Sample records for surface learning approaches

  1. Learning in Science: A Comparison of Deep and Surface Approaches. (United States)

    Chin, Christine; Brown, David E.


    Explores the differences between deep and surface approaches to learning science. Findings indicate that the deep-surface learning differences fall into five categories: (1) generative thinking; (2) nature of explanations; (3) asking questions; (4) metacognitive activity; and (5) approach to tasks. Suggests that teachers can encourage a deep…

  2. Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures. (United States)

    Rozgonjuk, Dmitri; Saal, Kristiina; Täht, Karin


    Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that both PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures are negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning (defined as learning for understanding) and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning (defined as superficial learning). The study participants were 415 Estonian university students aged 19-46 years (78.8% females; age M = 23.37, SD = 4.19); the effective sample comprised 405 participants aged 19-46 years (79.0% females; age M = 23.33, SD = 4.21). In addition to basic socio-demographics, participants were asked about the frequency of their social media use in lectures, and they filled out the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale and the Estonian Revised Study Process Questionnaire. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures were negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning. Mediation analysis showed that social media use in lectures completely mediates the relationship between PSU and approaches to learning. These results indicate that the frequency of social media use in lectures might explain the relationships between poorer academic outcomes and PSU.

  3. Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Rozgonjuk


    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that both PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures are negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning (defined as learning for understanding and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning (defined as superficial learning. The study participants were 415 Estonian university students aged 19–46 years (78.8% females; age M = 23.37, SD = 4.19; the effective sample comprised 405 participants aged 19–46 years (79.0% females; age M = 23.33, SD = 4.21. In addition to basic socio-demographics, participants were asked about the frequency of their social media use in lectures, and they filled out the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale and the Estonian Revised Study Process Questionnaire. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures were negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning. Mediation analysis showed that social media use in lectures completely mediates the relationship between PSU and approaches to learning. These results indicate that the frequency of social media use in lectures might explain the relationships between poorer academic outcomes and PSU.

  4. Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures † (United States)

    Rozgonjuk, Dmitri; Saal, Kristiina


    Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that both PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures are negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning (defined as learning for understanding) and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning (defined as superficial learning). The study participants were 415 Estonian university students aged 19–46 years (78.8% females; age M = 23.37, SD = 4.19); the effective sample comprised 405 participants aged 19–46 years (79.0% females; age M = 23.33, SD = 4.21). In addition to basic socio-demographics, participants were asked about the frequency of their social media use in lectures, and they filled out the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale and the Estonian Revised Study Process Questionnaire. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures were negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning. Mediation analysis showed that social media use in lectures completely mediates the relationship between PSU and approaches to learning. These results indicate that the frequency of social media use in lectures might explain the relationships between poorer academic outcomes and PSU. PMID:29316697

  5. Focusing on first year assessment: Surface or deep approaches to learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharn Donnison


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the assessment and learning approaches that some first year students employ to assist them in their transition into their first year of study and extends our previous work on first year student engagement and timely academic support (Penn-Edwards & Donnison, 2011. It is situated within the First Year transition and student engagement literature and specifically speaks to concepts of learning within that body of literature. In this paper we argue that while students are in the transitional period of their studies, the use of assessment as a motivator for learning (surface approach is valid first year pedagogy and forms an initial learning stage in the student’s progress towards being lifelong learners. 

  6. Are Chinese University Students More Likely to Exhibit a Surface Approach to Learning than Other International Students in Finland? (United States)

    Sakurai, Yusuke; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari


    This article is based on a study which investigated whether Chinese international students at a university in Finland are more likely to rely on a Surface approach to learning and dismiss a Deep approach than are other international students in the same university educational context. In responding to a survey, students' scores with respect to the…

  7. Do Students Develop towards More Deep Approaches to Learning during Studies? A Systematic Review on the Development of Students' Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Asikainen, Henna; Gijbels, David


    The focus of the present paper is on the contribution of the research in the student approaches to learning tradition. Several studies in this field have started from the assumption that students' approaches to learning develop towards more deep approaches to learning in higher education. This paper reports on a systematic review of longitudinal…

  8. A Generic Deep-Learning-Based Approach for Automated Surface Inspection. (United States)

    Ren, Ruoxu; Hung, Terence; Tan, Kay Chen


    Automated surface inspection (ASI) is a challenging task in industry, as collecting training dataset is usually costly and related methods are highly dataset-dependent. In this paper, a generic approach that requires small training data for ASI is proposed. First, this approach builds classifier on the features of image patches, where the features are transferred from a pretrained deep learning network. Next, pixel-wise prediction is obtained by convolving the trained classifier over input image. An experiment on three public and one industrial data set is carried out. The experiment involves two tasks: 1) image classification and 2) defect segmentation. The results of proposed algorithm are compared against several best benchmarks in literature. In the classification tasks, the proposed method improves accuracy by 0.66%-25.50%. In the segmentation tasks, the proposed method reduces error escape rates by 6.00%-19.00% in three defect types and improves accuracies by 2.29%-9.86% in all seven defect types. In addition, the proposed method achieves 0.0% error escape rate in the segmentation task of industrial data.

  9. Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures


    Dmitri Rozgonjuk; Kristiina Saal; Karin Täht


    Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that ...

  10. Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures †


    Rozgonjuk, Dmitri; Saal, Kristiina; Täht, Karin


    Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that ...

  11. Approaches toward learning in physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Keiller


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the approaches toward learning of undergraduate Physiotherapy students in a PBl module to enhance facilitation of learning at the Stellenbosch University, Division of Physiotherapy in South Africa. This quantitative, descriptive study utilized the revised Two-factor Study Process Questionnaire (r-SPQ-2f to evaluate the study cohorts’ approaches toward learning in the module. results of the data instruments were analysed statistically and discussed in a descriptive manner. There were a statistically significant greater number of students who adopted a deep approach toward learning at the commencement of the academic year. Students showed a trend toward an increase in their intrinsic interest in the learning material as the module progressed. Students in the Applied Physiotherapy module (ATP started to shift their focus from a surface learning approach to a deep learning approach. further research is needed to determine the long-term changes in approach toward learning and the possible determinants of these changes. This can be done in conjunction with the implementation of quality assurance mechanisms for learning material and earlier preparation of students for the change in the learning environment.

  12. Study strategies and approaches to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    showed a weak correlation between the student’s main learning approach as defined by the ratio of the deep approach score to the surface approach score and the student’s study intensity as identified by the ratio of non-scheduled independent activities to scheduled teacher-controlled activities......In this study students’ study strategies have been compared to their approaches to learning. The time students spend on different study activities has been investigated at the Technical University of Denmark, and as a pilot project a few students also filled in a reduced version of Bigg's Study...... Process Questionnaire to identify their approach to learning. It was hypothesised that the students’ learning approach would depend more on the quality of the study work than on the quantity; that an active and reflective study strategy was required to obtain deep conceptual understanding. The result...

  13. The surface learned from nature (United States)

    Lim, H.; Kim, W. D.


    In this work, I would like to introduce the emerging surface of nature. The surface in nature, has the multi and optimized function with well organized structure. There are so many examples that we learn and apply to technology. First example is self-cleaning surface. Some plants (such as lotus leaf, taro leaf) and the wings of many large-winged insects (such as moth, butterfly, dragonfly) remain their surface clean in the very dirty environment. This self cleaning effect is accomplished by the superhydrophobic surfaces which exhibit the water contact angle of more than 150° with low sliding angle. Generally, the superhydrophobic surface is made up the two factors. One is the surface composition having the low surface tension energy. The other is the surface morphology of hierarchical structure of micro and nano size. Because almost nature surface have the hierarchical structures range from macro to nano size, their topography strength their function to adjust the life in nature environment. The other example is the surface to use for drag reduction. The skin friction drag causes eruptions of air or water resulting in greater drag as the speed is increased. This drag requires more energy to overcome. The shark skin having the fine sharp-edged grooves about 0.1 mm wide known riblet reduces in skin friction drag by being far away the vortex. Among a lot of fuctional surface, the most exciting surface the back of stenocara a kind of desert beetles. Stenocara use the micrometre-sized patterns of hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions on their backs to capture water from fog. This fog-collecting structure improves the water collection of fog-capture film, condenser, engine, and future building. Here, the efforts to realize these emerging functional surfaces in nature on technology are reported with the fabrication method and their properties, especially for the control of surface wettability.

  14. Learning Approach and Learning: Exploring a New Technological Learning System (United States)

    Aflalo, Ester; Gabay, Eyal


    This study furthers the understanding of the connections between learning approaches and learning. The research population embraced 44 males from the Jewish ultraorthodox community, who abide by distinct methods of study. One group follows the very didactic, linear and structured approach of a methodical and gradual order, while the second group…

  15. A 3-D Approach for Teaching and Learning about Surface Water Systems through Computational Thinking, Data Visualization and Physical Models (United States)

    Caplan, B.; Morrison, A.; Moore, J. C.; Berkowitz, A. R.


    Understanding water is central to understanding environmental challenges. Scientists use `big data' and computational models to develop knowledge about the structure and function of complex systems, and to make predictions about changes in climate, weather, hydrology, and ecology. Large environmental systems-related data sets and simulation models are difficult for high school teachers and students to access and make sense of. Comp Hydro, a collaboration across four states and multiple school districts, integrates computational thinking and data-related science practices into water systems instruction to enhance development of scientific model-based reasoning, through curriculum, assessment and teacher professional development. Comp Hydro addresses the need for 1) teaching materials for using data and physical models of hydrological phenomena, 2) building teachers' and students' comfort or familiarity with data analysis and modeling, and 3) infusing the computational knowledge and practices necessary to model and visualize hydrologic processes into instruction. Comp Hydro teams in Baltimore, MD and Fort Collins, CO are integrating teaching about surface water systems into high school courses focusing on flooding (MD) and surface water reservoirs (CO). This interactive session will highlight the successes and challenges of our physical and simulation models in helping teachers and students develop proficiency with computational thinking about surface water. We also will share insights from comparing teacher-led vs. project-led development of curriculum and our simulations.

  16. Computational approach to Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Christian


    This volume offers a well-structured overview of existent computational approaches to Riemann surfaces and those currently in development. The authors of the contributions represent the groups providing publically available numerical codes in this field. Thus this volume illustrates which software tools are available and how they can be used in practice. In addition examples for solutions to partial differential equations and in surface theory are presented. The intended audience of this book is twofold. It can be used as a textbook for a graduate course in numerics of Riemann surfaces, in which case the standard undergraduate background, i.e., calculus and linear algebra, is required. In particular, no knowledge of the theory of Riemann surfaces is expected; the necessary background in this theory is contained in the Introduction chapter. At the same time, this book is also intended for specialists in geometry and mathematical physics applying the theory of Riemann surfaces in their research. It is the first...

  17. an action learning approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data analysis revealed that the collaborative learning experience ignited feelings of empowerment, increased motivation to collaborate with the Circuit Teams towards whole-school development, and generally assisted the School Management Teams' resolve to improve the management of their respective schools.

  18. Learning approaches to the study of auditing followed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5Learning approaches in accounting, distinguishing between deep, surface and strategic approaches, have been widely researched. This study provides a South African perspective by investigating the learning approaches to the study of auditing of prospective chartered accountants. Demographic impact variables ...

  19. Abordagem profunda e abordagem superficial à aprendizagem: diferentes perspectivas do rendimento escolar Deep and surface approach to learning: different perspectives about academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes


    Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga a relação entre a abordagem superficial e a abordagem profunda à aprendizagem na explicação do rendimento escolar. Algumas questões são delineadas buscando verificar o papel de cada uma das abordagens na proficiência escolar em séries distintas. Foram analisados dados de 684 estudantes da sexta série do ensino fundamental à terceira série do ensino médio de uma escola particular de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Foi delineado um modelo para comparação das séries escolares, através da modelagem por equação estrutural. O modelo desenhado apresentou bom grau de ajuste (c²=427,12; gl=182; CFI=0,95; RMSEA=0,04 para a amostra completa e para cada série escolar. Os resultados mostram que há uma participação distinta da abordagem superficial e da abordagem profunda no desempenho escolar nas diferentes séries. São discutidas implicações dos resultados para a teoria das abordagens.This study investigates the relationship between deep and surface approach to learning in explaining academic achievement. Some questions are outlined aiming to verify the role of each approach in student's proficiency in different grades. Data from 684 students from junior high school (6th year to high school (12th year of a private school in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, were analyzed. A model was designed to compare the grades through structural equation modeling. The designed model showed a good fit (c² = 427.12; df = 182; CFI = .95, RMSEA = .04 for the full sample and for each grade. The results show that there is a distinct contribution of both approaches in academic achievement in the different grades. Further implications to the learning approach theory will be discussed.

  20. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature. (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H J M; Loyens, Sofie M M; Marcq, Hélène; Gijbels, David


    In problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested and try to understand what is being studied. This review investigates: (1) the effects of PBL on students' deep and surface approaches to learning, (2) whether and why these effects do differ across (a) the context of the learning environment (single vs. curriculum wide implementation), and (b) study quality. Studies were searched dealing with PBL and students' approaches to learning. Twenty-one studies were included. The results indicate that PBL does enhance deep learning with a small positive average effect size of .11 and a positive effect in eleven of the 21 studies. Four studies show a decrease in deep learning and six studies show no effect. PBL does not seem to have an effect on surface learning as indicated by a very small average effect size (.08) and eleven studies showing no increase in the surface approach. Six studies demonstrate a decrease and four an increase in surface learning. It is concluded that PBL does seem to enhance deep learning and has little effect on surface learning, although more longitudinal research using high quality measurement instruments is needed to support this conclusion with stronger evidence. Differences cannot be explained by the study quality but a curriculum wide implementation of PBL has a more positive impact on the deep approach (effect size .18) compared to an implementation within a single course (effect size of -.05). PBL is assumed to enhance active learning and students' intrinsic motivation, which enhances deep learning. A high perceived workload and assessment that is perceived as not rewarding deep learning are assumed to enhance surface learning.

  1. Measuring students' approaches to learning in different clinical rotations. (United States)

    Emilia, Ova; Bloomfield, Leah; Rotem, Arie


    Many studies have explored approaches to learning in medical school, mostly in the classroom setting. In the clinical setting, students face different conditions that may affect their learning. Understanding students' approaches to learning is important to improve learning in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) as an instrument for measuring clinical learning in medical education and also to show whether learning approaches vary between rotations. All students involved in this survey were undergraduates in their clinical phase. The SPQ was adapted to the clinical setting and was distributed in the last week of the clerkship rotation. A longitudinal study was also conducted to explore changes in learning approaches. Two hundred and nine students participated in this study (response rate 82.0%). The SPQ findings supported a two-factor solution involving deep and surface approaches. These two factors accounted for 45.1% and 22.5%, respectively, of the variance. The relationships between the two scales and their subscales showed the internal consistency and factorial validity of the SPQ to be comparable with previous studies. The clinical students in this study had higher scores for deep learning. The small longitudinal study showed small changes of approaches to learning with different rotation placement but not statistically significant. The SPQ was found to be a valid instrument for measuring approaches to learning among clinical students. More students used a deep approach than a surface approach. Changes of approach not clearly occurred with different clinical rotations.

  2. The wonder approach to learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eL'Ecuyer


    Full Text Available Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children’s learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children’s sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful.On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder, no end or meaning (no beauty and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment, the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole.

  3. Approaching work and learning indirectly


    Macintyre, Ronald; Thomson, Joan


    This paper approaches work and learning indirectly. It is part of a mixed method longitudinal study that looks at the articulation from Higher National (HN) to part time Higher Education (HE). Since 2003 the Open University in Scotland (OU) has been collecting quantitative and qualitative data on students who have HN qualifications. This paper looks at the experiences of those students and the central place of work in those journeys. \\ud \\ud The paper beings with a statistical overview. HN St...

  4. Blended Learning: An Innovative Approach (United States)

    Lalima; Dangwal, Kiran Lata


    Blended learning is an innovative concept that embraces the advantages of both traditional teaching in the classroom and ICT supported learning including both offline learning and online learning. It has scope for collaborative learning; constructive learning and computer assisted learning (CAI). Blended learning needs rigorous efforts, right…

  5. Learners for life : student approaches to learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artelt, Cordula; Baumert, Jürgen; Julius-McElvany, Nele; Peschar, Jules


    What are students like as learners as they approach the end of compulsory education? The answer matters greatly, not only because those with stronger approaches to learning get better results at school but also because young adults able to set learning goals and manage their own learning are much

  6. Measuring students’ approaches to learning in different clinical rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ova


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have explored approaches to learning in medical school, mostly in the classroom setting. In the clinical setting, students face different conditions that may affect their learning. Understanding students’ approaches to learning is important to improve learning in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ as an instrument for measuring clinical learning in medical education and also to show whether learning approaches vary between rotations. Methods All students involved in this survey were undergraduates in their clinical phase. The SPQ was adapted to the clinical setting and was distributed in the last week of the clerkship rotation. A longitudinal study was also conducted to explore changes in learning approaches. Results Two hundred and nine students participated in this study (response rate 82.0%. The SPQ findings supported a two-factor solution involving deep and surface approaches. These two factors accounted for 45.1% and 22.5%, respectively, of the variance. The relationships between the two scales and their subscales showed the internal consistency and factorial validity of the SPQ to be comparable with previous studies. The clinical students in this study had higher scores for deep learning. The small longitudinal study showed small changes of approaches to learning with different rotation placement but not statistically significant. Conclusions The SPQ was found to be a valid instrument for measuring approaches to learning among clinical students. More students used a deep approach than a surface approach. Changes of approach not clearly occurred with different clinical rotations.

  7. Machine learning an artificial intelligence approach

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, R; Bradshaw, Gary; Carbonell, Jaime Guillermo; Mitchell, Tom Michael; Michalski, Ryszard Spencer


    Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach contains tutorial overviews and research papers representative of trends in the area of machine learning as viewed from an artificial intelligence perspective. The book is organized into six parts. Part I provides an overview of machine learning and explains why machines should learn. Part II covers important issues affecting the design of learning programs-particularly programs that learn from examples. It also describes inductive learning systems. Part III deals with learning by analogy, by experimentation, and from experience. Parts IV a

  8. Design and Evaluation of Two Blended Learning Approaches: Lessons Learned (United States)

    Cheung, Wing Sum; Hew, Khe Foon


    In this paper, we share two blended learning approaches used at the National Institute of Education in Singapore. We have been using these two approaches in the last twelve years in many courses ranging from the diploma to graduate programs. For the first blended learning approach, we integrated one asynchronous communication tool with face to…

  9. Influence of open- and closed-book tests on medical students' learning approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke


    CONTEXT Two learning approaches are consistently distinguished in the literature: deep and surface learning. The deep learning approach is considered preferable. Open-book tests are expected to stimulate deep learning and to offer a possible way of handling the substantial growth in medical

  10. Media use, learning approaches and achievement


    Stock, Rosemary; Law, Anna


    Media multitasking has been presented as being detrimental to students’ academic performance. Evidence for this is mixed, however, and may be ignoring the fact that students with specific learning approaches may be choosing to multitask more than others. As such, learning approach may be the real predictor of academic success. This current study uses self-reported data on media multitasking and preferred learning approaches to investigate whether these behaviours and preferences are related t...

  11. The High Scope Approach To Early Learning


    French, Geraldine


    Learning Objectives: After studying this chapter the reader should be able to: • Describe the historical origins, the longitudinal research, and the theoretical underpinnings of the HighScope approach. • Identify the teaching strategies adopted by HighScope educators. • Appreciate the curriculum content. • Understand the HighScope approach to the assessment of children’s learning. • Consider some criticisms of the HighScope research and approach to early learning. This ...

  12. Analysis of the Geometrical Evolution in On-the-Fly Surface-Hopping Nonadiabatic Dynamics with Machine Learning Dimensionality Reduction Approaches: Classical Multidimensional Scaling and Isometric Feature Mapping. (United States)

    Li, Xusong; Xie, Yu; Hu, Deping; Lan, Zhenggang


    On-the-fly trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics simulation has become an important approach to study ultrafast photochemical and photophysical processes in recent years. Because a large number of trajectories are generated from the dynamics simulation of polyatomic molecular systems with many degrees of freedom, the analysis of simulation results often suffers from the large amount of high-dimensional data. It is very challenging but meaningful to find dominating active coordinates from very complicated molecular motions. Dimensionality reduction techniques provide ideal tools to realize this purpose. We apply two dimensionality reduction approaches (classical multidimensional scaling and isometric feature mapping) to analyze the results of the on-the-fly surface-hopping nonadiabatic dynamics simulation. Two representative model systems, CH 2 NH 2 + and the phytochromobilin chromophore model, are chosen to examine the performance of these dimensionality reduction approaches. The results show that these approaches are very promising, because they can extract the major molecular motion from complicated time-dependent molecular evolution without preknown knowledge.

  13. Do learning approaches of medical students affect their satisfaction with problem-based learning? (United States)

    Gurpinar, Erol; Kulac, Esin; Tetik, Cihat; Akdogan, Ilgaz; Mamakli, Sumer


    The aim of this research was to determine the satisfaction of medical students with problem-based learning (PBL) and their approaches to learning to investigate the effect of learning approaches on their levels of satisfaction. The study group was composed of medical students from three different universities, which apply PBL at different levels in their curricula. The revised two-factor study process survey was applied to the study group to determine their approaches to learning as "deep" or "surface" learning. In addition, another survey of 20 questions was used to determine satisfaction levels of students with PBL and other variables. Of the study group, 64.6% were found to adopt a deep approach to learning, and we confirmed that these students were reasonably more satisfied with PBL.

  14. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions (United States)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; hide


    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  15. Evoked prior learning experience and approach to learning as predictors of academic achievement. (United States)

    Trigwell, Keith; Ashwin, Paul; Millan, Elena S


    In separate studies and research from different perspectives, five factors are found to be among those related to higher quality outcomes of student learning (academic achievement). Those factors are higher self-efficacy, deeper approaches to learning, higher quality teaching, students' perceptions that their workload is appropriate, and greater learning motivation. University learning improvement strategies have been built on these research results. To investigate how students' evoked prior experience, perceptions of their learning environment, and their approaches to learning collectively contribute to academic achievement. This is the first study to investigate motivation and self-efficacy in the same educational context as conceptions of learning, approaches to learning and perceptions of the learning environment. Undergraduate students (773) from the full range of disciplines were part of a group of over 2,300 students who volunteered to complete a survey of their learning experience. On completing their degrees 6 and 18 months later, their academic achievement was matched with their learning experience survey data. A 77-item questionnaire was used to gather students' self-report of their evoked prior experience (self-efficacy, learning motivation, and conceptions of learning), perceptions of learning context (teaching quality and appropriate workload), and approaches to learning (deep and surface). Academic achievement was measured using the English honours degree classification system. Analyses were conducted using correlational and multi-variable (structural equation modelling) methods. The results from the correlation methods confirmed those found in numerous earlier studies. The results from the multi-variable analyses indicated that surface approach to learning was the strongest predictor of academic achievement, with self-efficacy and motivation also found to be directly related. In contrast to the correlation results, a deep approach to learning was

  16. Machine learning approaches in medical image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen


    Machine learning approaches are increasingly successful in image-based diagnosis, disease prognosis, and risk assessment. This paper highlights new research directions and discusses three main challenges related to machine learning in medical imaging: coping with variation in imaging protocols......, learning from weak labels, and interpretation and evaluation of results....

  17. E-Learning Approach in Teacher Training (United States)

    Yucel, Seda A.


    There has been an increasing interest in e-learning in teacher training at universities during the last ten years. With the developing technology, educational methods have differed as well as many other processes. Firstly, a definition on e-learning as a new approach should be given. E-learning could shortly be defined as a web-based educational…

  18. Project Management Approaches for Online Learning Design (United States)

    Eby, Gulsun; Yuzer, T. Volkan


    Developments in online learning and its design are areas that continue to grow in order to enhance students' learning environments and experiences. However, in the implementation of new technologies, the importance of properly and fairly overseeing these courses is often undervalued. "Project Management Approaches for Online Learning Design"…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A. Gaevoy


    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe how to increase the learning management systems effi ciency by using an adaptive approach. In our work we try and summarize the existing systems; the adaptability absence problem is discovered, programming and architectural adaptive learning management system designing approach is offered. 

  20. Machine Learning Approaches for Music Information Retrieval


    Li, Tao; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Shao, Bo; DingdingWang,


    We discussed the following machine learning approaches used in music information retrieval: (1) multi-class classification methods for music genre categorization; (2) multi-label classification methods for emotion detection; (3) clustering methods for music style identification; and (4) semi-supervised learning methods for music recommendation. Experimental results are also presented to evaluate the approaches.

  1. Approaches to e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne Akrawi; Petersson, Eva


    E-learning has made its entrance into educational institutions. Compared to traditional learning methods, e-learning has the benefit of enabling educational institutions to attract more students. E-learning not only opens up for an increased enrollment, it also gives students who would otherwise...... not be able to take the education to now get the possibility to do so. This paper introduces Axel Honneth’s theory on the need for recognition as a framework to understand the role and function of interaction in relation to e-learning. The paper argues that an increased focus on the dialectic relationship...

  2. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina


    —they are identifiable in the limit.We then move on to a particular learning method, which proceeds via restriction of a space of events within a learning-specific action model. This way of learning closely resembles the well-known update method from dynamic epistemic logic. We introduce several different learning...... identifiability (conclusively inferring the appropriate action model in finite time) and identifiability in the limit (inconclusive convergence to the right action model). We show that deterministic actions are finitely identifiable, while non-deterministic actions require more learning power...... methods suited for finite identifiability of particular types of deterministic actions....

  3. Self-Regulatory Behaviors and Approaches to Learning of Arts Students: A Comparison between Professional Training and English Learning (United States)

    Tseng, Min-chen; Chen, Chia-cheng


    This study investigated the self-regulatory behaviors of arts students, namely memory strategy, goal-setting, self-evaluation, seeking assistance, environmental structuring, learning responsibility, and planning and organizing. We also explored approaches to learning, including deep approach (DA) and surface approach (SA), in a comparison between…

  4. Self-regulatory Behaviors and Approaches to Learning of Arts Students: A Comparison Between Professional Training and English Learning. (United States)

    Tseng, Min-Chen; Chen, Chia-Cheng


    This study investigated the self-regulatory behaviors of arts students, namely memory strategy, goal-setting, self-evaluation, seeking assistance, environmental structuring, learning responsibility, and planning and organizing. We also explored approaches to learning, including deep approach (DA) and surface approach (SA), in a comparison between students' professional training and English learning. The participants consisted of 344 arts majors. The Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire and the Revised Learning Process Questionnaire were adopted to examine students' self-regulatory behaviors and their approaches to learning. The results show that a positive and significant correlation was found in students' self-regulatory behaviors between professional training and English learning. The results indicated that increases in using self-regulatory behaviors in professional training were associated with increases in applying self-regulatory behaviors in learning English. Seeking assistance, self-evaluation, and planning and organizing were significant predictors for learning English. In addition, arts students used the deep approach more often than the surface approach in both their professional training and English learning. A positive correlation was found in DA, whereas a negative correlation was shown in SA between students' self-regulatory behaviors and their approaches to learning. Students with high self-regulation adopted a deep approach, and they applied the surface approach less in professional training and English learning. In addition, a SEM model confirmed that DA had a positive influence; however, SA had a negative influence on self-regulatory behaviors.

  5. Applications of response surface methodology approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of response surface methodology approach to determine the effect of temperature, time of incubation and light conditions on germination and germ tube growth of Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae urediosopores.

  6. Cooperative learning as an approach to pedagogy. (United States)

    Nolinske, T; Millis, B


    Lecture-based pedagogical approaches cannot adequately prepare students in professional and technical occupational therapy programs. Faculty members in other disciplines are turning to a well-known and well-researched teaching approach called cooperative learning, which is more carefully structured and defined than most other forms of small group learning. Cooperative learning includes several key principles: positive interdependence, individual responsibility, appropriate grouping, group maintenance, cooperative skills, and promotive (interaction) time. This article provides ideas for managing the classroom with cooperative learning activities and describes eight of them: Three-Step Interview, Roundtable, Think-Pair-Share, Structured Problem Solving, Send/Pass-a-Problem, Generic Question Stems, Double Entry Journal, and Dyadic Essay Confrontation. Each activity is applied to content embedded in professional and technical occupational therapy curricula. A cooperative learning approach to evaluating learning is also presented.

  7. Learning how to Active Learn: A Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach


    Fang, Meng; Li, Yuan; Cohn, Trevor


    Active learning aims to select a small subset of data for annotation such that a classifier learned on the data is highly accurate. This is usually done using heuristic selection methods, however the effectiveness of such methods is limited and moreover, the performance of heuristics varies between datasets. To address these shortcomings, we introduce a novel formulation by reframing the active learning as a reinforcement learning problem and explicitly learning a data selection policy, where...

  8. Learning and geometry computational approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Carl


    The field of computational learning theory arose out of the desire to for­ mally understand the process of learning. As potential applications to artificial intelligence became apparent, the new field grew rapidly. The learning of geo­ metric objects became a natural area of study. The possibility of using learning techniques to compensate for unsolvability provided an attraction for individ­ uals with an immediate need to solve such difficult problems. Researchers at the Center for Night Vision were interested in solving the problem of interpreting data produced by a variety of sensors. Current vision techniques, which have a strong geometric component, can be used to extract features. However, these techniques fall short of useful recognition of the sensed objects. One potential solution is to incorporate learning techniques into the geometric manipulation of sensor data. As a first step toward realizing such a solution, the Systems Research Center at the University of Maryland, in conjunction with the C...

  9. The Effect of 5E Learning Model on Seventh Grade Students’ Approaches to Learning


    Eylem Yıldız Feyzioğlu; Ömer Ergin


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 5E learning model on three seventh grade students’ approaches to learning. The students’ approaches to “remembering what s/he learned”, “the goal of learning” and “encountering the difficulty in learning” before and after the application of 5E model is presented. Data was gathered through these students’ scores on the scale of “Deep Approaches to Learning” and “Surface Approaches to Learning”. Pre and post interviews were also conducte...

  10. Students Approach to Learning and Their Use of Lecture Capture (United States)

    Vajoczki, Susan; Watt, Susan; Marquis, Nick; Liao, Rose; Vine, Michelle


    This study examined lecture capture as a way of enhancing university education, and explored how students with different learning approaches used lecture capturing (i.e., podcasts and vodcasts). Results indicate that both deep and surface learners report increased course satisfaction and better retention of knowledge in courses with traditional…

  11. A Guided Discovery Approach for Learning Glycolysis. (United States)

    Schultz, Emeric


    Argues that more attention should be given to teaching students how to learn the rudiments of specific metabolic pathways. This approach describes a unique way of learning the glycolytic pathway in stepwise fashion. The pedagogy involves clear rote components that are connected to a set of generalizations that develop and enhance important…

  12. Cultivating collaborative improvement: an action learning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, H.G.A.; McNichols, Timothy


    The process of implementing collaborative initiatives across disparate members of supply networks is fraught with difficulties. One approach designed to tackle the difficulties of organisational change and interorganisational improvement in practice is 'action learning'. This paper examines the

  13. Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbing, Jana; Koidl, Kevin


    Please, cite this publication as: Abbing, J. & Koidl, K. (2006). Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from

  14. A Bayesian concept learning approach to crowdsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, P.; Zilles, S.; Hamilton, H.J.


    We develop a Bayesian approach to concept learning for crowdsourcing applications. A probabilistic belief over possible concept definitions is maintained and updated according to (noisy) observations from experts, whose behaviors are modeled using discrete types. We propose recommendation...

  15. E-Learning Approach in Teacher Training


    YUCEL, A. Seda


    There has been an increasing interest in e-learning in teacher training at universities during the last ten years. With the developing technology, educational methods have differed as well as many other processes. Firstly, a definition on e-learning as a new approach should be given. E-learning could shortly be defined as a web-based educational system on platform with Internet, Intranet or computer access. The concept of e-learning has two main subtitles as synchronized (where a group of stu...

  16. A Cultural Approach to Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard


    The this article learning is discussed in relation to different understanding of culture. In particular the dialectics of 'Enlightenment' inthe Western culture are reflected , as well aslow- and high-context communication and learningin different types of culture. Finaaly the Weberian methodology...

  17. Learning environment, approaches to learning and learning preferences: medical students versus general education students. (United States)

    Ullah, Raza


    The main objective of the study was to see whether medical students use more desirable approaches to studying than general education students. Survey method was used to collect data from both the medical students and the general education students. The survey of the medical students was carried out between January and March, 2012. The survey was administered to all the medical students present in lecture halls on day of data collection, while general education students were randomly selected from four subject areas at two universities. In total, 976 medical students and 912 general students participated in the study. Of the general students, 494(54%) were boys and 418(46%)were girls with an overall mean age of 20.53±1.77 years (range: 17-27 years). The medical students' perceptions of their learning environment and their learning preferences were broadly similar to that of general education students with the exception of workload. The medical students perceived the workload to be less appropriate (Mean = 2.06±0.72) than the students in general education (Mean = 2.84±0.90). The medical students were more likely to use the deep approach to studying (Mean = 3.66±0.59) than the students in general education (Mean = 3.16±0.91). The students in general education were slightly more likely to use the organized studying (Mean = 3.44±0.90) than the medical students (Mean =3.23±0.90). Both medical students and the students in general education tended to use the surface approaches along with other approaches to studying. There was not a great difference between the medical students and the students pursuing general education with regard to perceptions of the learning environment and approaches to learning.

  18. A Cognitive Approach to e-Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Rice, Douglas M.; Eaton, Sharon L.; Perkins, Michael C.; Scott, Ryan T.; Burnette, John R.; Robertson, Sarah R.


    Like traditional classroom instruction, distributed learning derives from passive training paradigms. Just as student-centered classroom teaching methods have been applied over several decades of classroom instruction, interactive approaches have been encouraged for distributed learning. While implementation of multimedia-based training features may appear to produce active learning, sophisticated use of multimedia features alone does not necessarily enhance learning. This paper describes the results of applying cognitive science principles to enhance learning in a student-centered, distributed learning environment, and lessons learned in developing and delivering this training. Our interactive, scenario-based approach exploits multimedia technology within a systematic, cognitive framework for learning. The basis of the application of cognitive principles is the innovative use of multimedia technology to implement interaction elements. These simple multimedia interactions, which are used to support new concepts, are later combined with other interaction elements to create more complex, integrated practical exercises. This technology-based approach may be applied in a variety of training and education contexts, but is especially well suited for training of equipment operators and maintainers. For example, it has been used in a sustainment training application for the United States Army's Combat Support System Automated Information System Interface (CAISI). The CAISI provides a wireless communications capability that allows various logistics systems to communicate across the battlefield. Based on classroom training material developed by the CAISI Project Office, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory designed and developed an interactive, student-centered distributed-learning application for CAISI operators and maintainers. This web-based CAISI training system is also distributed on CD media for use on individual computers, and material developed for the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail


    Full Text Available The objective of the study is threefold. Firstly, the study explores the learning approaches adopted by students in completing their Business Finance. Secondly, it examines the impact that learning approaches has on the student’s academic performance. Finally, the study considers gender differences in the learning approaches adopted by students and in the relationship between learning approaches and academic performance. The Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST was used to assess the approaches to learning adopted by students whilst the students final examination result was considered in examining the performance of the students. The results indicate that majority of the accounting students, both male andfemale groups prefer to use the deep approach in studying Business Finance. The findings also reveal that there were significant relationships between learning approaches and academic performance with positive direction appears for deep and strategic approaches whilst negative relationship reveals for surface approach.

  20. E-Learning Approach in Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seda YUCEL


    Full Text Available There has been an increasing interest in e-learning in teacher training at universities during the last ten years. With the developing technology, educational methods have differed as well as many other processes. Firstly, a definition on e-learning as a new approach should be given. E-learning could shortly be defined as a web-based educational system on platform with Internet, Intranet or computer access. The concept of e-learning has two main subtitles as synchronized (where a group of students and an instructor actualize an online conference meeting in a computer environment an asynchronized (where individuals actualize self-training in computer environments. Students have access to the course contents whenever they want and communicate with their peers or teachers via communication tools such as e-mail and forums. In order the distance learning system to succeed in e-learning, the program should be planned as both synchronized and asynchronized.

  1. Personality, Approaches to Learning and Achievement (United States)

    Swanberg, Anne Berit; Martinsen, Oyvind Lund


    The present study investigated the relationships between the five-factor model of personality, approaches to learning and academic achievement. Based on the previous research, we expected approaches to have a mediating effect between personality and academic achievement. Six hundred and eighty-seven business students participated in a survey; 56%…

  2. Assessing Approaches to Learning in School Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia C. Barbu


    Full Text Available This study examines the psychometric properties of two assessments of children’s approaches to learning: the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA and a 13-item approaches to learning rating scale (AtL derived from the Arizona Early Learning Standards (AELS. First, we administered questionnaires to 1,145 randomly selected parents/guardians of first-time kindergarteners. Second, we employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA with parceling for DECA to reduce errors due to item specificity and prevent convergence difficulties when simultaneously estimating DECA and AtL models. Results indicated an overlap of 55% to 72% variance between the domains of the two instruments and suggested that the new AtL instrument is an easily administered alternative to the DECA for measuring children’s approaches to learning. This is one of the first studies that investigated DECA’s approaches to learning dimension and explored the measurement properties of an instrument purposely derived from a state’s early learning guidelines.

  3. The Relationship between Motivation, Learning Approaches, Academic Performance and Time Spent (United States)

    Everaert, Patricia; Opdecam, Evelien; Maussen, Sophie


    Previous literature calls for further investigation in terms of precedents and consequences of learning approaches (deep learning and surface learning). Motivation as precedent and time spent and academic performance as consequences are addressed in this paper. The study is administered in a first-year undergraduate course. Results show that the…

  4. The interrelationships between student approaches to learning and group work. (United States)

    Beccaria, Lisa; Kek, Megan; Huijser, Henk; Rose, Jayln; Kimmins, Lindy


    As part of the process of nursing students becoming 'work ready' within future health care teams, students need the skills to work collaboratively. In higher education, establishing group work assignments is a teaching method to develop group work skills. Not only is group work an important teaching method to develop effective group work skills but it is also used to activate deep learning. However, to date, there has been a lack of research on the impact of group work on student approaches to learning. This study aimed to examine the interrelationships between students, group work characteristics, and their approaches to learning. A survey design was used, before and after a targeted academic skills development intervention, which had a specific focus on the development of group work skills. The sample involved first year undergraduate nursing students undertaking a Bachelor of Nursing programme at a regional university in Australia. A total of 92 students completed the pre-survey, and 102 students completed the post-survey. Data were collected using quantitative surveys. Metacognitive awareness was found to best predict a deep approach to learning. Young age and experiencing discomfort in group work were two predictors of a surface approach to learning. Findings indicate that nurse educators should develop strategies that support students' metacognitive awareness in relation to group work, and also support those students who feel less comfortable in working with others. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Varifold Approach to Surface Approximation (United States)

    Buet, Blanche; Leonardi, Gian Paolo; Masnou, Simon


    We show that the theory of varifolds can be suitably enriched to open the way to applications in the field of discrete and computational geometry. Using appropriate regularizations of the mass and of the first variation of a varifold we introduce the notion of approximate mean curvature and show various convergence results that hold, in particular, for sequences of discrete varifolds associated with point clouds or pixel/voxel-type discretizations of d-surfaces in the Euclidean n-space, without restrictions on dimension and codimension. The variational nature of the approach also allows us to consider surfaces with singularities, and in that case the approximate mean curvature is consistent with the generalized mean curvature of the limit surface. A series of numerical tests are provided in order to illustrate the effectiveness and generality of the method.

