect of the integration of self-regulated learning at school. Learning journals can be used to assess learning strategies in line with cyclical process models of self-regulated learning, allowing for rich formative feedback. Against this background, we developed a computer-based learning environment (CBLE) that trains teachers to assess learning st...

  8. Effects of Self-Instructional Learning Strategy on Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of self-instructional learning strategy on students‟ achievement in solving Mathematical word problems. The research determined whether self-instructional learning strategy has significant effects on the learning achievement of senior secondary school students. Three research questions ...

  9. Learning Strategy Research--Where Are We Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Radha

    2009-01-01

    Learning strategy research has been very prolific and much has been written about the field and its importance to language learning. This paper traces the history and development of learning strategy research by anchoring it in the field of cognitive psychology in the early years from 1970 to 1990 before reviewing the varied and descriptive nature…

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies used by EFL Students: the Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 33 - 39 ... various strategies of vocabulary learning, and give them an equal chance to prefer the strategies so as to learn and practice new. English words to enhance their vocabulary knowledge. Although Jorgo Nole Preparatory School. (JNPS) students learn English for five periods per week for forty minutes in each ...

  11. Language Learning Strategies of Language e-Learners in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use of language learning strategies of e-learners and to understand whether there were any correlations between language learning strategies and academic achievement. Participants of the study were 274?e-learners, 132 males and 142 females, enrolled in an e-learning program from various majors and…

  12. Computer-based learning: games as an instructional strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J; Goodman, J

    1999-01-01

    Games are a creative teaching strategy that enhances learning and problem solving. Gaming strategies are being used by the authors to make learning interesting, stimulating and fun. This article focuses on the development and implementation of computer games as an instructional strategy. Positive outcomes have resulted from the use of games in the classroom.

  13. Monitoring and Depth of Strategy Use in Computer-Based Learning Environments for Science and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deekens, Victor M.; Greene, Jeffrey A.; Lobczowski, Nikki G.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Self-regulated learning (SRL) models position metacognitive monitoring as central to SRL processing and predictive of student learning outcomes (Winne & Hadwin, 2008; Zimmerman, 2000). A body of research evidence also indicates that depth of strategy use, ranging from surface to deep processing, is predictive of learning…

  14. Towards Professionalism in Music: Self-assessed Learning Strategies of Conservatory Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Virkkula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the current spearhead projects in Finnish education is learning to learn. Learning strategies have been examined from a variety of perspectives. They are policies that either promote or hinder learning. They are any behaviours or thoughts that facilitate encoding in such a way that knowledge integration and retrieval are enhanced. Strategies can be practiced and learnt. Direct and indirect learning strategies formed the model of defining music students’ self-assessed learning habits in this research. The strategies dealt with here are memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, affective and social strategies. Critical thinking strategies as well as deep and surface learning strategies were also observed. In this paper, a theoretical background and methodological solutions will first be presented. A significant finding comes from cross-professional collaboration of students, teachers, and professionals during the research period: it enhanced the use of strategies. Another finding, the profitable use of the workshop method, can be adopted by other fields of learning and make processes flexible and fruitful.

  15. TYPES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES USED BY TERTIARY ENGLISH MAJORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAN KHYE CHUIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford’s (1990 Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students’ perceptions of using language learning strategies while learning English. The results revealed that the English majors were generally high users of all six types of language learning strategies. The English majors were reported to use metacognitive strategies the most. The least preferred strategies among the English majors were memory strategies. Some of the students’ perceptions were positive as they perceived that language learning strategies developed their language competency and required a conscious and deliberate effort. Conversely, some negative perceptions illustrate that students had low awareness of language learning strategies and they believed that language learning strategies did not develop language competency and the usage did not require conscious effort. Research in this field should not cease from exploration in order to contribute towards the development of self-regulated language learners who have problem solving skills and are able to take control of their learning process.

  16. Effects of cooperative learning strategy on undergraduate kinesiology students' learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwsen, Harry J; King, George A; Pederson, Rockie

    2005-10-01

    A growing body of research supports cooperative learning as an effective teaching strategy. A specific cooperative learning strategy, Team-based Learning, was applied to a convenience sample of four undergraduate sophomore-level motor behavior courses over four semesters from Fall 2002 to Spring 2004 to examine whether this strategy would affect students' learning styles. The data from the Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Style Scales indicated that this teaching strategy was associated with a significant decrease in the negative Avoidant and Dependent learning styles and an improvement in the positive Participant learning style.

  17. A mediation analysis of achievement motives, goals, learning strategies, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-12-01

    Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. To investigate the relationship between achievement motives, achievement goals, learning strategies (deep, surface, and strategic), and academic achievement in a hierarchical model. Participants were 229 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.2 years) of psychology and economics at the University of Bergen, Norway. Variables were measured by means of items from the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS), the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students, and an achievement goal scale. Correlation analysis showed that academic achievement (examination grade) was positively correlated with performance-approach goal, mastery goal, and strategic learning strategies, and negatively correlated with performance-avoidance goal and surface learning strategy. A path analysis (structural equation model) showed that achievement goals were mediators between achievement motives and learning strategies, and that strategic learning strategies mediated the relationship between achievement goals and academic achievement. This study integrated previous findings from several studies and provided new evidence on the direct and indirect effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement.

  18. Optimizing the 3R study strategy to learn from text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijners, Pauline; Kester, Liesbeth; Wetzels, Sandra; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Reijners, P. B. G., Kester, L., Wetzels, S. A. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 29 May). Optimizing the 3R study strategy to learn from text. Presentation at plenary meeting Learning & Cogntion, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  19. Optimizing the 3R Study Strategy to Learn from Text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijners, Pauline; Kester, Liesbeth; Wetzels, Sandra; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Learning from text is often very difficult for students. In this presentation the results of a study with the 3R study strategy are presented in which possible mechanisms for stimulating successful text learning are discussed.

  20. Learning Strategies and Emotional Regulation of Pedagogy Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bortoletto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the learning strategies and emotional regulation of 298 students of private and public university teacher formation courses of a city in Minas Gerais state. The study also examined the joint contribution of emotional regulation, age group and year of the course on the learning strategies scores of the participants. The participants were of both sexes, ranging from 18 to 54 years of age and enrolled in the first to the fourth year of two universities. Data was collected using two Likert type scales for university students: one for the evaluation of learning strategies and the other for the evaluation of emotional regulation strategies. Results showed a positive, significant, moderate correlation between learning strategies and emotional regulation strategies. Emotional regulation, age range and year of the course showed a joint association with learning strategies scores. Data is discussed in terms of its psychoeducational implications.

  1. STUDENTS’ PERSONALITY TRAITS AND LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Juanito P. Tandoc Jr.; Ma. Victoria Tandoc – Juan

    2014-01-01

    The study looked into the concept of personality traits and choice of language learning strategies as major influences in the success of learning a second language. More specifically, it investigated university students’ personality traits and language learning strategies towards learning English language. A total of 230 college students took part in this research study. The measuring instruments used were the Manchester Personality Questionnaire Version 14 (MPQ) and for the ...

  2. national capacity building strategy in learning: an assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    @globaljournalseries.com. NATIONAL CAPACITY BUILDING STRATEGY IN LEARNING: AN ASSESSMENT OF ARREARAGE IN NIGERIAN. UNIVERSITIES. UDEME AKANIYENE UMO AND JACOB EFFIONG ESIN. (Received 20, March 2015; ...

  3. The Impact of Age on Using Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Sepasdar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since age plays an important role in learning a second or foreign language, the present study investigated how different students in different age groups used language learning strategies. The participants of this study were 94 Iranian EFL students from four educational levels and different age groups as, primary (10-12, guidance (13-15, high school (16-18, and university students (19-23. The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was used as an instrument in the study. The results revealed that different age groups used different language learning strategies. Running a one-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference between age groups and using language learning strategies. Moreover, the outcomes of this study showed that in comparison with other learning strategies, compensation strategies used more frequently by guidance, high school, and university students. Among different learning strategies, social and affective strategies were used more frequently by university students. Therefore, teachers should consider age group preferences for using language learning strategies and adjust their teaching in a way to meet the students’ needs in learning a second or foreign language.

  4. The effect of self-regulated learning strategy instruction on strategy use and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekolin, Catherine Helen

    This study investigated the effects of self-regulated learning strategy instruction on strategy use and academic achievement in middle school science classes. Gender differences in strategy use and academic achievement were evaluated. The research questions focused on the development of instructional strategies to help students become self-regulated learners. Groups of students were given the opportunity to use self-regulated learning strategies with and without prompting. Gender differences within instructional group and strategy use were evaluated. According to these research findings, prompting appears to be a critical component of self-regulated learning strategy instruction with all groups. Selected groups showed greater increases in both academic achievement and self-regulated learning strategy use when prompting was a component of self-regulated learning strategy instruction. Students who demonstrated either below average self-regulated learning strategy skills, or lower GPAs showed the greatest gain from prompting plus instruction. Gender differences were demonstrated, with females showing greater self-regulated learning strategy use compared to males. The findings from this study emphasize the importance of self-regulated learning strategy instruction, especially for middle school students.

  5. Learning comunication strategies for distributed artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Michael; Tsatsoulis, Costas

    1992-08-01

    We present a methodology that allows collections of intelligent system to automatically learn communication strategies, so that they can exchange information and coordinate their problem solving activity. In our methodology communication between agents is determined by the agents themselves, which consider the progress of their individual problem solving activities compared to the communication needs of their surrounding agents. Through learning, communication lines between agents might be established or disconnected, communication frequencies modified, and the system can also react to dynamic changes in the environment that might force agents to cease to exist or to be added. We have established dynamic, quantitative measures of the usefulness of a fact, the cost of a fact, the work load of an agent, and the selfishness of an agent (a measure indicating an agent's preference between transmitting information versus performing individual problem solving), and use these values to adapt the communication between intelligent agents. In this paper we present the theoretical foundations of our work together with experimental results and performance statistics of networks of agents involved in cooperative problem solving activities.

  6. Relationship between Learning Strategy and Academic Performance in Children

    OpenAIRE

    豊田, 弘司; 森本, 里香

    2001-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the relationship between the learning strategy and the academic performance in elementary school children. Ninety-three sixth graders were required to respond the 40 statements representing the four learning strategies, namely "Motivation" , "Thinking" , "Calculation" , and "Memory" strategies. Multiple regression indicated that the "Thinking" strategy scale predicted 22 % of academic test performance. Factor analysis yielded three factors which co...

  7. Reinforcement learning produces dominant strategies for the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Marc; Knight, Vincent; Jones, Martin; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Glynatsi, Nikoleta E; Campbell, Owen

    2017-01-01

    We present tournament results and several powerful strategies for the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma created using reinforcement learning techniques (evolutionary and particle swarm algorithms). These strategies are trained to perform well against a corpus of over 170 distinct opponents, including many well-known and classic strategies. All the trained strategies win standard tournaments against the total collection of other opponents. The trained strategies and one particular human made designed strategy are the top performers in noisy tournaments also.

  8. Research in Learning Technology Strategy 2015-17

    OpenAIRE

    Deepwell, Maren

    2015-01-01

    Research in Learning Technology is the journal published by the Association for Learning Technology (ALT) with Co-Action Publishing. At the heart of ALT’s aims and values is the importance of Learning Technology research in underpinning the intelligent use of technology in support of learning, teaching and assessment. One of our key aims as set out in our 2014-17 strategy is to strengthen learning technology research and practice through collaboration, sharing and networking, nati...

  9. New Learning Strategies in Bustillos and Oliveira Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingfeng; Pan, Xiaowen; Mu, Xiaojia; Feng, Lin

    Armando Ticona Bustillos and Paulo Murilo C. de Oliveira first combined learning strategy with Penna model using a third bit string to represent knowledge. There are two forms of learning strategy in their model: individual learning through trial-and-error and social learning through copying knowledge from others. Based on the Bustillos-Oliveira model, we propose a new learning strategy:. (1) Individual learning ability depending on knowledge, through which the individual learning ability is not a constant but in direct proportion to the knowledge level of individual;. (2) Double-direction Social learning, under this, not only the young can learn from the elder, but also the elder can learn from the young;. (3) The age-dependent learning capacity, we make the learning capacity a variable in inverse proportion to the age, unlike which has been represented in Bustillos and Oliveira's model as a constant. Under this new learning strategy represented above, we get different result in the level of knowledge of individuals from B-O model.

  10. Lifelong learning strategies in nursing: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qalehsari, Mojtaba Qanbari; Khaghanizadeh, Morteza; Ebadi, Abbas

    2017-10-01

    Lifelong learning is an expectation in the professional performance of nurses, which is directly related to the success of students in nursing schools. In spite of the considerable attention paid to this issue, lifelong learning strategies are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify lifelong learning strategies of nursing students with respect to international experience. In this systematic review, an extensive investigation was carried out using Persian and English studies in Pub Med, ProQuest, Cochrane, Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, SID, and Iran Doc using the following keywords: lifelong learning, self-directed learning, lifelong learning model, continuing education, nursing education, and lifelong program. Finally, 22 articles published from 1994 to 2016 were selected for the final analysis. Data extracted from the selected articles was summarized and classified based on the research questions. In this study, 8 main themes, namely intellectual and practical independence, collaborative (cooperative) learning, researcher thinking, persistence in learning, need-based learning, learning management, suitable learning environment, and inclusive growth, were extracted from the article data. Having identified and clarified lifelong learning strategies in nursing, it is recommended to use the research findings in the programs and teaching systems of nursing schools. Use of strategies of lifelong learning will led to increased quality of education, development of nursing competency and finally, increased quality of patient care.

  11. Lifelong learning strategies in nursing: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qalehsari, Mojtaba Qanbari; Khaghanizadeh, Morteza; Ebadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifelong learning is an expectation in the professional performance of nurses, which is directly related to the success of students in nursing schools. In spite of the considerable attention paid to this issue, lifelong learning strategies are not fully understood. Objective The aim of this study was to clarify lifelong learning strategies of nursing students with respect to international experience. Methods In this systematic review, an extensive investigation was carried out using Persian and English studies in Pub Med, ProQuest, Cochrane, Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, SID, and Iran Doc using the following keywords: lifelong learning, self-directed learning, lifelong learning model, continuing education, nursing education, and lifelong program. Finally, 22 articles published from 1994 to 2016 were selected for the final analysis. Data extracted from the selected articles was summarized and classified based on the research questions. Results In this study, 8 main themes, namely intellectual and practical independence, collaborative (cooperative) learning, researcher thinking, persistence in learning, need-based learning, learning management, suitable learning environment, and inclusive growth, were extracted from the article data. Conclusion Having identified and clarified lifelong learning strategies in nursing, it is recommended to use the research findings in the programs and teaching systems of nursing schools. Use of strategies of lifelong learning will led to increased quality of education, development of nursing competency and finally, increased quality of patient care. PMID:29238496

  12. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency of Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.; Arroyo, Alan A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between language learning strategy (LLS) preferences and English proficiency among Chinese university students. Oxford's (1990), Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an institutional version (ITP) of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) were administered to 168 third-year English…

  13. Assessment and Active Learning Strategies for Introductory Geology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, David A.; Steer, David N.; Owens, Kathie D.

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that instructors can foster the growth of thinking skills and promote science literacy by incorporating active learning strategies into the classroom. Describes situations in which a variety of learning strategies were incorporated into large earth science courses for non-majors. Improvements in student achievement, retention, and logical…

  14. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Learning Strategies in the Urban Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boveja, Marsha E.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between perceived parenting styles and urban adolescents' learning and studying strategies. Results revealed that those adolescents who perceived their parents as being authoritative tended to engage in more effective learning and study strategies. Discusses implications for counselors and teachers using this information…

  15. Test Review: Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Donna L.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), a test designed to measure college students' learning and study strategies through self report. Advises that the test is still in experimental form, with a questionable norm group, and thus must be used with caution, especially in interpreting percentile ranks. (SKC)

  16. New Learning Strategies in the upper Secondary School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgnakke, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The article describes the Danish fieldwork and analyses it-based strategies and school development on three levels: Leadership, teaching and learning......The article describes the Danish fieldwork and analyses it-based strategies and school development on three levels: Leadership, teaching and learning...

  17. The effect of conceptual and procedural learning strategies on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effect of varying learning strategies making use of procedural and conceptual learning strategies on secondary school students‟ study habits in mathematics. A total of 124 senior secondary school students, from Osun state in southwestern Nigeria divided into three groups were involved in this ...

  18. Emotional Intelligence Profiles and Learning Strategies in Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglés, Cándido J.; Martínez-Monteagudo, María C.; Pérez Fuentes, Maria C.; García-Fernández, José M.; Molero, María del Mar; Suriá-Martinez, Raquel; Gázquez, José J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship among emotional intelligence (EI) and learning strategies, identifying different emotional intelligence profiles and determining possible statistically significant differences in learning strategies through the identified profiles. Thousand and seventy-one Spaniards secondary school students…

  19. The Who, What, and Where of Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumford, Amber D.; Cogswell, Cindy A.; Miller, Angie L.

    2016-01-01

    Learning strategies have been shown to be an important part of success in the classroom, but little research exists that examines differences across major fields concerning the use and faculty emphasis of learning strategies. This study uses data from the National Survey of Student Engagement and the Faculty Survey of Student Engagement to explore…

  20. Locus of control and learning strategies as predictors of academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the research was to determine the relationships which exist between academic success, learning strategies and locus of control. In order to achieve this aim a small-scale quantitative study, utilising two inventories, was done. The first measuring instrument is the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, which is ...

  1. Mentoring as a Formalized Learning Strategy with Community Sports Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Armour, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine formalized mentoring as a learning strategy for volunteer sports coaches and to consider implications for other volunteer groups in the community. Despite the increasingly popular use of mentoring as a learning and support strategy across professional domains, and the sheer scale of volunteer sports coach…

  2. The Discourse of Language Learning Strategies: Towards an Inclusive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander Harris

    2016-01-01

    This paper critiques discourse surrounding language learning strategies within Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and argues for the creation of new definitions of language learning strategies that are rooted in the socio-political and socio-economic contexts of the marginalized. Section one of this paper describes linguistic…

  3. Types of Language Learning Strategies Used by Tertiary English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuin, Tan Khye; Kaur, Sarjit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students' perceptions of using…

  4. Web-Based Learning: Cognitive Styles and Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomyan, Hesham Raji

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study, which investigated whether different instructional strategies might interact with individual's cognitive style in learning. A web-based learning package was designed employing three strategies, Interactive Concept Maps, Illustration with Embedded Text and Text-Only. Group Embedded Figure Test was administered to 178…

  5. Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" is a peer-tutoring program for grades K-6 that aims to improve student proficiency in math and other disciplines. This report focuses on "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" for math. The math program supplements students' existing math curriculum and is based on peer-mediated instruction, a…

  6. The relation between Assessment for Learning and elementary students' cognitive and metacognitive strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Diana; Castelijns, Jos; Vermeulen, Marjan; Martens, Rob; Segers, Mien

    2015-03-01

    Assessment for Learning (AfL) is believed to create a rich learning environment in which students develop their cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Monitoring student growth and providing scaffolds that shed light on the next step in the learning process are hypothesized to be essential elements of AfL that enhance cognitive and metacognitive strategies. However, empirical evidence for the relation between AfL and students' strategy use is scarce. This study investigates the relation between AfL and elementary school students' use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies. The sample comprised 528 grade four to six students (9- to 12-year-olds) from seven Dutch elementary schools. Students' perceptions of AfL and their cognitive and metacognitive strategy use were measured by means of questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relations among the variables. The results reveal that monitoring activities that provide students an understanding of where they are in their learning process predict Students' task orientation and planning. Scaffolding activities that support students in taking the next step in their learning are positively related to the use of both surface and deep-level learning strategies and the extent to which they evaluate their learning process after performing tasks. The results underline the importance of assessment practices in ceding responsibility to students in taking control of their own learning. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Space Strategies for the New Learning Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The Learning Landscape is the total context for students' learning experiences and the diverse landscape of learning settings available today--from specialized to multipurpose, from formal to informal, and from physical to virtual. The goal of the Learning Landscape approach is to acknowledge this richness and maximize encounters among people,…

  8. Verbal learning strategy following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Elizabeth K; Kraus, Marilyn F; Rubin, Leah H; Pliskin, Neil H; Little, Deborah M

    2011-07-01

    That learning and memory deficits persist many years following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is controversial due to inconsistent objective evidence supporting subjective complaints. Our prior work demonstrated significant reductions in performance on the initial trial of a verbal learning task and overall slower rate of learning in well-motivated mTBI participants relative to demographically matched controls. In our previous work, we speculated that differences in strategy use could explain the differences in rate of learning. The current study serves to test this hypothesis by examining strategy use on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition. Our present findings support the primary hypothesis that mTBI participants under-utilize semantic clustering strategies during list-learning relative to control participants. Despite achieving comparable total learning scores, we posit that the persisting learning and memory difficulties reported by some mTBI patients may be related to reduced usage of efficient internally driven strategies that facilitate learning. Given that strategy training has demonstrated improvements in learning and memory in educational and occupational settings, we offer that these findings have translational value in offering an additional approach in remediation of learning and memory complaints reported by some following mTBI.

  9. Learning and adherence to baby massage after two teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cláudia Marchetti; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Machado, Thais Gaiad; Voos, Mariana Callil

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about learning/adherence after different baby massage teaching strategies. We compared the learning/adherence after two strategies. Twenty mothers from the group manual-course (GMC) and 20 from the group manual-orientations (GMO) received a booklet. GMC participated in a course during the third trimester. GMO received verbal instructions during the postpartum hospital stay. Multiple-choice and practical tests assessed learning (GMC: performing strokes on a doll; GMO: on the baby). Adherence was measured 3 months after childbirth. No differences were found between the groups in learning/adherence. Both teaching strategies showed similar and positive results. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Introducing an Educational Tool for Learning Branch & Bound Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofriesilero Zumaytis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to our informal survey, Branch & Bound strategy is considerably difficult to learn compared to other strategies. This strategy consists of several complex algorithmic steps such as Reduced Cost Matrix (RCM calculation and Breadth First Search. Thus, to help students understanding this strategy, AP-BB, an educational tool for learning Branch & Bound is developed. This tool includes four modules which are Brute Force solving visualization, Branch & Bound solving visualization, RCM calculator, and case-based performance comparison. These modules are expected to enhance student’s understanding about Branch & Bound strategy and its characteristics. Furthermore, our work incorporates TSP as its case study and Brute Force strategy as a baseline to provide a concrete impact of Branch & Bound strategy. According to our qualitative evaluation, AP-BB and all of its features fulfil student necessities for learning Branch & Bound strategy.

  11. The Mutual Impact of Global Strategy and Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Lyles, Marjorie A.; Easterby-Smith, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in issues of knowing and learning in the global strategy field, there has been limited mutual engagement and interaction between the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. The purpose of our article is to reflect on and articulate how the mutual exchange...... of ideas between these fields can be encouraged. To this end, we first conduct a review of the intersection of the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. We then present two recommendations regarding how the interaction between the two fields can be enhanced. Our first recommendation...... is for global strategy research to adopt a broader notion of organizational learning. Our second recommendation is for global strategy research to capitalize on its attention to context in order to inform and enhance organizational learning theory. We discuss the use of context in a number of common research...

  12. Metacognitive Language Learning Strategies Use, Gender, and Learning Achievement: a Correlation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Bouirane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between metacognitive language learning strategies (MLLS and gender and achievement of EFL students. Metacognitive language learning strategies are crucial for students of English as a foreign language to learn effectively. The theoretical issues discuss metacognitive language learning strategies in particular, and language learning strategies (LLS in general. The practical research took place at the English language department at Farhat Abbes University, Sétif, Algeria, with third year students learning English as a foreign language. The study hypothesized that there is a positive correlation between metacognitive language learning strategies use and achievement. Two main parts following a qualitative design constitute the body of the present research. The first part uses the Metacognitive Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire (MLLSQ to account for differences in the reported frequency of metacognitive strategies use across all the students, and across gender differences. The second part uses interviews to account for the use of these strategies at the individual level, in their relation to the students’ gender and achievement in language learning. The results of the first part revealed a significant use of metacognitive strategies among all the students and significant differences between male students and female students in the frequency of use of these strategies. Moreover, the results of the second part reflected more significant differences in the use of Metacognitive strategies at the level of gender and learning achievement. The study concludes by bringing together key findings and some suggestions for further research.

  13. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students' English Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Margreat Aloysious; Ganesen, Sree Nithya

    2012-01-01

    According to Horwitz (1987) learners' belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different…

  14. Leading to learn in networks of practice: Two leadership strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soekijad, M.; van den Hooff, B.J.; Agterberg, L.C.M.; Huysman, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines two leadership strategies to support organizational learning through networks of practice (NOPs). An in-depth case study in a development organization reveals that network leaders cope with a learning tension between management involvement and emergent learning processes by

  15. Enhancing the Design and Analysis of Flipped Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Martin; Bokosmaty, Rena; Brown, Melanie; Browne, Chris; Gao, Qi; Hanson, Julie; Kupatadze, Ketevan

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous calls in the literature for research into the flipped learning approach to match the flood of popular media articles praising its impact on student learning and educational outcomes. This paper addresses those calls by proposing pedagogical strategies that promote active learning in "flipped" approaches and improved…

  16. Tooth surface treatment strategies for adhesive cementation

    OpenAIRE

    Rohr, Nadja; Fischer, Jens

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth surface pre-treatment steps on shear bond strength, which is essential for understanding the adhesive cementation process. MATERIALS AND METHODS Shear bond strengths of different cements with various tooth surface treatments (none, etching, priming, or etching and priming) on enamel and dentin of human teeth were measured using the Swiss shear test design. Three adhesives (Permaflo DC, Panavia F 2.0, and Panavia V5) and one sel...

  17. Motivation, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P N

    2012-07-01

    Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation in scheduled learning activities, have been found to relate to student performance. Although participation may be a form of SRL, little is known about the relationships among motivational beliefs, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance. This study aimed to test and cross-validate a hypothesised model of relationships among motivational beliefs (value and self-efficacy), learning strategies (deep learning and resource management), participation (lecture attendance, skills training attendance and completion of optional study assignments) and Year 1 performance at medical school. Year 1 medical students in the cohorts of 2008 (n = 303) and 2009 (n = 369) completed a questionnaire on motivational beliefs and learning strategies (sourced from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) and participation. Year 1 performance was operationalised as students' average Year 1 course examination grades. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. Participation and self-efficacy beliefs were positively associated with Year 1 performance (β = 0.78 and β = 0.19, respectively). Deep learning strategies were negatively associated with Year 1 performance (β =- 0.31), but positively related to resource management strategies (β = 0.77), which, in turn, were positively related to participation (β = 0.79). Value beliefs were positively related to deep learning strategies only (β = 0.71). The overall structural model for the 2008 cohort accounted for 47% of the variance in Year 1 grade point average and was cross-validated in the 2009 cohort. This study suggests that participation mediates the relationships between motivation and learning strategies, and medical school

  18. Lifelong learning strategies in nursing: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Qalehsari, Mojtaba Qanbari; Khaghanizadeh, Morteza; Ebadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifelong learning is an expectation in the professional performance of nurses, which is directly related to the success of students in nursing schools. In spite of the considerable attention paid to this issue, lifelong learning strategies are not fully understood. Objective The aim of this study was to clarify lifelong learning strategies of nursing students with respect to international experience. Methods In this systematic review, an extensive investigation was carried out usin...

  19. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Horwitz (1987 learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to understand the differences and similarities in the learning strategies of these two groups. The sample for the study comprised of 60 local and 50 international Chinese students currently enrolled at a local private college. The Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was administered as a measure of learning strategy preferences. The study reveals that language learning experiences as well as socioeconomic status impact the learning strategy adopted by both local and international Chinese students. The findings of this study point to the need to address the needs of these students in order to enhance their English language learning experience in Malaysia.

  20. Blended-learning strategy in the Altay State medical university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukhacheva, Nina; Pupyrev, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    New educational technologies prove to be capable of solving many problems in the medical training. Students do not see e-Learning as replacing traditional instructor-led training but as a complement to it, forming part of a blended-learning strategy. Innovations in e-Learning technologies point toward a revolution in education, allowing learning to be individualized (adaptive learning), enhancing learners' interactions with others (collaborative learning), and transforming the role of the teacher. The integration of e-Learning into medical education can catalyze the shift towards applying adult learning theory, where educators will no longer serve mainly as the distributors of content, but will become more involved as facilitators of learning and assessors of competency. This survey analyzes possibilities to effectively use e-Learning in medical education, and what steps are to be made in that direction.