  6. Machine Learning Approaches in Cardiovascular Imaging. (United States)

    Henglin, Mir; Stein, Gillian; Hushcha, Pavel V; Snoek, Jasper; Wiltschko, Alexander B; Cheng, Susan


    Cardiovascular imaging technologies continue to increase in their capacity to capture and store large quantities of data. Modern computational methods, developed in the field of machine learning, offer new approaches to leveraging the growing volume of imaging data available for analyses. Machine learning methods can now address data-related problems ranging from simple analytic queries of existing measurement data to the more complex challenges involved in analyzing raw images. To date, machine learning has been used in 2 broad and highly interconnected areas: automation of tasks that might otherwise be performed by a human and generation of clinically important new knowledge. Most cardiovascular imaging studies have focused on task-oriented problems, but more studies involving algorithms aimed at generating new clinical insights are emerging. Continued expansion in the size and dimensionality of cardiovascular imaging databases is driving strong interest in applying powerful deep learning methods, in particular, to analyze these data. Overall, the most effective approaches will require an investment in the resources needed to appropriately prepare such large data sets for analyses. Notwithstanding current technical and logistical challenges, machine learning and especially deep learning methods have much to offer and will substantially impact the future practice and science of cardiovascular imaging. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Transformative Learning Approaches for Public Relations Pedagogy (United States)

    Motion, Judy; Burgess, Lois


    Public relations educators are frequently challenged by students' flawed perceptions of public relations. Two contrasting case studies are presented in this paper to illustrate how socially-oriented paradigms may be applied to a real-client project to deliver a transformative learning experience. A discourse-analytic approach is applied within the…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The systemic approach to teaching and learning (SATL) has been developed during the last decade 1-7). SATL techniques have been implemented and evaluated in many different disciplines (chemistry, biology, physics, and math) in all educational levels, but the major SATL applications have been reported ...

  9. A Mixed Learning Approach in Mechatronics Education (United States)

    Yilmaz, O.; Tuncalp, K.


    This study aims to investigate the effect of a Web-based mixed learning approach model on mechatronics education. The model combines different perception methods such as reading, listening, and speaking and practice methods developed in accordance with the vocational background of students enrolled in the course Electromechanical Systems in…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita Wilkinson

    AJCE, 2017, 7(3), Special Issue. ISSN 2227-5835. 68. Firstly, SAQs were proposed by Fahmy and Lagowski [14] within Systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry (SATLC) as new objective test questions, or assessment schemas that belong to the broader group of concept mapping technique. Similarly, to ...

  11. A Learning Object Approach To Evidence based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabin Visram


    Full Text Available This paper describes the philosophy, development and framework of the body of elements formulated to provide an approach to evidence-based learning sustained by Learning Objects and web based technology Due to the demands for continuous improvement in the delivery of healthcare and in the continuous endeavour to improve the quality of life, there is a continuous need for practitioner's to update their knowledge by accomplishing accredited courses. The rapid advances in medical science has meant increasingly, there is a desperate need to adopt wireless schemes, whereby bespoke courses can be developed to help practitioners keep up with expanding knowledge base. Evidently, without current best evidence, practice risks becoming rapidly out of date, to the detriment of the patient. There is a need to provide a tactical, operational and effective environment, which allows professional to update their education, and complete specialised training, just-in-time, in their own time and location. Following this demand in the marketplace the information engineering group, in combination with several medical and dental schools, set out to develop and design a conceptual framework which form the basis of pioneering research, which at last, enables practitioner's to adopt a philosophy of life long learning. The body and structure of this framework is subsumed under the term Object oriented approach to Evidence Based learning, Just-in-time, via Internet sustained by Reusable Learning Objects (The OEBJIRLO Progression. The technical pillars which permit this concept of life long learning are pivoted by the foundations of object oriented technology, Learning objects, Just-in-time education, Data Mining, intelligent Agent technology, Flash interconnectivity and remote wireless technology, which allow practitioners to update their professional skills, complete specialised training which leads to accredited qualifications. This paper sets out to develop and

  12. Approaches to learning, need for cognition, and strategic flexibility among university students. (United States)

    Evans, Christina J; Kirby, John R; Fabrigar, Leandre R


    Considerable research has described students' deep and surface approaches to learning. Other research has described individuals' self-regulated learning and need for cognition. There is a need for research examining the relationships among these constructs. This study explored relationships among approaches to learning (deep, surface), need for cognition, and three types of control of learning (adaptive, inflexible, irresolute). Theory suggested similarities among the deep approach, need for cognition, and adaptive control (aspects of self-regulated learning); and among surface, inflexible, and irresolute control (aspects of an ineffective approach to learning). One-factor and two-factor models were proposed. Participants were 226 Canadian military college students. Participants completed the following questionnaires: the Study Process Questionnaire (Biggs, 1978), the Need for Cognition Scale (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982), and the Strategic Flexibility Questionnaire (Cantwell & Moore, 1996). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the identification of the six scale factors. Second order confirmatory factor analysis indicated three factors representing constructs underlying these factors. Neither the one- nor two-factor models accounted adequately for the data. Self-regulated learning was defined by measures of the deep approach to learning, need for cognition, and adaptive control of learning. The second factor divided into one factor consisting of irresolute control, the surface approach, and negative need for cognition; and another consisting of inflexible and negative adaptive control. Substantial relationships among scales support the need for further theory development.

  13. Linking Action Learning and Inter-Organisational Learning: The Learning Journey Approach (United States)

    Schumacher, Thomas


    The article presents and illustrates the learning journey (LJ)--a new management development approach to inter-organisational learning based on observation, reflection and problem-solving. The LJ involves managers from different organisations and applies key concepts of action learning and systemic organisational development. Made up of…

  14. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel


    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  15. Preferences for Deep-Surface Learning: A Vocational Education Case Study Using a Multimedia Assessment Activity (United States)

    Hamm, Simon; Robertson, Ian


    This research tests the proposition that the integration of a multimedia assessment activity into a Diploma of Events Management program promotes a deep learning approach. Firstly, learners' preferences for deep or surface learning were evaluated using the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire. Secondly, after completion of an assessment…

  16. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); H. Marcq (Hélène); D. Gijbels (David)


    textabstractIn problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested

  17. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); Marcq, H. (Hélène); D. Gijbels (David)


    textabstractIn problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested

  18. Mathematical beauty in service of deep approach to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza


    In the fall of 2014 I taught ‘02601 Introduction to Numerical Algorithms’ to a class of 86 engineering students at Technical University of Denmark. The course employed basic calculus and linear algebra to elucidate and analyse canonical algorithms of scientific computing. A major part of the course...... was hands-on MATLAB programming, where the algorithms were tested and applied to solve physical modelbased problems. To encourage a deep approach, and discourage a surface approach to learning, I introduced into the lectures a basic but rigorous mathematical treatment of crucial theoretical points...

  19. Learning Matlab a problem solving approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gander, Walter


    This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014.  Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.

  20. Computational approach to compact Riemann surfaces (United States)

    Frauendiener, Jörg; Klein, Christian


    A purely numerical approach to compact Riemann surfaces starting from plane algebraic curves is presented. The critical points of the algebraic curve are computed via a two-dimensional Newton iteration. The starting values for this iteration are obtained from the resultants with respect to both coordinates of the algebraic curve and a suitable pairing of their zeros. A set of generators of the fundamental group for the complement of these critical points in the complex plane is constructed from circles around these points and connecting lines obtained from a minimal spanning tree. The monodromies are computed by solving the defining equation of the algebraic curve on collocation points along these contours and by analytically continuing the roots. The collocation points are chosen to correspond to Chebychev collocation points for an ensuing Clenshaw-Curtis integration of the holomorphic differentials which gives the periods of the Riemann surface with spectral accuracy. At the singularities of the algebraic curve, Puiseux expansions computed by contour integration on the circles around the singularities are used to identify the holomorphic differentials. The Abel map is also computed with the Clenshaw-Curtis algorithm and contour integrals. As an application of the code, solutions to the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation are computed on non-hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces.

  1. Teaching European Studies: A Blended Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Christova


    Full Text Available This paper will be looking into the teaching method developed by the Institute for European Studies in Brussels, combining an e-learning tool- the E-modules- with face-to-face training sessions and webinars. The main aim is to analyse the three different components of this “blended learning” pedagogical approach, as well as the way they complement each other and to address a few of the challenges that have emerged from the experience of working with them so far. The E-modules are an e-learning platform that has been designed with the purpose of offering a structured and interactive way of learning how the European Union functions. The face-to-face training component currently takes the form of three days in-house seminars, covering in an intensive manner the most important areas of the curriculum. The lectures are held by a mix of academics and practitioners, hereby ensuring a balanced approach, in which theory and practice come together to facilitate the learning experience. The third element of the “blended learning” method is placed in-between online and face-to-face learning: interactive seminars and debates are held online, giving the participants the chance to deepen their knowledge in certain fields of interest and to discuss the content of the course with specialists and among themselves. The mixture of delivery and interaction methods was chosen in order to accommodate a large variety of target groups, ranging from students to professionals working with EU-related issues, with different backgrounds and geographical origins. One of the main challenges is to use each medium for the functionalities it is best designed for and to ensure that the various pieces of the pedagogical puzzle fit together perfectly, while allowing the learners the flexibility that had initially directed them towards “blended learning” instead of a classical classroom approach.

  2. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach (United States)

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.


    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  3. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Stripf, Matthias


    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consiste nt with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparison s are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data ar e for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach ta ken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense , consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after e xposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determ ine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the re gular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test co nditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat tran sfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular as well a s statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculatio ns are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  4. Learning approaches as predictors of academic performance in first year health and science students. (United States)

    Salamonson, Yenna; Weaver, Roslyn; Chang, Sungwon; Koch, Jane; Bhathal, Ragbir; Khoo, Cheang; Wilson, Ian


    To compare health and science students' demographic characteristics and learning approaches across different disciplines, and to examine the relationship between learning approaches and academic performance. While there is increasing recognition of a need to foster learning approaches that improve the quality of student learning, little is known about students' learning approaches across different disciplines, and their relationships with academic performance. Prospective, correlational design. Using a survey design, a total of 919 first year health and science students studying in a university located in the western region of Sydney from the following disciplines were recruited to participate in the study - i) Nursing: n = 476, ii) Engineering: n = 75, iii) Medicine: n = 77, iv) Health Sciences: n = 204, and v) Medicinal Chemistry: n = 87. Although there was no statistically significant difference in the use of surface learning among the five discipline groups, there were wide variations in the use of deep learning approach. Furthermore, older students and those with English as an additional language were more likely to use deep learning approach. Controlling for hours spent in paid work during term-time and English language usage, both surface learning approach (β = -0.13, p = 0.001) and deep learning approach (β = 0.11, p = 0.009) emerged as independent and significant predictors of academic performance. Findings from this study provide further empirical evidence that underscore the importance for faculty to use teaching methods that foster deep instead of surface learning approaches, to improve the quality of student learning and academic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inductive Learning Approaches for Improving Pilot Awareness of Aircraft Faults (United States)

    Spikovska, Lilly; Iverson, David L.; Poll, Scott; Pryor, anna


    Neural network flight controllers are able to accommodate a variety of aircraft control surface faults without detectable degradation of aircraft handling qualities. Under some faults, however, the effective flight envelope is reduced; this can lead to unexpected behavior if a pilot performs an action that exceeds the remaining control authority of the damaged aircraft. The goal of our work is to increase the pilot s situational awareness by informing him of the type of damage and resulting reduction in flight envelope. Our methodology integrates two inductive learning systems with novel visualization techniques. One learning system, the Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), learns to detect when a simulation includes faulty controls, while two others, Inductive Classification System (INCLASS) and multiple binary decision tree system (utilizing C4.5), determine the type of fault. In off-line training using only non-failure data, IMS constructs a characterization of nominal flight control performance based on control signals issued by the neural net flight controller. This characterization can be used to determine the degree of control augmentation required in the pitch, roll, and yaw command channels to counteract control surface failures. This derived information is typically sufficient to distinguish between the various control surface failures and is used to train both INCLASS and C4.5. Using data from failed control surface flight simulations, INCLASS and C4.5 independently discover and amplify features in IMS results that can be used to differentiate each distinct control surface failure situation. In real-time flight simulations, distinguishing features learned during training are used to classify control surface failures. Knowledge about the type of failure can be used by an additional automated system to alter its approach for planning tactical and strategic maneuvers. The knowledge can also be used directly to increase the pilot s situational awareness and

  6. Approaches to Learning to Control Dynamic Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Osman


    Full Text Available In dynamic environments, when faced with a choice of which learning strategy to adopt, do people choose to mostly explore (maximizing their long term gains or exploit (maximizing their short term gains? More to the point, how does this choice of learning strategy influence one’s later ability to control the environment? In the present study, we explore whether people’s self-reported learning strategies and levels of arousal (i.e., surprise, stress correspond to performance measures of controlling a Highly Uncertain or Moderately Uncertain dynamic environment. Generally, self-reports suggest a preference for exploring the environment to begin with. After which, those in the Highly Uncertain environment generally indicated they exploited more than those in the Moderately Uncertain environment; this difference did not impact on performance on later tests of people’s ability to control the dynamic environment. Levels of arousal were also differentially associated with the uncertainty of the environment. Going beyond behavioral data, our model of dynamic decision-making revealed that, in actual fact, there was no difference in exploitation levels between those in the highly uncertain or moderately uncertain environments, but there were differences based on sensitivity to negative reinforcement. We consider the implications of our findings with respect to learning and strategic approaches to controlling dynamic uncertainty.

  7. The Trialogical Learning Approach to innovate teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Sansone


    Full Text Available This article focuses on a case of implementing the Trialogical Learning Approach (TLA in two classes in the first year of a university school for future osteopaths (N = 36. The approach involves the creation of useful and tangible objects through alternation between individual and group activities, supported by digital technologies. The aim of the study is to observe the impact of TLA on the quality of learning products made by students and on teaching style, as well as to collect students’ views on activities. The collected data (individual and group products, notes inserted online, audio recordings of lessons, final questionnaires have been analyzed using a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach. The results show: a positive evolution in the quality of individual and group products; b progression from a transmissive teaching style towards one more oriented to collaboration and knowledge building; c general appreciation of the innovative method and its potential for fostering social skills useful for future employment.

  8. Dental students' perception of their approaches to learning in a PBL programme. (United States)

    Haghparast, H; Ghorbani, A; Rohlin, M


    To compare dental students' perceptions of their learning approaches between different years of a problem-based learning (PBL) programme. The hypothesis was that in a comparison between senior and junior students, the senior students would perceive themselves as having a higher level of deep learning approach and a lower level of surface learning approach than junior students would. This hypothesis was based on the fact that senior students have longer experience of a student-centred educational context, which is supposed to underpin student learning. Students of three cohorts (first year, third year and fifth year) of a PBL-based dental programme were asked to respond to a questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) developed to analyse students' learning approaches, that is deep approach and surface approach, using four subscales including deep strategy, surface strategy, deep motive and surface motive. The results of the three cohorts were compared using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P-value was set at <0.05 for statistical significance. The fifth-year students demonstrated a lower surface approach than the first-year students (P = 0.020). There was a significant decrease in surface strategy from the first to the fifth year (P = 0.003). No differences were found concerning deep approach or its subscales (deep strategy and deep motive) between the mean scores of the three cohorts. The results did not show the expected increased depth in learning approaches over the programme years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Dialogical, Enquiry and Participatory Approaches to Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurford, Donna; Rowley, Chris


    offer some examples of how they might be put into practice in the primary curriculum. Dialogical enquiry and participatory approaches apply across educational stages and have much in common with the concept of ‘sustained, shared thinking’ identified in the Researching Effective Pedagogy in the Early...... to what is to be learnt, what is in the adult’s mind, and both contribute to and are involved in the learning process, although the project also found that such exchanges do not occur frequently and that freely chosen play activities often provided the best opportunities for adults to extend children......’s thinking (Cooper 2004 pp. 1–2)....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sadeq


    Full Text Available In this research different DSMs from different sources have been merged. The merging is based on a probabilistic model using a Bayesian Approach. The implemented data have been sourced from very high resolution satellite imagery sensors (e.g. WorldView-1 and Pleiades. It is deemed preferable to use a Bayesian Approach when the data obtained from the sensors are limited and it is difficult to obtain many measurements or it would be very costly, thus the problem of the lack of data can be solved by introducing a priori estimations of data. To infer the prior data, it is assumed that the roofs of the buildings are specified as smooth, and for that purpose local entropy has been implemented. In addition to the a priori estimations, GNSS RTK measurements have been collected in the field which are used as check points to assess the quality of the DSMs and to validate the merging result. The model has been applied in the West-End of Glasgow containing different kinds of buildings, such as flat roofed and hipped roofed buildings. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed to validate the merged DSM. The validation results have shown that the model was successfully able to improve the quality of the DSMs and improving some characteristics such as the roof surfaces, which consequently led to better representations. In addition to that, the developed model has been compared with the well established Maximum Likelihood model and showed similar quantitative statistical results and better qualitative results. Although the proposed model has been applied on DSMs that were derived from satellite imagery, it can be applied to any other sourced DSMs.

  11. Bridging the Gaps between Learning and Teaching through Recognition of Students' Learning Approaches: A Case Study (United States)

    Malie, Senian; Akir, Oriah


    Learning approaches, learning methods and learning environments have different effects on students? academic performance. However, they are not the sole factors that impact students? academic achievement. The aims of this research are three-fold: to determine the learning approaches preferred by most students and the impact of the learning…

  12. Component-Based Approach in Learning Management System Development (United States)

    Zaitseva, Larisa; Bule, Jekaterina; Makarov, Sergey


    The paper describes component-based approach (CBA) for learning management system development. Learning object as components of e-learning courses and their metadata is considered. The architecture of learning management system based on CBA being developed in Riga Technical University, namely its architecture, elements and possibilities are…

  13. Looking at Learning Approaches from the Angle of Student Profiles (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Cascallar, Eduardo


    This study starts with investigating the relation of perceived workload, motivation for learning and working memory capacity (WMC) with students' approaches to learning. Secondly, this study investigates if differences exist between different student profiles concerning their approach to the learning and the influence of workloads thereon. Results…

  14. Learning Styles in the e-Learning Environment: The Approaches and Research on Longitudinal Changes (United States)

    Doulik, Pavel; Skoda, Jiri; Simonova, Ivana


    The paper focuses on the field of learning styles in e-learning. The study is structured in two main parts: (1) a brief overview of traditional approaches to learning styles is presented and their role in the process of instruction is set; this part results in the reflection of current state, when learning styles are considered within e-learning;…

  15. Geospatial approach for estimating land surface evapotranspiration (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh K.

    Reliably and accurately quantifying evapotranspiration (ET) in a spatial and temporal domain is important in water management at the local, regional, and global scales. With advances in image processing and hardware computational ability, energy balance models which utilize remote sensing images are being increasingly utilized for quantifying ET and used as inputs in hydrologic modeling. The objectives of this research were to evaluate and improve some of the energy balance models for estimating land surface ET, and develop a framework for estimating seasonal ET from temporal satellite images. Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model was used to estimate energy fluxes for south-central Nebraska using Landsat images. Results were compared with Bowen Ratio Energy Balance System (BREBS) field measurements. SEBAL estimated ET images were also used for computing crop coefficients (K c) for maize, soybean, sorghum, and alfalfa under irrigated and dryland conditions. Performances of four remote sensing based models for estimating soil heat flux (G) were analyzed. A new model was developed for remotely estimating G. The Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model was also used for estimating energy fluxes using Landsat images. The METRIC model was modified by incorporating the Priestley-Taylor (PT) approach. The SEBAL model estimated net radiation (Rn) with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 65 W m-2 (r2 = 0.76). Calibrating G locally reduced RMSE from 80 W m-2 to 20 W m-2. The SEBAL model yielded sensible heat flux (H) with RMSE of 108 W m -2 (r2=0.23), and ET with an RMSE of 1.04 mm day -1(r2 = 0.73). Validation of Kc regression for irrigated maize resulted in RMSE of 0.21 (r2=0.74). The METRIC model estimated Rn, G, and H with RMSE values of 45 W m -2 (r2=0.85), 19 W m-2 (r2=0.85), and 113 W m-2 (r2=0.50), respectively. The modified METRIC model reduced the RMSE of H from 113 W m-2 to 91 W m -2 and that for

  16. Students' Approaches to Learning and Their Experiences of the Teaching-Learning Environment in Different Disciplines (United States)

    Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Komulainen, Erkki; Litmanen, Topi; Hirsto, Laura


    Background: There is evidence of disciplinary variation in students' approaches to learning. Furthermore, previous research has shown that students' approaches are related to their perceptions of the learning environment. Aim: The overall objective of the study was to analyse combinations of approaches to learning among undergraduates in different…

  17. A Machine Learning Approach to Predicted Bathymetry (United States)

    Wood, W. T.; Elmore, P. A.; Petry, F.


    Recent and on-going efforts have shown how machine learning (ML) techniques, incorporating more, and more disparate data than can be interpreted manually, can predict seafloor properties, with uncertainty, where they have not been measured directly. We examine here a ML approach to predicted bathymetry. Our approach employs a paradigm of global bathymetry as an integral component of global geology. From a marine geology and geophysics perspective the bathymetry is the thickness of one layer in an ensemble of layers that inter-relate to varying extents vertically and geospatially. The nature of the multidimensional relationships in these layers between bathymetry, gravity, magnetic field, age, and many other global measures is typically geospatially dependent and non-linear. The advantage of using ML is that these relationships need not be stated explicitly, nor do they need to be approximated with a transfer function - the machine learns them via the data. Fundamentally, ML operates by brute-force searching for multidimensional correlations between desired, but sparsely known data values (in this case water depth), and a multitude of (geologic) predictors. Predictors include quantities known extensively such as remotely sensed measurements (i.e. gravity and magnetics), distance from spreading ridge, trench etc., (and spatial statistics based on these quantities). Estimating bathymetry from an approximate transfer function is inherently model, as well as data limited - complex relationships are explicitly ruled out. The ML is a purely data-driven approach, so only the extent and quality of the available observations limit prediction accuracy. This allows for a system in which new data, of a wide variety of types, can be quickly and easily assimilated into updated bathymetry predictions with quantitative posterior uncertainties.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgün ALSARAN


    Full Text Available Duplex surface process was developed to deposite thin ceramic film coating on commonly manufacturing used low alloy steels. Low alloy steel having low strength by this process was first plasma nitrided with purpose enhancing load bearing capacity and then deposited with such ceramic coating. In this study, the duplex surface treatment was deal with main lines and informed about advantage and disadvantage.

  19. Contextual Approach with Guided Discovery Learning and Brain Based Learning in Geometry Learning (United States)

    Kartikaningtyas, V.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi


    The aim of this study was to combine the contextual approach with Guided Discovery Learning (GDL) and Brain Based Learning (BBL) in geometry learning of junior high school. Furthermore, this study analysed the effect of contextual approach with GDL and BBL in geometry learning. GDL-contextual and BBL-contextual was built from the steps of GDL and BBL that combined with the principles of contextual approach. To validate the models, it uses quasi experiment which used two experiment groups. The sample had been chosen by stratified cluster random sampling. The sample was 150 students of grade 8th in junior high school. The data were collected through the student’s mathematics achievement test that given after the treatment of each group. The data analysed by using one way ANOVA with different cell. The result shows that GDL-contextual has not different effect than BBL-contextual on mathematics achievement in geometry learning. It means both the two models could be used in mathematics learning as the innovative way in geometry learning.

  20. Progress testing in the medical curriculum: students' approaches to learning and perceived stress. (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Henning, Marcus; Yielder, Jill; Jones, Rhys; Wearn, Andy; Weller, Jennifer


    Progress Tests (PTs) draw on a common question bank to assess all students in a programme against graduate outcomes. Theoretically PTs drive deep approaches to learning and reduce assessment-related stress. In 2013, PTs were introduced to two year groups of medical students (Years 2 and 4), whereas students in Years 3 and 5 were taking traditional high-stakes assessments. Staged introduction of PTs into our medical curriculum provided a time-limited opportunity for a comparative study. The main purpose of the current study was to compare the impact of PTs on undergraduate medical students' approaches to learning and perceived stress with that of traditional high-stakes assessments. We also aimed to investigate the associations between approaches to learning, stress and PT scores. Undergraduate medical students (N = 333 and N = 298 at Time 1 and Time 2 respectively) answered the Revised Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) at two time points to evaluate change over time. The R-SPQ-2F generated a surface approach and a deep approach score; the PSS generated an overall perceived stress score. We found no significant differences between the two groups in approaches to learning at either time point, and no significant changes in approaches to learning over time in either cohort. Levels of stress increased significantly at the end of the year (Time 2) for students in the traditional assessment cohort, but not in the PT cohort. In the PT cohort, surface approach to learning, but not stress, was a significant negative predictor of students' PT scores. While confirming an association between surface approaches to learning and lower PT scores, we failed to demonstrate an effect of PTs on approaches to learning. However, a reduction in assessment-associated stress is an important finding.

  1. Meta-Unsupervised-Learning: A supervised approach to unsupervised learning


    Garg, Vikas K.; Kalai, Adam Tauman


    We introduce a new paradigm to investigate unsupervised learning, reducing unsupervised learning to supervised learning. Specifically, we mitigate the subjectivity in unsupervised decision-making by leveraging knowledge acquired from prior, possibly heterogeneous, supervised learning tasks. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework via comprehensive expositions and detailed experiments on several unsupervised problems such as (a) clustering, (b) outlier detection, and (c) similarity pre...

  2. Self-Regulated Learning: A Motivational Approach for Learning Mathematics (United States)

    K., Abdul Gafoor; Kurukkan, Abidha


    Self-regulated learning is identified as a fruitful learning strategy as evidenced from the increase in the number of researches in academic self-regulation since year 2000. Knowing to manage one's own learning is helpful in attaining the goals. This analysis of literature on self-regulated learning focuses on the factors that affect…

  3. Learning Approaches, Demographic Factors to Predict Academic Outcomes (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to predict academic outcome in math and math-related subjects using learning approaches and demographic factors. Design/Methodology/Approach: ASSIST was used as the instrumentation to measure learning approaches. The study was conducted in the International University of Vietnam with 616 participants. An…

  4. Stress impact on learning in rodents {--} ethological & fysiological approach


    HAVLOVÁ, Jitka


    The review compares two methodological approaches of studying stress impact on learning in rodents. Particular forms of stress that can harm or facilitace memory and learning process are distinguished. Permanent exposure to hormone treatments results in space memory damage, whereas short-term exposure enforces the learning processes. Ethological methods have predominantly a negative effect on learning, particularly on space learning and reference memory. On the contrary, some methods can faci...

  5. Edu-mining: A Machine Learning Approach (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Patil, Malini M.


    Mining Educational data is an emerging interdisciplinary research area that mainly deals with the development of methods to explore the data stored in educational institutions. The educational data is referred as Edu-DATA. Queries related to Edu-DATA are of practical interest as SQL approach is insufficient and needs to be focused in a different way. The paper aims at developing a technique called Edu-MINING which converts raw data coming from educational institutions using data mining techniques into useful information. The discovered knowledge will have a great impact on the educational research and practices. Edu-MINING explores Edu-DATA, discovers new knowledge and suggests useful methods to improve the quality of education with regard to teaching-learning process. This is illustrated through a case study.

  6. Statistical and machine learning approaches for network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias


    Explore the multidisciplinary nature of complex networks through machine learning techniques Statistical and Machine Learning Approaches for Network Analysis provides an accessible framework for structurally analyzing graphs by bringing together known and novel approaches on graph classes and graph measures for classification. By providing different approaches based on experimental data, the book uniquely sets itself apart from the current literature by exploring the application of machine learning techniques to various types of complex networks. Comprised of chapters written by internation

  7. A deep learning approach for generalized speech animation


    Taylor, Sarah; Kim, Taehwan; Yue, Yisong; Mahler, Moshe; Krahe, James; Garcia Rodriguez, Anastasio; Hodgins, Jessica; Matthews, Iain


    We introduce a simple and effective deep learning approach to automatically generate natural looking speech animation that synchronizes to input speech. Our approach uses a sliding window predictor that learns arbitrary nonlinear mappings from phoneme label input sequences to mouth movements in a way that accurately captures natural motion and visual coarticulation effects. Our deep learning approach enjoys several attractive properties: it runs in real-time, requires minimal parameter tuning...

  8. Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach of Mathematics in Primary Schools (United States)

    Selvianiresa, D.; Prabawanto, S.


    The Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) approach is an approach involving active students in the learning process to discover the concepts learned through to knowledge and experience of the students. Similar to Piaget’s opinion that learning gives students an actives trying to do new things by relating their experiences and building their own minds. When students to connecting mathematics with real life, then students can looking between a conceptual to be learned with a concept that has been studied. So that, students can developing of mathematical connection ability. This research is quasi experiment with a primary school in the city of Kuningan. The result showed that CTL learning can be successful, when learning used a collaborative interaction with students, a high level of activity in the lesson, a connection to real-world contexts, and an integration of science content with other content and skill areas. Therefore, CTL learning can be applied by techer to mathematics learning in primary schools.

  9. Regulating approaches to learning: Testing learning strategy convergences across a year at university. (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K; Vermunt, Jan D


    Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences. Develop and test a person-centred longitudinal model of learning strategies across the first-year university experience. Japanese university students (n = 933) completed surveys (deep and surface approaches to learning; self, external, and lack of regulation) at the beginning and end of their first year. Following invariance and cross-sectional tests, latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was undertaken. Initial difference testing supported small but significant differences for self-/external regulation. Fit indices supported a four-group model, consistent across both measurement points. These subgroups were labelled Low Quality (low deep approaches and self-regulation), Low Quantity (low strategy use generally), Average (moderate strategy use), and High Quantity (intense use of all strategies) strategies. The stability of these groups ranged from stable to variable: Average (93% stayers), Low Quality (90% stayers), High Quantity (72% stayers), and Low Quantity (40% stayers). The three largest transitions presented joint shifts in processing/regulation strategy preference across the year, from adaptive to maladaptive and vice versa. Person-centred longitudinal findings presented patterns of learning transitions that different students experience during their first year at university. Stability/variability of students' strategy use was linked to the nature of initial subgroup membership. Findings also indicated strong connections between processing and regulation strategy changes across first-year university experiences. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  10. Deep and Surface Learning in Problem-Based Learning: A Review of the Literature (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Marcq, Hélène; Gijbels, David


    In problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested and try to understand what is being studied. This review…

  11. High school students educational usage of Internet and their learning approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Betül Yılmaz, Feza Orhan


    Full Text Available This study examines the Internet usage of high school students for educational needs in respect to their learning approaches. The “learning approach” categorizes individuals as ‘surface learners’ and ‘deep learners’. Surface learners mainly choose to rehearse and memorize the course material they work on and they acquire the information they need to learn in a disconnected way, by memorization. On the other hand, deep learners want to grasp the meaning of the course material. In the study, adapted Turkish version of Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ was used to determine high school students’ learning approaches. 921 secondary school students were subjected and the Cronbach alpha values were 0.73 for a deep approach and 0.66 for a surface approach. According to the data obtained, surface learners use the Internet more when compared to deep learners, though they use it for non-instructional purposes. The ratios of the Internet use of deep learners for educational needs are higher when compared to those of surface learners. Ratios of the Internet use for educational needs by the students who are given assignments requiring the use of the Internet are higher.

  12. Investigating the Efficiency of Scenario Based Learning and Reflective Learning Approaches in Teacher Education (United States)

    Hursen, Cigdem; Fasli, Funda Gezer


    The main purpose of this research is to investigate the efficiency of scenario based learning and reflective learning approaches in teacher education. The impact of applications of scenario based learning and reflective learning on prospective teachers' academic achievement and views regarding application and professional self-competence…

  13. Students' Conception of Learning Environment and Their Approach to Learning and Its Implication on Quality Education (United States)

    Belaineh, Matheas Shemelis


    Quality of education in higher institutions can be affected by different factors. It partly rests on the learning environment created by teachers and the learning approach students are employing during their learning. The main purpose of this study is to examine the learning environment at Mizan Tepi University from students' perspective and their…

  14. High school students educational usage of Internet and their learning approaches


    M. Betül Yılmaz, Feza Orhan


    This study examines the Internet usage of high school students for educational needs in respect to their learning approaches. The “learning approach” categorizes individuals as ‘surface learners’ and ‘deep learners’. Surface learners mainly choose to rehearse and memorize the course material they work on and they acquire the information they need to learn in a disconnected way, by memorization. On the other hand, deep learners want to grasp the meaning of the course material. In the study, ad...

  15. The Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning [SATL]: A 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning (SATL) is based on constructivist principles and involves the creation of closed cluster concept maps called systemic diagrams. The SATL technique encourages deep learning, as opposed to rote learning. Examples in the use of SATL methods in teaching chemistry are ...

  16. The FITS model: an improved Learning by Design approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Ing. Koen Michels; Prof. Dr. Marc de Vries; MEd Dave van Breukelen; MEd Frank Schure


    Learning by Design (LBD) is a project-based inquiry approach for interdisciplinary teaching that uses design contexts to learn skills and conceptual knowledge. Research around the year 2000 showed that LBD students achieved high skill performances but disappointing conceptual learning gains. A

  17. A Blended Learning Approach to Teach Fluid Mechanics in Engineering (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur


    This paper presents a case study on the teaching and learning of fluid mechanics at the University of Western Sydney (UWS), Australia, by applying a blended learning approach (BLA). In the adopted BLA, various flexible learning materials have been made available to the students such as online recorded lectures, online recorded tutorials, hand…

  18. Implementing Project Based Learning Approach to Graphic Design Course (United States)

    Riyanti, Menul Teguh; Erwin, Tuti Nuriah; Suriani, S. H.


    The purpose of this study was to develop a learning model based Commercial Graphic Design Drafting project-based learning approach, was chosen as a strategy in the learning product development research. University students as the target audience of this model are the students of the fifth semester Visual Communications Design Studies Program…

  19. Adult Learning in Health and Safety: Some Issues and Approaches. (United States)

    O Fathaigh, Mairtin

    This document, which was developed for presentation at a seminar on adult learning and safety, examines approaches to occupational safety and health (OSH) learning/training in the workplace. Section 1 examines selected factors affecting adults' learning in workplace OSH programs. The principal dimensions along which individual adult learners will…

  20. Numbered head together with scientific approach in geometry learning (United States)

    Indarti, Dwi; Mardiyana; Pramudya, Ikrar


    The aim of this research was to find out the influence of learning model implementation toward student’s achievement in mathematics. This research was using quasi-experimental research. The population of the research was all of 7th grade students in Karanganyar. Sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The data collection has been conducted based on students’ mathematics achievement test. The results from the data analysis showed that the learning mathematics by using Numbered Head Together (NHT) learning model with scientific approach improved student’s achievement in mathematics rather than direct learning model particularly in learning object of quadrilateral. Implementation of NHT learning model with scientific approach could be used by the teachers in teaching and learning, particularly in learning object of quadrilateral.

  1. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education. (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M


    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Enhancing the Teaching-Learning Process: A Knowledge Management Approach (United States)

    Bhusry, Mamta; Ranjan, Jayanthi


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the need for knowledge management (KM) in the teaching-learning process in technical educational institutions (TEIs) in India, and to assert the impact of information technology (IT) based KM intervention in the teaching-learning process. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of the paper is…

  3. The potential of endogenous learning approaches to gender and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues for a middle-inclusive ground within multiple feminist perspectives from which the potential for the endogenous learning approach to gender and development studies can be grounded. There is a challenge of developing context-specific approaches to learn from Rwanda's achievements in gender and ...

  4. Hong Kong Students' Approaches to Learning: Cross-Cultural Comparisons (United States)

    Dasari, Bhoomiah


    Anecdotal evidence abounds in Hong Kong to the effect that students entering tertiary education are predisposed to a "rote" learning approach. With the internalisation of higher education in many countries, there is still insufficient understanding of how Chinese students approach their learning. Except few studies were conducted…

  5. A Socioeconomic Approach to the Development of E-Learning


    Duus, Henrik Johannsen


    A multitude of products, systems, approaches, views and notions characterize the field of e-learning. This article attempts to disentangle the field by using economic and sociological theories, theories of marketing management and strategy as well as practical experience gained by the author while working with leading edge suppliers of e-learning. On this basis, a distinction between knowledge creation e-learning and knowledge transfer e-learning is made. The various views are divided into fo...

  6. Linking Individual Learning Styles to Approach-Avoidance Motivational Traits and Computational Aspects of Reinforcement Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Carl Aberg

    Full Text Available Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning and avoid punishments (avoidance learning is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits.

  7. Linking Individual Learning Styles to Approach-Avoidance Motivational Traits and Computational Aspects of Reinforcement Learning. (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie


    Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning) and avoid punishments (avoidance learning) is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance) learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance) trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative) outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits.

  8. Intelligent Machine Learning Approaches for Aerospace Applications (United States)

    Sathyan, Anoop

    Machine Learning is a type of artificial intelligence that provides machines or networks the ability to learn from data without the need to explicitly program them. There are different kinds of machine learning techniques. This thesis discusses the applications of two of these approaches: Genetic Fuzzy Logic and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) is a powerful tool that can be used for a wide variety of applications. FLS is a universal approximator that reduces the need for complex mathematics and replaces it with expert knowledge of the system to produce an input-output mapping using If-Then rules. The expert knowledge of a system can help in obtaining the parameters for small-scale FLSs, but for larger networks we will need to use sophisticated approaches that can automatically train the network to meet the design requirements. This is where Genetic Algorithms (GA) and EVE come into the picture. Both GA and EVE can tune the FLS parameters to minimize a cost function that is designed to meet the requirements of the specific problem. EVE is an artificial intelligence developed by Psibernetix that is trained to tune large scale FLSs. The parameters of an FLS can include the membership functions and rulebase of the inherent Fuzzy Inference Systems (FISs). The main issue with using the GFS is that the number of parameters in a FIS increase exponentially with the number of inputs thus making it increasingly harder to tune them. To reduce this issue, the FLSs discussed in this thesis consist of 2-input-1-output FISs in cascade (Chapter 4) or as a layer of parallel FISs (Chapter 7). We have obtained extremely good results using GFS for different applications at a reduced computational cost compared to other algorithms that are commonly used to solve the corresponding problems. In this thesis, GFSs have been designed for controlling an inverted double pendulum, a task allocation problem of clustering targets amongst a set of UAVs, a fire

  9. Amp: A modular approach to machine learning in atomistic simulations (United States)

    Khorshidi, Alireza; Peterson, Andrew A.


    Electronic structure calculations, such as those employing Kohn-Sham density functional theory or ab initio wavefunction theories, have allowed for atomistic-level understandings of a wide variety of phenomena and properties of matter at small scales. However, the computational cost of electronic structure methods drastically increases with length and time scales, which makes these methods difficult for long time-scale molecular dynamics simulations or large-sized systems. Machine-learning techniques can provide accurate potentials that can match the quality of electronic structure calculations, provided sufficient training data. These potentials can then be used to rapidly simulate large and long time-scale phenomena at similar quality to the parent electronic structure approach. Machine-learning potentials usually take a bias-free mathematical form and can be readily developed for a wide variety of systems. Electronic structure calculations have favorable properties-namely that they are noiseless and targeted training data can be produced on-demand-that make them particularly well-suited for machine learning. This paper discusses our modular approach to atomistic machine learning through the development of the open-source Atomistic Machine-learning Package (Amp), which allows for representations of both the total and atom-centered potential energy surface, in both periodic and non-periodic systems. Potentials developed through the atom-centered approach are simultaneously applicable for systems with various sizes. Interpolation can be enhanced by introducing custom descriptors of the local environment. We demonstrate this in the current work for Gaussian-type, bispectrum, and Zernike-type descriptors. Amp has an intuitive and modular structure with an interface through the python scripting language yet has parallelizable fortran components for demanding tasks; it is designed to integrate closely with the widely used Atomic Simulation Environment (ASE), which

  10. Argumentation based joint learning: a novel ensemble learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Xu

    Full Text Available Recently, ensemble learning methods have been widely used to improve classification performance in machine learning. In this paper, we present a novel ensemble learning method: argumentation based multi-agent joint learning (AMAJL, which integrates ideas from multi-agent argumentation, ensemble learning, and association rule mining. In AMAJL, argumentation technology is introduced as an ensemble strategy to integrate multiple base classifiers and generate a high performance ensemble classifier. We design an argumentation framework named Arena as a communication platform for knowledge integration. Through argumentation based joint learning, high quality individual knowledge can be extracted, and thus a refined global knowledge base can be generated and used independently for classification. We perform numerous experiments on multiple public datasets using AMAJL and other benchmark methods. The results demonstrate that our method can effectively extract high quality knowledge for ensemble classifier and improve the performance of classification.