  1. Formulating eLearning Support Strategies in Research Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Franziska

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution it is explored how strategic management practice could assist a coordinated approach toward eLearning and what elements of an eLearning support strategy are critical for a successful integration of eLearning in university teaching. After reviewing the literature on strategic management in higher education regarding eLearning and the presentation of the research methodology, conditions for support are identified as an important starting point of a more coordinated ap...

  2. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students’ English Language Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Margreat Aloysious Anthony; Sree Nithya Ganesen

    2012-01-01

    According to Horwitz (1987) learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to und...

  3. Assessment of Language Learners' Strategies: Do They Prefer Learning or Acquisition Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate learning and acquisition strategies used by second/foreign language learners. This study is a comparative investigation of learning and acquisition strategies of successful and less successful language learners. The main question of the study is to investigate if there is a relationship between the learners'…

  4. Strategies for service-learning assessment in dental hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Sharlee

    2013-10-01

    A large body of literature exists on the instructional pedagogy known as service-learning. Service-learning is a teaching and learning approach characterized by the dental hygiene student's practical application of academic studies and occurs within a community setting, to the benefit of both the student and community. Dental hygiene educators use service-learning to enhance student knowledge and application of oral health curriculum. This manuscript reports on the importance of service-learning assessment to the National Dental Hygiene Research Agenda as well as the future of the profession of dental hygiene and the successful strategies in service-learning evaluation available for utilization by dental hygiene educators.

  5. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-04-04

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.

  6. Learning strategies, study habits and social networking activity of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerdike, Andrea; O'Deasmhunaigh, Conall; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm

    2016-07-17

    To determine learning strategies, study habits, and online social networking use of undergraduates at an Irish medical school, and their relationship with academic performance. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Year 2 and final year undergraduate-entry and graduate-entry students at an Irish medical school. Data about participants' demographics and educational background, study habits (including time management), and use of online media was collected using a self-report questionnaire. Participants' learning strategies were measured using the 18-item Approaches to Learning and Studying Inventory (ALSI). Year score percentage was the measure of academic achievement. The association between demographic/educational factors, learning strategies, study habits, and academic achievement was statistically analysed using regression analysis. Forty-two percent of students were included in this analysis (n=376). A last-minute "cramming" time management study strategy was associated with increased use of online social networks. Learning strategies differed between undergraduate- and graduate-entrants, with the latter less likely to adopt a 'surface approach' and more likely adopt a 'study monitoring' approach. Year score percentage was positively correlated with the 'effort management/organised studying' learning style. Poorer academic performance was associated with a poor time management approach to studying ("cramming") and increased use of the 'surface learning' strategy. Our study demonstrates that effort management and organised studying should be promoted, and surface learning discouraged, as part of any effort to optimise academic performance in medical school. Excessive use of social networking contributes to poor study habits, which are associated with reduced academic achievement.

  7. Tooth surface treatment strategies for adhesive cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Nadja; Fischer, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth surface pre-treatment steps on shear bond strength, which is essential for understanding the adhesive cementation process. Shear bond strengths of different cements with various tooth surface treatments (none, etching, priming, or etching and priming) on enamel and dentin of human teeth were measured using the Swiss shear test design. Three adhesives (Permaflo DC, Panavia F 2.0, and Panavia V5) and one self-adhesive cement (Panavia SA plus) were included in this study. The interface of the cement and the tooth surface with the different pre-treatments was analyzed using SEM. pH values of the cements and primers were measured. The highest bond strength values for all cements were achieved with etching and primer on enamel (25.6 ± 5.3 - 32.3 ± 10.4 MPa). On dentin, etching and priming produced the highest bond strength values for all cements (8.6 ± 2.9 - 11.7 ± 3.5 MPa) except for Panavia V5, which achieved significantly higher bond strengths when pre-treated with primer only (15.3 ± 4.1 MPa). Shear bond strength values were correlated with the micro-retentive surface topography of enamel and the tag length on dentin except for Panavia V5, which revealed the highest bond strength with primer application only without etching, resulting in short but sturdy tags. The highest bond strength can be achieved for Panavia F 2.0, Permaflo DC, and Panavia SA plus when the tooth substrate is previously etched and the respective primer is applied. The new cement Panavia V5 displayed low technique-sensitivity and attained significantly higher adhesion of all tested cements to dentin when only primer was applied.

  8. The Learning Styles and Language Learning Strategies of the EFL Students at Tertiary Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemroh Ihsan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study are to discover the learning styles, and the language learning strategies most preferred, correlation among the variables exists, and the degree of influence each independent variable exerts on the dependent variables. For data collection, the Barsch Learning Styles Inventory and the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning were distributed to 156 students of English at the University of Sriwijaya, Palembang. The results showed that: (1 visual is the most preferred learning style, whereas metacognitive ang effective are the most preferred language learning strategies; (2 certain independent variables have a significant correlation with certain dependent variables, for example, visual with memory, auditory with cognitive, tactile with affective, and semester with compensation; (3 females use a greater variety of language learning strategies than males; and (4 semester has a significant correlation with compensation but not with other strategies

  9. Assessment Strategies, Self-Regulated Learning Skills, and Perceptions of Assessment in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jin; Peck, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of assessment strategies and self-regulated learning skills on students' learning and perceptions of assessment for learning. The results revealed no statistically significant difference in the immediate skill-based and cognitive learning outcomes, but peer assessment teams scored significantly higher than the…

  10. Learners' Starting Age of Learning EFL and Use of Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim; Khonbi, Zainab Abolfazli

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the use of language learning strategies (LLS) and reasons for learning English among Iranian EFL students who began learning English at different ages. The participants (N = 33, both male and female) were divided into two groups of younger beginners (who began learning English before age 9; N = 16) and older beginners (who…

  11. The Learning Styles and Language Learning Strategies of the EFL Students at Tertiary Level

    OpenAIRE

    Ihsan, Diemroh; Diem, Chuzaimah Dahlan

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study are to discover the learning styles, and the language learning strategies most preferred, correlation among the variables exists, and the degree of influence each independent variable exerts on the dependent variables. For data collection, the Barsch Learning Styles Inventory and the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning were distributed to 156 students of English at the University of Sriwijaya, Palembang. The results showed that: (1) visual is the most preferred l...

  12. The effectiveness of a learning strategies program for university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roces Montero, Cristina; Sierra Y Arizmendiarrieta, Beatriz

    2017-11-01

    University lecturers often complain about their students’ lack of learning strategies, but not many universities in Spain offer specific courses in this area. Studies on their effectiveness are also rare. This study presents the results of a Learning Strategies Course implemented at the School of Teacher Training and Education, University of Oviedo, Spain. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experi-mental (n = 60) and a control group (n = 57) of students on the Educational Psychology course. A Spanish adaptation of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ): the CEAMR2 was used as a pre and post-test measure. Group A (EG) received training in learning strategies, while group B (CG) received no training. Post-test measures showed significant differences in five out of the ten learning strategies assessed: elaboration, organization, repetition, self-questioning and study space, and also an improvement in one out of the six motivational scales: control of learning beliefs. The results suggest that learning strategies courses with proven effectiveness should be offered to university students.

  13. Instructional Utility and Learning Efficacy of Common Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConell, David A.; Chapman, LeeAnna; Czaijka, C. Douglas; Jones, Jason P.; Ryker, Katherine D.; Wiggen, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of active learning instructional practices in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses has been shown to result in improvements in student learning, contribute to increased retention rates, and reduce the achievement gap among different student populations. Descriptions of active learning strategies…

  14. Learning How to Learn: A Model for Teaching Students Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordell, Shawn E.

    2009-01-01

    Incoming freshmen frequently struggle with the transition from high school to collegiate academics. This appears to be particularly evident in the sciences. Students often lack the self assessment skills and metacognition skills required to self-identify problems with their academic learning strategy. This does not allow them to diagnose and…

  15. A Synthesis of Language Learning Strategies: Current Issues, Problems and Claims Made in Learner Strategy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…

  16. Strategies to Support Exploration of Mars' Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, L.; Sykes, M.; Farr, T.; Adams, J.; Blaney, D.

    2003-01-01

    Surface Visible infrared spectroscopy has a long history of providing fundamental compositional discoveries in the solar system. However, we are entering a new era of Mars exploration in which missions will take place nearly every 2 years.The visible infrared spectral community thus faces a more rapid influx in data volume and variety than it has previously handled.Visible- infrared instruments are on the 1996 Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, 2003 Mars Express, 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; and likely on the 2007 and 2009 missions. Interpretations of those data sets provide a critical foundation for geologic and climatic interpretations as well as an opportunity to select landing sites.

  17. Relational Analysis of High School Students' Cognitive Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Conceptions of Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between students' cognitive learning strategies and conceptions of learning biology. The two scales, "Cognitive Learning Strategies" and "Conceptions of Learning Biology", were revised and adapted to biology in order to measure the students' learning strategies and…

  18. E-learning: new strategies and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Martini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a personal point of view on the possible future trends in distance learning. The starting point of this study is represented by a review of the main innovations in digital and information technologies. This step is necessary since the evolution of distance learning is strictly correlated to the evolution of the technology that can be exploited to increase learning quality. The main arguments discussed in this paper are: massive open on-line courses (MOOCs, flipped classrooms and the evolution of the learning objects based on web and on internet technology. Concerning MOOCs, a critical analysis of the status of this type of learning is necessary to understand their possible evolution and/or their substitution. A huge number of case studies demonstrated the validity of the flipped classroom and the possibility to adopt this approach into e-learning is surely interesting. The last part of the paper is instead dedicated to future technologies like: mobile learning, 3D virtual laboratories and internet of things. As discussed, this latest innovations can push the evolution of distance learning offering real student-centered solutions.

  19. Strategies in probabilistic feedback learning in Parkinson patients OFF medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebaum, C; Kobza, S; Ferrea, S; Schnitzler, A; Pollok, B; Südmeyer, M

    2016-04-21

    Studies on classification learning suggested that altered dopamine function in Parkinson's Disease (PD) specifically affects learning from feedback. In patients OFF medication, enhanced learning from negative feedback has been described. This learning bias was not seen in observational learning from feedback, indicating different neural mechanisms for this type of learning. The present study aimed to compare the acquisition of stimulus-response-outcome associations in PD patients OFF medication and healthy control subjects in active and observational learning. 16 PD patients OFF medication and 16 controls were examined with three parallel learning tasks each, two feedback-based (active and observational) and one non-feedback-based paired associates task. No acquisition deficit was seen in the patients for any of the tasks. More detailed analyses on the learning strategies did, however, reveal that the patients showed more lose-shift responses during active feedback learning than controls, and that lose-shift and win-stay responses more strongly determined performance accuracy in patients than controls. For observational feedback learning, the performance of both groups correlated similarly with the performance in non-feedback-based paired associates learning and with the accuracy of observed performance. Also, patients and controls showed comparable evidence of feedback processing in observational learning. In active feedback learning, PD patients use alternative learning strategies than healthy controls. Analyses on observational learning did not yield differences between patients and controls, adding to recent evidence of a differential role of the human striatum in active and observational learning from feedback. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Using Technology-Nested Instructional Strategies to Enhance Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lumpkin, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students today expect the use of technology in their classes, rather than have to listen to less-than-engaging lectures. College students are connected electronically and incessant technology consumers. As a result, they may prefer the infusion of technologies to help them learn and enjoy the process of learning, rather than having to listen exclusively to lectures. To investigate this, the authors solicited student perceptions to assess the importance of learning through technology-nested instructional strategies. Student perceptions give direction to and affirm the benefits of instructional strategies that increase student motivation to engage more actively in their learning. Based on quantitative and qualitative responses through action research in multiple courses, students perceive their learning as more engaging and enjoyable when technology-nested instructional strategies are infused into their classes.

  1. Optimizing the 3R study strategy to learn from text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijners, Pauline; Kester, Liesbeth; Wetzels, Sandra; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Reijners, P. B. G., Kester, L., Wetzels, S. A. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 7 November). Optimizing the 3R study strategy to learn from text. Paper presented at the ICO National Fall School, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  2. Optimizing the 3R study strategy to learn from text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijners, Pauline; Kester, Liesbeth; Wetzels, Sandra; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Reijners, P. B. G., Kester, L., Wetzels, S. A. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 21 November). Optimizing the 3R study strategy to learn from text. Presentation at research meeting Educational and Developmental Psychology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

  3. Cognitive culture: theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Hoppitt, William J E; Morgan, Thomas J H; Webster, Mike M; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-02-01

    Research into social learning (learning from others) has expanded significantly in recent years, not least because of productive interactions between theoretical and empirical approaches. This has been coupled with a new emphasis on learning strategies, which places social learning within a cognitive decision-making framework. Understanding when, how and why individuals learn from others is a significant challenge, but one that is critical to numerous fields in multiple academic disciplines, including the study of social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Learning Portfolio: A New Strategy in Health Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Chen, Ching-Ju; Chang, Yu-Shan; Huang, Li-Chi

    2015-12-01

    Health education is the teaching by healthcare professionals of healthcare-related knowledge and skills to students in order that these students learn to help patients self-manage their disease and maintain health. This article introduces a new strategy in health education known as the learning portfolio and presents the theoretical basis and function of the learning portfolio and the current application of this approach in academic and health education. The learning portfolio is a learner-centric approach that collects evidence related to an individual's learning process systematically. This approach helps educators understand learner needs and conditions, while allowing the learner to observe his / her learning process in a manner that promotes self-reflection, continual inspection, and behavioral modification throughout the learning process. The results enhance the motivation of learners and strengthen their care confidence in accomplishing learning tasks.

  5. Particle Swarm Optimization With Interswarm Interactive Learning Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Quande; Cheng, Shi; Zhang, Qingyu; Li, Li; Shi, Yuhui

    2016-10-01

    The learning strategy in the canonical particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is often blamed for being the primary reason for loss of diversity. Population diversity maintenance is crucial for preventing particles from being stuck into local optima. In this paper, we present an improved PSO algorithm with an interswarm interactive learning strategy (IILPSO) by overcoming the drawbacks of the canonical PSO algorithm's learning strategy. IILPSO is inspired by the phenomenon in human society that the interactive learning behavior takes place among different groups. Particles in IILPSO are divided into two swarms. The interswarm interactive learning (IIL) behavior is triggered when the best particle's fitness value of both the swarms does not improve for a certain number of iterations. According to the best particle's fitness value of each swarm, the softmax method and roulette method are used to determine the roles of the two swarms as the learning swarm and the learned swarm. In addition, the velocity mutation operator and global best vibration strategy are used to improve the algorithm's global search capability. The IIL strategy is applied to PSO with global star and local ring structures, which are termed as IILPSO-G and IILPSO-L algorithm, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithms with eight popular PSO variants. From the experimental results, IILPSO demonstrates the good performance in terms of solution accuracy, convergence speed, and reliability. Finally, the variations of the population diversity in the entire search process provide an explanation why IILPSO performs effectively.

  6. Motivation and Learning Strategies in a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahinaz A. Bukhary

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is a fundamental factor to fructify any functional and effective classroom setting with interest, hope and expressive fruitful teaching experience. Motivating foreign language learners to advance successfully in learning the target language (English is a domain that has been discussed widely in many language learning studies. In fact, there is still much argumentation on to what extent motivation influence language learning as there is not clear evidence of how motivation manipulates the success or failure of the target language. It is noticeable that language learners, in this case Saudi university students, do not invest as much time in learning English as they do in learning their specialist subjects.  This paper tends to look at the meaning of motivation and how far does it go to affect language learning. It also attempts to investigate factors that frustrate learners by conducting different research tools such as interviews and questionnaires for both English students and instructors.  Research results present that many students dislike English classes and wish not to participate or attend them.  Additionally, teachers comment that despite the efforts to promote language learning, the outcome of their students is considered to be unsatisfactory. Teachers believe that this can be contributed to the fact that they are pressed to complete fixed curriculum in a limited period of time and abide by strict instruction to evaluate their students with no room left for them to personalize their own learning experience. Therefore, teachers need to be given opportunities to broaden their pedagogical repertoires and make English learning more engaging and more meaningful. The study implications shed the light on some useful hints to be applied in EFL classes.

  7. E-learning Paradigms and The Development of E-learning Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2006-01-01

    economic and sociological theories, the theories of marketing management and strategy as well as practical experience gained by the author while working with leading edge suppliers of e-learning. On this basis, a distinction between knowledge creation e-learning and knowledge transfer e-learning....... The selection of which paradigm to use in the development of an e-learning strategy may prove crucial for success. Implications for the development of an e-learning strategy in businesses and learning institutions are outlined.......The e-learning area is characterized by a magnitude of different products, systems and approaches. The variations can also be observed in differences in the views and notions of e-learning among business people, researchers and journalists. This article attempts to disentangle the area by using...

  8. E-learning Paradigms and The Development of E-learning Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2006-01-01

    The e-learning area is characterized by a magnitude of different products, systems and approaches. The variations can also be observed in differences in the views and notions of e-learning among business people, researchers and journalists. This article attempts to disentangle the area by using...... economic and sociological theories, the theories of marketing management and strategy as well as practical experience gained by the author while working with leading edge suppliers of e-learning. On this basis, a distinction between knowledge creation e-learning and knowledge transfer e-learning....... The selection of which paradigm to use in the development of an e-learning strategy may prove crucial for success. Implications for the development of an e-learning strategy in businesses and learning institutions are outlined....

  9. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Good and Poor Chinese EFL Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongqi

    Two case studies of the specific vocabulary learning strategies used by native Chinese-speakers learning English as a Second Language (ESL) at Beijing Normal University are presented and discussed. Subjects were two university students identified as "good" and "poor" language learners. They read two passages, one with about…

  10. Motivation, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    Medical Education 2012: 46:678688 Context Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation

  11. Vocabulary Learning Strategies used by EFL Students: the Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vocabulary Learning Strategies used by EFL Students: the Case Of 11th Grade High and Low Achievers at Jorgo Nole Preparatory School. ... high achievers can help the low achievers practice different VLSs that help them to learn and consolidate new English words in order to speed up their English language acquisition.

  12. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  13. Why copy others? Insights from the social learning strategies tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, L; Boyd, R; Cownden, D; Enquist, M; Eriksson, K; Feldman, M W; Fogarty, L; Ghirlanda, S; Lillicrap, T; Laland, K N

    2010-04-09

    Social learning (learning through observation or interaction with other individuals) is widespread in nature and is central to the remarkable success of humanity, yet it remains unclear why copying is profitable and how to copy most effectively. To address these questions, we organized a computer tournament in which entrants submitted strategies specifying how to use social learning and its asocial alternative (for example, trial-and-error learning) to acquire adaptive behavior in a complex environment. Most current theory predicts the emergence of mixed strategies that rely on some combination of the two types of learning. In the tournament, however, strategies that relied heavily on social learning were found to be remarkably successful, even when asocial information was no more costly than social information. Social learning proved advantageous because individuals frequently demonstrated the highest-payoff behavior in their repertoire, inadvertently filtering information for copiers. The winning strategy (discountmachine) relied nearly exclusively on social learning and weighted information according to the time since acquisition.

  14. Measuring Deep, Reflective Comprehension and Learning Strategies: Challenges and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a heightened understanding that metacognition and strategy use are crucial to deep, long-lasting comprehension and learning, but their assessment is challenging. First, students' judgments of what their abilities and habits and measurements of their performance often do not match. Second, students tend to learn and comprehend differently…

  15. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Yan

    Full Text Available We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.

  16. Exploring Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by UPM TESL Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safian, Nur Hanisah; Malakar, Sharmila; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) at University Putra Malaysia. There are…

  17. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  18. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Piet; Weissing, Franz J.

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the

  19. Engaging Students in Large Health Classes with Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Steven; Combs, Sue; Huelskamp, Amelia; Hritz, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Creative K-12 health teachers can engage students in large classes by utilizing active learning strategies. Active learning involves engaging students in higher-order tasks, such as analysis and synthesis, which is a crucial element of the movement toward what is commonly called "learner-centered" teaching. Health education teachers who…

  20. The Impact of Age on Using Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasdar, Mansoreh; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Since age plays an important role in learning a second or foreign language, the present study investigated how different students in different age groups used language learning strategies. The participants of this study were 94 Iranian EFL students from four educational levels and different age groups as, primary (10-12), guidance (13-15), high…

  1. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.

  2. Two Key Strategies for Enhancing Community Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research has found community service learning to have a positive effect upon participating college students' civic development; however, far less scholarship has considered the impact of particular components of a community service learning program. This article presents two preliminary but promising strategies for enhancing the…

  3. Strategies to Improve the Quality of Health Care - Learning from ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strategies to Improve the Quality of Health Care - Learning from Experiences in Uruguay and Chile. Improving access to primary health care and the quality of services in Latin American countries is urgently needed to address high health inequities in the region. Lessons learned from two successful campaigns promoting ...

  4. Construct Validity of Self-Reported Metacognitive Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jean-Louis; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their significant contributions to research on self-regulated learning, those favoring online and trace approaches have questioned the use of self-report to assess learners' use of learning strategies. An important rejoinder to such criticisms consists of examining the validity of self-report items. The present study was designed to assess…

  5. The Fire Learning Network: A promising conservation strategy for forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Goldstein; William H. Butler; R. Bruce. Hull

    2010-01-01

    Conservation Learning Networks (CLN) are an emerging conservation strategy for addressing complex resource management challenges that face the forestry profession. The US Fire Learning Network (FLN) is a successful example of a CLN that operates on a national scale. Developed in 2001 as a partnership between The Nature Conservancy, the US Forest Service, and land-...

  6. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  7. The Relationship among Student Basic Need Satisfaction, Approaches to Learning, Reporting of Avoidance Strategies and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech; Artiga, Amparo Gomez

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines the relationship between student basic need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, relatedness and belonging), their reporting of approaches to learning (deep and surface), their reporting of avoidance strategies (avoidance of effort and challenge, avoidance of help seeking and preference to avoid novelty) and…

  8. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  9. Critical Thinking and Collaboration: A Strategy to Enhance Student Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald A. Styron, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In numerous studies relative to collaboration and critical thinking, an instructional strategy called Team- Based Learning has proven to be an effective approach to teaching and learning. Team-Based Learning utilizes a specific sequence of individual work, group work and immediate feedback to create a motivational framework in which students increasingly hold each other accountable for coming to class prepared and contributing to discussion. Using an action research conceptual model diffusion...

  10. THE PQRST STRATEGY, READING COMPREHENSION, AND LEARNING STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Hidayatu Miqowati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aims at investigating the effectiveness of the PQRST strategy in students’ reading comprehension, the effectiveness of the PQRST strategy in reading comprehension of students with different learning styles, and the interaction between the PQRST strategy and the students’ learning styles. This study employed a 2x2 factorial design. The subjects were the second semester students of Public Administration Department, Faculty of Political and Social Science, University of Bondowoso. Two classes were randomly selected as the samples of this study. The experimental class was taught by using the PQRST strategy and the non-experimental class by translation and reading aloud. The data were analysed by utilizing non parametric testing: Mann–Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis. The findings showed that the PQRST strategy statistically impacted students’ reading comprehension compared to the one taught using the translation and reading aloud. But, it was revealed that there was no difference in the reading comprehension of students with different learning styles taught under the PQRST strategy and translation and reading aloud, and there was no interaction between teaching strategies and students’ learning styles.   Keywords: PQRST, learning styles, reading comprehension

  11. Learning Visualization Strategies: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Daniel; Oh, Kyong Eun; Tremaine, Marilyn; Chiang, James; Bemis, Karen; Silver, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The following study investigates the range of strategies individuals develop to infer and interpret cross-sections of three-dimensional objects. We focus on the identification of mental representations and problem-solving processes made by 11 individuals with the goal of building training applications that integrate the strategies developed by the…

  12. An Instructional Strategy Planning Model to Improve Learning and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    Presents model of instructional strategy planning that links specific cognitive learning and thinking processes with specific computer-based instructional strategies. Topics discussed include memory systems; types of knowledge; drill and practice; tutorials; task-oriented simulations; problem-oriented simulations; and self directed experiences.…

  13. Impact of E-Learning Strategy on Students' Academic Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impact of e-learning strategies on students' academic performance at Strathmore University. The purpose of the study was to investigate the methodology, ideologies, output and ecology of ICT strategies and their impact on students' performance. This was done through comparing students' mean ...

  14. Enhancing Student Learning and Social Behavior through Mnemonic Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinheksel, Karen A.; Summy, Sarah E.

    2003-01-01

    This article on using mnemonics with students having learning and behavior problems first offers a case study of a 7th grade student and then describes the letter strategy, the keyword mnemonic method, and the pegword method. Seven steps for implementing mnemonic strategies are offered. An inset reviews the research literature on using mnemonic…

  15. FIVES: An Integrated Strategy for Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Mary; Roberts, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a strategy that emphasizes the integration of all language and literacy skills for learning across content areas as well as the importance CCSS place on learners' ability to ask questions about information, phenomena, or ideas encountered (Ciardiello, 2012/2013). FIVES is a strategy that meaningfully integrates…

  16. The Use of Learning and Study Strategies by College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulick, Chuck; Higginson, Bonnie

    This paper reports on an investigation of study strategies of 514 college freshmen at Murray State University (Kentucky) enrolled in a Freshman Orientation class. A demographic questionnaire and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) were administered. Responses on the LASSI are categorized into ten subscales (attitude, motivation,…

  17. Positive versus Negative Communication Strategies in Task-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Siti

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at describing how the implementation of Task-Based Learning (TBL) would shape or change students' use of oral communication strategies. Students' problems and strategies to solve the problems during the implementation of TBL were also explored. The study was a mixed method, employing both quantitative and qualitative analysis…

  18. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Japanese Life Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Andrea; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates vocabulary learning strategy (VLS) preferences of lower and higher proficiency Japanese university science students studying English as a foreign language. The study was conducted over a 9-week period as the participants received supplemental explicit VLS instruction on six strategies. The 38 participants (14 males and 24…

  19. An Investigation of Pronunciation Learning Strategies of Advanced EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hismanoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the kinds of strategies deployed by advanced EFL learners at English Language Teaching Department to learn or improve English pronunciation and revealing whether there are any significant differences between the strategies of successful pronunciation learners and those of unsuccessful pronunciation learners. After…

  20. Gender and Language Learning Strategies: Looking beyond the Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Indika; Bartlett, Brendan John

    2012-01-01

    Research on language learning strategies (LLS) has pointed to a significant association at a general level between learners' gender and their choice of LLS. To explore this generality further, we conducted a study on gender and strategy use with Sri Lankan learners (N = 886) of English as a second language (ESL) in five different learning…

  1. Motivated strategies for learning and their association with academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students with prior educational experience and those who attended peermentoring sessions had significantly higher learning strategy scores. Significant but moderate relationships were found between academic performance and the motivation strategies subsumed within the categories 'task value' and 'self-efficacy for ...