  11. Flipped classrooms and student learning: not just surface gains. (United States)

    McLean, Sarah; Attardi, Stefanie M; Faden, Lisa; Goldszmidt, Mark


    The flipped classroom is a relatively new approach to undergraduate teaching in science. This approach repurposes class time to focus on application and discussion; the acquisition of basic concepts and principles is done on the students' own time before class. While current flipped classroom research has focused on student preferences and comparative learning outcomes, there remains a lack of understanding regarding its impact on students' approaches to learning. Focusing on a new flipped classroom-based course for basic medical sciences students, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate students' adjustments to the flipped classroom, their time on task compared with traditional lectures, and their deep and active learning strategies. Students in this course worked through interactive online learning modules before in-class sessions. Class time focused on knowledge application of online learning module content through active learning methods. Students completed surveys and optional prequiz questions throughout the term to provide data regarding their learning approaches. Our results showed that the majority of students completed their prework in one sitting just before class. Students reported performing less multitasking behavior in the flipped classroom compared with lecture-based courses. Students valued opportunities for peer-peer and peer-instructor interactions and also valued having multiple modes of assessment. Overall, this work suggests that there is the potential for greater educational gains from the flipped classroom than the modest improvements in grades previously demonstrated in the literature; in this implementation of the flipped classroom, students reported that they developed independent learning strategies, spent more time on task, and engaged in deep and active learning. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  12. An Approach To Personalized e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Gaeta


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the concept of personalized e-Learning for the computer science (or informatics education. Several authors have stated that personalization, in educational context, allows executing more efficient and effective learning processes. On the other side the use of Semantic Web technologies (e.g. ontologies is more and more often considered as a technological basis for personalization in e-Learning (the so-called self-regulated learning. In this paper we describe how personalization can be exploited in e-Learning systems, focusing on our proposal: the Intelligent Web Teacher (IWT. Therefore we present the evaluation of our personalization tools tested in real academic courses, where e-Learning activities are carried out to complement the traditional lectures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kukharenko


    Full Text Available Currently, much attention is paid to the development of learning sour cream – a combination of traditional and distance (30-70% of training. Such training is sometimes called hybrid and referred to disruptive technologies. Purpose – to show that the use of systemic campaign in blended learning provides a high quality of education, and the technology can be devastating. The subject of the study – blended learning, object of study – Mixed learning process. The analysis results show that the combined training increases the motivation of students, qualification of teachers, personalized learning process. At the same time there are no reliable methods of assessing the quality of education and training standards. It is important that blended learning strategy to support the institutional goals and had an effective organizational model for support.

  14. Holistic approaches to e-learning accessibility


    Phipps, Lawrie; Kelly, Brian


    The importance of accessibility to digital e-learning resources is widely acknowledged. The World Wide Web Consortium Web Accessibility Initiative has played a leading role in promoting the importance of accessibility and developing guidelines that can help when developing accessible web resources. The accessibility of e-learning resources provides additional challenges. While it is important to consider the technical and resource related aspects of e-learning when designing and developing re...

  15. A Janus-Faced Approach to Learning. A Critical Discussion of Habermas' Pragmatic Approach (United States)

    Italia, Salvatore


    A realist approach to learning is what I propose here. This is based on a non-epistemic dimension whose presence is a necessary assumption for a concept of learning of a life-world as complementary to learning within a life-world. I develop my approach in opposition to Jürgen Habermas' pragmatic approach, which seems to lack of something from a…

  16. Lifelong Learning in Architectural Design Studio: The Learning Contract Approach (United States)

    Hassanpour, B.; Che-Ani, A. I.; Usman, I. M. S.; Johar, S.; Tawil, N. M.


    Avant-garde educational systems are striving to find lifelong learning methods. Different fields and majors have tested a variety of proposed models and found varying difficulties and strengths. Architecture is one of the most critical areas of education because of its special characteristics, such as learning by doing and complicated evaluation…

  17. An Improved Metric Learning Approach for Degraded Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Zou


    Full Text Available To solve the matching problem of the elements in different data collections, an improved coupled metric learning approach is proposed. First, we improved the supervised locality preserving projection algorithm and added the within-class and between-class information of the improved algorithm to coupled metric learning, so a novel coupled metric learning method is proposed. Furthermore, we extended this algorithm to nonlinear space, and the kernel coupled metric learning method based on supervised locality preserving projection is proposed. In kernel coupled metric learning approach, two elements of different collections are mapped to the unified high dimensional feature space by kernel function, and then generalized metric learning is performed in this space. Experiments based on Yale and CAS-PEAL-R1 face databases demonstrate that the proposed kernel coupled approach performs better in low-resolution and fuzzy face recognition and can reduce the computing time; it is an effective metric method.

  18. Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    In this paper we present the efficient design of functional thin-film metamaterial devices with the effective surface conductivity approach. As an example, we demonstrate a graphene based perfect absorber. After formulating the requirements to the perfect absorber in terms of surface conductivity...... we investigate the properties of graphene wire medium and graphene fishnet metamaterials and demonstrate both narrowband and broadband tunable absorbers.......In this paper we present the efficient design of functional thin-film metamaterial devices with the effective surface conductivity approach. As an example, we demonstrate a graphene based perfect absorber. After formulating the requirements to the perfect absorber in terms of surface conductivity...

  19. Hong Kong students' approaches to learning: cross-cultural comparisons


    Dasari, Bhoomiah


    Anecdotal evidence abounds in Hong Kong to the effect that students entering tertiary education are predisposed to a “rote” learning approach. With the internalisation of higher education in many countries, there is still insufficient understanding of how Chinese students approach their learning. Except few studies were conducted locally, there have been no systematic studies undertaken and there is a tendency to rely on anecdotal statements about Hong Kong students’ approaches to...

  20. A life-long learning vector quantization approach for interactive learning of multiple categories. (United States)

    Kirstein, Stephan; Wersing, Heiko; Gross, Horst-Michael; Körner, Edgar


    We present a new method capable of learning multiple categories in an interactive and life-long learning fashion to approach the "stability-plasticity dilemma". The problem of incremental learning of multiple categories is still largely unsolved. This is especially true for the domain of cognitive robotics, requiring real-time and interactive learning. To achieve the life-long learning ability for a cognitive system, we propose a new learning vector quantization approach combined with a category-specific feature selection method to allow several metrical "views" on the representation space of each individual vector quantization node. These category-specific features are incrementally collected during the learning process, so that a balance between the correction of wrong representations and the stability of acquired knowledge is achieved. We demonstrate our approach for a difficult visual categorization task, where the learning is applied for several complex-shaped objects rotated in depth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A New Approach to Group Learning (United States)

    Parsons, Jerry


    To help teachers plan strategy for working with a learning group, 12 factors affecting a learning group are discussed and a series of check points are identified as criteria for evaluation. Concepts and principles of group dynamics are drawn from sociology and the work of Carl Rogers. (Author/AJ)

  2. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce


    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  3. How One Learning Community Approached Death (United States)

    Ungemah, Lori


    In this narrative piece, the author describes how a learning community was able to transfer their practices of care to support a colleague as he faced illness and death. The author chronicles how the learning community responded to support their team member, other members of the campus community, and the students. She reflects on this experience…

  4. Holistic Approaches to E-Learning Accessibility (United States)

    Phipps, Lawrie; Kelly, Brian


    The importance of accessibility to digital e-learning resources is widely acknowledged. The World Wide Web Consortium Web Accessibility Initiative has played a leading role in promoting the importance of accessibility and developing guidelines that can help when developing accessible web resources. The accessibility of e-learning resources…

  5. Understanding Observational Learning: An Interbehavioral Approach (United States)

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Johnston, Cristin; Hayes, Linda J.


    Observational learning is an important area in the field of psychology and behavior science more generally. Given this, it is essential that behavior analysts articulate a sound theory of how behavior change occurs through observation. This paper begins with an overview of seminal research in the area of observational learning, followed by a…

  6. Problem-Based Learning Approaches in Meteorology (United States)

    Charlton-Perez, Andrew James


    Problem-Based Learning, despite recent controversies about its effectiveness, is used extensively as a teaching method throughout higher education. In meteorology, there has been little attempt to incorporate Problem-Based Learning techniques into the curriculum. Motivated by a desire to enhance the reflective engagement of students within a…

  7. Undergraduate students' earth science learning: relationships among conceptions, approaches, and learning self-efficacy in Taiwan (United States)

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen


    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to explore the relationships among undergraduates' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science by adopting the structural equation modeling technique. A total of 268 Taiwanese undergraduates (144 females) participated in this study. Three instruments were modified to assess the students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science. The results indicated that students' conceptions of learning made a significant contribution to their approaches to learning, which were consequently correlated with their learning self-efficacy. More specifically, students with stronger agreement that learning earth science involves applying the knowledge and skills learned to unknown problems were prone to possess higher confidence in learning earth science. Moreover, students viewing earth science learning as understanding earth science knowledge were more likely to adopt meaningful strategies to learn earth science, and hence expressed a higher sense of self-efficacy. Based on the results, practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  8. Does the acceptance of hybrid learning affect learning approaches in France? (United States)


    Purpose Acceptance of a learning technology affects students’ intention to use that technology, but the influence of the acceptance of a learning technology on learning approaches has not been investigated in the literature. A deep learning approach is important in the field of health, where links must be created between skills, knowledge, and habits. Our hypothesis was that acceptance of a hybrid learning model would affect students’ way of learning. Methods We analysed these concepts, and their correlations, in the context of a flipped classroom method using a local learning management system. In a sample of all students within a single year of study in the midwifery program (n= 38), we used 3 validated scales to evaluate these concepts (the Study Process Questionnaire, My Intellectual Work Tools, and the Hybrid E-Learning Acceptance Model: Learner Perceptions). Results Our sample had a positive acceptance of the learning model, but a neutral intention to use it. Students reported that they were distractible during distance learning. They presented a better mean score for the deep approach than for the superficial approach (Plearning strategies (personal reorganization of information; search and use of examples). There was no correlation between poor acceptance of the learning model and inadequate learning approaches. The strategy of using deep learning techniques was moderately correlated with acceptance of the learning model (rs= 0.42, P= 0.03). Conclusion Learning approaches were not affected by acceptance of a hybrid learning model, due to the flexibility of the tool. However, we identified problems in the students’ time utilization, which explains their neutral intention to use the system. PMID:29051406

  9. Effective Surface Conductivity Approach for Graphene Metamaterials Based Terahertz Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim


    We propose a description of graphene metamaterials properties through the effective surface conductivity. On the example of tunable absorber we demonstrate that this approach allows for fast and efficient design of functional terahertz devices.......We propose a description of graphene metamaterials properties through the effective surface conductivity. On the example of tunable absorber we demonstrate that this approach allows for fast and efficient design of functional terahertz devices....

  10. Does instructional approach matter? How elaboration plays a crucial role in multimedia learning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eysink, Tessa H.S.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.


    This study compared the affordances of 4 multimedia learning environments for specific learning processes. The environments covered the same domain but used different instructional approaches: (a) hypermedia learning, (b) observational learning, (c) self-explanation-based learning, and (d) inquiry

  11. Learning Outcomes in Vocational Education: A Business Plan Development by Production-Based Learning Model Approach (United States)

    Kusumaningrum, Indrati; Hidayat, Hendra; Ganefri; Anori, Sartika; Dewy, Mega Silfia


    This article describes the development of a business plan by using production-based learning approach. In addition, this development also aims to maximize learning outcomes in vocational education. Preliminary analysis of curriculum and learning and the needs of the market and society become the basic for business plan development. To produce a…

  12. An Expert System-based Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Conducting Science Learning Activities (United States)

    Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Hung


    Context-aware ubiquitous learning has been recognized as being a promising approach that enables students to interact with real-world learning targets with supports from the digital world. Several researchers have indicated the importance of providing learning guidance or hints to individual students during the context-aware ubiquitous learning…

  13. Undergraduate Students' Earth Science Learning: Relationships among Conceptions, Approaches, and Learning Self-Efficacy in Taiwan (United States)

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen


    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…

  14. Contract Learning as an Approach to Individualizing EFL Education in the Context of Assessment for Learning (United States)

    Zandi, Hamed; Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad


    Contract learning as an approach to individualizing education in the context of assessment for learning is relatively underexplored in English as a Foreign Language instruction. The present study used a mixed-methods design to investigate its efficacy to provide feedback to students and improve self-directed learning. Furthermore, it studied…

  15. Student-Centred Learning Environments: An Investigation into Student Teachers' Instructional Preferences and Approaches to Learning (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Parmentier, Emmeline; Vanderbruggen, Anne


    The use of student-centred learning environments in education has increased. This study investigated student teachers' instructional preferences for these learning environments and how these preferences are related to their approaches to learning. Participants were professional Bachelor students in teacher education. Instructional preferences and…

  16. Kronecker Product Analytical Approach to ANOVA of Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kronecker Product Analytical Approach to ANOVA of Surface Roughness Optimization. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Using the new method, the combination of controllable variables that optimized most the surface finish of machined workpiece materials was determined with Kronecker ...

  17. An Approach to Evaluating Distance Learning Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wisher, Robert


    In accordance with an agreement with the National Guard Bureau (NGB) a simplified evaluation form was developed that assessed demographic, instructional, and technology factors for distance learning training events of short duration...

  18. Holistic approaches to e-learning accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrie Phipps


    Full Text Available The importance of accessibility to digital e-learning resources is widely acknowledged. The World Wide Web Consortium Web Accessibility Initiative has played a leading role in promoting the importance of accessibility and developing guidelines that can help when developing accessible web resources. The accessibility of e-learning resources provides additional challenges. While it is important to consider the technical and resource related aspects of e-learning when designing and developing resources for students with disabilities, there is a need to consider pedagogic and contextual issues as well. A holistic framework is therefore proposed and described, which in addition to accessibility issues takes into account learner needs, learning outcomes, local factors, infrastructure, usability and quality assurance. The practical application and implementation of this framework is discussed and illustrated through the use of examples and case studies.

  19. Challenging traditional learning approaches in ecohealth | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Graduate education should challenge traditional modes of learning and create new knowledge. In the field of ecohealth, however, that doesn't always happen, says Mathieu Feagan, a 2014 IDRC Research Award recipient.

  20. A Deep Learning Approach to Drone Monitoring


    Chen, Yueru; Aggarwal, Pranav; Choi, Jongmoo; Kuo, C. -C. Jay


    A drone monitoring system that integrates deep-learning-based detection and tracking modules is proposed in this work. The biggest challenge in adopting deep learning methods for drone detection is the limited amount of training drone images. To address this issue, we develop a model-based drone augmentation technique that automatically generates drone images with a bounding box label on drone's location. To track a small flying drone, we utilize the residual information between consecutive i...

  1. Student Approaches to Learning Chinese Vocabulary


    Fu, I-Ping P.


    This research focuses on the strategies that native English speakers use as they learn to speak and write Chinese vocabulary words in the first year of an elementary Chinese class. The main research question was: what strategies do native English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese use to learn Chinese vocabulary words in their speaking and writing? The study was conducted at a medium-sized comprehensive university in the Southeastern U.S. The study drew from concepts and theories in s...

  2. The Relationship among Student Basic Need Satisfaction, Approaches to Learning, Reporting of Avoidance Strategies and Achievement (United States)

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech; Artiga, Amparo Gomez


    Introduction: This study examines the relationship between student basic need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, relatedness and belonging), their reporting of approaches to learning (deep and surface), their reporting of avoidance strategies (avoidance of effort and challenge, avoidance of help seeking and preference to avoid novelty) and…

  3. E-learning and blended learning in textile engineering education: a closed feedback loop approach (United States)

    Charitopoulos, A.; Vassiliadis, S.; Rangoussi, M.; Koulouriotis, D.


    E-learning has gained a significant role in typical education and in professional training, thanks to the flexibility it offers to the time and location parameters of the education event framework. Purely e-learning scenarios are mostly limited either to Open University-type higher education institutions or to graduate level or professional degrees; blended learning scenarios are progressively becoming popular thanks to their balanced approach. The aim of the present work is to propose approaches that exploit the e-learning and the blended-learning scenarios for Textile Engineering education programmes, especially for multi-institutional ones. The “E-Team” European MSc degree programme organized by AUTEX is used as a case study. The proposed solution is based on (i) a free and open-source e-learning platform (moodle) and (ii) blended learning educational scenarios. Educational challenges addressed include student engagement, student error / failure handling, as well as collaborative learning promotion and support.

  4. Approaches to Learning and Kolb's Learning Styles of Undergraduates with Better Grades (United States)

    Almeida, Patrícia; Teixeira-Dias, José Joaquim; Martinho, Mariana; Balasooriya, Chinthaka

    The purpose of this study is to investigate if the teaching, learning and assessment strategies conceived and implemented in a higher education chemistry course promote the development of conceptual understanding, as intended. Thus, our aim is to analyse the learning styles and the approaches to learning of chemistry undergraduates with better grades. The overall results show that the students with better grades possess the assimilator learning style, that is usually associated to the archetypal chemist. Moreover, the students with the highest grades revealed a conception of learning emphasising understanding. However, these students diverged both in their learning approaches and in their preferences for teaching strategies. The majority of students adopted a deep approach or a combination of a deep and a strategic approach, but half of them revealed their preference for teaching-centred strategies.

  5. Learning from tutorials: a qualitative study of approaches to learning and perceptions of tutorial interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Kim Jesper


    approaches to learning were revealed in the students’ note-taking, listening, and engaging in dialogue. It was also shown how variation in the students’ approaches to learning were coherent with variation in the students’ perceptions of the tutors’ pedagogical role, the value of peer interaction...

  6. A New Design Approach to Game-Based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel


    they wanted while sitting in front of a computer. This describes a caricature, I know, but it still lurks in the background whenever we speak of, read or write about learning with computer games. The entire field of learning with games is called ‘serious games’, since they find themselves on a direct...... collision course with off-the-shelf, commercial entertainment games. This paper promotes two different yet interconnected ideas. The first aims to describe a new design perspective for game-based learning, which in many ways not only will provoke the abovementioned latent dream of a closed game...... to ground the student’s reason to learn. This paper proposes a different approach: using visualisation in immersive 3D worlds as both documentation of learning progress and as a reward system which motivates further learning. The overall design idea is to build a game based learning system from three...

  7. The systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry and the big ideas of science education. ... There is substantial evidence of learning benefits from its application in the context of specific chemistry topics. In the ... We exemplify our proposal with the case of the Grade 7-9 Natural Sciences curriculum in South Africa.

  8. Learning and teaching as a game: A sabotage approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierasimczuk, N.; Kurzen, L.; Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.


    In formal approaches to inductive learning, the ability to learn is understood as the ability to single out a correct hypothesis from a range of possibilities. Although most of the existing research focuses on the characteristics of the learner, in many paradigms the significance of the teacher’s

  9. Approaches to Learning: Supporting Brain Development for School Success (United States)

    Petersen, Sandra


    Prenatally and in infants and toddlers, the brain is being constructed as a foundation for all later learning. Positive early experiences contribute to the formation of a brain that is capable, early in infancy, of utilizing and strengthening the basic processes of learning. Throughout a lifetime, a person will repeatedly use these approaches to…

  10. Teaching Math in the Primary Grades: The Learning Trajectories Approach (United States)

    Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas


    Children's thinking follows natural developmental paths in learning math. When teachers understand those paths and offer activities based on children's progress along them, they build developmentally appropriate math environments. The authors explain math learning trajectories and why teaching math using the trajectories approach is effective. A…

  11. Digital Games and Learning in Cyberspace: A Dialogical Approach (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Andrew; McAlister, Simon


    Currently there is considerable enthusiasm for exploring how we can apply digital gaming paradigms to learning. But these approaches are often weak in linking the game-playing activity to transferable social or conceptual processes and skills that constitute, or are related to, learning. In contrast, this article describes a "dialogue…

  12. Learning approaches to the study of auditing followed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    270; Valadas, Gonçalves & Faı ̃sca 2010: 263; Watson, Apostolou, Hassell & Webber. 2007: 38–42). Despite this emphasis on the learning approaches of accounting students, Flood and Wilson (2008: 225, 226) expressed surprise that few prior studies. (for example, Hassall & Joyce 2001) have explored student learning ...

  13. A Challenge-Feedback Learning Approach to Teaching International Business (United States)

    Sternad, Dietmar


    This article introduces a challenge-feedback learning (CFL) approach based on the goal-setting theory of human motivation, the deliberate practice theory of expert performance, and findings from the research on active and collaborative learning. The core of the teaching concept is the CFL cycle in which students repeatedly progress through four…

  14. Mobile Games for Learning: A Pattern-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Birgit


    The core concern of this thesis is the design of mobile games for learning. The conditions and requirements that are vital in order to make mobile games suitable and effective for learning environments are investigated. The base for exploration is the pattern approach as an established form of

  15. Learning-by-doing approaches for skill acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hristov, Ivo


    Please, cite this publication as: Hristov, I. (2006). Learning-by-doing approaches for skill acquisition. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th,

  16. Developing a Competency-Based Assessment Approach for Student Learning (United States)

    Dunning, Pamela T.


    Higher education accrediting bodies are increasing the emphasis on assessing student learning outcomes as opposed to teaching methodology. The purpose of this article is to describe the process used by Troy University's Master of Public Administration program to change their assessment approach from a course learning objective perspective to a…

  17. Exploring the Behavioural Patterns of Entrepreneurial Learning: A Competency Approach (United States)

    Man, Thomas Wing Yan


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to empirically explore the behavioural patterns involved in entrepreneurial learning through a conceptualization of entrepreneurial learning as a "competency". Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews to 12 entrepreneurs were conducted with a focus on the critical incidents in which…

  18. Mini Anchors: A Universal Design for Learning Approach (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hasselbring, Ted S.


    Teachers are challenged to create flexible learning environments that prepare students with diverse learning needs for adaptable thinking in a fast-paced and changing society. To address this need, we used a design-based research approach to develop a technology-based solution to individualize mathematical problem solving instruction to students…

  19. The influence of assessment practices on students' learning approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performed in tests and examinations in relation to peers who were apparently academically less well prepared for higher education. The Assist questionnaire was used to determine the natural learning approaches of two groups of first and second year ...

  20. An active learning approach with uncertainty, representativeness, and diversity. (United States)

    He, Tianxu; Zhang, Shukui; Xin, Jie; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Xian, Xuefeng; Li, Chunhua; Cui, Zhiming


    Big data from the Internet of Things may create big challenge for data classification. Most active learning approaches select either uncertain or representative unlabeled instances to query their labels. Although several active learning algorithms have been proposed to combine the two criteria for query selection, they are usually ad hoc in finding unlabeled instances that are both informative and representative and fail to take the diversity of instances into account. We address this challenge by presenting a new active learning framework which considers uncertainty, representativeness, and diversity creation. The proposed approach provides a systematic way for measuring and combining the uncertainty, representativeness, and diversity of an instance. Firstly, use instances' uncertainty and representativeness to constitute the most informative set. Then, use the kernel k-means clustering algorithm to filter the redundant samples and the resulting samples are queried for labels. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms several state-of-the-art active learning approaches.

  1. Learning from the application of the systematic approach to training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Yoder, J.A.


    The paper describes the objectives, lessons learned, key accomplishments and related activities of the application of the systematic approach to training initiated by DOE in Russia and Ukraine in 1992 focused on single facility in each country

  2. Can Learning Motivation Predict Learning Achievement? A Case Study of a Mobile Game-Based English Learning Approach (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Hui; Cheng, Ching-Hsue; Yeh, Duen-Yian; Lin, Shih-Yun


    This study applied a quasi-experimental design to investigate the influence and predictive power of learner motivation for achievement, employing a mobile game-based English learning approach. A system called the Happy English Learning System, integrating learning material into a game-based context, was constructed and installed on mobile devices…

  3. Creating Participatory Online Learning Environments: A Social Learning Approach Revisited (United States)

    Conley, Quincy; Lutz, Heather S.; Padgitt, Amanda J.


    Online learning has never been more popular than it is today. Due to the rapid growth of online instruction at colleges and universities, questions about the effectiveness of online courses have been raised. In this paper, we suggest guidelines for the selection and application of social media tools. In addition to describing the potential…

  4. Service-Learning Pedagogy: Benefits of a Learning Community Approach (United States)

    Flinders, Brooke A.


    Service-learning is, by nature, continually evolving. Seifer (1996) stressed the importance of partnerships between communities and schools, and stated that reflection should facilitate the connection between practice and theory, and lead to critical thinking. Before these reflective activities occur, however, much can be done to maximize…

  5. Automatic speech recognition a deep learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Dong


    This book summarizes the recent advancement in the field of automatic speech recognition with a focus on discriminative and hierarchical models. This will be the first automatic speech recognition book to include a comprehensive coverage of recent developments such as conditional random field and deep learning techniques. It presents insights and theoretical foundation of a series of recent models such as conditional random field, semi-Markov and hidden conditional random field, deep neural network, deep belief network, and deep stacking models for sequential learning. It also discusses practical considerations of using these models in both acoustic and language modeling for continuous speech recognition.

  6. Student Approaches to Achieving Understanding--Approaches to Learning Revisited (United States)

    Fyrenius, Anna; Wirell, Staffan; Silen, Charlotte


    This article presents a phenomenographic study that investigates students' approaches to achieving understanding. The results are based on interviews, addressing physiological phenomena, with 16 medical students in a problem-based curriculum. Four approaches--sifting, building, holding and moving--are outlined. The holding and moving approaches…

  7. Newton's First Law: A Learning Cycle Approach (United States)

    McCarthy, Deborah


    To demonstrate how Newton's first law of motion applies to students' everyday lives, the author developed a learning cycle series of activities on inertia. The discrepant event at the heart of these activities is sure to elicit wide-eyed stares and puzzled looks from students, but also promote critical thinking and help bring an abstract concept…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita Wilkinson

    ABSTRACT. The main objectives of this article is to find attractive and appropriate educational strategies and methodologies that could be used in teaching and learning chemistry in order to attract new generations to appreciate studying the most important discipline in science; chemistry. Chemistry is considered as the ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita Wilkinson

    (36) Chemistry teachers randomly sampled from all the secondary schools in Benue State formed the sample. .... clear that for the teacher to effectively use ICT in teaching learning, the resources and facilities for. ICT should be .... prompt and regular payment of salaries and allowances should be made available for science ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita Wilkinson

    To Ausubel, meaningful learning is a process in which new information is related to an existing relevant aspect of an individual's knowledge structure and which, correspondingly, must be the result of an overt action by the learner. Teachers can encourage this choice by using tools such as concept maps. Some theories ...

  11. systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Enthusiasm is crucially needed in teaching and learning of chemistry at educational institutes. Issues and problems in achieving that end needs to be addressed on top priority. In this scenario the role of the instructor is of vital significance. A teacher can minimize the difficulties in concept building by providing ...

  12. An approach to explainable deep learning using fuzzy inference (United States)

    Bonanno, David; Nock, Kristen; Smith, Leslie; Elmore, Paul; Petry, Fred


    Deep Learning has proven to be an effective method for making highly accurate predictions from complex data sources. Convolutional neural networks continue to dominate image classification problems and recursive neural networks have proven their utility in caption generation and language translations. While these approaches are powerful, they do not offer explanation for how the output is generated. Without understanding how deep learning arrives at a solution there is no guarantee that these networks will transition from controlled laboratory environments to fieldable systems. This paper presents an approach for incorporating such rule based methodology into neural networks by embedding fuzzy inference systems into deep learning networks.

  13. Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in Geometry Learning (United States)

    Mahendra, R.; Slamet, I.; Budiyono


    One of the difficulties of students in the learning of geometry is on the subject of plane that requires students to understand the abstract matter. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of Problem Posing learning model with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in geometry learning. This quasi experimental research was conducted in one of the junior high schools in Karanganyar, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The results of this research indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students’ conceptual understanding significantly in geometry learning especially on plane topics. It is because students on the application of Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach are become to be active in constructing their knowledge, proposing, and problem solving in realistic, so it easier for students to understand concepts and solve the problems. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on geometry material. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.

  14. Relations between blended learning possibilities and teachers' approaches to blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenalt, Maria Hvid; Nielsen, Tobias Alsted; Bager-Elsborg, Anna

    : • Optain locally-embedded knowledge about blended learning • Develop opportunities for law students to receive (more) feedback • Comply with strategic aims The results so far suggest that teachers provide a disciplinary perspective on the key dimensions of blended learning, which influences......Higher Education has embraced blended learning as a way of enhancing quality in teaching and helping students to learn. This presentation addresses relations between blended learning possiblities presented to teachers in a teacher training project and teachers’ approaches to blended learning. We...... suggest that in order to identify the level of impact of integrating technologies in teaching and learning, we need to understand the factors influencing approaches to design of courses for blended contexts. Participants in the teacher training project come from the Department of Law at Aarhus University...

  15. A Tandem Learning Approach to Task Evaluation


    Stewart, Timothy; スチュワート, ティモシー


    This paper describes an approach to task evaluation that emerged out of the process of course development. The multi-layered approach to task evaluation described synthesizes student and teacher evaluations of tasks written in journals with more traditional course evaluation data in a reflective process of course development. Ultimately, the approach opens up dynamic insights into the appropriateness of tasks by incorporating the views of both students and teachers.The paper concludes by illu...

  16. Porous polymer coatings: a versatile approach to superhydrophobic surfaces** (United States)

    Levkin, Pavel A.; Svec, Frantisek


    We present a facile and inexpensive approach to superhydrophobic polymer coatings. The method involves the in-situ polymerization of common monomers in the presence of a porogenic solvent to afford superhydrophobic surfaces with the desired combination of micro- and nano-scale roughness. The method is applicable to a variety of substrates and is not limited to small areas or flat surfaces. The polymerized material can be ground into a superhydrophobic powder, which, once applied to a surface, renders it superhydrophobic. The morphology of the porous polymer structure can be efficiently controlled by composition of the polymerization mixture, while surface chemistry can be adjusted by photografting. Morphology control is used to reduce the globule size of the porous architecture from micro down to nanoscale thereby affording a transparent material. The influence of both surface chemistry as well as the length scale of surface roughness on the superhydrophobicity is discussed. PMID:20160978

  17. Teaching of anatomical sciences: A blended learning approach. (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Abdel Meguid, Eiman M; Elkhider, Ihsan A


    Blended learning is the integration of different learning approaches, new technologies, and activities that combine traditional face-to-face teaching methods with authentic online methodologies. Although advances in educational technology have helped to expand the selection of different pedagogies, the teaching of anatomical sciences has been challenged by implementation difficulties and other limitations. These challenges are reported to include lack of time, costs, and lack of qualified teachers. Easy access to online information and advances in technology make it possible to resolve these limitations by adopting blended learning approaches. Blended learning strategies have been shown to improve students' academic performance, motivation, attitude, and satisfaction, and to provide convenient and flexible learning. Implementation of blended learning strategies has also proved cost effective. This article provides a theoretical foundation for blended learning and proposes a validated framework for the design of blended learning activities in the teaching and learning of anatomical sciences. Clin. Anat. 31:323-329, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Mixed Learning Technology Approach for Continuing Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon R. Curran


    Full Text Available Introduction: Distance learning technologies have been used for many years to provide CME to rural physicians. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and acceptability of a mixed learning technology approach for providing distance CME. The approach combined audio teleconferencing instruction with a Web-based learning system enabling the live presentation and archiving of instructional material and media, asynchronous computer conferencing discussions, and access to supplemental online learning resources. Methodology: The study population was comprised of physicians and nurse practitioners who participated in audio teleconference sessions, but did not access the Web-based learning system (non-users; learners who participated in audio teleconferences and accessed the Web-based system (online users; and faculty. The evaluation focused upon faculty and learners’ experiences and perceptions of the mixed learning technology approach; the level of usage; and the effectiveness of the approach in fostering non-mandatory, computer-mediated discussions. Results and Discussion: The users of the Web-based learning system were satisfied with its features, ease of use, and the ability to access online CME instructional material. Learners who accessed the system reported a higher level of computer skill and comfort than those who did not, and the majority of these users accessed the system at times other than the live audio teleconference sessions. The greatest use of the system appeared to be for self-directed learning. The success of a mixed learning technology approach is dependent on Internet connectivity and computer access; learners and faculty having time to access and use the Web; comfort with computers; and faculty development in the area of Web-based teaching.

  19. Machine learning: novel bioinformatics approaches for combating antimicrobial resistance. (United States)

    Macesic, Nenad; Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Tatonetti, Nicholas P


    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to global health and new approaches to combating AMR are needed. Use of machine learning in addressing AMR is in its infancy but has made promising steps. We reviewed the current literature on the use of machine learning for studying bacterial AMR. The advent of large-scale data sets provided by next-generation sequencing and electronic health records make applying machine learning to the study and treatment of AMR possible. To date, it has been used for antimicrobial susceptibility genotype/phenotype prediction, development of AMR clinical decision rules, novel antimicrobial agent discovery and antimicrobial therapy optimization. Application of machine learning to studying AMR is feasible but remains limited. Implementation of machine learning in clinical settings faces barriers to uptake with concerns regarding model interpretability and data quality.Future applications of machine learning to AMR are likely to be laboratory-based, such as antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype prediction.

  20. Marketing planning by learning: "Plearning" approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Milovan M.


    Full Text Available This work emphasizes that the final outcome of planning is not only the benefit of having the ready plan but showing that the very process of planning through which a business goes through, is important. Here we consider the process of learning in order to get a complete picture of current and future business processes. Three stages of learning are included. The first stage describes the current position of the business; the second stage describes the position of the business in the future and the last stage shows how the business will achieve these objectives. The focus of planning should be deciding on internal communication which form the basis for gaining the competitive advantage. One of the ways for carrying out this analysis is creating the matrix based on gaining competitive advantage through using resources.

  1. The Semiotic Approach and Language Teaching and Learning


    Şenel, Müfit


    This study investigates the relation of the Foreign Language Teaching with the Semiotic Approach that gains more importance recently and tries to explain how this concept has been used as Semiotic Approach in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning and teacher-learner roles, strong-weak sides, types of activities, etc. have been handled.

  2. A New Learning Approach: Flipped Classroom and Its Impacts (United States)

    Yildirim, Gürkan


    The aim of this study is to present opinions of undergraduate students towards Flipped Classroom (FC) practices and to determine their different aspects then traditional learning approaches. The case study approach is preferred to conduct the study. In this context, 34 volunteered students were included in the study group by purposive sampling…

  3. The Semiotic Approach and Language Teaching and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfit Şenel


    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation of the Foreign Language Teaching with the SemioticApproach that gains more importance recently and tries to explain how this concept has beenused as Semiotic Approach in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning and teacher-learnerroles, strong-weak sides, types of activities, etc. have been handled.

  4. 3 Colleges' Different Approaches Shape Learning in Econ 101 (United States)

    Berrett, Dan


    No matter the college, a class in the principles of microeconomics is likely to cover the discipline's greatest hits. The author attends three economics courses at three colleges, and finds three very different approaches. In this article, the author discusses three colleges' different approaches that shape learning in Econ 101.

  5. Translation in language learning: a ‘what for’ approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo E. Balboni


    Full Text Available Literature about translation in language learning and teaching shows the prominence of the ‘for and against’ approach, while a ‘what for’ approach would be more profitable. In order to prevent the latter approach from becoming a random list of the potential benefits of the use of translation in language teaching, this essay suggests the use of a formal model of communicative competence, to see which of its components can profit of translation activities. The result is a map of the effects of translation in the wide range of competences and abilities which constitute language learning.

  6. Machine learning and computer vision approaches for phenotypic profiling. (United States)

    Grys, Ben T; Lo, Dara S; Sahin, Nil; Kraus, Oren Z; Morris, Quaid; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J


    With recent advances in high-throughput, automated microscopy, there has been an increased demand for effective computational strategies to analyze large-scale, image-based data. To this end, computer vision approaches have been applied to cell segmentation and feature extraction, whereas machine-learning approaches have been developed to aid in phenotypic classification and clustering of data acquired from biological images. Here, we provide an overview of the commonly used computer vision and machine-learning methods for generating and categorizing phenotypic profiles, highlighting the general biological utility of each approach. © 2017 Grys et al.

  7. Case-based approaches for knowledge application and organisational learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.


    structured processes to execute the organisational learning and knowledge application, which intend to guide the practitioners during the process of manufacturing competence development and improvement. They are based on Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) methodology and rely on cases as the primary knowledge supply....... These practices and activity patterns are based on learning and applying the knowledge internal and external to an organisation. To ensure their smooth formulation process, there are two important techniques designed – an expert adaptation approach and an expert evaluation approach. These two approaches provide...

  8. Advantages of a Modular Mars Surface Habitat Approach (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Hoffman, Stephan J.; Andrews, Alida; Watts, Kevin


    Early crewed Mars mission concepts developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) assumed a single, large habitat would house six crew members for a 500-day Mars surface stay. At the end of the first mission, all surface equipment, including the habitat, -would be abandoned and the process would be repeated at a different Martian landing site. This work was documented in a series of NASA publications culminating with the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 (NASA-SP-2009-566). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) explored whether re-using surface equipment at a single landing site could be more affordable than the Apollo-style explore-abandon-repeat mission cadence. Initial EMC assumptions preserved the single, monolithic habitat, the only difference being a new requirement to reuse the surface habitat for multiple expedition crews. A trade study comparing a single large habitat versus smaller, modular habitats leaned towards the monolithic approach as more mass-efficient. More recent work has focused on the operational aspects of building up Mars surface infrastructure over multiple missions, and has identified compelling advantages of the modular approach that should be considered before making a final decision. This paper explores Mars surface mission operational concepts and integrated system analysis, and presents an argument for the modular habitat approach.

  9. The Use of Deep and Surface Learning Strategies among Students Learning English as a Foreign Language in an Internet Environment (United States)

    Aharony, Noa


    Background: The learning context is learning English in an Internet environment. The examination of this learning process was based on the Biggs and Moore's teaching-learning model (Biggs & Moore, 1993). Aim: The research aims to explore the use of the deep and surface strategies in an Internet environment among EFL students who come from…

  10. Incorporating Wiki Technology in a Traditional Biostatistics Course: Effects on University Students’ Collaborative Learning, Approaches to Learning and Course Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S.M. Fong


    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of incorporating wiki technology in an under-graduate biostatistics course for improving university students’ collaborative learning, approaches to learning, and course performance. Methodology: During a three year longitudinal study, twenty-one and twenty-four undergraduate students were recruited by convenience sampling and assigned to a wiki group (2014-2015 and a control group (2013-2014 and 2015-2016, respectively. The students in the wiki group attended face-to-face lectures and used a wiki (PBworks weekly for online- group discussion, and the students in the control group had no access to the wiki and interacted face-to-face only. The students’ collaborative learning, approaches to learning, and course performance were evaluated using the Group Process Questionnaire (GPQ, Revised Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F and course results, respectively, after testing. Findings: Multivariate analysis of variance results revealed that the R-SPQ-2F surface approach score, surface motive and strategy subscores were lower in the wiki group than in the control group (p < 0.05. The GPQ individual accountability and equal opportunity scores (components of collaboration were higher in the wiki group than in the control group (p < 0.001. No significant between-groups differences were found in any of the other outcome variables (i.e., overall course result, R-SPQ-2F deep approach score and subscores, GPQ positive interdependence score, social skills score, and composite score. Looking at the Wiki Questionnaire results, the subscale and composite scores we obtained were 31.5% to 37.7% lower than the norm. The wiki was used at a frequency of about 0.7 times per week per student. Recommendations for Practitioners: Using wiki technology in conjunction with the traditional face-to-face teaching method in a biostatistics course can enhance some aspects of undergraduate students’ collaborative learning

  11. Character Building with Students in Learning Science Approach scientific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusmaweti ,


    Full Text Available Building character, especially the younger generation of learners is very important and very urgent, if we look at the phenomena that occur and future challenges more complex. Characters such as honest, disimplin, obey the rules, responsibility, etc. are getting lost. The problems of this paper outlines "build character fantasize learners with scientific approach to learning science." Characters can be seen as a way of thinking and behaving that are typical of every individual to live, socialize, and work together in the family, community, nation, and state. The characters are well demonstrated with morals, budipekerti, and commendable behavior and become role models in the family, community, nation. Character education in school settings as learning that lead to the strengthening and development of the child's behavior as a whole is based on a certain value that is referenced by the school "which means that character education is integrated in all subjects were directed to develop the behavior of learners in their entirety. Learning the scientific approach to learning science is able to apply those values by providing exemplary, build and develop kreaktivitas willingness of learners in the learning process. Learning activities not only in the classroom, but also can be done outside the classroom and school environment with the use of information technology. Common characters such as honesty, discipline, obey the rules, or responsible, respectful, thorough, communicative, collaboration can be built through a scientific approach to the learning activities during work. It can be concluded that the learning process can build character scientifik approach learners.Keywords: , Pembelajaran , sains, character scientific, approach.

  12. A new approach to teaching and learning mechanics (United States)

    Westra, A. S.


    In this thesis a research project is described that took place from 2000 until 2004 in the Centre for Science and Mathematics Education in Utrecht. It involves a didactical research into the teaching and learning of an introduction to mechanics for fourth grade pre-university level students (Dutch: 4 VWO). Many people consider mechanics as an important part of physics, well worth teaching and learning, but also as a topic in which many difficulties in learning and understanding surface. The aims of the research are to contribute to a further understanding of these difficulties and to point in the direction of possible solutions.

  13. The Effects of Brain Based Learning Approach on Motivation and Students Achievement in Mathematics Learning (United States)

    Mekarina, M.; Ningsih, Y. P.


    This classroom action research is based by the facts that the students motivation and achievement mathematics learning is less. One of the factors causing is learning that does not provide flexibility to students to empower the potential of the brain optimally. The aim of this research was to improve the student motivation and achievement in mathematics learning by implementing brain based learning approach. The subject of this research was student of grade XI in senior high school. The research consisted of two cycles. Data of student achievement from test, and the student motivation through questionnaire. Furthermore, the finding of this research showed the result of the analysis was the implementation of brain based learning approach can improve student’s achievement and motivation in mathematics learning.

  14. Dyslexia, authorial identity, and approaches to learning and writing: a mixed methods study. (United States)

    Kinder, Julianne; Elander, James


    Dyslexia may lead to difficulties with academic writing as well as reading. The authorial identity approach aims to help students improve their academic writing and avoid unintentional plagiarism, and could help to understand dyslexic students' approaches to writing. (1) To compare dyslexic and non-dyslexic students' authorial identity and approaches to learning and writing; (2) to compare correlations between approaches to writing and approaches to learning among dyslexic and non-dyslexic students; (3) to explore dyslexic students' understandings of authorship and beliefs about dyslexia, writing and plagiarism. Dyslexic (n= 31) and non-dyslexic (n= 31) university students. Questionnaire measures of self-rated confidence in writing, understanding of authorship, knowledge to avoid plagiarism, and top-down, bottom-up and pragmatic approaches to writing (Student Authorship Questionnaire; SAQ), and deep, surface and strategic approaches to learning (Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students; ASSIST), plus qualitative interviews with dyslexic students with high and low SAQ scores. Dyslexic students scored lower for confidence in writing, understanding authorship, and strategic approaches to learning, and higher for surface approaches to learning. Correlations among SAQ and ASSIST scores were larger and more frequently significant among non-dyslexic students. Self-rated knowledge to avoid plagiarism was associated with a top-down approach to writing among dyslexic students and with a bottom-up approach to writing among non-dyslexic students. All the dyslexic students interviewed described how dyslexia made writing more difficult and reduced their confidence in academic writing, but they had varying views about whether dyslexia increased the risk of plagiarism. Dyslexic students have less strong authorial identities, and less congruent approaches to learning and writing. Knowledge to avoid plagiarism may be more salient for dyslexic students, who may benefit from

  15. Can "YouTube" help students in learning surface anatomy? (United States)

    Azer, Samy A


    In a problem-based learning curriculum, most medical students research the Internet for information for their "learning issues." Internet sites such as "YouTube" have become a useful resource for information. This study aimed at assessing YouTube videos covering surface anatomy. A search of YouTube was conducted from November 8 to 30, 2010 using research terms "surface anatomy," "anatomy body painting," "living anatomy," "bone landmarks," and "dermatomes" for surface anatomy-related videos. Only relevant video clips in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each videotape the following information were collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. The data were statistically analyzed and videos were grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos on the basis of major and minor criteria covering technical, content, authority, and pedagogy parameters. A total of 235 YouTube videos were screened and 57 were found to have relevant information to surface anatomy. Analysis revealed that 15 (27%) of the videos provided useful information on surface anatomy. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.0 ± 0.7) and mainly covered surface anatomy of the shoulder, knee, muscles of the back, leg, and ankle, carotid artery, dermatomes, and anatomical positions. The other 42 (73%) videos were not useful educationally, scoring (mean ± SD, 7.4 ± 1.8). The total viewers of all videos were 1,058,634. Useful videos were viewed by 497,925 (47% of total viewers). The total viewership per day was 750 for useful videos and 652 for non-useful videos. No video clips covering surface anatomy of the head and neck, blood vessels and nerves of upper and lower limbs, chest and abdominal organs/structures were found. Currently, YouTube is an inadequate source of information for learning surface anatomy. More work is needed from medical schools and educators to add useful videos on You

  16. Learning styles and approaches to learning among medical undergraduates and postgraduates. (United States)

    Samarakoon, Lasitha; Fernando, Tharanga; Rodrigo, Chaturaka


    The challenge of imparting a large amount of knowledge within a limited time period in a way it is retained, remembered and effectively interpreted by a student is considerable. This has resulted in crucial changes in the field of medical education, with a shift from didactic teacher centered and subject based teaching to the use of interactive, problem based, student centered learning. This study tested the hypothesis that learning styles (visual, auditory, read/write and kinesthetic) and approaches to learning (deep, strategic and superficial) differ among first and final year undergraduate medical students, and postgraduates medical trainees. We used self administered VARK and ASSIST questionnaires to assess the differences in learning styles and approaches to learning among medical undergraduates of the University of Colombo and postgraduate trainees of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, Colombo. A total of 147 participated: 73 (49.7%) first year students, 40 (27.2%) final year students and 34(23.1%) postgraduate students. The majority (69.9%) of first year students had multimodal learning styles. Among final year students, the majority (67.5%) had multimodal learning styles, and among postgraduates, the majority were unimodal (52.9%) learners.Among all three groups, the predominant approach to learning was strategic. Postgraduates had significant higher mean scores for deep and strategic approaches than first years or final years (p learning approaches suggest a positive shift towards deep and strategic learning in postgraduate students. However a similar difference was not observed in undergraduate students from first year to final year, suggesting that their curriculum may not have influenced learning methodology over a five year period.

  17. Two approaches, one course: an experience in experiential learning. (United States)

    Lien, Ashlee D; Hakim, Sharon M


    In universities where experiential learning is not the norm, introducing this style of learning into undergraduate courses can be an intimidating process for both instructors and students. Instructors are often unsure of how to manage student experiences in the community, while a significant number of students react with skepticism toward this new type of course, as well as concern about their instructor's changing expectations for their performance. The following is a reflection of our first 2 years of teaching undergraduate courses from a distinctly experiential learning approach. Qualitative data is used to highlight the parallel learning processes that occurred over the semester, for students as well as for us as instructors. Our biggest challenges are explored in detail, and advice to instructors contemplating adapting an experiential approach to their own courses is presented.

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coty, J


    This surface water protection plan (plan) provides an overview of the management efforts implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that support a watershed approach to protect surface water. This plan fulfills a requirement in the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A to demonstrate a watershed approach for surface water protection that protects the environment and public health. This plan describes the use of a watershed approach within which the Laboratory's current surface water management and protections efforts have been structured and coordinated. With more than 800 million acres of land in the U.S. under federal management and stewardship, a unified approach across agencies provides enhanced resource protection and cost-effectiveness. The DOE adopted, along with other federal agencies, the Unified Federal Policy for a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management (UFP) with a goal to protect water quality and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands. This policy intends to prevent and/or reduce water pollution from federal activities while fostering a cost-effective watershed approach to federal land and resource management. The UFP also intends to enhance the implementation of existing laws (e.g., the Clean Water Act [CWA] and National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA]) and regulations. In addition, this provides an opportunity for the federal government to serve as a model for water quality stewardship using a watershed approach for federal land and resource activities that potentially impact surface water and its uses. As a federal land manager, the Laboratory is responsible for a small but important part of those 800 million acres of land. Diverse land uses are required to support the Laboratory's mission and provide an appropriate work environment for its staff. The Laboratory comprises two sites: its main site in Livermore, California, and the Experimental Test Site (Site 300), near Tracy, California. The main site

  19. A Digital Approach to Learning Petrology (United States)

    Reid, M. R.


    In the undergraduate igneous and metamorphic petrology course at Northern Arizona University, we are employing petrographic microscopes equipped with relatively inexpensive ( $200) digital cameras that are linked to pen-tablet computers. The camera-tablet systems can assist student learning in a variety of ways. Images provided by the tablet computers can be used for helping students filter the visually complex specimens they examine. Instructors and students can simultaneously view the same petrographic features captured by the cameras and exchange information about them by pointing to salient features using the tablet pen. These images can become part of a virtual mineral/rock/texture portfolio tailored to individual student's needs. Captured digital illustrations can be annotated with digital ink or computer graphics tools; this activity emulates essential features of more traditional line drawings (visualizing an appropriate feature and selecting a representative image of it, internalizing the feature through studying and annotating it) while minimizing the frustration that many students feel about drawing. In these ways, we aim to help a student progress more efficiently from novice to expert. A number of our petrology laboratory exercises involve use of the camera-tablet systems for collaborative learning. Observational responsibilities are distributed among individual members of teams in order to increase interdependence and accountability, and to encourage efficiency. Annotated digital images are used to share students' findings and arrive at an understanding of an entire rock suite. This interdependence increases the individual's sense of responsibility for their work, and reporting out encourages students to practice use of technical vocabulary and to defend their observations. Pre- and post-course student interest in the camera-tablet systems has been assessed. In a post-course survey, the majority of students reported that, if available, they would use

  20. A blended learning approach to teaching CVAD care and maintenance. (United States)

    Hainey, Karen; Kelly, Linda J; Green, Audrey


    Nurses working within both acute and primary care settings are required to care for and maintain central venous access devices (CVADs). To support these nurses in practice, a higher education institution and local health board developed and delivered CVAD workshops, which were supported by a workbook and competency portfolio. Following positive evaluation of the workshops, an electronic learning (e-learning) package was also introduced to further support this clinical skill in practice. To ascertain whether this blended learning approach to teaching CVAD care and maintenance prepared nurses for practice, the learning package was evaluated through the use of electronic questionnaires. Results highlighted that the introduction of the e-learning package supported nurses' practice, and increased their confidence around correct clinical procedures.

  1. Multi-dimensional technology-enabled social learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petreski, Hristijan; Tsekeridou, Sofia; Prasad, Neeli R.


    in learning while socializing within their learning communities. However, their “educational” usage is still limited to facilitation of online learning communities and to collaborative authoring of learning material complementary to existing formal (e-) learning services. If the educational system doesn......’t respond to this systemic and structural changes and/or challenges and retains its status quo than it is jeopardizing its own existence or the existence of the education, as we know it. This paper aims to precede one step further by proposing a multi-dimensional approach for technology-enabled social...... content on the Web, using social networks to keep in touch, express, distribute and publish their experiences, views and ideas. Although, since their birth, most of the social media tools were not intended for educational purposes, educational organizations have started to recognize their added value...

  2. Modeling Alaska boreal forests with a controlled trend surface approach (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Jingjing Liang


    An approach of Controlled Trend Surface was proposed to simultaneously take into consideration large-scale spatial trends and nonspatial effects. A geospatial model of the Alaska boreal forest was developed from 446 permanent sample plots, which addressed large-scale spatial trends in recruitment, diameter growth, and mortality. The model was tested on two sets of...

  3. Sustainable Approaches for Surface Transportation Mortality in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines sustainable approach for surface transportation road mortality in Nigeria. Road transportation as a major mode of transportation and is the most used mode of transportation for the movement of people, goods and services from one place to another. As a result of this, major obstacles and problems have ...

  4. Study Circles in Online Learning Environment in the Spirit of Learning-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simándi Szilvia


    Full Text Available Introduction: In the era of information society and knowledge economy, learning in non-formal environments gets a highlighted role: it can supplement, replace or raise the knowledge and skills gained in the school system to a higher level (Forray & Juhász, 2008, as the so-called “valid” knowledge significantly changes due to the acceleration of development. With the appearance of information technology means and their booming development, the possibilities of gaining information have widened and, according to the forecasts, the role of learning communities will grow. Purpose: Our starting point is that today, with the involvement of community sites (e.g. Google+, Facebook etc. there is a new possibility for inspiring learning communities: by utilizing the power of community and the possibilities of network-based learning (Ollé & Lévai, 2013. Methods: We intend to make a synthesis based on former research and literature focusing on the learning-centered approach, online learning environment, learning communities and study circles (Noesgaard & Ørngreen, 2015; Biggs & Tang, 2007; Kindström, 2010 Conclusions: The online learning environment can be well utilized for community learning. In the online learning environment, the process of learning is built on activity-oriented work for which active participation, and an intensive, initiative communication are necessary and cooperative and collaborative learning get an important role.

  5. Meaningful Learning in the Teaching of Culture: The Project Based Learning Approach (United States)

    Kean, Ang Chooi; Kwe, Ngu Moi


    This paper reports on a collaborative effort taken by a team of three teacher educators in using the Project Based Learning (PBL) approach in the teaching of Japanese culture with the aim to investigate the presence of actual "meaningful learning" among 15 students of a 12-Week Preparatory Japanese Language course under a teacher…

  6. The Capability Approach: Enabling Musical Learning (United States)

    Cameron, Kate


    Amartya Sen's capability approach offers a new perspective for educators throughout the curriculum. This new insight has the potential to promote a music education that is inherently tailored to the individual. In essence it asks the question: What is music education going to offer to this student? This article represents an initial enquiry into…

  7. Episodic reinforcement learning control approach for biped walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Duško


    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid dynamic control approach to the realization of humanoid biped robotic walk, focusing on the policy gradient episodic reinforcement learning with fuzzy evaluative feedback. The proposed structure of controller involves two feedback loops: a conventional computed torque controller and an episodic reinforcement learning controller. The reinforcement learning part includes fuzzy information about Zero-Moment- Point errors. Simulation tests using a medium-size 36-DOF humanoid robot MEXONE were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  8. University students' achievement goals and approaches to learning in mathematics. (United States)

    Cano, Francisco; Berbén, A B G


    Achievement goals (AG) and students' approaches to learning (SAL) are two research perspectives on student motivation and learning in higher education that have until now been pursued quite independently. This study sets out: (a) to explore the relationship between the most representative variables of SAL and AG; (b) to identify subgroups (clusters) of students with multiple AG; and (c) to examine the differences between these clusters with respect to various SAL and AG characteristics. The participants were 680 male and female 1st year university students studying different subjects (e.g. mathematics, physics, economics) but all enrolled on mathematics courses (e.g. algebra, calculus). Participants completed a series of questionnaires that measured their conceptions of mathematics, approaches to learning, course experience, personal 2 x 2 AG, and perceived AG. SAL and AG variables were moderately associated and related to both the way students perceived their academic environment and the way they conceived of the nature of mathematics (i.e. the perceptual-cognitive framework). Four clusters of students with distinctive multiple AG were identified and when the differences between clusters were analysed, we were able to attribute them to various constructs including perceptual-cognitive framework, learning approaches, and academic performance. This study reveals a consistent pattern of relationships between SAL and AG perspectives across different methods of analysis, supports the relevance of the 2 x 2 AG framework in a mathematics learning context and suggests that AG and SAL may be intertwined aspects of students' experience of learning mathematics at university.

  9. Short Run Capability Improvement Efforts Through Varied Learning Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was done to upgrade the learning approach through the short run variable on the students grade 3 son SD N Krebet 3 Masaran Sragen 2015/2016 school year. This research is Class action, research was conducted with two-cycle and do the analysis it can be concluded that increased learning outcomes atltetik number of short run through the learning variable approach is characterized by an increase in the value of the average student. The average value of the students on the initial conditions of 60.56 with ketuntasan percentage of 6.67%. The condition has increased the value of the average students in cycle I, i.e. of 62.20 and ketuntasan percentage of 10.00%. However, the increase has still not reached the targets set earlier. Then after continuing to cycle II the average value of the short run capability of the students again experienced an increase of ketuntasan percentage of 74.70 with 80.00%. This indicates that the target set previously already accomplished so research stopped in cycle II. The process of learning the number of short run Athletics through learning approach markedly dynamic and fun takes place and the results of observation of the teacher when learning is also increasing in every meeting.

  10. A Progressive Refinement Approach for the Visualisation of Implicit Surfaces (United States)

    Gamito, Manuel N.; Maddock, Steve C.

    Visualising implicit surfaces with the ray casting method is a slow procedure. The design cycle of a new implicit surface is, therefore, fraught with long latency times as a user must wait for the surface to be rendered before being able to decide what changes should be introduced in the next iteration. In this paper, we present an attempt at reducing the design cycle of an implicit surface modeler by introducing a progressive refinement rendering approach to the visualisation of implicit surfaces. This progressive refinement renderer provides a quick previewing facility. It first displays a low quality estimate of what the final rendering is going to be and, as the computation progresses, increases the quality of this estimate at a steady rate. The progressive refinement algorithm is based on the adaptive subdivision of the viewing frustrum into smaller cells. An estimate for the variation of the implicit function inside each cell is obtained with an affine arithmetic range estimation technique. Overall, we show that our progressive refinement approach not only provides the user with visual feedback as the rendering advances but is also capable of completing the image faster than a conventional implicit surface rendering algorithm based on ray casting.

  11. Students awareness of learning styles and their perceptions to a mixed method approach for learning. (United States)

    Bhagat, Anumeha; Vyas, Rashmi; Singh, Tejinder


    Individualization of instructional method does not contribute significantly to learning outcomes although it is known that students have differing learning styles (LSs). Hence, in order to maximally enhance learning, one must try to use a mixed method approach. Our hypothesis was that awareness of preferred LS and motivation to incorporate multiple learning strategies might enhance learning outcomes. Our aim was to determine the impact of awareness of LS among medical undergraduates and motivating students to use mixed methods of learning. Before awareness lecture, LS preferences were determined using Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire. Awareness of LS was assessed using a validated questionnaire. Through a lecture, students were oriented to various LSs, impact of LS on their performance, and benefit of using mixed method approach for learning. Subsequently, group discussions were organized. After 3 months, VARK preferences and awareness of LSs were reassessed. Student narratives were collected. Qualitative analysis of the data was done. There was a significant increase in the number of students who were aware of LS. The number of participants showing a change in VARK scores for various modalities of learning was also significant (P learning strategies and use mixed methods for learning.

  12. Forward-oriented design for learning: illustrating the approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Dimitriadis


    Full Text Available This paper concerns sustainable approaches to design for learning, emphasising the need for designs to be able to thrive outside of the protective niches of project-based innovation. It builds on the “in medias res” framework and more specifically on a forward-oriented approach to design for learning: one that takes a pro-active design stance with respect to each of the phases of an extended lifecycle. We draw on fieldwork notes and interview data to describe two cases that illustrate some of the key features of the approach. Recommendations for further R&D in the area of design for learning are provided, derived from the theoretical framework, and illustrated in this paper.

  13. Mol2vec: Unsupervised Machine Learning Approach with Chemical Intuition. (United States)

    Jaeger, Sabrina; Fulle, Simone; Turk, Samo


    Inspired by natural language processing techniques, we here introduce Mol2vec, which is an unsupervised machine learning approach to learn vector representations of molecular substructures. Like the Word2vec models, where vectors of closely related words are in close proximity in the vector space, Mol2vec learns vector representations of molecular substructures that point in similar directions for chemically related substructures. Compounds can finally be encoded as vectors by summing the vectors of the individual substructures and, for instance, be fed into supervised machine learning approaches to predict compound properties. The underlying substructure vector embeddings are obtained by training an unsupervised machine learning approach on a so-called corpus of compounds that consists of all available chemical matter. The resulting Mol2vec model is pretrained once, yields dense vector representations, and overcomes drawbacks of common compound feature representations such as sparseness and bit collisions. The prediction capabilities are demonstrated on several compound property and bioactivity data sets and compared with results obtained for Morgan fingerprints as a reference compound representation. Mol2vec can be easily combined with ProtVec, which employs the same Word2vec concept on protein sequences, resulting in a proteochemometric approach that is alignment-independent and thus can also be easily used for proteins with low sequence similarities.

  14. Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Semantic Field Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh


    Full Text Available

    This study is an attempt to explore the difference between acquiring new words with different semantic fields to which they belong. In other words, the purpose of this study is to scrutinize the contribution of semantic field theory in learning new vocabulary items in an EFL setting. Thirty-eight students of three different levels of education took part in this research. They were exposed to some new words from four different semantic fields, and then they were tested on their acquisition of the words meaning. This exposure was through reading texts and the aim of reading was just comprehension, therefore the words were acquired incidentally. The outcome showed significant differences between groups with different levels of education regarding retention of words from different semantic fields.

  15. Children's science learning: A core skills approach. (United States)

    Tolmie, Andrew K; Ghazali, Zayba; Morris, Suzanne


    Research has identified the core skills that predict success during primary school in reading and arithmetic, and this knowledge increasingly informs teaching. However, there has been no comparable work that pinpoints the core skills that underlie success in science. The present paper attempts to redress this by examining candidate skills and considering what is known about the way in which they emerge, how they relate to each other and to other abilities, how they change with age, and how their growth may vary between topic areas. There is growing evidence that early-emerging tacit awareness of causal associations is initially separated from language-based causal knowledge, which is acquired in part from everyday conversation and shows inaccuracies not evident in tacit knowledge. Mapping of descriptive and explanatory language onto causal awareness appears therefore to be a key development, which promotes unified conceptual and procedural understanding. This account suggests that the core components of initial science learning are (1) accurate observation, (2) the ability to extract and reason explicitly about causal connections, and (3) knowledge of mechanisms that explain these connections. Observational ability is educationally inaccessible until integrated with verbal description and explanation, for instance, via collaborative group work tasks that require explicit reasoning with respect to joint observations. Descriptive ability and explanatory ability are further promoted by managed exposure to scientific vocabulary and use of scientific language. Scientific reasoning and hypothesis testing are later acquisitions that depend on this integration of systems and improved executive control. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Localized Multiple Kernel Learning A Convex Approach (United States)


    1/2 . Theorem 9 (CLMKL Generalization Error Bounds) Assume that km(x, x) ≤ B, ∀m ∈ NM , x ∈ X . Suppose the loss function ℓ is L- Lipschitz and...mathematical foundation (e.g., Schölkopf and Smola, 2002). The performance of such algorithms, however, crucially depends on the involved kernel function ...approaches to localized MKL (reviewed in Section 1.1) optimize non-convex objective functions . This puts their generalization ability into doubt. Indeed

  17. System learning approach to assess sustainability and ... (United States)

    This paper presents a methodology that combines the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to forecast variables describing the condition of a regional system. The novelty and strength of this approach is in the application of Fisher information, a key method in Information Theory, to preserve trends in the historical data and prevent over fitting projections. The methodology was applied to demographic, environmental, food and energy consumption, and agricultural production in the San Luis Basin regional system in Colorado, U.S.A. These variables are important for tracking conditions in human and natural systems. However, available data are often so far out of date that they limit the ability to manage these systems. Results indicate that the approaches developed provide viable tools for forecasting outcomes with the aim of assisting management toward sustainable trends. This methodology is also applicable for modeling different scenarios in other dynamic systems. Indicators are indispensable for tracking conditions in human and natural systems, however, available data is sometimes far out of date and limit the ability to gauge system status. Techniques like regression and simulation are not sufficient because system characteristics have to be modeled ensuring over simplification of complex dynamics. This work presents a methodology combining the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to capture patterns in a real dyna

  18. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yu Duan


    Full Text Available Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  19. Per-Sample Multiple Kernel Approach for Visual Concept Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yonghong


    Full Text Available Abstract Learning visual concepts from images is an important yet challenging problem in computer vision and multimedia research areas. Multiple kernel learning (MKL methods have shown great advantages in visual concept learning. As a visual concept often exhibits great appearance variance, a canonical MKL approach may not generate satisfactory results when a uniform kernel combination is applied over the input space. In this paper, we propose a per-sample multiple kernel learning (PS-MKL approach to take into account intraclass diversity for improving discrimination. PS-MKL determines sample-wise kernel weights according to kernel functions and training samples. Kernel weights as well as kernel-based classifiers are jointly learned. For efficient learning, PS-MKL employs a sample selection strategy. Extensive experiments are carried out over three benchmarking datasets of different characteristics including Caltech101, WikipediaMM, and Pascal VOC'07. PS-MKL has achieved encouraging performance, comparable to the state of the art, which has outperformed a canonical MKL.

  20. Machine Learning Approaches for Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry. (United States)

    Dwyer, Dominic B; Falkai, Peter; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos


    Machine learning approaches for clinical psychology and psychiatry explicitly focus on learning statistical functions from multidimensional data sets to make generalizable predictions about individuals. The goal of this review is to provide an accessible understanding of why this approach is important for future practice because of its potential to augment decisions associated with the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of people suffering from mental illness using clinical and biological data. To this end, the limitations of current statistical paradigms in mental health research are critiqued, and an introduction is provided to the critical machine learning methods used in clinical studies. A selective literature review is then presented aiming to reinforce the usefulness of machine learning methods and provide evidence of their potential. In the context of promising initial results, the current limitations of machine learning approaches are addressed, and considerations for future clinical translation are outlined. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 14 is May 7, 2018. Please see for revised estimates.

  1. A developmental approach to learning causal models for cyber security (United States)

    Mugan, Jonathan


    To keep pace with our adversaries, we must expand the scope of machine learning and reasoning to address the breadth of possible attacks. One approach is to employ an algorithm to learn a set of causal models that describes the entire cyber network and each host end node. Such a learning algorithm would run continuously on the system and monitor activity in real time. With a set of causal models, the algorithm could anticipate novel attacks, take actions to thwart them, and predict the second-order effects flood of information, and the algorithm would have to determine which streams of that flood were relevant in which situations. This paper will present the results of efforts toward the application of a developmental learning algorithm to the problem of cyber security. The algorithm is modeled on the principles of human developmental learning and is designed to allow an agent to learn about the computer system in which it resides through active exploration. Children are flexible learners who acquire knowledge by actively exploring their environment and making predictions about what they will find,1, 2 and our algorithm is inspired by the work of the developmental psychologist Jean Piaget.3 Piaget described how children construct knowledge in stages and learn new concepts on top of those they already know. Developmental learning allows our algorithm to focus on subsets of the environment that are most helpful for learning given its current knowledge. In experiments, the algorithm was able to learn the conditions for file exfiltration and use that knowledge to protect sensitive files.

  2. Approach for Using Learner Satisfaction to Evaluate the Learning Adaptation Policy (United States)

    Jeghal, Adil; Oughdir, Lahcen; Tairi, Hamid; Radouane, Abdelhay


    The learning adaptation is a very important phase in a learning situation in human learning environments. This paper presents the authors' approach used to evaluate the effectiveness of learning adaptive systems. This approach is based on the analysis of learner satisfaction notices collected by a questionnaire on a learning situation; to analyze…

  3. Multi-modal Social Networks: A MRF Learning Approach (United States)


    malware . Our approach for this learning problem has been to view this as hypothesis testing on graphs – given noisy and partial information on both...hypothesis (spreading process such as malware ). This approach has been used in a sequence of studies, starting from distinguishing with partial...remain attractive due to their low computational cost . The most natural greedy algorithm would be one which, essentially, adds neighbors to a node

  4. Could Lectures Be Stimulating? An Approach To Encourage Active Learning.


    O, Bakoush; HTS, Benamer


    Medical education is the cornerstone of building an effective health care system. Newly qualified doctors have to be equipped with knowledge, skills and attitudes to face the challenges of treating patients. Therefore the majority of medical schools in Western countries adopted, to varying degrees, the Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach. However the PBL is an expensive approach as it is based on small group teaching with a maximum of 8-10 students per group. This makes it difficult to app...

  5. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach (United States)

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.


    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  6. The use of an unsupervised learning approach for characterizing latent behaviors in accelerometer data. (United States)

    Chimienti, Marianna; Cornulier, Thomas; Owen, Ellie; Bolton, Mark; Davies, Ian M; Travis, Justin M J; Scott, Beth E


    The recent increase in data accuracy from high resolution accelerometers offers substantial potential for improved understanding and prediction of animal movements. However, current approaches used for analysing these multivariable datasets typically require existing knowledge of the behaviors of the animals to inform the behavioral classification process. These methods are thus not well-suited for the many cases where limited knowledge of the different behaviors performed exist. Here, we introduce the use of an unsupervised learning algorithm. To illustrate the method's capability we analyse data collected using a combination of GPS and Accelerometers on two seabird species: razorbills (Alca torda) and common guillemots (Uria aalge). We applied the unsupervised learning algorithm Expectation Maximization to characterize latent behavioral states both above and below water at both individual and group level. The application of this flexible approach yielded significant new insights into the foraging strategies of the two study species, both above and below the surface of the water. In addition to general behavioral modes such as flying, floating, as well as descending and ascending phases within the water column, this approach allowed an exploration of previously unstudied and important behaviors such as searching and prey chasing/capture events. We propose that this unsupervised learning approach provides an ideal tool for the systematic analysis of such complex multivariable movement data that are increasingly being obtained with accelerometer tags across species. In particular, we recommend its application in cases where we have limited current knowledge of the behaviors performed and existing supervised learning approaches may have limited utility.

  7. Designing e-learning solutions with a client centred approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Nielsen, Janni; Levinsen, Karin


      This paper claims that the strategies applied in designing e-learning solutions tend to focus on how to proceed after the precondition, e.g., learners requirements, pedagogical choice, etc., have been decided upon. Investigating the HCI research field, we find that the methodological approaches...... as the organisation that has initiated the e-learning project and needs to manage the e-learning system after its development. Through the Client Centred Design and in close collaboration with the client, three strategic issues are uncovered and strategic models are presented for each. These models are complementary...... perspectives in a Client Centred framework that is useable as the starting point for others in developing large scale e-learning projects....

  8. E-learning paradigms and applications agent-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi


    Teaching and learning paradigms have attracted increased attention especially in the last decade. Immense developments of different ICT technologies and services have paved the way for alternative but effective approaches in educational processes. Many concepts of the agent technology, such as intelligence, autonomy, and cooperation, have had a direct positive impact on many of the requests imposed on modern e-learning systems and educational processes. This book presents the state-of-the-art of e-learning and tutoring systems, and discusses their capabilities and benefits that stem from integrating software agents. We hope that the presented work will be of a great use to our colleagues and researchers interested in the e-learning and agent technology.    

  9. A blended learning approach to teaching sociolinguistic research methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier, Jako


    Full Text Available This article reports on the use of Wiktionary, an open source online dictionary, as well as generic wiki pages within a university’s e-learning environment as teaching and learning resources in an Afrikaans sociolinguistics module. In a communal constructivist manner students learnt, but also constructed learning content. From the qualitative research conducted with students it is clear that wikis provide for effective facilitation of a blended learning approach to sociolinguistic research. The use of this medium was positively received, however, some students did prefer handing in assignments in hard copy. The issues of computer literacy and access to the internet were also raised by the respondents. The use of wikis and Wiktionary prompted useful unplanned discussions around reliability and quality of public wikis. The use of a public wiki such as Wiktionary served as encouragement for students as they were able to contribute to the promotion of Afrikaans in this way.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masina Depperu


    Full Text Available In this article I want to demonstrate how students of Italian as a Foreign Language, if speakers of Portuguese or other Romance languages, have a good opportunity to expand their knowledge by consciously transferring their abilities and speeding up their learning process. The Italian teachers, both native and non native speakers, are challenged to adopt a plurilinguistic approach. Plurilinguism is not a simple juxtaposition of different languages competences, but a rather complex capacity and critical knowledge that involves metalingual awareness, active learning and autonomy of the students. Teachers's role is to facilitate, create and plan classroom activities which aim at the development of learning strategies, starting from critical contact points, lexicon and phonology, in an active research approach.

  11. A Heuristic Approach to Examining Volatile Equilibrium at Titan's Surface (United States)

    Samuelson, Robert E.


    R. D. Lorenz, J. I. Lunine, and C. P. McKay have shown in a manuscript accepted for publication that, for a given ethane abundance and surface temperature, the nitrogen and methane abundances in Titan's atmosphere can be calculated, yielding a surface pressure that can be compared with the observed value. This is potentially a very valuable tool for examining the evolution of Titan's climatology. Its validity does depend on two important assumptions, however: 1) that the atmosphere of Titan is in global radiative equilibrium, and 2) that volatiles present are in vapor equilibrium with the surface. The former assumption has been shown to be likely, but the latter has not. Water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, in fact, is generally not very close to equilibrium in a global sense. In the present work a heuristic approach is used to examine the likelihood that methane vapor is in equilibrium with Titan's surface. Plausible climate scenerios are examined that are consistent with methane vapor abundances derived from Voyager IRIS data. Simple precipitation and surface diffusion models are incorporated into the analysis. It is tentatively inferred that methane may be in surface equilibrium near the poles, but that equilibrium at low latitudes is more difficult to establish.

  12. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.


    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) ( and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  13. Factors Contributing to Changes in a Deep Approach to Learning in Different Learning Environments (United States)

    Postareff, Liisa; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari


    The study explored factors explaining changes in a deep approach to learning. The data consisted of interviews with 12 students from four Bachelor-level courses representing different disciplines. We analysed and compared descriptions of students whose deep approach either increased, decreased or remained relatively unchanged during their courses.…

  14. An Information Retrieval Approach for Robust Prediction of Road Surface States. (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Kwanho


    Recently, due to the increasing importance of reducing severe vehicle accidents on roads (especially on highways), the automatic identification of road surface conditions, and the provisioning of such information to drivers in advance, have recently been gaining significant momentum as a proactive solution to decrease the number of vehicle accidents. In this paper, we firstly propose an information retrieval approach that aims to identify road surface states by combining conventional machine-learning techniques and moving average methods. Specifically, when signal information is received from a radar system, our approach attempts to estimate the current state of the road surface based on the similar instances observed previously based on utilizing a given similarity function. Next, the estimated state is then calibrated by using the recently estimated states to yield both effective and robust prediction results. To validate the performances of the proposed approach, we established a real-world experimental setting on a section of actual highway in South Korea and conducted a comparison with the conventional approaches in terms of accuracy. The experimental results show that the proposed approach successfully outperforms the previously developed methods.

  15. Can Virtual Museums Motivate Students? Toward a Constructivist Learning Approach (United States)

    Katz, James E.; Halpern, Daniel


    This study aims to assess the effectiveness of immersive environments that have been implemented by museums to attract new visitors. Based on the frameworks introduced by telepresence and media richness theories, and following a constructivist-based learning approach, we argue that the greater the similarity of an online museum experience is to…

  16. Human Resource Building--An Approach to Service Learning (United States)

    Rajan, Sonika


    Background: Isabella Thoburn College at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India has initiated Service Learning Program for its students through 4 issue based centers. One of the centers AIDS Awareness Center for Counseling, Education, and Training (AACCET) is in the field of HIV/AIDS. It follows 6 pronged approach to achieve its objectives and one of the…

  17. The Law Review Approach: What the Humanities Can Learn (United States)

    Mendenhall, Allen


    Readers of this journal probably know how the peer review process works in the humanities disciplines and at various journals. Therefore the author explains how the law review process generally works and then what the humanities can learn and borrow from the law review process. He ends by advocating for a hybrid law review/peer review approach to…

  18. A Project-based Learning approach for teaching Robotics to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research we used a project-based learning approach to teach robotics basics to undergraduate business computing students. The course coverage includes basic electronics, robot construction and programming using arduino. Students developed and tested a robot prototype. The project was evaluated using a ...

  19. A Narrative Approach to Supporting Students Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Lambie, Glenn W.; Milsom, Amy


    Students diagnosed with learning disabilities experience many challenges that school counselors may address through narrative therapy. Narrative therapy is a postmodern, social constructionist approach based on the theoretical construct that individuals create their notions of truth and meaning of life through interpretive stories. This article…

  20. Using an Active-Learning Approach to Teach Epigenetics (United States)

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel


    Epigenetics involves heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. I developed an active-learning approach to convey this topic to students in a college genetics course. I posted a brief summary of the topic before class to stimulate exchange in cooperative groups. During class, we discussed the…

  1. A Child-Centred Approach to Learning about Healthy Eating (United States)

    Telford, Francesca


    Science involves children in exploring and gaining understanding about the world they live in. Use of a creative and imaginative approach to science can enhance this learning in many ways (Coates and Wilson, 2003). When presented with the challenge of teaching a series of science lessons on food and nutrition to a mixed class of years 4 and 5…

  2. Understanding the Science-Learning Environment: A Genetically Sensitive Approach (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert


    Previous studies have shown that environmental influences on school science performance increase in importance from primary to secondary school. Here we assess for the first time the relationship between the science-learning environment and science performance using a genetically sensitive approach to investigate the aetiology of this link. 3000…

  3. Mathematical Critical Thinking Ability through Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach (United States)

    Kurniati; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Herman, Tatang


    This research aimed to examine the effect of the application of contextual teaching and learning (CTL) approach to the enhance of mathematical critical thinking ability (MCTA) of Primary School Teacher Students (PSTS). This research is an experimental study with the population of all students PSTS who took algebra subject matter of one university…

  4. systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry (satlc)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Science Education Center,. Ain shams University ... designed, implemented, and evaluated the systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry. Our aims have .... SATL-Aromatic. Chemistry, SATL-Heterocyclic Chemistry), and Green chemistry in lab experiments, for ...

  5. Impact of Cooperative Learning Approach on Senior Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work investigated the impact of cooperative learning approach on the performance of secondary school students in mathematics using some selected secondary schools. It employed one hundred and twenty students selected from the entire population of students offering mathematics at the senior secondary ...

  6. Approaches to Teaching Plant Nutrition. Children's Learning in Science Project. (United States)

    Leeds Univ. (England). Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.

    During the period 1984-1986, over 30 teachers from the Yorkshire (England) region have worked in collaboration with the Children's Learning in Science Project (CLIS) developing and testing teaching schemes in the areas of energy, particle theory, and plant nutrition. The project is based upon the constructivist approach to teaching. This document…

  7. Defining Leadership: Collegiate Women's Learning Circles: A Qualitative Approach (United States)

    Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.


    The researchers employed qualitative methods to evaluate first-year female students' definition of "leadership" through involvement in the Women's Learning Circle. The findings revealed that students defined leadership in two dimensions: traits and behaviors. The qualitative findings explore a multidimensional approach to the voices of…

  8. Statistical mechanics of learning: A variational approach for real data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malzahn, Doerthe; Opper, Manfred


    Using a variational technique, we generalize the statistical physics approach of learning from random examples to make it applicable to real data. We demonstrate the validity and relevance of our method by computing approximate estimators for generalization errors that are based on training data alone

  9. The Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning: Water Chemistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The systemic approach to teaching and learning (SATL) has been developed during the last decade 1-7). SATL techniques have been implemented and evaluated in many different disciplines (chemistry, biology, physics, and math) in all educational levels, but the major SATL applications have been reported on chemistry ...

  10. Learning about knowledge: A complex network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontoura Costa, Luciano da


    An approach to modeling knowledge acquisition in terms of walks along complex networks is described. Each subset of knowledge is represented as a node, and relations between such knowledge are expressed as edges. Two types of edges are considered, corresponding to free and conditional transitions. The latter case implies that a node can only be reached after visiting previously a set of nodes (the required conditions). The process of knowledge acquisition can then be simulated by considering the number of nodes visited as a single agent moves along the network, starting from its lowest layer. It is shown that hierarchical networks--i.e., networks composed of successive interconnected layers--are related to compositions of the prerequisite relationships between the nodes. In order to avoid deadlocks--i.e., unreachable nodes--the subnetwork in each layer is assumed to be a connected component. Several configurations of such hierarchical knowledge networks are simulated and the performance of the moving agent quantified in terms of the percentage of visited nodes after each movement. The Barabasi-Albert and random models are considered for the layer and interconnecting subnetworks. Although all subnetworks in each realization have the same number of nodes, several interconnectivities, defined by the average node degree of the interconnection networks, have been considered. Two visiting strategies are investigated: random choice among the existing edges and preferential choice to so far untracked edges. A series of interesting results are obtained, including the identification of a series of plateaus of knowledge stagnation in the case of the preferential movement strategy in the presence of conditional edges

  11. Learning intervention and the approach to study of engineering undergraduates (United States)

    Solomonides, Ian Paul

    The aim of the research was to: investigate the effect of a learning intervention on the Approach to Study of first year engineering degree students. The learning intervention was a local programme of learning to learn' workshops designed and facilitated by the author. The primary aim of these was to develop students' Approaches to Study. Fifty-three first year engineering undergraduates at The Nottingham Trent University participated in the workshops. Approaches to Study were quantified using data obtained from the Revised Approach to Study Inventory (RASI) which was also subjected to a validity and reliability study using local data. Quantitative outcomes were supplemented using a qualitative analysis of essays written by students during the workshops. These were analysed for detail regarding student Approach to Study. It was intended that any findings would inform the local system of Engineering Education, although more general findings also emerged, in particular in relation to the utility of the research instrument. It was concluded that the intervention did not promote the preferential Deep Approach and did not affect Approaches to Study generally as measured by the RASI. This concurred with previous attempts to change student Approaches to Study at the group level. It was also established that subsequent years of the Integrated Engineering degree course are associated with progressively deteriorating Approaches to Study. Students who were exposed to the intervention followed a similar pattern of deteriorating Approaches suggesting that the local course context and its demands had a greater influence over the Approach of students than the intervention did. It was found that academic outcomes were unrelated to the extent to which students took a Deep Approach to the local assessment demands. There appeared therefore to be a mis-match between the Approach students adopted to pass examinations and those that are required for high quality learning outcomes. It is

  12. Learning approaches of Indonesian EFL Gen Z students in a Flipped Learning context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Hery Santosa


    Full Text Available The 21st-century learning has eventually transformed today’s classroom. With more digital natives in the class, both educators and students face a changing classroom that should accommodate different learning paces, styles and needs. This study aimed at helping students in becoming English as Foreign Language (EFL competent in-service teachers. Using Flipped Learning, the study utilizes four FLIP pillars into EFL learning, namely Flexible environment, Learning culture, Intentional content, Professional educators. The study employed three instruments, namely survey, tests, and interview. The result of tests showed a promising students’ progress from low to high achievement. The survey showed that students tended to perform deep approaches to learning while findings from the interview provided more interesting phenomena underlying students’ motives in their learning approaches, involving dynamic power distance relationship between lecturer and students. Heavier task loads and learning model familiarity have been highlighted. Effective socialization of the model using technology and sustainability of use of the model are suggested.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnedi Karnedi


    Full Text Available A variety of approaches have been adopted by institutions of higher education offering programmes in translator training. Some of these approaches are centred on early training; while others on socio-constructivism. Presenting a facet of training that differs from those generally used in most programmes, this paper examines how task-based approaches used over the course of the curriculum and the project-based approaches adopted in the final year in the form of translation portfolio can be an integral part of an undergraduate translation programme run by distance learning. Translation students’ performance while completing the project online is used as the data supported with online questionnaires. A critical analysis of these two approaches engenders a crucial discussion of increased student autonomy. The project-based translation portfolio is better suited to more advanced students, whereas task-based translation activities are for students at the early stages of training. Nevertheless, the two approaches are compatible and complementary.