  2. Cognitive Strategy in Learning Chemistry: How Chunking and Learning Get Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lah, Norma Che; Saat, Rohaida Mohd; Hassan, Ruhaya

    2014-01-01

    The study explores chunking strategies applied in Short Term Memory (STM) by upper secondary students of mixed chemistry learning abilities. The aim of the study is to observe variations in chunking strategies utilized by these students when learning the Periodic Table of Elements in the Form Four Chemistry syllabus. Findings show that students…

  3. Assessment of Learning Strategies: Self-Report Questionnaire or Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Jõgi, Anna-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Two types of assessment instruments were developed to assess middle school students' learning strategies, and their effectiveness in predicting various learning outcomes was examined. The participants were 565 middle school students. Three subscales (rehearsal, organization, elaboration) from the "Motivated Strategies for Learning…

  4. Regulating Approaches to Learning: Testing Learning Strategy Convergences across a Year at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to…

  5. New Blended Learning Strategy Based on Flipped-Learning for Vocational Work-Linked Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajji, Mohamed; El Bouzaidi, Rachid Drissi; Douzi, Hassan; Khouya, El Hassane

    2016-01-01

    In a changing Moroccan educational landscape, Addressing teaching development needs is becoming a major issue in vocational work-linked Training. In this context, this paper present a new blended learning strategy based on the flipped classroom, using a social learning platform as support. Through this strategy, we increased the time dedicated to…

  6. Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies for English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Laura M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), a reciprocal classwide peer-tutoring strategy, on the reading performance of native Spanish-speaking students with learning disabilities (LD) and their low-, average-, and high-achieving classroom peers. Participants were 132 native Spanish-speaking English language…

  7. Meaningful Learning Using Concept Maps as a Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Carmen; Cazorla, Moisés; Buzón, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a proposal for the teaching-learning of the concept map technique applied to the Natural Sciences course in the second year of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO, according to its initials in Spanish). Two sessions have been designed, one of which is an instructor-led session to learn the technique and another is a session in…

  8. Flexible cognitive strategies during motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B

    2011-03-01

    Visuomotor rotation tasks have proven to be a powerful tool to study adaptation of the motor system. While adaptation in such tasks is seemingly automatic and incremental, participants may gain knowledge of the perturbation and invoke a compensatory strategy. When provided with an explicit strategy to counteract a rotation, participants are initially very accurate, even without on-line feedback. Surprisingly, with further testing, the angle of their reaching movements drifts in the direction of the strategy, producing an increase in endpoint errors. This drift is attributed to the gradual adaptation of an internal model that operates independently from the strategy, even at the cost of task accuracy. Here we identify constraints that influence this process, allowing us to explore models of the interaction between strategic and implicit changes during visuomotor adaptation. When the adaptation phase was extended, participants eventually modified their strategy to offset the rise in endpoint errors. Moreover, when we removed visual markers that provided external landmarks to support a strategy, the degree of drift was sharply attenuated. These effects are accounted for by a setpoint state-space model in which a strategy is flexibly adjusted to offset performance errors arising from the implicit adaptation of an internal model. More generally, these results suggest that strategic processes may operate in many studies of visuomotor adaptation, with participants arriving at a synergy between a strategic plan and the effects of sensorimotor adaptation.

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Based Learning Environment for Teachers: Assessment of Learning Strategies in Learning Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Glogger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Training teachers to assess important components of self-regulated learning such as learning strategies is an important, yet somewhat neglected, aspect of the integration of self-regulated learning at school. Learning journals can be used to assess learning strategies in line with cyclical process models of self-regulated learning, allowing for rich formative feedback. Against this background, we developed a computer-based learning environment (CBLE that trains teachers to assess learning strategies with learning journals. The contents of the CBLE and its instructional design were derived from theory. The CBLE was further shaped by research in a design-based manner. Finally, in two evaluation studies, student teachers (N1=44; N2=89 worked with the CBLE. We analyzed satisfaction, interest, usability, and assessment skills. Additionally, in evaluation study 2, effects of an experimental variation on motivation and assessment skills were tested. We found high satisfaction, interest, and good usability, as well as satisfying assessment skills, after working with the CBLE. Results show that teachers can be trained to assess learning strategies in learning journals. The developed CBLE offers new perspectives on how to support teachers in fostering learning strategies as central component of effective self-regulated learning at school.

  10. How are learning strategies reflected in the eyes? Combining results from self-reports and eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrysse, Leen; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Lesterhuis, Marije; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2018-03-01

    Up until now, empirical studies in the Student Approaches to Learning field have mainly been focused on the use of self-report instruments, such as interviews and questionnaires, to uncover differences in students' general preferences towards learning strategies, but have focused less on the use of task-specific and online measures. This study aimed at extending current research on students' learning strategies by combining general and task-specific measurements of students' learning strategies using both offline and online measures. We want to clarify how students process learning contents and to what extent this is related to their self-report of learning strategies. Twenty students with different generic learning profiles (according to self-report questionnaires) read an expository text, while their eye movements were registered to answer questions on the content afterwards. Eye-tracking data were analysed with generalized linear mixed-effects models. The results indicate that students with an all-high profile, combining both deep and surface learning strategies, spend more time on rereading the text than students with an all-low profile, scoring low on both learning strategies. This study showed that we can use eye-tracking to distinguish very strategic students, characterized using cognitive processing and regulation strategies, from low strategic students, characterized by a lack of cognitive and regulation strategies. These students processed the expository text according to how they self-reported. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  11. E-pedagogical strategies in the profession oriented learning context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anita; Borgnakke, Karen

    The paper is focusing on e-pedagogical strategies in online nursing education and summarizes empirical findings from ongoing fieldwork. In the ethnographic research close up analysis of the e-pedagogical practice bring light to the process of learning. Following the shifting online and offline...... activities, the analysis of the digital classroom and observations of the students in the clinical practice show how the students creates strategies in interaction with both students fellows, supervisors and patients. The paper will give examples from the fieldwork and hereby show how strategies and the e......-pedagogical concept have impact on the learning process....

  12. How Teaching Science Using Project-Based Learning Strategies Affects the Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…

  13. Cognitive Learning Strategy of BIPA Students in Learning the Indonesian Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Imam; Susanto, Gatut; Kamal, Musthofa; Fawzi, Ary

    2017-01-01

    The study outlined in this article aims to describe and explain the cognitive learning strategies used by foreign students in learning the Indonesian language. The research was designed as a qualitative study. The research participants are foreign students who were learning the Indonesian language in the BIPA program. The data sources of the…

  14. Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategy on Achievement and Science Learning Attitudes in Middle School Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Young-Lan; Son, Dae-Hee

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of cooperative learning on student achievement and attitudes of middle school biology students. Compares cooperative learning strategy, small group instruction, and traditional teaching methods. Reports significant achievement and attitude differences in the cooperative learning groups. (Contains 46 references.)…

  15. The effect of computer-based learning on distance learners self regulated learning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mehran Farajollahi, Mahdi Moenikia

    2011-01-01

    The present research was done to compare self regulated learning strategies (SRLS) between computer-based and print-based learning students. To do so, 53 participants as experimental group and 50 participants as control group from Payame Noor University were selected randomly. The experimental group was taught via computer and control group was taught via printed materials for 8 weeks. The instrument of this research was the self regulated learning strategies (SRLS) questionnaire modified by ...

  16. Active learning strategies...not for the birds!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Donna J

    2006-01-01

    Nursing students historically have struggled to learn a large amount of content in a short period of time. Reliance on intense memorization of endless facts from multiple textbook chapters is ineffective, exhausting, and generally does not result in knowledge retention. Nursing educators face the challenge of facilitating learning that promotes critical thinking through the use of strategies that actively engage the students. Creating an environment of learning where students come prepared to class and use the textbook material to enhance understanding and knowledge acquisition is imperative. This article presents active learning strategies that are flexible for varying class sizes, time availability, and topics. Classroom assessment techniques support the value of this teaching-learning approach.

  17. Patterns in Student Learning: Relationships Between Learning Strategies, Conceptions of Learning, and Learning Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, Jan D.; Vermetten, Yvonne J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the research conducted in the last decade on patterns in student learning, mostly in higher education. More specifically, the review focuses on a series of studies that have in common (a) the use of the Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS), an instrument aimed at measuring several components of student learning, namely, cognitive…

  18. Learning disabilities: definitions, epidemiology, diagnosis, and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagae, Lieven

    2008-12-01

    Learning problems occur in about 5% of school-aged children. Learning disabilities are specific and life-long but present with different school problems at different ages, depending on such factors as age, medical history, family history, and intelligence quotient. Proper individualized diagnosis and treatment plans are necessary to remediate these problems and to offer adequate coping strategies. Many children who have learning problems can be classified into one of two major categories: the dyslexia group or the nonverbal learning disability group. The role of the medical professional is important to guide parents in the diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  19. Critical Thinking and Collaboration: A Strategy to Enhance Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Styron, Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In numerous studies relative to collaboration and critical thinking, an instructional strategy called Team- Based Learning has proven to be an effective approach to teaching and learning. Team-Based Learning utilizes a specific sequence of individual work, group work and immediate feedback to create a motivational framework in which students increasingly hold each other accountable for coming to class prepared and contributing to discussion. Using an action research conceptual model diffusion of innovation theory, the process of P-20 quality enhancement using Team-Based Learning is examined.

  20. Language learning strategy research and modern foreign language teaching and learning in England

    OpenAIRE

    Grenfell, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses language learner strategy research. It arises from two sources: firstly, an individual background in research and writing about Language Learning Strategy research in the context of Modern Foreign Language Learning and Teaching in the UK over the past decades; secondly, a newly constituted British based interest group dedicated to this area of applied linguistics - UK Project on Language Learner Strategies (UKPOLLS). The aim of this SIG paper is to introduce and present t...

  1. Active Learning Strategies for the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, John

    2018-01-01

    Active learning involves students engaging with course content beyond lecture: through writing, applets, simulations, games, and more (Prince, 2004). As mathematics is often viewed as a subject area that is taught using more traditional methods (Goldsmith & Mark, 1999), there are actually many simple ways to make undergraduate mathematics…

  2. Multiple Learning Strategies Project. Graphics. EMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Alan; And Others

    This instructional package, designed for educable mentally impaired students, focuses on the vocational area of graphics. Contained in this document are nine learning modules organized into a finishing and bindery unit. Maintenance of a Challenge power cutter, operation of a hand electric stapler, and packaging with kraft paper are examples of…

  3. [Learning strategies of autonomous medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez U, Carolina; Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortega B, Javiera; Bustamante D, Carolina; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ibáñez G, Pilar; Ortiz M, Liliana; Espinoza P, Camila; Bastías V, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how autonomous students are capable of regulating their own learning process is essential to develop self-directed teaching methods. To understand how self-directed medical students approach learning in medical schools at University of Concepción, Chile. A qualitative and descriptive study, performed according to Grounded Theory guidelines, following Strauss & Corbin was performed. Twenty medical students were selected by the maximum variation sampling method. The data collection technique was carried out by a semi-structured thematic interview. Students were interviewed by researchers after an informed consent procedure. Data were analyzed by the open coding method using Atlas-ti 7.5.2 software. Self-directed learners were characterized by being good planners and managing their time correctly. Students performed a diligent selection of contents to study based on reliable literature sources, theoretical relevance and type of evaluation. They also emphasized the discussion of clinical cases, where theoretical contents can be applied. This modality allows them to gain a global view of theoretical contents, to verbalize knowledge and to obtain a learning feedback. The learning process of autonomous students is intentional and planned.

  4. Flexible Studies as Strategy for Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Liv Susanne; Wikan, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Many countries face a challenge in recruiting teachers. At the same time, the labour market is changing and the demand for re-education is increasing. In this situation, lifelong learning is seen as relevant and higher education institutions are asked to offer flexible and decentralised study programmes in order to accommodate the need for formal…

  5. Monitoring and depth of strategy use in computer-based learning environments for science and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deekens, Victor M; Greene, Jeffrey A; Lobczowski, Nikki G

    2018-03-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) models position metacognitive monitoring as central to SRL processing and predictive of student learning outcomes (Winne & Hadwin, 2008; Zimmerman, 2000). A body of research evidence also indicates that depth of strategy use, ranging from surface to deep processing, is predictive of learning performance. In this study, we investigated the relationships among the frequency of metacognitive monitoring and the utilization of deep and surface-level strategies, and the connections between these SRL processes and learning outcomes across two academic domains, science and history. This was a secondary data analysis of two studies. The first study sample was 170 undergraduate students from a University in the south-eastern United States. The second study sample consisted of 40 US high school students in the same area. We collected think-aloud protocol SRL and knowledge measure data and conducted both structural equation modelling and path analysis to investigate our research questions. Findings showed across both studies and two distinct academic domains, students who enacted more frequent monitoring also enacted more frequent deep strategies resulting in better performance on academic evaluations. These findings suggest the importance of measuring not only what depth of strategies learners use, but also the degree to which they monitor their learning. Attention to both is needed in research and practice. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda

    2017-05-01

    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  7. Strategy development and learning differences in supervised and unsupervised categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colreavy, Erin; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-06-01

    The processes that determine unsupervised categorization, the task of classifying stimuli without guidance or feedback, are poorly understood. Two experiments examined the emergence and plasticity of unsupervised strategies using perceptual stimuli that varied along two separable dimensions. In the first experiment, participants either classified stimuli into any two categories of their choice or learned identical classifications by supervised categorization. Irrespective of the complexity of classification, supervised and unsupervised learning rates differed little when both modes of learning were maximally comparable. The second experiment examined the plasticity of unsupervised classifications by introducing novel stimuli halfway through training. Whether or not people altered their strategies, they responded to novel stimuli in a gradual manner. The gradual and continuous evolution and adaptation of strategies suggests that unsupervised categorization involves true learning which shares many properties of supervised category learning. We also show that the choice of unsupervised strategy cannot be predicted from the properties of early learning trials, but is best understood as a function of the initial distribution of dimensional attention.

  8. Evaluating Executive Strategies (Management Strategies and Teaching-Learning Strategies) of Graduate Curriculum: Case Study in Isfahan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanpour, Muhammad; Ahmadi, Mojtaba; Hatami, Mostafa; Mirzaee, Hamzeh

    2017-01-01

    The present study seeks to evaluate executive strategies in graduate Curriculum of Isfahan University from the point of view of management and teaching-learning strategies. This study is an applied survey. The population comprised BA students and faculty members of the University of Isfahan. In order to do so, 141 professors and 278 students were…

  9. Structure and strategies in children's educational television: the roles of program type and learning strategies in children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Educational TV has been consistently linked to children's learning. In this research, educational TV characteristics were identified, coded, and tested for their influence on children's program-specific comprehension and vocabulary outcomes. Study 1 details a content analysis of TV features including a program's macrostructure (i.e., narrative or expository) and learning strategies embedded in the macrostructure that support learning in print-based contexts. In Study 2, regression analyses were used to predict outcomes involving 71 second and third graders (average age=7.63 years). Strategies were categorized as organizing, rehearsing, elaborating, or affective in function. Outcomes were uniformly higher for narrative macrostructures. Strategies used in narratives predicted relatively homogenous relations across outcomes, whereas strategies in expositories predicted quite heterogeneous relations across outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Collaborative testing as a learning strategy in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandahl, Sheryl S

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of nursing education is to prepare nurses to work collaboratively as members of interprofessional health care teams on behalf of patients. Collaborative testing is a collaborative learning strategy used to foster knowledge development, critical thinking in decision making, and group processing skills. This study incorporated a quasi-experimental design with a comparison group to examine the effect of collaborative testing as a learning strategy on student learning and retention of course content as well as group process skills and student perceptions of their learning and anxiety. The setting was a baccalaureate nursing program; the sample consisted of two groups of senior students enrolled in Medical-Surgical Nursing II. Student learning, as measured by unit examination scores, was greater for students taking examinations collaboratively compared to individually. Retention of course content, as measured by final examination scores, was not greater for students taking examinations collaboratively compared to individually. Student perceptions were overwhelmingly positive, with students reporting increased learning as a result of the collaborative testing experiences. Despite the lack of data to support increased retention, collaborative testing may be a learning strategy worth implementing in nursing education. Students reported more positive interactions and collaboration with their peers, skills required by the professional nurse.

  11. Learning in Neural Networks: VLSI Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan Anh

    1995-01-01

    Fully-parallel hardware neural network implementations may be applied to high-speed recognition, classification, and mapping tasks in areas such as vision, or can be used as low-cost self-contained units for tasks such as error detection in mechanical systems (e.g. autos). Learning is required not only to satisfy application requirements, but also to overcome hardware-imposed limitations such as reduced dynamic range of connections.

  12. Proven Strategies for Teaching and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. Brown (David)

    2004-01-01

    textabstract50 technology-using professors at 50 of America's most-wired campuses were asked to explain how their teaching strategies have been augmented by the use of computers. From their responses emerges a pattern. Most professors are using computers in teaching in order to enable more

  13. Metacognitive reading strategies of children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolielo-Carrilho, Ana Paola; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos

    2017-05-15

    to check the use of metacognitive reading strategies in children with learning disabilities and determine whether there is a relationship between their use and text comprehension. the study was conducted on 30 children, aged 8 to 12 years, of both genders, divided into experimental group (EG) - 15 children with learning disabilities; and control group (CG) - 15 children without disability. All children were submitted to the Reading Strategies Scale and Prolec text comprehension subtest. The sample was described in mean, median, minimum and maximum values. Comparative analysis was performed between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test. The degree of correlation between variables was verified by Spearman Correlation Analysis. The significance level was set at 5%. across the total scores of the scale, EG performance was lower in all descriptive measures, with a significant difference compared to CG. The EG achieved a performance close to children without difficulties only in global strategies. The correlation between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension was positive. children with learning disabilities showed deficits in the use of metacognitive reading strategies when compared to children without learning disabilities. The better the performance in reading strategies, the better textual comprehension was and vice versa, suggesting that metacognitive reading skills contribute to reading comprehension.

  14. Discovering Learning Strategy to Increase Metacognitive Knowledge in Biology Learning in Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Herlanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at finding an effective learning strategy that can increase metacognitive knowledge. Metacognitive knowledge is a standard that based on 2016-revised edition of 2013 curriculum needs to be achieved by every graduate in all level of education in Indonesia. The study is conducted in three different schools and engages 207 students, which then divided into six groups. The groups are students who study under mind mapping strategy, concept mapping, reciprocal teaching using summary notes, reciprocal teaching using mind mapping, problem-based learning, and investigation group. The results showed that those studying under problem-based learning strategy spent a significantly higher numbers in metacognitive knowledge in biology learning and followed by students who study under reciprocal teaching using mind mapping. According to the finding, it is expected that teachers of Biology will practice problem-based learning strategy in their classroom in order to increase the Metacognitive knowledge.

  15. The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Teaching Turkish as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami; Iscan, Adem; Karagoz, Beytullah; Birol, Gülnur

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the basis of the language learning process in teaching Turkish as a second language. Vocabulary learning strategies need to be used in order for vocabulary learning to take place effectively. The use of vocabulary learning strategies facilitates vocabulary learning and increases student achievement. Each student uses a…

  16. Learning in Science: A Comparison of Deep and Surface Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Christine; Brown, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the differences between deep and surface approaches to learning science. Findings indicate that the deep-surface learning differences fall into five categories: (1) generative thinking; (2) nature of explanations; (3) asking questions; (4) metacognitive activity; and (5) approach to tasks. Suggests that teachers can encourage a deep…

  17. Near surface stress analysis strategies for axisymmetric fretting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we develop design tools for Near Surface Analysis (NSA) for understanding axisymmetric fretting. Axisymmetric Fretting Analysis (AFA) becomes formidable owing to localised tractions that call for Fourier transform techniques. We develop two different NSA strategies based on two-dimensional plane strain ...

  18. Efficacy of learning strategies instruction in adult basic education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Michael F.; Mellard, Daryl F.

    2011-01-01

    Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education (AE) participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in one of four learning strategies were compared to outcomes of reading instruction delivered in the context of typical adult education units on social studies, history, and science. Both experimental and control conditions experienced high attrition and low attendance, resulting in only 105 control and 100 experimental participants’ data in outcome analyses for the trials of the four learning strategies. Reading outcomes for these completers were not significantly different between experimental and control conditions, and each group achieved minimal gains. We discuss possible reasons for the non-significant effect from the intervention, including insufficient instructional dosage. PMID:22121409

  19. Future Learning Strategy and ePortfolios in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dorninger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid change of the information andknowledge Society does no stop at education:communication, teaching and learning are changing due todigital media. Therefore at Austrian schools a “FutureLearning”- strategy was started in October 2007, where newforms of learning are underlined by new media and socialsoftware. This strategy will be presented. An important partof the strategy is the introduction of electronic Portfolios forstudents. Portfolios could be powerful tools to realizeindividualisation in formal education. There are two maintypes, the process portfolio for learning, working andreflection and the application portfolio for assessmentpurposes and job application. It is now possible to collectformal and informal competences and skills-orientedknowledge for the later professional career.

  20. Bridging the gap: strategies to integrate classroom and clinical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Lisa Sue; Robinia, Kristi

    2014-08-01

    Nursing students often feel their classroom (didactic) learning and clinical (practice) experiences are disconnected which can lead to a rejection of academe and dissatisfaction with the profession. This classroom/clinical divide may be exacerbated because of the increased use of part-time clinical faculty, who are often isolated from their didactic peers. If clinical faculty, either novice or experienced, are disconnected from didactic faculty, is it any wonder students feel their learning is fragmented? The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies to help bridge the gap between didactic and clinical learning. Specific integration strategies for faculty are presented using examples from a baccalaureate adult nursing didactic course and its related clinical course. The role of a clinical coordinator in facilitating course integration and support for part-time clinical faculty is described. Ideas for using technology to enhance learning and suggestions to promote socialization to decrease faculty isolation are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Binnur; Kanadli, Sedat

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: Self-regulated learning strategies (cognitive, metacognitive, resource management, and motivational strategies) influence students' academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and motivation. Reviewing the national literature about self-regulated learning strategies, studies have indicated both significant and insignificant…

  2. PREDICTING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: THE ROLE OF MOTIVATION AND LEARNING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Beatriz Stover

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study consists in testing a predictive model of academic achievement including motivation and learning strategies as predictors. Motivation is defined as the energy and the direction of behaviors; it is categorized in three types of motivation –intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985. Learning strategies are deliberate operations oriented towards information processing in academic activities (Valle, Barca, González & Núñez, 1999. Several studies analysed the relationship between motivation and learning strategies in high school and college environments. Students with higher academic achievement were intrinsically motivated and used a wider variety of learning strategies more frequently. A non-experimental predictive design was developed. The sample was composed by 459 students (55.2% high-schoolers; 44.8% college students. Data were gathered by means of sociodemographic and academic surveys, and also by the local versions of the Academic Motivation Scale –EMA, Echelle de Motivation en Éducation (Stover, de la Iglesia, Rial Boubeta & Fernández Liporace, 2012; Vallerand, Blais, Briere & Pelletier, 1989 and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory –LASSI (Stover, Uriel & Fernández Liporace, 2012; Weinstein, Schulte & Palmer, 1987. Several path analyses were carried out to test a hypothetical model to predict academic achievement (Kline, 1998. Results indicated that self-determined motivation explained academic achievement through the use of learning strategies. The final model obtained an excellent fit (χ2=16.523, df= 6, p=0.011; GFI=0.987; AGFI=0.955; SRMR=0.0320; NFI=0.913; IFI=0.943; CFI=0.940. Results are discussed considering Self Determination Theory and previous research.

  3. Development of an instrument to assess learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chissom, B; Iran-Nejad, A

    1992-12-01

    Items to measure learning strategies were extracted from students' written narratives about their study and learning habits. A resulting 79-item instrument was administered to 321 graduate and undergraduate students. From factor analysis of the correlation matrix four factors were identified: (I) reflective metacognition, (II) procedural metacognition, (III) rote memorization, and (IV) procrastination. There were significant positive correlations between GPA and Factors I and II and a significant negative correlation between Factor IV and GPA.

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY, FOREIGN LANGUAGE APTITUDE AND MOTIVATIONS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Novia Tri Febriani

    2017-01-01

    Language learning belief and language learning strategies are two essential predictors that have significant effect toward students’ language proficiency. Learners’ belief is dealing with what comes from inside the learners in learning the language, such as foreign language aptitude; difficulty of language learning; nature of language learning; learning and communication strategies; and motivation. Meanwhile, language learning strategies are learners’ plan in achieving certain goals or master...

  5. Learning strategies in matching to sample: if-then and configural learning by pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jeffrey S; Bodily, Kent D; Wright, Anthony A

    2008-02-01

    Pigeons learned a matching-to-sample task with a split training-set design in which half of the stimulus displays were untrained and tested following acquisition. Transfer to the untrained displays along with no novel-stimulus transfer indicated that these pigeons learned the task (partially) via if-then rules. Comparisons to other performance measures indicated that they also partially learned the task via configural learning (learning the gestalt of the whole stimulus display). Differences in the FR-sample requirement (1 vs. 20) had no systematic effect on the type of learning or level of learning obtained. Differences from a previous study [Wright, A.A., 1997. Concept learning and learning strategies. Psychol. Sci. 8, 119-123] are discussed, including the effect of displaying the stimuli vertically (traditional display orientation) or horizontally from the floor.

  6. Evaluation strategies as a means for learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Aaron Richard

    Students often make mistakes in physics courses and are expected to identify, correct, and learn from their mistakes, usually with some assistance from an instructor, textbook, or peer. This aid may come in many forms, such as problem solutions which are given to a class, tutoring to an individual student, or a peer-discussion among several students. However, in each case a student relies upon an external agent in order to determine whether, and how, her work is mistaken. Consequently, the student's learning process is largely contingent upon the availability and quality of external evaluating agents. One may suspect that if a student developed the ability to evaluate her own work, her dependence on external agents could be moderated, resulting in an enhancement of her learning. In this dissertation, I first discuss what evaluation strategies are and why they may benefit student learning. Next, I elaborate on some specific means for teaching students the evaluation strategies of unit analysis and special-case analysis. Afterwards, I present and analyze the results of a quasi-experimental control group study that indicates we were successful at helping students learn and use evaluation strategies, and that this caused significant gains in student problem-solving performance. The relationship between student motivation, self-efficacy, and use of evaluation strategies is also discussed.

  7. Exploring Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by UPM TESL Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanisah Safian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL at University Putra Malaysia.  There are five different categories of vocabulary leaning strategies determination, social, memory, cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Quantitative research design has been used in this study by providing a set of questionnaire of 58 items that was given out to 50 participants at the Faculty of Educational Studies in UPM. The findings of this research hope to help all educators to acknowledge the type of vocabulary strategies used by students in acquiring second language (L2.

  8. Globalizing Lifelong Learning - International Organizations' Strategies of Lifelong Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zapp, Mike

    2012-01-01

    While the 1970s still knew 'permanent education' (Council of Europe), 'recurrent education' (OECD) and 'lifelong education' (UNESCO), over the past 20 years, 'lifelong learning' has become the single buzz word and catch-all term for reform in above all (pre-) primary, higher and adult education in both national and international education policy making. Both highly industrialized and less industrialized countries embrace the term, in many cases motivated by international and supra...

  9. Organizational Learning Strategies and Verbal Memory Deficits in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzburg, George C; Cuesta-Diaz, Armando; Ospina, Luz H; Russo, Manuela; Shanahan, Megan; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes; Larsen, Emmett; Mulaimovic, Sandra; Burdick, Katherine E

    2017-04-01

    Verbal memory (VM) impairment is prominent in bipolar disorder (BD) and is linked to functional outcomes. However, the intricacies of VM impairment have not yet been studied in a large sample of BD patients. Moreover, some have proposed VM deficits that may be mediated by organizational strategies, such as semantic or serial clustering. Thus, the exact nature of VM break-down in BD patients is not well understood, limiting remediation efforts. We investigated the intricacies of VM deficits in BD patients versus healthy controls (HCs) and examined whether verbal learning differences were mediated by use of clustering strategies. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was administered to 113 affectively stable BD patients and 106 HCs. We compared diagnostic groups on all CVLT indices and investigated whether group differences in verbal learning were mediated by clustering strategies. Although BD patients showed significantly poorer attention, learning, and memory, these indices were only mildly impaired. However, BD patients evidenced poorer use of effective learning strategies and lower recall consistency, with these indices falling in the moderately impaired range. Moreover, relative reliance on semantic clustering fully mediated the relationship between diagnostic category and verbal learning, while reliance on serial clustering partially mediated this relationship. VM deficits in affectively stable bipolar patients were widespread but were generally mildly impaired. However, patients displayed inadequate use of organizational strategies with clear separation from HCs on semantic and serial clustering. Remediation efforts may benefit from education about mnemonic devices or "chunking" techniques to attenuate VM deficits in BD. (JINS, 2017, 23, 358-366).

  10. Implementation of training programs in self-regulated learning strategies in Moodle format: results of a experience in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, José Carlos; Cerezo, Rebeca; Bernardo, Ana; Rosário, Pedro; Valle, Antonio; Fernández, Estrella; Suárez, Natalia

    2011-04-01

    This paper tests the efficacy of an intervention program in virtual format intended to train studying and self-regulation strategies in university students. The aim of this intervention is to promote a series of strategies which allow students to manage their learning processes in a more proficient and autonomous way. The program has been developed in Moodle format and hosted by the Virtual Campus of the University of Oviedo. The present study had a semi-experimental design, included an experimental group (n=167) and a control one (n=206), and used pretest and posttest measures (self-regulated learning strategies' declarative knowledge, self-regulated learning macro-strategy planning-execution-assessment, self-regulated learning strategies on text, surface and deep learning approaches, and academic achievement). Data suggest that the students enrolled in the training program, comparing with students in the control group, showed a significant improvement in their declarative knowledge, general and on text use of learning strategies, increased their deep approach to learning, decreased their use of a surface approach and, in what concerns to academic achievement, statistically significant differences have been found in favour of the experimental group.