  14. Case-based approaches for knowledge application and organisational learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.


    . These practices and activity patterns are based on learning and applying the knowledge internal and external to an organisation. To ensure their smooth formulation process, there are two important techniques designed – an expert adaptation approach and an expert evaluation approach. These two approaches provide......In dealing with the strategic issues within a manufacturing system, it is necessary to facilitate formulating the composing elements of a set of strategic manufacturing practices and activity patterns that will support an enterprise to reinforce and increase its competitive advantage...... structured processes to execute the organisational learning and knowledge application, which intend to guide the practitioners during the process of manufacturing competence development and improvement. They are based on Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) methodology and rely on cases as the primary knowledge supply...

  15. Explanatory approach for evaluation of machine learning-induced knowledge. (United States)

    Zorman, Milan; Verlic, M


    Progress in biomedical research has resulted in an explosive growth of data. Use of the world wide web for sharing data has opened up possibilities for exhaustive data mining analysis. Symbolic machine learning approaches used in data mining, especially ensemble approaches, produce large sets of patterns that need to be evaluated. Manual evaluation of all patterns by a human expert is almost impossible. We propose a new approach to the evaluation of machine learning-induced knowledge by introducing a pre-evaluation step. Pre-evaluation is the automatic evaluation of patterns obtained from the data mining phase, using text mining techniques and sentiment analysis. It is used as a filter for patterns according to the support found in online resources, such as publicly-available repositories of scientific papers and reports related to the problem. The domain expert can then more easily distinguish between patterns or rules that are potential candidates for new knowledge.

  16. A novel time series link prediction method: Learning automata approach (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza


    Link prediction is a main social network challenge that uses the network structure to predict future links. The common link prediction approaches to predict hidden links use a static graph representation where a snapshot of the network is analyzed to find hidden or future links. For example, similarity metric based link predictions are a common traditional approach that calculates the similarity metric for each non-connected link and sort the links based on their similarity metrics and label the links with higher similarity scores as the future links. Because people activities in social networks are dynamic and uncertainty, and the structure of the networks changes over time, using deterministic graphs for modeling and analysis of the social network may not be appropriate. In the time-series link prediction problem, the time series link occurrences are used to predict the future links In this paper, we propose a new time series link prediction based on learning automata. In the proposed algorithm for each link that must be predicted there is one learning automaton and each learning automaton tries to predict the existence or non-existence of the corresponding link. To predict the link occurrence in time T, there is a chain consists of stages 1 through T - 1 and the learning automaton passes from these stages to learn the existence or non-existence of the corresponding link. Our preliminary link prediction experiments with co-authorship and email networks have provided satisfactory results when time series link occurrences are considered.

  17. Learning nursing through simulation: A case study approach towards an expansive model of learning. (United States)

    Berragan, Liz


    This study explores the impact of simulation upon learning for undergraduate nursing students. The study objectives were (a) to explore the experiences of participating in simulation education for a small group of student nurses; and (b) to explore learning through simulation from the perspectives of the nursing students, the nurse educators and the nurse mentors. Conducted as a small-scale narrative case study, it tells the unique stories of a small number of undergraduate nursing students, nurse mentors and nurse educators and explores their experiences of learning through simulation. Data analysis through progressive focusing revealed that the nurse educators viewed simulation as a means of helping students to learn to be nurses, whilst, the nurse mentors suggested that simulation helped them to determine nursing potential. The students' narratives showed that they approached simulation learning in different ways resulting in a range of outcomes: those who were successfully becoming nurses, those who were struggling or working hard to become nurses and those who were not becoming nurses. Theories of professional practice learning and activity theory present an opportunity to articulate and theorise the learning inherent in simulation activities. They recognise the links between learning and the environment of work and highlight the possibilities for learning to inspire change and innovation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Residents’ perceptions of simulation as a clinical learning approach (United States)

    Walsh, Catharine M.; Garg, Ankit; Ng, Stella L.; Goyal, Fenny; Grover, Samir C.


    Background Simulation is increasingly being integrated into medical education; however, there is little research into trainees’ perceptions of this learning modality. We elicited trainees’ perceptions of simulation-based learning, to inform how simulation is developed and applied to support training. Methods We conducted an instrumental qualitative case study entailing 36 semi-structured one-hour interviews with 12 residents enrolled in an introductory simulation-based course. Trainees were interviewed at three time points: pre-course, post-course, and 4–6 weeks later. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive analytic approach. Results Residents’ perceptions of simulation included: 1) simulation serves pragmatic purposes; 2) simulation provides a safe space; 3) simulation presents perils and pitfalls; and 4) optimal design for simulation: integration and tension. Key findings included residents’ markedly narrow perception of simulation’s capacity to support non-technical skills development or its use beyond introductory learning. Conclusion Trainees’ learning expectations of simulation were restricted. Educators should critically attend to the way they present simulation to learners as, based on theories of problem-framing, trainees’ a priori perceptions may delimit the focus of their learning experiences. If they view simulation as merely a replica of real cases for the purpose of practicing basic skills, they may fail to benefit from the full scope of learning opportunities afforded by simulation. PMID:28344719

  19. Information-Based Approach to Unsupervised Machine Learning (United States)


    ages into more complex frames—a Japanese charac- ter ‘mountain’, a smiley - face shape, and a ‘777’ digit shape. The results depicted in Figure 6 show...Final Report Title: Information-Based Approach to Unsupervised Machine Learning AFOSR/AOARD Reference Number: FA2386-11-1-4059 AFOSR/AOARD Program ...Unsupervised Machine Learning 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861114059 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Masashi Sugiyama 5d

  20. Theoretical Description of Teaching-Learning Processes: A Multidisciplinary Approach (United States)

    Bordogna, Clelia M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.


    A multidisciplinary approach based on concepts from sociology, educational psychology, statistical physics, and computational science is developed for the theoretical description of teaching-learning processes that take place in the classroom. The emerging model is consistent with well-established empirical results, such as the higher achievements reached working in collaborative groups and the influence of the structure of the group on the achievements of the individuals. Furthermore, another social learning process that takes place in massive interactions among individuals via the Internet is also investigated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ive Ameliana


    Full Text Available This study investigates English department students learning needs including their attitudes towards student-centered and traditional teaching approaches, culture learning in English as Foreign Language (EFL program, attitudes towards authority in class, the main problems encountered in the course in learning English and their practice of language learning strategies. In this empirical study, following Xiao’s (2006 questionnaire, the data are collected from undergraduates and postgraduates students. In analyzing the groups, one-way ANOVA Test is used to identify whether the mean score on a variable differed significantly from one group to another by taking into account variation within groups as well as between groups. The findings of this research provide EFL teachers with insightful information on students’ learning needs as an input to syllabus and material planning, to lesson planning and classroom instruction practice. The study demonstrates the importance of a good understanding of students’ variables in TEFL programs at university level in Indonesia.

  2. Older Women, Deeper Learning, and Greater Satisfaction at University: Age and Gender Predict University Students' Learning Approach and Degree Satisfaction (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Scevak, Jill; Southgate, Erica; Macqueen, Suzanne; Williams, Paul; Douglas, Heather


    The present study explored the interactive effect of age and gender in predicting surface and deep learning approaches. It also investigated how these variables related to degree satisfaction. Participants were 983 undergraduate students at a large public Australian university. They completed a research survey either online or on paper. Consistent…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoregie Charles Osifo


    Full Text Available The complex nature of trust and its evolving relative concepts require a more idealistic and simpler review. Ethical leadership is related to trust, honesty, transparency, compassion, empathy, results-orientedness, and many other behavioral attributes. Ethical leadership and good leadership are the same, because they represent practicing what one preaches or showing a way to the accomplishment of set goals. The outcomes and findings of many research papers on trust and ethical leadership report positive correlations between ethical leadership and trust. Improving trust from different rational standpoints requires moving and looking beyond the popular theoretical framework through which most results are derived in order to create a new thinking perspective. Social learning theory strongly emphasizes modelling while the new historical learning approach, proposed by the author, is defined as an approach that creates unique historical awareness among individuals, groups, institutions, societies, and nations to use previous experience(s or occurrence(s as a guide in developing positive opinion(s and framework(s in order to tackle the problems and issues of today and tomorrow. Social learning theory is seen as limited from the perspectives of balancing the equation between leadership and trust, the non-compatibility of the values of different generations at work, and other approaches and methods that support the historical approach. This paper is argumentative, adopts a writer´s perspective, and employs a logical analysis of the literature. The main contention is that a historical learning approach can inform an independent-learning to improve trust and its relatives (e.g. motivation and performance, because independent learning can positively shape the value of integrity, which is an integral part of ethical leadership. Historical learning can positively shape leadership in every perspective, because good leadership can develop based on history and

  4. Microstructured surfaces engineered using biological templates: a facile approach for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The fabrication of microstructured surfaces using biological templates was investigated with the aim of exploring of a facile and low cost approach for the fabrication of structured surfaces with superhydrophobic properties. Two soft lithographic techniques, i.e., replica moulding and nano-imprinting, were used to replicate the surfaces of a biological substrate. Leaves of the Agave plant (Agave attenuate, a cost-free biological template, were used as a model of a biosurface with superhydrophobic properties. The replication process was performed using two polymers: an elastomeric polymer, poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS, and a polyurethane (PU based, UV-curable polymer (NOA 60. In the first replication step, negative polymer replicas of the surface of leaves were fabricated, which were used as masters to fabricate positive polymer replicas by moulding and soft imprinting. The pattern with micro and nanostructures of the surface of the leaf possesses superhydrophobic properties, which was successfully replicated into both polymers. Finally, the positive replicas were coated with a thin gold film and modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs to verify the importance of the surface chemistry on the hydrophobic properties of the fabricated structures. Wetting (contact angle and structural (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterisation was performed to confirm the hydrophobic properties of the fabricated surfaces (> 150°, as well as the precision and reproducibility of the replication process.

  5. Science of learning is learning of science: why we need a dialectical approach to science education research (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael


    Research on learning science in informal settings and the formal (sometimes experimental) study of learning in classrooms or psychological laboratories tend to be separate domains, even drawing on different theories and methods. These differences make it difficult to compare knowing and learning observed in one paradigm/context with those observed in the other. Even more interestingly, the scientists studying science learning rarely consider their own learning in relation to the phenomena they study. A dialectical, reflexive approach to learning, however, would theorize the movement of an educational science (its learning and development) as a special and general case—subject matter and method—of the phenomenon of learning (in/of) science. In the dialectical approach to the study of science learning, therefore, subject matter, method, and theory fall together. This allows for a perspective in which not only disparate fields of study—school science learning and learning in everyday life—are integrated but also where the progress in the science of science learning coincides with its topic. Following the articulation of a contradictory situation on comparing learning in different settings, I describe the dialectical approach. As a way of providing a concrete example, I then trace the historical movement of my own research group as it simultaneously and alternately studied science learning in formal and informal settings. I conclude by recommending cultural-historical, dialectical approaches to learning and interaction analysis as a context for fruitful interdisciplinary research on science learning within and across different settings.

  6. Approaches to probabilistic model learning for mobile manipulation robots

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm, Jürgen


    Mobile manipulation robots are envisioned to provide many useful services both in domestic environments as well as in the industrial context. Examples include domestic service robots that implement large parts of the housework, and versatile industrial assistants that provide automation, transportation, inspection, and monitoring services. The challenge in these applications is that the robots have to function under changing, real-world conditions, be able to deal with considerable amounts of noise and uncertainty, and operate without the supervision of an expert. This book presents novel learning techniques that enable mobile manipulation robots, i.e., mobile platforms with one or more robotic manipulators, to autonomously adapt to new or changing situations. The approaches presented in this book cover the following topics: (1) learning the robot's kinematic structure and properties using actuation and visual feedback, (2) learning about articulated objects in the environment in which the robot is operating,...

  7. [Innovative approach of teaching-learning of histology and embriology]. (United States)

    Nazer, R M; Tellez, T E; Bassan, N D; D'Ottavio, A E


    The paper presents an innovative approach to the teaching-learning of histology and embryology. The traditional teaching of the subject in the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Rosario National University, Santa Fe, Rosario, Argentina, up to 1974 is subjected to critical analysis, and on this basis the need for the innovation is propounded and the method for applying it proposed. A detailed account is given of the theoretical framework of the experiment reported, of the general and specific objectives of the teaching-learning technique, and of the thematic units into which the curriculum was divided. In the teaching-learning plan followed--described in the article--the conventional professorial lecture and its accompanying practical demonstrations are replaced by round tables and theoretical-practical tasks requiring active involvement and integrating theory and practice, in which teams tackle problems under teacher coordination. It also provides for evaluation of the students, teachers and course and eliminates the conventional examination.

  8. Object 3D surface reconstruction approach using portable laser scanner (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Liye; Li, Changqing; Wang, Shifeng


    The environment perception plays the key role for a robot system. The 3D surface of the objects can provide essential information for the robot to recognize objects. This paper present an approach to reconstruct objects' 3D surfaces using a portable laser scanner we designed which consists of a single-layer laser scanner, an encoder, a motor, power supply and mechanical components. The captured point cloud data is processed to remove the discrete points, denoise filtering, stitching and registration. Then the triangular mesh generation of point cloud is accomplished by using Gaussian bilateral filtering, ICP real-time registration and greedy triangle projection algorithm. The experiment result shows the feasibility of the device designed and the algorithm proposed.

  9. Exploring a Problem-Based Learning Approach in Pharmaceutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara McKenzie


    Full Text Available Objective. The basis of this study was to explore the impact of the initiation of a Problem-Base Learning (PBL approach within a second-year pharmaceutics degree on a Master of Pharmacy programme, introduced as a way of improving deep learning and to foster independent learning. Design. A semi-structured interview was used to seek feedback from the students, and feedback from staff was secured though a focus group. A thematic approach was used for the analysis, once data saturation had been reached. Exam pass-rate statistics were also analysed. Assessment. Five parent themes were identified from the student interviews: Module structure, Promoting lifelong learning, Integration and future practice, Outcomes and Student experience. The third year exam pass rate improved by 12% in the year following the introduction of PBL in second year. Conclusions. Various recommendations were proposed to further improve the module, based on the findings of this study. These include improving feedback and support through tutorials, reducing the volume of directed study, as well as highlighting the relevance of pharmaceutics to the pharmacy degree. A long-term review would be needed to assess the full implications of PBL teaching within this course.

  10. Exploring a Problem-Based Learning Approach in Pharmaceutics. (United States)

    McKenzie, Barbara; Brown, Alyson


    The basis of this study was to explore the impact of the initiation of a Problem-Base Learning (PBL) approach within a second-year pharmaceutics degree on a Master of Pharmacy programme, introduced as a way of improving deep learning and to foster independent learning. A semi-structured interview was used to seek feedback from the students, and feedback from staff was secured though a focus group. A thematic approach was used for the analysis, once data saturation had been reached. Exam pass-rate statistics were also analysed. Five parent themes were identified from the student interviews: Module structure, Promoting lifelong learning, Integration and future practice, Outcomes and Student experience. The third year exam pass rate improved by 12% in the year following the introduction of PBL in second year. Various recommendations were proposed to further improve the module, based on the findings of this study. These include improving feedback and support through tutorials, reducing the volume of directed study, as well as highlighting the relevance of pharmaceutics to the pharmacy degree. A long-term review would be needed to assess the full implications of PBL teaching within this course.

  11. Practice Makes Perfect? The Practice Approach in E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norm Friesen


    Full Text Available Anyone involved in e-learning is certain to have run across the word practice in connection with a number of notable expressions or phrases: communities of practice, best practices, and teaching practices among others. However, there have been few definitions or discussions that address exactly what practice is. This article provides a short overview of the practice approach, focusing first on its origin in the philosophy of Heidegger and the sociology of Bourdieu. It then provides and analyzes examples of everyday conversational practices, exploring how computer technology can work with (or against the unscripted, improvisational nature of practice. In this way, this article illustrates both how and why this approach can be valuable for research in e-learning.

  12. School health approach to teaching and learning of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.S. Lukianova


    Full Text Available Purpose: disclosure of health-ways for teaching and learning of students. Material: analysis of the publications of domestic and foreign authors. Results: The article is devoted to the implementation of healthy way approach to the educational process, namely, the rational organization of training aimed at keeping the dynamics of human health, the prevention of mental fatigue and overload, increase adaptive reserves of the body of the person; intensification of teaching and learning of students (application-is controversial dialogue, training, game forms and methods of training, participation in project activities, the work of pedagogical workshops that stimulates emotional accommodation and understanding of knowledge, helps students acquire personal-relevant knowledge and experience; use of health effect of artistic and practical (music, painting activities of students. Conclusions: highlights the key towards the implementation of health-promoting approach to the educational process.

  13. A Comparison of Machine Learning Approaches for Corn Yield Estimation (United States)

    Kim, N.; Lee, Y. W.


    Machine learning is an efficient empirical method for classification and prediction, and it is another approach to crop yield estimation. The objective of this study is to estimate corn yield in the Midwestern United States by employing the machine learning approaches such as the support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and deep neural networks (DNN), and to perform the comprehensive comparison for their results. We constructed the database using satellite images from MODIS, the climate data of PRISM climate group, and GLDAS soil moisture data. In addition, to examine the seasonal sensitivities of corn yields, two period groups were set up: May to September (MJJAS) and July and August (JA). In overall, the DNN showed the highest accuracies in term of the correlation coefficient for the two period groups. The differences between our predictions and USDA yield statistics were about 10-11 %.

  14. Deep-Learning-Based Approach for Prediction of Algal Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang


    Full Text Available Algal blooms have recently become a critical global environmental concern which might put economic development and sustainability at risk. However, the accurate prediction of algal blooms remains a challenging scientific problem. In this study, a novel prediction approach for algal blooms based on deep learning is presented—a powerful tool to represent and predict highly dynamic and complex phenomena. The proposed approach constructs a five-layered model to extract detailed relationships between the density of phytoplankton cells and various environmental parameters. The algal blooms can be predicted by the phytoplankton density obtained from the output layer. A case study is conducted in coastal waters of East China using both our model and a traditional back-propagation neural network for comparison. The results show that the deep-learning-based model yields better generalization and greater accuracy in predicting algal blooms than a traditional shallow neural network does.

  15. Action-Emotion Style, Learning Approach and Coping Strategies, in Undergraduate University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de la Fuente

    Full Text Available Action-Emotion Style (AES is an affective-motivational construct that describes the achievement motivation that is characteristic of students in their interaction with stressful situations. Using elements from the Type-A Behavior Pattern (TABP, characteristics of competitiveness and overwork occur in different combinations with emotions of impatience and hostility, leading to a classification containing five categories of action-emotion style (Type B, Impatient-hostile type, Medium type, Competitive-Overworking type and Type A. The objective of the present research is to establish how characteristics of action-emotion style relate to learning approach (deep and surface approaches and to coping strategies (emotion-focused and problem-focused. The sample was composed of 225 students from the Psychology degree program. Pearson correlation analyses, ANOVAs and MANOVAs were used. Results showed that competitiveness-overwork characteristics have a significant positive association with the deep approach and with problem-focused strategies, while impatience-hostility is thus related to surface approach and emotion-focused strategies. The level of action-emotion style had a significant main effect. The results verified our hypotheses with reference to the relationships between action-emotion style, learning approaches and coping strategies.

  16. Team-Based Learning: A New Approach Toward Improving Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rezaee


    Full Text Available  Team-based learning is designed to provide students with both conceptual and procedural knowledge, aiming to enhance active learning and critical thinking. In the present study, team-based learning and lecture methods in teaching the “hospital organization and management” course among hospital management students were compared. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 25 undergraduate students of management. Teaching sessions were divided into two parts. The first part was taught with interactive lectures and the second part with team-based learning method. The students' knowledge was measured before, immediately and two months (late post-test after teaching. Finally, the mean scores of the final exam and students' satisfaction towards the methods of teaching were measured. There was an improvement in test scores of the students after the TBL sessions when compared to the test scores after lecture sessions (P<0.001. Also, TBL group had significantly a higher amount of knowledge retention compared to the lecture group (P<0.001, but no significant relationship was found between the mean scores of the final exam in the TBL and lecture groups (P=0.116. Finally, the majority of the respondents were more satisfied with TBL sessions compared to the ones held through lecture (P=0.037. The results indicated that TBL provides a better outcome for students. We found that the TBL approach allowed us to create an active learning environment that contributed to the improvement of the students’ performances.

  17. Team-Based Learning: A New Approach Toward Improving Education. (United States)

    Rezaee, Rita; Moadeb, Neda; Shokrpour, Nasrin


     Team-based learning is designed to provide students with both conceptual and procedural knowledge, aiming to enhance active learning and critical thinking. In the present study, team-based learning and lecture methods in teaching the "hospital organization and management" course among hospital management students were compared. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 25 undergraduate students of management. Teaching sessions were divided into two parts. The first part was taught with interactive lectures and the second part with team-based learning method. The students' knowledge was measured before, immediately and two months (late post-test) after teaching. Finally, the mean scores of the final exam and students' satisfaction towards the methods of teaching were measured. There was an improvement in test scores of the students after the TBL sessions when compared to the test scores after lecture sessions (Plecture group (Plecture groups (P=0.116). Finally, the majority of the respondents were more satisfied with TBL sessions compared to the ones held through lecture (P=0.037). The results indicated that TBL provides a better outcome for students. We found that the TBL approach allowed us to create an active learning environment that contributed to the improvement of the students' performances.

  18. Putting people first: a social constructionist approach to learning disability. (United States)

    Clegg, J A


    Moving from an individual to a social focus will allow clinical psychologists working with people who have learning disabilities to address a wider range of difficulties experienced by this client group. Social constructionist theory may be a useful framework to facilitate such an approach, and is intellectually compatible with changes occurring in other related disciplines. Research relevant to this perspective is reviewed under four subheadings proposed by Doise. Implications for clinical practice are discussed by reference to two case studies.

  19. Actively Teaching Research Methods with a Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Approach (United States)

    Mullins, Mary H.


    Active learning approaches have shown to improve student learning outcomes and improve the experience of students in the classroom. This article compares a Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning style approach to a more traditional teaching method in an undergraduate research methods course. Moving from a more traditional learning environment to…

  20. Relationships between Learning Approach, Procrastination and Academic Achievement amongst First-Year University Students (United States)

    Saele, Rannveig Grøm; Dahl, Tove Irene; Sørlie, Tore; Friborg, Oddgeir


    Individual differences in student learning influence academic performance, and two aspects influencing the learning process are the particular learning approach the students use and procrastination behaviour. We examined the relationships between learning approaches, procrastination and academic achievement (measured 1 year later as the grade…

  1. Synthesizing Technology Adoption and Learners' Approaches towards Active Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Chan, Kevin; Cheung, George; Wan, Kelvin; Brown, Ian; Luk, Green


    In understanding how active and blended learning approaches with learning technologies engagement in undergraduate education, current research models tend to undermine the effect of learners' variations, particularly regarding their styles and approaches to learning, on intention and use of learning technologies. This study contributes to further…

  2. Advancing the skill set of SCM graduates – An active learning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Kirstin; Dubois, Anna


    Purpose Drawing on a novel approach to active learning in supply chain management, the purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how the students’ learning process as well as their learning outcomes are influenced by the learning and teaching contexts. Design/methodology/approach A case study

  3. Benefiting from Customer and Competitor Knowledge: A Market-Based Approach to Organizational Learning (United States)

    Hoe, Siu Loon


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the organizational learning, market orientation and learning orientation concepts, highlight the importance of market knowledge to organizational learning and recommend ways in adopting a market-based approach to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The extant organizational learning…

  4. An adaptive deep learning approach for PPG-based identification. (United States)

    Jindal, V; Birjandtalab, J; Pouyan, M Baran; Nourani, M


    Wearable biosensors have become increasingly popular in healthcare due to their capabilities for low cost and long term biosignal monitoring. This paper presents a novel two-stage technique to offer biometric identification using these biosensors through Deep Belief Networks and Restricted Boltzman Machines. Our identification approach improves robustness in current monitoring procedures within clinical, e-health and fitness environments using Photoplethysmography (PPG) signals through deep learning classification models. The approach is tested on TROIKA dataset using 10-fold cross validation and achieved an accuracy of 96.1%.

  5. Could lectures be stimulating? An approach to encourage active learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakoush O


    Full Text Available Medical education is the cornerstone of building an effective health care system. Newly qualified doctors have to be equipped with knowledge, skills and attitudes to face the challenges of treating patients. Therefore the majority of medical schools in Western countries adopted, to varying degrees, the Problem Based Learning (PBL approach. However the PBL is an expensive approach as it is based on small group teaching with a maximum of 8-10 students per group. This makes it difficult to apply in countries like Libya where the medical schools enrol larger numbers of students, often without appropriate resources. Hence the majority of the teaching is based on didactic lectures.

  6. Learning curve for the endoscopic endonasal approach for suprasellar craniopharyngiomas. (United States)

    Ding, Hailin; Gu, Ye; Zhang, Xiaobiao; Xie, Tao; Liu, Tengfei; Hu, Fan; Yu, Yong; Sun, Chongjing


    The endoscopic endonasal approach is considered an alternative minimally invasive approach for suprasellar craniopharyngiomas. However, the complicated surgical manipulations required by this approach have limited its application. We evaluate whether the approach features a learning curve. Thirty-three patients were retrospectively reviewed and grouped as early (17 patients) and late (16 patient) groups. The operation time, extent of removal, ophthalmology, endocrinology, reconstruction and modifications of standard technique were evaluated. Between the two groups, the operation time decreased from 201.1±105.3min in the early group to 107.6±90.0min in the late group (pgroups. With respect to complications, non-statistically significant decreasing trends toward transient cranial nerve paralysis (from 5.9% to 0%) and non-statistically significant increasing trends toward rate of CSF leakage, meningitis and new hypothyroidism (from 11.8% to 25%, 11.8% to 31.3%, 0 to 3%) were observed. We identified a learning curve for the endoscopic endonasal approach for suprasellar craniopharyngiomas. The exact number of patients necessary to establish a significant improvement in the clinical outcomes and decrease in the complications warrants further investigation. The outcomes of tumor recurrence may be associated with duration of follow-up. The CSF leakage represented the most common complication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Upgrading Students’ Writing Performance through Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafirah Patang


    Full Text Available This is a pre-experimental research using one group pre-test and pos-test design, which aims at finding out the effects of Contextual Teaching and Learning approach in improving students’ ability in writing descriptive text at the eleventh grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Sabbang. The population of this research is the eleventh grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Sabbang. The total number of the population is 149 of the all eleventh students. The researcher took 20 students as the sample from one class by using cluster sampling technique. This research employed writing test as the instrument of data collection. The result of this test is used to assess to what extent Contextual Teaching and Learning approach can improve the students’ ability in writing descriptive text. After several meetings, this research found out that the use of Contextual Teaching and Learning approach is significantly effective to improve the students’ ability in writing descriptive text. It is supported by looking at the mean score obtained by students through pre-test is 51.55 and post-test is 76.86.

  8. The Influence of Teachers' Teaching Approaches on Students' Learning Approaches: The Student Perspective (United States)

    Beausaert, Simon A. J.; Segers, M. S. R; Wiltink, Danique P. A.


    Background: Research on the relation between teaching and learning approaches has been mainly conducted in higher education and it is not yet clear to what extent the results can be generalised when it comes to secondary education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to research how students in secondary education perceive their teachers'…

  9. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on the Learning Approaches of Students with Different Learning Styles (United States)

    Çolak, Esma


    Problem Statement: For this study, a cooperative learning process was designed in which students with different learning styles could help each other in heterogeneous groups to perform teamwork-based activities. One aspect deemed important in this context was whether the instructional environment designed to reach students with different learning…

  10. Narratives of Learning: The Personal Portfolio in the Portfolio Approach to Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Leslie, Paul; Camargo-Borges, Celiane


    This paper will explore how a portfolio approach to teaching and learning can help the educator incorporate unique forms of reflective practice into his or her daily work. By being able to express ideas more clearly to himself, the educator can better promote the relational construction of knowledge in his educational communities. This paper, as…

  11. Relations between Students' Approaches to Learning, Experienced Emotions and Outcomes of Learning (United States)

    Trigwell, Keith; Ellis, Robert A.; Han, Feifei


    Quantitative analyses conducted on the self-reports of first year university students suggest that there is a relationship between the ways they emotionally experience their course and the approach they take to the learning of that course. Students who more strongly experience positive emotions, such as hope and pride, and more weakly experience…

  12. Correlation of Students' Brain Types to Their Conceptions of Learning Science and Approaches to Learning Science (United States)

    Park, Jiyeon; Jeon, Dongryul


    The systemizing and empathizing brain type represent two contrasted students' characteristics. The present study investigated differences in the conceptions and approaches to learning science between the systemizing and empathizing brain type students. The instruments are questionnaires on the systematizing and empathizing, questionnaires on the…

  13. MOOC Design – Dissemination to the Masses or Facilitation of Social Learning and a Deep Approach to Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Inger-Marie F.; Dam Laursen, Mette; Bøggild, Jacob


    This article accounts for the design of the massive open online course (MOOC) Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairy tales on FutureLearn and reports on the effectiveness of this design in terms of engaging learners in social learning and encouraging a deep approach to learning. A learning pathway...... and increased educator feedback. Course data show that that some learners use the space provided for social interaction and mutual support. A learning pathway that engages learners in discussion and progression from week to week facilitates a deep approach to learning. However, this requires more support from...

  14. Foreword: In situ gas surface interactions: approaching realistic conditions (United States)

    Lundgren, Edvin; Over, Herbert


    This special issue is devoted to the application of in situ surface-sensitive techniques in the elucidation of catalysed reactions at (model) catalyst surfaces. Both reaction intermediates and the nature of the catalytically active phase are the targets of these investigations. In situ surface science techniques are also used to study the interaction of water with surfaces under realistic conditions. Since 80% of all technical chemicals are manufactured by utilizing (heterogeneous) catalysis, scientific understanding and technological development of catalysis are of central practical importance in modern society [1]. Heterogeneously catalysed reactions take place at the gas/solid interface. Therefore one of the major topics in surface chemistry and physics is closely related to heterogeneous catalysis, with the aim of developing novel catalysts and to improve catalysts' performances on the basis of atomic scale based knowledge. Despite the economical and environmental rewards—if such a goal is achieved—and despite 40 years of intensive research, practical catalysis is still safely in a black box: the reactivity and selectivity of a catalyst are commercially still optimized on a trial and error basis, applying the high throughput screening approach. The reason for this discrepancy between ambition and reality lies in the inherent complexity of the catalytic system, consisting of the working catalyst and the interaction of the catalyst with the reactant mixture. Practical (solid) catalysts consist of metal or oxide nanoparticles which are dispersed and stabilized on a support and which may be promoted by means of additives. These particles catalyse a reaction in pressures as high as 100 bar. Practical catalysis is in general considered to be far too complex for gaining atomic-scale understanding of the mechanism of the catalysed reaction of an industrial catalyst during its operation. Therefore it has been necessary to introduce idealization and simplification of

  15. Machine learning and pattern recognition from surface molecular architectures. (United States)

    Maksov, Artem; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Fujii, Shintaro; Sumpter, Bobby; Kalinin, Sergei

    The ability to utilize molecular assemblies as data storage devices requires capability to identify individual molecular states on a scale of thousands of molecules. We present a novel method of applying machine learning techniques for extraction of positional and rotational information from ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images and apply it to self-assembled monolayer of π-bowl sumanene molecules on gold. From density functional theory (DFT) simulations, we assume existence of distinct polar and multiple azimuthal rotational states. We use DFT-generated templates in conjunction with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler and noise modeling to create synthetic images representative of our model. We extract positional information of each molecule and use nearest neighbor criteria to construct a graph input to Markov Random Field (MRF) model to identify polar rotational states. We train a convolutional Neural Network (cNN) on a synthetic dataset and combine it with MRF model to classify molecules based on their azimuthal rotational state. We demonstrate effectiveness of such approach compared to other methods. Finally, we apply our approach to experimental images and achieve complete rotational class information extraction. This research was sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE.

  16. Learning-based 3D surface optimization from medical image reconstruction (United States)

    Wei, Mingqiang; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xianglin; Wu, Huisi; Xie, Haoran; Wang, Fu Lee; Qin, Jing


    Mesh optimization has been studied from the graphical point of view: It often focuses on 3D surfaces obtained by optical and laser scanners. This is despite the fact that isosurfaced meshes of medical image reconstruction suffer from both staircases and noise: Isotropic filters lead to shape distortion, while anisotropic ones maintain pseudo-features. We present a data-driven method for automatically removing these medical artifacts while not introducing additional ones. We consider mesh optimization as a combination of vertex filtering and facet filtering in two stages: Offline training and runtime optimization. In specific, we first detect staircases based on the scanning direction of CT/MRI scanners, and design a staircase-sensitive Laplacian filter (vertex-based) to remove them; and then design a unilateral filtered facet normal descriptor (uFND) for measuring the geometry features around each facet of a given mesh, and learn the regression functions from a set of medical meshes and their high-resolution reference counterparts for mapping the uFNDs to the facet normals of the reference meshes (facet-based). At runtime, we first perform staircase-sensitive Laplacian filter on an input MC (Marching Cubes) mesh, and then filter the mesh facet normal field using the learned regression functions, and finally deform it to match the new normal field for obtaining a compact approximation of the high-resolution reference model. Tests show that our algorithm achieves higher quality results than previous approaches regarding surface smoothness and surface accuracy.

  17. Evaluation of students' perception of their learning environment and approaches to learning (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming


    This work presents the results of two case studies designed to assess the various approaches undergraduate and postgraduate students undertake for their education. The first study describes the results and evaluation of an undergraduate course in Water Engineering which aims to develop the fundamental background knowledge of students on introductory practical applications relevant to the practice of water and hydraulic engineering. The study assesses the effectiveness of the course design and learning environment from the perception of students using a questionnaire addressing several aspects that may affect student learning, performance and satisfaction, such as students' motivation, factors to effective learning, and methods of communication and assessment. The second study investigates the effectiveness of supervisory arrangements based on the perceptions of engineering undergraduate and postgraduate students. Effective supervision requires leadership skills that are not taught in the University, yet there is rarely a chance to get feedback, evaluate this process and reflect. Even though the results are very encouraging there are significant lessons to learn in improving ones practice and develop an effective learning environment to student support and guidance. The findings from these studies suggest that students with high level of intrinsic motivation are deep learners and are also top performers in a student-centered learning environment. A supportive teaching environment with a plethora of resources and feedback made available over different platforms that address students need for direct communication and feedback has the potential to improve student satisfaction and their learning experience. Finally, incorporating a multitude of assessment methods is also important in promoting deep learning. These results have deep implications about student learning and can be used to further improve course design and delivery in the future.

  18. Biomimetic approach to tacit learning based on compound control. (United States)

    Shimoda, Shingo; Kimura, Hidenori


    The remarkable capability of living organisms to adapt to unknown environments is due to learning mechanisms that are totally different from the current artificial machine-learning paradigm. Computational media composed of identical elements that have simple activity rules play a major role in biological control, such as the activities of neurons in brains and the molecular interactions in intracellular control. As a result of integrations of the individual activities of the computational media, new behavioral patterns emerge to adapt to changing environments. We previously implemented this feature of biological controls in a form of machine learning and succeeded to realize bipedal walking without the robot model or trajectory planning. Despite the success of bipedal walking, it was a puzzle as to why the individual activities of the computational media could achieve the global behavior. In this paper, we answer this question by taking a statistical approach that connects the individual activities of computational media to global network behaviors. We show that the individual activities can generate optimized behaviors from a particular global viewpoint, i.e., autonomous rhythm generation and learning of balanced postures, without using global performance indices.

  19. Realistic Matematic Approach through Numbered Head Together Learning Model (United States)

    Sugihatno, A. C. M. S.; Budiyono; Slamet, I.


    Recently, the teaching process which is conducted based on teacher center affect the students interaction in the class. It causes students become less interest to participate. That is why teachers should be more creative in designing learning using other types of cooperative learning model. Therefore, this research is aimed to implement NHT with RMA in the teaching process. We utilize NHT since it is a variant of group discussion whose aim is giving a chance to the students to share their ideas related to the teacher’s question. By using NHT in the class, a teacher can give a better understanding about the material which is given with the help of Realistic Mathematics Approach (RMA) which known for its real problem contex. Meanwhile, the researcher assumes instead of selecting teaching model, Adversity Quotient (AQ) of student also influences students’ achievement. This research used the quasi experimental research. The samples is 60 students in junior high school, it was taken by using the stratified cluster random sampling technique. The results show NHT-RMA gives a better learning achievement of mathematics than direct teaching model and NHT-RMA teaching model with categorized as high AQ show different learning achievement from the students with categorized as moderate and low AQ.

  20. Novel educational approaches to enhance learning and interest in nephrology. (United States)

    Jhaveri, Kenar D; Sparks, Matthew A; Shah, Hitesh H


    The number of U.S. medical graduates pursuing careers in nephrology has declined over the last several years. Some of the proposed reasons for this declining interest include difficult-to-understand or unstimulating kidney pathophysiology courses in medical school; disheartening inpatient elective experiences; and few opportunities to experience the other aspects of nephrology careers such as outpatient nephrology clinics, outpatient dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Novel and alternative educational approaches should be considered by the nephrology training community to enhance the understanding of nephrology from medical school to fellowship training. Newer teaching methods and styles should also be incorporated to adapt to today's learner. These innovative educational approaches may not only increase interest in nephrology careers, but they may also enhance and maintain interest during nephrology fellowship. In this article, we will review several educational approaches that may enhance teaching and learning in nephrology. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Learning the Task Management Space of an Aircraft Approach Model (United States)

    Krall, Joseph; Menzies, Tim; Davies, Misty


    Validating models of airspace operations is a particular challenge. These models are often aimed at finding and exploring safety violations, and aim to be accurate representations of real-world behavior. However, the rules governing the behavior are quite complex: nonlinear physics, operational modes, human behavior, and stochastic environmental concerns all determine the responses of the system. In this paper, we present a study on aircraft runway approaches as modeled in Georgia Tech's Work Models that Compute (WMC) simulation. We use a new learner, Genetic-Active Learning for Search-Based Software Engineering (GALE) to discover the Pareto frontiers defined by cognitive structures. These cognitive structures organize the prioritization and assignment of tasks of each pilot during approaches. We discuss the benefits of our approach, and also discuss future work necessary to enable uncertainty quantification.

  2. Learning Behavior and Achievement Analysis of a Digital Game-Based Learning Approach Integrating Mastery Learning Theory and Different Feedback Models (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Hsiang


    It is widely accepted that the digital game-based learning approach has the advantage of stimulating students' learning motivation, but simply using digital games in the classroom does not guarantee satisfactory learning achievement, especially in the case of the absence of a teacher. Integrating appropriate learning strategies into a game can…

  3. A dictionary learning approach for human sperm heads classification. (United States)

    Shaker, Fariba; Monadjemi, S Amirhassan; Alirezaie, Javad; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza


    To diagnose infertility in men, semen analysis is conducted in which sperm morphology is one of the factors that are evaluated. Since manual assessment of sperm morphology is time-consuming and subjective, automatic classification methods are being developed. Automatic classification of sperm heads is a complicated task due to the intra-class differences and inter-class similarities of class objects. In this research, a Dictionary Learning (DL) technique is utilized to construct a dictionary of sperm head shapes. This dictionary is used to classify the sperm heads into four different classes. Square patches are extracted from the sperm head images. Columnized patches from each class of sperm are used to learn class-specific dictionaries. The patches from a test image are reconstructed using each class-specific dictionary and the overall reconstruction error for each class is used to select the best matching class. Average accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score are used to evaluate the classification method. The method is evaluated using two publicly available datasets of human sperm head shapes. The proposed DL based method achieved an average accuracy of 92.2% on the HuSHeM dataset, and an average recall of 62% on the SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS dataset. The results show a significant improvement compared to a previously published shape-feature-based method. We have achieved high-performance results. In addition, our proposed approach offers a more balanced classifier in which all four classes are recognized with high precision and recall. In this paper, we use a Dictionary Learning approach in classifying human sperm heads. It is shown that the Dictionary Learning method is far more effective in classifying human sperm heads than classifiers using shape-based features. Also, a dataset of human sperm head shapes is introduced to facilitate future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Approaches to learning among occupational therapy undergraduate students: A cross-cultural study. (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Fong, Kenneth N K; Bonsaksen, Tore; Lan, Tan Hwei; Murdolo, Yuki; Gonzalez, Pablo Cruz; Beng, Lim Hua


    Students may adopt various approaches to academic learning. Occupational therapy students' approaches to study and the impact of cultural context have not been formally investigated to date. To examine the approaches to study adopted by undergraduate occupational therapy students from four different cultural settings. 712 undergraduate occupational therapy students (n = 376 from Australia, n = 109 from Hong Kong, n = 160 from Norway and n = 67 from Singapore) completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the ASSIST subscales for the students from the four countries. Post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that the mean scores for the strategic approach were significantly different between Australia and the other three countries. The mean scores for the surface approach were significantly different between Australia and Hong Kong, and Hong Kong and Norway. There were no significant differences between the deep approach to studying between Australia, Norway, Singapore and Hong Kong. Culture and educational context do appear to impact the approaches to study adopted by undergraduate occupational therapy students. Academic and practice educators need to be cognizant of what approaches to studying the students they work with adopt.

  5. Geminivirus data warehouse: a database enriched with machine learning approaches. (United States)

    Silva, Jose Cleydson F; Carvalho, Thales F M; Basso, Marcos F; Deguchi, Michihito; Pereira, Welison A; Sobrinho, Roberto R; Vidigal, Pedro M P; Brustolini, Otávio J B; Silva, Fabyano F; Dal-Bianco, Maximiller; Fontes, Renildes L F; Santos, Anésia A; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Cerqueira, Fabio R; Fontes, Elizabeth P B


    The Geminiviridae family encompasses a group of single-stranded DNA viruses with twinned and quasi-isometric virions, which infect a wide range of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants and are responsible for significant economic losses worldwide. Geminiviruses are divided into nine genera, according to their insect vector, host range, genome organization, and phylogeny reconstruction. Using rolling-circle amplification approaches along with high-throughput sequencing technologies, thousands of full-length geminivirus and satellite genome sequences were amplified and have become available in public databases. As a consequence, many important challenges have emerged, namely, how to classify, store, and analyze massive datasets as well as how to extract information or new knowledge. Data mining approaches, mainly supported by machine learning (ML) techniques, are a natural means for high-throughput data analysis in the context of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here, we describe the development of a data warehouse enriched with ML approaches, designated We implemented search modules, bioinformatics tools, and ML methods to retrieve high precision information, demarcate species, and create classifiers for genera and open reading frames (ORFs) of geminivirus genomes. The use of data mining techniques such as ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) to feed our database, as well as algorithms based on machine learning for knowledge extraction, allowed us to obtain a database with quality data and suitable tools for bioinformatics analysis. The Geminivirus Data Warehouse ( offers a simple and user-friendly environment for information retrieval and knowledge discovery related to geminiviruses.

  6. Advanced methods in NDE using machine learning approaches (United States)

    Wunderlich, Christian; Tschöpe, Constanze; Duckhorn, Frank


    Machine learning (ML) methods and algorithms have been applied recently with great success in quality control and predictive maintenance. Its goal to build new and/or leverage existing algorithms to learn from training data and give accurate predictions, or to find patterns, particularly with new and unseen similar data, fits perfectly to Non-Destructive Evaluation. The advantages of ML in NDE are obvious in such tasks as pattern recognition in acoustic signals or automated processing of images from X-ray, Ultrasonics or optical methods. Fraunhofer IKTS is using machine learning algorithms in acoustic signal analysis. The approach had been applied to such a variety of tasks in quality assessment. The principal approach is based on acoustic signal processing with a primary and secondary analysis step followed by a cognitive system to create model data. Already in the second analysis steps unsupervised learning algorithms as principal component analysis are used to simplify data structures. In the cognitive part of the software further unsupervised and supervised learning algorithms will be trained. Later the sensor signals from unknown samples can be recognized and classified automatically by the algorithms trained before. Recently the IKTS team was able to transfer the software for signal processing and pattern recognition to a small printed circuit board (PCB). Still, algorithms will be trained on an ordinary PC; however, trained algorithms run on the Digital Signal Processor and the FPGA chip. The identical approach will be used for pattern recognition in image analysis of OCT pictures. Some key requirements have to be fulfilled, however. A sufficiently large set of training data, a high signal-to-noise ratio, and an optimized and exact fixation of components are required. The automated testing can be done subsequently by the machine. By integrating the test data of many components along the value chain further optimization including lifetime and durability

  7. The use of deep and surface learning strategies among students learning English as a foreign language in an Internet environment. (United States)

    Aharony, Noa


    The learning context is learning English in an Internet environment. The examination of this learning process was based on the Biggs and Moore's teaching-learning model (Biggs & Moore, 1993). The research aims to explore the use of the deep and surface strategies in an Internet environment among EFL students who come from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results of the research may add an additional level to the understanding of students' functioning in the Internet environment. One hundred fourty-eight Israeli junior and high school students participated in this research. The methodology was based on special computer software: Screen Cam, which recorded the students' learning process. In addition, expert judges completed a questionnaire which examined and categorized the students' learning strategies. The research findings show a clear preference of participants from all socio-economic backgrounds towards the surface learning strategy. The findings also showed that students from the medium to high socio-economic background used both learning strategies more frequently than low socio-economic students. The results reflect the habits that students acquire during their adjustment process throughout their education careers. A brief encounter with the Internet learning environment apparently cannot change norms or habits, which were acquired in the non-Internet learning environment.

  8. A machine learning approach for the classification of metallic glasses (United States)

    Gossett, Eric; Perim, Eric; Toher, Cormac; Lee, Dongwoo; Zhang, Haitao; Liu, Jingbei; Zhao, Shaofan; Schroers, Jan; Vlassak, Joost; Curtarolo, Stefano

    Metallic glasses possess an extensive set of mechanical properties along with plastic-like processability. As a result, they are a promising material in many industrial applications. However, the successful synthesis of novel metallic glasses requires trial and error, costing both time and resources. Therefore, we propose a high-throughput approach that combines an extensive set of experimental measurements with advanced machine learning techniques. This allows us to classify metallic glasses and predict the full phase diagrams for a given alloy system. Thus this method provides a means to identify potential glass-formers and opens up the possibility for accelerating and reducing the cost of the design of new metallic glasses.

  9. Perspective: Codesign for materials science: An optimal learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turab Lookman


    Full Text Available A key element of materials discovery and design is to learn from available data and prior knowledge to guide the next experiments or calculations in order to focus in on materials with targeted properties. We suggest that the tight coupling and feedback between experiments, theory and informatics demands a codesign approach, very reminiscent of computational codesign involving software and hardware in computer science. This requires dealing with a constrained optimization problem in which uncertainties are used to adaptively explore and exploit the predictions of a surrogate model to search the vast high dimensional space where the desired material may be found.

  10. From inverse problems to learning: a Statistical Mechanics approach (United States)

    Baldassi, Carlo; Gerace, Federica; Saglietti, Luca; Zecchina, Riccardo


    We present a brief introduction to the statistical mechanics approaches for the study of inverse problems in data science. We then provide concrete new results on inferring couplings from sampled configurations in systems characterized by an extensive number of stable attractors in the low temperature regime. We also show how these result are connected to the problem of learning with realistic weak signals in computational neuroscience. Our techniques and algorithms rely on advanced mean-field methods developed in the context of disordered systems.

  11. ONLINE EDUCATION, ACTIVE LEARNING, AND ANDRAGOGY: An approach for Student Engagement


    CARUTH, Gail D.


    Online learning opportunities have become essential for today’s colleges and universities. Online technology can support active learning approaches to learning. The purpose of the paper was to investigate why active learning in online classes has a positive effect on student engagement. A review of the literature revealed that research studies have been conducted to investigate the benefits of active learning. There exists extensive evidence to support the notion that active learning enhances...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ju


    Full Text Available Bridge areas present difficulties for orthophotos generation and to avoid “collapsed” bridges in the orthoimage, operator assistance is required to create the precise DBM (Digital Bridge Model, which is, subsequently, used for the orthoimage generation. In this paper, a new approach of DBM generation, based on fusing LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging data and aerial imagery, is proposed. The no precise exterior orientation of the aerial image is required for the DBM generation. First, a coarse DBM is produced from LiDAR data. Then, a robust co-registration between LiDAR intensity and aerial image using the orientation constraint is performed. The from-coarse-to-fine hybrid co-registration approach includes LPFFT (Log-Polar Fast Fourier Transform, Harris Corners, PDF (Probability Density Function feature descriptor mean-shift matching, and RANSAC (RANdom Sample Consensus as main components. After that, bridge ROI (Region Of Interest from LiDAR data domain is projected to the aerial image domain as the ROI in the aerial image. Hough transform linear features are extracted in the aerial image ROI. For the straight bridge, the 1st order polynomial function is used; whereas, for the curved bridge, 2nd order polynomial function is used to fit those endpoints of Hough linear features. The last step is the transformation of the smooth bridge boundaries from aerial image back to LiDAR data domain and merge them with the coarse DBM. Based on our experiments, this new approach is capable of providing precise DBM which can be further merged with DTM (Digital Terrain Model derived from LiDAR data to obtain the precise DSM (Digital Surface Model. Such a precise DSM can be used to improve the orthophoto product quality.

  13. 12. Collaborative Learning – A Possible Approach of Learning in the Discipline of Study Musical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahopol Gabriela


    Full Text Available The musician’s typology is anchored, according to the traditional perception, within the limits of an individualistic image, which searches, develops and affirms its creativity following an individual training process. The collaborative learning is one of the educational patterns less used in the artistic education, being limited to several disciplines whose specificity requires appurtenance to a study group (for instance chamber training, orchestra. The method’s application to the theoretical disciplines often encounters reserves both on part of the teachers and the students as well, because of the efforts required for its design and implementation. The study herein offers a possible approach of collaborative learning within the course of study Musical Analysis, pleading for the need of the social component development of the learning activities of the instrumental performer student, by his involvement within a study group.

  14. Examining the Roles of Blended Learning Approaches in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Environments: A Delphi Study (United States)

    So, Hyo-Jeong; Bonk, Curtis J.


    In this study, a Delphi method was used to identify and predict the roles of blended learning approaches in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments. The Delphi panel consisted of experts in online learning from different geographic regions of the world. This study discusses findings related to (a) pros and cons of blended…

  15. ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Pecceu, Dries; Arts, Tanja; Hutten, Edwin; Rutledge, Lloyd; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob


    Drachsler, H., Peccau, D., Arts, T., Hutten, E., Rutledge, L., Van Rosmalen, P., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings. Presentation at the 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning

  16. High School Students' Approaches to Learning Physics with Relationship to Epistemic Views on Physics and Conceptions of Learning Physics (United States)

    Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Background and purpose: Knowing how students learn physics is a central goal of physics education. The major purpose of this study is to examine the strength of the predictive power of students' epistemic views and conceptions of learning in terms of their approaches to learning in physics. Sample, design and method: A total of 279 Taiwanese high…

  17. Lessons learned about art-based approaches for disseminating knowledge. (United States)

    Bruce, Anne; Makaroff, Kara L Schick; Sheilds, Laurene; Beuthin, Rosanne; Molzahn, Anita; Shermak, Sheryl


    To present a case example of using an arts-based approach and the development of an art exhibit to disseminate research findings from a narrative research study. Once a study has been completed, the final step of dissemination of findings is crucial. In this paper, we explore the benefits of bringing nursing research into public spaces using an arts-based approach. Findings from a qualitative narrative study exploring experiences of living with life-threatening illnesses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 participants living with cancer, chronic renal disease, or HIV/AIDS. Participants were invited to share a symbol representing their experience of living with life-threatening illness and the meaning it held for them. The exhibit conveyed experiences of how people story and re-story their lives when living with chronic kidney disease, cancer or HIV. Photographic images of symbolic representations of study participants' experiences and poetic narratives from their stories were exhibited in a public art gallery. The theoretical underpinning of arts-based approaches and the lessons learned in creating an art exhibit from research findings are explored. Creative art forms for research and disseminating knowledge offer new ways of understanding and knowing that are under-used in nursing. Arts-based approaches make visible patients' experiences that are often left unarticulated or hidden. Creative dissemination approaches such as art exhibits can promote insight and new ways of knowing that communicate nursing research to both public and professional audiences.

  18. Robot Learning from Demonstration: A Task-level Planning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Ekvall


    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the problem of learning by demonstration, task level learning and planning for robotic applications that involve object manipulation. Preprogramming robots for execution of complex domestic tasks such as setting a dinner table is of little use, since the same order of subtasks may not be conceivable in the run time due to the changed state of the world. In our approach, we aim to learn the goal of the task and use a task planner to reach the goal given different initial states of the world. For some tasks, there are underlying constraints that must be fulfille, and knowing just the final goal is not sufficient. We propose two techniques for constraint identification. In the first case, the teacher can directly instruct the system about the underlying constraints. In the second case, the constraints are identified by the robot itself based on multiple observations. The constraints are then considered in the planning phase, allowing the task to be executed without violating any of them. We evaluate our work on a real robot performing pick-and-place tasks.

  19. Cultures of Learning and Learning Culture: Socratic and Confucian Approaches to Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Gorry, Jonathan


    A wide variety of British universities are expanding efforts to attract international students. This article argues that higher education's implicit claim to all-inclusive "universality" may hereby be challenged by subsequent issues of cultural particularity. Here I set to conceptualise possible differences in the learning culture of…

  20. Measuring Perceptions of the Learning Environment and Approaches to Learning: Validation of the Learn Questionnaire (United States)

    Herrmann, Kim Jesper; Bager-Elsborg, Anna; Parpala, Anna


    While focus on quality in Danish higher education has been growing in recent years, limited attention has been devoted to developing and thoroughly validating instruments that allow collecting data about university students' perceptions of the teaching-learning environment. Based on data from a large sample of Danish university students, a Danish…

  1. The relationship between learning preferences (styles and approaches) and learning outcomes among pre-clinical undergraduate medical students. (United States)

    Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Sidhu, Jagmohni; Barua, Ankur


    Learning styles and approaches of individual undergraduate medical students vary considerably and as a consequence, their learning needs also differ from one student to another. This study was conducted to identify different learning styles and approaches of pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students and also to determine the relationships of learning preferences with performances in the summative examinations. A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 419 pre-clinical, undergraduate medical students of the International Medical University (IMU) in Kuala Lumpur. The number of students from Year 2 was 217 while that from Year 3 was 202. The Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) and the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) questionnaires were used for data collection. This study revealed that 343 students (81.9%) had unimodal learning style, while the remaining 76 (18.1%) used a multimodal learning style. Among the unimodal learners, a majority (30.1%) were of Kinesthetic (K) type. Among the middle and high achievers in summative examinations, a majority had unimodal (Kinaesthetic) learning style (30.5%) and were also strategic/deep learners (79.4%). However, the learning styles and approaches did not contribute significantly towards the learning outcomes in summative examinations. A majority of the students in this study had Unimodal (Kinesthetic) learning style. The learning preferences (styles and approaches) did not contribute significantly to the learning outcomes. Future work to re-assess the viability of these learning preferences (styles and approaches) after the incorporation of teaching-learning instructions tailored specifically to the students will be beneficial to help medical teachers in facilitating students to become more capable learners.

  2. The Development of Blended-Learning Teaching Portfolio Course Using TBL Approach (United States)

    Pardamean, Bens; Prabowo, Harjanto; Muljo, Hery Harjono; Suparyanto, Teddy; Masli, Eryadi K.; Donovan, Jerome


    This article was written to develop a teaching portfolio that helps lecturers maximize the benefits of blended learning, a combination of in-person and online learning, through the use of Team-Based Learning (TBL) teaching and learning approach. Studies show that TBL can provide opportunities in developing teamwork capabilities and enhancing…

  3. Investigating the Relationship among Extracurricular Activities, Learning Approach and Academic Outcomes: A Case Study (United States)

    Chan, Yiu-Kong


    Learning effectiveness requires an understanding of the relationship among extracurricular activities, learning approach and academic performance and, it is argued, this helps educators develop techniques designed to enrich learning effectiveness. Biggs' Presage-Process-Product model on student learning has identified the relationship among…

  4. Wavelet-based unsupervised learning method for electrocardiogram suppression in surface electromyograms. (United States)

    Niegowski, Maciej; Zivanovic, Miroslav


    We present a novel approach aimed at removing electrocardiogram (ECG) perturbation from single-channel surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings by means of unsupervised learning of wavelet-based intensity images. The general idea is to combine the suitability of certain wavelet decomposition bases which provide sparse electrocardiogram time-frequency representations, with the capacity of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for extracting patterns from images. In order to overcome convergence problems which often arise in NMF-related applications, we design a novel robust initialization strategy which ensures proper signal decomposition in a wide range of ECG contamination levels. Moreover, the method can be readily used because no a priori knowledge or parameter adjustment is needed. The proposed method was evaluated on real surface EMG signals against two state-of-the-art unsupervised learning algorithms and a singular spectrum analysis based method. The results, expressed in terms of high-to-low energy ratio, normalized median frequency, spectral power difference and normalized average rectified value, suggest that the proposed method enables better ECG-EMG separation quality than the reference methods. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What's Wrong with Learning for the Exam? An Assessment-Based Approach for Student Engagement (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi


    It is now widely recognized that assessment and the feedback play key roles in the learning process. However, assessment-based learning approaches are not yet commonly practiced in Japan. This paper provides an example of an assessment-based approach to teaching and learning employed for a course entitled "English as an International…

  6. Game-Enhanced Simulation as an Approach to Experiential Learning in Business English (United States)

    Punyalert, Sansanee


    This dissertation aims to integrate various learning approaches, i.e., multiple literacies, experiential learning, game-enhanced learning, and global simulation, into an extracurricular module, in which it remodels traditional ways of teaching input, specifically, the lexical- and grammatical-only approaches of business English at a private…

  7. Sequenced Integration and the Identification of a Problem-Solving Approach through a Learning Process (United States)

    Cormas, Peter C.


    Preservice teachers (N = 27) in two sections of a sequenced, methodological and process integrated mathematics/science course solved a levers problem with three similar learning processes and a problem-solving approach, and identified a problem-solving approach through one different learning process. Similar learning processes used included:…

  8. A Stochastic Approach for Automatic and Dynamic Modeling of Students' Learning Styles in Adaptive Educational Systems (United States)

    Dorça, Fabiano Azevedo; Lima, Luciano Vieira; Fernandes, Márcia Aparecida; Lopes, Carlos Roberto


    Considering learning and how to improve students' performances, an adaptive educational system must know how an individual learns best. In this context, this work presents an innovative approach for student modeling through probabilistic learning styles combination. Experiments have shown that our approach is able to automatically detect and…

  9. Machine learning approaches: from theory to application in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Veronese, Elisa; Castellani, Umberto; Peruzzo, Denis; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo


    In recent years, machine learning approaches have been successfully applied for analysis of neuroimaging data, to help in the context of disease diagnosis. We provide, in this paper, an overview of recent support vector machine-based methods developed and applied in psychiatric neuroimaging for the investigation of schizophrenia. In particular, we focus on the algorithms implemented by our group, which have been applied to classify subjects affected by schizophrenia and healthy controls, comparing them in terms of accuracy results with other recently published studies. First we give a description of the basic terminology used in pattern recognition and machine learning. Then we separately summarize and explain each study, highlighting the main features that characterize each method. Finally, as an outcome of the comparison of the results obtained applying the described different techniques, conclusions are drawn in order to understand how much automatic classification approaches can be considered a useful tool in understanding the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia. We then conclude by discussing the main implications achievable by the application of these methods into clinical practice.

  10. Machine Learning Approaches: From Theory to Application in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Veronese


    Full Text Available In recent years, machine learning approaches have been successfully applied for analysis of neuroimaging data, to help in the context of disease diagnosis. We provide, in this paper, an overview of recent support vector machine-based methods developed and applied in psychiatric neuroimaging for the investigation of schizophrenia. In particular, we focus on the algorithms implemented by our group, which have been applied to classify subjects affected by schizophrenia and healthy controls, comparing them in terms of accuracy results with other recently published studies. First we give a description of the basic terminology used in pattern recognition and machine learning. Then we separately summarize and explain each study, highlighting the main features that characterize each method. Finally, as an outcome of the comparison of the results obtained applying the described different techniques, conclusions are drawn in order to understand how much automatic classification approaches can be considered a useful tool in understanding the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia. We then conclude by discussing the main implications achievable by the application of these methods into clinical practice.

  11. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun


    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  12. Transdisciplinary Approach and Intensity in Second Language Learning/Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Netten


    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract This article explores the concept and role of intensity in the research project on Intensive Core French in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Intensity in this project is characterized by a reorganization of the timetable and a reorientation of the curriculum. The theoretical foundation of the project – a transdisciplinary approach to second language learning/teaching – is based on Cummins's hypothesis on the interdependence of languages, a sociopsychological theory of development, and Vygotsky's conception of the relationship between instruction and development. A model is developed in order to illustrate the relationship between second language learning and the development of cognitive, social and personal capacities and organizational skills. It is argued that the types of teaching strategies used in second language classrooms have important effects on the development of these capacities. The transdisciplinary approach developed in our research project, which tests on the concept of intensity and implies the compacting of the curriculum both in English and other subjects, enhances the effects of second language instruction.

  13. Influence of the Constructivist Learning Approach on Students' Levels of Learning Trigonometry and on Their Attitudes towards Mathematics




    In this experimental study, the influence of the constructivist learning approach on students’ levels of learning trigonometry and on their attitudes towards mathematics was examined in comparison with the traditional methods of instruction. The constructivist learning approach was the independent variable, while mathematics achievement, the lessons of trigonometry and the attitudes towards mathematics constituted the dependent variables. The study was designed as the pretest-posttest control...

  14. A deep learning approach for fetal QRS complex detection. (United States)

    Zhong, Wei; Liao, Lijuan; Guo, Xuemei; Wang, Guoli


    Non-Invasive foetal electrocardiography (NI-FECG) has the potential to provide more additional clinical information for detecting and diagnosing fetal diseases. We propose and demonstrate a deep learning approach for fetal QRS complex detection from raw NI-FECG signals by using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model. The main objective is to investigate whether reliable fetal QRS complex detection performance can still be obtained from features of single-channel NI-FECG signals, without canceling maternal ECG (MECG) signals. A deep learning method is proposed for recognizing fetal QRS complexes. Firstly, We collecte the data from set-a of PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge Database (PCDB). The sample entropy (SampEn) method is used for signal quality assessment. Part of the bad quality signals are excluded in the further analysis. Secondly, in the proposed method, the features of raw NI-FECG signals are normalized before they are fed to a CNN classifier to perform fetal QRS complex detection. We use precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy as the evaluation metrics to assess the performance of fetal QRS complex detection. The proposed deep learning method can achieve relatively high precision (75.33%), recall (80.54%), and F-measure scores (77.85%) compared with three other well-known pattern classification methods namely KNN, Naive Bayes (NB) and the SVM. The proposed deep learning method can attain reliable fetal QRS complex detection performance from the raw NI-FECG signals without canceling MECG signals. In addition, the influence of different activation functions and signal quality assessment on classification performance are evaluated, and results show that Relu outperforms the Sigmoid and Tanh on this particular task, and better classification performance is obtained with the signal quality assessment step in this study. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  15. An active, collaborative approach to learning skills in flow cytometry. (United States)

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N; Röhrig, Kimberley J


    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow cytometry listmode output (FCS) files and asked to design a gating strategy to diagnose patients with different hematological malignancies on the basis of their immunophenotype. A separate cohort of research trainees was given uncompensated data files on which they performed their own compensation, calculated the antibody staining index, designed a sequential gating strategy, and quantified rare immune cell subsets. Student engagement, confidence, and perceptions of flow cytometry were assessed using a survey. Competency against the learning outcomes was assessed by asking students to undertake tasks that required understanding of flow cytometry dot plot data and gating sequences. The active, collaborative approach allowed students to achieve learning outcomes not previously possible with traditional teaching formats, for example, having students design their own gating strategy, without forgoing essential outcomes such as the interpretation of dot plots. In undergraduate students, favorable perceptions of flow cytometry as a field and as a potential career choice were correlated with student confidence but not the ability to perform flow cytometry data analysis. We demonstrate that this new pedagogical approach to teaching flow cytometry is beneficial for student understanding and interpretation of complex concepts. It should be considered as a useful new method for incorporating complex data analysis tasks such as flow cytometry into curricula. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  16. Acquiring organizational learning norms: a contingency approach for understanding deutero learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.


    'The Learning Organization' is a configuration of learning norms (called a learning prototype here), which is seldom related to varying levels of learning needs. This article assumes that organizational environmental complexity and dynamics define four learning needs levels. Consequently, four

  17. Artificial neural network approach for estimation of surface specific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    mine it from space is an active research topic. Few attempts (Jourdan and .... Multi-layer networks use a variety of learn- ing techniques, the most popular being .... a learning rate of 0.7. Thus the back-propagation formula computes the delta error from the output layer back towards the input layer, in a layer-by- layer manner.

  18. A New Approach to Programming Language Education for Beginners with Top-Down Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Saito


    Full Text Available There are two basic approaches in learning new programming language: a bottom-up approach and a top-down approach. It has been said that if a learner has already acquired one language, the top-down approach is more efficient to learn another while, for a person who has absolutely no knowledge of any programming languages; the bottom-up approach is preferable. The major problem of the bottom-up approach is that it requires longer period to acquire the language. For quicker learning, this paper applies a top-down approach for a beginners who has not yet acquired any programming languages.

  19. Learning Approaches - Final Report Sub-Project 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Rodríguez Illera, José Luis; Escofet, Anna


    on establishing an experimental infrastructure; Open-source software, Moodle as the learning management system and virtual learning environment (VLE); Pedagogical considerations on the selection of an open source virtual learning environment; Testing of pedagogical concepts and tools; Conceptual framework...

  20. Effective and efficient optics inspection approach using machine learning algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, G.; Kegelmeyer, L.; Liao, Z.; Carr, W.


    The Final Optics Damage Inspection (FODI) system automatically acquires and utilizes the Optics Inspection (OI) system to analyze images of the final optics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). During each inspection cycle up to 1000 images acquired by FODI are examined by OI to identify and track damage sites on the optics. The process of tracking growing damage sites on the surface of an optic can be made more effective by identifying and removing signals associated with debris or reflections. The manual process to filter these false sites is daunting and time consuming. In this paper we discuss the use of machine learning tools and data mining techniques to help with this task. We describe the process to prepare a data set that can be used for training and identifying hardware reflections in the image data. In order to collect training data, the images are first automatically acquired and analyzed with existing software and then relevant features such as spatial, physical and luminosity measures are extracted for each site. A subset of these sites is 'truthed' or manually assigned a class to create training data. A supervised classification algorithm is used to test if the features can predict the class membership of new sites. A suite of self-configuring machine learning tools called 'Avatar Tools' is applied to classify all sites. To verify, we used 10-fold cross correlation and found the accuracy was above 99%. This substantially reduces the number of false alarms that would otherwise be sent for more extensive investigation.

  1. MOOC design – Dissemination to the masses or facilitation of social learning and a deep approach to learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger-Marie Falgren Christensen


    Full Text Available This article accounts for the design of the massive open online course (MOOC Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairy tales on FutureLearn and reports on the effectiveness of this design in terms of engaging learners in social learning and encouraging a deep approach to learning. A learning pathway was designed that provided learners with relevant knowledge, allowed them to practice their analysis skills and provided model responses. In the first run of the MOOC, a light facilitation approach was used to motivate and engage learners. In the second run, this was supplemented with live Q & A sessions and increased educator feedback. Course data show that that some learners use the space provided for social interaction and mutual support. A learning pathway that engages learners in discussion and progression from week to week facilitates a deep approach to learning. However, this requires more support from the educators and the course host.

  2. Mathematics Literacy on Problem Based Learning with Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education Approach Assisted E-Learning Edmodo (United States)

    Wardono; Waluya, S. B.; Mariani, Scolastika; Candra D, S.


    This study aims to find out that there are differences in mathematical literacy ability in content Change and Relationship class VII Junior High School 19, Semarang by Problem Based Learning (PBL) model with an Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education (called Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia or PMRI in Indonesia) approach assisted Elearning Edmodo, PBL with a PMRI approach, and expository; to know whether the group of students with learning PBL models with PMRI approach and assisted E-learning Edmodo can improve mathematics literacy; to know that the quality of learning PBL models with a PMRI approach assisted E-learning Edmodo has a good category; to describe the difficulties of students in working the problems of mathematical literacy ability oriented PISA. This research is a mixed methods study. The population was seventh grade students of Junior High School 19, Semarang Indonesia. Sample selection is done by random sampling so that the selected experimental class 1, class 2 and the control experiment. Data collected by the methods of documentation, tests and interviews. From the results of this study showed average mathematics literacy ability of students in the group PBL models with a PMRI approach assisted E-learning Edmodo better than average mathematics literacy ability of students in the group PBL models with a PMRI approach and better than average mathematics literacy ability of students in the expository models; Mathematics literacy ability in the class using the PBL model with a PMRI approach assisted E-learning Edmodo have increased and the improvement of mathematics literacy ability is higher than the improvement of mathematics literacy ability of class that uses the model of PBL learning with PMRI approach and is higher than the improvement of mathematics literacy ability of class that uses the expository models; The quality of learning using PBL models with a PMRI approach assisted E-learning Edmodo have very good category.

  3. Pharmacy Students' Approaches to Learning in Undergraduate and Graduate Entry Programs (United States)

    Krass, Ines; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville


    Objectives To compare longitudinal data with previous cross-sectional data regarding Australian undergraduate pharmacy students' approaches to learning, and explore the differences in approaches to learning between undergraduate and postgraduate cohorts. Methods Longitudinal, repeated measures design using a validated self-report survey instrument were used to gather data. Results Undergraduate students' preferences for meaning directed, undirected, and reproduction-directed approaches to learning displayed the same pattern across the 2 studies; however, application-directed scores increased significantly in the second half of the undergraduate degree program. Commencing postgraduate students' approaches to learning were similar to finishing undergraduate students, and this group was significantly more oriented towards meaning-directed learning compared to undergraduate students. Conclusions Pharmacy students' maturation in approach to their learning was evident and this bodes well for pharmacists' engaging in life-long learning and capacity to work in increasingly complex health settings. PMID:21045948

  4. The strategic use of lecture recordings to facilitate an active and self-directed learning approach


    Topale, Luminica


    Background New learning technologies have the capacity to dramatically impact how students go about learning and to facilitate an active, self-directed learning approach. In U. S. medical education, students encounter a large volume of content, which must be mastered at an accelerated pace. The added pressure to excel on the USMLE Step 1 licensing exam and competition for residency placements, require that students adopt an informed approach to the use of learning technologies so as to enhanc...

  5. Learning through role-playing games: an approach for active learning and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Ferreira Randi

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the use of role-playing games (RPGs as a methodological approach for teaching cellular biology, assessing student satisfaction, learning outcomes, and retention of acquired knowledge. First-year undergraduate medical students at two Brazilian public universities attended either an RPG-based class (RPG group or a lecture (lecture-based group on topics related to cellular biology. Pre- and post-RPG-based class questionnaires were compared to scores in regular exams and in an unannounced test one year later to assess students' attitudes and learning. From the 230 students that attended the RPG classes, 78.4% responded that the RPG-based classes were an effective tool for learning; 55.4% thought that such classes were better than lectures but did not replace them; and 81% responded that they would use this method. The lecture-based group achieved a higher grade in 1 of 14 regular exam questions. In the medium-term evaluation (one year later, the RPG group scored higher in 2 of 12 questions. RPG classes are thus quantitatively as effective as formal lectures, are well accepted by students, and may serve as educational tools, giving students the chance to learn actively and potentially retain the acquired knowledge more efficiently.

  6. Modeling laser-induced periodic surface structures: an electromagnetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skolski, J.Z.P.


    This thesis presents and discusses laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs), as well as a model explaining their formation. LIPSSs are regular wavy surface structures with dimensions usually in the submicrometer range, which can develop on the surface of many materials exposed to laser

  7. Developing Learning Scenarios for Educational Web Radio: a Learning Design Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Liokou, Effrosyni; Economou, Anastasia


    schools. In this paper, we present a survey study that aimed to evaluate a Visual Learning Design (VLD) approach for developing educational scenari-os in web radio. The study results indicated that the VLD approach helped teachers to think about the educational aspects of the web radio production......Radio has been used in education since the beginning of last century. With the rise of the internet, web radio came into life and provided new possibili-ties for web radio content (e.g. video apart from voice and music), asyn-chronous broadcasting, and cooperation between students from different...... of previous experience in web radio production. These results will guide the application of the VLD approach in a bigger scale....

  8. The impact of personality and approaches to learning on information behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown how personality influences learning strategies and learning outcome. In this study this will be taken further by combining personality and approaches to learning with information behaviour. The aim of this study is to show how the five traits of the Five-Factor Inventory related to the approaches to learning of the ASSIST-test affect information behaviour. The subjects will be approximately 500 university students writing their dissertation. In a pilot study it was shown that personality traits can be related to approaches to learning. Moreover they seem to form distinctive information behaviour.

  9. A hybrid ensemble learning approach to star-galaxy classification (United States)

    Kim, Edward J.; Brunner, Robert J.; Carrasco Kind, Matias


    There exist a variety of star-galaxy classification techniques, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we present a novel meta-classification framework that combines and fully exploits different techniques to produce a more robust star-galaxy classification. To demonstrate this hybrid, ensemble approach, we combine a purely morphological classifier, a supervised machine learning method based on random forest, an unsupervised machine learning method based on self-organizing maps, and a hierarchical Bayesian template-fitting method. Using data from the CFHTLenS survey (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey), we consider different scenarios: when a high-quality training set is available with spectroscopic labels from DEEP2 (Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Phase 2 ), SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey), VIPERS (VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey), and VVDS (VIMOS VLT Deep Survey), and when the demographics of sources in a low-quality training set do not match the demographics of objects in the test data set. We demonstrate that our Bayesian combination technique improves the overall performance over any individual classification method in these scenarios. Thus, strategies that combine the predictions of different classifiers may prove to be optimal in currently ongoing and forthcoming photometric surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  10. A dictionary learning approach for Poisson image deblurring. (United States)

    Ma, Liyan; Moisan, Lionel; Yu, Jian; Zeng, Tieyong


    The restoration of images corrupted by blur and Poisson noise is a key issue in medical and biological image processing. While most existing methods are based on variational models, generally derived from a maximum a posteriori (MAP) formulation, recently sparse representations of images have shown to be efficient approaches for image recovery. Following this idea, we propose in this paper a model containing three terms: a patch-based sparse representation prior over a learned dictionary, the pixel-based total variation regularization term and a data-fidelity term capturing the statistics of Poisson noise. The resulting optimization problem can be solved by an alternating minimization technique combined with variable splitting. Extensive experimental results suggest that in terms of visual quality, peak signal-to-noise ratio value and the method noise, the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Estimation of Surface Seawater Fugacity of Carbon Dioxide Using Satellite Data and Machine Learning (United States)

    Jang, E.; Im, J.; Park, G.; Park, Y.


    The ocean controls the climate of Earth by absorbing and releasing CO2 through the carbon cycle. The amount of CO2 in the ocean has increased since the industrial revolution. High CO2 concentration in the ocean has a negative influence to marine organisms and reduces the ability of absorbing CO2 in the ocean. This study estimated surface seawater fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) in the East Sea of Korea using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) reanalysis data. GOCI is the world first geostationary ocean color observation satellite sensor, and it provides 8 images with 8 bands hourly per day from 9 am to 4 pm at 500m resolution. Two machine learning approaches (i.e., random forest and support vector regression) were used to model fCO2 in this study. While most of the existing studies used multiple linear regression to estimate the pressure of CO2 in the ocean, machine learning may handle more complex relationship between surface seawater fCO2 and ocean parameters in a dynamic spatiotemporal environment. Five ocean related parameters, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll-a (chla), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), and mixed layer depth (MLD), were used as input variables. This study examined two schemes, one with GOCI-derived products and the other with MODIS-derived ones. Results show that random forest performed better than support vector regression regardless of satellite data used. The accuracy of GOCI-based estimation was higher than MODIS-based one, possibly thanks to the better spatiotemporal resolution of GOCI data. MLD was identified the most contributing parameter in estimating surface seawater fCO2 among the five ocean related parameters, which might be related with an active deep convection in the East Sea. The surface seawater fCO2 in summer was higher in general with some spatial variation than the other

  12. Content-Based Instruction Approach in Instructional Multimedia for English Learning


    Farani, Rizki


    Content-based Instruction (CBI) is an approach in English learning that integrates certain topic and English learning objectives. This approach focuses on using English competencies as a “bridge” to comprehend certain topic or theme in English. Nowadays, this approach can be used in instructional multimedia to support English learning by using computer. Instructional multimedia with computer system refers to the sequential or simultaneous use of variety of media formats in a given presentatio...

  13. Approach to Dynamic Assembling of Individualized Learning Paths (United States)

    Lubchak, Vladimir; Kupenko, Olena; Kuzikov, Borys


    E-learning students are generally heterogeneous and have different capabilities knowledge base and needs. The aim of the Sumy State University (SSU) e-learning system project is to cater to these individual needs by assembling individual learning path. This paper shows current situation with e-learning in Ukraine, state-of-art of development of…

  14. A Resource-Oriented Functional Approach to English Language Learning (United States)

    Li, Jia


    This article reports on a case study that investigates the learning preferences and strategies of Chinese students learning English as a second language (ESL) in Canadian school settings. It focuses on the interaction between second language (L2) learning methods that the students have adopted from their previous learning experience in China and…

  15. Multi-agent machine learning a reinforcement approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, H M


    The book begins with a chapter on traditional methods of supervised learning, covering recursive least squares learning, mean square error methods, and stochastic approximation. Chapter 2 covers single agent reinforcement learning. Topics include learning value functions, Markov games, and TD learning with eligibility traces. Chapter 3 discusses two player games including two player matrix games with both pure and mixed strategies. Numerous algorithms and examples are presented. Chapter 4 covers learning in multi-player games, stochastic games, and Markov games, focusing on learning multi-pla

  16. Machine Learning Approaches to Increasing Value of Spaceflight Omics Databases (United States)

    Gentry, Diana


    The number of spaceflight bioscience mission opportunities is too small to allow all relevant biological and environmental parameters to be experimentally identified. Simulated spaceflight experiments in ground-based facilities (GBFs), such as clinostats, are each suitable only for particular investigations -- a rotating-wall vessel may be 'simulated microgravity' for cell differentiation (hours), but not DNA repair (seconds) -- and introduce confounding stimuli, such as motor vibration and fluid shear effects. This uncertainty over which biological mechanisms respond to a given form of simulated space radiation or gravity, as well as its side effects, limits our ability to baseline spaceflight data and validate mission science. Machine learning techniques autonomously identify relevant and interdependent factors in a data set given the set of desired metrics to be evaluated: to automatically identify related studies, compare data from related studies, or determine linkages between types of data in the same study. System-of-systems (SoS) machine learning models have the ability to deal with both sparse and heterogeneous data, such as that provided by the small and diverse number of space biosciences flight missions; however, they require appropriate user-defined metrics for any given data set. Although machine learning in bioinformatics is rapidly expanding, the need to combine spaceflight/GBF mission parameters with omics data is unique. This work characterizes the basic requirements for implementing the SoS approach through the System Map (SM) technique, a composite of a dynamic Bayesian network and Gaussian mixture model, in real-world repositories such as the GeneLab Data System and Life Sciences Data Archive. The three primary steps are metadata management for experimental description using open-source ontologies, defining similarity and consistency metrics, and generating testing and validation data sets. Such approaches to spaceflight and GBF omics data may

  17. Selection of suitable e-learning approach using TOPSIS technique with best ranked criteria weights (United States)

    Mohammed, Husam Jasim; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd


    This paper compares the performances of four rank-based weighting assessment techniques, Rank Sum (RS), Rank Reciprocal (RR), Rank Exponent (RE), and Rank Order Centroid (ROC) on five identified e-learning criteria to select the best weights method. A total of 35 experts in a public university in Malaysia were asked to rank the criteria and to evaluate five e-learning approaches which include blended learning, flipped classroom, ICT supported face to face learning, synchronous learning, and asynchronous learning. The best ranked criteria weights are defined as weights that have the least total absolute differences with the geometric mean of all weights, were then used to select the most suitable e-learning approach by using TOPSIS method. The results show that RR weights are the best, while flipped classroom approach implementation is the most suitable approach. This paper has developed a decision framework to aid decision makers (DMs) in choosing the most suitable weighting method for solving MCDM problems.