  11. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesje Coertjens

    Full Text Available The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  12. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  13. A Geostatistical Approach to Indoor Surface Sampling Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Thomas; Petersen, Ole Holm; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1990-01-01

    using the global information. Then methods for choosing a proper sampling area for a single sample of dust on a table are given. The global contamination of an object is determined by a maximum likelihood estimator. Finally, it is shown how specified experimental goals can be included to determine......Particulate surface contamination is of concern in production industries such as food processing, aerospace, electronics and semiconductor manufacturing. There is also an increased awareness that surface contamination should be monitored in industrial hygiene surveys. A conceptual and theoretical...... framework for designing sampling strategies is thus developed. The distribution and spatial correlation of surface contamination can be characterized using concepts from geostatistical science, where spatial applications of statistics is most developed. The theory is summarized and particulate surface...

  14. Gelatin Functionalization of Biomaterial Surfaces: Strategies for Immobilization and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dubruel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the immobilization of gelatin as biopolymer on two types of implantable biomaterials, polyimide and titanium, was compared. Both materials are known for their biocompatibility while lacking cell-interactive behavior. For both materials, a pre-functionalization step was required to enable gelatin immobilization. For the polyimide foils, a reactive succinimidyl ester was introduced first on the surface, followed by covalent grafting of gelatin. For the titanium material, methacrylate groups were first introduced on the Ti surface through a silanization reaction. The applied functionalities enabled the subsequent immobilization of methacrylamide modified gelatin. Both surface modified materials were characterized in depth using atomic force microscopy, static contact angle measurements, confocal fluorescence microscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the strategies elaborated for both material classes are suitable to apply stable gelatin coatings. Interestingly, depending on the material class studied, not all surface analysis techniques are applicable.

  15. A "critical period" in the use of language learning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipović Vesna B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Age of students is one of the factors that may significantly influence the use of language learning strategies. The aim of this paper is to determine whether there is a "critical period" when primary school learners tend to change their use of strategies and what sort of changes are taking place then. The results presented here were obtained in the second phase of the research investigating the use of strategies among primary school students in Novi Sad (Serbia. The results of the first phase, carried out two years earlier, showed statistically significant differences between the two groups of students, aged 10 (N=48 and 14 (N=41 and higher use of all strategy categories by younger participants. The next phase was conducted two years later only with the younger group of students who were now aged 12 (N=40. The goal of the second phase of the research was to examine whether maturation and transition to the stage of abstract thought (Piaget, 1972 had any influence on students' use of strategies. The instrument used in this research was Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL designed by Rebecca Oxford. Data analysis included a comparison of the frequency of strategy use reported in two studies in the range of two years. The results show statistically significant differences within the same group of students over the two-year period and a considerable decline in the use of all types of strategies. Moreover, their preferences of strategies also changed and became closer to preferences reported by fourteen-year old participants during the first phase of the research, suggesting that there might be a common trend in strategy use influenced both by the educational system and the changes related to maturation. These results, showing lower strategy use in correlation with age, are inconsistent with the results of studies conducted in other educational systems, indicating the need for further investigation in this area and considerable improvement

  16. E-pedagogical strategies in the profession oriented learning context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgnakke, Karen; Lyngsø, Anita

    The paper is focusing on e-pedagogical strategies in online nursing education and summarizes empirical findings from ongoing fieldwork. In the ethnographic research close up analysis of the e-pedagogical practice bring light to the process of learning. Following the shifting online and offline...... activities, the analysis of the digital classroom and observations of the students in the clinical practice show how the students creates strategies in interaction with both students fellows, supervisors and patients. The paper will give examples from the fieldwork and hereby show how strategies and the e-pedagogical...

  17. English Language Learning Strategy Use by Chinese Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping

    2010-01-01

    Language learning strategies are important factors that affect students' learning. In China, senior high school is an important stage in a person's education. This study examines the English language learning strategy use by Chinese senior high school students by means of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning. The findings reveal that…

  18. Autonomous Learning and Metacognitive Strategies Essentials in ESP Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajideh, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    The reform in teaching and curriculum involves not only in the teaching content, but more so in teachers' methodology, the students' learning strategies and the changed relationship between students and teachers in the classroom setting. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that what is needed for ESP is a different orientation to English study…

  19. Learning Strategies in Proficient and Less Proficient Readers in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…

  20. Learning Paths and Teaching Strategies in Early Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a chart to illustrate learning paths for children ages 3 to 6 years and sample teaching strategies in the following areas: (1) number and operations; (2) geometry and spatial sense; (3) measurement; (4) pattern/algebraic thinking; and (5) displaying and analyzing data. (KB)

  1. Effects of Self-Instructional Learning Strategy on Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... Hence, Montague (2008) noted that self-regulation strategies like self-instruction, self-questioning, self-evaluation, self-monitoring and self- reinforcement, help learners in gaining access to cognitive processes that facilitate learning, guide learners as they apply the processes within and across domains ...

  2. Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

    1989-01-01

    Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)

  3. Global Corporate Priorities and Demand-Led Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealtry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to start the process of exploring how to optimise connections between the strategic needs of an organisation as directed by top management and its learning management structures and strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The article takes a broad brush approach to a complex and large subject area that is…

  4. Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

  5. An integrated mentoring strategy for service learning in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher education in South Africa, in general, has been charged with the lack of clear strategy and commitment to relevant teaching and research that is grounded in experiential and emancipatory approaches to learning, especially given the dearth of institutional responsiveness to social responsibility. The result is that ...

  6. A Study on Developing Learning Strategies in Violin Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afacan, Senol; Cilden, Seyda

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted for the purpose of developing a valid and reliable learning strategies scale for students receiving violin education in Departments of Music at Fine Arts High Schools. The scale was applied to 391 violin students receiving education in the 11th and 12th grades in Departments of Music at Fine Arts High Schools in the…

  7. Effects of cooperative and individualistic learning strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current conventional methods of teaching Geography in Nigeria has not improved students' performance in the subject. Hence, there is the need to expose students to other learning strategies that can improve their performance in map reading and interpretation. This study conceptualised relative effects of cooperative and ...

  8. Strategies for enhancing the teaching and learning of technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated strategies for enhancing the teaching and learning of technical drawing in technical colleges in ebonyi state, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of structured interview from twenty technical drawing teachers and 120 technical drawing students in the study area. Data were analysed using mean ...

  9. Teaching Strategies: Supporting EAL Students in Learning Biology Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Primani; Cooper, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to teaching strategies that can be used to support English as Additional Language (EAL) students in learning biology terminology. The paper begins with an overview of EAL students and considers the difficulties that they may face in the classroom along with the challenges that mainstream teachers may have…

  10. Effect of group conselling on learning and remembering strategies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through stratified random sampling, a total of 240 were selected and assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental groups were exposed to study skills counseling on learning and remembering strategies for four weeks and the control were given placebo treatment for the same duration. The data ...

  11. Effects of Cooperative and Competitive Learning Strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cooperative and competitive learning strategies on Students' performance in Mathematics were investigated in this study. Eighty (80) Senior Secondary II students made up of 40 males and 40 females were randomly selected from the population of a Secondary Commercial School in Uyo. These students ...

  12. Effectiveness of Learning Strategies Taught to Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Gizem; Dikbayir, Ahmet; Genç, Salih Zeki

    2017-01-01

    The research was carried out with 41 people educated in Ege University, Faculty of Education, Social Studies Teacher Training Department during the fall semester of 2015-2016 academic year. Quasi-experimental design was used in the study. Within the scope of the research, prospective teachers were taught learning strategies lasting for ten weeks.…

  13. Integrating Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction into EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…

  14. ICT enabled education and ICT driven e-learning strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper centres on ICT enabled education and ICT driven e-learning strategies: benefits and setbacks in Nigeria education system. It is in fact among the academic struggle to bring to the lime-light, the knowledge of ICT to scholars especially in the domain of education. The paper captured interesting discussion on the ...

  15. Teaching Organizational Skills through Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case story of how an occupational therapist worked with Joe, a junior high student with Asperger's Syndrome, to develop better organizational skills. Self-regulated learning strategies were used to teach Joe how to keep track of his assignments as well as his grades. In addition, the case story provides a clear example of…

  16. Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" (PALS) is a peer-tutoring instructional program that supplements the primary reading curriculum. Pairs of students work together on reading activities intended to improve reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Students in the pairs--who alternately take on the roles of tutor and tutee--read…

  17. Mathematics for Social Scientists: Learning Cycles and Teaching Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barojas, Jorge; Dehesa, Nahina

    2001-01-01

    Problems encountered in teaching function in introductory math for social science majors were solved using a learning cycle approach for the construction of math knowledge. Teaching strategies were directed at two goals: motivating and developing through modeling and applying and evaluating through instrumentation. (SK)

  18. English Language Learning Strategies Reported by Advanced Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyeon; Heinz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate effective English language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by successful language learners. The participants in this study were 20 student interpreters enrolled in the graduate school of interpretation and translation in Korea. Data on LLSs were collected through unstructured essay writing, a…

  19. The effect of student learning strategies on performance and carrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the learning strategies of 500 undergraduate students in higher education in the Wa Campus of the University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana and the effect on their performance and carrier aspirations. Twenty lecturers and managers of three development organisations that receive students ...

  20. Learning Pre-Played Solos: Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Jazz/Improvised Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the self-regulated learning strategies of two advanced students in jazz/improvised music education when learning pre-played solos over well-known jazz tunes. The students were enrolled in a well-established performance degree programme in a music conservatoire, and videotaped their own individual practice sessions. In…

  1. Learning about the Types of Plastic Wastes: Effectiveness of Inquiry Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheng, Nga-Yee Irene; Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Zhan, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impacts of the inquiry learning strategies employed in a "Plastic Education Project" on primary students' knowledge, beliefs and intended behaviour in Hong Kong. Student questionnaires and a test on plastic types were adopted for data collection. Results reveal that the inquiry learning strategies…

  2. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Language Learning Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Rahmani, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' beliefs about language learning and language learning strategy use. A sample of 104 B.A and M.A Iranian EFL learners majoring in English participated in this study. Three instruments, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), Beliefs about Language…

  3. An Investigation of the Relationship between Language Learning Strategies and Learning Styles in Turkish Freshman Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Özgül

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the language learning strategies of freshman students and their learning styles. This study is a descriptive research and employs a relational screening model. Participants of the study were 328 freshman students majoring in different fields at Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet…

  4. Field of Study, Learning Styles, and Language Learning Strategies of University Students: Are There Any Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahragard, Rahman; Khajavi, Yaser; Abbasian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationships between field of study, learning style preferences, and language learning strategies among university students majoring in the fields of arts and humanities, science, engineering, social sciences, and English as a foreign language. To this end, 376 university students completed the…

  5. An Overview of Building Learning Cities as a Strategy for Promoting Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the rationales underpinning learning cities, examines the related conceptual development that arises from the literature, reviews progress made in building learning cities in international communities and synthesises the major strategies adopted. The article also points out the challenges and barriers, and it concludes with…

  6. Using Mixed-Modality Learning Strategies via e-Learning for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated an e-learning system, MyEVA, based on a mixed-modality vocabulary strategy in assisting learners of English as a second language (L2 learners) to improve their vocabulary. To explore the learning effectiveness of MyEVA, the study compared four vocabulary-learning techniques, MyEVA in preference mode, MyEVA in basic mode, an…

  7. Learning Strategy in Class Management: A Reflection from Manado Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi Wekke, Ismail; Yandra, Alexander; Hamuddin, Budianto

    2017-12-01

    This article is a research conducted with qualitative approach with various case studies underlining a strategy that becomes the basis for classroom management. The article discusses and links to the learning revolution that becomes today’s demands, including a discussion that analyses the condition of learners. The article based its data preliminary study conducted in Manado in the province of North Sulawesi in Indonesia. This region has its own characteristics with the encounter of Muslims and the Protestant community for century. Due to its uniqueness 3 Moslem schools and 3 Protestant schools in Manado were selected to study. Data collection was conducted for a year, from May 2016 to April 2017. The study employ four stages research steps: identification, data collection, data validity checking, and directed discussion. The stages include observation and in-depth interviews and conducting focus group discussions. Two important thought about the essence of learning strategy and learning revolution in class were shared briefly within this article.

  8. Self-Regulated Learning in the Museum: Understanding the Relationship of Visitor's Goals, Learning Strategies, and Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) in the museum was explored by 2 investigations. The first one investigated 233 visitors on their goals and intended learning strategies by questionnaire before they visited the science museum. Results indicated visitors' learning goals can predict their intended deep-learning strategy. Moreover, visitors can be…

  9. Empowering Students with Word-Learning Strategies: Teach a Child to Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Michael F.; Schneider, Steven; Ringstaff, Cathy

    2018-01-01

    This article on word-learning strategies describes a theory- and research-based set of procedures for teaching students to use word-learning strategies--word parts, context clues, the dictionary, and a combined strategy--to infer the meanings of unknown words. The article begins with a rationale for teaching word-learning strategies, particularly…

  10. Learning strategy trumps motivational level in determining learning-induced auditory cortical plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieszczad, Kasia M; Weinberger, Norman M

    2010-02-01

    Associative memory for auditory-cued events involves specific plasticity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) that facilitates responses to tones which gain behavioral significance, by modifying representational parameters of sensory coding. Learning strategy, rather than the amount or content of learning, can determine this learning-induced cortical (high order) associative representational plasticity (HARP). Thus, tone-contingent learning with signaled errors can be accomplished either by (1) responding only during tone duration ("tone-duration" strategy, T-Dur), or (2) responding from tone onset until receiving an error signal for responses made immediately after tone offset ("tone-onset-to-error", TOTE). While rats using both strategies achieve the same high level of performance, only those using the TOTE strategy develop HARP, viz., frequency-specific decreased threshold (increased sensitivity) and decreased bandwidth (increased selectivity) (Berlau & Weinberger, 2008). The present study challenged the generality of learning strategy by determining if high motivation dominates in the formation of HARP. Two groups of adult male rats were trained to bar-press during a 5.0kHz (10s, 70dB) tone for a water reward under either high (HiMot) or moderate (ModMot) levels of motivation. The HiMot group achieved a higher level of correct performance. However, terminal mapping of A1 showed that only the ModMot group developed HARP, i.e., increased sensitivity and selectivity in the signal-frequency band. Behavioral analysis revealed that the ModMot group used the TOTE strategy while HiMot subjects used the T-Dur strategy. Thus, type of learning strategy, not level of learning or motivation, is dominant for the formation of cortical plasticity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrating simulated teaching/learning strategies in undergraduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Barbara; Ferguson, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the results of a mixed-methods study integrating the use of simulations in a nursing theory course in order to assess students' perceptions of self-efficacy for nursing practice are presented. Nursing students in an intervention group were exposed to a combination of lecture and simulation, and then asked to rate their perceptions of self-efficacy, satisfaction and effectiveness of this combined teaching and learning strategy. Based on Bandura's (1977, 1986) theory of self-efficacy, this study provides data to suggest that students' self-confidence for nursing practice may be increased through the use of simulation as a method of teaching and learning. Students also reported higher levels of satisfaction, effectiveness and consistency with their learning style when exposed to the combination of lecture and simulation than the control group, who were exposed to lecture as the only method of teaching and learning.

  12. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H J M; Loyens, Sofie M M; Marcq, Hélène; Gijbels, David

    2016-12-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested and try to understand what is being studied. This review investigates: (1) the effects of PBL on students' deep and surface approaches to learning, (2) whether and why these effects do differ across (a) the context of the learning environment (single vs. curriculum wide implementation), and (b) study quality. Studies were searched dealing with PBL and students' approaches to learning. Twenty-one studies were included. The results indicate that PBL does enhance deep learning with a small positive average effect size of .11 and a positive effect in eleven of the 21 studies. Four studies show a decrease in deep learning and six studies show no effect. PBL does not seem to have an effect on surface learning as indicated by a very small average effect size (.08) and eleven studies showing no increase in the surface approach. Six studies demonstrate a decrease and four an increase in surface learning. It is concluded that PBL does seem to enhance deep learning and has little effect on surface learning, although more longitudinal research using high quality measurement instruments is needed to support this conclusion with stronger evidence. Differences cannot be explained by the study quality but a curriculum wide implementation of PBL has a more positive impact on the deep approach (effect size .18) compared to an implementation within a single course (effect size of -.05). PBL is assumed to enhance active learning and students' intrinsic motivation, which enhances deep learning. A high perceived workload and assessment that is perceived as not rewarding deep learning are assumed to enhance surface learning.

  13. [Flipped classroom as a strategy to enhance active learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the introduction of a flipped class for fourth grade dentistry students, and analyzes the characteristics of the learning method. In fiscal 2013 and 2014, a series of ten three-hour units for removable partial prosthodontics were completed with the flipped class method; a lecture video of approximately 60 minutes was made by the teacher (author) and uploaded to the university's e-learning website one week before each class. Students were instructed to prepare for the class by watching the streaming video on their PC, tablet, or smartphone. In the flipped class, students were not given a lecture, but were asked to solve short questions displayed on screen, to make a short presentation about a part of the video lecture, and to discuss a critical question related to the main subject of the day. An additional team-based learning (TBL) session with individual and group answers was implemented. The average individual scores were considerably higher in the last two years, when the flipped method was implemented, than in the three previous years when conventional lectures were used. The following learning concepts were discussed: the role of the flipped method as an active learning strategy, the efficacy of lecture videos and short questions, students' participation in the class discussion, present-day value of the method, cooperation with TBL, the significance of active learning in relation with the students' learning ability, and the potential increase in the preparation time and workload for students.

  14. Defeating crypsis: detection and learning of camouflage strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolyon Troscianko

    Full Text Available Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread defence against predators in nature and an active area of interdisciplinary research. Recent work has aimed to understand what camouflage types exist (e.g. background matching, disruptive, and distractive patterns and their effectiveness. However, work has almost exclusively focused on the efficacy of these strategies in preventing initial detection, despite the fact that predators often encounter the same prey phenotype repeatedly, affording them opportunities to learn to find those prey more effectively. The overall value of a camouflage strategy may, therefore, reflect both its ability to prevent detection by predators and resist predator learning. We conducted four experiments with humans searching for hidden targets of different camouflage types (disruptive, distractive, and background matching of various contrast levels over a series of touch screen trials. As with previous work, disruptive coloration was the most successful method of concealment overall, especially with relatively high contrast patterns, whereas potentially distractive markings were either neutral or costly. However, high contrast patterns incurred faster decreases in detection times over trials compared to other stimuli. In addition, potentially distractive markings were sometimes learnt more slowly than background matching markings, despite being found more readily overall. Finally, learning effects were highly dependent upon the experimental paradigm, including the number of prey types seen and whether subjects encountered targets simultaneously or sequentially. Our results show that the survival advantage of camouflage strategies reflects both their ability to avoid initial detection (sensory mechanisms and predator learning (perceptual mechanisms.

  15. Academic self-handicapping: the role of self-concept clarity and students' learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cathy R; Gadbois, Shannon A

    2007-03-01

    Self-handicapping is linked to students' personal motivations, classroom goal structure, academic outcomes, global self-esteem and certainty of self-esteem. Academic self-handicapping has yet to be studied with respect to students' consistency in self-description and their description of themselves as learners. This study examined students' self-esteem and self-concept clarity as well as their tendencies to employ deep- or surface-learning approaches and self-regulate while learning in relation to their self-handicapping tendencies and exam performance. Participants were 161 male and female Canadian, first-year university students. Participants completed a series of questionnaires that measured their self-esteem, self-concept clarity, approaches to learning, self-regulation and reflections on performance prior to and following their exam. Self-handicapping was negatively correlated with self-concept clarity, deep learning, self-regulated learning and exam grades, and positively correlated with surface learning and test anxiety. Regression analyses showed that self-concept clarity, self-regulation, surface-learning and test anxiety scores predicted self-handicapping scores. Self-concept clarity, test anxiety scores, academic self-efficacy and self-regulation were predictors of mid-term exam grades. This study showed that students' self-concept clarity and learning strategies are related to their tendencies to self-handicap and their exam performance. The role of students' ways of learning and their self-concept clarity in self-handicapping and academic performance was explored.

  16. Barriers and Strategies on Adoption of E-Learning in Tanzanian Higher Learning Institutions: Lessons for Adopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisanga, Dalton; Ireson, Gren

    2015-01-01

    Tanzanian Higher learning institutions (HLIs) are faced with challenges of adopting e-learning in education. This study involved experts in e-learning to examine barriers of adopting e-learning and the best strategies to address them. Data were gathered from a series of semi-structured interviews with e-learning experts from two HLIs in Tanzania.…

  17. Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

  18. Teaching research: strategies for a successful learning equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Susan B

    2014-07-01

    Educators who teach or facilitate understanding of research need to overcome the barrier that nurses may not value research for practice, as identified by Pravikoff, Tanner, and Pierce (2005), with innovative, interactive strategies to align with requirements for the 21st century. Educators need to generate a perception that research is useful, rewarding, fun, and worthwhile. Educators of research need to extend beyond academic learning and continue to develop and implement innovative strategies in clinical education programs (Berman, 2013). Research is a skill that requires a foundation of knowledge and its applicability to practice or 'real life'.

  19. MODELING THE STRUCTURAL RELATIONS AMONG LEARNING STRATEGIES, SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS, AND EFFORT REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenol Şen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research examined the relations among students’ learning strategies (elaboration, organization, critical thinking and metacognitive learning strategies, self-efficacy beliefs, and effort regulation. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ was used to measure students’ learning strategies, self-efficacy beliefs, and effort regulation. A total of 227 high school students participated in the research. Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were performed to examine the relations among the variables of the research. Results revealed that students’ metacognitive learning strategies and self-efficacy beliefs statistically and significantly predicted their effort regulation. In addition, the students’ self-efficacy beliefs directly affected deep cognitive learning strategies and effort regulation but indirectly affected metacognitive learning strategies. Furthermore, 88.6 % of the variance in effort regulation was explained by metacognitive learning strategies and self-efficacy beliefs.

  20. Distribution Learning in Evolutionary Strategies and Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Oswin

    The thesis is concerned with learning distributions in the two settings of Evolutionary Strategies (ESs) and Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs). In both cases, the distributions are learned from samples, albeit with different goals. Evolutionary Strategies are concerned with finding an optimum...... of an objective function for which the gradient is not available. The algorithm samples function values from a search distribution and adapts the parameters of the distribution during the optimization process. In the thesis, new update schemes for the covariance matrix used by the CMA-ES are investigated....... An update rule using a triangular Cholesky factor is introduced and the additive covariance matrix update is replaced by a multiplicative rule. Experiments show that the proposed methods improve performance of the CMA-ES either computationally or by allowing simpler handling of constraints. The second part...

  1. School nurse book clubs: an innovative strategy for lifelong learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawald, Deborah A; Adams, Theresa M

    2008-04-01

    Recognizing the ongoing need for continuing education for school nurses, the authors discuss the use of school nurse book clubs as an innovative lifelong-learning strategy. Current research supports the use of literature in nursing education. This article discusses the benefits of book club participation for school nurses and includes suggested fiction and nonfiction books that can be used to enhance nursing knowledge and practice. Through reading and discussion, school nurses can increase their knowledge of nursing history and current health care issues, thus becoming better prepared to address challenging issues that arise in practice. In addition, the use of literature as a learning strategy allows school nurses to broaden their understanding of unique cultural factors that influence the health beliefs and practices of students and their families. Book club participation can also assist school nurses in honing leadership and communication skills and becoming energized to become better advocates for children and families.

  2. Underwater and surface strategies of 200 m world level swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Santiago; Roig, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Pacing strategies of elite swimmers have been consistently characterised from the average lap velocities. In the present study, we examined the racing strategies of 200 m world class-level swimmers with regard to their underwater and surface lap components. The finals and semi-finals of the 200 m races at the 2013 World Swimming Championships (Barcelona, Spain) were analysed by an innovative image-processing system (InThePool® 2.0). Free swimming velocities of elite swimmers typically decreased throughout the 200 m race laps (-0.12 m · s(-1), 95% CI -0.11 to -0.14 m · s(-1), P = 0.001, η(2) = 0.81), whereas underwater velocities, which were faster than free swimming, were not meaningfully affected by the race progress (0.02 m · s(-1), -0.01 to 0.04 m · s(-1), P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.04). When swimming underwater, elite swimmers typically travelled less distance (-0.66 m, -0.83 to -0.49 m, P = 0.001, η(2) = 0.34) from the first to the third turn of the race, although underwater distances were maintained on the backstroke and butterfly races. These strategies allowed swimmers to maintain their average velocity in the last lap despite a decrease in the free swimming velocity. Elite coaches and swimmers are advised to model their racing strategies by considering both underwater and surface race components.

  3. Teaching the effectiveness of wind turbines using inductive learning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Skrt, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Electrical energy is one of the most important energy products. However, its popularity has been growing due to the rise of electric vehicles. To date, the majority of electrical energy resources have been non-renewable. One of the renewables is wind. The curriculum for design and technology does not pay any attention to wind as an energy product. To introduce the topic of wind energy exploitation into technology-related topics, a general learning strategy should be selected. Inductive lea...

  4. A Unique Review Strategy that Motivates Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Williams

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of educational games such as crossword puzzles, word search puzzles, modified television game shows, or commercial board and card games are attempts to make learning more fun and motivational regardless of the level of educational experience. This article explains how I have employed the melding of many of these games into one motivational and educational strategy. Students who faithfully availed themselves of the activities consistently improved their test scores and their overall grades within the course.

  5. A Unique Review Strategy that Motivates Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Williams, EdD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of educational games such as crossword puzzles, word search puzzles, modified television game shows, or commercial board and card games are attempts to make learning more fun and motivational regardless of the level of educational experience. This article explains how I have employed the melding of many of these games into one motivational and educational strategy. Students who faithfully availed themselves of the activities consistently improved their test scores and their overall grades within the course.

  6. Differential use of learning strategies in first-year higher education: the impact of personality, academic motivation, and teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Coertjens, Liesje; Van Daal, Tine; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Although the evidence in support of the variability of students' learning strategies has expanded in recent years, less is known about the explanatory base of these individual differences in terms of the joint influences of personal and contextual characteristics. Previous studies have often investigated how student learning is associated with either personal or contextual factors. This study takes an integrative research perspective into account and examines the joint effects of personality, academic motivation, and teaching strategies on students' learning strategies in a same educational context in first-year higher education. In this study, 1,126 undergraduate students and 90 lecturers from eight professional bachelor programmes in a university college participated. Self-report measures were used to measure students' personality, academic motivation, and learning strategies. Students' processing and regulation strategies are mapped using the Inventory of Learning Styles. Key characteristics of more content-focused versus learning-focused teaching strategies were measured. Multivariate multi-level analysis was used to take the nested data structure and interrelatedness of learning strategies into account. Different personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism) and academic motivation (amotivation, autonomous, and controlled motivation) were found to be independently associated with student learning strategies. Besides these student characteristics, also teaching strategies were found to be directly associated with learning strategies. The study makes clear that the impact of teaching strategies on learning strategies in first-year higher education cannot be overlooked nor overinterpreted, due to the importance of students' personality and academic motivation which also partly explain why students learn the way they do. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Learning histology - dental and medical students' study strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S; Purkiss, J; Holaday, L; Selvig, D; Hortsch, M

    2015-05-01

    Histology, the science of cells and tissues at the microscopic level, is an integral component of most dental and medical curricula and is often taught using both traditional and novel computer-based didactic approaches. The purpose of this study was to analyse the strategies used by dental and medical students when studying this very visual and challenging subject. Data were collected from 75 dental and 143 medical students, who had almost identical histology learning resources at their disposal. When compared with their medical counterparts, dental students view histology as a more difficult subject and as less relevant for their future career. Whereas dental students, who are required to attend class unlike medical students, made more use of in-classroom learning opportunities, they did not take as much advantage of out-of-classroom resources. In addition, dental students reported a significantly higher tendency than medical students to work together, rather than to study alone. Small differences in the dental versus the medical learning environment associate with several observed differences in learning strategies that are adopted by dental and medical students. These differences should be considered when teaching the subject of histology to dental or to medical students. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Key Vocabulary Learning Strategies in ESP And EGP Course Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of research evidence is showing the advantages of using certain skills and behaviours called language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs in particular in the process of L2 acquisition. University students who require reading English texts in their fields of study have to expand their vocabulary knowledge in a much more efficient way than ordinary ESL/EFL learners.  And ELT course books are a good place to incorporate learner training in this regard. The purpose of this study is to see how vocabulary learning strategies are treated in both the book designer's claims section and the exercises of English for Specific Purposes (ESP course books for students of medicine and para-medicine on the one hand and English for General Purposes (EGP course book used commonly by these students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran on the other. In other words, the specified course books were analyzed based on the insights gained from VLS research to gauge the extent to which they have incorporated VLSs and training in using them. These books were published under the supervision of the center for studying and compiling university books in humanities (SAMT. Based on the review of the relevant literature, three key strategies were identified and an analytic framework was devised. The framework was then applied to the course books. It was found that the treatments in the specified course books were deemed unlikely to improve students’ abilities with these important skills and strategies.

  9. Strategies of Learning Speaking Skill by Indonesian Learners of English and Their Contribution to Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik

    2014-01-01

    This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by EAP Learners: The Case of the Students of Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghi, Eshrat Bazarmaj; Pasand, Parastou Gholami

    2013-01-01

    The significance of using language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies in particular is quite clear to both language learners and language specialists. Being familiar with and making use of a range of different vocabulary learning strategies is a great aid for EAP learners in dealing with unknown words. The present…

  11. Language Learning Strategies of Turkish and Arabic Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Dinçay; Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the language learning strategy use of Turkish and Arabic students enrolled in middle schools and having different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Using a strategy inventory for language learning, the study examines the cross-cultural differences in strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a…

  12. Associations between Chinese EFL Graduate Students' Beliefs and Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mailing; Tian, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    This study, using Horwitz's Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory and Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning, investigated learners' beliefs about language learning and their choice of strategy categories among 546 graduate students in China. The correlation between learners' beliefs and their strategy categories use was examined.…

  13. Effectiveness of using blended learning strategies for teaching and learning human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José A; Pleguezuelos, Eulogio; Merí, Alex; Molina-Ros, Antoni; Molina-Tomás, M Carmen; Masdeu, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed to implement innovative teaching methods--blended learning strategies--that include the use of new information technologies in the teaching of human anatomy and to analyse both the impact of these strategies on academic performance, and the degree of user satisfaction. The study was carried out among students in Year 1 of the biology degree curriculum (human biology profile) at Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona. Two groups of students were tested on knowledge of the anatomy of the locomotor system and results compared between groups. Blended learning strategies were employed in 1 group (BL group, n = 69); the other (TT group; n = 65) received traditional teaching aided by complementary material that could be accessed on the Internet. Both groups were evaluated using the same types of examination. The average marks presented statistically significant differences (BL 6.3 versus TT 5.0; P teaching received. Blended learning was more effective than traditional teaching for teaching human anatomy.

  14. Novel Symbol Learning-Induced Stroop Effect: Evidence for a Strategy-Based, Utility Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    The automaticity level and attention priority/strategy are two major theories that have attempted to explain the mechanism underlying the Stroop effect. Training is an effective way to manipulate the experience with the two dimensions (ink color and color word) in the Stroop task. In order to distinguish the above two factors (the automaticity or attention/strategy), we revised the training paradigm of MacLeod's study (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 14(1):126-135, 1988) by adding a control condition for the Stroop task on Chinese. We found that with training, the changing pattern for the Stroop effect was similar in Stroop tasks in novel symbols and in Chinese, showing markedly increasing interference and marginally decreasing facilitation. The current findings support the strategy-based learning account at early stages of novel learning of written symbols.

  15. Researching Bangladeshi Pupils' Strategies for Learning to Read in (UK) Primary School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Language learning strategy research has focused on the actions of the individual language learner and investigated the links between successful learning and the strategies that such learners use. At the same time, researchers studying beginner bilingual pupils learning English and learning to read in English in UK schools have also been interested…

  16. Conceptions, Self-Regulation, and Strategies of Learning Science among Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mang; Zheng, Chunping; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Zhang, Yun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the structural relationships among secondary school students' conceptions, self-regulation, and strategies of learning science in mainland China. Three questionnaires, namely conceptions of learning science (COLS), self-regulation of learning science (SROLS), and strategies of learning science (SLS) were developed for…

  17. An active-learning strategies primer for achieving ability-based educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Brenda L; Peeters, Michael J; Resman-Targoff, Beth H; Karr, Samantha; McBane, Sarah; Kelley, Kristi; Thomas, Tyan; Denetclaw, Tina H

    2011-11-10

    Active learning is an important component of pharmacy education. By engaging students in the learning process, they are better able to apply the knowledge they gain. This paper describes evidence supporting the use of active-learning strategies in pharmacy education and also offers strategies for implementing active learning in pharmacy curricula in the classroom and during pharmacy practice experiences.

  18. Effects of Competitive Learning Strategy on Secondary School Students Learning Outcomes: Implications for Counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Chinwe Okereke; Charles N. Ugwuegbulam

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to find out the effects of competitive learning strategy on secondary school students learning outcomes in chemistry. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design. There were 337 senior secondary students II (SSS II) purposively selected from eight (8) intact classes in Imo State from 3 boys only and 3 girls only schools. The instrument for data collection was titled “chemistry Achievement Test” designed by the researc...

  19. The effect of computer-based learning on distance learners self regulated learning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Farajollahi, Mahdi Moenikia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was done to compare self regulated learning strategies (SRLS between computer-based and print-based learning students. To do so, 53 participants as experimental group and 50 participants as control group from Payame Noor University were selected randomly. The experimental group was taught via computer and control group was taught via printed materials for 8 weeks. The instrument of this research was the self regulated learning strategies (SRLS questionnaire modified by Zimmerman and Pons (1986. Reliability of questionnaire computed via chronbach's Alpha (α=0.93. In view of cultural differences and to avoid any misunderstanding regarding the content of the questionnaire for Iranian students, the translated version of this questionnaire was employed. In this study the reliability of the translated version was found to be high (α = .89. Research method was quasi experimental. Data analyzing was done by using univariate analysis of variance. Some of the most important results are: The rate of self regulated learning strategies within computer-based group was higher than rate of self regulated learning strategies within print-based group. Considering this variables and components is very vital role in distance education, administrators and managers of distance education are suggested to provide training via new instructional technologies.

  20. Analysis of Language Learning Strategies Used by Students of Traffic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Jurkovič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategies play a vital role in the language acquisition process, and this includes the realm of ESP at the tertiary level of education. This contribution first defines the concept of language learning strategies and gives a historical background to language learning strategy research. The central section focuses on a comparative analysis of language learning strategies used by first year students of traffic technology at the Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport in Portorož, University of Ljubljana. The analysis, based on Rebecca Oxford’s “Strategy Inventory for Language Learning”, aims to assess the students’ existing awareness of the process of language acquisition and the learning strategies that they use. Objectives of language teachers should include helping students to raise their awareness of language learning strategies and providing them with contexts for their development. Therefore, the concluding section contains sample ESP teaching materials and student instructions focusing on cognitive language learning strategies.

  1. Learning predictive statistics from temporal sequences: Dynamics and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Shen, Yuan; Tino, Peter; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2017-10-01

    Human behavior is guided by our expectations about the future. Often, we make predictions by monitoring how event sequences unfold, even though such sequences may appear incomprehensible. Event structures in the natural environment typically vary in complexity, from simple repetition to complex probabilistic combinations. How do we learn these structures? Here we investigate the dynamics of structure learning by tracking human responses to temporal sequences that change in structure unbeknownst to the participants. Participants were asked to predict the upcoming item following a probabilistic sequence of symbols. Using a Markov process, we created a family of sequences, from simple frequency statistics (e.g., some symbols are more probable than others) to context-based statistics (e.g., symbol probability is contingent on preceding symbols). We demonstrate the dynamics with which individuals adapt to changes in the environment's statistics-that is, they extract the behaviorally relevant structures to make predictions about upcoming events. Further, we show that this structure learning relates to individual decision strategy; faster learning of complex structures relates to selection of the most probable outcome in a given context (maximizing) rather than matching of the exact sequence statistics. Our findings provide evidence for alternate routes to learning of behaviorally relevant statistics that facilitate our ability to predict future events in variable environments.

  2. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  3. Learning predictive statistics from temporal sequences: Dynamics and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Shen, Yuan; Tino, Peter; Welchman, Andrew E.; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is guided by our expectations about the future. Often, we make predictions by monitoring how event sequences unfold, even though such sequences may appear incomprehensible. Event structures in the natural environment typically vary in complexity, from simple repetition to complex probabilistic combinations. How do we learn these structures? Here we investigate the dynamics of structure learning by tracking human responses to temporal sequences that change in structure unbeknownst to the participants. Participants were asked to predict the upcoming item following a probabilistic sequence of symbols. Using a Markov process, we created a family of sequences, from simple frequency statistics (e.g., some symbols are more probable than others) to context-based statistics (e.g., symbol probability is contingent on preceding symbols). We demonstrate the dynamics with which individuals adapt to changes in the environment's statistics—that is, they extract the behaviorally relevant structures to make predictions about upcoming events. Further, we show that this structure learning relates to individual decision strategy; faster learning of complex structures relates to selection of the most probable outcome in a given context (maximizing) rather than matching of the exact sequence statistics. Our findings provide evidence for alternate routes to learning of behaviorally relevant statistics that facilitate our ability to predict future events in variable environments. PMID:28973111

  4. Improving Student Learning Outcomes Marketing Strategy Lesson By Applying SFAE Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winda Nur Rohmawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives for improving student learning outcomes on the subjects of marketing strategy through the implementation of model learning SFAE. This type of research this is a class action research using a qualitative approach which consists of two cycles with the subject Marketing X grade SMK YPI Darussalam 2 Cerme Gresik Regency. This research consists of four stages: (1 the Planning Act, (2 the implementation of the action, (3 observations (observation, and (4 Reflection. The result of the research shows that cognitive and affective learning outcomes of students have increased significantly.

  5. Action-Emotion Style, Learning Approach and Coping Strategies, in Undergraduate University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de la Fuente

    Full Text Available Action-Emotion Style (AES is an affective-motivational construct that describes the achievement motivation that is characteristic of students in their interaction with stressful situations. Using elements from the Type-A Behavior Pattern (TABP, characteristics of competitiveness and overwork occur in different combinations with emotions of impatience and hostility, leading to a classification containing five categories of action-emotion style (Type B, Impatient-hostile type, Medium type, Competitive-Overworking type and Type A. The objective of the present research is to establish how characteristics of action-emotion style relate to learning approach (deep and surface approaches and to coping strategies (emotion-focused and problem-focused. The sample was composed of 225 students from the Psychology degree program. Pearson correlation analyses, ANOVAs and MANOVAs were used. Results showed that competitiveness-overwork characteristics have a significant positive association with the deep approach and with problem-focused strategies, while impatience-hostility is thus related to surface approach and emotion-focused strategies. The level of action-emotion style had a significant main effect. The results verified our hypotheses with reference to the relationships between action-emotion style, learning approaches and coping strategies.

  6. Learning through debate during problem-based learning: an active learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sadaf; Latif, Rabia

    2017-09-01

    We explored medical student's views and perceptions of a series of debates conducted during problem-based learning (PBL) practiced as a part of the Spiral curriculum at the Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A series of debates were employed during PBL sessions for second-year female medical students, over the period 2014-2016. Each cohort of students was randomly split into 10 small PBL groups and exposed to weekly PBL activity. Within each group, the students were divided into a proposition half and an opposition half. Students were given 1 wk for debate preparation. The students' responses were recorded on a formulated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data, and results are presented as percentages. The usefulness of debate in alleviating potential difficulties in communicating with patients was agreed to by 69% ( n = 126) of participants. That these sessions evoked critical thinking among students was reported by 78% ( n = 142). This series of debates helped 61% ( n = 111) of students to learn effectively about controversial issues. Seventy-one percent ( n = 130) considered that debate promoted argument generation and interpretation skills. Enhanced ability to analyze and research evidence was reported by 59% ( n = 108) of students. One hundred and thirteen students (62%) agreed that debate helped them to improve clinical decision-making, and 75% of students agreed that debates encouraged tolerance toward diverse viewpoints/convincing strategies. The majority of our medical students found debating enhanced analytic decision-making, communication, and critical thinking skills. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Mobile learning: a workforce development strategy for nurse supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Digital technology provides opportunities for using mobile learning strategies in healthcare environments. To realise the vision of the National Workforce Development Strategy there needs to be innovation of health professionals to further develop knowledge and skills of clinical supervisors to access and gain an understanding of the value of mobile learning at the workplace. The use of digital technology by clinical supervisors was explored in 2012 as part of a teaching development grant to evaluate the use of Web 2.0 technology to develop a community of practice about clinical supervision. Prior to developing the virtual network of clinical supervisors, feedback about the use of Web 2.0 technology by clinicians was sought via an online survey. Over 90% of respondents used social media, 85% understood what a blog and wiki were and approximately half of the respondents used smart phones. More than one-third indicated they would participate in a virtual community of practice and would like to receive information about clinical facilitation at least once per week. Findings indicate both inhibitors and opportunities for workforce development within healthcare environments that need to be addressed. Support of graduate-ready nurses can be achieved through an integrated outlook that enables health professionals within organisations to undertake mobile learning in situ. A flexible and collaborative approach to continuing professional development within organisations could enhance practice development and could positively impact on workforce development.

  8. Learning Grasp Strategies Composed of Contact Relative Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Of central importance to grasp synthesis algorithms are the assumptions made about the object to be grasped and the sensory information that is available. Many approaches avoid the issue of sensing entirely by assuming that complete information is available. In contrast, this paper proposes an approach to grasp synthesis expressed in terms of units of control that simultaneously change the contact configuration and sense information about the object and the relative manipulator-object pose. These units of control, known as contact relative motions (CRMs), allow the grasp synthesis problem to be recast as an optimal control problem where the goal is to find a strategy for executing CRMs that leads to a grasp in the shortest number of steps. An experiment is described that uses Robonaut, the NASA-JSC space humanoid, to show that CRMs are a viable means of synthesizing grasps. However, because of the limited amount of information that a single CRM can sense, the optimal control problem may be partially observable. This paper proposes expressing the problem as a k-order Markov Decision Process (MDP) and solving it using Reinforcement Learning. This approach is tested in a simulation of a two-contact manipulator that learns to grasp an object. Grasp strategies learned in simulation are tested on the physical Robonaut platform and found to lead to grasp configurations consistently.

  9. Musical "Learning Styles" and "Learning Strategies" in the Instrumental Lesson: Some Emergent Findings from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the concepts of "learning style" and "learning strategy". The former connotes an inbuilt trait which tends to remain fundamental to the way an individual approaches learning. The latter refers to a set of consciously-acquired and applied approaches or tactics designed to achieve a learning task. The article relates these…

  10. Can a Non-Cognitive Learning Companion Increase the Effectiveness of a Meta-Cognitive Learning Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLehn, Kurt; Zhang, Lishan; Burleson, Winslow; Girard, Sylvie; Hidago-Pontet, Yoalli

    2017-01-01

    This project aimed to improve students' learning and task performance using a non-cognitive learning companion in the context of both a tutor and a meta-tutor. The tutor taught students how to construct models of dynamic systems and the meta-tutor taught students a learning strategy. The non-cognitive learning companion was designed to increase…

  11. Learning relay start strategies in swimming: What feedback is best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Braun, Claudia; Kibele, Armin

    2017-04-01

    In the past, studies and book recommendations on relay starts in swimming have been predominantly focused on the change-over time (COT) as a performance criterion. Aside from the circular backswing start with parallel foot placement, few studies have analysed differences in the take-off movement including step approaches as well. Although trends could be identified, the results remained still somewhat inconclusive. In contrast, no study has examined as has examined whether a reduction of COT in between wall contact of the income swimmer and the take-off of the outgoing swimmer is an optimal relay start strategy, as advocated by various swimming experts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare two different relay start strategies: offensive strategy minimizing COT and conservative strategy to maximize horizontal peak force (HPF). In this regard, a learning intervention with 24 elite-level swimmers (12 females, 12 male) was conducted to compare both strategies regarding relay start time, HPF and COT. Subjects were randomly assigned to two feedback groups: COT versus HPF at take-off. The results of this study showed a clear advantage for HPF feedback for relay start performance measured by wall contact of the incoming swimmer and head passage at 7.5 m of the outgoing swimmer. In addition, similar reductions in COTs were found in both training groups. In conclusion, swimmers should focus on force production rather than minimizing COT. For the latter, deteriorating consequences for force production must be considered.

  12. Peer Assisted Learning Strategy for Improving Students’ Physiologic Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, S.

    2017-09-01

    Research about the implementation of the Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) strategy in Plant Physiology lecture has carried out, in which it aims to improve students’ physiologic literacy. The PAL strategy began with a briefing by the lecturers to the students tutor about pretest questions, followed by the interaction between student tutors with their peers to discuss response problems, terminated by answering responsiveness questions individually. This study used a quasi-experimental method, one - group pre-test post-test design. This design includes a group of students observed in the pre-test phase (tests carried out before PAL treatment) which is then followed by treatment with PAL and ends with post-test. The other students group (control) was given the pre-test and post-test only. The results showed that the PAL strategy can increase student’s physiologic literacy significantly. One of the weaknesses of students’ physiologic literacy is that they have not been able to read the graph. The faculties are encouraged to begin introducing and teaching material using a variety of strategies with scientific literacy aspects, for example teaching research-based material. All students respond positively to the PAL strategy.

  13. Cooperative learning strategies to teach nutrition to geriatric nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marta; Rocandio, Ana Ma; Ansotegui, Laura; Pascual, Estíbaliz; Martínez de la Pera, Concepción

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cooperative learning strategies will help to increase nutrition knowledge of nurses and nursing assistants caring for the elderly in different institutional communities of the Basque Country, Spain. The target population was a sample of volunteers, 16 nurses and 28 nursing assistants. Training consisted of 12 nutrition education sessions using cooperative strategies conducted over a period of 3 consecutive weeks. The assessment instruments included two pretest and two posttest questionnaires with questions selected in multiple-choice format. The first questionnaire was about general knowledge of applied nutrition (0-88 point scale) and the second one on geriatric nutrition knowledge (0-18 point scale). Data were analyzed using SPSS vs. 11.0. The outcomes indicated a significant increase in general nutrition knowledge (difference between the pre- and post-test mean score: 14.5+/-10.1; Pcooperative learning strategies could improve the nutrition knowledge of nursing staff. Additionally, the results of this study provide direction to continuing nutrition education program planners regarding appropriate content and methodology for programs.

  14. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF ENGLISH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES AND STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetty Poerwita Sary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available English is considered as important in this era, especially towards the implementation of the ASEAN free market known as the ASEAN Economic Community by the end of 2015, which means that competition in the job market will increase. Many universities open their international class to facilitate the need of prospective students (senior high school graduates. In fact, there are still problems facing by the students in learning English as a tool to understand other courses. Therefore, the research is aimed to know students’ perception of the difficulties they encounter in learning English as a foreign language, also the reasons underlying these difficulties, and strategies they use in accomplishing their linguistic tasks. This study used two questionnaires that are distributed to 45 new students of International ICT Business class, Telkom University Bandung Indonesia. The results showed that the 98% of respondents said that they have problem in English especially grammar. It was due to their lack of knowledge of the English linguistic rules, and they made use of various strategies; social and affective strategies mainly

  15. Students’ Perception Of English Learning Difficulties and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetty Poerwita Sary

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available English is considered as important in this era, especially towards the implementation of the ASEAN free market known as the ASEAN Economic Community by the end of 2015, which means that competition in the job market will increase. Many universities open their international class to facilitate the need of prospective students (senior high school graduates. In fact, there are still problems facing by the students in learning English as a tool to understand other courses. Therefore, the research is aimed to know students’ perception of the difficulties they encounter in learning English as a foreign language, also the reasons underlying these difficulties, and strategies they use in accomplishing their linguistic tasks. This study used two questionnaires that are distributed to 45 new students of International ICT Business class, Telkom University Bandung Indonesia. The results showed that the 98% of respondents said that they have problem in English especially grammar. It was due to their lack of knowledge of the English linguistic rules, and they made use of various strategies; social and affective strategies mainly

  16. Peer Instruction in Chemistry Education: Assessment of Students' Learning Strategies, Conceptual Learning and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Tolga; Gok, Ozge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on learning strategies, problem solving performance, and conceptual understanding of college students in a general chemistry course. The research was performed students enrolled in experimental and control groups of a chemistry course were selected. Students in the…

  17. Successful Transfer of a Motor Learning Strategy to a Novel Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Philip E; Judge, Phil

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated whether secondary school students who were taught a motor learning strategy could transfer their knowledge of the strategy to learning a novel task. Twenty adolescents were randomly allocated to a strategy or control group. The strategy group was taught Singer's five-step learning strategy, while the control group received information on the evolution and biomechanics of the basketball free throw. Both groups received three 1-hour practice sessions on a modified basketball shooting task. After one month, participants were introduced to the transfer task, golf putting. Performance accuracy was recorded for all tasks, and participants completed questionnaires regarding strategy use during practice. Participants taught the five-step learning strategy successfully recalled and applied it after a 1-month interval, and they demonstrated superior performance on both acquisition and transfer tasks, relative to the control group. Physical education teachers and coaches should consider using this learning strategy to enhance the learning of closed motor skills.

  18. Investigating Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development: A Comparative Study of Two Universities of Quetta, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irum Fatima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies employed by the undergraduate students of Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University (SBKWU and University of Balochistan (UOB, Quetta, Pakistan. A quantitative design was employed in this study to answer the two research questions of the present study. The quantitative data was obtained from the responses of 180 undergraduates in a questionnaire adapted from the study by Noor and Amir (2009 on vocabulary learning strategies proposed by Gu and Johnson (1996. The questionnaire comprised of 45 close-ended items on four broad vocabulary learning strategies, metacognitive regulation strategy, cognitive strategy, memory strategy, and activation strategy. Descriptive statistics was run in SPSS to obtain the results. The independent-samples t-test was run to test for statistically significant differences if any in the use of vocabulary learning strategies across the undergraduates of two universities. However, cognitive regulation strategy, and activation strategy emerged as the most influential source of learning new English words. The findings also revealed that there were no statistically significant differences found in practicing vocabulary learning strategies between undergraduates of SBKWU and UOB. The findings of the study have implications on enhancing teaching and learning by acquainting students with vocabulary learning strategies that can enhance their vocabulary in English language and can result to boost up their proficiency in this language. Keywords: Vocabulary development, learning strategies, gender difference

  19. Language Learning Beliefs and Strategies: A Bosnian EFL Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin Kovacevic,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation studies (Li, 2010; Chang & Shen, 2010 between the clusters of survey items as originally suggested for The Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory ‒ BALLI (EFL version; Horwitz, 1988 and Strategy Inventory for Language Learning ‒ SILL 7.0 (Oxford, 1990 report generally weak and moderate positive correlation coefficients. The above survey instruments were administered to fifty freshman students of Bosnian linguistic and cultural background at International University of Sarajevo. Correlation tests partly confirmed results reported by Li (2010 and Chang and Shen (2010 but with more similar correlation coefficients with respect to the latter authors. The results partly reflect universal features of the foreign language learner and indicate that the theory of reciprocity between the two research constructs should be focused on findings about other forms of human intelligence.

  20. Language as a Strategy for Learning Science Curriculum Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Fernando Candela Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, teacher educators have shown an increasing interest in introducing the skills of orality, reading and writing in science classrooms as a learning tool. To do so, they rely on literature from research, which initially shows how weakly those skills have been implemented in school. Thus, the present study aims to synthesize the main aspects that provides literature on the introduction of language explicitly in the science classroom. In that sense, a research methodology content analysis is used, which allowed to “see” that  skills of orality, reading and writing are powerful thinking and learning of science strategies, considering that these allow students, at first, become aware about their alternative conceptions on a specific topic, and then make these conceptions evolve progressively towards the theoretical models of science.

  1. Flipped classrooms and student learning: not just surface gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sarah; Attardi, Stefanie M; Faden, Lisa; Goldszmidt, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The flipped classroom is a relatively new approach to undergraduate teaching in science. This approach repurposes class time to focus on application and discussion; the acquisition of basic concepts and principles is done on the students' own time before class. While current flipped classroom research has focused on student preferences and comparative learning outcomes, there remains a lack of understanding regarding its impact on students' approaches to learning. Focusing on a new flipped classroom-based course for basic medical sciences students, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate students' adjustments to the flipped classroom, their time on task compared with traditional lectures, and their deep and active learning strategies. Students in this course worked through interactive online learning modules before in-class sessions. Class time focused on knowledge application of online learning module content through active learning methods. Students completed surveys and optional prequiz questions throughout the term to provide data regarding their learning approaches. Our results showed that the majority of students completed their prework in one sitting just before class. Students reported performing less multitasking behavior in the flipped classroom compared with lecture-based courses. Students valued opportunities for peer-peer and peer-instructor interactions and also valued having multiple modes of assessment. Overall, this work suggests that there is the potential for greater educational gains from the flipped classroom than the modest improvements in grades previously demonstrated in the literature; in this implementation of the flipped classroom, students reported that they developed independent learning strategies, spent more time on task, and engaged in deep and active learning. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  2. A strategy for Local Surface Stability Monitoring Using SAR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lan, C. W.; Lin, S. Y.; vanGasselt, S.; Yun, H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to provide sufficient facilities to satisfy a growing number of residents, nowadays there are many constructions and maintenance of infrastructures or buildings undergoing above and below the surface of urban area. In some cases we have learned that disasters might happen if the developments were conducted on unknown or geologically unstable ground or in over-developed areas. To avoid damages caused by such settings, it is essential to perform a regular monitoring scheme to understand the ground stability over the whole urban area. Through long-term monitoring, we firstly aim to observe surface stability over the construction sites. Secondly, we propose to implement an automatic extraction and tracking of suspicious unstable area. To achieve this, we used 12-days-interval C-band Sentinel-1A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images as the main source to perform regular monitoring. Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) technique was applied to generate interferograms. Together with the accumulation of updated Sentinel-1A SAR images, time series interferograms were formed accordingly. For the purpose of observing surface stability over known construction sites, the interferograms and the unwrapped products could be used to identify the surface displacement occurring before and after specific events. In addition, Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and Permanent Scatterers (PS) approaches combining a set of unwrapped D-InSAR interferograms were also applied to derive displacement velocities over long-term periods. For some cases, we conducted the ascending and descending mode time series analysis to decompose three surface migration vectors and to precisely identify the risk pattern. Regarding the extraction of suspicious unstable areas, we propose to develop an automatic pattern recognition algorithm for the identification of specific fringe patterns involving various potential risks. The detected fringes were tracked in the time series interferograms and

  3. Learning and coping strategies versus standard education in cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lynggaard, Vibeke; May, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Learning and coping education strategies (LC) was implemented to enhance patient attendance in the cardiac rehabilitation programme. This study assessed the cost-utility of LC compared to standard education (standard) as part of a rehabilitation programme for patients with ischemic heart...... to estimate the net benefit of the LC and to illustrate cost effectiveness acceptability curves. The statistical analysis was based on means and bootstrapped standard errors. Results An additional cost of DKK 6,043 (95 % CI −5,697; 17,783) and a QALY gain of 0.005 (95 % CI −0.001; 0.012) was estimated for LC...

  4. THE VOCABULARY TEACHING AND VOCABULARY LEARNING: PERCEPTION, STRATEGIES, AND INFLUENCES ON STUDENTS' VOCABULARY MASTERY

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Nur Asyiah

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary plays pivotal role in foreign language learning. However, vocabulary teaching and vocabulary learning in TEFL seems to be neglected. The study was aimed to investigate how vocabulary teaching and learning are perceived by teacher and students, strategies to teach and learn the vocabulary, and also influences of students’ vocabulary learning strategy on their vocabulary mastery. Accordingly, a mix method design was employed to one English teacher and 30 junior high school students t...

  5. Multiagent Cooperative Learning Strategies for Pursuit-Evasion Games

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    Jong Yih Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the pursuit-evasion problem for coordinating multiple robotic pursuers to locate and track a nonadversarial mobile evader in a dynamic environment. Two kinds of pursuit strategies are proposed, one for agents that cooperate with each other and the other for agents that operate independently. This work further employs the probabilistic theory to analyze the uncertain state information about the pursuers and the evaders and uses case-based reasoning to equip agents with memories and learning abilities. According to the concepts of assimilation and accommodation, both positive-angle and bevel-angle strategies are developed to assist agents in adapting to their environment effectively. The case study analysis uses the Recursive Porous Agent Simulation Toolkit (REPAST to implement a multiagent system and demonstrates superior performance of the proposed approaches to the pursuit-evasion game.

  6. Implementing a learning technology strategy: top–down strategy meets bottom–up culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lisewski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using interview-based ‘insider case study' research, this paper outlines why the University of Salford has adopted a Learning Technologies Strategy and examines the factors which are likely to lead to its successful implementation. External reasons for the adoption focused on the need to: respond to ‘increased Higher Education (HE competition', meet student expectations of learning technology use, provide more flexibility and access to the curriculum, address the possible determining effect of technology and establish a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE presence in this ‘particular area of the HE landscape'. Internal drivers centred on the need to: continue a ‘bottom– up' e-learning pilot project initiative, particularly given that a VLE is a ‘complex tool' which requires effective strategic implementation, and promote the idea that learning technology will play an important role in determining the type of HE institution that the University of Salford wishes to become. Likely success factors highlighted the need to: create ‘time and space' for innovation, maintain effective communication and consultation at all levels of the organization, emphasize the operational aspects of the strategy, establish a variety of staff development processes and recognize the negotiatory processes involved in understanding the term ‘web presence' in local teaching cultures. Fundamentally, the paper argues that policy makers should acknowledge the correct ‘cultural configuration' of HE institutions when seeking to manage and achieve organizational change. Thus, it is not just a question of establishing ‘success factors' per se but also whether they are contextualized appropriately within a ‘correct' characterization of the organizational culture.

  7. Gaming: a teaching strategy to enhance adult learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, J M

    1997-01-01

    As a nurse educator, I encountered many complaints from staff nurses about mandatory inservice education programs, stating that they are repetitious, time-consuming, often too basic, and at times, downright boring. One exception was an Infection Control Week education session that was done in the form of a game. This session set attendance records and had very positive feedback from staff nurses. As a result of this feedback, the use of gaming as a teaching strategy in nursing education was explored. A review of the literature on gaming as a teaching strategy was conducted with special attention to its history, current use, and successes in nursing education. Introduced as a formal teaching strategy more than 75 years ago, gaming offers many advantages over more traditional teaching methods. Games connect theory more closely to real life situation and add innovation, diversity, and the opportunity for immediate feedback. Although gaining in popularity, gaming is not extensively used in nursing education as it is not considered a serious educational tool. However, recent literature suggests much success with its use. Gaming as a teaching strategy has proven to be an effective way of conveying information in a stimulating, appealing manner. Games facilitate both beginning and experienced nurses' learning by providing an opportunity for experience without the danger or fear of jeopardizing patient safety.

  8. EXPOSING LEARNERS WITH LEARNING STRATEGIES IN STRATEGY TRAING: ONE OF THE WAYS FOR IMPROVING THEIR STUDY SKILL

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    Kartika Nuswantara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing our own learning strategies is an effective way to help ourselves to self evaluate for what we have done in our own learning. One among other factors leading to a successful learning is due to the effective learning strategies. However, not all learners are aware of what they have been doing in learning, or they even sometimes do not know how to learn. If this is the problem, learning strategy training can be very beneficial for the learners with this problem. Why should be through strategy training? The answer might lie on the fact that strategy is quite amenable to change, and by nature, teachable as well as learneable (Oxford, 1990. In addition, Nuswantara (2008 also found out that the successful learners (i.e. in learning English were triggered by the courage of using various learning strategies, the more varied the learners are willing to try out, the broader the chance for success. Training is the way that can be selected to present to the learners’ various strategies that they can choose and at the same time employ when learning is taken place. Moreover, by means of training, learners are made aware of the strategy, and they can mend their own strategy, as a result, they become more self - directed rather than dependent. This article attempts to frame out from the perspective of how to bring reading strategies that are applicable for handling various reading content texts to the learners, and present the result of a one-group experimental study. Thus, training is prepared for college learners who are inevitably deal with various English content textbooks and the final aim of the training is to improve learners’ study skills. Then, one group experimental study using correlated sample provides some evidences supporting the effectiveness of the training. Specifying on reading strategies, SQ3R that is joined with other learning strategies involving writing activity, annotating a text and paraphrasing/summarizing is exposed to

  9. Investigating the Language Learning Strategies of Students in the Foundation Program of United Arab Emirates University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed; Al Khatib, Ahmad Z.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, language learning strategies have gained a lot of importance in different parts of the world, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Successful foreign or second language learning attempts are viewed in the light of using appropriate and effective language learning strategies. This study investigated the patterns of language learning…

  10. How Teachers Teach and Students Learn: "Successful Strategies for School." OECD Education Working Papers, No. 130

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echazarra, Alfonso; Salinas, Daniel; Méndez, Ildefonso; Denis, Vanessa; Rech, Giannina

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how particular teaching and learning strategies are related to student performance on specific PISA test questions, particularly mathematics questions. The report compares teacher-directed instruction and memorisation learning strategies, at the traditional ends of the teaching and learning spectrums, and student-oriented…

  11. Does a Strategy Training Foster Students' Ability to Learn from Multimedia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, Katharina; Schubert, Carina; Gerjets, Peter; Stalbovs, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the general effectiveness of multimedia instruction, students do not always benefit from it. This study examined whether students' learning from multimedia can be improved by teaching them relevant learning strategies. On the basis of current theories and research on multimedia learning, the authors developed a strategy training for…

  12. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Harun; Ismail, Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in "Religious High School" (SMKA) and…

  13. Motivation and Strategies to Learn English: The Case of Pre-Service Teachers of Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a study of motivation and strategies toward learning English used by pre-service teachers of Chinese. The aims of the study were to investigate whether pre-service teachers of Chinese are unmotivated to learn English if they are not going to use English substantially in the future and to examine the learning strategies the…

  14. Characteristics and Strategies for the Instruction of Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel C.; Howard, Vikki F.

    1993-01-01

    Characteristics of secondary students with a learning disability in reading are reviewed, and the stages of reading development are outlined. Strategies for academic and social inclusion of these students are discussed, including peer tutoring, guided notes, cooperative learning, learning strategies, and teaching reading in the content area. (JDD)

  15. Assessing the Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategy Use and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the correlation between direct and indirect vocabulary learning strategies along with the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, a sample of 145 low proficiency students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) completed a questionnaire concerning vocabulary learning strategy use.…

  16. Building Bridges: Seeking Structure and Direction for Higher Education Motivated Learning Strategy Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K.

    2017-01-01

    Many of our current higher education (HE) learning strategy models intersect at important points. At the same time, these theories also often demonstrate important unique perspectives on student learning within HE. Currently, research with one learning strategy model rarely leads to developments in others, as each group of researchers works in…

  17. Student Learning Strategy and Soft-skill in Clothing Business Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampera, D.

    2018-02-01

    Clothing Business Management course is a subject delivering knowledge and skills about how to manage clothing business. This course requires students’ ethics, leadership, commitment, toughness, honesty, and the ability to take initiative, argue logically, and work together. However, students are not fully efficient in managing a business during practical task. The purpose of the study is to investigate: (1) the differences of students’ learning achievement between those receiving gradual and conventional learning strategy, (2)the effect of interactions between learning strategy and soft skills toward students learning achievement, (3) the differences of learning achievement of high soft skills students who receive gradual and conventional learning strategy, (4) the differences of learning achievement of low soft skills students who receive gradual and conventional learning strategy. The 2x2 treatment-by-level experimental study was carried out in Dressmaking Study Program. The result proved significantly that, overall, differences of students learning achievement exist, except of low soft skills students.

  18. Student Motivation And Instructional Strategies In English Learning In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mustapha Bin Danquah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has been referred to as the single most important ingredient of learning Wieman 2013. However it does not come by chance application of appropriate instructional strategies are necessary. The present study conducted in-depth inquiry into the relevance of student motivation and its relationship with higher achievement in L2 learning. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. Using stratified sampling technique 60 students were sampled from three public schools in Kumasi Metropolis. Also by means of purposive sampling six English teachers were selected in the three schools as participants. Set of questionnaires were the instrument for the study and analysis involved simple frequencies percentages tables and Pearsons Correlation Coefficient r. The study revealed that students can be motivated by simplicity clarity practical and insightful analogies making lessons lively and interesting and most importantly generous use of TLMs. Positive relationship also existed between students motivation and the use of effective instructional strategies with the attendant proficiency in English. Unequivocally student motivation is pivotal to facilitating proficiency in English a key to riding the crest of globalization and technology.

  19. Active-learning strategies: the use of a game to reinforce learning in nursing education. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boctor, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    The majority of nursing students are kinesthetic learners, preferring a hands-on, active approach to education. Research shows that active-learning strategies can increase student learning and satisfaction. This study looks at the use of one active-learning strategy, a Jeopardy-style game, 'Nursopardy', to reinforce Fundamentals of Nursing material, aiding in students' preparation for a standardized final exam. The game was created keeping students varied learning styles and the NCLEX blueprint in mind. The blueprint was used to create 5 categories, with 26 total questions. Student survey results, using a five-point Likert scale showed that they did find this learning method enjoyable and beneficial to learning. More research is recommended regarding learning outcomes, when using active-learning strategies, such as games. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Influence Of Modeling Learning Strategies To The Learning Outcomes Of Citizenship Education

    OpenAIRE

    Evi Susilawati; Harun Sitompul; Julaga Situmorang

    2017-01-01

    The general objective of this research is to see the effect of modeling learning strategy on students learning outcomes of Civic Education. The subject of this research is the students of SMP Negeri I Labuhan Deli Deli Serdang in class VII. The sample of research students of class VII-3 seven-three SMP Negeri 1 Labuhan Deli Deli Serdang of North Sumatra Province as many as 380 students with the subject of research amounted to 73 people. Data analysis using Analytical Technique of Variance ANA...

  1. Learning, Teaching and Assessment Strategies in Higher Education: Contradictions of Genre and Desiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Sue; Smith, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of ethnographic data collected by researchers as part of the process of rewriting an institutional learning and teaching strategy in an English university. The research was driven by a desire to understand what work a learning and teaching strategy might accomplish, and the form/s of address in strategy documents.…

  2. Do Teachers and Students Share Similar Beliefs about Teaching and Learning Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Tian, Lili

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the beliefs of teachers and students regarding strategies for learning and teaching Chinese tones, which constitute a crucial feature of the spoken language and often cause problems for learners. Two online questionnaires that listed 11 Chinese tone learning strategies and 7 tone teaching strategies were…

  3. Learning Strategies and Reading Literacy among Chinese and Finnish Adolescents: Evidence of Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuyang; Zhu, Xinhua

    2017-01-01

    Many arguments have been advanced in the context of the predictive correlation between learning strategies and reading achievement. There is insufficient understanding, however, of the subtle ways in which different types of learning strategies (i.e. memorisation, elaboration and control strategies) function in facilitating students' reading…

  4. Teaching and learning strategies for pedagogical training of non-educational university students

    OpenAIRE

    Mena, Alodio; Amayuela Georgina; Mena Alodio A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a system of teaching and learning strategies for pedagogical training of non-educational students. The modeling of teaching and learning strategies presented is the result of a research project carried out at the University of Camagüey; its results are being employed successfully. A full description of research methods, rationale, and each of the suggested strategies is provided.

  5. What Is the Impact of Online Resource Materials on Student Self-Learning Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, David John; Small, Felicity A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how students are incorporating online resources into their self-regulated learning strategies. The process of developing these learning strategies and the importance of these strategies has been widely researched, but there has been little empirical research into how the students are affected by online…

  6. The impact of active/cooperative instruction on beginning nursing student learning strategy preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand-Jecklin, Kari

    2007-07-01

    Rapid changes in the nursing field and high demand for practicing nurses put pressure on nursing faculty to educate increasing numbers of nursing students, often without corresponding increases in resources. Although the use of active and cooperative instruction methods in the classroom has been associated with improved student learning, these practices require increased effort on the part of both faculty and students. In addition, little is known about whether these methods influence student nurses' use of these more elaborative processing strategies in their independent study. The purpose of this quasi-experimental investigation was to identify the impact of incorporating active and cooperative classroom instructional activities on student preference for teaching methods and use of learning strategies in independent study. A convenience sample of beginning baccalaureate nursing students at a large Mid-Atlantic University was randomly assigned by the registrar to two class sections. Students in one section received primarily active/cooperative instruction, while the other received primarily traditional lecture-based instruction. Results indicated that student nurses exposed to active/cooperative instructional methods had an increased preference for these methods after a semester of instruction, while those exposed to traditional instruction had a higher preference for traditional methods. In addition, students participating in active class instruction reported increased preference for more elaborative independent study strategies, although overall preference for both groups indicated a reliance on surface study strategies of memorization and recall. Implications for use of instruction and student testing methodologies are presented.

  7. D4 S4: A Four Dimensions Instructional Strategy for Web-based and Blended Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. ABDELAZIZ,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Web-based education is facing a paradigm shift under the rapid development of information and communication technology. The new paradigm of learning requires special techniques of course design, special instructional models, and special methods of evaluation. This paper investigates the effectiveness of an adaptive instructional strategy for teaching and learning through the Web and blended learning environments. The central theme of this strategy is that instructional strategies give instructors and students a conceptual as well as a practical mode of delivery from which to teach and learn. Considering and applying new instructional strategy can help instructors to understand the uses of pedagogical content knowledge, as well as to reflect the role of technological content knowledge that can be adapted and/or adopted in teaching in all educational levels and environments. The main objective of this paper was to develop a holonomic instructional strategy for Web-based and blended learning. This strategy is guided by the non-linear and interactive features of learning environments. The strategy is consisted of four dimensions: designing, developing, delving and distributing. In this new instructional strategy, learning is holonomic and adaptive. Learning occurs in an open learning environment, in which instructors are designing a shared vision, developing a sharable e-learning task, delving students’ learning through scaffolding and salvaging students’ knowledge. The expected outcome of this instructional strategy is that each learner will develop a cognitive schema to be used to organize and construct knowledge and meaning in similar context of learning which may increase the generalizability, trustworthiness and transferability of learning. The results of applying this new strategy showed that this strategy is effective on developing both achievement and deep learning levels among a sample of graduate students.

  8. Global strategy formulation and learning from the field : Three modes of comparative learning and a case illustration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brannen, M.Y.; Voisey, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Firms formulate their global strategies from what they have learned from observing others and from their own experiences relying on the logic of comparison. From the literature and an in-depth case analysis, we identify three modes of comparative learning for global strategy formulation: seeking

  9. Learning outcomes with visual thinking strategies in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Margaret; Hensel, Desiree; Decker, Kim A; Busby, Katie

    2017-04-01

    There is a need to develop innovative strategies that cultivate broad cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal skills in nursing curricula. The purpose of this project was to explore transferable skills students gained from Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS). This qualitative descriptive study was conducted with 55 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in an entry level healthy population course. The students participated in a 1h VTS session led by a trained facilitator. Data came from the group's written responses to a question about how they would use skills learned from VTS in caring for patients and in their nursing practice. Content analysis showed students perceived gaining observational, cognitive, interpersonal, and intrapersonal skills from the VTS session. VTS is a unique teaching strategy that holds the potential to help nursing students develop a broad range of skills. Studies are needed on optimal exposure needed to develop observational, communication, collaboration, and critical thinking skills. Research is also needed on how skills gained in VTS translate to practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  11. Expectancy as a mediator of the relation between learning strategies and academic achievement among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurbanovska Orhideja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the mediation role of the expectancy component of motivation (self-efficacy and control beliefs for learning in the relationship between learning strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive, resource management strategies and academic achievement. The sample consisted of 155 university students (85 psychology students and 70 architecture students. Learning strategies section from the MSLQ (Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was taken to assess the extent of learning strategies usage during exam preparation. Motivation for learning was measured by the Expectancy scale as a part of the Motivation section of the MSLQ. Mediation analysis was used for data processing. Following the proposed steps for mediation effect testing, a series of regression analyses was conducted: first, the expectancy component of motivation was regressed on learning strategies; second, academic achievement was regressed on learning strategies; and third, academic achievement was regressed on the expectancy component of motivation. It was found that learning strategies influence academic achievement indirectly through the expectancy component of motivation (Sobel test=2.18; p=.029. It is emphasized that students should be encouraged to use learning strategies in knowledge acquisition.

  12. A Framework for Implementing Individualized Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Bryan M.; Middleton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a conceptual model that can be used to design and implement individualized learning strategies for students with learning disabilities. Students who self-regulate their learning engage in planning, performance, and self-evaluation during academic tasks. This article highlights one approach for teaching SRL skills…

  13. Towards Professionalism in Music: Self-Assessed Learning Strategies of Conservatory Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkula, Esa; Nissilä, Säde-Pirkko

    2017-01-01

    One of the current spearhead projects in Finnish education is learning to learn. Learning strategies have been examined from a variety of perspectives. They are policies that either promote or hinder learning. They are any behaviours or thoughts that facilitate encoding in such a way that knowledge integration and retrieval are enhanced.…

  14. Iranian EFL Learners' Emotional Intelligence, Learning Styles, Strategy Use, and Their L2 Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Hassan Soodmand; Tofighi, Somayyeh; Hamazavi, Raouf

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language learning is facilitated or inhibited by a multitude of factors has prompted scholars in the field to investigate variables considered to be crucial in the process of second or foreign language learning. This study investigated relationships between emotional intelligence, learning style, language learning strategy use, and…

  15. The Impact of Learning Strategy and Cognitive Style on Learning Achievement of Nursing Process Application on Nursing Clinic Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atti Yudiernawati

    2015-03-01

    Key Words: learning  strategy,  problem based learning , direct instruction, cognitive style, learning achievement Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh strategi pembelajaran (problem based learning vs direct instruction dan gaya kognitif terhadap prestasi belajar aplikasi proses keperawatan pada pembelajaran klinik. Dengan rancangan penelitian eksperimen semu pada subyek mahasiswa Jurusan  Keperawatan Malang, melalui teknik pengumpulan data berupa tes  untuk gaya kognitif dan performance assessment untuk prestasi belajar,  hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa: (1 terdapat perbedaan prestasi  belajar antara kelompok mahasiswa yang diajarkan dengan strategi PBL  dan pembelajaran langsung.  (2 terdapat perbedaan prestasi belajar pada mahasiswa dengan gaya kognitif yang berbeda, dan (3  tidak terdapat interaksi  penggunaan strategi pembelajaran dan gaya belajar mahasiswa terhadap prestasi  belajar pebelajaran. Kata kunci: strategi pembelajaran,  problem based learning (PBL,  direct instruction, gaya kognitif, prestasi belajar

  16. Synthetic Strategies for Semiconductor Nanocrystals Expressing Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgoda, J Scott; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2016-03-03

    The field of semiconductor plasmonics has grown rapidly since its outset, only roughly six years ago, and now includes many crystalline substances ranging from GeTe to wide-bandgap transition-metal oxides. One byproduct of this proliferation is the sea of differing synthetic methods to realize localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) based on the studied material. Strategies vary widely from material to material, but all have the common goal of introducing extremely high carrier densities to the semiconductor system. This doping results in tunable, size-quantized, and on/off-switchable LSPR modes, which are a complete departure from traditional metal-nanoparticle-based plasmon resonances. This Minireview will provide an overview of the current state of nanocrystal and quantum-dot plasmonics and the physical basis thereof, however its main purpose is to summarize the methods for realizing LSPRs in the various syntheses and systems that have been reported to date. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Motivation to learn and learning strategies: IT courses in a library and information science department

    OpenAIRE

    Τόγια, Ασπασία; Κορομπίλη-Ξαντίδου, Στέλλα; Μάλλιαρη, Αφροδίτη; Togia, Aspasia; Korobili - Xantinidou, Stella; Malliari, Aphrodite

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give an insight to the motivation processes and learning strategies of the students of the Library and Information Systems (LIS) Department of Alexander Technological Educational Institute (ATEI), Thessaloniki, in courses encompassing Information Technology (IT). Design/methodology/approach – The students participated in the study between the 10th and 12th week of a 13-week semester.Data were collected with the ScienceMotivationQuestion...

  18. The Influence of Emotions and Learning Preferences on Learning Strategy Use before Transition into High-Achiever Track Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obergriesser, Stefanie; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationships between students' achievement emotions and their (self-regulated) learning behavior is growing. However, little is known about the relationships between students' learning preferences and achievement emotions and the extent to which these influence learning strategies. In this study we, first, looked at the…

  19. Conscious knowledge of learning: accessing learning strategies in a final year high school biology class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Lindsey; Gunstone, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative case study investigation of the knowledge and use of learning strategies by 16 students in a final year high school biology class to expand their conscious knowledge of learning. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in purposeful inquiry into the biological, social and ethical aspects of cancer. A constructivist approach was implemented to access prior content and procedural knowledge in various ways. Students were encouraged to develop evaluation of their learning skills independently through activities that promoted metacognition. Those students who planned and monitored their work produced essays of higher quality. The value and difficulties of promoting metacognitive approaches in this context are discussed, as well as the idea that metacognitive processes are difficult to research, because they have to be conscious in order to be identified by the learner, thereby making them accessible to the researcher.

  20. Comparison between project-based learning and discovery learning toward students' metacognitive strategies on global warming concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumewu, Widya Anjelia; Wulan, Ana Ratna; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to know comparing the effectiveness of learning using Project-based learning (PjBL) and Discovery Learning (DL) toward students metacognitive strategies on global warming concept. A quasi-experimental research design with a The Matching-Only Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design was used in this study. The subjects were students of two classes 7th grade of one of junior high school in Bandung City, West Java of 2015/2016 academic year. The study was conducted on two experimental class, that were project-based learning treatment on the experimental class I and discovery learning treatment was done on the experimental class II. The data was collected through questionnaire to know students metacognitive strategies. The statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in students metacognitive strategies between project-based learning and discovery learning.

  1. Machine learning amplifies the effect of parental family history of Alzheimer's disease on list learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Timothy S; Coen, Michael H; La Rue, Asenath; Jonaitis, Erin; Koscik, Rebecca L; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A

    2012-05-01

    Identification of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an essential first step in developing interventions to prevent or delay disease onset. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that deeper analyses of traditional cognitive tests may be useful in identifying subtle but potentially important learning and memory differences in asymptomatic populations that differ in risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Subjects included 879 asymptomatic higher-risk persons (middle-aged children of parents with AD) and 355 asymptotic lower-risk persons (middle-aged children of parents without AD). All were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test at baseline. Using machine learning approaches, we constructed a new measure that exploited finer differences in memory strategy than previous work focused on serial position and subjective organization. The new measure, based on stochastic gradient descent, provides a greater degree of statistical separation (p = 1.44 × 10-5) than previously observed for asymptomatic family history and non-family history groups, while controlling for apolipoprotein epsilon 4, age, gender, and education level. The results of our machine learning approach support analyzing memory strategy in detail to probe potential disease onset. Such distinct differences may be exploited in asymptomatic middle-aged persons as a potential risk factor for AD.

  2. Describing the on-line graduate science student: An examination of learning style, learning strategy, and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spevak, Arlene J.

    Research in science education has presented investigations and findings related to the significance of particular learning variables. For example, the factors of learning style, learning strategy and motivational orientation have been shown to have considerable impact upon learning in a traditional classroom setting. Although these data have been somewhat generous for the face-to-face learning situation, this does not appear to be the case for distance education, particularly the Internet-based environment. The purpose of this study was to describe the on-line graduate science student, regarding the variables of learning style, learning strategy and motivational orientation. It was believed that by understanding the characteristics of adult science learners and by identifying their learning needs, Web course designers and science educators could create on-line learning programs that best utilized students' strengths in learning science. A case study method using a questionnaire, inventories, telephone interviews and documents was applied to nine graduate science students who participated for ten weeks in an asynchronous, exclusively Internet mediated graduate science course at a large, Northeastern university. Within-case and cross-case analysis indicated that these learners displayed several categories of learning styles as well as learning strategies. The students also demonstrated high levels of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and this, together with varying strategy use, may have compensated for any mismatch between their preferred learning styles and their learning environment. Recommendations include replicating this study in other online graduate science courses, administration of learning style and learning strategy inventories to perspective online graduate science students, incorporation of synchronous communication into on-line science courses, and implementation of appropriate technology that supports visual and kinesthetic learners. Although

  3. Strategies and Principles of Distributed Machine Learning on Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Xing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of big data has led to new demands for machine learning (ML systems to learn complex models, with millions to billions of parameters, that promise adequate capacity to digest massive datasets and offer powerful predictive analytics (such as high-dimensional latent features, intermediate representations, and decision functions thereupon. In order to run ML algorithms at such scales, on a distributed cluster with tens to thousands of machines, it is often the case that significant engineering efforts are required—and one might fairly ask whether such engineering truly falls within the domain of ML research. Taking the view that “big” ML systems can benefit greatly from ML-rooted statistical and algorithmic insights—and that ML researchers should therefore not shy away from such systems design—we discuss a series of principles and strategies distilled from our recent efforts on industrial-scale ML solutions. These principles and strategies span a continuum from application, to engineering, and to theoretical research and development of big ML systems and architectures, with the goal of understanding how to make them efficient, generally applicable, and supported with convergence and scaling guarantees. They concern four key questions that traditionally receive little attention in ML research: How can an ML program be distributed over a cluster? How can ML computation be bridged with inter-machine communication? How can such communication be performed? What should be communicated between machines? By exposing underlying statistical and algorithmic characteristics unique to ML programs but not typically seen in traditional computer programs, and by dissecting successful cases to reveal how we have harnessed these principles to design and develop both high-performance distributed ML software as well as general-purpose ML frameworks, we present opportunities for ML researchers and practitioners to further shape and enlarge the area

  4. Arabic Vocabulary Learning Strategies Among Non-native Speakers: A Case of IIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Hanan Mustapha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies used by Arabic learners of the International Islamic University Malaysia. It also compares between the Arabic and non-Arabic majoring students in the use of these strategies. The total sample of this study was 248 university students from different level of studies. They answered a ‘Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaire’ by Pavicic Takac (2008 which consisted of three different components: Formal strategies, self-initiated independent strategies and incidental strategies. Results indicated that Arabic learners used a variety of vocabulary learning strategies with translation being the most widely employed. No statistically significant difference was found between the Arabic and non-Arabic majoring students. The findings provide support for helping the students to utilize their mother tongue in a fruitful way to learn new vocabularies, as well as training both groups equally on how to use these strategies efficiently.

  5. Construction of the Questionnaire on Foreign Language Learning Strategies in Specific Croatian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božinović, Nikolina; Sindik, Joško

    2017-03-01

    Learning strategies are special thoughts or behaviours that individuals use to understand, learn or retain new information, according to the point of view of O’Malley & Chamot. The other view, promoted by Oxford, believes learning strategies are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, and more transferrable to new situations of language learning and use. The use of appropriate strategies ensures greater success in language learning. The aim of the research was to establish metric characteristics of the Questionnaire on learning strategies created by the author, in line with the template of the original SILL questionnaire (Strategy Inventory for Language Learning). The research was conducted at the Rochester Institute of Technology Croatia on a sample of 201 participants who learned German, Spanish, French and Italian as a foreign language. The results have shown that one-component latent dimensions which describe the space of foreign language learning strategies according to Oxford’s classification, have metric characteristics which are low, but still satisfactory (reliability and validity). All dimensions of learning strategies appeared not to be adequately defined. Therefore, we excluded compensation strategies and merged social and affective strategies into social-affective strategies into the unique dimension. Overall, this version of Oxford’s original questionnaire, based on Oxford’s theoretical construct, applied on Croatian students, clearly shows that current version of the questionnaire has poor metric characteristics. One of the explanations of the results obtained could be positioned in multicultural context and intercultural dialogue. Namely, particular social, political and economic context in Croatia could shape even foreign language learning strategies.

  6. Differential Use of Learning Strategies in First-Year Higher Education: The Impact of Personality, Academic Motivation, and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Coertjens, Liesje; Van Daal, Tine; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although the evidence in support of the variability of students' learning strategies has expanded in recent years, less is known about the explanatory base of these individual differences in terms of the joint Influences of personal and contextual characteristics. Aims. Previous studies have often investigated how student learning is…

  7. Effect of embedded streaming video strategy in an online learning environment on the learning of neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantrarungroj, Pornsook

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the embedded streaming video strategy in an online learning environment on declarative knowledge learning of neuroscience. The design used in this study was the posttest-only control-group design. A sample of 92 undergraduate students from a Midwestern university was recruited for the study. The students in the experimental group received online text-based instruction with static graphics and embedded streaming video, while the control group received the online text-based instruction with static graphics. No significant difference in students' immediate learning performance was found as measured by the content-related immediate posttest; however, a significant difference was found in students' knowledge retention as measured by the content-related retention posttest. The student' perception of the effectiveness of streaming video according to gender was also administered by the web-form survey. No significant gender difference was found to exist in students' perceptions toward the effectiveness of embedded streaming video. Results of the web-form survey of respondents' attitude regarding the effectiveness of streaming video are also presented. Adding streaming video to the online learning environment is recommended as one way to increase student learning performance.

  8. Teaching Vocabulary Learning Strategies in German as a Foreign Language Class in Slovenian High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Retelj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find out the type and the frequency of vocabulary learning strategies that German language teachers teach in their classes. An online questionnaire which included 37 vocabulary learning strategies based on Schmitt’s (1997 and Nation’s (2001 taxonomies was administered to 72 German teachers. The results revealed that all vocabulary learning strategies were instructed in German as foreign language lessons in Slovenia; however, 10 strategies were instructed often, 19 strategies occasionally and 8 strategies rarely. None of the strategies were instructed very often. The strategies that teachers often taught in their classes included learning the meaning from context, guessing and active use of words. The strategies that were occasionally instructed cover also other aspects of word knowledge. Strategies that promote memorization of words were rarely instructed. We can conclude that German teachers with the deliberate instruction of vocabulary learning strategies contribute to learners’ autonomy in learning German language and indirectly in further learning of foreign languages.

  9. Using appreciative inquiry to help students identify strategies to overcome handicaps of their learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Latha Rajendra; Chacko, Thomas Vengail

    2012-01-01

    In India, as in some other neighboring Asian countries, students and teachers are generally unaware of the differences in the learning styles among learners, which can handicap students with learning styles alien to the common teaching/learning modality within the institution. This study aims to find out whether making students aware of their learning styles and then using the Appreciative Inquiry approach to help them discover learning strategies that worked for them and others with similar learning styles within the institution made them perceive that this experience improved their learning and performance in exams. The visual, auditory, read-write, and kinesthetic (VARK) inventory of learning styles questionnaire was administered to all 100 first-year medical students of the Father Muller's Medical College in Mangalore India to make them aware of their individual learning styles. An Appreciate Inquiry intervention was administered to 62 student volunteers who were counseled about the different learning styles and their adaptive strategies. Pre and post intervention change in student's perception about usefulness of knowing learning styles on their learning, learning behavior, and performance in examinations was collected from the students using a prevalidated questionnaire. Post intervention mean scores showed a significant change (P learning style and discovering strategies that worked within the institutional environment. There was agreement among students that the intervention helped them become more confident in learning (84%), facilitating learning in general (100%), and in understanding concepts (100%). However, only 29% of the students agreed that the intervention has brought about their capability improvement in application of learning and 31% felt it improved their performance in exams. Appreciate Inquiry was perceived as useful in helping students discover learning strategies that work for different individual learning styles and sharing them within

  10. Using Feedback Strategies to Improve Peer-Learning in Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Selena; Leijten, Flip

    2012-01-01

    Due to safety considerations, students' practice and learning of welding is conducted within individual welding booths. The booth setting presents some challenges to student learning as collaborative learning within a workshop learning environment is compromised. The project reported in this paper, established peer-learning (i.e., students…

  11. Comparing Problem-Based Learning Students to Students in a Lecture-Based Curriculum: Learning Strategies and the Relation with Self-Study Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Marit; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Smeets, Guus; Kroeze, Maarten; van der Molen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    In educational theory, deep processing (i.e., connecting different study topics together) and self-regulation (i.e., taking control over one's own learning process) are considered effective learning strategies. These learning strategies can be influenced by the learning environment. Problem-based learning (PBL), a student-centered educational…

  12. Strategi Learning Community untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Menulis Wacana Deskriptif Siswa SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Supriyadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Implementing Learning-community Strategy to Improve the Ability of the Fifth-grade Students in Writing Descriptive Texts. This classroom action research describes how the implementa­tion of learning-community strategy improves the ability of the fifth-grade students of an elementary school in Gorontalo in writing descriptive texts. After two cycles, each involving the stages of planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting, the study indicates that the implementation of learning-­community strategy can improve the students' writing ability as reflected in the data obtained from par­ticipant observation, interview, and tests. Additionally, the strategy can improve the students' learning activities, collaborative skills, learning effectiveness, and social competence. Abstrak: Strategi Learning Community untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Menulis Wacana Deskriptif Siswa SD. Masalah yang dikaji dalam PTK ini adalah bagaimanakah strategi belajar learn­ing community dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan keterampilan menulis wacana disekriptif pada siswa SD. PTK ini dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Prosedur penelitian terdiri atas lima langkah, yakni persiapan tindakan, implementasi tindakan, observasi, evaluasi, dan refleksi. Teknik pengambilan data terdiri atas observasi berpartisipasi, wawancara, dan tes yang dilakukan pada setiap akhir siklus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa implementasi strategi belajar learning community dapat meningkatkan keterampilan menulis wacana deskriptif dan hasil belajar bahasa Indonesia siswa. Implementasi strategi learning community juga dapat meningkatkan aktivitas belajar, kolaborasi antarsiswa, keefektifan bela­jar, dan kompetensi sosial siswa.

  13. The Effect of Strategy Instruction Based on the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach over Reading Comprehension and Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Meral Ozkan; Adiguzel, Oktay Cem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of reading strategies instruction based on the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach over students' skill to comprehend what they read in French and their use of reading strategies. It has an action research design. Eighteen students studying at French Preparatory Program at Eskisehir Osmangazi…

  14. Assessment of medical students' learning and study strategies in self-regulated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh

    2016-04-01

    Research on medical students shows that adopting self-regulation of effort, time, and study strategies can positively influence academic achievement. The purpose of the current study was to assess learning and study strategies in medical students. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014-2015 at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The sample size was determined 360 students based on the results of a pilot study on 30 members of the study population. Medical students in the first to fourth year of their studies were selected through simple sampling randomly. A valid and reliable Persian translation of Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) questionnaire was completed by the students. It measures three latent factors of self-regulated learning: Skill, Will, and Self-Regulation. It consists of 80 questions in ten different scales (each scale including eight questions and a variable score of 8-40). Data were analyzed using t-test, correlation analysis, and ANOVA. Considering the ten LASSI scales, the highest mean score belonged to test strategies (28.67±4.44), and the lowest mean to self-testing (21.91±4.91). The results showed significant statistical differences between male and female students in selecting the main idea, attitude, and self-testing. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests showed a significant difference between the mean scores of different areas of LASSI among students with different grade point average (GPA) in the university. In all areas except the study aids, the mean scores of students with GPA higher than 17.5 were significantly higher than those of students with GPA lower than 14.5. The results showed that students need help and consultation in most areas of learning and study strategies. Using 10 areas of LASSI can determine the strengths and weaknesses of students in various areas. Knowing their own limitations, students will be able to improve their study habits. Hence, it is suggested to evaluate the students when enrolling

  15. Assessment of medical students’ learning and study strategies in self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHRA JOUHARI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research on medical students shows that adopting self-regulation of effort, time, and study strategies can positively influence academic achievement. The purpose of the current study was to assess learning and study strategies in medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014-2015 at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The sample size was determined 360 students based on the results of a pilot study on 30 members of the study population. Medical students in the first to fourth year of their studies were selected through simple sampling randomly. A valid and reliable Persian translation of Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI questionnaire was completed by the students. It measures three latent factors of selfregulated learning: Skill, Will, and Self-Regulation. It consists of 80 questions in ten different scales (each scale including eight questions and a variable score of 8-40. Data were analyzed using t-test, correlation analysis, and ANOVA. Results: Considering the ten LASSI scales, the highest mean score belonged to test strategies (28.67±4.44, and the lowest mean to self-testing (21.91±4.91. The results showed significant statistical differences between male and female students in selecting the main idea, attitude, and self-testing. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests showed a significant difference between the mean scores of different areas of LASSI among students with different grade point average (GPA in the university. In all areas except the study aids, the mean scores of students with GPA higher than 17.5 were significantly higher than those of students with GPA lower than 14.5. Conclusion: The results showed that students need help and consultation in most areas of learning and study strategies. Using 10 areas of LASSI can determine the strengths and weaknesses of students in various areas. Knowing their own limitations, students will be able to improve their study habits. Hence

  16. Language Learning Strategies Used by Distance Learners of English: A Study with a Group of Turkish Distance Learners of EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Use of language learning strategies is important for language learning. Some researchers state that language learning strategies are important because their use affects the development of communicative competence (Lessard-Clouston, 1997 & Oxford, 1990). Effective use of language learning strategies has particular importance for distance…

  17. Training in Metacognitive Strategies for Students’ Vocabulary Improvement by Using Learning Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itala Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of metacognitive strategies to help beginning young learners with difficulties increasing and retaining vocabulary. This was a qualitative study in which participants first went through metacognitive strategy instruction to provide awareness of learning strategies. Following this instruction, students underwent a set of five interventions based on the cognitive academic language learning approach instructional model. These interventions, together with journaling progress, were used to train them in the use of the metacognitive strategies planning, monitoring, and evaluating. The findings showed that metacognitive strategy training has positively contributed to vocabulary acquisition skills, as participants were able to raise consciousness about some learning strategies and the use of metacognitive strategies to increase their vocabulary learning.

  18. Evolution of learning strategies in temporally and spatially variable environments: a review of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W

    2014-02-01

    The theoretical literature from 1985 to the present on the evolution of learning strategies in variable environments is reviewed, with the focus on deterministic dynamical models that are amenable to local stability analysis, and on deterministic models yielding evolutionarily stable strategies. Individual learning, unbiased and biased social learning, mixed learning, and learning schedules are considered. A rapidly changing environment or frequent migration in a spatially heterogeneous environment favors individual learning over unbiased social learning. However, results are not so straightforward in the context of learning schedules or when biases in social learning are introduced. The three major methods of modeling temporal environmental change--coevolutionary, two-timescale, and information decay--are compared and shown to sometimes yield contradictory results. The so-called Rogers' paradox is inherent in the two-timescale method as originally applied to the evolution of pure strategies, but is often eliminated when the other methods are used. Moreover, Rogers' paradox is not observed for the mixed learning strategies and learning schedules that we review. We believe that further theoretical work is necessary on learning schedules and biased social learning, based on models that are logically consistent and empirically pertinent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution of learning strategies in temporally and spatially variable environments: A review of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical literature from 1985 to the present on the evolution of learning strategies in variable environments is reviewed, with the focus on deterministic dynamical models that are amenable to local stability analysis, and on deterministic models yielding evolutionarily stable strategies. Individual learning, unbiased and biased social learning, mixed learning, and learning schedules are considered. A rapidly changing environment or frequent migration in a spatially heterogeneous environment favors individual learning over unbiased social learning. However, results are not so straightforward in the context of learning schedules or when biases in social learning are introduced. The three major methods of modeling temporal environmental change – coevolutionary, two-timescale, and information decay – are compared and shown to sometimes yield contradictory results. The so-called Rogers’ paradox is inherent in the two-timescale method as originally applied to the evolution of pure strategies, but is often eliminated when the other methods are used. Moreover, Rogers’ paradox is not observed for the mixed learning strategies and learning schedules that we review. We believe that further theoretical work is necessary on learning schedules and biased social learning, based on models that are logically consistent and empirically pertinent. PMID:24211681

  20. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus is associated with learning strategy preference in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Witty, Christine F; Daniel, Jill M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2015-08-01

    One principle of the multiple memory systems hypothesis posits that the hippocampus-based and striatum-based memory systems compete for control over learning. Consistent with this notion, previous research indicates that the cholinergic system of the hippocampus plays a role in modulating the preference for a hippocampus-based place learning strategy over a striatum-based stimulus--response learning strategy. Interestingly, in the hippocampus, greater activity and higher protein levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the enzyme that synthesizes acetylcholine, are associated with better performance on hippocampus-based learning and memory tasks. With this in mind, the primary aim of the current study was to determine if higher levels of ChAT and the high-affinity choline uptake transporter (CHT) in the hippocampus were associated with a preference for a hippocampus-based place learning strategy on a task that also could be solved by relying on a striatum-based stimulus--response learning strategy. Results confirmed that levels of ChAT in the dorsal region of the hippocampus were associated with a preference for a place learning strategy on a water maze task that could also be solved by adopting a stimulus-response learning strategy. Consistent with previous studies, the current results support the hypothesis that the cholinergic system of the hippocampus plays a role in balancing competition between memory systems that modulate learning strategy preference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategy of creative learning Estrategia de aprendizaje creativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Sepulveda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a cuasi experimental study, which objective was to analyze the impact in the student’s learning once they where taught by teachers trained in creativity liberation and promotion methodology (learning for creating. The study compared pre – post three experimental institutions and three control, in second grade of high school. In the experimental group, the teachers of the experimental class were trained in the methodology. This implicated an induction strategy the semester before the application and a strategy o group accompaniment and reflection about the implemented practices during the semester of the application. In the analysis of multivariate covariance, training is considered as an independent variable and the variables teaching (teacher and academic yield (students as dependent variables. The respective measurements pre – experiment are considered as covariance. The quantitative results report a significant difference in the students of the experimental group in the academic yield level of the students and in the teacher’s acts of speech. Conclusions point to the usefulness of the teaching design methodology, and the four principles for a “learning that allows creativity”, as a useful change strategy in the pedagogic practices, for the investigation in the educational system.Se presentan los resultados de un estudio cuasi experimental que tuvo como objetivo analizar el impacto en el aprendizaje que se obtiene en los alumnos que recibieron una enseñanza impartida por profesores entrenados en una metodología para la liberación y fomento de la creatividad (aprender para crear. El estudio comparó pre-post a tres establecimientos experimentales y tres control, en el segundo grado de enseñanza secundaria. En el grupo experimental se capacitó a los profesores del curso experimental en la metodología, en un entrenamiento que implicó una estrategia de inducción el semestre antes del semestre de

  3. Learning through Debate during Problem-Based Learning: An Active Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sadaf; Latif, Rabia

    2017-01-01

    We explored medical student's views and perceptions of a series of debates conducted during problem-based learning (PBL) practiced as a part of the Spiral curriculum at the Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A series of debates were employed during PBL sessions for second-year female medical students, over the period 2014-2016.…

  4. Incorporating an Authentic Learning Strategy into Undergraduate Apparel and Merchandising Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hyun-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    An authentic learning strategy fostering students' active learning was studied using the scenario of a real-world project. Students from two different classes at two different universities worked as clients or consultants to develop an apparel sourcing strategy. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from 44 undergraduates enrolled in…

  5. The Relationship between the Big-Five Model of Personality and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidjerano, Temi; Dai, David Yun

    2007-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between the big-five model of personality and the use of self-regulated learning strategies. Measures of self-regulated learning strategies and big-five personality traits were administered to a sample of undergraduate students. Results from canonical correlation analysis indicated an overlap between the…

  6. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  7. Identifying Instructional Strategies Used to Design Mobile Learning in a Corporate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Butler, Uletta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative embedded multiple case study was to describe what instructional strategies corporate instructional designers were using to design mobile learning and to understand from their experiences which instructional strategies they believed enhance learning. Participants were five instructional designers who were actively…

  8. Turkish EFL Learners' Language Learning Strategy Employment at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Salim

    2012-01-01

    This study mainly aims to investigate the preferences of language learning strategies by English Language Teaching Department students. Oxford's five-scale Likert type inventory, consisting of 50 items on the use of language learning strategies, was administered to 189 participants at the ELT department of C¸anakkale Onsekiz Mart University,…

  9. Portfolio as a learning strategy and a tool for assessment - a Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    A short presentation of some Danish expereriences using portfolio in maths teaching in primary and lower secondary schools as a learning strategy AND a tool for assessment.......A short presentation of some Danish expereriences using portfolio in maths teaching in primary and lower secondary schools as a learning strategy AND a tool for assessment....

  10. Teaching Strategies and Methods in Modern Environments for Learning of Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenic, Slobodanka; Mitic, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents teaching strategies and methods, applicable in modern blended environments for learning of programming. Given the fact that the manner of applying teaching strategies always depends on the specific requirements of a certain area of learning, the paper outlines the basic principles of teaching in programming courses, as well as…

  11. Effects of Unidirectional vs. Reciprocal Teaching Strategies on Web-Based Computer Programming Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Yeh, Shih-Ching; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Wang, Jing-Liang; Han, Lin; Hsu, Guo-Liang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate an effectiveness of unidirectional and reciprocal teaching strategies on programming learning supported by web-based learning system (VPen); particularly, how differently effective these two teaching strategies would work. In this study novice programmers were exposed to three different conditions: 1) applying no…

  12. Teaching Learning Strategies to Increase Success of First-Term College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Kennedy, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effect of taking a learning strategies course on grade point average, retention, and graduation rate of 351 first-year students over their first 4 terms in comparison with 351 matched non-course takers. The course taught 4 learning strategies and 8 substrategies to help students overcome procrastination,…

  13. Group Investigation as a Cooperative Learning Strategy: An Integrated Analysis of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mitzi G.; Montgomery, Hilary; Holder, Michelle; Stuart, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The cooperative learning strategy of group investigation has been used extensively in elementary and high school classrooms. Whereas this learning strategy seems to benefit low- and middle-achieving students, the performance of high-achieving students seems to change little. This article examines the literature on group investigation as a…

  14. Summarizing as retrieval strategy versus re-reading. Which learning activity works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 30 August). Summarizing as retrieval strategy versus re-reading: Which learning strategy works best? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Junior Researchers of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Exeter,

  15. Evolution of Learning among Pavlov Strategies in a Competitive Environment with Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraines, David; Kraines, Vivian

    1995-01-01

    Pavlov denotes a family of stochastic learning strategies that achieves the mutually cooperative outcome in the iterated prisoner's dilemma against a wide variety of strategies. Although faster learners will eventually dominate a given homogeneous Pavlov population, the process must proceed through a gradual increase in the rate of learning. (JBJ)

  16. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Medical Students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigh, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the use of vocabulary learning strategies among medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) in Iran as an EFL context. A questionnaire was administered to 120 medical students (53 males, 67 females) to identify; 1) the effective types of vocabulary learning strategies used by the learners and 2)…

  17. Investigation of the Latent Structure for the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, W. Holmes; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Jones, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) is a very popular tool for measuring the learning and study strategies of high school and college students. Prior research with the LASSI has supported the originally proposed model with three latent traits, with minor variations among the contributing subtests contributing to those traits.…

  18. Learning Strategies and Their Relationships to Academic Performance of High School Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the dynamic relationship between academic performance of high school students and their respective learning and study strategies. Two hundred thirty-six high school students were recruited to participate in this study by completing a Chinese version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory--LASSI, to probe into the…

  19. A Cross-Cultural Validation Study of the "Language Learning Strategy Scale" and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jane; Chen, Yih-Lan E.; Walker, Brenda

    The underlying factor structure of the Language Learning Strategy Scale (LLSS) (Y. Chen, 2001) was examined to determine its consistency across 2 distinct cultures. Variables that affected students' language learning were also identified. The validation study for the LLSS suggested a three-factor model of functional strategies, deep-processing…

  20. Psychometric Validation of the "Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire" with Mexican University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Dorantes, Maria del Carmen; Canto y Rodriguez, Jose Enrique; Bueno-Alvarez, Jose Antonio; Echazarreta-Moreno, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The "Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ) is a self-report instrument designed to assess students' motivation and learning strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive, and resource management). In the present study, we focused on translate, adapt and validate the MSLQ to Mexican educational context. Method: The…

  1. A Look at EFL Technical Students' Use of Learning Strategies in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-Wei; Huang, Bih-Shia; Shih, Ming-Piao; Tsai, Chih-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    253 freshmen taking Freshman English from a university of technology in the central Taiwan participated in this study. The purposes of this research were to explore what learning strategy was used more frequently by college students and to investigate the variance of using learning strategies among students of different English proficiency levels.…

  2. Factors Affecting the Use of Self-Regulated L2 Learning Strategies in Turkish FLE Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Dinçay; Dündar, Sinem

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the overall self-regulated L2 learning strategy use of L2 learners depending upon the Strategic Self-Regulation (S[superscript 2]R) Model proposed by Oxford (2011), and to examine the relationships between their reported self-regulated L2 strategy use and their personality traits, identity, beliefs about L2 learning,…

  3. Language Learner Strategy Research and Modern Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses language learner strategy research in the context of second language learning and teaching in the UK. It arises from two sources: firstly, a personal background in research and writing about language learner strategy research in the context of modern foreign language learning and teaching in England and Wales; secondly, a…

  4. Summarizing as retrieval strategy versus re-reading. Which learning activity works

    OpenAIRE

    Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 30 August). Summarizing as retrieval strategy versus re-reading: Which learning strategy works best? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Junior Researchers of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Exeter, United Kingdom.

  5. Detecting Learning Strategies with Analytics: Links with Self-Reported Measures and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaševic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Pardo, Abelardo; Dawson, Shane

    2017-01-01

    The use of analytic methods for extracting learning strategies from trace data has attracted considerable attention in the literature. However, there is a paucity of research examining any association between learning strategies extracted from trace data and responses to well-established self-report instruments and performance scores. This paper…

  6. Active Learning Strategies and Academic Achievement among Some Psychology Undergraduates in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Adebisi Fayombo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the active learning strategies (discussion, video clips, game show, role– play, five minute paper, clarification pauses, and small group) and academic achievement among a sample of 158 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations between active learning strategies and students’ academic achievement; so also the activ...

  7. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Pre-University Math Performance of International Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loong, Tang Eng

    2012-01-01

    This study is an attempt to compare the use of self-regulated learning strategies and their math performance between home and international students in the Monash University Foundation Year (MUFY) and determine the self-regulated learning strategies that are significantly associated with their math performance. The participants of the study were…

  8. Effectiveness of self-regulated learning strategies on academic performance : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Anouk; de Boer, Hester; Kostons, Danny; Dignath -van Ewijk, Charlotte; van der Werf, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    In this meta-analysis the results of studies on learning strategy instruction focused on improving self-regulated learning were brought together to determine which specific strategies were the most effective in increasing academic performance. The meta-analysis included 58 studies in primary and

  9. Self-Efficacy, Attitudes, and Choice of Strategies for English Pronunciation Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardegna, Veronica G.; Lee, Juhee; Kusey, Crystal

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes a structural model of English language learners' self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes toward learning pronunciation skills, and choice of pronunciation learning strategies. Participants' responses (N = 704) to two self-reported questionnaires--Strategies for Pronunciation Improvement (SPI) inventory and Learner Attitudes for…

  10. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  11. EFL Students' Attitudes towards Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadikhah, Shirin; Aliyan, Zahra; Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate EFL university students' attitude towards self-regulated learning strategies in writing academic papers. A further aim of the study was to compare the attitudes of two groups of university students (third and fourth years) in the employment of self-regulated learning strategies to find out whether…

  12. Using Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Enhancing Language Proficiency with a Focus on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Gholam-Reza; Hartoonian, Anahid

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulated learning strategies have recently received a remarkable attention by researchers. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-regulated learning strategies and students' language proficiency as well as their reading comprehension. To do so, 115 Iranian EFL university students were selected. First, a TOEFL test…

  13. Learning from Errors in Dual Vocational Education: Video-Enhanced Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto A. P.; Boldrini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Starting from the identification of some theoretically driven instructional principles, this paper presents a set of empirical cases based on strategies to learn from errors. The purpose of this paper is to provide first evidence about the feasibility and the effectiveness for learning of video-enhanced error-based strategies in…

  14. THE VOCABULARY TEACHING AND VOCABULARY LEARNING: PERCEPTION, STRATEGIES, AND INFLUENCES ON STUDENTS' VOCABULARY MASTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Asyiah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays pivotal role in foreign language learning. However, vocabulary teaching and vocabulary learning in TEFL seems to be neglected. The study was aimed to investigate how vocabulary teaching and learning are perceived by teacher and students, strategies to teach and learn the vocabulary, and also influences of students’ vocabulary learning strategy on their vocabulary mastery. Accordingly, a mix method design was employed to one English teacher and 30 junior high school students to reveal the issues being investigated. The findings showed that both teacher and students have positive response on vocabulary teaching and learning. Concerning strategies, it was found that teacher mostly employed Fully-contextual strategy, meanwhile Determination and Metacognitive strategy were found as the most favored VLS chosen by students. The study also confirmed that there is a significant relationship between students’ vocabulary learning strategy and their vocabulary mastery (r-value Discovery = .023 and r-value Consolidating = .000, p<.05. It is recommended for EFL teachers to give a bigger portion to vocabulary in the EFL teaching and to teach vocabulary using the combination of fully-contextual and de-contextual strategy. It is also suggested to introduce students to various kinds of vocabulary learning strategies.  

  15. Investigating Reading Comprehension and Learning Styles in Relation to Reading Strategies in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Meral Özkan; Bouvet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the extent to which reading comprehension and learning styles are related to perceived use of reading strategies among students studying French at an Australian university and a Turkish university. Ninety-one participants completed a background questionnaire, the Survey of Reading Strategies, the Kolb Learning Style…

  16. Can "YouTube" help students in learning surface anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2012-07-01

    In a problem-based learning curriculum, most medical students research the Internet for information for their "learning issues." Internet sites such as "YouTube" have become a useful resource for information. This study aimed at assessing YouTube videos covering surface anatomy. A search of YouTube was conducted from November 8 to 30, 2010 using research terms "surface anatomy," "anatomy body painting," "living anatomy," "bone landmarks," and "dermatomes" for surface anatomy-related videos. Only relevant video clips in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each videotape the following information were collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. The data were statistically analyzed and videos were grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos on the basis of major and minor criteria covering technical, content, authority, and pedagogy parameters. A total of 235 YouTube videos were screened and 57 were found to have relevant information to surface anatomy. Analysis revealed that 15 (27%) of the videos provided useful information on surface anatomy. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.0 ± 0.7) and mainly covered surface anatomy of the shoulder, knee, muscles of the back, leg, and ankle, carotid artery, dermatomes, and anatomical positions. The other 42 (73%) videos were not useful educationally, scoring (mean ± SD, 7.4 ± 1.8). The total viewers of all videos were 1,058,634. Useful videos were viewed by 497,925 (47% of total viewers). The total viewership per day was 750 for useful videos and 652 for non-useful videos. No video clips covering surface anatomy of the head and neck, blood vessels and nerves of upper and lower limbs, chest and abdominal organs/structures were found. Currently, YouTube is an inadequate source of information for learning surface anatomy. More work is needed from medical schools and educators to add useful videos on You

  17. The effects of overtraining in the Morris water maze on allocentric and egocentric learning strategies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, John; Diviney, Mairead; Kehoe, Elizabeth; McGonagle, Vanessa; O'Shea, Adrienne; Harvey, Deirdre; Commins, Sean

    2008-10-10

    Animals can use both allocentric and egocentric strategies to learn a spatial task. Our results suggest that allocentric cues are more dominant than idiothetic cues in guiding navigation. Animals do not necessarily learn an egocentric strategy automatically, instead they probably hold just one solution to any particular task at a time until forced to learn an alternative strategy. Further, with overtraining animals do not always switch from allocentric to an egocentric learning strategy perhaps challenging suggestions of a stored hierarchy of strategies.

  18. Six Strategies for Digital Learning Success. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Samir; Downs, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Technology has revolutionized corporate learning and leadership development. The number of organizations that use learning management systems is higher than ever before, and thanks to massive open online courses (MOOCs), small private online courses (SPOCS), microlearning, nanolearning, and other new media learning platforms, digital learning and…

  19. Teaching Strategies to Promote Concept Learning by Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Breukelen, Dave; Van Meel, Adrianus; De Vries, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study is the second study of a design-based research, organised around four studies, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training concerning the design-based learning approach called Learning by Design (LBD). Purpose: LBD uses the context of design challenges to learn, among other things, science.…

  20. The Effectiveness of Using Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy and Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call In Learning Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraina Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of three vocabulary learning methods that are Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy, and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL in learning vocabulary among ESL learners. First, it aims at finding which of the vocabulary learning methods namely Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues, and CALL that may result in the highest number of words learnt in the immediate and delayed recall tests. Second, it compares the results of the Pre-test and the Delayed Recall Post-test to determine the differences of learning vocabulary using the methods. A quasi-experiment that tested the effectiveness of learning vocabulary using Dictionary Strategy, Contextual clues, and CALL involved 123 first year university students. Qualitative procedures included the collection of data from interviews which were conducted to triangulate the data obtain from the quantitative inquiries. Findings from the study using ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences when students were exposed to Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues and CALL in the immediate recall tests but not in the Delayed Recall Post-test. Also, there were significant differences when t test was used to compare the scores between the Pre-test and the Delayed Recall Post-test in using the three methods of vocabulary learning. Although many researchers have advocated the relative effectiveness of Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues, and CALL in learning vocabulary, the study however, is still paramount since there is no study has ever empirically investigated the relative efficacy of these three methods in a single study.

  1. Evolution of learned strategy choice in a frequency-dependent game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsnelson, Edith; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2012-03-22

    In frequency-dependent games, strategy choice may be innate or learned. While experimental evidence in the producer-scrounger game suggests that learned strategy choice may be common, a recent theoretical analysis demonstrated that learning by only some individuals prevents learning from evolving in others. Here, however, we model learning explicitly, and demonstrate that learning can easily evolve in the whole population. We used an agent-based evolutionary simulation of the producer-scrounger game to test the success of two general learning rules for strategy choice. We found that learning was eventually acquired by all individuals under a sufficient degree of environmental fluctuation, and when players were phenotypically asymmetric. In the absence of sufficient environmental change or phenotypic asymmetries, the correct target for learning seems to be confounded by game dynamics, and innate strategy choice is likely to be fixed in the population. The results demonstrate that under biologically plausible conditions, learning can easily evolve in the whole population and that phenotypic asymmetry is important for the evolution of learned strategy choice, especially in a stable or mildly changing environment.

  2. Evolution of learned strategy choice in a frequency-dependent game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsnelson, Edith; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W.; Lotem, Arnon

    2012-01-01

    In frequency-dependent games, strategy choice may be innate or learned. While experimental evidence in the producer–scrounger game suggests that learned strategy choice may be common, a recent theoretical analysis demonstrated that learning by only some individuals prevents learning from evolving in others. Here, however, we model learning explicitly, and demonstrate that learning can easily evolve in the whole population. We used an agent-based evolutionary simulation of the producer–scrounger game to test the success of two general learning rules for strategy choice. We found that learning was eventually acquired by all individuals under a sufficient degree of environmental fluctuation, and when players were phenotypically asymmetric. In the absence of sufficient environmental change or phenotypic asymmetries, the correct target for learning seems to be confounded by game dynamics, and innate strategy choice is likely to be fixed in the population. The results demonstrate that under biologically plausible conditions, learning can easily evolve in the whole population and that phenotypic asymmetry is important for the evolution of learned strategy choice, especially in a stable or mildly changing environment. PMID:21937494

  3. The Relationship between Learning Style Preferences and Memory Strategy use in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirette, Diane Powers; Anderson, Michele A

    2016-07-01

    Deficits in working memory are pervasive, resistant to remediation and significantly impact a persons ability to perform activities of daily living. Internal strategies are effective for improving working memory. Learning style preferences may influence the use of various internal working memory strategies. This study compares the use of internal working memory strategies among four different learning style preferences; converger, diverger, assimilator and accommodator. A non-experimental group design was used to compare the use of internal working memory strategies and learning style preferences among 110 adults. There were some significant differences in the types of strategies used according to learning style preferences. Knowing the learning style preference of clients may help occupational therapists better tailor cognitive rehabilitation treatments to meet the client's needs.

  4. A Parameter Communication Optimization Strategy for Distributed Machine Learning in Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize the distributed characteristic of sensors, distributed machine learning has become the mainstream approach, but the different computing capability of sensors and network delays greatly influence the accuracy and the convergence rate of the machine learning model. Our paper describes a reasonable parameter communication optimization strategy to balance the training overhead and the communication overhead. We extend the fault tolerance of iterative-convergent machine learning algorithms and propose the Dynamic Finite Fault Tolerance (DFFT. Based on the DFFT, we implement a parameter communication optimization strategy for distributed machine learning, named Dynamic Synchronous Parallel Strategy (DSP, which uses the performance monitoring model to dynamically adjust the parameter synchronization strategy between worker nodes and the Parameter Server (PS. This strategy makes full use of the computing power of each sensor, ensures the accuracy of the machine learning model, and avoids the situation that the model training is disturbed by any tasks unrelated to the sensors.

  5. A Parameter Communication Optimization Strategy for Distributed Machine Learning in Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilin; Tu, Hangdi; Ren, Yongjian; Wan, Jian; Zhou, Li; Li, Mingwei; Wang, Jue; Yu, Lifeng; Zhao, Chang; Zhang, Lei

    2017-09-21

    In order to utilize the distributed characteristic of sensors, distributed machine learning has become the mainstream approach, but the different computing capability of sensors and network delays greatly influence the accuracy and the convergence rate of the machine learning model. Our paper describes a reasonable parameter communication optimization strategy to balance the training overhead and the communication overhead. We extend the fault tolerance of iterative-convergent machine learning algorithms and propose the Dynamic Finite Fault Tolerance (DFFT). Based on the DFFT, we implement a parameter communication optimization strategy for distributed machine learning, named Dynamic Synchronous Parallel Strategy (DSP), which uses the performance monitoring model to dynamically adjust the parameter synchronization strategy between worker nodes and the Parameter Server (PS). This strategy makes full use of the computing power of each sensor, ensures the accuracy of the machine learning model, and avoids the situation that the model training is disturbed by any tasks unrelated to the sensors.

  6. A Parameter Communication Optimization Strategy for Distributed Machine Learning in Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilin; Tu, Hangdi; Ren, Yongjian; Wan, Jian; Zhou, Li; Li, Mingwei; Wang, Jue; Yu, Lifeng; Zhao, Chang; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    In order to utilize the distributed characteristic of sensors, distributed machine learning has become the mainstream approach, but the different computing capability of sensors and network delays greatly influence the accuracy and the convergence rate of the machine learning model. Our paper describes a reasonable parameter communication optimization strategy to balance the training overhead and the communication overhead. We extend the fault tolerance of iterative-convergent machine learning algorithms and propose the Dynamic Finite Fault Tolerance (DFFT). Based on the DFFT, we implement a parameter communication optimization strategy for distributed machine learning, named Dynamic Synchronous Parallel Strategy (DSP), which uses the performance monitoring model to dynamically adjust the parameter synchronization strategy between worker nodes and the Parameter Server (PS). This strategy makes full use of the computing power of each sensor, ensures the accuracy of the machine learning model, and avoids the situation that the model training is disturbed by any tasks unrelated to the sensors. PMID:28934163

  7. Empirical Studies on English Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Mainland China over the Past Two Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxin Dai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wen and Wang (2004 reviewed the empirical studies over the past two decades (from 1984 to 2003 on learning strategies that Chinese EFL learners used. This article, following their methodological framework, reviews about 45 empirical studies on Chinese EFL learners’ English vocabulary learning strategies, conducted by Mainland Chinese scholars over the past two decades. The review shows that more than half of the Chinese scholars are interested in questionnaire investigation of EFL learners’ preferences for vocabulary learning. The reports of the questionnaire investigations indicate that most Chinese EFL learners prefer rote learning of vocabulary to learning vocabulary in context or through language use. The experimental studies suggest that strategies-based instruction results in the learners’ vocabulary achievement. Cognitive and metacognitive strategies are the two groups of strategies that Chinese researchers show particular interest in.

  8. The application of motor learning strategies within functionally based interventions for children with neuromotor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; Wishart, Laurie; Missiuna, Cheryl; Wright, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    To identify and describe the application of 3 motor learning strategies (verbal instructions, practice, and verbal feedback) within 4 intervention approaches (cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance, neuromotor task training, family-centered functional therapy, and activity-focused motor interventions). A scoping review of the literature was conducted. Two themes characterizing the application of motor learning strategies within the approaches are identified and described. Application of a motor learning strategy can be a defining component of the intervention or a means of enhancing generalization and transfer of learning beyond the intervention. Often, insufficient information limits full understanding of strategy application within the approach. A greater understanding of the application, and perceived nonapplication, of motor learning strategies within intervention approaches has important clinical and research implications.

  9. Saudi English Major Freshmen Students’ Vocabulary Learning Strategies: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim R. Alqarni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs employed by Saudi Freshmen students majoring in English as a foreign language (EFL. The participants are 81 Saudi male students in their first semester in the English Department and Translation in the College of Language and Translation at King Saud University. Data was collected using a questionnaire which was adapted from the study of Rabadi (2016 and was analyzed using the SPSS program. The overall results of this study show that participants use all of the different vocabulary learning strategies: Determination strategies, Memory strategies, Cognitive strategies, Metacognitive strategies, and Social strategies, with different degrees of frequency. By looking at the sub-categories of the strategies the results indicate that Metacognitive strategies (mean score: 1.98/4 are the most used and/or preferred strategies by all participants, followed by Social strategies (MS: 1.91, Determination strategies (MS: 1.62, Cognitive strategies (MS: 1.39 and Memory strategies (MS: 1.26 respectively. However, the overall mean score of (1.63 for the use of the strategies indicates that the participants of this study are low/poor users of vocabulary learning strategies in general.

  10. Methodological Strategies for Studying the Process of Learning, Memory and Visual Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Bikkar S.; Hunt, Dennis

    An attempt is made to discuss current models of information processing, learning, and development, thereby suggesting adequate methodological strategies for research in visual literacy. It is maintained that development is a cumulative process of learning, and that learning and memory are the result of new knowledge, sensations, etc. over a short…

  11. English Learning Strategies of Various Nations: A Study in Military Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    How successful learners learn English has been one of the primary interest of scientists and researchers in recent years. Therefore, this study aimed to determine what language learning strategies the military personnel from different nations used while learning English. 56 subjects from 14 different nations deployed in three different military…

  12. Developing Students' Listening Metacognitive Strategies Using Online Videotext Self-Dictation-Generation Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2014-01-01

    The study is based on the use of a flexible learning framework to help students improve information processes underlying strategy instruction in EFL listening. By exploiting the online videotext self-dictation-generation (video-SDG) learning activity implemented on the YouTube caption manager platform, the learning cycle was emphasized to promote…

  13. Theoretically Based Pedagogical Strategies Leading to Deep Learning in Asynchronous Online Gerontology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, Robin; Stover, Merrily

    2007-01-01

    Online learning has enjoyed increasing popularity in gerontology. This paper presents instructional strategies grounded in Fink's (2003) theory of significant learning designed for the completely asynchronous online gerontology classroom. It links these components with the development of mastery learning goals and provides specific guidelines for…

  14. Researching Mobile-Assisted Chinese-Character Learning Strategies among Adult Distance Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kan; Owen, Nathaniel; Bax, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    In the field of teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), most studies investigate Chinese character learning strategies in pen-and-paper study by campus-based students. With the increase in distance-learning, and expanding popularity of smartphones and tablets and widespread availability of mobile applications for language…

  15. The Relationship between Anxiety, Shyness, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim; Soleimani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Research has indicated that there is an association between the use and choice of learning strategies and different variables like learning contexts, learner characteristics, learning experiences, language proficiency, and cultural and educational backgrounds. To add to the thriving body of knowledge in this area, the present study, therefore, was…

  16. How Successful Learners Employ Learning Strategies in an EFL Setting in the Indonesian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyadi, Ag. Bambang; Sukirlan, Muhammad; Mahpul

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted to correlate the use of language learning strategies and language performance and the studies have contributed to different perspectives of teaching and learning a foreign language. Some studies have also revealed that the students learning a foreign language in Asian contexts have been proved to use different…

  17. Disciplinary and Gender Differences among Higher Education Students in Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Paivi; Nevgi, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how university students representing diverse disciplines and gender differ in their self-regulation in learning. The definition of self-regulated learning (SRL) in the present study is based on Pintrich's and Zimmerman's theories of SRL and comprises motivational and learning strategies. The sample consisted of 1248…

  18. Interaction between Gaming and Multistage Guiding Strategies on Students' Field Trip Mobile Learning Performance and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Liu, Guan-Zhi; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an integrated gaming and multistage guiding approach was proposed for conducting in-field mobile learning activities. A mobile learning system was developed based on the proposed approach. To investigate the interaction between the gaming and guiding strategies on students' learning performance and motivation, a 2 × 2 experiment was…

  19. Special Issues on Learning Strategies: Parallels and Contrasts between Australian and Chinese Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuzuo

    2017-01-01

    Learning strategies are crucial to student learning in higher education. In this paper, there are comparisons of student engagement, feedback mechanism and workload arrangements at some typical universities in Australia and China, which are followed by practical suggestions for active learning. First, an inclusive class would allow learners from…

  20. A Study of the Relationship between Cognitive Styles and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changju

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between cognitive styles and learning strategies of 184 second-year English majors from the Foreign Language School of a university in Wuhan. In this study, quantitative data is presented. Two self-reported inventories are employed. Learning Style Survey is used to examine the learning styles of the…

  1. An Examination of Strategy Implementation During Abstract Nonlinguistic Category Learning in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our purpose was to study strategy use during nonlinguistic category learning in aphasia. Method Twelve control participants without aphasia and 53 participants with aphasia (PWA) completed a computerized feedback-based category learning task consisting of training and testing phases. Accuracy rates of categorization in testing phases were calculated. To evaluate strategy use, strategy analyses were conducted over training and testing phases. Participant data were compared with model data that simulated complex multi-cue, single feature, and random pattern strategies. Learning success and strategy use were evaluated within the context of standardized cognitive–linguistic assessments. Results Categorization accuracy was higher among control participants than among PWA. The majority of control participants implemented suboptimal or optimal multi-cue and single-feature strategies by testing phases of the experiment. In contrast, a large subgroup of PWA implemented random patterns, or no strategy, during both training and testing phases of the experiment. Conclusions Person-to-person variability arises not only in category learning ability but also in the strategies implemented to complete category learning tasks. PWA less frequently developed effective strategies during category learning tasks than control participants. Certain PWA may have impairments of strategy development or feedback processing not captured by language and currently probed cognitive abilities. PMID:25908438

  2. An Examination of Strategy Implementation During Abstract Nonlinguistic Category Learning in Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-08-01

    Our purpose was to study strategy use during nonlinguistic category learning in aphasia. Twelve control participants without aphasia and 53 participants with aphasia (PWA) completed a computerized feedback-based category learning task consisting of training and testing phases. Accuracy rates of categorization in testing phases were calculated. To evaluate strategy use, strategy analyses were conducted over training and testing phases. Participant data were compared with model data that simulated complex multi-cue, single feature, and random pattern strategies. Learning success and strategy use were evaluated within the context of standardized cognitive-linguistic assessments. Categorization accuracy was higher among control participants than among PWA. The majority of control participants implemented suboptimal or optimal multi-cue and single-feature strategies by testing phases of the experiment. In contrast, a large subgroup of PWA implemented random patterns, or no strategy, during both training and testing phases of the experiment. Person-to-person variability arises not only in category learning ability but also in the strategies implemented to complete category learning tasks. PWA less frequently developed effective strategies during category learning tasks than control participants. Certain PWA may have impairments of strategy development or feedback processing not captured by language and currently probed cognitive abilities.

  3. STRATEGIES OF LEARNING SPEAKING SKILL BY INDONESIAN LEARNERS OF ENGLISH AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO SPEAKING PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUNAIDI MISTAR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the at- tempts to reveal: (1 the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2 the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners’ speaking proficiency. The data from 595 second year senior high school students from eleven schools in East Java, Indonesia were collected using a 70 item questionnaire of Oral Communication Learning Strategy (OCLS and a 10 item self-assessment of speaking proficiency. The statistical analysis revealed that gender provided significant effects on the intensity of use of six types of strategies of learning speaking skill – interactional-maintenance, self-evaluation, fluency-oriented, time gaining, compensation, and interpersonal strategies – with female learners reporting higher intensity of use. A further analysis found that four strategy types – interactional-maintenance, self-improvement, compensation, and memory strategies – greatly contribute to the speaking proficiency. These findings imply that strategies-based instruction, covering the four most influential strategies, needs to be integrated explicitly in the speaking class to help learners, particularly male learners, cope with problems in learning speaking skill.

  4. The Influence of Learning Strategies in the Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of a Procedural Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    positions, indicative of a primacy - recency effect . Thus, the per- formance curve across positions resembles the how-shaped curve associated with the...of research is being conducted on the effects of various learn- ing strategies on skill acquisition and retention. ARI, in cooperation with the Defense...skills. This report discusses the learning, retention, and transfer effectiveness of several different learning strategies for a procedural task involving

  5. The relationship between language learning strategies and thinking styles of Iranian EFL learners

    OpenAIRE

    Khodae Balestane, Mahmood; Hashemnezhad, Hossein; Javidi, Shahrooz

    2013-01-01

    Educators can design better subject materials and distinguish students’ characteristics if they comprehend learners thinking and learning styles. Therefore, this study aimed at substantiating the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ thinking styles and their language learning strategies. To this end, measures of the language learning strategies of 251 non-randomly chosen Iranian EFL learners (169 female and 82 male) studying English at Urmia and Tabriz Islamic Azad universities were obt...

  6. Surface strategies for control of neuronal cell adhesion: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, P.; Parker, T.; Gadegaard, N.; Alexander, M. R.

    2010-06-01

    Material engineering methods have been used for many years to develop biomedical devices for use within the body to augment, repair or replace damaged tissues ranging from contact lenses to heart valves. Here we review the findings gathered from the wide and varied surface analytical approaches applied to study the interaction between biology and man-made materials. The key material characteristics identified to be important for biological recognition are surface chemistry, topography and compliance. Model surfaces with controlled chemistry and topography have provided insight into biological response to various types of topographical features over a wide range of length scales from nano to micrometres, along with 3D matrices that have been used as scaffolds to support cells for tissue formation. The cellular response to surfaces with localised areas of patterned chemistry and to those presenting gradually changing chemistry are discussed. Where previous reviews have been structured around specific classes of surface modification, e.g. self-assembly, or have broadly examined the response of various cells to numerous surfaces, we aim in this article to focus in particular on the tissues involved in the nervous system whilst providing a broad overview of key issues from the field of cell and protein surface interactions with surfaces. The goal of repair and treatment of diseases related to the central and peripheral nervous systems rely on understanding the local interfacial environment and controlling responses at the cellular level. The role of the protein layer deposited from serum containing media onto man-made surfaces is discussed. We highlight the particular problems associated with the repair of the nervous system, and review how neuronal attachment and axon guidance can be accomplished using various surface cues when cultured with single and multiple cell types. We include a brief glossary of techniques discussed in the body of this article aimed at the

  7. UK higher education institutions’ technology-enhanced learning strategies from the perspective of disruptive innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Flavin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The publication of institutional strategies for learning, teaching and assessment in UK higher education is practically ubiquitous. Strategies for technology-enhanced learning are also widespread. This article examines 44 publically available UK university strategies for technology-enhanced learning, aiming to assess the extent to which institutional strategies engage with and accommodate innovation in technology-enhanced learning. The article uses qualitative content analysis as its method, and uses the categories of disruptive innovation, sustaining innovation and efficiency innovation to evaluate individual institutional strategies. The article argues that sustaining innovation and efficiency innovation are more commonplace in the strategies than disruptive innovation, a position which is misaligned with the technology practices of students and lecturers.

  8. Assessment of learning and study strategies of university students in Qatar using an Arabic translation of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Nasser, Ramzi

    2014-06-01

    413 (119 men, 294 women) undergraduate university students in Qatar completed an Arabic version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) measuring Anxiety, Attitude, Concentration, Information Processing, Motivation, Self-testing, Selecting Main Ideas, Study Aids, Time Management, and Test Strategies. The students' learning and study strategies scores were similar to those reported in the literature. Factor analysis indicated the same general factors as in the original study. Internal consistency estimates ranged from .62 to .88. Nine of the 10 scales (i.e., all with the exception of the Study Aids) significantly correlated with students' GPAs. Scores obtained from these scales provide valid assessments of Qatar University students' use of learning and study strategies related to skill, will, and self-regulation components of strategic learning and also academic achievement. There also were statistically significant differences between higher and lower achieving students in their learning and study strategies. This study also explored the use of the LASSI as a predictive measure of academic achievement. Anxiety and test strategies were significant predictors of academic achievement as measured by students' GPA.

  9. Lessons learned from surface wipe sampling for lead in three workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucham, Catherine; Ceballos, Diana; King, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    Surface wipe sampling in the occupational environment is a technique widely used by industrial hygienists. Although several organizations have promulgated standards for sampling lead and other metals, uncertainty still exists when trying to determine an appropriate wipe sampling strategy and how to interpret sampling results. Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluation Program have used surface wipe sampling as part of their exposure assessment sampling strategies in a wide range of workplaces. This article discusses wipe sampling for measuring lead on surfaces in three facilities: (1) a battery recycling facility; (2) a firing range and gun store; and (3) an electronic scrap recycling facility. We summarize our findings from the facilities and what we learned by integrating wipe sampling into our sampling plan. Wiping sampling demonstrated lead in non-production surfaces in all three workplaces and that the potential that employees were taking lead home to their families existed. We also found that the presence of metals such as tin can interfere with the colorimetric results. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of colorimetric analysis of surface wipe samples and the challenges we faced when interpreting wipe sampling results.

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategy Preferences and Vocabulary Size of Pre-service English Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Şener, Sabriye

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the vocabulary learning strategy preferences and vocabulary size of pre-service English teachers at a state university in Turkey. It also investigated the relationship between their strategy use and vocabulary size. To this end, 304 pre-service teachers constituted the working group of the research. In this study, a quantitative research design was employed. For data collection, an adapted version of the Vocabulary Learning Strategy Inventory and Vocabulary Levels T...

  11. A Study on Motivation and Strategy Use of Bangladeshi University Students to Learn Spoken English

    OpenAIRE

    Mst. Moriam, Quadir

    2008-01-01

    This study discusses motivation and strategy use of university students to learn spoken English in Bangladesh. A group of 355 (187 males and 168 females) university students participated in this investigation. To measure learners' degree of motivation a modified version of questionnaire used by Schmidt et al. (1996) was administered. Participants reported their strategy use on a modified version of SILL, the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning, version 7.0 (Oxford, 1990). In order to fin...

  12. Teaching and learning strategies for pedagogical training of non-educational university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena, Alodio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a system of teaching and learning strategies for pedagogical training of non-educational students. The modeling of teaching and learning strategies presented is the result of a research project carried out at the University of Camagüey; its results are being employed successfully. A full description of research methods, rationale, and each of the suggested strategies is provided.

  13. Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen HARDIN

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning Karen HARDIN Cameron University Lawton, OK, USA PROBLEM One of the hot topics in education in the past 10 years has been the shift of the role of the educator. Whereas, he has traditionally been the owner and deliverer of the knowledge (Sage on the stage, now his role is shifting to a guide and facilitator (guide by the side. The purpose is to give the students ownership in their own learning process. As technology becomes more sophisticated, automation is replacing students’ problem solving skills, critical thinking and sometimes patience. On one of my evaluations in a 1999 online course, a student criticized that, “she’s not doing the teaching, I’m doing the learning.” Of course in my desire to encourage active learning, I took the response as a compliment, but the student meant it as a criticism. I began pondering the reluctance of students to take control of the learning process. I’ve noticed this lack of problem solving, critical thinking and patience with young adults in the workplace. For example, I often visit Sam’s, a warehouse store owned by Wal-Mart. When I check out, I pay with a check. The computerized register will print the check for me, so I allow the cashier to do that. I often ask him or her to add $15 to the total to give me cash back. It’s amazing how long it takes these young adults to add $15 to the total because of their reliance on computers. In another situation, when I was in an outlet shoe store in Texas, I purchased a pair of sandals. After I checked out, I noticed a sign that promoted, “buy one, get a second for one cent.” Of course, I wanted to take advantage of this opportunity, so I told the cashier that I wanted to find another pair of shoes. She replied, “It’s too late, your transaction is complete. I wouldn’t know what to do.” I said, “It’s simple, I owe you one cent.” She said, “I don’t know how to make the computer fix it

  14. Strategy to prevent surface deflections for automotive sheet metal parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinschenk, A.; Volk, W.

    2017-09-01

    Surface deflections are undesirable in automotive outer panels because they disturb their visual appearance. As a consequence, the geometry of the deep drawing tool is manually adjusted during tryout until the produced parts do not display any surface deflections. The aim of this paper is to reduce this time-consuming and cost-intensive tryout by slightly changing the geometry of the tool in an early state of the product development process to lower the risk of surface deflections. Therefore, this paper shows the influence of geometrical parameters of the deep drawing tool on the occurrence of surface deflections. A multiple curved outer panel with a door handle depression is chosen for the investigation. Typically, so-called “teddy bear ears” occur around the depression. The sheet metal material AA6016 with a sheet thickness of 1.0 mm is used. Numerical simulations of the draw operation and springback are performed in AutoForm. An analysis of the curvature before and after springback is used to detect surface deflections. The influence of the stresses and curvatures on the appearance of surface deflections is analyzed. For the experimental validation, stoning is used to detect surface deflections on a physical part. A very good agreement between the numerical and experimental results was obtained. The results show that the existence of surface deflections strongly depends on the initial curvature of the part and the appearance depends on the distribution of minor stresses. It is possible to reduce the risk of surface deflections during the design phase by changing the geometry.

  15. The relationships between trait anxiety, place recognition memory, and learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2011-01-20

    Rodents learn to navigate mazes using various strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. The type of strategy used when learning to navigate a spatial environment is moderated by a number of factors including emotional states. Heightened anxiety states, induced by exposure to stressors or administration of anxiogenic agents, have been found to bias male rats toward the use of a striatum-based stimulus-response strategy rather than a hippocampus-based place strategy. However, no study has yet examined the relationship between natural anxiety levels, or trait anxiety, and the type of learning strategy used by rats on a dual-solution task. In the current experiment, levels of inherent anxiety were measured in an open field and compared to performance on two separate cognitive tasks, a Y-maze task that assessed place recognition memory, and a visible platform water maze task that assessed learning strategy. Results indicated that place recognition memory on the Y-maze correlated with the use of place learning strategy on the water maze. Furthermore, lower levels of trait anxiety correlated positively with better place recognition memory and with the preferred use of place learning strategy. Therefore, competency in place memory and bias in place strategy are linked to the levels of inherent anxiety in male rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Supporting Self-Regulated Learning for College Students with Asperger Syndrome: Exploring the "Strategies for College Learning" Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Bryan M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, I piloted the feasibility, effects, and perceived acceptability of a peer mentoring intervention targeting academic achievement and self-regulated learning (SRL) for three college students with Asperger syndrome. The approach, dubbed Strategies for College Learning (SCL), features individualized assessment of academic performance in…

  17. Facilitating Effective Digital Game-Based Learning Behaviors and Learning Performances of Students Based on a Collaborative Knowledge Construction Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Han-Yu; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have recognized the potential of educational computer games in improving students' learning engagement and outcomes; however, facilitating effective learning behaviors during the gaming process remains an important and challenging issue. In this paper, a collaborative knowledge construction strategy was incorporated into an educational…

  18. Impacts of the Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy on English Learners' Reading Comprehension, Strategy Use, and Active Learning Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu-Fang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether an English reading course integrated with the problem-based learning approach could foster foreign language learners' reading comprehension ability, strategy use, and their active learning attitudes. The pedagogy was featured with the small group scaffolding. Two intact English classes in a Taiwanese university were…

  19. Reconceptualizing Strategic Learning in the Face of Self-Regulation: Throwing Language Learning Strategies out with the Bathwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heath

    2012-01-01

    This forum article examines the conceptualization of strategic learning over the past 30 years, focusing on recent conceptualizations that shift towards the notion of self-regulation. In recent years, scholars have argued that language learning strategies are too general, undefined, and incoherent and the questionnaires designed to measure…

  20. Exploring Differences between Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of High and Low Achievers in Open Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduld, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Open distance students differ in their preparedness for higher education studies. Students who are less self-regulated risk failure and drop out in the challenging milieu of open distance learning. In this study, the differences between the application of self-regulated learning strategies by low and high achievers were explored. A multi-method…