  18. Surface primary bone tumors: Systematic approach and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Diaz, Cristina; Soler Fernandez, Rafaela; Rodriguez Garcia, Esther; Fernandez Armendariz, Pablo; Diaz Angulo, Carolina [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruna, Department of Radiology, A Coruna (Spain)


    Surface primary bone tumors may appear similar to their intramedullary counterpart, but because they are rare, they may pose diagnostic challenges when showing different characteristics compared to their intramedullary counterpart. It is important for radiologists to recognize the imaging findings for various uncommon surface primary bone tumors, which may help to reduce the differential diagnosis or to lead to a specific diagnosis. Radiography is typically used for first-line imaging. If necessary, it is followed by CT or MRI for evaluation and characterization of surface bone tumors. The aim of this article is to review the imaging findings and differential diagnosis for surface primary bone tumors. (orig.)

  19. Constructive and problem-based learning using blended learning anchored instruction approaches (United States)

    Mayer, M.


    Based on an anchored instruction approach, an enriched blended learning lecture course ("Introduction into GNSS positioning") was established in order to enable constructive and problem-based learning. The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The presented higher education technique "anchored instruction" uses a real and up-to-date and therefore authentic scientific paper dealing with a recent large-scale geodetic project (Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link) in order to introduce the topic of GNSS-based positioning to the students. In the beginning of the semester, the students have to read the paper individually and carefully. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated focusing on new, unclear or not-understood aspects of the paper. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them throughout the semester. During the lecture course this paper is referred, e.g., in the middle of the semester, the paper has to be read again in order to check which questions have been answered; in addition, new question arise. At the end of the lecture course, the author of the scientific paper gave a concluding lecture. The framing anchor technique enables the students to anchor their GNSS knowledge. The presented case study uses a teaching resp. learning setting consisting of classroom lectures (given by teachers and learners), practical trainings (e.g., field exercises, students select topics individually), and online lectures (learning management system ILIAS is used as data, result, and asynchronous communication platform). The implementation and the elements of the anchoring technique, which enables student

  20. The dynamic interplay among EFL learners’ ambiguity tolerance, adaptability, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Alahdadi


    Full Text Available A key objective of education is to prepare individuals to be fully-functioning learners. This entails developing the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, cultural, and emotional competencies. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships among adaptability, tolerance of ambiguity, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement as manifestations of the above competencies within a single model. The participants comprised one hundred eighty BA and MA Iranian university students studying English language teaching and translation. The instruments used in this study consisted of the translated versions of four questionnaires: second language tolerance of ambiguity scale, adaptability taken from emotional intelligence inventory, cultural intelligence (CQ inventory, and the revised study process questionnaire measuring surface and deep learning. The results estimated via structural equation modeling (SEM revealed that the proposed model containing the variables under study had a good fit with the data. It was found that all the variables except adaptability directly influenced language achievement with deep approach having the highest impact and ambiguity tolerance having the lowest influence. In addition, ambiguity tolerance was a positive and significant predictor of deep approach. CQ was found to be under the influence of both ambiguity tolerance and adaptability. The findings were discussed in the light of the yielded results.

  1. Use of machine learning approaches for novel drug discovery. (United States)

    Lima, Angélica Nakagawa; Philot, Eric Allison; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart; Scott, Luis Paulo Barbour; Maltarollo, Vinícius Gonçalves; Honorio, Kathia Maria


    The use of computational tools in the early stages of drug development has increased in recent decades. Machine learning (ML) approaches have been of special interest, since they can be applied in several steps of the drug discovery methodology, such as prediction of target structure, prediction of biological activity of new ligands through model construction, discovery or optimization of hits, and construction of models that predict the pharmacokinetic and toxicological (ADMET) profile of compounds. This article presents an overview on some applications of ML techniques in drug design. These techniques can be employed in ligand-based drug design (LBDD) and structure-based drug design (SBDD) studies, such as similarity searches, construction of classification and/or prediction models of biological activity, prediction of secondary structures and binding sites docking and virtual screening. Successful cases have been reported in the literature, demonstrating the efficiency of ML techniques combined with traditional approaches to study medicinal chemistry problems. Some ML techniques used in drug design are: support vector machine, random forest, decision trees and artificial neural networks. Currently, an important application of ML techniques is related to the calculation of scoring functions used in docking and virtual screening assays from a consensus, combining traditional and ML techniques in order to improve the prediction of binding sites and docking solutions.

  2. Lessons learned from community-based approaches to sodium reduction. (United States)

    Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby, Jan L; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James


    This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. A multiple case study design was used. This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semistructured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption.

  3. Light: an experiments based learning approach with primary school children (United States)

    Abreu, Cátia; Noversa, Silvana; Varela, Paulo; Costa, Manuel F.


    A pedagogical intervention project was carried out at a primary school in the municipality of Vila Verde, Braga in Portugal. In a class of the 3rd grade, composed of 16 students, a practice of inquiry-based science teaching was implemented, addressing the curricular topic "Light Experiments". Various experimental activities were planned within this topic, including: What is light? How does light travel? Does light travel through every material? How is light reflected by a mirror? This project adopted an action research methodology and had as its main objectives: a) to promote a practical and experimental approach to the science component of the Environmental Studies curricular area; b) to describe the scientific meaning construction process inherent to the topics addressed in the classroom with the children, c) to assess the learning steps and children' achievements. Class diaries were prepared, based on field notes and audio recordings taken in the classroom. Through the analysis of the class diary concerning the topic "materials that let light travel through them" we intend to illustrate the process of construction of scientific meanings promoted in the classroom with our approach.

  4. Pain detection from facial images using unsupervised feature learning approach. (United States)

    Kharghanian, Reza; Peiravi, Ali; Moradi, Farshad


    In this paper a new method for continuous pain detection is proposed. One approach to detect the presence of pain is by processing images taken from the face. It has been reported that expression of pain from the face can be detected utilizing Action Units (AUs). In this manner, each action units must be detected separately and then combined together through a linear expression. Also, pain detection can be directly done from a painful face. There are different methods to extract features of both shape and appearance. Shape and appearance features must be extracted separately, and then used to train a classifier. Here, a hierarchical unsupervised feature learning approach is proposed in order to extract the features needed for pain detection from facial images. In this work, features are extracted using convolutional deep belief network (CDBN). The extracted features include different properties of painful images such as head movements, shape and appearance information. The proposed model was tested on the publicly available UNBC MacMaster Shoulder Pain Archive Database and we achieved near 95% for the area under ROC curve metric that is prominent with respect to the other reported results.

  5. Effects of different forms of physiology instruction on the development of students' conceptions of and approaches to science learning. (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' conceptions of and approaches to learning science in two different forms: internet-assisted instruction and traditional (face-to-face only) instruction. The participants who took part in the study were 79 college students enrolled in a physiology class in north Taiwan. In all, 46 of the participants were from one class and 33 were from another class. Using a quasi-experimental research approach, the class of 46 students was assigned to be the "internet-assisted instruction group," whereas the class of 33 students was assigned to be the "traditional instruction group." The treatment consisted of a series of online inquiry activities. To explore the effects of different forms of instruction on students' conceptions of and approaches to learning science, two questionnaires were administered before and after the instruction: the Conceptions of Learning Science Questionnaire and the Approaches to Learning Science Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance results revealed that the students in the internet-assisted instruction group showed less agreement than the traditional instruction group in the less advanced conceptions of learning science (such as learning as memorizing and testing). In addition, the internet-assisted instruction group displayed significantly more agreement than the traditional instruction group in more sophisticated conceptions (such as learning as seeing in a new way). Moreover, the internet-assisted instruction group expressed more orientation toward the approaches of deep motive and deep strategy than the traditional instruction group. However, the students in the internet-assisted instruction group also showed more surface motive than the traditional instruction group did.

  6. The energy balance of the earth's surface : a practical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de H.A.R.


    This study is devoted to the energy balance of the earth's surface with a special emphasis on practical applications. A simple picture of the energy exchange processes that take place at the ground is the following. Per unit time and area an amount of radiant energy is supplied to the surface. This

  7. Learning hatching for pen-and-ink illustration of surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kalogerakis, Evangelos


    This article presents an algorithm for learning hatching styles from line drawings. An artist draws a single hatching illustration of a 3D object. Her strokes are analyzed to extract the following per-pixel properties: hatching level (hatching, cross-hatching, or no strokes), stroke orientation, spacing, intensity, length, and thickness. A mapping is learned from input geometric, contextual, and shading features of the 3D object to these hatching properties, using classification, regression, and clustering techniques. Then, a new illustration can be generated in the artist\\'s style, as follows. First, given a new view of a 3D object, the learned mapping is applied to synthesize target stroke properties for each pixel. A new illustration is then generated by synthesizing hatching strokes according to the target properties. © 2012 ACM.

  8. Can Task-based Learning Approach Help Attract Students with Diverse Backgrounds Learn Chinese at A Danish University?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Wang, Li


    foreign language. Chinese culture elements are also integrated into the tasks and the learning process. By analyzing seven items of a post-course survey, this paper investigates the learners’ opinions towards the Task-based language teaching and learning method and toward the method of integrating culture......Task-based method is regarded as a meaningful approach for promoting interaction and collaboration in language learning. In an elective Chinese language beginner course at Aalborg University, Denmark, a selection of tasks are designed and used to attract the students’ interests in learning a new...... in the language learning in this course. The result indicates that course participants were generally positive about their experiences and learning processes during the course, not only the task-based method but also integrating culture into language learning. Learners of diverse backgrounds in terms of gender...

  9. Predicting Turkish Preservice Elementary Teachers' Orientations to Teaching Science with Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Conceptions, and Learning Approaches in Science (United States)

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami


    The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…

  10. Effectiveness of Mutual Learning Approach in the Academic Achievement of B.Ed Students in Learning Optional II English (United States)

    Arulselvi, Evangelin


    The present study aims at finding out the effectiveness of Mutual learning approach over the conventional method in learning English optional II among B.Ed students. The randomized pre-test, post test, control group and experimental group design was employed. The B.Ed students of the same college formed the control and experimental groups. Each…

  11. Self-directed Learning Readiness Is Independent of Teaching and Learning Approach in Undergraduate Nursing Education. (United States)

    Qamata-Mtshali, Nomawethu; Bruce, Judith C


    Selecting appropriate teaching and learning strategies within an overarching teaching philosophy is 1 way of influencing nursing students' self-directedness. We conducted research to compare the self-directed learning readiness and learning attributes in different years of study of undergraduate nursing students who are exposed to traditional, lecture-based learning and problem-based learning strategies. We found that readiness for self-directed learning is not dependent on the dominant teaching-learning strategy used in the nursing program.

  12. Prediction of skin sensitization potency using machine learning approaches. (United States)

    Zang, Qingda; Paris, Michael; Lehmann, David M; Bell, Shannon; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Allen, David; Matheson, Joanna; Jacobs, Abigail; Casey, Warren; Strickland, Judy


    The replacement of animal use in testing for regulatory classification of skin sensitizers is a priority for US federal agencies that use data from such testing. Machine learning models that classify substances as sensitizers or non-sensitizers without using animal data have been developed and evaluated. Because some regulatory agencies require that sensitizers be further classified into potency categories, we developed statistical models to predict skin sensitization potency for murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and human outcomes. Input variables for our models included six physicochemical properties and data from three non-animal test methods: direct peptide reactivity assay; human cell line activation test; and KeratinoSens™ assay. Models were built to predict three potency categories using four machine learning approaches and were validated using external test sets and leave-one-out cross-validation. A one-tiered strategy modeled all three categories of response together while a two-tiered strategy modeled sensitizer/non-sensitizer responses and then classified the sensitizers as strong or weak sensitizers. The two-tiered model using the support vector machine with all assay and physicochemical data inputs provided the best performance, yielding accuracy of 88% for prediction of LLNA outcomes (120 substances) and 81% for prediction of human test outcomes (87 substances). The best one-tiered model predicted LLNA outcomes with 78% accuracy and human outcomes with 75% accuracy. By comparison, the LLNA predicts human potency categories with 69% accuracy (60 of 87 substances correctly categorized). These results suggest that computational models using non-animal methods may provide valuable information for assessing skin sensitization potency. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A Learning-Based Approach for IP Geolocation (United States)

    Eriksson, Brian; Barford, Paul; Sommers, Joel; Nowak, Robert

    The ability to pinpoint the geographic location of IP hosts is compelling for applications such as on-line advertising and network attack diagnosis. While prior methods can accurately identify the location of hosts in some regions of the Internet, they produce erroneous results when the delay or topology measurement on which they are based is limited. The hypothesis of our work is that the accuracy of IP geolocation can be improved through the creation of a flexible analytic framework that accommodates different types of geolocation information. In this paper, we describe a new framework for IP geolocation that reduces to a machine-learning classification problem. Our methodology considers a set of lightweight measurements from a set of known monitors to a target, and then classifies the location of that target based on the most probable geographic region given probability densities learned from a training set. For this study, we employ a Naive Bayes framework that has low computational complexity and enables additional environmental information to be easily added to enhance the classification process. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach, we test IP geolocation on over 16,000 routers given ping measurements from 78 monitors with known geographic placement. Our results show that the simple application of our method improves geolocation accuracy for over 96% of the nodes identified in our data set, with on average accuracy 70 miles closer to the true geographic location versus prior constraint-based geolocation. These results highlight the promise of our method and indicate how future expansion of the classifier can lead to further improvements in geolocation accuracy.

  14. Learner-Centred Pedagogy for Swim Coaching: A Complex Learning Theory-Informed Approach (United States)

    Light, Richard


    While constructivist theories of learning have been widely drawn on to understand and explain learning in games when using game-based approaches their use to inform pedagogy beyond games is limited. In particular, there has been little interest in applying constructivist perspectives on learning to sports in which technique is of prime importance.…

  15. Holistic Approach to Learning and Teaching Introductory Object-Oriented Programming (United States)

    Thota, Neena; Whitfield, Richard


    This article describes a holistic approach to designing an introductory, object-oriented programming course. The design is grounded in constructivism and pedagogy of phenomenography. We use constructive alignment as the framework to align assessments, learning, and teaching with planned learning outcomes. We plan learning and teaching activities,…

  16. The Development of a Robot-Based Learning Companion: A User-Centered Design Approach (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Zeng; Su, Mu-Chun; Chen, Sherry Y.; Chen, Gow-Dong


    A computer-vision-based method is widely employed to support the development of a variety of applications. In this vein, this study uses a computer-vision-based method to develop a playful learning system, which is a robot-based learning companion named RobotTell. Unlike existing playful learning systems, a user-centered design (UCD) approach is…

  17. Interindividual Differences in Learning Performance: The Effects of Age, Intelligence, and Strategic Task Approach (United States)

    Kliegel, Matthias; Altgassen, Mareike


    The present study investigated fluid and crystallized intelligence as well as strategic task approaches as potential sources of age-related differences in adult learning performance. Therefore, 45 young and 45 old adults were asked to learn pictured objects. Overall, young participants outperformed old participants in this learning test. However,…

  18. Teaching University-Level Technology Students via the Learning Preferences and Problem-Solving Approach (United States)

    Scott, Sophia; Koch, Doug


    This article focuses on how technology educators can challenge students to "think" about technical problems. A key aspect of success in quality problem solving is understanding learning preferences and problem-solving approaches. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) can be used to assess an individual's ideal way to learn, in essence, a…

  19. Modified Immersive Situated Service Learning: A Social Justice Approach to Professional Communication Pedagogy (United States)

    Jones, Natasha N.


    Distinctions between traditional service learning and critical service learning with a social justice focus are important when structuring professional writing courses and defining course outcomes. This article presents a hybrid pedagogical approach for designing a critical service-learning course that integrates a social justice curriculum while…

  20. Learning Biology through Innovative Curricula: A Comparison of Game- and Nongame-Based Approaches (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Menon, Deepika; Ferdig, Richard E.; Annetta, Leonard


    This study explored student learning in the context of innovative biotechnology curricula and the effects of gaming as a central element of the learning experience. The quasi-experimentally designed study compared learning outcomes between two curricular approaches: One built around a computer-based game, and the other built around a narrative…

  1. From Tootsie Rolls to Broken Bones: An Innovative Approach for Active Learning in Mechanics of Materials (United States)

    Linsey, Julie; Talley, Austin; White, Christina; Jensen, Dan; Wood, Kristin


    Active learning enhances engineering education. This paper presents rationale, curriculum supplements, and an approach to active learning that may be seamlessly incorporated into a traditional lecture-based engineering class. A framework of educational theory that structures the active learning experiences and includes consideration of learning…

  2. A Comparison of the Learning Approaches of Accounting and Science Students at an Irish University (United States)

    Byrne, Marann; Finlayson, Odilla; Flood, Barbara; Lyons, Orla; Willis, Pauline


    One of the major challenges facing accounting education is the creation of a learning environment that promotes high-quality learning. Comparative research across disciplines offers educators the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the influence of contextual and personal variables on students' learning approaches. Using the Approaches…

  3. Transitioning to the Real World through Problem-Based Learning: A Collaborative Approach to Teacher Preparation (United States)

    Barron, Lisa; Wells, Lauren


    Problem-based learning (PBL) creates opportunities for authentic learning in teacher preparation programs. In addition to developing content knowledge and pedagogy, problem-based learning affords students the framework for a holistic, collaborative approach to solving several interconnected problems. As students move through the process of…

  4. Agoras: Towards Collaborative Game-Based Learning Experiences on Surfaces (United States)

    Catala, Alejandro; Garcia-Sanjuan, Fernando; Pons, Patricia; Jaen, Javier; Mocholi, Jose A.


    Children nowadays consume and manage lots of interactive digital software. This makes it more interesting and powerful to use digital technologies and videogames supporting learning experiences. However, in general, current digital proposals lack of in-situ social interaction supporting natural exchange and discussion of ideas in the course of…

  5. Extracting meaning from audio signals - a machine learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan


    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression...

  6. A Geostatistical Approach to Indoor Surface Sampling Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Thomas; Petersen, Ole Holm; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg


    using the global information. Then methods for choosing a proper sampling area for a single sample of dust on a table are given. The global contamination of an object is determined by a maximum likelihood estimator. Finally, it is shown how specified experimental goals can be included to determine......Particulate surface contamination is of concern in production industries such as food processing, aerospace, electronics and semiconductor manufacturing. There is also an increased awareness that surface contamination should be monitored in industrial hygiene surveys. A conceptual and theoretical...... framework for designing sampling strategies is thus developed. The distribution and spatial correlation of surface contamination can be characterized using concepts from geostatistical science, where spatial applications of statistics is most developed. The theory is summarized and particulate surface...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Suryani


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to find and to test the model of characters education in Learning Evaluation Subject through deep approach to learning. The subject of the study is the class of Learning Evaluation of Office Administration Program, Economics Education Department, Economics Faculty, Semarang State University. The data are collected by a test, and then analyzed by qualitative descriptive. The result of this study showed that the model of characters education through deep approach to learning could improve students’ self awareness in learning the subject.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Suryani


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to find and to test the model of characters education in Learning Evaluation Subject through deep approach to learning. The subject of the study is the class of Learning Evaluation of Office Administration Program, Economics Education Department, Economics Faculty, Semarang State University. The data are collected by a test, and then analyzed by qualitative descriptive. The result of this study showed that the model of characters education through deep approach to learning could improve students’ self awareness in learning the subject.

  9. An integrated approach to friction surfacing process optimisation


    Voutchkov, I.I.; Jaworski, B.; Vitanov, V.I.; Bedford, G.M.


    This paper discusses the procedures for data collection, management and optimisation of the friction surfacing process. Experimental set-up and characteristics of measuring equipment are found to match the requirements for accurate and unbiased data signals. The main friction surfacing parameters are identified and the first stage of the optimisation process is achieved by visually assessing the coatings and introducing the substrate speed vs. force map. The optimum values from this first sta...

  10. Assessment of body surface temperature in cetaceans: an iterative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Silva

    Full Text Available Heat transfer from skin surface to ambient water is probably the most important aspect of thermal balance in marine mammals, but the respective calculations depend on knowing the surface temperature (T S, the direct measurement of which in free animals is very difficult. An indirect iterative method is proposed for T S prediction in free cetaceans from deep body temperature, swimming speed, and temperature and thermodynamic properties of the water.

  11. An Educational Approach to Problem-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Chieh Chen


    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the educational framework of problem-based learning (PBL. As known and used, PBL finds its root in the Structuralism and Pragmatism schools of philosophy. In this paper, the three main requirements of PBL, namely learning by doing, learning in context, and focusing on the student, are discussed within the context of these two schools of thought. Given these attributes, PBL also seems ideally suited for use in learning bioethics.

  12. Chaotic approach to evaluation of disturbed magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogoshi, Sumio; Mishimagi, Sigehiro; Yoshii, Keiichi; Maeda, Joji


    A circle mapping can approximately reproduce the cross section of magnetic surfaces and the value of the periodic driving force (K) at a magnetic island varies with the width of the magnetic island, which suggests the value of K is one of measures for the degradation of magnetic surfaces. The profile of a rotational transform has flat regions at the magnetic islands. The width of the flat region is proportional to the width of the magnetic island. Therefore it may be another measure of the degradation of magnetic surfaces. This method requires less data for the estimation than the usual method of calculating the width of magnetic islands. For collapsed magnetic surfaces that are produced by overlapping of two magnetic islands, the fractal dimension can effectively estimate the degradation of them. The fractal dimensions of cross sections of regular magnetic surfaces and clear magnetic islands are nearly 1, while that of a collapsed magnetic surface is about 1.2 in the present study. (author)

  13. A multi-sensory methodological approach for science learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Lucia Bossio


    Full Text Available This paper presents both a learning environment aimed at science education and the results obtained at the end of its experimentation carried out in a secondary school. The edutainment environment has been designed to explain the physical theory of superstrings, and it was mainly based on the construction of artifacts and on the manipulation of digital media. In order to both intrigue students and make interesting and appealing this complex subject of physics we have tried to stimulate and engage students in a multi-sensory way through different approaches. It was outlined a path made by different steps to deal with the scientific issues addressed that would actively encourage a real translation of knowledge into skills and both different styles and ways of learning. Superstring theory was first presented through traditional approaches and, later, through the construction of metaphoric representations made by artifacts created by the students. The experimentation, conducted on a group of 20 students, allowed to evaluate the effectiveness of the environment. Un approccio multisensoriale per l’apprendimento delle scienzeQuesto articolo presenta un ambiente di apprendimento rivolto alla didattica delle scienze e i risultati ottenuti al termine della sua sperimentazione compiuta presso un istituto scolastico d’istruzione secondaria di primo grado. L’ambiente di edutainment è stato progettato per realizzare la divulgazione della teoria fisica delle superstringhe, ed è stato prevalentemente basato sulla costruzione di manufatti e sulla manipolazione di media digitali. Si è cercato di stimolare e coinvolgere gli alunni mediante approcci diversi e in maniera multisensoriale con l’obiettivo di incuriosirli rendendo interessante e accattivante questo complesso argomento della fisica. È stato delineato un percorso per gradi alle problematiche scientifiche affrontate che potesse attivamente stimolare sia i vari stili e modi di apprendimento

  14. Mathematics Learning Process with Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) Approach in Indonesia (United States)

    Milaturrahmah, N.; Mardiyana, M.; Pramudya, I.


    STEM approach has been widely applied in developed and developing countries. In Indonesia, the STEM approach has not been widely used. Application of STEM approach in each country is different according to the needs of the State itself. This study aims to describe the process of learning mathematics with STEM approach in Indonesia which includes the readiness of teachers before the learning process, implementation of learning, evaluation of learning and to describe the obstacles experienced by teachers during the learning process with STEM approach in Indonesia. This research is descriptive qualitative research. The subject of the research is the mathematics teacher. The technique used in taking the subject is purposive sampling. Methods of data collection is by observation and interview. Technique to validate data with time triangulation. Data analysis techniques used consist of data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The results of this study are the learning process of mathematics with STEM approach includes preparatory aspects before learning, learning implementation aspect consisting of preliminary, core and closing stage, and evaluation aspect. The obstacles experienced by teachers in applying STEM approach to learning mathematics is looking for real life and material practice on a material.

  15. An Analytical Model for Learning: An Applied Approach. (United States)

    Kassebaum, Peter Arthur

    A mediated-learning package, geared toward non-traditional students, was developed for use in the College of Marin's cultural anthropology courses. An analytical model for learning was used in the development of the package, utilizing concepts related to learning objectives, programmed instruction, Gestalt psychology, cognitive psychology, and…

  16. A Genetic Algorithm Approach to Recognise Students' Learning Styles (United States)

    Yannibelli, Virginia; Godoy, Daniela; Amandi, Analia


    Learning styles encapsulate the preferences of the students, regarding how they learn. By including information about the student learning style, computer-based educational systems are able to adapt a course according to the individual characteristics of the students. In accomplishing this goal, educational systems have been mostly based on the…

  17. Designing Science Learning with Game-Based Approaches (United States)

    Liu, Min; Rosenblum, Jason A.; Horton, Lucas; Kang, Jina


    Given the growing popularity of digital games as a form of entertainment, educators are interested in exploring using digital games as a tool to facilitate learning. In this study, we examine game-based learning by describing a learning environment that combines game elements, play, and authenticity in the real world for the purpose of engaging…

  18. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise


    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  19. A Collaborative Action Research Approach to Professional Learning (United States)

    Bleicher, Robert E.


    The field of professional development is moving towards the notion of professional learning, highlighting the active learning role that teachers play in changing their knowledge bases, beliefs and practice. This article builds on this idea and argues for creating professional learning that is guided by a collaborative action research (CAR)…

  20. Student Teachers' Learning about Child Sexual Abuse Strategies for Primary School: An Exploratory Study of Surface and Deep Learning (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.


    This paper explores student teachers' understandings of child sexual abuse and strategies to deal with it that are appropriate for the primary school classroom. Evidence of surface and deep learning were obtained from a content analysis of student teachers' responses to an essay-type exam question, using Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives.…

  1. Effects of Situated Mobile Learning Approach on Learning Motivation and Performance of EFL Students (United States)

    Huang, Chester S. J.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Su, Addison Y. S.


    This study developed a 5-step vocabulary learning (FSVL) strategy and a mobile learning tool in a situational English vocabulary learning environment and assessed their effects on the learning motivation and performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in a situational English vocabulary learning environment. Overall, 80 EFL…

  2. New Route to Synthesize Surface Organometallic Complexes (SOMC): An Approach by Alkylating Halogenated Surface Organometallic Fragments

    KAUST Repository

    Hamieh, Ali Imad


    The aim of this thesis is to explore new simpler and efficient routes for the preparation of surface organometallic complexes (SOMC) for the transformation of small organic molecules to valuable products. The key element in this new route relies on surface alkylation of various halogenated surface coordination complexes or organometallic fragments (SOMF).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamisah Chamisah


    Full Text Available This article aims to explain an analysis of cooperative learning approach advantages in teaching writing. Accordingly, learning writing by using cooperative learning makes the students easier in developing the ideas to write. This approach is more than just putting students into groups, but the students can work together, share information, and they are responsible for completion of the tasks in group as well. Besides, in this approach, the students can transfer their information and knowledge to the others and help each other in getting the ideas to develop in written communication during teaching-learning process.

  4. Collaborative Group Learning Approaches for Teaching Comparative Planetology (United States)

    Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.


    Modern science education reform documents propose that the teaching of contemporary students should focus on doing science, rather than simply memorizing science. Duschl, Schweingruber, and Shouse (2007) eloquently argue for four science proficiencies for students. Students should: (i) Know, use, and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world; (ii) Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations; (iii) Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge; and (iv) Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse. In response, scholars with the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are creating and field-tested two separate instructional approaches. The first of these is a series of computer-mediated, inquiry learning experiences for non-science majoring undergraduates based upon an inquiry-oriented teaching approach framed by the notions of backwards faded-scaffolding as an overarching theme for instruction. Backwards faded-scaffolding is a strategy where the conventional and rigidly linear scientific method is turned on its head and students are first taught how to create conclusions based on evidence, then how experimental design creates evidence, and only at the end introduces students to the most challenging part of inquiry - inventing scientifically appropriate questions. Planetary science databases and virtual environments used by students to conduct scientific investigations include the NASA and JPL Solar System Simulator and Eyes on the Solar System as well as the USGS Moon and Mars Global GIS Viewers. The second of these is known widely as a Lecture-Tutorial approach. Lecture-Tutorials are self-contained, collaborative group activities. The materials are designed specifically to be easily integrated into the lecture course and directly address the needs of busy and heavily-loaded teaching faculty for effective, student-centered, classroom-ready materials that do not require a drastic course

  5. Arts-Based Learning: A New Approach to Nursing Education Using Andragogy. (United States)

    Nguyen, Megan; Miranda, Joyal; Lapum, Jennifer; Donald, Faith


    Learner-oriented strategies focusing on learning processes are needed to prepare nursing students for complex practice situations. An arts-based learning approach uses art to nurture cognitive and emotional learning. Knowles' theory of andragogy aims to develop the skill of learning and can inform the process of implementing arts-based learning. This article explores the use and evaluation of andragogy-informed arts-based learning for teaching nursing theory at the undergraduate level. Arts-based learning activities were implemented and then evaluated by students and instructors using anonymous questionnaires. Most students reported that the activities promoted learning. All instructors indicated an interest in integrating arts-based learning into the curricula. Facilitators and barriers to mainstreaming arts-based learning were highlighted. Findings stimulate implications for prospective research and education. Findings suggest that arts-based learning approaches enhance learning by supporting deep inquiry and different learning styles. Further exploration of andragogy-informed arts-based learning in nursing and other disciplines is warranted. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):407-410.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. A work-based learning approach for clinical support workers on mental health inpatient wards. (United States)

    Kemp, Philip; Gilding, Moorene; Seewooruttun, Khooseal; Walsh, Hannah


    Background With a rise in the number of unqualified staff providing health and social care, and reports raising concerns about the quality of care provided, there is a need to address the learning needs of clinical support workers. This article describes a qualitative evaluation of a service improvement project that involved a work-based learning approach for clinical support workers on mental health inpatient wards. Aim To investigate and identify insights in relation to the content and process of learning using a work-based learning approach for clinical support workers. Method This was a qualitative evaluation of a service improvement project involving 25 clinical support workers at the seven mental health inpatient units in South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. Three clinical skills tutors were appointed to develop, implement and evaluate the work-based learning approach. Four sources of data were used to evaluate this approach, including reflective journals, qualitative responses to questionnaires, three focus groups involving the clinical support workers and a group interview involving the clinical skills tutors. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings The work-based learning approach was highly valued by the clinical support workers and enhanced learning in practice. Face-to-face learning in practice helped the clinical support workers to develop practice skills and reflective learning skills. Insights relating to the role of clinical support workers were also identified, including the benefits of face-to-face supervision in practice, particularly in relation to the interpersonal aspects of care. Conclusion A work-based learning approach has the potential to enhance care delivery by meeting the learning needs of clinical support workers and enabling them to apply learning to practice. Care providers should consider how the work-based learning approach can be used on a systematic, organisation-wide basis in the context of budgetary

  7. Using Flipped Classroom Approach to Explore Deep Learning in Large Classrooms (United States)

    Danker, Brenda


    This project used two Flipped Classroom approaches to stimulate deep learning in large classrooms during the teaching of a film module as part of a Diploma in Performing Arts course at Sunway University, Malaysia. The flipped classes utilized either a blended learning approach where students first watched online lectures as homework, and then…

  8. Organizational Approach to the Ergonomic Examination of E-Learning Modules (United States)

    Lavrov, Evgeniy; Kupenko, Olena; Lavryk, Tetiana; Barchenko, Natalia


    With a significant increase in the number of e-learning resources the issue of quality is of current importance. An analysis of existing scientific and methodological literature shows the variety of approaches, methods and tools to evaluate e-learning materials. This paper proposes an approach based on the procedure for estimating parameters of…

  9. Learning Agreements and Socially Responsible Approaches to Professional and Human Resource Development in the United Kingdom (United States)

    Wallis, Emma


    This article draws upon original qualitative data to present an initial assessment of the significance of learning agreements for the development of socially responsible approaches to professional and human resource development within the workplace. The article suggests that the adoption of a partnership-based approach to learning is more…

  10. Differences in Perceived Approaches to Learning and Teaching English in Hong Kong Secondary Schools (United States)

    Mak, Barley; Chik, Pakey


    This paper investigates differences in approaches to learning and teaching English as a second language (ESL) as reported by 324 mixed-ability Grade 7 Hong Kong ESL students and 37 ESL secondary school teachers with different backgrounds. Information about participants' perceived approaches to learning/teaching English were collected through a…

  11. An Interactive Approach to Learning and Teaching in Visual Arts Education (United States)

    Tomljenovic, Zlata


    The present research focuses on modernising the approach to learning and teaching the visual arts in teaching practice, as well as examining the performance of an interactive approach to learning and teaching in visual arts classes with the use of a combination of general and specific (visual arts) teaching methods. The study uses quantitative…

  12. Impact of a New Integrated Medicine Program on Students' Approaches to Learning (United States)

    Balasooriya, Chinthaka Damith; Hughes, Christopher; Toohey, Susan


    This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of a new integrated medical educational design on students' approaches to learning. Although the new program was based on curriculum features identified in the research literature as likely to promote deeper approaches to learning, the results revealed a more complex response from students.…

  13. Elementary Students' Generalization and Representation of Functional Relationships: A Learning Progressions Approach (United States)

    Stephens, Ana; Fonger, Nicole L.; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric


    In this paper, we describe our learning progressions approach to early algebra research that involves the coordination of a curricular framework, an instructional sequence, written assessments, and levels of sophistication describing the development of students' thinking. We focus in particular on what we have learning through this approach about…

  14. The Formation of Conservation-Based Behaviour of Mechanical Engineering Students through Contextual Learning Approach (United States)

    Sudarman; Djuniadi; Sutopo, Yeri


    This study was aimed to figure out: (1) the implementation of contextual learning approaches; (2) the learning outcome of conservation education using contextual approach on the internship program preparation class; (3) the conservation-based behaviour of the internship program participants; (4) the contribution of conservation education results…

  15. Towards a Semantic E-Learning Theory by Using a Modelling Approach (United States)

    Yli-Luoma, Pertti V. J.; Naeve, Ambjorn


    In the present study, a semantic perspective on e-learning theory is advanced and a modelling approach is used. This modelling approach towards the new learning theory is based on the four SECI phases of knowledge conversion: Socialisation, Externalisation, Combination and Internalisation, introduced by Nonaka in 1994, and involving two levels of…

  16. Micro-Macro Compatibility: When Does a Complex Systems Approach Strongly Benefit Science Learning? (United States)

    Samon, Sigal; Levy, Sharona T.


    The study explores how a complexity approach empowers science learning. A complexity approach represents systems as many interacting entities. The construct of micro-macro compatibility is introduced, the degree of similarity between behaviors at the micro- and macro-levels of the system. Seventh-grade students' learning about gases was studied…

  17. Flipped Classrooms and Student Learning: Not Just Surface Gains (United States)

    McLean, Sarah; Attardi, Stefanie M.; Faden, Lisa; Goldszmidt, Mark


    The flipped classroom is a relatively new approach to undergraduate teaching in science. This approach repurposes class time to focus on application and discussion; the acquisition of basic concepts and principles is done on the students' own time before class. While current flipped classroom research has focused on student preferences and…

  18. Probing surface tension additivity on chemically heterogeneous surfaces by a molecular approach. (United States)

    Wang, Jihang; Bratko, Dusan; Luzar, Alenka


    Surface free energy of a chemically heterogeneous surface is often treated as an approximately additive quantity through the Cassie equation [Cassie ABD (1948) Discuss Faraday Soc 3:11-16]. However, deviations from additivity are common, and molecular interpretations are still lacking. We use molecular simulations to measure the microscopic analogue of contact angle, Θ(c), of aqueous nanodrops on heterogeneous synthetic and natural surfaces as a function of surface composition. The synthetic surfaces are layers of graphene functionalized with prototypical nonpolar and polar head group: methyl, amino, and nitrile. We demonstrate positive as well as negative deviations from the linear additivity. We show the deviations reflect the uneven exposure of mixture components to the solvent and the linear relation is recovered if fractions of solvent-accessible surface are used as the measure of composition. As the spatial variations in polarity become of larger amplitude, the linear relation can no longer be obtained. Protein surfaces represent such natural patterned surfaces, also characterized by larger patches and roughness. Our calculations reveal strong deviations from linear additivity on a prototypical surface comprising surface fragments of melittin dimer. The deviations reflect the disproportionately strong influence of isolated polar patches, preferential wetting, and changes in the position of the liquid interface above hydrophobic patches. Because solvent-induced contribution to the free energy of surface association grows as cos Θ(c), deviations of cos Θ(c) from the linear relation directly reflect nonadditive adhesive energies of biosurfaces.

  19. An e-learning approach to informed problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Weichhart


    Full Text Available When taking into account individualized learning processes not only content and interaction facilities need to be re-considered, but also the design of learning processes per se. Besides explicitness of learning objectives, interactive means of education need to enable intertwining content and communication elements as basic elements of active learning in a flexible way while preserving a certain structure of the learning process. Intelligibility Catchers are a theoretically grounded framework to enable such individualized processes. It allows learners and teachers agreeing and determining a desired learning outcome in written form. This type of e-learning contract enables students to individually explore content and participate in social interactions, while being guided by a transparent learning process structure. The developed implementation empowers learners in terms of creative problem-solving capabilities, and requires adaptation of classroom situations. The framework and its supporting semantic e-learning environment not only enables diverse learning and problem solving processes, but also supports the collaborative construction of e-learning contracts.



    Sachin Mohite; Meenal Dashputre


    The entire education system is moving from the teacher-centered teaching-learning approaches towards student-centered teaching-learning approaches, with anticipation that it would increase the learning outcomes. This empirical study was carried out to compare the traditional and non-traditional classrooms. It also tried to understand the effectiveness of the Alternate Instructions in the Mathematics and Primary Language (Marathi) classrooms. This study collected about 8000 snapshots from the ...



    Bošnjak Terzić, Brankica


    Over the last three decades the notion of self-regulation has been increasingly investigated in the area of psychology, and over the last two decades this is true for other scientific areas. Bandura’s (1986) socio-cognitive approach has greatly improved the understanding self-regulation. The socio-cognitive approach to self-regulated learning (SRL), important for successful language learning, relates a learner’s self-regulating process with the specific learning experience and identifies the ...

  2. Student-centered learning approach in teaching basic grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Buditama


    Full Text Available The study determined the effect of student-centered learning approach in teaching basic grammar of the tenth-grade students. Specifically, this study sought answers to following questions: 1. How does the result of the pre-test compare to that of post-test of the control and experimental groups? 2. Is there any significant difference in the results of the test between the control and experimental groups? 3. What is student-centered teaching guide in basic grammar that can be developed based on the findings of the study? It was applied an experimental research design in this study. The result in the post-test of the control and experimental groups showed that the computed the T value of 3.03 was higher than the tabular value of 2.03, at the degree of freedom of 34, at 5% level of significance. This condition rejects the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the mean scores in the post-test of the control and experimental groups. The student-centered teaching guide enhanced the students’ writing skill in the basic grammar of the tenth-grade students in the experimental group.

  3. Can Virtual Museums Motivate Students? Toward a Constructivist Learning Approach (United States)

    Katz, James E.; Halpern, Daniel


    This study aims to assess the effectiveness of immersive environments that have been implemented by museums to attract new visitors. Based on the frameworks introduced by telepresence and media richness theories, and following a constructivist-based learning approach, we argue that the greater the similarity of an online museum experience is to its physical counterpart, the more positive will be the observer's perception of the collection. We reason that the similarity would lead online visitors to develop greater cognitive involvement which in turn will produce more positive attitudes toward the collection. In support of this argument, we present the results of a comparative study in which 565 participants were exposed randomly to four different exhibitions: two-dimensional collections of art and aircraft museums and three-dimensional tours of similar museums. Results indicate that whereas 3D tours have a strong effect on users' intentions to visit the real museum, cognitive involvement and sense of presence mediate the association between these variables. In terms of managerial implications, our study shows that if educational professionals want to stimulate their students to visit museums, 3D tours appear to be more effective for engaging learners through a realistic-looking environment. By offering richer perceptual cues and multimodal feedback (e.g., users can view 3D objects from multiple viewpoints or zoom in/out the objects), the study suggests that participants may increase their reasoning process and become more interested in cultural content.

  4. Learning in the Science Lab: a New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Dunne


    Full Text Available This project aimed to improve the laboratory learning experience for undergraduate science students, focusing initially on first and third year cohorts, through specific objectives. Firstly, to incorporate novel teaching and assessment methods, including student led laboratories, in-house produced instructional videos, „Clickers‟ audience response devices, and pre-practical on-line MCQ assessments. Secondly, to develop timely feedback mechanisms, including peer review, tutor face to face and audio feedback, online automatic feedback, and report checklists. Finally, to imbed transferable skills into the laboratory including group work, communication skills (written and oral, organisation & project planning, health & safety, and preparedness for laboratories, final year projects & placement. Pedagogical evaluation was through anonymous multiple choice questionnaires and independent academic facilitated discussion forums. The main benefits are students who are better prepared, both for basic undergraduate laboratories and for independent research-based final year projects; continuity in the development of transferable skills; improved assessment quality though constructive alignment and appropriate feedback; and improved student satisfaction through engagement and feedback. The key recommendations arising from this study are; to encourage preparedness for practical sessions, harnessing technology to engage students through interesting pre-practical activities; to encourage an improved culture of feedback, including mechanisms such as podcasts, which also "feed-forward‟; and to encourage a culture where value is added to modules by actively incorporating transferable skills into all student activities and assessments, rather than a "bolt on" approach

  5. Automated Diatom Classification (Part B: A Deep Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Pedraza


    Full Text Available Diatoms, a kind of algae microorganisms with several species, are quite useful for water quality determination, one of the hottest topics in applied biology nowadays. At the same time, deep learning and convolutional neural networks (CNN are becoming an extensively used technique for image classification in a variety of problems. This paper approaches diatom classification with this technique, in order to demonstrate whether it is suitable for solving the classification problem. An extensive dataset was specifically collected (80 types, 100 samples/type for this study. The dataset covers different illumination conditions and it was computationally augmented to more than 160,000 samples. After that, CNNs were applied over datasets pre-processed with different image processing techniques. An overall accuracy of 99% is obtained for the 80-class problem and different kinds of images (brightfield, normalized. Results were compared to previous presented classification techniques with different number of samples. As far as the authors know, this is the first time that CNNs are applied to diatom classification.

  6. A Self-Regulated Learning Approach: A Mobile Context-aware and Adaptive Learning Schedule (mCALS Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Y-K. Yau


    Full Text Available Abstract—Self-regulated students are able to create andmaximize opportunities they have for studying or learning.We combine this learning approach with our MobileContext-aware and Adaptive Learning Schedule (mCALStool which will create and enhance opportunities forstudents to study or learn in different locations. Thelearning schedule is used for two purposes, a to helpstudents organize their work and facilitate timemanagement, and b for capturing the users’ activitieswhich can be retrieved and translated as learning contextslater by our tool. These contexts are then used as a basis forselecting appropriate learning materials for the students.Using a learning schedule to capture and retrieve contexts isa novel approach in the context-aware mobile learning field.In this paper, we present the conceptual model andpreliminary architecture of our mCALS tool, as well as ourresearch questions and methodology for evaluating it. Thelearning materials we intend to use for our tool will be Javafor novice programmers. This is appropriate because largeamounts of time and motivation are necessary to learn anobject-oriented programming language such as Java, andwe are currently seeking ways to facilitate this for noviceprogrammers.

  7. Higher education student´s approaches to learning according to their perception of the context of course and classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Goikoetxea Piérola


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the relationship between the perception of teaching and learning classroom contexts and perception of course context with approaches to learning for college students. These influences are contrasted by degree, campus and courses. The sample is composed by 524 students of first and second year of Infant and Primary Education, Nursing and Polytechnics of Alava and Guipuzcoa campus. Used scales are the R-SPQ-2F (Biggs, Kember y Leung, 2001 to measure the student´s approaches to learning and the subscales of general Questionnaire of Teaching´s and Learning’s Strategies (TS-LSQ (San Fabián, Argós, Goikoetxea, 2009; Goikoetxea, Aramendi, Bujan, Rekalde y Ros, 2010 to measure the classroom´s context and current context. The study served to confirm the importance of two contextual variables poorly studied until now, the classroom context and the context of course, and its relations with the learning approach of university students. The classroom context is a variable that differentiates between degrees and also is related to significant variations with deep and surface approaches of students. The variable context of course is manifested as a specific variable of degree: the most significant differences for this variable are between the same students when they are in first or second year of career.

  8. Individual Learning in Construction Projects: Professions and their Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Wasif


    Full Text Available New materials, use of sophisticated technologies and increased customer demands, in combination with growing competition among construction companies, have led to a high organizational boundaries. The results indicate that personal networks are the most common source of learning for all professions. While clients, architects, and designers also engage in reading and attending courses, site managers and workers are less engaged in these activities. Experimenting and organizing for learning appear to be underutilized strategies by all professions. This leads to the conclusion that attempts to increase learning have to address the differences in learning behaviours of the various groups. Further, focus on experimenting and organizing for learning is a possibility to change the learning behaviour from learning as a consequence of problems to learning for future of specialization. For successful integration of the different professional specialists, there is a need for shared learning between project co-workers. Based on twenty eight interviews in six different Swedish construction projects, this paper illustrates strategies for individual and shared learning, among different actors and across various

  9. Artificial neural network approach for estimation of surface specific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave sensor MSMR (Multifrequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer) data onboard Oceansat-1 was used for retrieval of monthly averages of near surface specific humidity (a) and air temperature (a) by means of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The MSMR measures the microwave radiances in 8 channels at ...

  10. A machine learning approach for predicting methionine oxidation sites. (United States)

    Aledo, Juan C; Cantón, Francisco R; Veredas, Francisco J


    The oxidation of protein-bound methionine to form methionine sulfoxide, has traditionally been regarded as an oxidative damage. However, recent evidences support the view of this reversible reaction as a regulatory post-translational modification. The perception that methionine sulfoxidation may provide a mechanism to the redox regulation of a wide range of cellular processes, has stimulated some proteomic studies. However, these experimental approaches are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computational methods designed to predict methionine oxidation sites are an attractive alternative. As a first approach to this matter, we have developed models based on random forests, support vector machines and neural networks, aimed at accurate prediction of sites of methionine oxidation. Starting from published proteomic data regarding oxidized methionines, we created a hand-curated dataset formed by 113 unique polypeptides of known structure, containing 975 methionyl residues, 122 of which were oxidation-prone (positive dataset) and 853 were oxidation-resistant (negative dataset). We use a machine learning approach to generate predictive models from these datasets. Among the multiple features used in the classification task, some of them contributed substantially to the performance of the predictive models. Thus, (i) the solvent accessible area of the methionine residue, (ii) the number of residues between the analyzed methionine and the next methionine found towards the N-terminus and (iii) the spatial distance between the atom of sulfur from the analyzed methionine and the closest aromatic residue, were among the most relevant features. Compared to the other classifiers we also evaluated, random forests provided the best performance, with accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 0.7468±0.0567, 0.6817±0.0982 and 0.7557±0.0721, respectively (mean ± standard deviation). We present the first predictive models aimed to computationally detect methionine sites that

  11. How to develop students’ approaches to learning: Experiences from a programme based on co-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Milan


    Full Text Available Starting from the insight that during their education students do not manage to learn how to learn, we created the programme called Blooming with the intention of enabling the students to reconsider their own approaches to learning by developing collaborative activities and relations in the classroom. The programme was realised in a secondary school class, and research goals were to explore the contribution of the programme to the change in students’ approach to learning - regarding the learning motivation and strategies - and to obtain an insight into students’ perspective of the benefits of the programme. The changes in learning strategies and students’ motivation were investigated using the MSLQ before and after programme attendance. The data on the programme benefits were obtained via focus groups with students and analysed by the thematic content analysis. It has been established that the students achieved a significant improvement when it comes to the mastering of the learning strategies that refer to self-regulation, critical thinking, peer learning and help seeking. In addition, the students pointed out as benefits a different method of work and pleasant atmosphere, the feeling of autonomy in classes, as well as the development of a different understanding of the nature of knowledge, the learning process and instruction. The results indicate that the use of Bloom’s taxonomy as the tool for co-regulated learning and self-evaluation of students can contribute to the change in students’ learning approaches. This finding is relevant for further considering of the possibility for this method to grow from a special programme into everyday teaching practice.

  12. First-principles Green's-function method for surface calculations: A pseudopotential localized basis set approach (United States)

    Smidstrup, Søren; Stradi, Daniele; Wellendorff, Jess; Khomyakov, Petr A.; Vej-Hansen, Ulrik G.; Lee, Maeng-Eun; Ghosh, Tushar; Jónsson, Elvar; Jónsson, Hannes; Stokbro, Kurt


    We present an efficient implementation of a surface Green's-function method for atomistic modeling of surfaces within the framework of density functional theory using a pseudopotential localized basis set approach. In this method, the system is described as a truly semi-infinite solid with a surface region coupled to an electron reservoir, thereby overcoming several fundamental drawbacks of the traditional slab approach. The versatility of the method is demonstrated with several applications to surface physics and chemistry problems that are inherently difficult to address properly with the slab method, including metal work function calculations, band alignment in thin-film semiconductor heterostructures, surface states in metals and topological insulators, and surfaces in external electrical fields. Results obtained with the surface Green's-function method are compared to experimental measurements and slab calculations to demonstrate the accuracy of the approach.

  13. A New Design Approach to game or play based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Abstract: The present paper proposes a new design perspective for game based learning. The general idea is to abandon the long and sought after dream of designing a closed learning system, where students from elementary school to high school without teachers’ interference could learn whatever...... subject they wanted sitting in front of a computer. This dream is a caricature I know, but it still lurks in the background whenever we speak, read or write about learning with computer games. The entire field of learning with games is called serious games since they profoundly find themselves...... on collision course with of-the-shelf-commercial entertainment games. This paper wants to promote two different yet interconnected ideas. The first aims at describing a different design perspective for game based learning which in many ways will provoke not only the above mentioned latent dream of a closed...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia V. Morze


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the competencies necessary for the successful professional activity of e-learning managers. The content of the professional qualification "e-learning manager" is revealed. The model of competency system of the e-learning manager is offered. The model, which defines the content, forms, methods and means of training, tools and indicators for assessing the results of training e-learning managers by levels, is substantiated. Examples of competency tasks for forming of professional competencies in innovative teaching methods and technologies, Web 2.0 services, e-learning expertise, e-environment design, IT infrastructure management, and the development of Soft skills are presented. It is proposed to solve the problem of training specialists who will be able not only to use ICT in educational activities, but also to master the competencies of e-learning management.



    Valia Arnaudova; Todorka Terzieva; Asen Rahnev


    The purpose of adaptive e-Learning is to ensure effective teaching by providing an opportunity for students to connect with an environment that suits their needs, behavior, and knowledge. The reason adaptive e-Learning is important is that, for a learning process to be successful, it is necessary to consider teaching materials that address specific characteristics of the student, such as their particular goals, preferences, knowledge, and style of studying, to provide an appropriate teaching ...

  16. Adaptive learning for dynamic environments: A comparative approach


    Costa, Joana; Silva, Catarina; Antunes, Mário; Ribeiro, Bernardete


    Nowadays most learning problems demand adaptive solutions. Current challenges include temporal data streams, drift and non-stationary scenarios, often with text data, whether in social networks or in business systems. Various efforts have been pursued in machine learning settings to learn in such environments, specially because of their non-trivial nature, since changes occur between the distribution data used to define the model and the current environment. In this work we present the Dr...

  17. An approach to the design of mathematical task sequences: Conceptual learning as abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Simon


    Full Text Available This paper describes an emerging approach to the design of task sequences and the theory that undergirds it. The approach aims at promoting particular mathematical concepts, understood as the result of reflective abstraction. Central to this approach is the identification of available student activities from which students can abstract the intended ideas. The approach differs from approaches in which learning to solve the problem posed is the intended learning. The paper illustrates the approach through data from a teaching experiment on division of fractions.

  18. Teaching and Learning about Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences: An Experiential Learning Approach Amongst Marketing Students (United States)

    Hopkinson, Gillian C.; Hogg, Margaret K.


    There is significant evidence that student-centred approaches to learning using experiential exercises considerably enhance students' understanding of substantive theory and also aid acquisition of transferable skills, such as those pertaining to research management and investigation. We consider an experiential pedagogic approach to be…

  19. Some key approaches that could improve learning chemistry in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazgul Sanakovna Dalabayeva


    Full Text Available This article considers some key approaches, which could improve learning in chemistry. Some important factors, which aid learning in higher education, are feedback, active learning techniques, developing critical thinking skills and avoiding plagiarism. Students often have to act on feedback and employ critical thinking skills in the laboratories, lectures and seminars in order to develop skills and progress in their discipline. The University of Reading has studied techniques to aid learning throughout the educational process. Roles of an educator and a student are emphasized. Active learning approaches have shown increase in student knowledge and understanding as well as enhanced critical thinking and communication skills. Active learning approaches include solving problems in pairs and small groups, self-study techniques including writing essays, revision and consolidation work, preparing and giving presentations, report writing and carrying out mini projects or investigations. Also, some measures of assessment used in higher education are given in the paper.

  20. A genetic algorithm approach in interface and surface structure optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part a global optimization method is developed for the interface and surface structures optimization. Two prototype systems are chosen to be studied. One is Si[001] symmetric tilted grain boundaries and the other is Ag/Au induced Si(111) surface. It is found that Genetic Algorithm is very efficient in finding lowest energy structures in both cases. Not only existing structures in the experiments can be reproduced, but also many new structures can be predicted using Genetic Algorithm. Thus it is shown that Genetic Algorithm is a extremely powerful tool for the material structures predictions. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the explanation of an experimental observation of thermal radiation from three-dimensional tungsten photonic crystal structures. The experimental results seems astounding and confusing, yet the theoretical models in the paper revealed the physics insight behind the phenomena and can well reproduced the experimental results.

  1. Graphene Based Terahertz Absorber Designed With Effective Surface Conductivity Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim

    is flexible and ultrastrong mechanically, transparent for optical radiation, with high electrical conductivity that can be tuned by electrochemical potential. Structured graphene layers constitute metamaterials that can provide tunable and very unusual electromagnetic properties. In this contribution we...... present the description of graphene metamaterial properties through the effective surface conductivity. Such description is very convenient, as it simplifies the design of THz devices, and very natural, since surface conductivity can be measured directly in experiment. We show how to extract the effective...... conductivity and how to use it in optical design. We demonstrate a tunable THz perfect absorber, which consists of continuous graphene various structured graphene metamaterials above a metal mirror. Changing the Fermi level from 0 eV to 0.5 eV allows for drastic changes in absorbance from less than 0.1 to 1...

  2. SVM and PCA Based Learning Feature Classification Approaches for E-Learning System (United States)

    Khamparia, Aditya; Pandey, Babita


    E-learning and online education has made great improvements in the recent past. It has shifted the teaching paradigm from conventional classroom learning to dynamic web based learning. Due to this, a dynamic learning material has been delivered to learners, instead ofstatic content, according to their skills, needs and preferences. In this…

  3. User/Tutor Optimal Learning Path in E-Learning Using Comprehensive Neuro-Fuzzy Approach (United States)

    Fazlollahtabar, Hamed; Mahdavi, Iraj


    Internet evolution has affected all industrial, commercial, and especially learning activities in the new context of e-learning. Due to cost, time, or flexibility e-learning has been adopted by participators as an alternative training method. By development of computer-based devices and new methods of teaching, e-learning has emerged. The…

  4. Supporting Teachers in Identifying Students' Learning Styles in Learning Management Systems: An Automatic Student Modelling Approach (United States)

    Graf, Sabine; Kinshuk; Liu, Tzu-Chien


    In learning management systems (LMSs), teachers have more difficulties to notice and know how individual students behave and learn in a course, compared to face-to-face education. Enabling teachers to know their students' learning styles and making students aware of their own learning styles increases teachers' and students' understanding about…

  5. The Coupled Depth/Slope Approach to Surface Reconstruction. (United States)


    contribution of Terzopoulos 119841 was im~proved comiputa- tional efficiency of surface reconstruction. Ile used multigrid methods [B~randt 1977] to...a coarse level and then use that solution as a first approximation for a finer level. Multigrid methods are often many orders of magnitude faster thah...parallel so all grids do iterations equally fast. However, multigrid methods still give some algorithmic speedup on a parallel mv-hine because it

  6. Tribological approach to study polishing of road surface under traffic


    KANE, Malal; DO, Minh Tan


    The polishing phenomenon of road pavements under the vehicle traffic constitutes the main mechanism inherent to the loss of skid resistance over time. A better understanding of this phenomenon would allow an improvement of road safety. This study comprises a review of laboratory test and a model simulating the polishing of road surfaces. The laboratory test uses a polishing machine so called 'Wehner-Schulze' which can reproduce the evolution of the road texture from specimens taken directly f...

  7. A new approach of surface flux measurements using DTS (United States)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Wenker, K. J. R.; Rimmer, A.; de Jong, S. A. P.; Lechinsky, Y.; van de Giesen, N. C.


    Estimation of surface fluxes is a difficult task, especially over lakes. Determining latent heat flux (evaporation), sensible heat flux and ground heat flux involves measurements and (or calculations) of net radiation, air temperature, water temperature, wind speed and relative humidity. This research presents a new method to measure surface fluxes by means of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS). From 0.5 m above lake level to 1.5 m under lake level DTS was applied to measure temperature. Using a PVC hyperboloid construction, a floating standalone measuring device was developed. This new setup distinguished itself by the open construction, so it is almost insensitive to direct radiation. While most of the lake ground heat changes occur very close to the lake surface, most measuring methods only obtain rough results. With this construction it was possible to create a spiral shaped fiber-optic cable setup, with which a vertical spatial resolution of 0.02 m and a temporal resolution of 1 min was obtained. The new method was tested in the deep Lake Kinneret (Israel) from 6 October, 2011 to 11 October, 2011and in the shallow Lake Binaba (Ghana) from 24 October, 2011 to 28 October, 2011. This study shows that with the developed method it is possible to capture the energy fluxes within the top water layer with a high resolution. When the old low resolution method was compared with the new high resolution method, it could be concluded that the impact of the surface fluxes in the upper layer is high on the energy balance on a daily scale. During the measuring period it was possible to use the temperature measured by the DTS to determine the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux and the ground heat flux of both lakes.

  8. Scaffolding Teachers Integrate Social Media Into a Problem‑Based Learning Approach?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian


    to be more generally applicable in relation to wider debates about social media and learning. The learning design model is based on the collaborative eLearning design (CoED) method. The CoED‑workshop methodology aims to support the design of targeted networked learning. The method scaffolds the design work...... of social media in the learning that takes place. In this article I would like to depart from the use of this pedagogical model, which integrates social media. The article will look at a learning design model, which could be a spring‑board scaffolding teachers at AAU in their pedagogical approach...... to learning design when combining the PBL approach with social media or web 2.0 activities or/and technologies. With regard to the discussions about PBL, three important characteristics of PBL can be extracted; the problem, the work process, and the solution, which can be used to distinguish between various...

  9. Meta-analysis of Jelajah Alam Sekitar (JAS Approach Implementation in Learning Procces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ngabekti


    Full Text Available The results of tracer studies on the approach of Jelajah Alam Sekitar (JAS or environment exploring learning has been detected is used in eight provinces in Indonesia and studied in the learning begin primary school to college. Then, how the effectiveness of the implementation of the JAS approach in improving the learning process. This study uses meta-analysis-data in the form of descriptive exploratory qualitative. Data was taken from the various thesis, and research faculty in the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed by calculating the percentage of the same findings for similar problems. The results showed a wide range of studies using different methods and approach such as qualitative descriptive, quasi-experimental, PTK and R and D to produce evidence that the approach JAS effective when applied in teaching, especially teaching biology in a variety of teaching materials. Various studies have shown the approach JAS managed to increase learning outcomes, can differentiate learning outcomes between treatment and control groups in which the treatment group had a mean score higher. Models/strategies/methods centered learning students are very relevant to implementation approach JAS making it seem more real, like a model of cooperative learning, think pair share, strategy role-playing, the investigation group, learning cycle 5e, hands-on activity, and so on, making it possible to continuously assessed and developed in the paradigm of competency-based curriculum developed.

  10. Evaluation of a flipped classroom approach to learning introductory epidemiology. (United States)

    Shiau, Stephanie; Kahn, Linda G; Platt, Jonathan; Li, Chihua; Guzman, Jason T; Kornhauser, Zachary G; Keyes, Katherine M; Martins, Silvia S


    Although the flipped classroom model has been widely adopted in medical education, reports on its use in graduate-level public health programs are limited. This study describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a flipped classroom redesign of an introductory epidemiology course and compares it to a traditional model. One hundred fifty Masters-level students enrolled in an introductory epidemiology course with a traditional format (in-person lecture and discussion section, at-home assignment; 2015, N = 72) and a flipped classroom format (at-home lecture, in-person discussion section and assignment; 2016, N = 78). Using mixed methods, we compared student characteristics, examination scores, and end-of-course evaluations of the 2016 flipped classroom format and the 2015 traditional format. Data on the flipped classroom format, including pre- and post-course surveys, open-ended questions, self-reports of section leader teaching practices, and classroom observations, were evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in examination scores or students' assessment of the course between 2015 (traditional) and 2016 (flipped). In 2016, 57.1% (36) of respondents to the end-of-course evaluation found watching video lectures at home to have a positive impact on their time management. Open-ended survey responses indicated a number of strengths of the flipped classroom approach, including the freedom to watch pre-recorded lectures at any time and the ability of section leaders to clarify targeted concepts. Suggestions for improvement focused on ways to increase regular interaction with lecturers. There was no significant difference in students' performance on quantitative assessments comparing the traditional format to the flipped classroom format. The flipped format did allow for greater flexibility and applied learning opportunities at home and during discussion sections.

  11. Exploring the relationships between teaching, approaches to learning and critical thinking in a problem-based learning foundation nursing course. (United States)

    Martyn, Julie; Terwijn, Ruth; Kek, Megan Y C A; Huijser, Henk


    Undergraduate nursing programmes are responsible for providing teaching and learning that develops students' knowledge, skills and attitudes in alignment with contemporary nursing standards and healthcare demands. Problem-based learning (PBL) as a pedagogy uses authentic artefacts reflecting real-world situations for students to practice problem-solving skills through collaboration with their peers. PBL was introduced in a foundation nursing course delivered in a regional university in Queensland, Australia. This paper presents the findings of a study exploring the relationships between nursing students' individual characteristics and perceptions of learning environments, teaching in PBL mode, approaches to learning, and critical thinking skill readiness. The study was guided by an ecological perspective designed to examine nursing students' ecological environments and the influences of those environments on their approaches to learning, and on critical thinking skill readiness. The results, through hierarchical linear modelling, revealed that aspects of the PBL approach to teaching influenced the approaches to learning students adopt, and thus their critical thinking skill readiness. Implications for teaching in undergraduate nursing programmes are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring Social Learning in Participatory Approaches to Natural Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der M.M.; Kraker, de J.; Offermans, A.; Kroeze, C.; Kirschner, P.; Ittersum, van M.K.


    The role of social learning as a governance mechanism in natural resource management has been frequently highlighted, but progress in finding evidence for this role and gaining insight into the conditions that promote it are hampered by the lack of operational definitions of social learning and

  13. Measuring social learning in participatory approaches to natural resource management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, Merel; De Kraker, Joop; Offermans, Astrid; Kroeze, Carolien; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Ittersum, Martin


    The role of social learning as a governance mechanism in natural resource management has been frequently highlighted, but progress in finding evidence for this role and gaining insight into the conditions that promote it are hampered by the lack of operational definitions of social learning and

  14. Identifying Our Approaches to Language Learning Technologies: Improving Professional Development (United States)

    Petrie, Gina Mikel; Avery, Lisa


    The mid- to late 1990s was an exciting time for those concerned with incorporating new technology into their teaching of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL). Commonly referred to as Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), or sometimes with the broader term Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (TELL), the field took huge leaps…

  15. Recapturing the Spirit of Learning through a Systems Approach. (United States)

    Senge, Peter; Lannon-Kim, Colleen


    Orange Grove Middle School in Tucson, Arizona, is part of a movement to transform schools into learning organizations. Systems thinking, combined with the related disciplines of building a shared vision, working with mental models, team learning, and personal mastery, is the essential component. The key to effective leadership is harnessing the…

  16. The Effects of a Creative Commons Approach on Collaborative Learning (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Tao, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Hung; Chen, Sherry Y.; Liu, Baw-Jhiune


    Social media on the World Wide Web, such as Wiki, are increasingly applied to support collaborative learning for students to conduct a project together. However, recent studies indicated that students, learning in the collaborative project, may not actively contribute to the collaborative work and are involved only in a limited level of positive…

  17. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Yan

    Full Text Available We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.

  18. Scaling up machine learning: parallel and distributed approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bekkerman, Ron; Bilenko, Mikhail; Langford, John


    ... presented in the book cover a range of parallelization platforms from FPGAs and GPUs to multi-core systems and commodity clusters; concurrent programming frameworks that include CUDA, MPI, MapReduce, and DryadLINQ; and various learning settings: supervised, unsupervised, semi-supervised, and online learning. Extensive coverage of parallelizat...

  19. Adaptive E-Learning Environments: Research Dimensions and Technological Approaches (United States)

    Di Bitonto, Pierpaolo; Roselli, Teresa; Rossano, Veronica; Sinatra, Maria


    One of the most closely investigated topics in e-learning research has always been the effectiveness of adaptive learning environments. The technological evolutions that have dramatically changed the educational world in the last six decades have allowed ever more advanced and smarter solutions to be proposed. The focus of this paper is to depict…

  20. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach. (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan


    We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.

  1. Learning approaches used by the art and design and technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It further argues that students' knowledge is integral to our understanding of classroom practices or learning processes. The paper concludes by highlighting and affirming that students learn best ... The research method employed is action research and observations. Data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative ...

  2. The Discourse of Language Learning Strategies: Towards an Inclusive Approach (United States)

    Jones, Alexander Harris


    This paper critiques discourse surrounding language learning strategies within Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and argues for the creation of new definitions of language learning strategies that are rooted in the socio-political and socio-economic contexts of the marginalized. Section one of this paper describes linguistic…

  3. Learning the Language of Statistics: Challenges and Teaching Approaches (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Carey, Michael D.; Richardson, Alice M.; McDonald, Christine


    Learning statistics requires learning the language of statistics. Statistics draws upon words from general English, mathematical English, discipline-specific English and words used primarily in statistics. This leads to many linguistic challenges in teaching statistics and the way in which the language is used in statistics creates an extra layer…

  4. Enhancing Student Teachers' Teaching Skills through a Blended Learning Approach (United States)

    Albhnsawy, Abeer Abdalhalim; Aliweh, Ahmed Mahmoud


    This study investigated the effect of a blended learning program on student teachers' teaching skills in an undergraduate microteaching course. The blended learning program lasted for nine weeks. This program aimed at integrating social network tasks and face-to-face teaching activities. Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess student…

  5. A "Service-Learning Approach" to Teaching Computer Graphics (United States)

    Hutzel, Karen


    The author taught a computer graphics course through a service-learning framework to undergraduate and graduate students in the spring of 2003 at Florida State University (FSU). The students in this course participated in learning a software program along with youths from a neighboring, low-income, primarily African-American community. Together,…

  6. Developing a Holistic Approach for E-Learning Accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kelly


    Full Text Available The importance of accessibility to digital resources is now widely acknowledged. The W3C WAI has played a significant role in promoting the importance of accessibility and developing a framework for accessible Web resources. The accessibility of e-learning provides additional challenges that may not be faced when providing access to other Web resources. The authors argue that there is a need for a more sophisticated model for addressing e-learning accessibility which takes into account the usability of e-learning, pedagogic issues and student learning styles in addition to technical and resource issues. The authors expand on these issues and propose a holistic model for the development of accessible e-learning resources.

  7. A new response surface approach for structural reliability analysis (United States)

    Thacker, B. H.; Wu, X.-T.


    This paper describes a new approach for computing structural reliability by post-processing previously computed probabilistic results for stress and strength. The objective is to provide an accurate method whereby independent probabilistic analyses for stress and strength functions can be performed independently and combined at a later time to compute probability of failure. The method provides a capability for testing different strength measures without the need for re-computing the probabilistic stress response. The proposed approach takes full account of the basic random variables effecting both stress and strength, and the failure region in the variable space identified during separate stress/strength probabilistic analyses. A simple closed-form example and a more complex analysis of a turbine blade subject to creep rupture is used to illustrate the method.

  8. Novel approaches for tri-crystalline silicon surface texturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyumin; Kim, Kyunghae; Ju, Minkyu; Kim, Young Kuk; Moon, Inyong; Lee, Kyungsoo; Kyung, Dohyun; Kwon, Taeyoung; Yi, Junsin [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea); Thamilselvan, M. [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea); Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Tri-crystalline silicon (Tri-Si) is a promising candidate to reduce the cost of solar cells fabrication because it can be made by a low-cost, fast process with a better mechanical strength, and needs a thinner wafer. One of the key parameters in improving the efficiency of the Tri-Si solar cells is the reflectance, which can be lowered by etching methods. However, Tri-Si is a crystal compound consisting of three mutually tilted monocrystalline silicon grains. In all grains boundaries the surface is (1 1 0)-oriented. A standard surface texture of etched random pyramids using an anisotropic etchant, such as NaOH, is not achievable here. In this paper, for the first time, a novel texturing method has been attempted, which consisted of two steps - HF:HNO{sub 3}:DI (2.5:2.5:5) etching was followed by exposure to the vapors to generate fine holes and an etching depth of 2.5 {mu}m had been reached. A best result of 12.3% has been achieved for surface reflectance, which is about 10% lower than that using normal acidic texturing. Nanoporous structures were formed and the size of the porous structure varied from 5 to 10 nm. An antireflection coating of SiN{sub x} SLAR was used to optimize the reflectance. A fill factor of 0.78 has been reached with an efficiency of 16.2% in 12.5 cm x 12.5 cm. This high efficiency is mainly due to an increased short-circuit current density of 34 mA/cm{sup 2}. (author)

  9. A Blended Learning Approach to Teaching Project Management: A Model for Active Participation and Involvement--Insights from Norway (United States)

    Hussein, Bassam A.


    The paper demonstrates and evaluates the effectiveness of a blended learning approach to create a meaningful learning environment. We use the term blended learning approach in this paper to refer to the use of multiple or hybrid instructional methods that emphasize the role of learners as contributors to the learning process rather than recipients…

  10. Relational Analysis of College Chemistry-Major Students' Conceptions of and Approaches to Learning Chemistry (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ting; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between conceptions of learning and approaches to learning in chemistry. Two questionnaires, conceptions of learning chemistry (COLC) and approaches to learning chemistry (ALC), were developed to identify 369 college chemistry-major students' (220 males and 149 females) conceptions of…

  11. Nuclear Knowledge Creation and Transfer in Enriched Learning Environments: A Practical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, F.; Gonzalez, J.; Delgado, J.L.


    Full text: Technology, the social nature of learning and the generational learning style are conforming new models of training that are changing the roles of the instructors, the channels of communication and the proper learning content of the knowledge to be transferred. New training methodologies are being using in the primary and secondary education and “Vintage” classroom learning does not meet the educational requirements of these methodologies; therefore, it’s necessary to incorporate them in the Knowledge Management processes used in the nuclear industry. This paper describes a practical approach of an enriched learning environment with the purpose of creating and transferring nuclear knowledge. (author

  12. Scientific Approach and Inquiry Learning Model in the Topic of Buffer Solution: A Content Analysis (United States)

    Kusumaningrum, I. A.; Ashadi, A.; Indriyanti, N. Y.


    Many concepts in buffer solution cause student’s misconception. Understanding science concepts should apply the scientific approach. One of learning models which is suitable with this approach is inquiry. Content analysis was used to determine textbook compatibility with scientific approach and inquiry learning model in the concept of buffer solution. By using scientific indicator tools (SIT) and Inquiry indicator tools (IIT), we analyzed three chemistry textbooks grade 11 of senior high school labeled as P, Q, and R. We described how textbook compatibility with scientific approach and inquiry learning model in the concept of buffer solution. The results show that textbook P and Q were very poor and book R was sufficient because the textbook still in procedural level. Chemistry textbooks used at school are needed to be improved in term of scientific approach and inquiry learning model. The result of these analyses might be of interest in order to write future potential textbooks.

  13. The study of effectiveness of blended learning approach for medical training courses. (United States)

    Karamizadeh, Z; Zarifsanayei, N; Faghihi, A A; Mohammadi, H; Habibi, M


    Blended learning as a method of learning that includes face to face learning, pure E-learning and didactic learning. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of medical education by this approach. This interventional study was performed in 130 students at different clinical levels participating in class sessions on "congenital adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia". Sampling was done gradually during 6 months and all of them filled a pretest questionnaire and received an educational compact disk. One week later, a presence class session was held in a question and answer and problem solving method. Two to four weeks later, they filled a posttest questionnaire. There was a significant correlation between pretest and posttest scores and the posttest scores were significantly more than the pretest ones. Sub-specialized residents had the most and the students had the least attitude towards blended learning approach. There was a significant correlation between the research samples' accessibility to computer and their attitude and satisfaction to blended learning approach. Findings generally showed that the blended learning was an effective approach in making a profound learning of academic subjects.

  14. Multi-atlas and unsupervised learning approach to perirectal space segmentation in CT images. (United States)

    Ghose, Soumya; Denham, James W; Ebert, Martin A; Kennedy, Angel; Mitra, Jhimli; Dowling, Jason A


    Perirectal space segmentation in computed tomography images aids in quantifying radiation dose received by healthy tissues and toxicity during the course of radiation therapy treatment of the prostate. Radiation dose normalised by tissue volume facilitates predicting outcomes or possible harmful side effects of radiation therapy treatment. Manual segmentation of the perirectal space is time consuming and challenging in the presence of inter-patient anatomical variability and may suffer from inter- and intra-observer variabilities. However automatic or semi-automatic segmentation of the perirectal space in CT images is a challenging task due to inter patient anatomical variability, contrast variability and imaging artifacts. In the model presented here, a volume of interest is obtained in a multi-atlas based segmentation approach. Un-supervised learning in the volume of interest with a Gaussian-mixture-modeling based clustering approach is adopted to achieve a soft segmentation of the perirectal space. Probabilities from soft clustering are further refined by rigid registration of the multi-atlas mask in a probabilistic domain. A maximum a posteriori approach is adopted to achieve a binary segmentation from the refined probabilities. A mean volume similarity value of 97% and a mean surface difference of 3.06 ± 0.51 mm is achieved in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework with a subset of a clinical trial dataset. Qualitative results show a good approximation of the perirectal space volume compared to the ground truth.

  15. A Deep Learning Approach to LIBS Spectroscopy for Planetary Applications (United States)

    Mullen, T. H.; Parente, M.; Gemp, I.; Dyar, M. D.


    The ChemCam instrument on the Curiousity rover has collected >440,000 laser-induced breakdown spectra (LIBS) from 1500 different geological targets since 2012. The team is using a pipeline of preprocessing and partial least squares techniques to predict compositions of surface materials [1]. Unfortunately, such multivariate techniques are plagued by hard-to-meet assumptions involving constant hyperparameter tuning to specific elements and the amount of training data available; if the whole distribution of data is not seen, the method will overfit to the training data and generalizability will suffer. The rover only has 10 calibration targets on-board that represent a small subset of the geochemical samples the rover is expected to investigate. Deep neural networks have been used to bypass these issues in other fields. Semi-supervised techniques allow researchers to utilized small labeled datasets and vast amounts of unlabeled data. One example is the variational autoencoder model, a semi-supervised generative model in the form of a deep neural network. The autoencoder assumes that LIBS spectra are generated from a distribution conditioned on the elemental compositions in the sample and some nuisance. The system is broken into two models: one that predicts elemental composition from the spectra and one that generates spectra from compositions that may or may not be seen in the training set. The synthesized spectra show strong agreement with geochemical conventions to express specific compositions. The predictions of composition show improved generalizability to PLS. Deep neural networks have also been used to transfer knowledge from one dataset to another to solve unlabeled data problems. Given that vast amounts of laboratry LIBS spectra have been obtained in the past few years, it is now feasible train a deep net to predict elemental composition from lab spectra. Transfer learning (manifold alignment or calibration transfer) [2] is then used to fine-tune the model


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna V. Salnyk


    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to identify the factors that influence on the development of modern learning environment and to draw the main lines of the development through interconnected use of virtual and real in teaching process of physics and for later use of them in the development of educational methodical physical experiment. The analysis allowed to distinguish those factors in the development of physical education, which related to its virtualization, which, in our opinion, significantly affect on the formation of new content of each component of educational systems' virtual learning process of physics and allow you to create a new learning environment of physics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Pawitra


    Full Text Available This paper expounds action learning for effective change leadership development using the learning-teaching helix as a paradigm for individual’s introspection. Which consists of five phases—Awareness phase (as certain your strengths and weaknesses. Alignment phase (identify your core competence. Action phase (synthesize your work, business and management skills, Adoption phase (becoming a leader and Assurance phase (excel as an educator cum coach. In addition, to succeed, the individual has to plan, strategize, prioritize and integrate. As a holistic manager the individual needs to think, feel and do to evolve from continuous action learning to the cycle of teaching for continuous innovation in organizational performance capabilities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur YALÇIN


    Full Text Available In this study, quasi-optical scattering of finite source electromagnetic waves from a dielectric coated cylindrical surface is analysed with Physical Optics (PO approach. A linear electrical current source is chosen as the finite source. Reflection coefficient of the cylindrical surface is derived by using Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD. Then, with the help of this coefficient, fields scattered from the surface are obtained. These field expressions are used in PO approach and surface scattering integral is determined. Evaluating this integral asymptotically, fields reflected from the surface and surface divergence coefficient are calculated. Finally, results obtained in this study are evaluated numerically and effects of the surface impedance to scattered fields are analysed. The time factor is taken as j te? in this study.

  19. Developing Science Learning Material with Authentic Inquiry Learning Approach to Improve Problem Solving and Scientific Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Widowati


    Full Text Available This research was conducted to (1 produce science material learning based Authentic Inquiry Learning which is appropriate to improve problem solving and students scientific attitude; (2 know the potency of developing scientific attitude in science learning material based authentic inquiry learning; and (3 know the potency of developing scientific attitude in science learning material based authentic inquiry learning. The research method was Research and Development (R & D, by pointing to Four D models and Borg & Gall Model. There were 4 main phases (define, design, develop, disseminate and additional phases (preliminary field testing, main product revision, main field testing, and operational product revision. The instruments used included product validation questionnaire, problem solving test, observation sheet of problem solving, and scientific attitude questionnaire. Result data of validation, problem solving test, scientific attitude questionnaire were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that : (1 science learning material based authentic inquiry learning that was developed was considered as very good by expert lecturers and teachers, and it was appropriate to use in learning process; (2 science learning material based authentic inquiry learning could improve students’ problem solving; (3 science learning material based authentic inquiry learning could improve students’ scientific attitude.

  20. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory. (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A; Adcock, R Alison


    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning.