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Sample records for surface layer modified

  1. Reconfigurable modified surface layers using plasma capillaries around the neutral inclusion regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varault, S.; Gabard, B.; Crépin, T.; Bolioli, S.; Sokoloff, J.

    2014-01-01

    We show both theoretically and experimentally reconfigurable properties achieved by plasma inclusions placed in modified surface layers generally used to tailor the transmission and beaming properties of electromagnetic bandgap based waveguiding structures. A proper parametrization of the plasma capillaries allows to reach the neutral inclusion regime, where the inclusions appear to be electromagnetically transparent, letting the surface mode characteristics unaltered. Varying the electron density of the plasma inclusions provoques small perturbations around this peculiar regime, and we observe significant modifications of the transmission/beaming properties. This offers a way to dynamically select the enhanced transmission frequency or to modify the radiation pattern of the structure, depending on whether the modified surface layer is placed at the entrance/exit of the waveguide

  2. Reconfigurable modified surface layers using plasma capillaries around the neutral inclusion regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varault, S. [ONERA—The French Aerospace Lab 2, Avenue Edouard Belin, BP4025, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Universite Paul Sabatier—CNRS-Laplace 118, Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Gabard, B. [ONERA—The French Aerospace Lab 2, Avenue Edouard Belin, BP4025, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); STAE—4, Rue Emile Monso, BP84234, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Crépin, T.; Bolioli, S. [ONERA—The French Aerospace Lab 2, Avenue Edouard Belin, BP4025, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Sokoloff, J. [Universite Paul Sabatier—CNRS-Laplace 118, Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-02-28

    We show both theoretically and experimentally reconfigurable properties achieved by plasma inclusions placed in modified surface layers generally used to tailor the transmission and beaming properties of electromagnetic bandgap based waveguiding structures. A proper parametrization of the plasma capillaries allows to reach the neutral inclusion regime, where the inclusions appear to be electromagnetically transparent, letting the surface mode characteristics unaltered. Varying the electron density of the plasma inclusions provoques small perturbations around this peculiar regime, and we observe significant modifications of the transmission/beaming properties. This offers a way to dynamically select the enhanced transmission frequency or to modify the radiation pattern of the structure, depending on whether the modified surface layer is placed at the entrance/exit of the waveguide.

  3. Surface Layers of Zr-18%Nb Alloy Modified by Ultrasonic Impact Treatment: Microstructure, Hardness and Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripta, N. I.; Karasevska, O. P.; Mordyuk, B. N.

    2017-11-01

    Near-surface layers in Zr-18%Nb alloy were modified using ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT). The effects of the UIT processing time on a microstructural formation, omega/alpha precipitations, microhardness and corrosion are analyzed. XRD analysis, TEM and SEM observations and EDX characterization allow establishing the links between the microstructure, microhardness and corrosion behavior of the surface layers formed. At the strain extent up to e ≈ 0.3, structural formation occurs under influence of deformation induced heating, which facilitates omega precipitation in beta phase and mechanically induced oxygen transport and oxide formation. XRD analysis reveals moderate compressive residual stresses (- 160 MPa) and pronounced {110} texture after the UIT process. Generation of dislocations and hindering of their movement by nanoscale omega precipitates manifest themselves as the broadening of diffraction peaks occurred mainly owing to the lattice microstrains, and they provide marked strain hardening. The enhanced anticorrosion properties of Zr-18%Nb alloy in saline solution were concluded to be a result of the formation of a protective oxide film, {110} texture and compressive stresses.

  4. Control of Surface Modified Layer on Metallic Biomaterials by AN Advanced Elid Grinding System Eg-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Masayoshi; Komotori, Jun; Katahira, Kazutoshi; Ohmori, Hitoshi

    The biocompatibility of titanium implants with different surface properties is investigated. We prepared three types of specimens, one ground by the newly developed ELID grinding system, another ground by conventional ELID grinding, and the other polished by SiO2 powder. These surfaces were characterized and, the number of cell and cytotoxicity in in-vitro were measured. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) revealed that the modified ELID system can create a significantly thick oxide layer and a diffused oxide layer, and also can control the thickness of a modified layer. The results of cell number and cytotoxicity showed that the sample ground by the modified system had the highest biocompatibility. This may have been caused by improvement of chemical properties due to a surface modified layer. The above results suggest that this newly developed ELID grinding system can create the desirable surface properties. Consequently, this system appears to offer significant future promise for use in biomaterials and other engineering components.

  5. Dependence of the structure of ion-modified NiTi single crystal layers on the orientation of irradiated surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletika, T. M.; Meisner, L. L.; Girsova, S. L.; Tverdokhlebova, A. V.; Meisner, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    The composition and structure of Si layers implanted into titanium nickelide single crystals with different orientations relative to the ion beam propagation direction have been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The role of the "soft" [111]B2 and "hard" [001]B2 NiTi orientations in the formation of the structure of ion-modified surface layer, as well as the defect structure of the surface layers of the single crystals, has been revealed. Orientation effects of selective sputtering and channeling of ions, which control the composition and thickness of the oxide and amorphous layers being formed, ion and impurity penetration depth, as well as the concentration profile of the Ni distribution over the surface, have been detected.

  6. Mucosal Immunogenicity of Genetically Modified Lactobacillus acidophilus Expressing an HIV-1 Epitope within the Surface Layer Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Kajikawa

    Full Text Available Surface layer proteins of probiotic lactobacilli are theoretically efficient epitope-displaying scaffolds for oral vaccine delivery due to their high expression levels and surface localization. In this study, we constructed genetically modified Lactobacillus acidophilus strains expressing the membrane proximal external region (MPER from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 within the context of the major S-layer protein, SlpA. Intragastric immunization of mice with the recombinants induced MPER-specific and S-layer protein-specific antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions. Moreover, analysis of systemic SlpA-specific cytokines revealed that the responses appeared to be Th1 and Th17 dominant. These findings demonstrated the potential use of the Lactobacillus S-layer protein for development of oral vaccines targeting specific peptides.

  7. Mucosal Immunogenicity of Genetically Modified Lactobacillus acidophilus Expressing an HIV-1 Epitope within the Surface Layer Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Akinobu; Zhang, Lin; LaVoy, Alora; Bumgardner, Sara; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Dean, Gregg A.

    2015-01-01

    Surface layer proteins of probiotic lactobacilli are theoretically efficient epitope-displaying scaffolds for oral vaccine delivery due to their high expression levels and surface localization. In this study, we constructed genetically modified Lactobacillus acidophilus strains expressing the membrane proximal external region (MPER) from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) within the context of the major S-layer protein, SlpA. Intragastric immunization of mice with the recombinants induced MPER-specific and S-layer protein-specific antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions. Moreover, analysis of systemic SlpA-specific cytokines revealed that the responses appeared to be Th1 and Th17 dominant. These findings demonstrated the potential use of the Lactobacillus S-layer protein for development of oral vaccines targeting specific peptides. PMID:26509697

  8. Surface plasmon resonance investigation of optical detection in plasma-modified phospholipid layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoungchoo; Cho, Chanyoun; Choi, Kyoungho; Jeon, Honggoo [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    We herein report on a study of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in thin gold (Au) films coated with thin layers of phospholipid material, which had been exposed to an atmospheric pressure (AP) plasma containing both pure Ar and Ar mixed with O{sub 2} (Ar/O{sub 2}, 0.8%). The phospholipid material that we used for the SPR experiments was lecithin, and the AP plasma system was applied in air by means of a radio-frequency (RF) plasma generator. A thin (∼60 nm) film of Au and a thin (∼15 nm) layer of lecithin were deposited and attached to the face of a prism, and surface plasmon modes were excited along the interfaces of the prism-Au-lecithin-air system by means of prism coupling using a He-Ne Laser (632.8 nm). The experimental SPR reflectance curves of the Au-lecithin-air modes were found to be shifted towards those of the Au-air mode with increasing applications of AP RF plasma treatment. From the shifts in the SPR curves, we found that the estimated thickness of the lecithin layer treated with a pure Ar plasma showed a linear decrease with etching rate of about 3 nm per treatment while the thickness of the lecithin layer treated with a mixed Ar/O{sub 2} plasma showed a tendency to saturate following a large initial decrease (ca. 14 nm). All these results demonstrate that the use of SPR sensing could facilitate the detection of extremely small variations in plasma-treated films of biomaterials.

  9. Investigation of γ-(2,3-Epoxypropoxypropyltrimethoxy Silane Surface Modified Layered Double Hydroxides Improving UV Ageing Resistance of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canlin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-(2,3-Epoxypropoxypropyltrimethoxy silane surface modified layered double hydroxides (KH560-LDHs were prepared and used to improve the ultraviolet ageing resistance of asphalt. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS indicated that KH560 has been successfully grafted onto the surface of LDHs. The agglomeration of LDHs particles notably reduced after KH560 surface modification according to scanning electron microscopy (SEM, which implied that the KH560 surface modification was helpful to promote the dispersibility of LDHs in asphalt. Then, the influence of KH560-LDHs and LDHs on the physical and rheological properties of asphalt before and after UV ageing was thoroughly investigated. The storage stability test showed that the difference in softening point (ΔS of LDHs modified asphalt decreased from 0.6 °C to 0.2 °C at an LDHs content of 1% after KH560 surface modification, and the tendency became more pronounced with the increase of LDH content, indicating that KH560 surface modification could improve the stability of LDHs in asphalt. After UV ageing, the viscous modulus (G’’ of asphalt significantly reduced, and correspondingly, the elastic modulus (G’ and rutting factor (G*/sin δ rapidly increased. Moreover, the asphaltene increased and the amount of “bee-like” structures of the asphalt decreased. Compared with LDHs, KH560-LDHs obviously restrained performance deterioration of the asphalt, and helped to relieve the variation of the chemical compositions and morphology of asphalt, which suggested that the improvement of KH560-LDHs on UV ageing resistance of asphalt was superior to LDHs.

  10. TEM investigation of the surface layer structure [111]{sub B2} of the single NiTi crystal modified by the Si-ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girsova, S. L., E-mail: girs@ispms.tsc.ru; Poletika, T. M., E-mail: poletm@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Meisner, S. N., E-mail: msn@ispms.tsc.ru; Meisner, L. L., E-mail: llm@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The study was carried on for the single NiTi crystals subjected to the Si-ion beam implantation. Using the transmission electron microscopy technique (TEM), the surface layer structure [111]{sub B2} was examined for the treated material. The modified near-surface sublayers were found to have different composition. Thus the uppermost sublayer contained mostly oxides; the lower-lying modified sublayer material was in an amorphous state and the thin underlying sublayer had a defect structure.

  11. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam (Inventor); Wu, Yan (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  12. PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COATINGS CONTAINING PIGMENTS WITH SURFACE MODIFIED WITH A LAYER OF ZnFe2O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Nechvílová

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is focussed on the properties of organic coatings containing pigments whose surface was chemically coated with zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4 layer. Four silicate types with different particle shapes were selected as the cores: diatomite, talc, kaolin and wollastonite. The untreated particles exhibit a barrier effect. The aim of this project was to apply the surface treatment approach with a view to enhancing not only the model paint films’ anticorrosion properties but also their resistance to physico- mechanical tests pursuant to ISO standards (cupping, bending, impact, adhesion. Other parameters examined included: particle size and morphology, density of the modified pigment, oil consumption, pH, conductivity, and electrochemical properties of the paint film. A solvent-based epoxy-ester resin was used as the binder and also served as the reference material. The pigment volume concentration (PVC was 1% and 10%. During the last stage of the experiment, the paint films were exposed to a corrosive environment stimulating seaside conditions or conditions roads treated with rock salt. The accelerated cyclic corrosion test in a neutral salt mist atmosphere was conducted for 864 hours. The results served to ascertain a suitable environment for organic coatings.

  13. Self-assembly surface modified indium-tin oxide anodes for single-layer light-emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, J; Charas, A; Matos, M; Alcacer, L; Cacialli, F

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of indium-tin oxide surface modification by self assembling of highly polar molecules on the performance of single-layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with polyfluorene blends and aluminium cathodes. We find that the efficiency and light-output of such LEDs is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the values obtained for LEDs incorporating a hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulphonic acid. This effect is attributed to the dipole-induced work function modification of indium-tin oxide.

  14. Self-assembly surface modified indium-tin oxide anodes for single-layer light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Jorge [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Barbagallo, Nunzio [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Charas, Ana [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Matos, Manuel [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro-1, P-1949-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Alcacer, Luis [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Cacialli, Franco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-07

    We study the effect of indium-tin oxide surface modification by self assembling of highly polar molecules on the performance of single-layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with polyfluorene blends and aluminium cathodes. We find that the efficiency and light-output of such LEDs is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the values obtained for LEDs incorporating a hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulphonic acid. This effect is attributed to the dipole-induced work function modification of indium-tin oxide.

  15. Deposition of phospholipid layers on SiO{sub 2} surface modified by alkyl-SAM islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tero, R.; Takizawa, M.; Li, Y.J.; Yamazaki, M.; Urisu, T

    2004-11-15

    Formation of the supported planar bilayer of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on SiO{sub 2} surfaces modified with the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) has been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). DPPC was deposited by the fusion of vesicles on SiO{sub 2} surfaces with OTS-SAM islands of different sizes and densities. The DPPC bilayer membrane formed self-organizingly on the SiO{sub 2} surface with small and sparse OTS islands, while did not when the OTS islands were larger and denser. The relative size between the vesicles and the SiO{sub 2} regions is the critical factor for the formation of the DPPC bilayer membrane.

  16. A novel tri-layer flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator based on surface- modified graphene and PVDF-BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Usman; Uddin, A. S. M. Iftekhar; Chung, Gwiy-Sang

    2017-05-01

    The fabrication and characterization of a novel tri-layer piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), barium titanate (BTO), and surface-modified n- type graphene (n-Gr) have been investigated. The n-Gr, with its majority of negative charge carriers, plays a vital role in enhancing the energy-harvesting performance by aligning the dipoles in one direction. The tri-layer structure obtains by stacking two layers of PVDF-BTO nanocomposite films, one on each side of the n-Gr layer. The fabricated tri-layer PNG shows a maximum output voltage of 10 V (pk-pk) along with a current of 2.5 μA (pk-pk) at an applied force of 2 N. Furthermore, the PNG Exhibits 5.8 μW instantaneous power at 1 MΩ load resistance. Moreover, the fabricated device demonstrated good stability even after 1000 pressing-releasing cycles. This novel tri-layer PNG structure can opens a promising avenue for future piezoelectric generating technologies.

  17. Dynamics of Back Electron Transfer in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Featuring 4-tert-Butyl-Pyridine and Atomic-Layer-Deposited Alumina as Surface Modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Michael J; Vermeer, Michael J DeVries; Farha, Omar K; Pellin, Michael J; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-06-18

    A series of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was constructed with TiO2 nanoparticles and N719 dye. The standard I3(-)/I(-) redox shuttle and the Co(1,10-phenanthroline)3(3+/2+) shuttle were employed. DSCs were modified with atomic-layered-deposited (ALD) coatings of Al2O3 and/or with the surface-adsorbing additive 4-tert-butyl-pyridine. Current-voltage data were collected to ascertain the influence of each modification upon the back electron transfer (ET) dynamics of the DSCs. The primary effect of the additives alone or in tandem is to increase the open-circuit voltage. A second is to alter the short-circuit current density, JSC. With dependence on the specifics of the system examined, any of a myriad of dynamics-related effects were observed to come into play, in both favorable (efficiency boosting) and unfavorable (efficiency damaging) ways. These effects include modulation of (a) charge-injection yields, (b) rates of interception of injected electrons by redox shuttles, and (c) rates of recombination of injected electrons with holes on surface-bound dyes. In turn, these influence charge-collection lengths, charge-collection yields, and onset potentials for undesired dark current. The microscopic origins of the effects appear to be related mainly to changes in driving force and/or electronic coupling for underlying component redox reactions. Perhaps surprisingly, only a minor role for modifier-induced shifts in conduction-band-edge energy was found. The combination of DSC-efficiency-relevant effects engendered by the modifiers was found to vary substantially as a function of the chemical identity of the redox shuttle employed. While types of modifiers are effective, a challenge going forward will be to construct systems in ways in which the benefits of organic and inorganic modifiers can be exploited in fully additive, or even synergistic, fashion.

  18. Investigation of γ-(2,3-Epoxypropoxy)propyltrimethoxy Silane Surface Modified Layered Double Hydroxides Improving UV Ageing Resistance of Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Canlin; Yu, Jianying; Xue, Lihui; Sun, Yubin

    2017-01-01

    γ-(2,3-Epoxypropoxy)propyltrimethoxy silane surface modified layered double hydroxides (KH560-LDHs) were prepared and used to improve the ultraviolet ageing resistance of asphalt. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) indicated that KH560 has been successfully grafted onto the surface of LDHs. The agglomeration of LDHs particles notably reduced after KH560 surface modification according to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which implied that the KH560 surface modification was helpful to promote the dispersibility of LDHs in asphalt. Then, the influence of KH560-LDHs and LDHs on the physical and rheological properties of asphalt before and after UV ageing was thoroughly investigated. The storage stability test showed that the difference in softening point (ΔS) of LDHs modified asphalt decreased from 0.6 °C to 0.2 °C at an LDHs content of 1% after KH560 surface modification, and the tendency became more pronounced with the increase of LDH content, indicating that KH560 surface modification could improve the stability of LDHs in asphalt. After UV ageing, the viscous modulus (G’’) of asphalt significantly reduced, and correspondingly, the elastic modulus (G’) and rutting factor (G*/sin δ) rapidly increased. Moreover, the asphaltene increased and the amount of “bee-like” structures of the asphalt decreased. Compared with LDHs, KH560-LDHs obviously restrained performance deterioration of the asphalt, and helped to relieve the variation of the chemical compositions and morphology of asphalt, which suggested that the improvement of KH560-LDHs on UV ageing resistance of asphalt was superior to LDHs. PMID:28772438

  19. Probing the Sulfur-Modified Capping Layer of Gold Nanoparticles Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Adilson R; Souza, Danilo Oliveira de; Oliveira, Jairo P; Pereira, Rayssa H A; Guimarães, Marco C C; Nogueira, Breno V; Dixini, Pedro V; Ribeiro, Moisés R N; Pontes, Maria J

    2017-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) exhibit particular plasmonic properties when stimulated by visible light, which makes them a promising tool to many applications in sensor technology and biomedical applications, especially when associated to sulfur-based compounds. Sulfur species form a great variety of self-assembled structures that cap AuNP and this interaction rules the optical and plasmonic properties of the system. Here, we report the behavior of citrate-stabilized gold nanospheres in two distinct sulfur colloidal solutions, namely, thiocyanate and sulfide ionic solutions. Citrate-capped gold nanospheres were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In the presence of sulfur species, we have observed the formation of NP clusters and chain-like structures, giving rise to surface-enhanced effects. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) pointed to a modification in citrate vibrational modes, which suggests substitution of citrate by either thiocyanate or sulfide ions with distinct dynamics, as showed by in situ fluorescence. Moreover, we report the emergence of surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) effect, which corroborates SERS conclusions. Further, SEIRA shows a great potential as a tool for specification of sulfur compounds in colloidal solutions, which is particularly useful when dealing with sensor technology.

  20. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO₂-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-06

    TiO₂ photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO₂@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO₂@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO₂@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO₄(3-) in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO₄(3-) and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO₂@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L(-1) to 2.30 μmol P L(-1). This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive.

  1. Charge reversal and surface charge amplification in asymmetric valence restricted primitive model planar electric double layers in the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Bhuiyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory of the restricted primitive model double layer is revisited and recast in a fresh, slightly broader perspective. Derivation of relevant equations follow the techniques utilized in the earlier MPB4 and MPB5 formulations and clarifies the relationship between these. The MPB4, MPB5, and a new formulation of the theory are employed in an analysis of the structure and charge reversal phenomenon in asymmetric 2:1/1:2 valence electrolytes. Furthermore, polarization induced surface charge amplification is studied in 3:1/1:3 systems. The results are compared to the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. The theories are seen to predict the "exact" simulation data to varying degrees of accuracy ranging from qualitative to almost quantitative. The results from a new version of the theory are found to be of comparable accuracy as the MPB5 results in many situations. However, in some cases involving low electrolyte concentrations, theoretical artifacts in the form of un-physical "shoulders" in the singlet ionic distribution functions are observed.

  2. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO2-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO2@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO43- in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO43- and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO2@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L-1 to 2.30 μmol P L-1. This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive.TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated

  3. Modifying glass surfaces via internal diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, M.M.; Yue, Y.Z.; Deubener, J.

    2010-01-01

    The surface chemistry and structure of iron-bearing silicate glasses have been modified by means of heat-treatment around the glass transition temperature under different gaseous media at ambient pressure. When the glasses are heat-treated in atmospheric air, oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ occurs, which......- ions in the network and their strong attraction to the modifying ions, whereas the latter is due to the requirement of the charge neutrality. The role of N3- in driving OD is verified by the composition profile of the surface layer of the glass treated in pure N-2 gas. The OD exerts pronounced impacts...

  4. Study on the deterioration mechanism of layered rock-salt electrodes using epitaxial thin films - Li(Ni, Co, Mn)O2 and their Zr-O surface modified electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Machiko; Iba, Hideaki; Suzuki, Kota; Minamishima, Hiroaki; Hirayama, Masaaki; Tamura, Kazuhisa; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Saito, Tomohiro; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kanno, Ryoji

    2017-03-01

    Deterioration mechanism of Li(Ni, Co, Mn)O2 and Zr-O surface modified electrodes has been elucidated using epitaxial thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition. The electrodes comprise a mixture of layered rock-salt and spinel phases. The deterioration mechanism is analyzed using cyclic voltammetry, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements, and in situ neutron reflectometry. The spinel phase in the electrodes has low electrochemical activity and is not involved in Li insertion/extraction. The amount of Li participating in the charge-discharge reactions in the layered rock-salt phase increases with cycling, inducing a phase change at the electrode surface, lowering the reversibility. In contrast, in the Zr-O surface modified electrode, the spinel phase does not increase on charging/discharging. Thus, the Zr-O modification stabilizes the surface of layered rock-salt structure, thereby improving the cycling characteristics. Also, after the Zr-O modification, the Li concentration in the liquid electrolyte near the electrode/electrolyte interface increases during charging/discharging. The Zr-O surface modification not only stabilizes the electrode surface but also causes changes on the electrolyte side. Using the mixed model electrodes, we elucidate the mechanism of electrode deterioration and the origin of the improvement in cycling characteristics occurring on surface modification.

  5. Modified silicas with different structure of grafted methylphenylsiloxane layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolbukh, Yuliia; Terpiłowski, Konrad; Kozakevych, Roman; Sternik, Dariusz; Deryło-Marczewska, Anna; Tertykh, Valentin

    2016-06-01

    The method of a chemical assembly of the surface polymeric layer with high contents of the modifying agent was developed. Powders of nanodispersed silica with chemisorbed polymethylphenylsiloxane (PMPS) were synthesized by solvent-free chemical assembly technique with a dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as scission agent. Samples were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and elemental analysis (CHN analysis). Coating microstructure, morphology, and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of nanoparticles were estimated. The results indicate a significant effect of the PMPS/DMC ratio at each modification stage on hydrophobic properties of modified silicas. Modification with a similar composition of the PMPS/DMC mixture, even with different polymer amount at each stage, provides the worst hydrophobicity. Results suggest that the highest hydrophobicity (contact angle θ = 135°-140°) is achieved in the case when silica modified with the PMPS/DMC mixture using multistage approach that providing a formation of the monomolecular layer of polysiloxane at the first modification step. The characteristics of surface structure were interpreted in terms of density of polymer-silica bonds at the interfaces that, usually, are reduced for modified surfaces, in a coupling with conformation model that accented the shape of chains (arch- and console-like) adsorbed on solid surfaces.

  6. Formation of self-organized domain structures with charged domain walls in lithium niobate with surface layer modified by proton exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Chuvakova, M. A.; Dolbilov, M. A.; Zelenovskiy, P. S.; Lobov, A. I.

    2017-03-01

    We have studied the self-organized dendrite domain structures appeared as a result of polarization reversal in the uniform field in lithium niobate single crystals with the artificial surface layer created by proton exchange. We have revealed the self-organized sub-micron scale dendrite domain patterns consisting of domain stripes oriented along the X crystallographic directions separated by arrays of dashed residual domains at the surface by scanning probe microscopy. Raman confocal microscopy allowed visualizing the quasi-regular dendrite domain structures with similar geometry in the vicinity of both polar surfaces. The depth of the structure was about 20 μm for Z+ polar surface and 70 μm for Z- one. According to the proposed mechanism, the dendrite structure formation at the surface was related to the ineffective screening of the residual depolarization field. The computer simulation of the structure formation based on the cellular automata model with probabilistic switching rule proved the eligibility of the proposed scheme, the simulated dendrite domain patterns at various depths being similar to the experimental ones.

  7. Efficient rate control scheme using modified inter-layer dependency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The IRC from the prior art is modified to achieve better rate control per layer by recursive updates for mean absolute difference values of eachbasic unit. Proposed modified inter-layer dependency shows improvement in the PSNR for enhancement layers while the updated IRC enforces better IRC for all the layers.

  8. The surface roughness and planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, James W.

    1980-03-01

    Applications of the entrainment process to layers at the boundary, which meet the self similarity requirements of the logarithmic profile, have been studied. By accepting that turbulence has dominating scales related in scale length to the height above the surface, a layer structure is postulated wherein exchange is rapid enough to keep the layers internally uniform. The diffusion rate is then controlled by entrainment between layers. It has been shown that theoretical relationships derived on the basis of using a single layer of this type give quantitatively correct factors relating the turbulence, wind and shear stress for very rough surface conditions. For less rough surfaces, the surface boundary layer can be divided into several layers interacting by entrainment across each interface. This analysis leads to the following quantitatively correct formula compared to published measurements. 1 24_2004_Article_BF00877766_TeX2GIFE1.gif {σ _w }/{u^* } = ( {2/{9Aa}} )^{{1/4}} ( {1 - 3^{{1/2}{ a/k{d_n }/z{σ _w }/{u^* }z/L} )^{{1/4}} = 1.28(1 - 0.945({{σ _w }/{u^* }}}) {{z/L}})^{{1/4 where u^* = ( {{tau/ρ}}^{{1/2}}, σ w is the standard deviation of the vertical velocity, z is the height and L is the Obukhov scale lenght. The constants a, A, k and d n are the entrainment constant, the turbulence decay constant, Von Karman's constant, and the layer depth derived from the theory. Of these, a and A, are universal constants and not empirically determined for the boundary layer. Thus the turbulence needed for the plume model of convection, which resides above these layers and reaches to the inversion, is determined by the shear stress and the heat flux in the surface layers. This model applies to convection in cool air over a warm sea. The whole field is now determined except for the temperature of the air relative to the water, and the wind, which need a further parameter describing sea surface roughness. As a first stop to describing a surface where roughness elements

  9. Adsorption of phospholipid bilayers onto pullulan-modified cellulose surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejun; Liu, Zelin; Esker, Alan

    2009-03-01

    1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) vesicle adsorption onto regenerated cellulose and pullulan 4-bromocinnamate (P4BC) modified cellulose surfaces was investigated via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). P4BC with a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.061 ± 0.002 from UV measurements and 0.058 from ^1H NMR was synthesized from pullulan and 4-bromocinnamic acid to yield P4BC. The deduced thicknesses from SPR for DMPC layers were ˜3.7 nm (bilayer) on regenerated cellulose surfaces and ˜2.1 nm (monolayer) on P4BC modified cellulose surfaces. Qualitative analysis of the QCM-D data also indicated that the DMPC layers on P4BC modified cellulose surfaces were thinner than on regenerated cellulose surfaces.

  10. Single-layer model for surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniglia, C K; Jensen, D G

    2002-06-01

    Random roughness of an optical surface reduces its specular reflectance and transmittance by the scattering of light. The reduction in reflectance can be modeled by a homogeneous layer on the surface if the refractive index of the layer is intermediate to the indices of the media on either side of the surface. Such a layer predicts an increase in the transmittance of the surface and therefore does not provide a valid model for the effects of scatter on the transmittance. Adding a small amount of absorption to the layer provides a model that predicts a reduction in both reflectance and transmittance. The absorbing layer model agrees with the predictions of a scalar scattering theory for a layer with a thickness that is twice the rms roughness of the surface. The extinction coefficient k for the layer is proportional to the thickness of the layer.

  11. Corrosion resistance of modified layer on uranium formed by plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Zhong; Liu Kezhao; Bai Bin; Yan Dongxu

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen ion was implanted into uranium surface using plasma immersion ion implantation, and the corrosion resistance of modified layer was studied by corrosion experiment. SEM was used to observe variety of samples surface. In atmosphere, the sample surface had not changed during five months. In heat-humid environment, there was dot-corrosion appearing after two months, but it did not influence the integrity of the modified layer. AES was used to study the diffusion of oxygen and nitrogen during hot-humid corrosion, in three months, both of two elements diffused to the substrate, but the diffusion was weak. The structure of modified layer was not changed. Experimental results show that the modified layer formed by plasma immersion ion implantation has good corrosion resistance.

  12. Modifing the Surface Layers of Mechanical Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Slanec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the creation of thin surface layers prepared by the Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition Method (PACVD. Polished sample surfaces made of tool steel were used. An investigation of the dependence of layer thickness on process duration was carried out. The structure of the original surface and the structure of the coated surface were evaluated and compared. The microhardness of the surface areas was also measured.

  13. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-05-01

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer “ghosts” during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record.

  14. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-01-01

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer “ghosts” during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record. PMID:27221593

  15. Acoustic tomography in the atmospheric surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ziemann

    Full Text Available Acoustic tomography is presented as a technique for remote monitoring of meteorological quantities. This method and a special algorithm of analysis can directly produce area-averaged values of meteorological parameters. As a result consistent data will be obtained for validation of numerical atmospheric micro-scale models. Such a measuring system can complement conventional point measurements over different surfaces. The procedure of acoustic tomography uses the horizontal propagation of sound waves in the atmospheric surface layer. Therefore, to provide a general overview of sound propagation under various atmospheric conditions a two-dimensional ray-tracing model according to a modified version of Snell's law is used. The state of the crossed atmosphere can be estimated from measurements of acoustic travel time between sources and receivers at different points. Derivation of area-averaged values of the sound speed and furthermore of air temperature results from the inversion of travel time values for all acoustic paths. Thereby, the applied straight ray two-dimensional tomographic model using SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique is characterised as a method with small computational requirements, satisfactory convergence and stability properties as well as simple handling, especially, during online evaluation.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; instruments and techniques.

  16. Model castings with composite surface layer - application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in foundingprocess a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase inhardness and aberasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generallyapplied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. In range of studies was made cast steel test castings withcomposite surface layer, which usability for industrial applications was estimated by criterion of hardness and aberasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral and quality of joint cast steel – (Fe-Cr-C. Based on conducted studies a thesis, that composite surface layer arise from liquid state, was formulated. Moreover, possible is control of composite layer thickness and its hardness by suitable selection of parameters i.e. thickness of insert, pouring temperature and solidification modulus of casting. Possibility of technology application of composite surface layer in manufacture of cast steel slide bush for combined cutter loader is presented.

  17. Producing of multicomponent and composite surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchon, T.; Bielinski, P.; Michalski, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a new method of producing multicomponent and composite layers on steel substrate. The combination of nickel plating with glow-discharge bordering or impulse-plasma deposition method gives an opportunity to obtain good properties of surface layers. The results of examinations of carbon 45 (0.45%C) steel, nickel plated and then borided under glow discharge conditions or covered with TiN layers are presented. The corrosion and friction wear resistance of such layers are markedly higher than for layer produced on non nickel plated substrates. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs

  18. AFM surface morphology investigation of ion beam modified polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švorčík, V.; Arenholz, E.; Rybka, V.; Hnatowicz, V.

    1997-03-01

    Polyimide Upilex R was irradiated with 90 keV N + ions to the fluences of 1 × 10 14-2 × 10 17 cm -2. The surface morphology and the structure of the ion beam modified PI were examined using atomic force microscopy and X-ray difraction. Sheet resistance as a function of the ion fluence and the sample temperature was measured by standard two point technique. Significant changes of the surface morphology and production of graphitic phase in the sample surface layer modified by the ion irradiation were observed. Strong decrease of the sheet resistance (by 11 orders of magnitude) in the ion beam modified samples is connected with progressive carbonization and graphitization of the degraded polymer. Electrical charge transport is mediated by variable-range hopping mechanism. Drastic structural changes initiated by the ion irradiation to high fluences are similar to those observed in polymer pyrolysis.

  19. Infrared active thermography for surface layer characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A.; Fomichev, S.; Farcage, D.; Sortais, C.; Courtois, X.

    2006-05-01

    Deposited layer characterization was stated as the main goal of our studies for 2006. The investigations by DRFC/SIPP/GCFP (CEA Cadarache) were performed with the procedure of surface temperature measurements based on infrared thermography with synchronous demodulation (Lock-in Thermography). It was applied to provide the temperature surface monitoring during the modulated heating by illumination. The obtained 2D-cartography revealed the zones with a weak heat transfer resulting from a low layer/surface adhesion or poor layer thermal conductivity. The obtained lock-in cartography data should be regarded only as qualitative. For deposited layers characterization (layer depth, adhesion with the substrate), the active laser pyrometer measurements with the developed experimental device were made in LILM laboratory (CEA Saclay). Active surface pyrometry with repetitive laser heating can provide both qualitative and quantitative data on the first layer and the interface with the substrate. A 3D-numerical model of graphite deposited layer heating by a pulsed high repetition rate laser beam was developed to determine the heated surface temperature with a high temporal and spatial resolution. The theoretical data obtained with 3D-numerical model for surface heating were compared with the experimental results. It was demonstrated that for the given optical and thermo-physical parameters of materials, the theoretical temperatures may be fitted with the experimental results to assess certain unknown parameters of the layer (thermal contact resistance, diffusivity, thickness, porosity, ). Based on the comparison of the obtained experimental and theoretical results, the deposited layer characterization was made. The results of the investigations on Active Laser Pyrometry and Lock-in Thermography demonstrated that the methods can provide qualitative and quantitative data on the deposited layer and on the layer/substrate interface. The correlation and cross-check of the results

  20. Surface-layer gusts for aircraft operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, G.S.; Kristensen, L.

    1992-01-01

    We use Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to extend the Kristensen et al. (1991) aviation gust estimation technique from the neutral to the diabatic surface layer. Example calculations demonstrate the importance of this correction. Simple stability class methods using only standard aviation surface ...

  1. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.

    1993-01-01

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties

  2. Thermal conductivity of plasma modified polyethylene terephthalate and polyamide-6 layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalacska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribological performance of the materials greatly depends on the temperature of the contacting zones and surfaces and hence on the heat conducting behaviour of the materials. Heat conduction of polymers is, however, greatly affected even by a very narrow (few tens of nm modified layer formed on the surface after subjecting the polymer to plasma treatment. In this article the heat flow inhibiting properties of plasma modified surface layers were investigated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polyamide-6 (PA6 engineering polymers. Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation gave rise to compositional and structural changes of the polymers in a depth of 110 nm. It was found that even this thin layer exhibited significant heat flow inhibiting effect. The modified layer considerably decreased the thermal conductivity coefficient of the treated polymer and resulted in a reduced heat transmission for PET and PA6 by 33 and 28%, respectively. This new information supports and is in accordance with the former tribological results about extra friction heat generation experienced under NPIII surface layer of PA6 and PET during dry sliding.

  3. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  4. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Leonard C. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ishida, Takanobu [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between -0.24 and +1.25 VSCE while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-ρ-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  5. Surface shear rheology of saponin adsorption layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemanov, Konstantin; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Pelan, Edward; Stoyanov, Simeon D

    2012-08-21

    Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial biological activities. The molecular mechanisms behind these unusual properties are unknown, and, therefore, the saponins have attracted significant research interest in recent years. In our previous study (Stanimirova et al. Langmuir 2011, 27, 12486-12498), we showed that the triterpenoid saponins extracted from Quillaja saponaria plant (Quillaja saponins) formed adsorption layers with unusually high surface dilatational elasticity, 280 ± 30 mN/m. In this Article, we study the shear rheological properties of the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins. In addition, we study the surface shear rheological properties of Yucca saponins, which are of steroid type. The experimental results show that the adsorption layers of Yucca saponins exhibit purely viscous rheological response, even at the lowest shear stress applied, whereas the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins behave like a viscoelastic two-dimensional body. For Quillaja saponins, a single master curve describes the data for the viscoelastic creep compliance versus deformation time, up to a certain critical value of the applied shear stress. Above this value, the layer compliance increases, and the adsorption layers eventually transform into viscous ones. The experimental creep-recovery curves for the viscoelastic layers are fitted very well by compound Voigt rheological model. The obtained results are discussed from the viewpoint of the layer structure and the possible molecular mechanisms, governing the rheological response of the saponin adsorption layers.

  6. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al 2 O 3 due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO 2 . • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt

  7. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: mika.vaha-nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland); Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland); Johansson, Leena-Sisko, E-mail: leena-sisko.johansson@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, PO Box 16100, FI‐00076 AALTO (Finland); Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland)

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  8. Enhancing the Efficiency of Polymer Solar Cells by Modifying Buffer Layer with N,N-Dimethylacetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We modified the PEDOT:PSS anode buffer layer in P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by spin-coating the solvent N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC. This modification significantly enhanced the efficiency of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/DMAC/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al solar cells. The DMAC-treated device spin-coated at 3000 rpm exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE of 3.74%, a 59% improvement over that of an untreated cell. To study the mechanism of improving the conversion efficiency, we characterized many parameters, including the light and dark I-V curves, external quantum efficiency, active layer absorption spectrum, transmission spectrum of ITO:PEDOTPSS, PEDOT:PSS surface morphology, and electrical conductivity. Modifying the PEDOT:PSS film increased conductivity, making it more conducive to hole extraction and collection. Our findings suggest that modifying the anode buffer layer can improve photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  9. Durable superhydrophobic surfaces made by intensely connecting a bipolar top layer to the substrate with a middle connecting layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jinghui; Zhang, Li-Zhi

    2017-08-30

    This study reported a simple fabrication method for a durable superhydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic top layer of the durable superhydrophobic surface was connected intensely to the substrate through a middle connecting layer. Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (KH-560) after hydrolysis was used to obtain a hydrophilic middle connecting layer. It could be adhered to the hydrophilic substrate by covalent bonds. Ring-open reaction with octadecylamine let the KH-560 middle layer form a net-like structure. The net-like sturcture would then encompass and station the silica particles that were used to form the coarse micro structures, intensely to increase the durability. The top hydrophobic layer with nano-structures was formed on the KH-560 middle layer. It was obtained by a bipolar nano-silica solution modified by hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). This layer was connected to the middle layer intensely by the polar Si hydroxy groups, while the non-polar methyl groups on the surface, accompanied by the micro and nano structures, made the surface rather hydrophobic. The covalently interfacial interactions between the substrate and the middle layer, and between the middle layer and the top layer, strengthened the durability of the superhydrophobic surface. The abrasion test results showed that the superhydrophobic surface could bear 180 abrasion cycles on 1200 CW sandpaper under 2 kPa applied pressure.

  10. Osteoblastic cell behaviour on modified titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewska-Kuska, Magdalena; Wirstlein, Przemysław; Majchrowski, Radomir; Dorocka-Bobkowska, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    The surfaces of endoosseous dental implants have been subjected to numerous modifications in order to create a surface which can provide rapid bone healing and fast implant loading. Each modification has involved changes to the chemical composition and topography of the surfaces which have resulted in various biological reactions to the implanted material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface topography and chemistry of various modified titanium surfaces: (1) machined surface (MA), (2) alumina-blasted (Al2O3), (3) alumina-blasted and acid-etched (Al2O3 DE), (4) hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate grit-blasted (HA/TCP) and (5) hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate grit-blasted and acid-etched (HA/TCP DE) and to analyse the effects of surface roughness, and chemical composition on human osteoblast vitality, differentiation, morphology and orientation. The modified surfaces were subjected to topographic analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), optical profilometry, roughness analysis and chemical composition evaluation using Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The biological effects of the titanium modifications was analysed using human osteoblasts cell culture where the cell morphology, vitality (MTS assay) and differentiation (ALP activity) was analysed. The machined surfaces were classified as anisotropic, smooth and composed of titanium and oxygen. The blasted surface samples along with the blasted and etched samples were found to be isotropic and rough. The grit-blasting procedure resulted in the incorporation of components from the blasting material. In the case of the blasted and etched samples, etching decreased the surface development as indicated by the Sdr and also reduced the amount of chemical compounds incorporated into the surfaces during the blasting procedure. The attached NHOst cells, proliferated the surfaces. With regard to the MA samples, the cells spread close to the titanium surface, with expanded cytoplasmic

  11. Photocatalysis of Modified Transition Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzill, Matthias

    2018-02-28

    The goal of this project has been to establish a cause-effect relationship for photocatalytic activity variations of different structures of the same material; and furthermore gain fundamental understanding on modification of photocatalysts by compositional or surface modifications. The reasoning is that gaining atomic scale understanding of how surface and bulk modifications alter the photo reactivity will lead to design principles for next generation photocatalysts. As a prototypical photocatalyst the research focused on TiO2 synthesized in well-defined single crystalline form to enable fundamental characterizations.We have obtained results in the following areas: (a) Preparation of epitaxial anataseTiO2 samples by pulsed laser deposition. (b) Comparison of hydrogen diffusion on different crystallographic surface. (c) Determining the stability of the TiO2(011)-2x1 reconstruction upon interactions with adsorbates. (d) Characterization of adsorption and (thermal and photo) reaction of molecules with nitro-endgroups, (e) Exploring the possibility of modifying planar model photocatalyst surfaces with graphene to enable fundamental studies on reported enhanced photocatalytic activities of graphene modified transition metal oxides, (f) gained fundamental understanding on the role of crystallographic polymorphs of the same material for their photocatalytic activities.

  12. Microthermal Instrument for Measuring Surface Layer Seeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Bao; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Deng, Lin Hua; Xu, Guang

    2012-02-01

    Microthermal fluctuations are introduced by atmospheric turbulence very near the ground. In order to detect microthermal fluctuations at Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO), a microthermal instrument has been developed. The microthermal instrument consists of a microthermal sensor, which is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors, an associated signal processing unit, and a data collection, & communication subsystem. In this paper, after a brief introduction to surface layer seeing, we discuss the instrumentation behind the microthermal detector we have developed and then present the results obtained. The results of the evaluation indicate that the effect of the turbulent surface boundary layer to astronomical seeing would become sufficiently small when installing a telescope at a height of 16m or higher from the ground at FSO.

  13. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Surface roughness effects on the hypersonic turbulent boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the response of a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer to a step change in surface roughness has been performed. The boundary layer on a flat nozzle wall of a Mach 6 wind tunnel was subjected to abrupt changes in surface roughness and its adjustment to the new surface conditions was examined. Both mean and fluctuating flow properties were acquired for smooth-to-rough and rough-to-smooth surface configurations. The boundary layer was found to respond gradually and to attain new equilibrium profiles, for both the mean and the fluctuating properties, some 10 to 25 delta downstream of the step change. Mean flow self-similarity was the first to establish itself, followed by the mass flux fluctuations, followed in turn by the total temperature fluctuations. Use of a modified Van Driest transformation resulted in good correlations of smooth and rough wall data in the form of the incompressible law of the wall. This is true even in the nonequilibrium vicinity of the step for small roughness heights. The present data are found to correlate well with previously published roughness effect data from low and high speed flows when the roughnesses are characterized by an equivalent sand grain roughness height.

  15. Zr/ZrC modified layer formed on AISI 440B stainless steel by plasma Zr-alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H.H.; Liu, L.; Liu, X.Z.; Guo, Q.; Meng, T.X.; Wang, Z.X.; Yang, H.J.; Liu, X.P., E-mail: liuxiaoping@tyut.edu.cn

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A Zr/ZrC modified layer was formed on AISI 440B stainless steel using plasma surface Zr-alloying. • The thickness of the modified layer increases with alloying temperature and time. • Formation mechanism of the modified layer is dependent on the mutual diffusion of Zr and substrate elements. • The modified surface shows an improved wear resistance. - Abstract: The surface Zr/ZrC gradient alloying layer was prepared by double glow plasma surface alloying technique to increase the surface hardness and wear resistance of AISI 440B stainless steel. The microstructure of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer formed at different alloying temperatures and times as well as its formation mechanism were discussed by using scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrum, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adhesive strength, hardness and tribological property of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer were also evaluated in the paper. The alloying surface consists of the Zr-top layer and ZrC-subsurface layer which adheres strongly to the AISI 440B steel substrate. The thickness of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer increases gradually from 16 μm to 23 μm with alloying temperature elevated from 900 °C to 1000 °C. With alloying time from 0.5 h to 4 h, the alloyed depth increases from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the ZrC-rich alloyed thickness vs time is basically parabola at temperature of 1000 °C. Both the hardness and wear resistance of the Zr/ZrC alloying layer obviously increase compared with untreated AISI 440B steel.

  16. Hygrothermal analysis of surface layers of historical masonry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The paper deals with the hygrothermal analysis of surface layers of historical masonry. Solid brick provided with a traditional and two modified lime-based plasters is studied. The heat and moisture transport in the envelope is induced by an exposure of the wall from the exterior side to dynamic climatic conditions of Olomouc, Czech Republic. The transport processes are described using diffusion type of mathematical model based on experimentally determined material properties. The computational results indicate that hygric transport and accumulation properties of exterior plasters affect the hygrothermal performance of the underlying solid brick in a very significant way, being able to regulate the amount of transported moisture. The modified lime plasters are not found generally superior to the traditional lime plasters in that respect. Therefore, their suitability for historical masonry should be assessed case by case, with a particular attention to the climatic conditions and to the properties of the load bearing structure.

  17. Properties of screen-printed modified graphite layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Walter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During last years protection of the environment is one of the important problems that should be solved by modern technology. Theimportant problems are toxic gases emitted by conventional power plants. One of the methods that contribute to decreasing air pollution is manufacturing of cheap solar energy devices that could be applied in households. Among different type of fabrication technology of solar cells, DSSC technology looks like one of the interesting because it is relatively simple and low cost technology. Nowadays a lot of researcher groups making investigations to improve its setup, to get the cost reduction. The methods to achieve this goal were proposed in ISE (Germany as a concept of monolithic dye sensitised solar cell. One of the ideas of this solar cells setup is replacing expensive TCO electrode by much cheaper graphite electrode. Replacing TCO glass by graphite layer has to be done only in case of comparable properties of those both electrodes. There are some tested ideas of manufacturing that electrode and some of them are successfully applied. Presented work has been focused on preparation graphite conductive electrode for DSSC technology application, fabricated by screen–printing technique. Investigations concern new graphite past composition suitable for graphite layer preparation. It was been found that applying additive of titanium organic compound (Tyzor GBA to the past composition result in good properties, characterised by low resistance and good adhesion between graphite particles in the printed layer. Some tested layers prepared from proposed paste compositions characterised by better conductivity then applied in conventional DSSC cells counter electrode. The optimal addition of the modifier has not fixed yet.Among tested pastes the most promising results has been achieved for paste contained the biggest amount of Tyzor GBA.

  18. Organic light emitting diode with surface modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, John D.; Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry; Arbab, Mehran; Marietti, Gary J.

    2017-09-12

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (12) having a first surface (14) and a second surface (16), a first electrode (32), and a second electrode (38). An emissive layer (36) is located between the first electrode (32) and the second electrode (38). The organic light emitting diode (10) further includes a surface modification layer (18). The surface modification layer (18) includes a non-planar surface (30, 52).

  19. System for removing contaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1987-04-01

    The object of the present invention is to offer a new type of useful decontamination system, with which the contaminated surface layers can be removed effectively by injection of such solid microparticles. Liquid carbon dioxide is passed from a liquid carbon dioxide tank via the carbon dioxide supply line into the system for injecting solid carbon dioxide particles. Part of the liquid carbon dioxide introduced into the system is converted to solid carbon dioxide particles by the temperature drop resulting from adiabatic expansion in the carbon dioxide expansion space of the injection system. The solid carbon dioxide particles reach the injection nozzle, which is connected through the expansion space. The carbon dioxide microparticles are further cooled and accelerated by nitrogen gas injected from the nitrogen gas nozzle at the tip of the nitrogen gas supply line, which is connected to a liquid nitrogen tank. The cooled and accelerated solid carbon dioxide microparticles are injected from the injection nozzle for the solid carbon dioxide and directed against the contaminated surface to be cleaned, and, as a result, the surface contamination is removed

  20. Ion doping of surface layers in conducting electrical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukowski, P.; Karwat, Cz.; Kozak, Cz. M.; Kolasik, M.; Kiszczak, K.

    2009-01-01

    The presented article gives basic component elements of an implanter MKPCz-99, its parameters and methods for doping surface layers of conducting electrical materials. The discussed device makes possible to dope the materials with ions of gaseous elements. At the application of cones made of solid-element sheets it is possible to perform doping with atoms that do not chemically react with the modified material. By performing voltage drop measurements with a specialized circuit between a movable testing electrode and the modified sample the dependence of transition resistance on pressure force of the testing electrode on the sample can be determined. The testing can be performed at the current passage of a determined value for surfaces modified with ions of gaseous elements or atoms of solid elements. A computer stand for switch testing makes possible to measure temperature of switch contacts and voltage drop at the contact and thereby to determine contact resistance of a switch depending on the number of switch cycles (ON-OFF). Pattern recording of current and voltage at the switch contacts and the application of an adequate computer software makes possible to determined the value of energy between fixed and moving contacts at their getting apart. In order to eliminate action of the environment onto the switch operation measurements can be performed at placing the tested switch together with the driving system in an atmosphere of noble gas like argon. (authors)

  1. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive

  2. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Z. X.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, W. B.; Yang, Z. G.

    2015-01-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surfac...

  3. Exploring Scintillometry in the Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogensis, O.K.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate observation methods of heat and momentum exchange and key variables that characterise turbulence in the atmospheric stable surface layer (SSL), a layer defined as the lower part of the stable boundary layer (SBL) where surface fluxes do not change

  4. High flux nanofiltration membranes based on layer-by-layer assembly modified electrospun nanofibrous substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-Rong; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Jian-Mei; Li, Lu; Su, Hui-Chao; Zhao, He-Li; Feng, Hou-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Herein, high flux nanofiltration (NF) membranes were fabricated by combined procedures of electrospinning, layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly, and phase inversion. The membranes displayed three-dual structure constituted polyether sulfone (PES) coating layer, LBL assembly modified electrospun polyester (PET) nanofibrous mats, and non-woven supports. High flux NF membranes thus prepared are characterized by ultrathin phase inversion layer (∼10 μm) while that of conventional membranes are 100-150 μm, implying that very high flux could be expected. Various factors including electrospinning conditions, chitosan (CHI)/alginate (ALG) concentration, PES concentration, exposed time, coagulating temperature, thermal treatment, and sulfonated poly ether ketone (SPEEK) content were systematically investigated. Structures of the membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), mechanical properties test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and static contact angle measurements. The separation experiments indicated that thus prepared membranes exhibited high flux of as high as ∼75 L m-2 h-1 with Mg SO4 rejection of ∼80%.

  5. Terahertz transmission enhancement in finite-size arrays of subwavelength holes modified with dielectric peg layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenhunt, Brady Andrew

    Scope and Method of Study: This thesis investigates terahertz transmission through finite-size arrays of subwavelength holes perforated in a thin aluminum film modified with a periodic layer of dielectric pegs resting on the hole openings. Samples of differing patterns and numbers of holes were fabricated in a 350 nm thick layer of aluminum on top of a 640 µm thick silicon substrate layer. The dielectric peg layer (DPL) consisted of periodically-spaced pegs made out of negative photoresist material. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements of the transmission was taken both before and after fabrication of the DPL on top of the hole array samples. The results were analyzed and compared to simulation of an infinitely periodic hole array modified with a DPL. Findings and Conclusions: A peak in the transmission spectrum was observed at the predicted surface plasmon resonance frequency for the array. The transmission peak was enhanced 5%-20% with addition of the DPL, depending on the arrangement and number of holes in the sample. A weaker peak was observed in some samples at higher frequencies with addition of the DPL, which is attributed to a resonance of the DPL layer itself. Both resonant and nonresonant transmission was enhanced with addition of the DPL. Simulation showed a similar enhancement of the resonant and nonresonant transmission due to DPL. Varying the value of the dielectric constant of the simulated pegs changed the strength of the fundamental surface plasmon resonance as well as the location of the higher frequency peaks. A distinct Fano-like asymmetry was observed in the experimentally measured transmission spectra but not observed in simulation. The results suggest that a heterostructure consisting of a finite-size array of subwavelength holes combined with a DPL can be used to enhance the transmission of light through the holes as well as tune the asymmetry of the main surface plasmon resonance peak.

  6. Structure of cubic polytype indium nitride layers on top of modified sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F.M.; Lozano, J.G.; Garcia, R.; Gonzalez, D. [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica y QI, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Lebedev, V.; Wang, Ch.Y.; Cimalla, V.; Ambacher, O. [Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, Technical University Ilmenau, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The occurrence of cubic indium nitride thin layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on top of c-plane sapphire substrates modified by an intermediate layer of cubic indium oxide is reported. An orientation relationship between the (0001) plane of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and both (001) surfaces of body-centered cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and zinc-blende InN is demonstrated by means of electron and X-ray diffraction and by transmission electron microscopy. We propose that the demonstrated approach is able to stabilize the non equilibrium phase of InN (i. e., the cubic polytype) due to a low lattice mismatch together with a four fold surface atomic arrangement of the indium oxide-indium nitride interface. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Surface Modification of Titanium with Heparin-Chitosan Multilayers via Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Shu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM, like biomimetic surface modification of titanium implants, is a promising method for improving its biocompatibility. In this paper chitosan (Chi and heparin (Hep multilayer was coated on pure titanium using a layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly technique. The Hep-Chi multilayer growth was carried out by first depositing a single layer of positively charged poly-L-lysine (PLL on the NaOH-treated titanium substrate (negatively charged surface, followed by alternate deposition of negatively charged Hep and positively charged Chi, and terminated by an outermost layer of Chi. The multilayer was characterized by DR-FTIR, SEM, and AFM, and osteoblasts were cocultured with the modified titanium and untreated titanium surfaces, respectively, to evaluate their cytocompatibility in vitro. The results confirmed that Hep-Chi multilayer was fabricated gradually on the titanium surface. The Hep-Chi multilayer-coated titanium improved the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Thus, the approach described here may provide a basis for the preparation of modified titanium surfaces for use in dental or orthopedic implants.

  8. Wettability of modified silica layers deposited on glass support activated by plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terpiłowski, Konrad, E-mail: terpil@umcs.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry – Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Rymuszka, Diana [Department of Physical Chemistry – Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Goncharuk, Olena V.; Sulym, Iryna Ya.; Gun’ko, Vladimir M. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • New modified silica materials synthesis. • Support surface plasma activation. • Apparent surface free energy determination. • Equilibrium contact angle calculation. - Abstract: Fumed silica modified by hexamethyldisilazane [HDMS] and polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS] was dispersed in a polystyrene/chloroform solution. To increase adhesion between deposited silica layers and a glass surface, the latter was pretreated with air plasma for 30 s. The silica/polystyrene dispersion was deposited on the glass support using a spin coater. After deposition, the plates were dried in a desiccator for 24 h. Water advancing and receding contact angles were measured using the tilted plate method. The apparent surface free energy (γ{sub S}) was evaluated using the contact angle hysteresis approach. The surface topography was determined using the optical profilometry method. Contact angles changed from 59.7° ± 4.4 (at surface coverage with trimethylsilyl groups Θ = 0.14) to 155° ± 3.1 at Θ = 1. The value of γ{sub S} decreased from 51.3 ± 2.8 mJ/m{sup 2} (for the sample at the lowest value of Θ) to 1.0 ± 0.4 mJ/m{sup 2} for the most hydrophobic sample. Thus, some systems with a high degree of modification by HDMS showed superhydrophobicity, and the sliding angle amounted to about 16° ± 2.1.

  9. Role of organically modified layered silicate both as an active interfacial modifier and nanofiller for immiscible polymer blends.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ray, SS

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of organically modified layered silicate as a compatibilizer for immiscible polystyrene (PS) with polypropylene (PP) or polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) blends was investigated. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM...

  10. The microstructure of the surface layer of magnesium laser alloyed with aluminum and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziadoń, Andrzej; Mola, Renata; Błaż, Ludwik

    2016-01-01

    The surface layer under analysis was formed as a result of diffusion bonding of a thin AlSi20 plate to a magnesium substrate followed by laser melting. Depending on the process parameters, the laser beam melted the AlSi20 plate only or the AlSi20 plate and a layer of the magnesium surface adjacent to it. Two types of microstructure of the remelted layer were thus analyzed. If the melting zone was limited to the AlSi20 plate, the microstructure of the surface layer was typical of a rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al–Si alloy. Since, however, the liquid AlSi20 reacted with the magnesium substrate, the following intermetallic phases formed: Al 3 Mg 2 , Mg 17 Al 12 and Mg 2 Si. The microstructure of the modified surface layer of magnesium was examined using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the surface properties of the laser modified magnesium revealed that the thin layer has a microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al–Si alloy offering good protection against corrosion. By contrast, the surface layer containing particles of intermetallic phases was more resistant to abrasion but had lower corrosion resistance than the silumin type layer. - Highlights: •A CO 2 laser was used for surface alloying of Mg with AlSi20. •Before alloying, an AlSi20 plate was diffusion bonded with the Mg substrate. •The process parameters affected the alloyed layer microstructure and properties. •With melting limited to AlSi20, the layer had a structure of rapidly solidified AlSi20. •Mg–Al and Mg–Si phases were present when both the substrate and the plate were melted.

  11. Surface modification induced phase transformation and structure variation on the rapidly solidified recast layer of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Haung, Chiung-Fang [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Division of Family and Operative Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Shyu, Shih-Shiun [Department of Dentistry, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan (China); Chou, Yen-Ru [Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); Peng, Pei-Wen, E-mail: apon@tmu.edu.tw [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    In this study, neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO{sub 4}) as a laser source with different scanning speeds was used on biomedical Ti surface. The microstructural and biological properties of laser-modified samples were investigated by means of optical microscope, electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness instrument, contact angle and cell cytotoxicity assay. After laser modification, the rough volcano-like recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure and wave-like recast layer with nanoporous structure were generated on the surfaces of laser-modified samples, respectively. It was also found out that, an α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition occurred on the recast layers of laser-modified samples. The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. Moreover, the cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that laser-modified samples did not influence the cell adhesion and proliferation behaviors of osteoblast (MG-63) cell. The laser with 50 mm/s scanning speed induced formation of rough volcano-like recast layer accompanied with micro-/nanoporous structure, which can promote cell adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cell on Ti surface. The results indicated that the laser treatment was a potential technology to enhance the biocompatibility for titanium. - Highlights: • Laser induced the formation of recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure on Ti. • An α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition was observed within the recast layer. • The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. • Laser-modified samples exhibit good biocompatibility to osteoblast (MG-63) cell.

  12. UV and plasma treatment of thin silver layers and glass surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hluschi, J.H. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Roth, P. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Boewer, R. [Interpane Glasbeschichtungsgesellschaft mbH and Co KG, Sohnreystr. 21, D-37697 Lauenfoerde (Germany); Herlitze, L. [Interpane Glasbeschichtungsgesellschaft mbH and Co KG, Sohnreystr. 21, D-37697 Lauenfoerde (Germany); Vioel, W. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany)]. E-mail: vioel@hawk-hhg.de

    2006-11-10

    Thin silver layers can be modified by treatment with UV radiation or a plasma discharge. UV treatment at a wavelength of {lambda}=308 -bar nm improves the layer properties, thus leading to an enhancement of the layers IR reflectivity. For the purpose of in situ-measurement the sheet resistance is recorded during the process. Due to the Hagen-Rubens-Relation [E. Hagen, H. Rubens, Ann. Phys. 11 (1903) 873]-bar the sheet resistance is linked to the IR reflectivity of thin metal-films. A pretreatment of uncoated glass using a dielectric barrier discharge activates and cleans its surface, thus leading to an increase in adhesion of thin layers.

  13. UV and plasma treatment of thin silver layers and glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hluschi, J.H.; Helmke, A.; Roth, P.; Boewer, R.; Herlitze, L.; Vioel, W.

    2006-01-01

    Thin silver layers can be modified by treatment with UV radiation or a plasma discharge. UV treatment at a wavelength of λ=308 -bar nm improves the layer properties, thus leading to an enhancement of the layers IR reflectivity. For the purpose of in situ-measurement the sheet resistance is recorded during the process. Due to the Hagen-Rubens-Relation [E. Hagen, H. Rubens, Ann. Phys. 11 (1903) 873]-bar the sheet resistance is linked to the IR reflectivity of thin metal-films. A pretreatment of uncoated glass using a dielectric barrier discharge activates and cleans its surface, thus leading to an increase in adhesion of thin layers

  14. Boiling performance and material robustness of modified surfaces with multi scale structures for fuel cladding development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, HangJin; Kim, Jin Man; Yeom, Hwasung; Lee, Gi Cheol; Park, Hyun Sun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Kim, Moo Hwan; Sridharan, Kumar; Corradini, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We improved boiling performance and material robustness using surface modification. • We combined micro/millimeter post structures and nanoparticles with heat treatments. • Compactly-arranged micrometer posts had improved boiling performance. • CHF increased significantly due to capillary pumping by the deposited NP layers. • Sintering procedure increased mechanical strength of the NP coating surface. - Abstract: By regulating the geometrical characteristics of multi-scale structures and by adopting heat treatment for protective layer of nanoparticles (NPs), we improved critical heat flux (CHF), boiling heat transfer (BHT), and mechanical robustness of the modified surface. We fabricated 1-mm and 100-μm post structures and deposited NPs on the structured surface as a nano-scale structured layer and protective layer at the same time, then evaluated the CHF and BHT and material robustness of the modified surfaces. On the structured surfaces without NPs, the surface with compactly-arranged micrometer posts had improved CHF (118%) and BHT (41%). On the surface with structures on which NPs had been deposited, CHF increased significantly (172%) due to capillary pumping by the deposited NP layers. The heat treatment improved robustness of coating layer in comparison to the one of before heat treatment. In particular, low-temperature sintering increased the hardness of the modified surface by 140%. The increased mechanical strength of the NP coating is attributed to reduction in coating porosity during sintering. The combination of micrometer posts structures and sintered NP coating can increase the safety, efficiency and reliability of advanced nuclear fuel cladding

  15. Comparison of density functional and modified Poisson-Boltzmann structural properties for a spherical double layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B.Bhuiyan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The density functional and modified Poisson-Boltzmann descriptions of a spherical (electric double layer are compared and contrasted vis-a-vis existing Monte Carlo simulation data (for small ion diameter 4.25·10-10 m from the literature for a range of physical parameters such as macroion surface charge, macroion radius, valencies of the small ions, and electrolyte concentration. Overall, the theoretical predictions are seen to be remarkably consistent between themselves, being also in very good agreement with the simulations. Some modified Poisson-Boltzmann results for the zeta potential at small ion diameters of 3 and 2·10-10 m are also reported.

  16. Microgel-based surface modifying system for stimuli-responsive functional finishing of cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, A.N.; Tourrette, A.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus; Jocic, D.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative strategy for functional finishing of textile materials is based on the incorporation of a thin layer of surface modifying systems (SMS) in the form of stimuli-sensitive microgels or hydrogels. Since the copolymerization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with an ionizable polymer, such as

  17. Layer-by-layer construction of the heparin/fibronectin coatings on titanium surface:stability and functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicai; Yang, Ping; Huang, Nan

    Layer-by-layer assembly as a versatile bottom-up nanofabrication technique has been widely used in the development of biomimetic materials with superior mechanical and biological properties. In this study, layer-by-layer assembled heparin/fibronectin biofunctional films were fabricated on titanium (Ti) surface to enhance the blood anticoagulation and accelerate the endothelialization simultaneously. The wettability and chemical changes of the assembled films were investigated by static water contact angle measurement and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The morphology of modified Ti surfaces were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The real time assembly process was in-situ monitored by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The stability of the films was evaluated by measuring the changes in wettability and the quantity of heparin and fibronectin on the surfaces. The anticoagulation properties of the films were quantitatively rated using Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) analysis. New peaks of hydroxyl and amino group were observed on the assembled Ti srufaces by FTIR. The contact angles varied among the films with different bilayer numbers, indicating the successful graft of the heparin and fibronectin layer-by-layer. QCM-D results showed that the frequency shift increased with the bilayer numbers, and the heparin and fibronectin could form multilayers. The assembly films were stable after incubation in PBS for 24 h based on the results of the contact angle measurement and the quantity of heparin and fibronectin analysis. APTT results suggested that the assembled films kept excellent antithrombotic properties. All these results revealed that the assembled heparin/fibronectin films with stabiltiy and anticoagulation property could be firmly formed on titanium surfaces. Our study further demonstrates that layer-by-layer assembly of heparin and fibronectin will provide a potential and effective tool for

  18. Observations of the atmospheric surface layer parameters over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    1999-08-11

    Aug 11, 1999 ... This paper discusses the observations of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL) parameters dur- ing the solar eclipse of August 11th, 1999. Intensive surface layer experiments were conducted at. Ahmedabad (23◦21 N, 72◦36 E), the western part of India, which was close to the totality path. This rare event ...

  19. Formation of biocompatible surface layers depending on the sputtering distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasakina, E. O.; Seregin, A. V.; Baikin, A. S.; Kaplan, M. A.; Konushkin, S. V.; Sergiyenko, K. V.; Kovaleva, E. D.; Kolmakova, A. A.; Leonov, A. V.; Sevost'yanov, M. A.; Kolmakov, A. G.; Simakov, S. V.

    2017-05-01

    Nano- and micro-dimensional surface layers of silver and tantalum on flat and wire NiTi substrates by the method of magnetron sputtering in vacuum were produced. The structure and composition of the samples were determined using SEM and Auger spectroscopy. With an increase in the sputtering distance, the thickness of the surface layers decreases, and the thickness of the transition layer and the dependence of the thickness change as a whole depend on the nature of the sputtered substance.

  20. Contact mechanics for layered materials with randomly rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2012-03-07

    The contact mechanics model of Persson is applied to layered materials. We calculate the M function, which relates the surface stress to the surface displacement, for a layered material, where the top layer (thickness d) has different elastic properties than the semi-infinite solid below. Numerical results for the contact area as a function of the magnification are presented for several cases. As an application, we calculate the fluid leak rate for laminated rubber seals.

  1. Osteoblast cell response to surface-modified carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Faming; Weidmann, Arne; Nebe, J. Barbara; Burkel, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the interaction of cells with modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for their potential biomedical applications, the MWCNTs were chemically modified with carboxylic acid groups (–COOH), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer and biomimetic apatite on their surfaces. Additionally, human osteoblast MG-63 cells were cultured in the presence of the surface-modified MWCNTs. The metabolic activities of osteoblastic cells, cell proliferation properties, as well as cell morphology were studied. The surface modification of MWCNTs with biomimetic apatite exhibited a significant increase in the cell viability of osteoblasts, up to 67.23%. In the proliferation phases, there were many more cells in the biomimetic apatite-modified MWCNT samples than in the MWCNTs–COOH. There were no obvious changes in cell morphology in osteoblastic MG-63 cells cultured in the presence of these chemically-modified MWCNTs. The surface modification of MWCNTs with apatite achieves an effective enhancement of their biocompatibility.

  2. Impedimetric Urea Biosensor Based on Modified Gold Electrode with Urease Immobilized on Glutathione Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine BARHOUMI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a glutathione (GSH modified gold microelectrode was used for the covalent immobilization of urease biomolecules via the glutaraldehyde-coupling agent. The self- assembled monolayers (SAMs onto the gold surface was investigated by using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS. Before urease grafting, a significant interaction was noticed between urea and the glutathione layer by forming hydrogen bonds. The H-NMR analysis was carried out to highlight the possibility of having a covalent link between urea and the GSH deposited layer. In addition, contact angle measurements were carried out to determine the hydrophobic/hydrophilic feature of the modified gold surface electrode. After urease immobilization a stable and high sensitive impedimetric urea biosensors was obtained with a sensitivity of 8.73´10- 8 W-1mM-1 for the low concentrations range and a sensitivity of 7.03´10-9 W-1mM-1 for the high concentrations range.

  3. Assessment of WRF Surface Layer Formulations Over a Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P.; Sharan, M.

    2017-12-01

    The accurate and efficient estimation of surface turbulent fluxes is crucial to predict an adequate atmospheric evolution by atmospheric models. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, which is used to compute these fluxes in numerical models, utilizes the empirical stability correction functions. In the present study, impact of various functional forms of similarity functions on the computation of the surface fluxes under both unstable and stable stratification is analyzed. In addition, this study compares two surface layer parametrization schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting model over Ranchi (India). The model is run with three nested domains at a high resolution (1 Km) for `five' 4-day periods covering 15 days of Premonsoon season. The two surface layer schemes chosen for the analysis includes MM5 surface layer scheme having Businger-Dyer similarity functions, and revised MM5 scheme utilizing the functions those are valid for full ranges of atmospheric stabilities. The five planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes are selected to assess the influence of the surface layer schemes on the structure of the boundary layer. The schemes are- Asymmetric Convective Model Version 2 (ACM2), Bougeault-Lacarrere (Boulac), Medium Range Forecast (MRF), Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN), and Yonsei University (YSU) PBL schemes. The impact of surface layer parametrizations on the near surface diagnostic variables is analyzed and results are compared with the observations.The bias in the 2 m temperature (T2) and 10 m wind speed (U) across the PBL schemes is very small and each PBL scheme is able to reproduce the diurnal variation of T2 irrespective of the surface layer scheme used for the simulations. A relatively higher value nocturnal T2 is predicted with the revised MM5 surface layer scheme as compared to that obtained with the old MM5 scheme, while both the surface layer schemes reproduce almost similar T2 during convective conditions. However, compare to the

  4. Pool boiling of nanoparticle-modified surface with interlaced wettability

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pool boiling heat transfer under heating surfaces with various interlaced wettability. Nano-silica particles were used as the coating element to vary the interlaced wettability of the surface. The experimental results revealed that when the wettability of a surface is uniform, the critical heat flux increases with the more wettable surface; however, when the wettability of a surface is modified interlacedly, regardless of whether the modified region becomes more hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the critical heat flux is consistently higher than that of the isotropic surface. In addition, this study observed that critical heat flux was higher when the contact angle difference between the plain surface and the modified region was smaller. © 2012 Hsu et al.

  5. Antibacterial effect of silver nanofilm modified stainless steel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F.; Kennedy, J.; Dhillon, M.; Flint, S.

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria can attach to stainless steel surfaces, resulting in the colonization of the surface known as biofilms. The release of bacteria from biofilms can cause contamination of food such as dairy products in manufacturing plants. This study aimed to modify stainless steel surfaces with silver nanofilms and to examine the antibacterial effectiveness of the modified surface. Ion implantation was applied to produce silver nanofilms on stainless steel surfaces. 35 keV Ag ions were implanted with various fluences of 1 × 1015 to 1 × 1017 ions•cm-2 at room temperature. Representative atomic force microscopy characterizations of the modified stainless steel are presented. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry spectra revealed the implanted atoms were located in the near-surface region. Both unmodified and modified stainless steel coupons were then exposed to two types of bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus thermophilus, to determine the effect of the surface modification on bacterial attachment and biofilm development. The silver modified coupon surface fluoresced red over most of the surface area implying that most bacteria on coupon surface were dead. This study indicates that the silver nanofilm fabricated by the ion implantation method is a promising way of reducing the attachment of bacteria and delay biofilm formation.

  6. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Titanium Surface Modified by PVD/PACVD Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyung; Lee, Min-Joo; Park, Sang-Won; Lee, Kwangmin; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kim, Hyun-Seung; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) via crystal violet staining assay on titanium surface modified by physical vapor deposition/plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition process. Specimens were divided into the following three groups: polished titanium (control group), titanium modified by DC magnetron sputtering (group TiN-Ti), and titanium modified by plasma nitriding (group N-Ti). Surface characteristics of specimens were observed by using nanosurface 3D optical profiler and field emission scanning electron microscope. Group TiN-Ti showed TiN layer of 1.2 microm in thickness. Group N-Ti was identified as plasma nitriding with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Roughness average (Ra) of all specimens had values 0.05). Within the process condition of this study, modified titanium surfaces by DC magnetron sputtering and plasma nitriding did not influence the adhesion of S. mutans.

  7. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  8. Ammonia synthesis on Au modified Fe(111) and Ag and Cu modified Fe(100) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytken, Ole; Waltenburg, Hanne Neergaard; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate any influence of steps and possible positive effects of making surface alloys the ammonia synthesis has been investigated over Au modified Fe(111) and Ag and Cu modified Fe(100) single crystals in the temperature range 603-773 K, using a system combining ultra-high vacuum...... and a high-pressure cell. Ammonia was synthesized from a stoichiometric (N-2:3H(2)) gas mixture at a pressure of 2 bar. By deposition of small amounts of An, the ammonia production activity of the Fe(1 1 1) surface can be enhanced. More important, for the gold modified surface, the reaction order in ammonia...

  9. Anticorrosive behaviour of lumefantrine hydrophobic layer on mild steel surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra M. Krishnegowda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface modification of mild steel was achieved by chemical treatment in lumefantrine (LF solution. The surface morphology and wettability of modified surface was analysed by 3D profilometer and contact angle goniometer. The corrosion inhibition performance of modified mild steel surface in 1.0 M HCl solution was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques.Electroche­mical measurements illustrate that the corrosion of mild steel in acidic chloride medium get substantially reduced by introducing LF film on its surface (94 % efficiency. Quantum chemical parameters were evaluated by ab initio method and they confer appropriate theoretical support to the experimental findings.

  10. Surface modified carbon nanoparticle papers and applications on polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xilian

    Free-standing paper like materials are usually employed as protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, and electronic or optoelectric components. Free-standing papers made from carbon nanoparticles have drawn increased interest because they have a variety of superior chemical and physical characteristics, such as light weight, high intrinsic mechanical properties, and extraordinary high electrical conductivity. Nanopapers fabricated from 1- D shape carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising reinforcing materials for polymer composites, because the highly porous CNF and CNT nanopapers (porosity ˜80% and ˜70% respectively) can be impregnated with matrix polymers. In the first part of this work, polyaniline (PANI) was used to functionalize the surface of CNFs, and the resultant carbon nanopapers presented impressive mechanical strength and electrical conductivity that it could be used in the in-mold coating (IMC)/ injection molding process to achieve high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness. Aniline modified (AF) CNT nanopapers were used as a 3D network in gas separation membranes. The resultant composite membranes demonstrated better and stable CO2 permeance and CO 2/H2 selectivity in a high temperature (107°C) and high pressure (15-30 atm) gas separation process, not achievable by conventional polymer membranes. In the second part, we demonstrated that 2-D graphene (GP) or graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could be tightly packed into a film which was impermeable to most gases and liquids. GP or GO nanopapers could be coated on polymer composites. In order to achieve well-dispersed single-layer graphene in aqueous medium, we developed a facile approach to synthesize functional GP bearing benzenesulfonic acid groups which allow the preparation of nanopapers by water based assembly. With the optimized processing conditions, our best GP nanopapers could reach

  11. Change of Surface Roughness and Planetary Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1978-01-01

    The ratio between upstream and far downstream surface friction velocities relative to a change in surface roughness is given on the basis of results from surface Rossby number similarity theory. By simple theories for the internal boundary layer, which are found to compare quite well with recent ...

  12. Highly Sensitive and Selective Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using the Mesoporous SnO₂ Modified Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Niuzi; Zhang, Qinyi; Zhang, Shunping; Zong, Pan; Yang, Feng

    2017-10-14

    It is important to improve the sensitivities and selectivities of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors when they are used to monitor the state of hydrogen in aerospace industry and electronic field. In this paper, the ordered mesoporous SnO₂ (m-SnO₂) powders were prepared by sol-gel method, and the morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The gas sensors were fabricated using m-SnO₂ as the modified layers on the surface of commercial SnO₂ (c-SnO₂) by screen printing technology, and tested for gas sensing towards ethanol, benzene and hydrogen with operating temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 400 °C. Higher sensitivity was achieved by using the modified m-SnO₂ layers on the c-SnO₂ gas sensor, and it was found that the S(c/m2) sensor exhibited the highest response (Ra/Rg = 22.2) to 1000 ppm hydrogen at 400 °C. In this paper, the mechanism of the sensitivity and selectivity improvement of the gas sensors is also discussed.

  13. Investigation of mechanical characteristics of composite surface layers using materials with thermoelastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinov, P. O.; Blednova, Zh. M.; Borovets, O. I.

    2017-12-01

    We developed the formation technology of the steel-layer with elastic phase transformations-ceramic wear-resistant layer composition by means of high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF) in the protective medium of mechanically activated powders TiNiCu and cBN-Co-Mo. We also determined optimal processing parameters. We revealed regularities in the formation of the nanoscale state of the composition on the basis of complex X-ray diffraction and electron-microscopic studies. We carried out tests of steel 1045 with surface-modified layers TiNiCu + cBN-Co-Mo on friction wear, which showed an increase in wear resistance.

  14. Effect of Alloy 625 Buffer Layer on Hardfacing of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Using Nickel Base Hardfacing Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Gopa; Das, C. R.; Albert, S. K.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-04-01

    Dashpot piston, made up of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, is a part of diverse safety rod used for safe shutdown of a nuclear reactor. This component was hardfaced using nickel base AWS ER NiCr-B alloy and extensive cracking was experienced during direct deposition of this alloy on dashpot piston. Cracking reduced considerably and the component was successfully hardfaced by application of Inconel 625 as buffer layer prior to hardface deposition. Hence, a separate study was undertaken to investigate the role of buffer layer in reducing the cracking and on the microstructure of the hardfaced deposit. Results indicate that in the direct deposition of hardfacing alloy on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, both heat-affected zone (HAZ) formed and the deposit layer are hard making the thickness of the hard layer formed equal to combined thickness of both HAZ and deposit. This hard layer is unable to absorb thermal stresses resulting in the cracking of the deposit. By providing a buffer layer of Alloy 625 followed by a post-weld heat treatment, HAZ formed in the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is effectively tempered, and HAZ formed during the subsequent deposition of the hardfacing alloy over the Alloy 625 buffer layer is almost completely confined to Alloy 625, which does not harden. This reduces the cracking susceptibility of the deposit. Further, unlike in the case of direct deposition on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, dilution of the deposit by Ni-base buffer layer does not alter the hardness of the deposit and desired hardness on the deposit surface could be achieved even with lower thickness of the deposit. This gives an option for reducing the recommended thickness of the deposit, which can also reduce the risk of cracking.

  15. Surface plasmon polariton modulator with optimized active layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    A multilayered waveguide, which supports surface plasmon polaritons, is considered as an absorption modulator. The waveguide core consists of a silicon nitride layer and ultrathin layer with the varied carrier density embedded between two silver plates, which also serve as electrodes. Under apply...

  16. 2nd international conference on ion beam surface layer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The papers of this conference are concerned with the fundamental aspects and with the application of surface layer analysis. It is reported amongst others about backscattering analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, channelling and microprobe. (HPOE) [de

  17. Electrochemical immobilization of biomolecules on gold surface modified with monolayered L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Mitsunori; Baba, Yuji; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Shimoyama, Iwao; Hirao, Norie

    2014-01-01

    Immobilization of organic molecules on the top of a metal surface is not easy because of lattice mismatch between organic and metal crystals. Gold atoms bind to thiol groups through strong chemical bonds, and a self-assembled monolayer of sulfur-terminated organic molecules is formed on the gold surface. Herein, we suggested that a monolayer of L-cysteine deposited on a gold surface can act as a buffer layer to immobilize biomolecules on the metal surface. We selected lactic acid as the immobilized biomolecule because it is one of the simplest carboxyl-containing biomolecules. The immobilization of lactic acid on the metal surface was carried out by an electrochemical method in an aqueous environment under the potential range varying from − 0.6 to + 0.8 V. The surface chemical states before and after the electrochemical reaction were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The N 1s and C 1s XPS spectra showed that the L-cysteine-modified gold surface can immobilize lactic acid via peptide bonds. This technique might enable the immobilization of large organic molecules and biomolecules. - Highlights: • Monolayer l-cysteine deposited on Au surface as a buffer layer to immobilize biomolecules. • Lactic acid as the immobilized biomolecule as it is simple carboxyl-containing biomolecule. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of surface chemical states, before and after. • L-cysteine-modified Au surface can immobilize lactic acid via peptide bonds

  18. Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II drugs zero-order release system. Abdullah Monahi Albogami, Mustafa E. Omer, Abdulkareem M. Al Bekairy, Abdulmalik Alkatheri, Alaa Eldeen B. Yassin ...

  19. Glass fiber supports modified by layers of silica and carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Maxim V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The new multi-layered composite was manufactured by deposition of the carbon nanofibers (CNF at the surface of the glass-fiber fabric, which is pre-modified by application of additional external layers of NiO and porous silica. Carbonization of synthesized catalytic template was performed at 450 °C in propanebutane media at ambient pressure. CNF was deposited in amount of ~130% of initial template mass or 65 g per g of nickel, the specific surface area of the material is ~100 m2/g. The synthesized material has high mechanical strength, high hydrophobicity and strong bonding between CNF and glass-fiber support. The synthesis method is technologically simple, inexpensive and easily scalable. It is possible to manufacture such material in various solid shapes, using the flexibility of the primary glass-fiber support; in particular, it may be used for production of the mechanically self-sustainable catalytic cartridges with required shape and internal geometry using no additional structuring elements.

  20. The physical structure of the oceanic surface-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, K.N.

    1981-01-01

    A study is presented of the structure of the near-surface layer of the ocean under various hydrometeorological conditions. Such a study allows the isolation of border measures for a four characteristic regime for the top ocean layer: 1) intensive wind-wave mixing; 2) Langmuir circulation; 3) intense solar heating during still and calm weather (with and without internal wave modulations); 4) a pressing-out of surface sediment. It is demonstrated that the spatial temperature change in the ocean surface, the thermal structure, and the heat attainment in the top layer have various characteristics during different regimes and this must be considered during the measuring of the ocean surface temperature with the contact method as well as during the comparison of contact and satallite data on the ocean surface temperature. The necessity for more research in this area is underscored.

  1. Surface-layer lattices as patterning element for multimeric extremozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner-Ortner-Bleckmann, Judith; Gelbmann, Nicola; Tesarz, Manfred; Egelseer, Eva M; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2013-11-25

    A promising new approach for the production of biocatalysts comprises the use of surface-layer (S-layer) lattices that present functional multimeric enzymes on their surface, thereby guaranteeing most accurate spatial distribution and orientation, as well as maximal effectiveness and stability of these enzymes. For proof of concept, a tetrameric and a trimeric extremozyme are chosen for the construction of S-layer/extremozyme fusion proteins. By using a flexible peptide linker, either one monomer of the tetrameric xylose isomerase XylA from the thermophilic Thermoanaerobacterium strain JW/SL-YS 489 or, in another approach, one monomer of the trimeric carbonic anhydrase from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila are genetically linked to one monomer of the S-layer protein SbpA of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177. After isolation and purification, the self-assembly properties of both S-layer fusion proteins as well as the specific activity of the fused enzymes are confirmed, thus indicating that the S-layer protein moiety does not influence the nature of the multimeric enzymes and vice versa. By recrystallization of the S-layer/extremozyme fusion proteins on solid supports, the active enzyme multimers are exposed on the surface of the square S-layer lattice with 13.1 nm spacing. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Dharmalingam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fly ash, an inorganic alumino silicate has been used as filler in epoxy matrix, but it reduces the mechanical properties due to its poor dispersion and interfacial bonding with the epoxy matrix. To improve its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix, surface treatment of fly ash was done using surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and silane coupling agent glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane. An attempt is also made to reduce the particle size of fly ash using high pressure pulverizer. To improve fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix, the epoxy was modified by mixing with amine containing liquid silicone rubber (ACS. The effect of surface treated fly ash with varying filler loadings from 10 to 40% weight on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of modified epoxy composites was investigated. The surface treated fly ash was characterized by particle size analyzer and FTIR spectra. Morphological studies of surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites indicate good dispersion of fillers in the modified epoxy matrix and improves its mechanical properties. Impact strength of the surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites show more improvement than unmodified composites.

  3. Deposition of gold nano-particles and nano-layers on polyethylene modified by plasma discharge and chemical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švorčík, V.; Chaloupka, A.; Záruba, K.; Král, V.; Bláhová, O.; Macková, A.; Hnatowicz, V.

    2009-08-01

    Polyethylene (PE) was treated in Ar plasma discharge and then grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol to enhance adhesion of gold nano-particles or sputtered gold layers. The modified PE samples were either immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au nano-particles or covered by sputtered, 50 nm thick gold nano-layer. Properties of the plasma modified, dithiol grafted and gold coated PE were studied using XPS, UV-VIS, AFM, EPR, RBS methods and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain, creation of excessive free radicals and conjugated double bonds. After grafting with 1,2-ethanedithiol the concentration of free radicals declined but the concentration of double bonds remained unchanged. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness too. Another significant change in the surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au nano-particles. The presence of Au on the sample surface after the coating with Au nano-particles was proved by XPS and RBS methods. Nanoindentation measurements shown that the grafting of plasma activated PE surface with dithiol increases significantly adhesion of sputtered Au nano-layer.

  4. Surface Layer Turbulence and Aerosol Profiles During MAPTIP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, K.L.; Frederickson, P.A.; Leeuw, G. de

    1995-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) and the TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory (TNO-FEL) deployed in situ sensors near and on Meetpost Noordwijk (MPN) during MAPTIP to describe the surface layer processes and also to evaluate models for near-surface aerosol profiles. Vertical profiles of aerosol

  5. Chemically-modified graphene sheets as an active layer for eco-friendly metal electroplating on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Joon-Suk; Hwang, Taeseon; Nam, Gi-Yong; Hong, Jung-Pyo; Bae, Ah-Hyun; Son, Sang-Ik; Lee, Geun-Ho; Sung, Hak kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Nam, Jae-Do

    2012-01-01

    Eco-friendly nickel (Ni) electroplating was carried out on a plastic substrate using chemically modified graphene sheets as an active and conductive layer to initiate electroplating without using conventional pre-treatment or electroless metal-seeding processes. A graphene oxide (GO) solution was self-assembled on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film followed by evaporation to give GO layers (thickness around 6.5 μm) on PET (GO/PET) film. Then, the GO/PET film was chemically and thermally reduced to convert the GO layers to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) layers on the PET substrate. The RGO-coated PET (RGO/PET) film showed the sheet resistance of 100 Ω per square. On RGO/PET film, Ni electroplating was conducted under the constant-current condition and the entire surface of the PET film was completely metalized with Ni without any voids.

  6. Whisker Formation On Galvanic Tin Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanyi A.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the effect of substrate composition, thickness of the tin electroplate and its morphology on pressure-induced tin whisker formation. Pure tin deposits of different thickness were obtained on a copper and brass substrates using methane sulfonic industrial bath. The deposits were compressed by a steel bearing ball forming imprint on the surface. The microstructure of tin whiskers obtained at the boundary of each imprint, their length and number were studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the most intensive formation and growth of whiskers was observed in the first two hours. In general, brass substrate was shown to be more prone to whisker formation than copper independently of the tin coating thickness. The results have been compared with industrial bright tin finish on control unit socket leads and proposals have been made as to modification of the production process in order to minimize the risk of whiskering.

  7. Multi-layer enhancement to polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.

    1997-10-01

    A multi-level polysilicon surface-micromachining technology consisting of 5 layers of polysilicon is presented. Surface topography and film mechanical stress are the major impediments encountered in the development of a multilayer surface-micromachining process. However, excellent mechanical film characteristics have been obtained through the use of chemical-mechanical polishing for planarization of topography and by proper sequencing of film deposition with thermal anneals. Examples of operating microactuators, geared power-transfer mechanisms, and optical elements demonstrate the mechanical advantages of construction with 5 polysilicon layers.

  8. Surface Floating 2D Bands in Layered Nonsymmorphic Semimetals: ZrSiS and Related Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Andreas; Queiroz, Raquel; Grüneis, Andreas; Müchler, Lukas; Rost, Andreas W.; Varykhalov, Andrei; Marchenko, Dmitry; Krivenkov, Maxim; Rodolakis, Fanny; McChesney, Jessica L.; Lotsch, Bettina V.; Schoop, Leslie M.; Ast, Christian R.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a model of the surface states of nonsymmorphic semimetals. These are derived from surface mass terms that lift the high degeneracy imposed in the band structure by the nonsymmorphic bulk symmetries. Reflecting the reduced symmetry at the surface, the bulk bands are strongly modified. This leads to the creation of two-dimensional floating bands, which are distinct from Shockley states, quantum well states or topologically protected surface states. We focus on the layered semimetal ZrSiS to clarify the origin of its surface states. We demonstrate an excellent agreement between DFT calculations and ARPES measurements and present an effective four-band model in which similar surface bands appear. Finally, we emphasize the role of the surface chemical potential by comparing the surface density of states in samples with and without potassium coating. Our findings can be extended to related compounds and generalized to other crystals with nonsymmorphic symmetries.

  9. Corrosion resistance of surface modified nickel titanium archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Manu; Seema, Saraswathy; Kumar, A Vinod; Varthini, N Parvatha; Sukumaran, Kalathil; Pawar, Vasant R; Arora, Vimal

    2014-03-01

    To compare the corrosion behavior of commercially available surface modified nickel titanium (NiTi) arch wires with respect to a conventional NiTi and to evaluate its association with surface characteristics. Five types of surface modified arch wires and a conventional NiTi arch wire, all from different manufacturers, were evaluated for their corrosion resistance from breakdown potential in an anodic polarization scan in Ringer's solution. Surface characteristics were determined from scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive analysis. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Duncan's multiple range tests were used to evaluate statistical significance. Surface modified NiTi wires showed significant improvement in corrosion resistance and reduction in surface roughness values. Breakdown potentials increased in the order of group 6 (conventional; 204 mV) corrosion resistance and decreasing surface roughness. However, neither factor could maintain a direct, one-to-one relationship. It meant that the type and nature of coating material can effectively influence the anticorrosive features of NiTi wires, compared with its surface roughness values.

  10. Double Charged Surface Layers in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmah, Smritakshi P.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding defect chemistry, particularly ion migration, and its significant effect on the surface’s optical and electronic properties is one of the major challenges impeding the development of hybrid perovskite-based devices. Here, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the surface layers of the perovskite crystals may acquire a high concentration of positively charged vacancies with the complementary negatively charged halide ions pushed to the surface. This charge separation near the surface generates an electric field that can induce an increase of optical band gap in the surface layers relative to the bulk. We found that the charge separation, electric field, and the amplitude of shift in the bandgap strongly depend on the halides and organic moieties of perovskite crystals. Our findings reveal the peculiarity of surface effects that are currently limiting the applications of perovskite crystals and more importantly explain their origins, thus enabling viable surface passivation strategies to remediate them.

  11. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays with modified layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Ok; Oh, Yonghui; Min, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Jin-Woo; Lee, Bin-Na; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Hwang, In-Nam; Oh, Won-Mann

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to enhance curing light penetration through resin inlays by modifying the thicknesses of the dentin, enamel, and translucent layers. Materials and Methods To investigate the layer dominantly affecting the power density of light curing units, resin wafers of each layer with 0.5 mm thickness were prepared and power density through resin wafers was measured with a dental radiometer (Cure Rite, Kerr). The dentin layer, which had the dominant effect on power density reduction, was decreased in thickness from 0.5 to 0.1 mm while thickness of the enamel layer was kept unchanged at 0.5 mm and thickness of the translucent layer was increased from 0.5 to 0.9 mm and vice versa, in order to maintain the total thickness of 1.5 mm of the resin inlay. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays was measured. Results Power density measured through 0.5 mm resin wafers decreased more significantly with the dentin layer than with the enamel and translucent layers (p inlays increased when the dentin layer thickness was reduced and the enamel or translucent layer thickness was increased. The highest power density was recorded with dentin layer thickness of 0.1 mm and increased translucent layer thickness in all light curing units. Conclusions To enhance the power density through resin inlays, reducing the dentin layer thickness and increasing the translucent layer thickness would be recommendable when fabricating resin inlays. PMID:23431061

  12. Eutrophication management in surface waters using lanthanum modified bentonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Diego; Finsterle, Karin; Marziali, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific knowledge on the use of a lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) to manage eutrophication in surface water. The LMB has been applied in around 200 environments worldwide and it has undergone extensive testing at laboratory, mesocosm, and whole lake scales. The availa......This paper reviews the scientific knowledge on the use of a lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) to manage eutrophication in surface water. The LMB has been applied in around 200 environments worldwide and it has undergone extensive testing at laboratory, mesocosm, and whole lake scales...

  13. The structure of the NiTi surface layers after the ion-plasma alloying of Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletika, T. M., E-mail: poletm@ispms.tsc.ru; Girsova, S. L., E-mail: girs@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Meisner, L. L., E-mail: lm@ispms.tsc.ru; Meisner, S. N., E-mail: msn@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Schmidt, E. Yu., E-mail: shmidt.rin@yandex.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The effect of the Ta-ion beam implantation on the micro- and nanostructures of the surface layers of NiTi alloy was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and Auger spectroscopy. It is found that the elements are distributed non-uniformly with depth, so that the sublayers differ significantly in structure. The modified surface layer was found to consist of two sublayers, i.e. the upper oxide layer and the lower-lying amorphous layer that contains a maximum of Ta atoms.

  14. Seasonality in onshore normalized wind profiles above the surface layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jesper Nielsen; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to study the seasonal difference in normalized wind speed above the surface layer as it is observed at the 160 m high mast at the coastal site Høvsøre at winds from the sea (westerly). Normalized and stability averaged wind speeds above the surface layer are observed to be 20 to 50......% larger in the winter/spring seasons compared to the summer/autumn seasons at winds from west within the same atmospheric stability class. A method combining the mesoscale model, COAMPS, and observations of the surface stability of the marine boundary layer is presented. The objective of the method...... is to reconstruct the seasonal signal in normalized wind speed and identify the physical process behind. The method proved reasonably successful in capturing the relative difference in wind speed between seasons, indicating that the simulated physical processes are likely candidates to the observed seasonal signal...

  15. Analysis of Surface Waves in Saturated Layered Poroelastic Half-Spaces Using the Thin Layer Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Huayou; Cui, Yujun; Zhang, Dianji

    2018-03-01

    There are multiple modes of surface waves in saturated layered poroelastic half-spaces. The phase velocity and the attenuation of the modes are frequency dependent. The frequency behaviour of the modes can be studied using the layer transfer, stiffness and the transmission/reflection matrix methods. However, it is very difficult to find the complex roots of the determinants because the entries of the matrices involve the complex exponential functions of the wavenumber and the thickness of layer. To overcome this difficulty, the entries in the matrix are expressed in the form of algebraic functions using the thin layer method. Thus, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be easily solved using the matrix decomposition techniques instead of the root-searching ones. Some of the eigenvalues correspond to the wavenumbers of the surface waves, and can be picked out based on the characteristics of the surface waves. The frequency behaviour, variations of the pore pressure and the skeleton's displacements with the depth can be then investigated from the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors, respectively. The method is verified by comparing the analytical and the discrete results in the saturated poroelastic half-space with the permeable surface. The method is applied to appreciate the effects of an impermeable surface on Rayleigh waves (R-waves) and the existence of Stoneley waves in the poroelastic half-space. The frequency behaviour of Rayleigh waves in three typical layered poroelastic half-spaces is also analyzed.

  16. Silicalite-1 zeolite membranes on unmodified and modified surfaces ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    (Algieri et al 2003). However, a higher value i.e. 20 × 10. –7 mol m. –2 s. –1. Pa. –1 of N2 permeance was found for the membrane prepared on the unmodified support surface. It indicates that the membrane prepared by surface modifi- cation technique has higher interlocking of the crystals and hence a lower degree of ...

  17. Acrylic acid surface-modified contact lens for the culture of limbal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Brown, Karl David; Lowe, Sue Peng; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Steele, David; Abberton, Keren; Daniell, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Surface treatment to a biomaterial surface has been shown to modify and help cell growth. Our aim was to determine the best surface-modified system for the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), which would facilitate expansion of autologous limbal epithelial cells, while maintaining cultivated epithelial cells in a less differentiated state. Commercially available contact lenses (CLs) were variously surface modified by plasma polymerization with ratios of acrylic acid to octadiene tested at 100% acrylic acid, 50:50% acrylic acid:octadiene, and 100% octadiene to produce high-, mid-, and no-acid. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemical composition of the plasma polymer deposited layer. Limbal explants cultured on high acid-modified CLs outgrew more cells. Immunofluorescence and RT2-PCR array results indicated that a higher acrylic acid content can also help maintain progenitor cells during ex vivo expansion of epithelial cells. This study provides the first evidence for the ability of high acid-modified CLs to preserve the stemness and to be used as substrates for the culture of limbal cells in the treatment of LSCD.

  18. A PCBM-Modified TiO2 Blocking Layer towards Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organometal halide perovskite as a promising absorber in solar cells has caught tremendous attention in the past few years. Herein, a hydrophobic PCBM layer was introduced into planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells to form the TiO2/PCBM double blocking layer. The bilayer structure assures the formation of a dense, smooth, and pinhole-free blocking layer. And the PCBM layer can also be in favor of larger grain size perovskite film and further passivate the TiO2 blocking layer. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and X-ray diffraction (XRD results suggest the formation of a uniform and compact CH3NH3PbI3−xClx perovskite layer on the PCBM-modified TiO2 blocking layer. The solar cell has reached a PCE up to 16.37%, which is greatly larger than the control device with a PCE of 10.81%.

  19. The gradient structure of the NiTi surface layers subjected to tantalum ion beam alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsova, S. L.; Poletika, T. M.; Meisner, L. L.; Schmidt, E. Yu

    2017-05-01

    The NiTi shape memory alloy has been modified by ion implantation with Ta to improve the surface and biological properties. The elemental and phase composition and structure of the surface and near-surface layers of NiTi specimens after the Ta ion implantation with the fluency D = 3 × 1017 cm-2 and D = 6 × 1017 cm-2 are examined. The methods of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron dispersion analysis (EDS) are used. It is found that a nonuniform distribution of elements along the depth of the surface layer after the ion implantation of NiTi specimens, regardless of the regime, is accompanied by the formation of a number of sublayer structures.

  20. Surface-modified nanocrystalline ceramics for drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossovsky, N; Gelman, A; Sponsler, E E; Hnatyszyn, H J; Rajguru, S; Torres, M; Pham, M; Crowder, J; Zemanovich, J; Chung, A

    1994-12-01

    Drug delivery systems comprised of various types of carriers have long been the object of pharmacological investigation. The search has been stimulated by the belief that carriers will lead to reduced drug toxicity, dosage requirements, enhanced cellular targeting and improved shelf-life. Among the carriers investigated are complex polymeric carbohydrates, synthetic proteins and liposomal structures. For the past four years, we have been experimenting with a radically new class of carriers comprised of surface-modified nanocrystalline ceramics. While the ceramics provide the structural stability of a largely immutable solid, the surface modification creates a glassy molecular stabilization film to which pharmacological agents may be bound non-covalently from an aqueous phase with minimal structural denaturation. As a consequence of maintained structural integrity and owing to concentration effects afforded by the surfaces of the nanocrystalline materials, drug activity following surface immobilization is preserved. We have used successfully surface-modified nanocrystalline ceramics to deliver viral antigens for the purpose of evoking an immune response, oxygenated haemoglobin for cell respiration and insulin for carbohydrate metabolism. The theoretical principles, technical details and experimental results are reviewed. Surface-modified nanocrystalline materials offer an exciting new approach to the well-recognized challenges of drug delivery.

  1. Silicalite-1 zeolite membranes on unmodified and modified surfaces ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    support was observed resulting in a relatively higher dense packing of the crystals during secondary crystal growth process compared to that obtained from the unmodified support. The membrane developed on surface modified support rendered lower permeance value i.e. 9 × 10. –7 mol m. –2 s. –1. Pa. –1 of N2 compared ...

  2. Listeria monocytogenes repellence by enzymatically modified PES surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der S.; Nady, N.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Zuilhof, H.; Boom, R.M.; Abee, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.

    2015-01-01

    : The effect of enzyme-catalyzed modification of poly(ethersulfone) (PES) on the adhesion and biofilm formation of two Listeria monocytogenes strains is evaluated under static and dynamic flow conditions. PES has been modified with gallic acid, ferulic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The surfaces

  3. Surface-modified magnetic nanoparticles for cell labeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zasońska, Beata Anna; Patsula, Vitalii; Stoika, R.; Horák, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2014), s. 63-73 ISSN 2305-7815 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14318 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : magnetic nanoparticles * surface-modified * cell labeling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  4. Implication of surface modified NZVI particle retention in the porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Retention of surface-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles in the porous media near the point of injection has been reported in the recent studies. Retention of excess particles in porous media can alter the media properties. The main objectives of this study are, therefore, to evaluate the effect of particle ...

  5. Efficiency of surface modified Ti coated with copper nanoparticles to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    various fields like medical instruments and devices, water treatment and food processing. For better utilization of antimicrobial activity the metal nanoparticles may be com- bined with polymers to form composites [23]. Our pre- vious study also proved the anti-biofouling property of surface modified Ti coated with silver ...

  6. Surface tension in plasmas related to double layer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Sebastian; Lozneanu, Erzilia [Al. I. Cuza University, Dept. of Plasma Physics, Iasi (Romania)

    2001-07-01

    Self-organized space charge configurations bordered by electric double layers appear in plasma as the result of the transition into a state characterized by local minimum of the free energy. Considering the self-assemblage process of such a complex well-confined space-charge configuration in plasma, known by the name of ball of fire, as a nucleation process, it becomes possible to define an equivalent surface tension for the double layer that covers the core of the ball of fire and to make some predictions for its surface tension coefficient and capacitance. (author)

  7. Fabrication of dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid/chitosan multilayers on titanium alloy by layer-by-layer self-assembly for promoting osteoblast growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinming, E-mail: xmzhang@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zyli@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yuan, Xubo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2013-11-01

    The bare inert surface of titanium (Ti) alloy typically causes early failures in implants. Layer-by-layer self-assembly is one of the simple methods for fabricating bioactive multilayer coatings on titanium implants. In this study, a dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid/chitosan (DHA/CHI) bioactive multilayer was built on the surface of Ti–24Nb–2Zr (TNZ) alloy. Zeta potential oscillated between −2 and 17 mV for DHA- and CHI-ending layers during the assembly process, respectively. The DHA/CHI multilayer considerably decreased the contact angle and dramatically improved the wettability of TNZ alloy. Atomic force microscopy results revealed a rough surface on the original TNZ alloy, while the surface became smoother and more homogeneous after the deposition of approximately 5 bilayers (TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5}). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5} sample was completely covered by polyelectrolytes. Pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the original TNZ alloy and TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5} to evaluate the effects of DHA/CHI multilayer on osteoblast proliferation in vitro. The proliferation of osteoblasts on TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5} was significantly higher than that on the original TNZ alloy. The results of this study indicate that the proposed technique improves the biocompatibility of TNZ alloy and can serve as a potential modification method in orthopedic applications.

  8. Phase and structural states in the NiTi-based alloy surface layer formed by electron-ion-plasma methods using tantalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiman, Aleksei A., E-mail: nasa@ispms.tsc.ru; Lotkov, Aleksandr I.; Gudimova, Ekaterina Y. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Meisner, Ludmila L., E-mail: meisner2l@yahoo.com; Semin, Viktor O. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The paper reports on a study of regularities of formation gradient nano-, submicron and microstructural conditions in the surface layers of the samples after pulsed electron-beam melting of tantalum coating on the substrate NiTi alloy. Experimentally revealed the presence of submicron columnar structure in the upper layers of the tantalum coating. After irradiation modified NiTi surface takes on a layered structure in which each layer differs in phase composition and structural phase state.

  9. Modification of surfaces and surface layers by non equilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamson, G.; Brennan, W.J.; Clark, D.T.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasmas are examples of non-equilibrium phenomena which are being used increasingly for the synthesis and modification of materials impossible by conventional routes. This paper introduces methods available by describing the construction and characteristics of some equipment used for the production of different types of plasmas and other non-equilibrium phenomena. This includes high energy ion beams. The special features, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques will be described. There are a multitude of potential application relevant to electronic, metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials. However, scale-up from the laboratory to production equipment depends on establishing a better understanding of both the physics and chemistry of plasma as well as plasma-solid interactions. Examples are given of how such an understanding can be gained. The chemical analysis of polymer surfaces undergoing modification by inert gas, hydrogen or oxygen plasmas is shown to give physical information regarding the relative roles of diffusion of active species, and direct and radiative energy transfer from the plasma. Surface modification by plasma depositing a new material onto an existing substrate is discussed with particular reference to the deposition of amorphous carbon films. Applications of the unique properties of these films are outlined together with our current understanding of these properties based on chemical and physical methods of analysis of both the films and the plasmas producing them. Finally, surface modification by ion beams is briefly illustrated using examples from the electronics and metals industries where the modification has had a largely physical rather than chemical effect on the starting material. (orig.)

  10. Elastic layer under axisymmetric indentation and surface energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarit, Pong-in; Senjuntichai, Teerapong; Rungamornrat, Jaroon

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a continuum-based approach is adopted to investigate the contact problem of an elastic layer with finite thickness and rigid base subjected to axisymmetric indentation with the consideration of surface energy effects. A complete Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity is employed to consider the influence of surface stresses. The indentation problem of a rigid frictionless punch with arbitrary axisymmetric profiles is formulated by employing the displacement Green's functions, derived with the aid of Hankel integral transform technique. The problem is solved by assuming the contact pressure distribution in terms of a linear combination of admissible functions and undetermined coefficients. Those coefficients are then obtained by employing a collocation technique and an efficient numerical quadrature scheme. The accuracy of proposed solution technique is verified by comparing with existing solutions for rigid indentation on an elastic half-space. Selected numerical results for the indenters with flat-ended cylindrical and paraboloidal punch profiles are presented to portray the influence of surface energy effects on elastic fields of the finite layer. It is found that the presence of surface stresses renders the layer stiffer, and the size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is observed in the present solutions. In addition, the surface energy effects become more pronounced with smaller contact area; thus, the influence of surface energy cannot be ignored in the analysis of indentation problem especially when the indenter size is very small such as in the case of nanoindentation.

  11. ELECTROCATALYSIS ON SURFACES MODIFIED BY METAL MONOLAYERS DEPOSITED AT UNDERPOTENTIALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADZIC,R.

    2000-12-01

    The remarkable catalytic properties of electrode surfaces modified by monolayer amounts of metal adatoms obtained by underpotential deposition (UPD) have been the subject of a large number of studies during the last couple of decades. This interest stems from the possibility of implementing strictly surface modifications of electrocatalysts in an elegant, well-controlled way, and these bi-metallic surfaces can serve as models for the design of new catalysts. In addition, some of these systems may have potential for practical applications. The UPD of metals, which in general involves the deposition of up to a monolayer of metal on a foreign substrate at potentials positive to the reversible thermodynamic potential, facilitates this type of surface modification, which can be performed repeatedly by potential control. Recent studies of these surfaces and their catalytic properties by new in situ surface structure sensitive techniques have greatly improved the understanding of these systems.

  12. The structure of alteration layers on cast glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.; Phinney, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    Alteration layers developed on SRL-165 simulated waste glasses in dilute sodium silicate/bicarbonate leaching solutions have been examined by Secondary Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) using fine-scale, multiple-element depth profiling. Selected samples were examined with an imaging detector system, which demonstrated the horizontal homogeneity of the layer development at all depths within the layer. After 1 day of reaction at 90 degrees C the reaction layer shows depletion of glass elements to a depth of 0.2 μm. The surface of the layer in contact with the solution shows enrichment of Si, Al, and alkali elements even at this short reaction time, suggesting the early stages of development of secondary aluminosilicate phases. With increased reaction time, the layer thickens to about 1.3 μm at 91 days, while the evidence for aluminosilicate development at the surface of the layer becomes more prominent. Penetration of hydrogen into the ''unreacted'' glass proceeds to a depth of about 0.5 μm deeper than the alkali depletion zone. This suggests the mechanism of initial reaction of the glass is by attack of the silicate structure by molecular water or hydroxide ion rather than by alkali-hydrogen ion exchange. The simple structure of the layers developed in the silicate solution is in contrast to the complexity of layer structure found when glasses are reacted in deionized water. Since the conditions for geologic disposal will be closer to those used in the silicate leaching experiments, these results hold promise for the ability to model the system to predict long-term performance after disposal in a repository

  13. Vibrations of microemulsion droplets and vesicles with compressible surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, V.; Brutovsky, B.; Zatovsky, A. V.

    1998-12-01

    The surface vibration spectra of liquid droplets with flexible interfaces, like microemulsion droplets or vesicles, are studied. As distinct from the previous theories, we proceed with exact solutions of hydrodynamic equations for incompressible bulk fluids inside and outside the droplet. The dynamical equations for the interface are those obtained by Lebedev and Muratov [JETP 68, 1011 (1989)] but with the improved continuity equation for the surface layer. Within the Helfrich's concept of the interfacial elasticity and taking into account the compressibility of the surface layer, the exact equation is obtained for the frequencies of the droplet vibrations. The equation describes uniformly a broad region of frequencies from the lowest, almost purely relaxation modes, up to the modes determined mainly by the change of the area per molecule of the layer. The dispersion laws for some of the modes are obtained analytically in the limits of large and small penetration depths of the corresponding waves. Our analysis corrects the previous results concerning the relaxation modes, the capillary wave frequency and the frequency of the mode connected with the fluctuations of molecules in the surface layer. An additional mode of this kind is obtained for almost incompressible layers. In the region corresponding to large penetration depths, a couple of modes exist with frequencies depending both on the surface elasticity and compressibility. In the limit of infinite compressibility of the layer, the lower of the two modes disappears. The conditions necessary for the existence of all the modes were specified. Some representative numerical solutions of the obtained equation are presented as depending on various values of the model parameters including those for realistic microemulsion systems.

  14. Optimized surface topography of thermoplastics blends modified by graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Girish M., E-mail: varadgm@gmail.com, E-mail: girish.joshi@vit.ac.in; Sharma, Ajay; Pandey, Mayank; Khutia, Moumita [Polymer Nanocomposite Laboratory, Material Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014,Tamilnadu (India); Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Kaleemulla, S. [Thinfilm Laboratory, Material Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014,Tamilnadu (India); Kumar, Ramesh C. [Thermal and Automotive Division, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014,Tamilnadu (India); Deshmukh, R. R. [Laboratory of Nanotechnology, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Plaza Manuel Meca 1, 13400 Almadén (Spain); Cuberes, M. Teresa [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai-400 019 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyacrilonitrile (PAN)/ Polyvinylfloride (PVDF) blends were modified by loading the graphene (0.5 to 1.5 wt %). The presence of graphene reveals the interesting surface properties. The decrease in surface roughness as function of graphene loading was confirmed by the topographic method of recording (two and three dimensional images) with atomic force microscope (AFM). The blends become smoother in nature due to occupied smaller surface area of graphene. This property may be useful for several applications in the marine, naval, nuclear domain and engineering applications as barrier medium.

  15. Structure and stability of surface passivation layers on semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, George Jonathan

    The structure and stability of passivating layers on silicon surfaces have been examined on the molecular level using the methods of surface science. Hydrogen-terminated surfaces were prepared through wet chemical treatment with ammonium fluoride. The oxidation of these surfaces was studied using high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), which showed that oxidation occurred through oxygen insertion in silicon backbonds, while the hydrogen termination remained intact. Oxygen was observed in both the surface layer and bulk layers, suggesting that initial oxidation was not restricted to layer-by-layer growth. Because the surface did oxidize with time, other passivating treatments, specifically self-assembled monolayers, were examined. The thermal stability of alkylsiloxane monolayers on oxidized Si(100) was studied in vacuum. Using HREELS it was found that the monolayers were stable up to 740 K. Above that temperature, they began to decompose through cleavage of C-C bonds, resulting in a reduction in chain length. The thermal stability of alkyl monolayers, which form directly on silicon without requiring an oxide layer, was also examined. These monolayers were stable to 620 K, significantly lower than the alkylsiloxane monolayers. Desorption was accompanied by the appearance of Si-H bonds, suggesting that desorption took place through a hydrogen elimination reaction. The thermal behavior of these two different monolayers highlighted the importance of bonding between the surface and the chains. The bonding of alkylsiloxane monolayers was examined in more detail by forming them on both SiOsb2 and Sisb3Nsb4. It was found that cross linking between adjacent head groups was critical to the formation of high quality monolayers. Bonding between the chains and the surface was of secondary importance, but played a key role in the initial stages of growth, when nucleation occurred. The chemical stability of alkylsiloxane monolayers on oxidized silicon was also

  16. Adhesion of Aeromonas hydrophila to Glass Surfaces Modified with Organosilanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the adhesive properties of Aeromonas hydrophila to glass surfaces modified using four silanes with different reactive groups, namely (3-glycidoxypropyl diethoxysilane, (3-N,N-dimethyl-3-N-n hexadecylammoniopropyltrimethoxysilane chloride, (3-N,N,N-triethanolammoniopropyltrimethoxysilane chloride, and (3-N,N-dimethyl- 3-N-n-octylammoniopropyltrimethoxysilane chloride. The strain used in the study was A. hydrophila LOCK0968, isolated from the unchlorinated communal water distribution system in Poland. The effect of glass modification after chemical treatment was analyzed using surface tension measurement. The adhesive properties of the bacteria were studied in a water environment with a low concentration of organic compounds, using luminometric and microscopic methods. Additionally, the viability of the adherent bacterial cells was evaluated by counting the colony-forming units. The presence of active compounds in the culture medium after incubation with a modified carrier was verified using the Kirby- -Bauer method. Half of the chemically modified glass surfaces exhibited better characteristics in comparison with native glass. Among the examined modifying agents, (3-N,N,N-triethanolammoniopropyl trimethoxysilane chloride and (3-N,N-dimethyl-3-N-n octylammoniopropyl trimethoxysilane chloride showed the best antiadhesive and antibacterial properties. The most effective glass modification, with (3-N,N,N triethanolammoniopropyltrimethoxysilane chloride, was able to reduce the bacterial cell count by more than three orders of magnitude. The carriers had no significant effect on the viability of the free bacterial cells in the culture medium. Therefore, it can be said that the modified glass surface alone accounts for the antibacterial activity of the active organosilanes.

  17. Quantized layer growth at liquid-crystal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocko, B. M.; Braslau, A.; Pershan, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    of the specular reflectivity is consistent with a sinusoidal density modulation, starting at the surface and terminating abruptly, after an integral number of bilayers. As the transition is approached the number of layers increases in quantized steps from zero to five before the bulk undergoes a first...

  18. Whirlwinds and hairpins in the atmospheric surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oncley, Steven P.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Tong, Chenning

    2016-01-01

    Vortices in the atmospheric surface layer are characterized using observations at unprecedented resolution from a fixed array of 31 turbulence sensors. During the day, these vortices likely are dust devils, though no visual observations are available for confirmation. At night, hairpin vortices

  19. Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A dual-beam surface-layer scintillometer (SLS) was used to estimate sensible heat flux (H) every 2 min for a path length of either 50 or 101 m, for more than 30 months in a mesic grassland in eastern South Africa. The SLS method relies on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, the correlation between the laser beam signal ...

  20. Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins,

  1. The determination of turbulent structures in the atmospheric surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, J.L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The turbulent flow in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) contains turbulent structures, which are defined as spatially coherent, organized flow motions. 'Organized' means that characteristic patterns, observed at a point in space, occur almost simultaneously in more than one turbulence signal and

  2. DESIGN AND CALCULATION OF AERODROMECOAING WITH HEATED SURFACE LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Piskunov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The developed constructions with heated by surface layers for aerodromes and auto roads when developed composition of electroconductive concrete reinforced with chemical electrical conductive fibres being used was researched. The experimentally obtained characteristics of ended conductive concrete reinforced with fibers were presented. Calculation by developed heated construction of shell was made.

  3. Efficient and Air-Stable Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Formed on Graphene-Oxide-Modified PEDOT:PSS Hole Transport Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Lin, Xuanhuai; Hou, Xian; Pan, Likun; Huang, Sumei; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-10-01

    As a hole transport layer, PEDOT:PSS usually limits the stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) due to its hygroscopic nature and inability to block electrons. Here, a graphene-oxide (GO)-modified PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer was fabricated by spin-coating a GO solution onto the PEDOT:PSS surface. PSCs fabricated on a GO-modified PEDOT:PSS layer exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.34%, which is higher than 11.90% of PSCs with the PEDOT:PSS layer. Furthermore, the stability of the PSCs was significantly improved, with the PCE remaining at 83.5% of the initial PCE values after aging for 39 days in air. The hygroscopic PSS material at the PEDOT:PSS surface was partly removed during spin-coating with the GO solution, which improves the moisture resistance and decreases the contact barrier between the hole transport layer and perovskite layer. The scattered distribution of the GO at the PEDOT:PSS surface exhibits superior wettability, which helps to form a high-quality perovskite layer with better crystallinity and fewer pin holes. Furthermore, the hole extraction selectivity of the GO further inhibits the carrier recombination at the interface between the perovskite and PEDOT:PSS layers. Therefore, the cooperative interactions of these factors greatly improve the light absorption of the perovskite layer, the carrier transport and collection abilities of the PSCs, and especially the stability of the cells.

  4. Electrical double layer interactions between dissimilar oxide surfaces with charge regulation and Stern-Grahame layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek Y C; Healy, Thomas W; Supasiti, Tharatorn; Usui, S

    2006-04-01

    Models of surfaces with intrinsic ionisable amphoteric surface sites governed by the dissociation of acid-base potential determining ion species together with the capacity for the adsorption of anion and cations of the supporting electrolyte are required to describe both the results of electrokinetic and titration measurements of inorganic oxides. The Gouy-Chapman-Stern-Grahame (CGSG) model is one such model that has been widely used in the literature. The electrical double layer interaction between two dissimilar CGSG surfaces has been studied by Usui recently [S. Usui, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280 (2004) 113] where erroneous discontinuities in the slope of the pressure-separation relation were observed. We revisit this calculation and provide a simple general methodology to analyse the electrical double layer interaction between dissimilar ionisable surfaces with ion adsorption.

  5. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Patankar, Neelesh A; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-09-13

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling--by heat transfer--the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating.

  6. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-09-12

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal: Main characteristics and related mechanisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Suresh, I.; Gautham, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Lengaigne, M.; Rao, R.R; Neetu, S.; Hegde, A

    Surface layer temperature inversion (SLTI), a warm layer sandwiched between surface and subsurface colder waters, has been reported to frequently occur in conjunction with barrier layers in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), with potentially commensurable...

  8. THz detectors using surface Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    We describe a proposal for THz detectors based on the excitation of surface waves, in layered superconductors, at frequencies lower than the Josephson plasma frequency ω J . These waves propagate along the vacuum-superconductor interface and are attenuated in both transverse directions out of the surface (i.e., towards the superconductor and towards the vacuum). The surface Josephson plasma waves are also important for the complete suppression of the specular reflection from a sample (Wood's anomalies, used for gratings) and produce a huge enhancement of the wave absorption, which can be used for the detection of THz waves

  9. Double layer of platinum electrodes: Non-monotonic surface charging phenomena and negative double layer capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Jianbo; Eikerling, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a refined double layer model of platinum electrodes accounting for chemisorbed oxygen species, oriented interfacial water molecules, and ion size effects in solution is presented. It results in a non-monotonic surface charging relation and a peculiar capacitance vs. potential curve with a maximum and possibly negative values in the potential regime of oxide-formation.

  10. Oxygen inhibition layer of composite resins: effects of layer thickness and surface layer treatment on the interlayer bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelic-Donova, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-02-01

    An oxygen inhibition layer develops on surfaces exposed to air during polymerization of particulate filling composite. This study assessed the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer of short-fiber-reinforced composite in comparison with conventional particulate filling composites. The effect of an oxygen inhibition layer on the shear bond strength of incrementally placed particulate filling composite layers was also evaluated. Four different restorative composites were selected: everX Posterior (a short-fiber-reinforced composite), Z250, SupremeXT, and Silorane. All composites were evaluated regarding the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer and for shear bond strength. An equal amount of each composite was polymerized in air between two glass plates and the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer was measured using a stereomicroscope. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were prepared for measurement of shear bond strength by placing incrementally two layers of the same composite material. Before applying the second composite layer, the first increment's bonding site was treated as follows: grinding with 1,000-grit silicon-carbide (SiC) abrasive paper, or treatment with ethanol or with water-spray. The inhibition depth was lowest (11.6 μm) for water-sprayed Silorane and greatest (22.9 μm) for the water-sprayed short-fiber-reinforced composite. The shear bond strength ranged from 5.8 MPa (ground Silorane) to 36.4 MPa (water-sprayed SupremeXT). The presence of an oxygen inhibition layer enhanced the interlayer shear bond strength of all investigated materials, but its absence resulted in cohesive and mixed failures only with the short-fiber-reinforced composite. Thus, more durable adhesion with short-fiber-reinforced composite is expected. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  11. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays with modified layer thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to enhance curing light penetration through resin inlays by modifying the thicknesses of the dentin, enamel, and translucent layers. Materials and Methods To investigate the layer dominantly affecting the power density of light curing units, resin wafers of each layer with 0.5 mm thickness were prepared and power density through resin wafers was measured with a dental radiometer (Cure Rite, Kerr. The dentin layer, which had the dominant effect on power density reduction, was decreased in thickness from 0.5 to 0.1 mm while thickness of the enamel layer was kept unchanged at 0.5 mm and thickness of the translucent layer was increased from 0.5 to 0.9 mm and vice versa, in order to maintain the total thickness of 1.5 mm of the resin inlay. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays was measured. Results Power density measured through 0.5 mm resin wafers decreased more significantly with the dentin layer than with the enamel and translucent layers (p < 0.05. Power density through 1.5 mm resin inlays increased when the dentin layer thickness was reduced and the enamel or translucent layer thickness was increased. The highest power density was recorded with dentin layer thickness of 0.1 mm and increased translucent layer thickness in all light curing units. Conclusions To enhance the power density through resin inlays, reducing the dentin layer thickness and increasing the translucent layer thickness would be recommendable when fabricating resin inlays.

  12. Electron Scattering at Surfaces of Epitaxial Metal Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jasmeet Singh

    In the field of electron transport in metal films and wires, the 'size effect' refers to the increase in the resistivity of the films and wires as their critical dimensions (thickness of film, width and height of wires) approach or become less than the electron mean free path lambda, which is, for example, 39 nm for bulk copper at room temperature. This size-effect is currently of great concern to the semiconductor industry because the continued downscaling of feature sizes has already lead to Cu interconnect wires in this size effect regime, with a reported 2.5 times higher resistivity for 40 nm wide Cu wires than for bulk Cu. Silver is a possible alternate material for interconnect wires and titanium nitride is proposed as a gate metal in novel field-effect-transistors. Therefore, it is important to develop an understanding of how the growth, the surface morphology, and the microstructure of ultrathin (few nanometers) Cu, Ag and TiN layers affect their electrical properties. This dissertation aims to advance the scientific knowledge of electron scattering at surfaces (external surfaces and grain boundaries), that are, the primary reasons for the size-effect in metal conductors. The effect of surface and grain boundary scattering on the resistivity of Cu thin films and nanowires is separately quantified using (i) in situ transport measurements on single-crystal, atomically smooth Cu(001) layers, (ii) textured polycrystalline Cu(111) layers and patterned wires with independently varying grain size, thickness and line width, and (iii) in situ grown interfaces including Cu-Ta, Cu-MgO, Cu-vacuum and Cu-oxygen. In addition, the electron surface scattering is also measured in situ for single-crystal Ag(001), (111) twinned epitaxial Ag(001), and single-crystal TiN(001) layers. Cu(001), Ag(001), and TiN(001) layers with a minimum continuous thickness of 4, 3.5 and 1.8 nm, respectively, are grown by ultra-high vacuum magnetron sputter deposition on MgO(001) substrates with

  13. Nonleaching antimicrobial films prepared from surface-modified microfibrillated cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Martin; Stenstad, Per; Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig; Syverud, Kristin; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Stenius, Per

    2007-07-01

    We have prepared potentially permanent antimicrobial films based on surface-modified microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). MFC, obtained by disintegration of bleached softwood sulfite pulp in a homogenizer, was grafted with the quaternary ammonium compound octadecyldimethyl(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)ammonium chloride (ODDMAC) by a simple adsorption-curing process. Films prepared from the ODDMAC-modified MFC were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and tested for antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The films showed substantial antibacterial capacity even at very low concentrations of antimicrobial agent immobilized on the surface. A zone of inhibition test demonstrated that no ODDMAC diffused into the surroundings, verifying that the films were indeed of the nonleaching type.

  14. Superficial hardened layer of cut surface by turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Sorin Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of research methods in metal cutting process is to measure hardness in the contact zone between cutting tool and workpiece. The objective of the performed research was to determine thickness and hardness of the superficial layer of cut surface due to cutting process, both orthogonal and complex cutting. The most important finding was that thickness of the superficial hardened layer is very thin under considered conditions, less than 0.01 … 0.02 mm. This research should be continued.

  15. Surface Modification of the Ti6Al4V Alloy with Silicon Carbonitride Layer Deposited by PACVD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Stanisława; Konefał-Góral, Jadwiga; Małek, Anna; Kluska, Stanisława; Grzesik, Zbigniew

    2014-09-01

    Four different layers of various silicon, carbon and nitrogen contents on the Ti6Al4V alloy and (001)Si wafers have been deposited by means of Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD) method. The layers were obtained from reactive gas mixture containing SiH4, CH4, NH3 and Ar. After deposition the structure and chemical composition of modified surfaces have been analyzed with use of SEM/EDS technique. Based on these results and thermodynamic calculations, the diffusion coefficients, D, for nitrogen and carbon in alloy were discussed. Scratch test shown that silicon carbonitride layers have good adhesion to metal surface. In order to determine atomic structure of obtained layers, FTIR spectra for layer-(001)Si and layer-Ti6Al4V were registered.

  16. Osteogenic potential of laser modified and conditioned titanium zirconium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P David Charles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The osseointegration of dental implant is related to their composition and surface treatment. Titanium zirconium (TiZr has been introduced as an alternative to the commercially pure titanium and its alloys as dental implant material, which is attributed to its superior mechanical and biological properties. Surface treatments of TiZr have been introduced to enhance their osseointegration ability; however, reliable, easy to use surface modification technique has not been established. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG laser surface treatment of TiZr implant alloy on their osteogenic potential. Materials and Methods: Twenty disc-shaped samples of 5 mm diameter and 2 mm height were milled from the TiZr alloy ingot. The polished discs were ultrasonically cleaned in distilled water. Ten samples each were randomly selected as Group A control samples and Group B consisted of Nd-YAG laser surface etched and conditioned test samples. These were evaluated for cellular response. Cellular adhesion and proliferation were quantified, and the results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric analysis. Cellular morphology was observed using electron and epiflurosence microscopy. Results: Nd-YAG laser surface modified and conditioned TiZr samples increased the osteogenic potential. Conclusion: Nd-YAG laser surface modification of TiZr, improves the cellular activity, surface roughness, and wettability, thereby increasing the osteogenic potential.

  17. Non-Fouling Character of Poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl Phosphorylcholine]-Modified Gold Surfaces Fabricated by the 'Grafting to' Method: Comparison of its Protein Resistance with Poly(ethylene glycol)-Modified Gold Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Keitaro; Hirase, Takumi; Madsen, Jeppe; Armes, Steven P; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2009-12-16

    Poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine] -modified gold surfaces, which have been newly prepared by a 'grafting to' method using a series of monosulfanyl-terminated PMPC, are characterized by protein adsorption experiments based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurements. The extent of BSA adsorption on PMPC-modified surfaces was systematically reduced for thicker PMPC layers, thus the number of MPC units on the gold surface appears to be an important factor for the excellent protein resistance offered by PMPC-modified gold surfaces fabricated by the 'grafting to' method, which is sharp contrast to that of PEG tethered chains. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Boundary layer for non-newtonian fluids on curved surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, N.

    1981-04-01

    By using the basic equation of fluid motion (conservation of mass and momentum) the boundary layer parameters for a Non-Newtonian, incompressible and laminar fluid flow, has been evaluated. As a test, the flat plate boundary layer is first analized and afterwards, a case with pressure gradient, allowing separation, is studied. In the case of curved surfaces, the problem is first developed in general and afterwards particularized to a circular cylinder. Finally suction and slip in the flow interface are examined. The power law model is used to represent the stress strain relationship in Non-Newtonian flow. By varying the fluid exponent one can then, have an idea of how the Non-Newtonian behavior of the flow influences the parameters of the boundary layer. Two equations, in an appropriate coordinate system have been obtained after an order of magnitude analysis of the terms in the equations of motion is performed. (Author) [pt

  19. Electrochemical behaviour and surface conductivity of niobium carbide-modified austenitic stainless steel bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Sun, Juncai; Kang, Bin; Li, Song; Ji, Shijun; Wen, Zhongsheng; Wang, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    A niobium carbide diffusion layer with a cubic NbC phase surface layer (∼6 μm) and a Nb and C diffusion subsurface layer (∼1 μm) is fabricated on the surface of AISI 304 stainless steel (304 SS) bipolar plate in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using plasma surface diffusion alloying. The electrochemical behaviour of the niobium carbide diffusion-modified 304 SS (Nb-C 304 SS) is investigated in simulated PEMFC environments (0.5 M H2SO4 and 2 ppm HF solution at 80 °C). Potentiodynamic, potentiostatic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the niobium carbide diffusion layer considerably improves the corrosion resistance of 304 SS compared with untreated samples. The corrosion current density of Nb-C 304 SS is maintained at 0.058 μA cm-2 and 0.051 μA cm-2 under simulated anodic and cathodic conditions, respectively. The interfacial contact resistance of Nb-C 304 SS is 8.47 mΩ cm2 at a compaction force of 140 N cm-2, which is significantly lower than that of the untreated sample (100.98 mΩ cm2). Moreover, only a minor increase in the ICR of Nb-C 304 SS occurs after 10 h potentiostatic tests in both cathodic and anodic environments.

  20. Growth of pentacene on clean and modified gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaefer, Daniel; Ruppel, Lars; Witte, Gregor

    2007-01-01

    The growth and evolution of pentacene films on gold substrates have been studied. By combining complementary techniques including scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure, and x-ray diffraction, the molecular orientation, crystalline structure, and morphology of the organic films were characterized as a function of film thickness and growth parameters (temperature and rate) for different gold substrates ranging from Au(111) single crystals to polycrystalline gold. Moreover, the influence of precoating the various gold substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAM's) of organothiols with different chemical terminations has been studied. On bare gold the growth of pentacene films is characterized by a pronounced dewetting while the molecular orientation within the resulting crystalline three-dimensional islands depends distinctly on the roughness and cleanliness of the substrate surface. After completion of the first wetting layer where molecules adopt a planar orientation parallel to the surface the molecules continue to grow in a tilted fashion: on Au(111) the long molecular axis is oriented parallel to the surface while on polycrystalline gold it is upstanding oriented and thus parallels the crystalline orientation of pentacene films grown on SiO 2 . On SAM pretreated gold substrates the formation of a wetting layer is effectively suppressed and pentacene grows in a quasi-layer-by-layer fashion with an upstanding orientation leading to rather smooth films. The latter growth mode is observed independently of the chemical termination of the SAM's and the roughness of the gold substrate. Possible reasons for the different growth mechanism as well as consequences for the assignment of spectroscopic data of thin pentacene film are discussed

  1. The studies of scale surface produced on outer diffusion layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Augustyn-Pieniążek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study at attempt was made to examine the scale formed on ferritic-austenitic duplex type steel subjected to previous thermochemical treatment. The treatment consisted in diffusion aluminising in a metallising mixture composed of Fe-Al powder. As an activator, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl added in an amount of 2 wt.% was used. Then, both the base material and samples with the diffusiondeposited surface layers were oxidised at 1000°C in the air. Thus formed scales were identified by light microscopy, SEM and X-ray phase analysis. The aim of the oxidation tests carried out under isothermal conditions was to compare the scale morphology when obtained on untreated substrate material and on the surface layers rich in aluminium.

  2. Combined surface acoustic wave and surface plasmon resonance measurement of collagen and fibrinogen layer physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Friedt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We use an instrument combining optical (surface plasmon resonance and acoustic (Love mode surface acoustic wave device real-time measurements on a same surface for the identification of water content in collagen and fibrinogen protein layers. After calibration of the surface acoustic wave device sensitivity by copper electrodeposition and surfactant adsorption, the bound mass and its physical properties – density and optical index – are extracted from the complementary measurement techniques and lead to thickness and water ratio values compatible with the observed signal shifts. Such results are especially usefully for protein layers with a high water content as shown here for collagen on an hydrophobic surface. We obtain the following results: collagen layers include 70±20% water and are 16±3 to 19±3 nm thick for bulk concentrations ranging from 30 to 300 μg/ml. Fibrinogen layers include 50±10% water for layer thicknesses in the 6±1.5 to 13±2 nm range when the bulk concentration is in the 46 to 460 μg/ml range. Keywords: surface acoustic wave, surface plasmon resonance, collagen, fibrinogen, density, thickness

  3. Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    ZT ). The initial acceleration of the rising buoyant air will be a = g∆T/TA. This is simply Archimedes ’ principle applied to the buoyant air. The... applications . 1 Various rules are employed to model C2n in the surface layer, but a key question is how to extend this estimation technique into the lower...in terms of wind turbulence the structure of the fluctuations produces a Reynolds stress tensor whose principle axes are not equal, meaning that at the

  4. Surface layer softing in mechanically polished molybdenum monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchenko, R.K.; Kostyuchenko, V.G.; Lotsko, D.V.; Lukinov, I.V.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Novikov, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Softening of the surface layer together with growth of dislocation density is found in molybdenum single crystals mechanically polished with diamond suspension in water solution of CuSO 4 . The penetration of small amount of copper into molybdenum is observed by SIMS. A supposition has been made about molybdenum solid solution softening influenced by copper penetrating into molybdenum by means of a dynamic dislocation mechanism

  5. Surface science and electrochemical studies of metal-modified carbides for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas Glenn

    Carbides of the early transition metals have emerged as low-cost catalysts that are active for a wide range of reactions. The surface chemistry of carbides can be altered by modifying the surface with small amounts of admetals. These metal-modified carbides can be effective replacements for Pt-based bimetallic systems, which suffer from the drawbacks of high cost and low thermal stability. In this dissertation, metal-modified carbides were studied for reactions with applications to renewable energy technologies. It is demonstrated that metal-modified carbides possess high activity for alcohol reforming and electrochemical hydrogen production. First, the surface chemistry of carbides towards alcohol decomposition is studied using density functional theory (DFT) and surface science experiments. The Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) was used to calculate the binding energies of alcohols and decomposition intermediates on metal-modified carbides. The calculated binding energies were then correlated to reforming activity determined experimentally using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In the case of methanol decomposition, it was found that tungsten monocarbide (WC) selectively cleaved the C-O bond to produce methane. Upon modifying the surface with a single layer of metal such as Ni, Pt, or Rh, the selectivity shifted towards scission of the C-H bonds while leaving the C-O bond intact, producing carbon monoxide (CO) and H2. High resolution energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to examine the bond breaking sequence as a function of temperature. From HREELS, it was shown that the surfaces followed an activity trend of Rh > Ni > Pt. The Au-modified WC surface possessed too low of a methanol binding energy, and molecular desorption of methanol was the most favorable pathway on this surface. Next, the ability of Rh-modified WC to break the C-C bond of C2 and C3 alcohols was demonstrated. HREELS showed that ethanol decomposed through an acetaldehyde

  6. Surface treatment to form a dispersed Y2O3 layer on Zircaloy-4 tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yang-Il; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Guim, Hwan-Uk; Lim, Yoon-Soo; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Dong-Jun; Yang, Jae-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Zircaloy-4 is a traditional zirconium-based alloy developed for application in nuclear fuel cladding tubes. The surfaces of Zircaloy-4 tubes were treated using a laser beam to increase their mechanical strength. Laser beam scanning of a tube coated with yttrium oxide (Y2O3) resulted in the formation of a dispersed oxide layer in the tube's surface region. Y2O3 particles penetrated the Zircaloy-4 during the laser treatment and were distributed uniformly in the surface region. The thickness of the dispersed oxide layer varied from 50 to 140 μm depending on the laser beam trajectory. The laser treatment also modified the texture of the tube. The preferred basal orientation along the normal to the tube surface disappeared, and a random structure appeared after laser processing. The most obvious result was an increase in the mechanical strength. The tensile strength of Zircaloy-4 increased by 10-20% with the formation of the dispersed oxide layer. The compressive yield stress also increased, by more than 15%. Brittle fracture was observed in the surface-treated samples during tensile and compressive deformation at room temperature; however, the fracture behavior was changed in ductile at elevated temperatures.

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of Zeolite Surface-Modified Perlite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasai Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perlite is volcanic glass mainly composed of amorphous aluminum silicate, mainly composed SiO2 and Al2O3 with less impurities such as heavy metals. Amorphous (glassy perlite is used in lightweight aggregate and insulation. In addition, it has also been used as a filter aid by grinding the expanded perlite. However, it has not been used as environmental cleanup materials, because the ion exchange capacity of the perlite is very low. In this study, we tried to synthesize the hybrid filter aid with chemical adsorption capacity by synthesizing the zeolite on the surface of the perlite. As a result, by using the hydrothermal synthesis method, zeolite surface modified perlite was synthesized in which the LTA type zeolites were generated on the surface of the perlite.

  8. Surface alloys as interfacial layers between quasicrystalline and periodic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguet, T.; Ledieu, J.; Dubois, J. M.; Fournée, V.

    2008-08-01

    Low adhesion with normal metals is an intrinsic property of many quasicrystalline surfaces. Although this property could be useful to develop low friction or non-stick coatings, it is also responsible for the poor adhesion of quasicrystalline coatings on metal substrates. Here we investigate the possibility of using complex metallic surface alloys as interface layers to enhance the adhesion between quasicrystals and simple metal substrates. We first review some examples where such complex phases are formed as an overlayer. Then we study the formation of such surface alloys in a controlled way by annealing a thin film deposited on a quasicrystalline substrate. We demonstrate that a coherent buffer layer consisting of the γ-Al4Cu9 approximant can be grown between pure Al and the i-Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal. The interfacial relationships between the different layers are defined by [111]_{\\mathrm {Al}}\\parallel [110]_{\\mathrm {Al_4Cu_9}}\\parallel [5\\mathrm {f}]_{i\\mbox {-}\\mathrm {Al\\mbox {--}Cu \\mbox {--}Fe}} .

  9. Surface alloys as interfacial layers between quasicrystalline and periodic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duguet, T; Ledieu, J; Dubois, J M; Fournee, V [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux et de Metallurgie, UMR 7584 CNRS-Nancy Universite, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy (France)], E-mail: fournee@lsg2m.org

    2008-08-06

    Low adhesion with normal metals is an intrinsic property of many quasicrystalline surfaces. Although this property could be useful to develop low friction or non-stick coatings, it is also responsible for the poor adhesion of quasicrystalline coatings on metal substrates. Here we investigate the possibility of using complex metallic surface alloys as interface layers to enhance the adhesion between quasicrystals and simple metal substrates. We first review some examples where such complex phases are formed as an overlayer. Then we study the formation of such surface alloys in a controlled way by annealing a thin film deposited on a quasicrystalline substrate. We demonstrate that a coherent buffer layer consisting of the {gamma}-Al{sub 4}Cu{sub 9} approximant can be grown between pure Al and the i-Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal. The interfacial relationships between the different layers are defined by [111]{sub Al} parallel [110]{sub Al4Cu9} parallel [5f]{sub i-Al-}C{sub u-Fe}.

  10. Virtual ellipsometry on layered micro-facet surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi; Wilkie, Alexander; Harcuba, Petr; Novosad, Lukas

    2017-09-18

    Microfacet-based BRDF models are a common tool to describe light scattering from glossy surfaces. Apart from their wide-ranging applications in optics, such models also play a significant role in computer graphics for photorealistic rendering purposes. In this paper, we mainly investigate the computer graphics aspect of this technology, and present a polarisation-aware brute force simulation of light interaction with both single and multiple layered micro-facet surfaces. Such surface models are commonly used in computer graphics, but the resulting BRDF is ultimately often only approximated. Recently, there has been work to try to make these approximations more accurate, and to better understand the behaviour of existing analytical models. However, these brute force verification attempts still emitted the polarisation state of light and, as we found out, this renders them prone to mis-estimating the shape of the resulting BRDF lobe for some particular material types, such as smooth layered dielectric surfaces. For these materials, non-polarising computations can mis-estimate some areas of the resulting BRDF shape by up to 23%. But we also identified some other material types, such as dielectric layers over rough conductors, for which the difference turned out to be almost negligible. The main contribution of our work is to clearly demonstrate that the effect of polarisation is important for accurate simulation of certain material types, and that there are also other common materials for which it can apparently be ignored. As this required a BRDF simulator that we could rely on, a secondary contribution is that we went to considerable lengths to validate our software. We compare it against a state-of-art model from graphics, a library from optics, and also against ellipsometric measurements of real surface samples.

  11. Effect of impurities in the description of surface nanobubbles: Role of nonidealities in the surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study [ S. Das, J. H. Snoeijer and D. Lohse Phys. Rev. E 82 056310 (2010)], we provided quantitative demonstration of the conjecture [ W. A. Ducker Langmuir 25 8907 (2009)] that the presence of impurities at the surface layer (or the air-water interface) of surface nanobubbles can

  12. Patterned hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces of ultra-smooth nanocrystalline diamond layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, M., E-mail: michael.mertens@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Mohr, M.; Brühne, K.; Fecht, H.J. [Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Łojkowski, M.; Święszkowski, W. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Łojkowski, W. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties on fluorine-, hydrogen- and oxygen- terminated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films. • Micropatterned - multi-terminated layers with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas on one sample. • Visualization of multi-terminated surfaces by e.g. SEM and LFM. • Roughness and friction investigations on different terminated surfaces. • Smooth and biocompatible surfaces with same roughness regardless of hydrophobicity for microbiological investigations. - Abstract: In this work, we show that ultra nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces have been modified to add them hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. The nanocrystalline diamond films were deposited using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. This allows growing diamond on different substrates which can be even 3D or structured. Silicon and, for optical applications, transparent quartz glass are the preferred substrates for UNCD layers growth. Fluorine termination leads to strong hydrophobic properties as indicated by a high contact angle for water of more than 100°. Hydrogen termination shows lesser hydrophobic behavior. Hydrophilic characteristics has been realised with oxygen termination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements confirm the oxygen and fluorine- termination on the nanocrystalline diamond surface. Further, by micropatterning using photolithography, multi-terminated layers have been created with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas. In addition, we have shown that retermination is achieved, and the properties of the surface have been changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and vice versa. Micro- roughness and stress in the grown film influences slightly the wetting angle as well. The opportunity to realize local differences in hydrophobicity on nanocrystalline diamond layers, in any size or geometry, offers interesting applications for example in

  13. Hybrid Doping of Few-Layer Graphene via a Combination of Intercalation and Surface Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2017-05-23

    Surface molecular doping of graphene has been shown to modify its work function and increase its conductivity. However, the associated shifts in work function and increases in carrier concentration are highly coupled and limited by the surface coverage of dopant molecules on graphene. Here we show that few-layer graphene (FLG) can be doped using a hybrid approach, effectively combining surface doping by larger (metal-)organic molecules, while smaller molecules, such as Br2 and FeCl3, intercalate into the bulk. Intercalation tunes the carrier concentration more effectively, whereas surface doping of intercalated FLG can be used to tune its work function without reducing the carrier mobility. This multi-modal doping approach yields a very high carrier density and tunable work function for FLG, demonstrating a new versatile platform for fabricating graphene-based contacts for electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  14. A probabilistic approach to measure the strength of bone cell adhesion to chemically modified surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, A; Thomas, C H; Healy, K E

    1997-01-01

    Patterned surfaces with alternating regions of amino silanes [N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (EDS)] and alkyl silanes [dimethyldichlorosilane (DMS)] have been used to alter the kinetics of spatial distribution of cells in vitro. In particular, we have previously observed the preferential spatial distribution of bone cells on the EDS regions of EDS/ DMS patterned surfaces (10). In this study, we examined whether the mechanism of spatial distribution of cells on the EDS regions was adhesion mediated. Homogeneous layers of EDS and DMS were immobilized on quartz substrates and characterized by contact angle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The strength of bone cell attachment to the modified substrates was examined using a radial flow apparatus, within either 20 min or 2 hr of cell incubation in the presence of serum. A Weibull distribution was chosen to characterize the strength of cell-substratum adhesion. Within 20 min of cell exposure, the strength of adhesion was significantly larger on EDS and clean surfaces, compared with DMS surfaces (p < 0.001). Within 2 hr of cell incubation, there was no statistical difference between the strength of cell adhesion to EDS, DMS, and clean surfaces. The results of this study suggest that the surface chemistry mediates adhesion-based spatial cell arrangement through a layer of adsorbed serum proteins.

  15. Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticle surface modified with chitosan for mucosal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Rades, Thomas [School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit [Department of Manufacturing Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Pongjanyakul, Thaned, E-mail: thaned@kku.ac.th [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, and nicotine (NCT), a basic drug, can interact electrostatically to form microparticles. Chitosan (CS) was used for the surface modification of the microparticles, and a lyophilization method was used to preserve the original particle morphology. The microparticles were characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties, NCT content, mucoadhesive properties, and release and permeation across porcine esophageal mucosa. The results showed that the microparticles formed via electrostatic interaction between MAS and protonated NCT had an irregular shape and that their NCT content increased with increasing NCT ratios in the microparticle preparation solution. High molecular weight CS (800 kDa) adsorbed to the microparticle surface and induced a positive surface charge. CS molecules intercalated into the MAS silicate layers and decreased the crystallinity of the microparticles, leading to an increase in the release rate and diffusion coefficient of NCT from the microparticles. Moreover, the microparticle surface modified with CS was found to have higher NCT permeation fluxes and mucoadhesive properties, which indicated the significant role of CS for NCT mucosal delivery. However, the enhancement of NCT permeation and of mucoadhesive properties depended on the molecular weight and concentration of CS. These findings suggest that NCT-MAS microparticle surface modified with CS represents a promising mucosal delivery system for NCT. Highlights: ► Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticles were prepared using electrostatic interaction. ► Lyophilization was used for drying and maintaining an original morphology of the microparticles. ► Chitosan (CS) was used for surface modification of the microparticles at acidic pH. ► Surface modification using CS caused an increase in release and permeation of nicotine. ► Microparticle surface-modified with CS presented better mucoadhesive properties.

  16. Transient finite element analysis of electric double layer using Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations with a modified Stern layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongil; Whitcomb, John; Boyd, James; Varghese, Julian

    2007-01-01

    A finite element implementation of the transient nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) and Nernst-Planck-Poisson-modified Stern (NPPMS) models is presented. The NPPMS model uses multipoint constraints to account for finite ion size, resulting in realistic ion concentrations even at high surface potential. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation is used to provide a limited check of the transient models for low surface potential and dilute bulk solutions. The effects of the surface potential and bulk molarity on the electric potential and ion concentrations as functions of space and time are studied. The ability of the models to predict realistic energy storage capacity is investigated. The predicted energy is much more sensitive to surface potential than to bulk solution molarity.

  17. Amorphous surface layers in Ti-implanted Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Picraux, S.T.

    1979-01-01

    Implanting Ti into high-purity Fe results in an amorphous surface layer which is composed of not only Fe and Ti, but also C. Implantations were carried out at room temperature over the energy range 90 to 190 keV and fluence range 1 to 2 x 10/sup 16/ at/cm/sup 2/. The Ti-implanted Fe system has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ion backscattering and channeling analysis, and (d,p) nuclear reaction analysis. The amorphous layer was observed to form at the surface and grow inward with increasing Ti fluence. For an implant of 1 x 10/sup 17/ Ti/cm/sup 2/ at 180 keV the layer thickness was 150 A, while the measured range of the implanted Ti was approx. 550 A. This difference is due to the incorporation of C into the amorphous alloy by C being deposited on the surface during implantation and subsequently diffusing into the solid. Our results indicate that C is an essential constituent of the amorphous phase for Ti concentrations less than or equal to 10 at. %. For the 1 x 10/sup 17/ Ti/cm/sup 2/ implant, the concentration of C in the amorphous phase was approx. 25 at. %, while that of Ti was only approx. 3 at. %. A higher fluence implant of 2 x 10/sup 17/ Ti/cm/sup 2/ produced an amorphous layer with a lower C concentration of approx. 10 at. % and a Ti concentration of approx. 20 at. %.

  18. Structure of cylindrical electric double layers: Comparison of density functional and modified Poisson-Boltzmann theories with Monte Carlo simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Dorvilien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of cylindrical double layers is studied using a modified Poisson Boltzmann theory and the density functional approach. In the model double layer the electrode is a cylindrical polyion that is infinitely long, impenetrable, and uniformly charged. The polyion is immersed in a sea of equi-sized rigid ions embedded in a dielectric continuum. An in-depth comparison of the theoretically predicted zeta potentials, the mean electrostatic potentials, and the electrode-ion singlet density distributions is made with the corresponding Monte Carlo simulation data. The theories are seen to be consistent in their predictions that include variations in ionic diameters, electrolyte concentrations, and electrode surface charge densities, and are also able to reproduce well some new and existing Monte Carlo results.

  19. Application of various surface passivation layers in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Youn; Lee, Soo Hong

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have used different techniques for surface passivation: conventional thermal oxidation (CTO), rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The surface passivation qualities of eight different single and combined double layers have been investigated both on phosphorus non-diffused p-type Float Zone (FZ) silicon wafers and on diffused emitters (100 Ω/□ and 40 Ω/□). CTO/SiN 1 passivates very well not only on a non-diffused surface (τ eff = 1361 μs) but also on an emitter (τ eff = 414 μs). However, we concluded that RTO/SiN 1 and RTO/SiN 2 stacks were more suitable than CTO/SiN stacks for surface passivation in solar cells since those stacks had relatively good passivation qualities and suitable optical reflections. RTO/SiN 1 for rear-surface passivation and RTO/SiN 2 for front-surface passivation were applied to the fabrication of solar cells. We achieved efficiencies of 18.5 % and 18.8 % on 0.5 Ω-cm (FZ) silicon with planar and textured front surfaces, respectively. An excellent open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 675.6 mV was obtained for the planar cell.

  20. The electrochemical behavior and surface structure of titanium electrodes modified by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, G.F.; Xie, Z.; Huang, W.Q.; Yang, S.B.; Zhao, L.H.

    2004-01-01

    Industrial grade titanium modified by ion implantation and sputtering was used as electrodes. The effect of ion beam modification on the electrochemical behavior and surface structure of electrodes was investigated. Also discussed is the hydrogen evolution process of the electrode in acidic solution. Several ions such as Fe + , C + , W + , Ni + and others, were implanted into the electrode. The electrochemical tests were carried out in 1N H 2 SO 4 solution at 30±1 deg. C. The electrode potential was measured versus a saturate calomel electrode as a function of immersion time. The cathodic polarization curves were measured by the stable potential static method. The surface layer composition and the chemical state of the electrodes were also investigated by Auger electron spectrometer (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The results show that: (1) the stability of modified electrodes depends on the active elements introduced by ion implantation and sputtering deposition. (2) The hydrogen evolution activity of industrial grade titanium may be improved greatly by ion beam modification. (3) Ion beam modification changed the composition and the surface state of electrodes over a certain depth range and forms an activity layer having catalytic hydrogen evolution, which inhibited the absorption of hydrogen and formation of titanium hydride. Thus promoted hydrogen evolution and improved the hydrogen evolution catalytic activity in industrial grade titanium

  1. Modified Critical State Two-Surface Plasticity Model for Sands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Shajarati, Amir

    This article describes the outline of a numerical integration scheme for a critical state two-surface plasticity model for sands. The model is slightly modified by LeBlanc (2008) compared to the original formulation presented by Manzari and Dafalias (1997) and has the ability to correctly model...... the stress-strain response of sands. The model is versatile and can be used to simulate drained and undrained conditions, due to the fact that the model can efficiently calculate change in void ratio as well as pore pressure. The objective of the constitutive model is to investigate if the numerical...

  2. Influence of Surface Energy Effects on Elastic Fields of a Layered Elastic Medium under Surface Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supakorn Tirapat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of a layered elastic half space under the action of axisymmetric surface loading and the influence of the surface energy effects. The boundary value problems for the bulk and the surface are formulated based on classical linear elasticity and a complete Gurtin-Murdoch constitutive relation. An analytical technique using Love’s representation and the Hankel integral transform is employed to derive an integral-form solution for both displacement and stress fields. An efficient numerical quadrature is then applied to accurately evaluate all involved integrals. Selected numerical results are presented to portray the influence of various parameters on elastic fields. Numerical results indicate that the surface stress displays a significant influence on both displacement and stress fields. It is also found that the layered half space becomes stiffer with the presence of surface stresses. In addition, unlike the classical elasticity solution, size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is noted. The present analytical solutions provide fundamental understanding of the influence of surface energy on layered elastic materials. It can also be used as a benchmark solution for the development of numerical techniques such as FEM and BEM, for analysis of more complex problems involving a layered medium under the influence of surface energy effects.

  3. Effects of modified surfaces produced at plasma-facing surface on hydrogen release behavior in the LHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nobuta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an additional deuterium (D ion irradiation was performed against long-term samples mounted on the helical coil can and in the outer private region in the LHD during the 17th experimental campaign. Based on the release behavior of the D and hydrogen (H retained during the experimental campaign, the difference of release behavior at the top surface and in bulk of modified surfaces is discussed. Almost all samples on the helical coil can were erosion-dominant and some samples were covered with boron or carbon, while a very thick carbon films were formed in the outer private region. In the erosion-dominant area, the D desorbed at much lower temperatures compared to that of H retained during the LHD plasma operation. For the samples covered with boron, the D tended to desorb at lower temperatures compared to H. For the carbon deposition samples, the D desorbed at much higher temperatures compared to no deposition and boron-covered samples, which was very similar to that of H. The D retention capabilities at the top surface of carbon and boron films were 2–3 times higher than no deposition area. The results indicate that the retention and release behavior at the top surface of the modified layer can be different from that of bulk substrate material.

  4. Nanoscale Structuring of Surfaces by Using Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Nicolas; Hess, Christian

    2015-12-07

    Controlled structuring of surfaces is interesting for a wide variety of areas, including microelectronic device fabrication, optical devices, bio(sensing), (electro-, photo)catalysis, batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, and sorption. A unique feature of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the possibility to form conformal uniform coatings on arbitrarily shaped materials with controlled atomic-scale thickness. In this Minireview, we discuss the potential of ALD for the nanoscale structuring of surfaces, highlighting its versatile application to structuring both planar substrates and powder materials. Recent progress in the application of ALD to porous substrates has even made the nanoscale structuring of high-surface-area materials now feasible, thereby enabling novel applications, such as those in the fields of catalysis and alternative energy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Surface energy absorbing layers produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurarie, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    Single crystals of magnesia have been ion implanted with 80 keV Si and Cr ions at variable doses and then subjected to testing in a shock plasma. The peak surface temperature has been calibrated by measuring the size and temperature deformation of the fragments formed by multiple microcracking during thermal shock. the crack density curves for MgO crystals demonstrate that in a wide range of thermal shock intensity the ion implanted crystals develop a system of microcracks of a considerably higher density than the unimplanted ones. The high density of cracks nucleated in the ion implanted samples results in the formation of a surface energy absorbing layer which effectively absorbs elastic strain energy induced by thermal shock. As a consequence the depth of crack penetration in the layer and hence the degree of fracture damage are decreased. the results indicate that a Si implant decreases the temperature threshold of cracking and simultaneously increases the crack density in MgO crystals. However, in MgO crystals implanted with Cr a substantial increase in the crack density is achieved without a noticeable decrease in the temperature threshold of fracture. This effect is interpreted in terms of different Cr and Si implantation conditions and damage. The mechanical properties of the energy-absorbing layer and the relation to implantation-induced lattice damage are discussed. 11 refs., 4 figs

  6. A novel surface cleaning method for chemical removal of fouling lead layer from chromium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Kh.; Khosravi, M.; Hosseini, S. G.; Fathollahi, M.

    2010-10-01

    Most products especially metallic surfaces require cleaning treatment to remove surface contaminations that remain after processing or usage. Lead fouling is a general problem which arises from lead fouling on the chromium surfaces of bores and other interior parts of systems which have interaction with metallic lead in high temperatures and pressures. In this study, a novel chemical solution was introduced as a cleaner reagent for removing metallic lead pollution, as a fouling metal, from chromium surfaces. The cleaner aqueous solution contains hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) as oxidizing agent of lead layer on the chromium surface and acetic acid (CH 3COOH) as chelating agent of lead ions. The effect of some experimental parameters such as acetic acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and temperature of the cleaner solution during the operation on the efficiency of lead cleaning procedure was investigated. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that using this procedure, the lead pollution layer could be completely removed from real chromium surfaces without corrosion of the original surface. Finally, the optimum conditions for the complete and fast removing of lead pollution layer from chromium surfaces were proposed. The experimental results showed that at the optimum condition (acetic acid concentration 28% (V/V), hydrogen peroxide 8% (V/V) and temperature 35 °C), only 15-min time is needed for complete removal of 3 g fouling lead from a chromium surface.

  7. Hierarchical Composite Membranes with Robust Omniphobic Surface Using Layer-By-Layer Assembly Technique

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Yun Chul

    2018-01-17

    In this study, composite membranes were fabricated via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of negatively-charged silica aerogel (SiA) and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H – Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (FTCS) on a polyvinylidene fluoride phase inversion membrane, and interconnecting them with positively-charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) via electrostatic interaction. The results showed that the PDDA-SiA-FTCS coated membrane had significantly enhanced the membrane structure and properties. New trifluoromethyl and tetrafluoroethylene bonds appeared at the surface of the coated membrane, which led to lower surface free energy of the composite membrane. Additionally, the LBL membrane showed increased surface roughness. The improved structure and property gave the LBL membrane an omniphobic property, as indicated by its good wetting resistance. The membrane performed a stable air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) flux of 11.22 L/m2h with very high salt rejection using reverse osmosis brine from coal seam gas produced water as feed with the addition of up to 0.5 mM SDS solution. This performance was much better compared to those of the neat membrane. The present study suggests that the enhanced membrane properties with good omniphobicity via LBL assembly make the porous membranes suitable for long-term AGMD operation with stable permeation flux when treating challenging saline wastewater containing low surface tension organic contaminants.

  8. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  9. Molecular simulation of dispersion and mechanical stability of organically modified layered silicates in polymer matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao-Tsung

    The experimental analysis of nanometer-scale separation processes and mechanical properties at buried interfaces in nanocomposites has remained difficult. We have employed molecular dynamics simulation in relation to available experimental data to alleviate such limitations and gain insight into the dispersion and mechanical stability of organically modified layered silicates in hydrophobic polymer matrices. We analyzed cleavage energies of various organically modified silicates as a function of the cation exchange capacity, surfactant head group chemistry, and chain length using MD simulations with the PCFF-PHYLLOSILICATE force field. The range of the cleavage energy is between 25 and 210 mJ/m2 upon the molecular structures and packing of surfactants. As a function of chain length, the cleavage energy indicates local minima for interlayer structures comprised of loosely packed layers of alkyl chains and local maxima for interlayer structures comprised of densely packed layers of alkyl chains between the layers. In addition, the distribution of cationic head groups between the layers in the equilibrium state determines whether large increases in cleavage energy due to Coulomb attraction. We have also examined mechanical bending and failure mechanisms of layered silicates on the nanometer scale using molecular dynamics simulation in comparison to a library of TEM data of polymer nanocomposites. We investigated the energy of single clay lamellae as a function of bending radius and different cation density. The layer energy increases particularly for bending radii below 20 nm and is largely independent of cation exchange capacity. The analysis of TEM images of agglomerated and exfoliated aluminosilicates of different CEC in polymer matrices at small volume fractions showed bending radii in excess of 100 nm due to free volumes in the polymer matrix. At a volume fraction >5%, however, bent clay layers were found with bending radii <20 nm and kinks as a failure mechanism

  10. Surface characterization and corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidized Ti surface modified with hydrothermal treatment and chitosan coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupane, Madhav Prasad; Park, Il Song; Lee, Min Ho

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the surface modification of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) by a composite/multilayer coating approach for biomedical applications. CP-Ti samples were treated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently some of the samples were coated with chitosan (Chi) by dip coating method, while others were subjected to hydrothermal treatment (HT) followed by chitosan coating. The MAO, MAO/Chi, and MAO/HT/Chi coated Ti were characterized and their characteristics were compared with CP-Ti. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the structural and morphological characteristics. The average surface roughness was determined using a surface profilometer. The corrosion resistance of untreated and surface modified Ti in commercial saline at 298 K was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test. The results indicated that the chitosan coating is very well integrated with the MAO and MAO/HT coating by physically interlocking itself with the coated layer and almost sealed all the pores. The surface roughness of hydrothermally treated and chitosan coated MAO film was superior evidently to that with other sample groups. The corrosion studies demonstrated that the MAO, hydrothermally treated and chitosan coated sample enhanced the corrosion resistance of titanium. The result indicates that fabrication of hydrothermally treated MAO surface coatings with chitosan is a significant approach to protect the titanium from corrosion, hence enhancing the potential use of titanium as bio-implants. - Highlights: • Micro-arc oxidized (MAO) and hydrothermally treated (HT) Ti surfaces are coated with chitosan (Chi). • The MAO/HT/Chi surface exhibits pores sealing and enhanced the surface roughness. • The MAO/HT/Chi surface significantly increase the corrosion resistance. • The MAO/HT/Chi can be a potential surface of titanium for bio-implants

  11. Interaction of surface-modified silica nanoparticles with clay minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Omurlu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the adsorption of 5-nm silica nanoparticles onto montmorillonite and illite is investigated. The effect of surface functionalization was evaluated for four different surfaces: unmodified, surface-modified with anionic (sulfonate, cationic (quaternary ammonium (quat, and nonionic (polyethylene glycol (PEG surfactant. We employed ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy to determine the concentration of adsorbed nanoparticles in conditions that are likely to be found in subsurface reservoir environments. PEG-coated and quat/PEG-coated silica nanoparticles were found to significantly adsorb onto the clay surfaces, and the effects of electrolyte type (NaCl, KCl and concentration, nanoparticle concentration, pH, temperature, and clay type on PEG-coated nanoparticle adsorption were studied. The type and concentration of electrolytes were found to influence the degree of adsorption, suggesting a relationship between the interlayer spacing of the clay and the adsorption ability of the nanoparticles. Under the experimental conditions reported in this paper, the isotherms for nanoparticle adsorption onto montmorillonite at 25 °C indicate that adsorption occurs less readily as the nanoparticle concentration increases.

  12. Modified Contact Line Dynamics about a Surface-Piercing Hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivel, Morgane; Jeon, David; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    The contact line around a surface-piercing hydrofoil is modified by introducing alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic bands along one side of the body. These bands are either aligned perpendicular or parallel to the flow direction. The other side of the hydrofoil is un-patterned and retains its original, uniformly hydrophilic properties. The hydrofoil is mounted onto air bearings, such that it can freely move side-to-side in the water tunnel. A force sensor is attached to the setup via a universal joint in order to measure the forces acting on the body for several Reynolds numbers (ranging from 104 to 105) and angles of attack (ranging from -10o to 10o) . Cameras are also used to record the resulting flow structures and free surface elevation. The generation of wave trains and an altered free-surface elevation (also associated with the generation of surface waves) are observed over a wide range flow conditions. Force measurements elucidate how introducing these flow features impacts the forces acting on the hydrofoil, specifically with regards to the generation of lateral forces due to the asymmetric wetting conditions on either side of the hydrofoil. Work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-11-1-0031 and NSF GRFP Grant DGE-1144469.

  13. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    KAUST Repository

    Prytherch, J.

    2013-09-01

    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4°C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  14. SURFACE-MODIFIED COALS FOR ENHANCED CATALYST DISPERSION AND LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah

    1999-09-01

    This is the final report of the Department of Energy Sponsored project DE-FGF22-95PC95229 entitled, surface modified coals for enhanced catalyst dispersion and liquefaction. The aims of the study were to enhance catalyst loading and dispersion in coal for improved liquefaction by preadsorption of surfactants and catalysts on the coal and to train and educate minority scientists in catalysts and separation science. Illinois No. 6 Coal (DEC-24) was selected for the study. The surfactants investigated included dodecyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), a cationic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, and Triton x-100, a neutral surfactant. Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate was used as the molybdenum catalyst precursor. Zeta potential, BET, FTIR, AFM, UV-Vis and luminescence intensity measurements were undertaken to assess the surface properties and the liquefaction activities of the coal. The parent coal had a net negative surface charge over the pH range 2-12. However, in the presence of DDAB the negativity of the surface charge decreased. At higher concentrations of DDAB, a positive surface charge resulted. In contrast to the effect of DDAB, the zeta potential of the coal became more negative than the parent coal in the presence of SDS. Adsorption of Triton reduced the net negative charge density of the coal samples. The measured surface area of the coal surface was about 30 m{sup 2}/g compared to 77m{sup 2}/g after being washed with deionized water. Addition of the surfactants decreased the surface area of the samples. Adsorption of the molybdenum catalyst increased the surface area of the coal sample. The adsorption of molybdenum on the coal was significantly promoted by preadsorption of DDAB and SDS. Molybdenum adsorption showed that, over a wide range of concentrations and pH values, the DDAB treated coal adsorbed a higher amount of molybdenum than the samples treated with SDS. The infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the atomic force

  15. Boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sohail; Lee, Changhoon

    2012-01-01

    The steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponential stretching surface is investigated analytically. The transport equations include the effects of Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter. The highly nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are simplified with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of HAM solutions are obtained by plotting h-curve. The expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are computed for some values of the parameters namely, suction injection parameter α, Lewis number Le, the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  16. Boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sohail; Lee, Changhoon

    2012-01-30

    The steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponential stretching surface is investigated analytically. The transport equations include the effects of Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter. The highly nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are simplified with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of HAM solutions are obtained by plotting h-curve. The expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are computed for some values of the parameters namely, suction injection parameter α, Lewis number Le, the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  17. A bio-enabled maximally mild layer-by-layer Kapton surface modification approach for the fabrication of all-inkjet-printed flexible electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yunnan; Hester, Jimmy G. D.; Su, Wenjing; Chow, Justin H.; Sitaraman, Suresh K.; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2016-12-01

    A bio-enabled, environmentally-friendly, and maximally mild layer-by-layer approach has been developed to surface modify inherently hydrophobic Kapton HN substrates to allow for great printability of both water- and organic solvent-based inks thus facilitating the full-inkjet-printing of flexible electronic devices. Different from the traditional Kapton surface modification approaches which are structure-compromising and use harsh conditions to target, and oxidize and/or remove part of, the surface polyimide of Kapton, the present Kapton surface modification approach targeted the surface electric charges borne by its additive particles, and was not only the first to utilize environmentally-friendly clinical biomolecules to build up a thin film of protamine-heparin complex on Kapton, but also the first to be conducted under minimally destructive and maximally mild conditions. Besides, for electrically charged ink particles, the present surface modification method can enhance the uniformity of the inkjet-printed films by reducing the “coffee ring effect”. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, reduced graphene oxide-based gas sensors, which were flexible, ultra-lightweight, and miniature-sized, were fully-inkjet-printed on surface modified Kapton HN films and tested for their sensitivity to dimethyl methylphosphonate (a nerve agent simulant). Such fabricated sensors survived a Scotch-tape peel test and were found insensitive to repeated bending to a small 0.5 cm radius.

  18. Monodisperse gold nanoparticles formed on bacterial crystalline surface layers (S-layers) by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieluweit, S. [Center for Nanobiotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Pum, D. [Center for Nanobiotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Sleytr, U.B. [Center for Nanobiotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Kautek, W. [Department for Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: wolfgang.kautek@univie.ac.at

    2005-12-15

    The fabrication of patterned arrays of nanoparticles whose electronic, optical and magnetic properties will find technological applications, such as ultra-high-density memories, is currently one of the most important objectives of inorganic material research. In this study, the in situ electroless nucleation of ordered two-dimensional arrays of gold nanoparticles (5 nm in size) by using bacterial S-layers as molecular templates and their characterization by small spot X-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy (XPS) is presented. This yielded the elemental composition of the nanoclusters, which consisted of almost entirely elemental gold, and possible side reactions on the cluster and protein surface. The preferential deposition of the gold nanoparticles on the S-layer suggests that topography and functional groups are important for superlattice formation.

  19. Nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan assembled layer-by-layer: An antibacterial surface for Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Nascimento, Vicente F; Murillo, Duber; Taketa, Thiago B; Sahoo, Prasana; de Souza, Alessandra A; Beppu, Marisa M; Cotta, Monica A

    2016-01-20

    In this work, nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan (HA/CHI) assembled layer by layer were synthesized; their application as a potential antimicrobial material was demonstrated for the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium, here used as a model. For the synthesis, the influence of pH and ionic strength of these natural polymer stem-solutions on final characteristics of the HA/CHI nanofilms was studied in detail. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using widefield fluorescence microscopy. These results were correlated with the chemical properties of the nanofilms, studied by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, as well as with their morphology and surface properties characterized using SEM and AFM. The present findings can be extended to design and optimize HA/CHI nanofilms with enhanced antimicrobial behavior for other type of phytopathogenic gram-negative bacteria species, such as Xanthomonas citri, Xanthomas campestri and Ralstonia solanacearum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atomic and molecular layer activation of dielectric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevich, John Joseph

    Strong interaction between the material deposit and substrate is critical to stable deposits and interfaces. The work presented here focuses on the surface activation of dielectric surfaces and oxidized metal surfaces to promote the chemisorption of palladium (II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate (PdII (hfac)2). The goal is to develop reliable, robust metallization protocols, which enable strong interactions between the metal and substrate. SiO2, air exposed Ta, Trikon, and SiLK were activated with sulfur or phosphorus. Two types of activations were developed; one based on self-assembled chemistry, and the other a plasma-assisted process. Activation of the surface using self-assembly techniques was carried out using mercaptan-terminated silane and tetrasulfide silane. The resulting films were characterized by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle goniometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Tetrasulfide silane sources films exhibit self-limiting behavior, even in the presence of water vapor; whereas mercaptan-terminated silane sourced films tend to be thicker. The surface activations using atomic layers of sulfur and phosphorus were carried out in a rf plasma chamber using hydrogen sulfide and phosphine sources, respectively. The activations were studied as functions of rf power, system pressure, and substrate material. Results show that higher rf powers and lower system pressures promote greater surface coverages by sulfur with a reduced oxidation state. The activated dielectrics show evidence of PdII(hfac)2 chemisorption, in contrast to non-activated surfaces. The binding energy shift of the Pd3d 5/2 XPS peak towards elemental Pd provides evidence for the dissociative chemisorption of PdII(hfac)2. The extent of dissociation depends on the substrate temperature and the activation method used. The conclusions of the work presented here have implications for metallization using highly polarizable transition metals. Specifically, it can be applied to

  1. Fatigue Properties of Layered Double Hydroxides Modified Asphalt and Its Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of layered double hydroxides (LDHs on the fatigue properties of asphalt mixture. In this paper, different aging levels (thin film oven test (TFOT and ultraviolet radiation aging (UV aging for short of bitumen modified with various mass ratios of the LDHs were investigated. The TFOT and UV aging process were used to simulate short-term field thermal-oxidative aging and long-term field light UV aging of bitumen, respectively. The influences of LDHs on the fatigue properties of LDHs were evaluated by dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and indirect tensile fatigue test. Results indicated that the introduction of LDHs could change the fatigue properties of bitumen under a stress control mode. The mixture with modified bitumen showed better fatigue resistance than the mixture with base bitumen. The results illustrated that the LDHs would be alternative modifiers used in the bitumen to improve the lifetime of asphalt pavements.

  2. A numerical model for chemical reaction on slag layer surface and slag layer behavior in entrained-flow gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns with slag layer accumulation, chemical reaction on slag layer surface, and slag layer flow, heat and mass transfer on the wall of entrained-flow coal gasifier. A slag layer model is developed to simulate slag layer behaviors in the coal gasifier. This 3-D model can predict temperature, slag particle disposition rate, disposition particle composition, and syngas distribution in the gasifier hearth. The model is used to evaluate the effects of O2/coal ratio on slag layer behaviors.

  3. New surface layers with low rolling resistance tested in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne; Jensen, Bjarne Bo

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘CO2 emission reduction by exploitation of rolling resistance modeling of pavements’ (COOEE) was started in 2011 to establish a scientific background for development of novel pavement types and asset management solutions that minimize the rolling resistance for cars and trucks......, the purpose being to reduce CO2 emission from the transport sector. In summer 2012, three different test sections were constructed on a highway located near Vordingborg, Denmark, in order to verify the respective Rolling Resistances; the main purpose was to develop and design new surface layers with reduced...... Rolling Resistance coefficient that could improve energy efficiency of the roads. In particular, two new types of Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) were developed and compared to a reference one; both mixtures have a relatively small maximum grain-size, 6 mm and 8 mm, respectively. Surface measurements...

  4. Formation of nanocrystalline surface layers in various metallic materials by near surface severe plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Sato, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Yoritoshi Minamino and Yuichiro Koizumi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of the various kinds of metallic materials sheets were severely deformed by wire-brushing at ambient temperature to achieve nanocrystalline surface layer. The surface layers of the metallic materials developed by the near surface severe plastic deformation (NS-SPD were characterized by means of TEM. Nearly equiaxed nanocrystals with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 200 nm were observed in the near surface regions of all the severely scratched metallic materials, which are Ti-added ultra-low carbon interstitial free steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS304, 99.99 wt.%Al, commercial purity aluminum (A1050 and A1100, Al–Mg alloy (A5083, Al-4 wt.%Cu alloy, OFHC-Cu (C1020, Cu–Zn alloy (C2600 and Pb-1.5%Sn alloy. In case of the 1050-H24 aluminum, the depth of the surface nanocrystalline layer was about 15 μm. It was clarified that wire-brushing is an effective way of NS-SPD, and surface nanocrystallization can be easily achieved in most of metallic materials.

  5. Plasma-enhanced deposition of antifouling layers on silicone rubber surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongquan

    In food processing and medical environments, biofilms serve as potential sources of contamination, and lead to food spoilage, transmission of diseases or infections. Because of its ubiquitous and recalcitrant nature, Listeria monocytogenes biofilm is especially hard to control. Generating antimicrobial surfaces provide a method to control the bacterial attachment. The difficulty of silver deposition on polymeric surfaces has been overcome by using a unique two-step plasma-mediated method. First silicone rubber surfaces were plasma-functionalized to generate aldehyde groups. Then thin silver layers were deposited onto the functionalized surfaces according to Tollen's reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that silver particles were deposited. By exposing the silver coated surfaces to L. monocytogenes, it was demonstrated that they were bactericidal to L. monocytogenes. No viable bacteria were detected after 12 to 18 h on silver-coated silicone rubber surfaces. Another antifouling approach is to generate polyethylene glycol (PEG) thin layer instead of silver on polymer surfaces. Covalent bond of PEG structures of various molecular weights to cold-plasma-functionalized polymer surfaces, such as silicone rubber, opens up a novel way for the generation of PEG brush-like or PEG branch-like anti-fouling layers. In this study, plasma-generated surface free radicals can react efficiently with dichlorosilane right after plasma treatment. With the generation of halo-silane groups, this enables PEG molecules to be grafted onto the modified surfaces. XPS data clearly demonstrated the presence of PEG molecules on plasma-functionalized silicone rubber surfaces. AFM images showed the changed surface morphologies as a result of covalent attachment to the surface of PEG molecules. Biofilm experiment results suggest that the PEG brush-like films have the potential ability to be the next

  6. Computer-aided study of key factors determining high mechanical properties of nanostructured surface layers in metal-ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, Igor S.; Shilko, Evgeny V.; Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the movable cellular automaton method. It is based on numerical models of surface layers of the metal-ceramic composite NiCr-TiC modified under electron beam irradiation in inert gas plasmas. The models take into account different geometric, concentration and mechanical parameters of ceramic and metallic components. The authors study the contributions of key structural factors in mechanical properties of surface layers and determine the ranges of their variations by providing the optimum balance of strength, strain hardening and fracture toughness.

  7. Surface Behavior of Rhodamin and Tartrazine on Silica-Cellulose Sol-Gel Surfaces by Thin Layer Elution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjani Wonorahardjo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical interactions are the principles for different types of separation systems as the equillibrium dynamics on surface plays a key-role. Surface modification is a way for selective separation at interfaces. Moreover, synthesis of gel silica by a sol-gel method is preferred due to the homogeneity and surface feature easily controlled. Cellulose can be added in situ to modified the silica features during the process. Further application for to study interaction of rhodamin and tartrazine in its surface and their solubilities in mobile phase explains the possibility for their separation. This paper devoted to evaluate the surface behavior in term of adsorption and desorption of tartrazine and rhodamin on silica-cellulose thin layer in different mobile phase. Some carrier liquids applied such as methanol, acetone, n-hexane and chloroform. The result proves tartrazine and rhodamin is separated and have different behavior in different mobile phase. The retardation factors (Rf of the mixtures suggest complexity behavior on silica-cellulose surface.

  8. Surface-modified low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Beom; Holme, Timothy P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Guer, Turgut M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    This paper reports both experimental and theoretical results of the role of surface modification on the oxygen reduction reaction in low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFC). Epitaxial ultrathin films of yttria-doped ceria (YDC) cathode interlayers (<10-130 nm) are grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single-crystalline YSZ(100). Fuel cell current-voltage measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are performed in the temperature range of 350 C {approx} 450 C. Quantum mechanical simulations of oxygen incorporation energetics support the experimental results and indicate a low activation energy of only 0.07 eV for YDC, while the incorporation reaction on YSZ is activated by a significantly higher energy barrier of 0.38 eV. Due to enhanced oxygen incorporation at the modified Pt/YDC interface, the cathodic interface resistance is reduced by two-fold, while fuel cell performance shows more than a two-fold enhancement with the addition of an ultrathin YDC interlayer at the cathode side of an SOFC element. The results of this study open up opportunities for improving cell performance, particularly of LT-SOFCs by adopting surface modification of YSZ surface with catalytically superior, ultrathin cathodic interlayers. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Surface layer conditions of the atmosphere over western Bay of Bengal during Monex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anto, A.F.; Rao, L.V.G.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    Based on surface meteorological data and wave data collected from 2 stations in the western Bay of Bengal in July 1979, surface layer (SL) conditions of the atmosphere for different situations of surface circulations and the associated sea surface...

  10. Crystalline Bacterial Surface Layer (S-Layer) Opens Golden Opportunities for Nanobiotechnology in Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Narges; Chand, Nima; Rassa, Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the successful recrystallization of bacterial S-layer arrays of the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 at textile surfaces to create a novel method and material. Optimum bacterial growth was obtained at approximately 45 °C, pH 5.0, and 14 h pi. The cells were resuspended in guanidine hydrochloride and the 43 kDa S-protein was dialyzed and purified. The optimum reassembly on the polypropylene fabric surface in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reflectance, and uniformity (spectrophotometry) was obtained at 30 °C, pH 5.0 for 30 minutes in the presence of 2 gr/l (liquor ratio; 1:40) of the S-protein. Overall, our data showed that the functional aspects and specialty applications of the fabric would be very attractive for the textile and related sciences, and result in advanced technical textiles.

  11. Epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium and modified aluminium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Zorica Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on modified aluminum surfaces (anodized, phosphatized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium were monitored during exposure to 3% NaCl solution, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Better protective properties of the epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum with respect to the same epoxy coatings on aluminum and phosphatized aluminum were obtained: higher values of Rp and Rct and smaller values of Cc and Cd, from EIS, and a smaller amount of absorbed water inside the coating, from TGA. On the other hand, a somewhat lower thermal stability of these coatings was obtained (smaller values of the ipdt temperature. This behavior can be explained by the less porous structure of epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum, caused by a lower rate of H2 evolution and better wet ability.

  12. Evaluation of the susceptibility to pitting corrosion of structural steels, including steels with modified surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunarska, E.; Nikiforow, K.

    2001-01-01

    Although the low alloy ferrite-perlite and bainite-martensite steels mostly undergo the general corrosion, pitting corrosion occurring under certain conditions jeopardizes the safety of installations, causing perforation of walls or initiation of crack. On the basis of electrochemical, corrosion and microscopic examinations, the conditions simulating typical industrial corrosion environments, containing Cl - ions have been selected, to which the parts of machines, devices and installation are subjected. The test parameters provide the preferential pitting corrosion without prevailing general corrosion, and provide the similar type of corrosion of different kinds of ferrite-perlite and bainite-martensite steels, including steels with modified surface layer. The proposed express method allows to evaluate the susceptibility to pitting corrosion and to evaluate the effect of surface modification on susceptibility to pitting corrosion in environments containing Cl - ions. The method may be applied for the proper selection of materials exploited under pitting corrosion conditions and for preparation of precorroded samples for mechanical testing. (author)

  13. In situ formation of graphene layers on graphite surfaces for efficient anodes of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiahuan; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Cai, Xixi; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-09-15

    Graphene can be used to improve the performance of the anode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) due to its good biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity and large surface area. However, the chemical production and modification of the graphene on the anode are environmentally hazardous because of the use of various harmful chemicals. This study reports a novel method based on the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite plate (GP) for the in situ formation of graphene layers on the surface of a graphite electrode. When the resultant graphene-layer-based graphite plate electrode (GL/GP) was used as an anode in an MFC, a maximum power density of 0.67 ± 0.034 W/m(2) was achieved. This value corresponds to 1.72-, 1.56- and 1.26-times the maximum power densities of the original GP, exfoliated-graphene-modified GP (EG/GP) and chemically-reduced-graphene-modified GP (rGO/GP) anodes, respectively. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the high performance of the GL/GP anode was attributable to its macroporous structure, improved electron transfer and high electrochemical capacitance. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis technique for the fabrication of high-performance graphene-based electrodes for use in microbial energy harvesting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface Modification of Dental Titanium Implant by Layer-by-Layer Electrostatic Self-Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Shi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In vivo implants that are composed of titanium and titanium alloys as raw materials are widely used in the fields of biology and medicine. In the field of dental medicine, titanium is considered to be an ideal dental implant material. Good osseointegration and soft tissue closure are the foundation for the success of dental implants. Therefore, the enhancement of the osseointegration and antibacterial abilities of titanium and its alloys has been the focus of much research. With its many advantages, layer-by-layer (LbL assembly is a self-assembly technique that is used to develop multilayer films based on complementary interactions between differently charged polyelectrolytes. The LbL approach provides new methods and applications for the surface modification of dental titanium implant. In this review, the application of the LbL technique to surface modification of titanium including promoting osteogenesis and osseointegration, promoting the formation and healing of soft tissues, improving the antibacterial properties of titanium implant, achieving local drug delivery and sustained release is summarized.

  15. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun; Ai Shiyun; Liu Yinping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. → This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. → This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 μM and with a detection limit of 0.5 μM. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  16. High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells Engineered by an Ammonia Modified Graphene Oxide Interfacial Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shanglei; Yang, Yingguo; Li, Meng; Wang, Jinmiao; Cheng, Zhendong; Li, Jihao; Ji, Gengwu; Yin, Guangzhi; Song, Fei; Wang, Zhaokui; Li, Jingye; Gao, Xingyu

    2016-06-15

    The introduction of an ammonia modified graphene oxide (GO:NH3) layer into perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) with a structure of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) ( PSS)-GO: NH3/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)/(solution Bphen) sBphen/Ag improves their performance and perovskite structure stability significantly. The fabricated devices with a champion PCE up to 16.11% are superior in all the performances in comparison with all the reference devices without the GO:NH3 layer. To understand the improved device performances, synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible absorption measurements have been conducted on perovskite films on different substrates. It was found that these improvements should be partially attributed to the improved crystallization and preferred orientation order of peovskite structure, partially to the improved morphology with nearly complete coverage, partially to the enhanced optical absorption caused by the PSS-GO:NH3 layer, and partially to the better matched energy-level-alignment at the perovskite interface. Furthermore, the device was shown to be more stable in the ambient condition, which is clearly associated with the improved peovskite structure stability by the GO:NH3 layer observed by the GIXRD measurements. All these achievements will promote more applications of chemically modified graphene oxide interfacial layer in the PSCs as well as other organic multilayer devices.

  17. Characteristics of surface modified Ti-6Al-4V alloy by a series of YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian; Wang, Wenqin; Yamaguchi, Tomiko; Nishio, Kazumasa

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a double-layer Ti (C, N) film was successfully prepared on Ti-6Al-4V alloy by a series of YAG laser irradiation in nitrogen atmosphere, aiming at improving the wear resistance. The effects of laser irradiation pass upon surface chemical composition, microstructures and hardness were investigated. The results showed that the surface chemicals were independent from laser irradiation pass, which the up layer of film was a mixture of TiN and TiC0.3N0.7, and the down layer was nitrogen-rich α-Ti. Both the surface roughness and hardness increased as raising the irradiation passes. However, surface deformation and cracks happened in the case above 3 passes' irradiation. The wear resistance of laser modified sample by 3 passes was improved approximately by 37 times compared to the as received substrate. Moreover, the cytotoxic V ion released from laser modified sample was less than that of as received Ti-6Al-4V alloy in SBF, suggesting the potentiality of a new try to modify the sliding part of Ti-based hard tissue implants in future biomedical application.

  18. Onion-like surface design of upconverting nanophosphors modified with polyethylenimine: shielding toxicity versus keeping brightness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guller, Anna; Nadort, Annemarie; Generalova, Alla; Kornienko, Inna; Petersen, Elena; Qian, Yi; Shekhter, Anatoly; Goldys, Ewa; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    Background: Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) represent a unique class of nanomaterials, able to convert infrared excitation light into long lifetime visible and infrared photoluminescence, within the "optical transparency window" of biological tissues. This makes UCNPs an attractive contrast agent for background-free bioimaging. However, assynthesized UCNPs are hydrophobic and need additional surface coating for stability in water-based solutions and further functionalization. Polyethylenimine (PEI), a polycationic amphiphilic polymer, is a well-known transfection agent for gene delivery and a popular material for UCNPs surface hydrophilization. Combining the functional properties of UCNPs and PEI is extremely useful for precise visualization of genetic manipulations and intracellular drug delivery. At the same time, PEI is toxic to cells, while the photoluminescent properties of UCNPs are very sensitive to surface chemistry and environment. Then, creation of hydrophilic, biocompatible and simultaneously bright UCNPs, modified by PEI (UCNP-PEI), is a challenging task. Objectives: To analyze the effects of multilayer shielding coatings on cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and photoluminescent properties of UCNP-PEI. Methods and results: UCNP-PEI were modified with additional two or three layers of various polymers and characterized by size, surface charge and photophysical properties. HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to the particles for 24 or 120 h to study the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake. The results show that onion-like coatings of UCNP-PEI simultaneously decrease cytotoxicity and relative luminescence of the particles, depending on structure and method of formation of multilayer coating. Conclusions: Rational design of UCNP-PEI using extra coatings layers can help to keep acceptable levels of biocompatibility and photoluminescence intensity.

  19. Acid modified diatomaceous earth--a sorbent material for thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Soner; Savaşci, Sahin

    2008-04-01

    Natural diatomaceous earth (DE) is modified by flux calcination and refluxing with acid. To characterize natural DE, modified DE's [flux calcinated (FC)DE and FCDE-I] and silica gel 60GF(254) (Si-60GF(254)) are analyzed microscopically, physically, and chemically by various techniques. FCDE-I and Si-60GF(254) are investigated for their usefulness in the stationary phase of thin layer chromatography (TLC) both individually and in composition. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC) and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PyDTC) are prepared as Co or Cu (M) complexes [M(DEDTC)(2) and M(PyDTC)(2), respectively]. These complexes and their mixtures are run on thin layers of Si-60GF(254) and FCDE-I individually, and on various FCDE-I and Si-60GF(254) mixtures. Pure toluene and various toluene-cyclohexane mixtures (3:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, v/v) are used as mobile phases for the running the complexes. The best analytical separations of both M(DEDTC)(2) and M(PyDTC)(2) complexes are obtained when using pure toluene and toluene-cyclohexane (3:1, 1:1, v/v) as mobile phases on FCDE-I-Si-60GF(254) (1:3, 1:1, w/w) layers as stationary phases. This study shows that it is possible to qualitatively analyze and to satisfactorily separate a mixture Cu(2+) and Co(2+) cations on cited chromatographic systems.

  20. Layer-dependent surface potential of phosphorene and anisotropic/layer-dependent charge transfer in phosphorene-gold hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhu, Yi; Yan, Han; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui

    2016-01-07

    The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer.

  1. Controlling molecular deposition and layer structure with supramolecular surface assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, James A.; Oxtoby, Neil S.; Phillips, Michael A.; Champness, Neil R.; Beton, Peter H.

    2003-08-01

    Selective non-covalent interactions have been widely exploited in solution-based chemistry to direct the assembly of molecules into nanometre-sized functional structures such as capsules, switches and prototype machines. More recently, the concepts of supramolecular organization have also been applied to two-dimensional assemblies on surfaces stabilized by hydrogen bonding, dipolar coupling or metal co-ordination. Structures realized to date include isolated rows, clusters and extended networks, as well as more complex multi-component arrangements. Another approach to controlling surface structures uses adsorbed molecular monolayers to create preferential binding sites that accommodate individual target molecules. Here we combine these approaches, by using hydrogen bonding to guide the assembly of two types of molecules into a two-dimensional open honeycomb network that then controls and templates new surface phases formed by subsequently deposited fullerene molecules. We find that the open network acts as a two-dimensional array of large pores of sufficient capacity to accommodate several large guest molecules, with the network itself also serving as a template for the formation of a fullerene layer.

  2. Improved Composites Using Crosslinked, Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotube Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional tensile strength and stiffness; however, these properties have not translated well to the macroscopic scale. Premature failure of bulk CNT materials under tensile loading occurs due to the relatively weak frictional forces between adjacent CNTs, leading to poor load transfer through the material. When used in polymer matrix composites (PMCs), the weak nanotube-matrix interaction leads to the CNTs providing less than optimal reinforcement.Our group is examining the use of covalent crosslinking and surface modification as a means to improve the tensile properties of PMCs containing carbon nanotubes. Sheet material comprised of unaligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was used as a drop-in replacement for carbon fiber in the composites. A variety of post-processing methods have been examined for covalently crosslinking the CNTs to overcome the weak inter-nanotube shear interactions, resulting in improved tensile strength and modulus for the bulk sheet material. Residual functional groups from the crosslinking chemistry may have the added benefit of improving the nanotube-matrix interaction. Composites prepared using these crosslinked, surface-modified nanotube sheet materials exhibit superior tensile properties to composites using the as received CNT sheet material.

  3. Glass carbon surface modified by the fluorine ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teranishi, Yoshikazu; Ishizuka, Masanori; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Isao; Uematu, Takahiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Mitsuo, Atsushi; Morikawa, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Application of nano and micro fabrication techniques in industry requires solution to some crucial problems. One of the significant problems is the sticking interface between mold surface and imprinted polymer. In this study, we report a solution to the sticking interface problem by modification of nano imprinting mold using fluorine ion implantation. After the fluorine implantation, anti sticking layer appeared on the nano imprinting mold surface. After the implantation, a mold made from glass like carbon was patterned by focused ion beam lithography. The pattern was made up of word “TIRI”. The line width was varied with 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1 μm. The line depth was about 200 ∼ 300 nm. The average depth of implanted fluorine was approximately 90 nm. After imprinting, the resin was removed from the mold by mechanical lift-off process. Transferred pattern was observed and confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The pattern transferred from mold to resin was found to be successful.

  4. The Ice Nucleation Activity of Surface Modified Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Thomas; Witek, Lorenz; Felgitsch, Laura; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    The ice nucleation efficiency of many important atmospheric particles remains poorly understood. Since soot is ubiquitous in the Earth's troposphere, they might have the potential to significantly impact the Earth's climate (Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts, 2000; Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998). Here we present the ice nucleation activity (INA) in immersion freezing mode of different types of soot. Therefor a CAST (combustion aerosol standard) generator was used to produce different kinds of soot samples. The CAST generator combusts a propane-air-mixture and deposits thereby produced soot on a polyvinyl fluoride filter. By varying the propane to air ratio, the amount of organic portion of the soot can be varied from black carbon (BC) with no organic content to brown carbon (BrC) with high organic content. To investigate the impact of functional sites of ice nuclei (IN), the soot samples were exposed to NO2 gas for a certain amount of time (30 to 360 minutes) to chemically modify the surface. Immersion freezing experiments were carried out in a unique reaction gadget. In this device a water-in-oil suspension (with the soot suspended in the aqueous phase) was cooled till the freezing point and was observed through a microscope (Pummer et al., 2012; Zolles et al., 2015) It was found that neither modified nor unmodified BC shows INA. On the contrary, unmodified BrC shows an INA at -32˚ C, which can be increased up to -20˚ C. The INA of BrC depends on the duration of NO2- exposure. To clarify the characteristics of the surface modifications, surface sensitive analysis like infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were carried out. Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. and Pitts, J. N. J.: Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere, Elsevier, New York, 2000. Pummer, B. G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S., and Grothe, H.: Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen, Atmos Chem Phys, 12, 2541-2550, 2012. Seinfeld, J

  5. Surface modification of polypropylene non-woven fibers with TiO2 nanoparticles via layer-by-layer self assembly method: Preparation and photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavasupree, Suttipan; Dubas, Stephan T; Rangkupan, Ratthapol

    2015-11-01

    Polypropylene (PP) meltblown fibers were coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique. The fibers were first modified with 3 layers of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS) and poly(diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) to improve the anchoring of the TiO2 nanoparticle clusters. PDADMAC, which is positively charged, was then used as counter polyelectrolyte in tandem with anionic TiO2 nanoparticles to construct TiO2/PDADMAC bilayer in the LbL fashion. The number of deposited TiO2/PDADMAC layers was varied from 1 to 7 bilayer, and could be used to adjust TiO2 loading. The LbL technique showed higher TiO2 loading efficiency than the impregnation approach. The modified fibers were tested for their photocatalytic activity against a model dye, Methylene Blue (MB). Results showed that the TiO2 modified fibers exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity efficiency similar to that of TiO2 powder dispersed in solution. The deposition of TiO2 3 bilayer on the PP substrate was sufficient to produce nanocomposite fibers that could bleach the MB solution in less than 4hr. TiO2-LbL constructions also preserved TiO2 adhesion on substrate surface after 1cycle of photocatalytic test. Successive photocatalytic test showed decline in MB reduction rate with loss of TiO2 particles from the substrate outer surface. However, even in the third cycle, the TiO2 modified fibers are still moderately effective as it could remove more than 95% of MB after 8hr of treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Measurement of atmospheric surface layer turbulence using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sean; Canter, Caleb

    2017-11-01

    We describe measurements of the turbulence within the atmospheric surface layer using highly instrumented and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Results from the CLOUDMAP measurement campaign in Stillwater Oklahoma are presented including turbulence statistics measured during the transition from stably stratified to convective conditions. The measurements were made using pre-fabricated fixed-wing remote-control aircraft adapted to fly autonomously and carry multi-hole pressure probes, pressure, temperature and humidity sensors. Two aircraft were flown simultaneously, with one flying a flight path intended to profile the boundary layer up to 100 m and the other flying at a constant fixed altitude of 50 m. The evolution of various turbulent statistics was determined from these flights, including Reynolds stresses, correlations, spectra and structure functions. These results were compared to those measured by a sonic anemometer located on a 7.5 m tower. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant #CBET-1351411 and by National Science Foundation award #1539070, Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUDMAP).

  7. Characterization of Nitride Layers Formed by Nitrogen Ion Implantation into Surface Region of Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko; Subki, M. Iyos R.

    2000-01-01

    Ion implantation is a convenient means of modifying the physical and chemical properties of the near-surface region of materials. The nitrogen implantation into pure iron has been performed at room temperature with ion dose of 1.310 17 to 1.310 18 ions/cm 2 and ion energy of 20 to 100 keV. The optimum dose of nitrogen ions implanted into pure iron was around 2.2310 17 ions/cm 2 in order to get the maximum wear resistant. SEM micrographs and EDX show that the nitride layers were found on the surface of substrate. The nitrogen concentration profile was measured using EDX in combination with spot technique, and it can be shown that the depth profile of nitrogen implanted into substrate was nearly Gaussian. (author)

  8. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, H; Bilger, G; Jones, D; Symietz, I

    2002-01-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (alpha,alpha) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction sup 1 H( sup 1 sup 5 N,alpha gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of m...

  9. Averaging of diffusing contaminant concentrations in atmosphere surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Ramzina, T.V.

    1985-01-01

    Calculations permitting to average concentration fields of diffusing radioactive contaminant coming from the NPP exhaust stack in the atmospheric surface layer are given. Formulae of contaminant concentration field calculation are presented; it depends on the average wind direction value (THETA) for time(T) and stability of this direction (σsub(tgTHETA) or σsub(THETA)). Probability of wind direction deviation from the average value for time T is satisfactory described by the Gauss law. With instability increase in the atmosphere σ increases, when wind velocity increasing the values of σ decreases for all types of temperature gradients. Nonuniformity of σ value dependence on averaging time T is underlined, that requires accurate choice of σsub(tgTHETA) and σsub(THETA) parameters in calculations

  10. STUDY OF SURFACE MODIFIED POLYMERS IN THE MODIFICATION OF NANOMATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Popov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of change of surface tension of solutions of some commercial rubbers before and after thermal ageing technique du-Nui, analyzed the features of change of surface tension of solutions of various rubbers in the presence of a mixture of fullerenes. Calculations of the Gibbs energy and the analysis of the obtained data to predict the behavior of polymer systems when changes are made to mix of fullerenes in a wide concentration range. When comparing the results of changes in Gibbs energy and the surface tension in fluids rubbers shown that mentioned above in solutions of elastomers aged, than the control. This fact confirms the initial chapeau of physic-chemical interactions of molecules fullerenes by segments of the Kuna and end groups of the polymer chains, as it is known that when thermal-oxidative degradation of rubbers, respectively the number of segments of the Kuna and branched loose ends of macromolecules that are free to react with fullerenes in solution, free from spatial constraints. A comparative analysis of the interaction of rubbers with different chemical composition with double branches has shown that it is easier to just react and has minimum energy polibutadien interaction that has to do with lack of branching and no radicals in its structure and in the backbone chain. The maximum energy of interaction with Fullerenes have SBS rubber because it has large styrene blocks in the main polymer chain that causes the spatial constraints to direct contact with fullerene molecules, you can assume that the interaction is only low-molecular fraction of Fullerenes mixture, possessing the necessary dimensions. As a result of the study shows that the application of the method of separation ring (Du-Nui allows you to predict the properties of rubber with modified nanomaterial’s with minimal labor costs.

  11. The Wear behavior of UHMWPE against Surface Modified CP-Titanium by Thermal Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Prayoga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thermal oxidation duration on hardness, roughness, and wettability of the CP-titanium surfaces were investigated in this paper. The thermal oxidation treatment was done at 700 oC for 12-36 hours in an air atmosphere. The wear behavior of the UHMWPE sliding against treated thermal oxidation of the CP-titanium was tested by a pin-on-plate tribometer under lubrication of the solution of 75 % distilled water and 25 % bovine serum. The results showed that the layer of the oxide titanium was formed on the surface after being treated by the thermal oxidation for 12-36 hours. The oxide titanium layer was dominated by rutile form of TiO2, that offers an improvement of hardness and wettability of the CP-titanium surfaces. The average wear factor of the UHMWPE reduced significantly when the sliding against of the CP-titanium was modified by the thermal oxidation, and the lowest average wear factor was reached when the sliding against the 12 hour oxidized CP-titanium counterfaces.

  12. Modified two-layer social force model for emergency earthquake evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Hong; Qin, Xin; Liu, Baoxi

    2018-02-01

    Studies of crowd behavior with related research on computer simulation provide an effective basis for architectural design and effective crowd management. Based on low-density group organization patterns, a modified two-layer social force model is proposed in this paper to simulate and reproduce a group gathering process. First, this paper studies evacuation videos from the Luan'xian earthquake in 2012, and extends the study of group organization patterns to a higher density. Furthermore, taking full advantage of the strength in crowd gathering simulations, a new method on grouping and guidance is proposed while using crowd dynamics. Second, a real-life grouping situation in earthquake evacuation is simulated and reproduced. Comparing with the fundamental social force model and existing guided crowd model, the modified model reduces congestion time and truly reflects group behaviors. Furthermore, the experiment result also shows that a stable group pattern and a suitable leader could decrease collision and allow a safer evacuation process.

  13. Surface modification of acetaminophen particles by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kääriäinen, Tommi O; Kemell, Marianna; Vehkamäki, Marko; Kääriäinen, Marja-Leena; Correia, Alexandra; Santos, Hélder A; Bimbo, Luis M; Hirvonen, Jouni; Hoppu, Pekka; George, Steven M; Cameron, David C; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku

    2017-06-15

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are predominantly organic solid powders. Due to their bulk properties many APIs require processing to improve pharmaceutical formulation and manufacturing in the preparation for various drug dosage forms. Improved powder flow and protection of the APIs are often anticipated characteristics in pharmaceutical manufacturing. In this work, we have modified acetaminophen particles with atomic layer deposition (ALD) by conformal nanometer scale coatings in a one-step coating process. According to the results, ALD, utilizing common chemistries for Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 and ZnO, is shown to be a promising coating method for solid pharmaceutical powders. Acetaminophen does not undergo degradation during the ALD coating process and maintains its stable polymorphic structure. Acetaminophen with nanometer scale ALD coatings shows slowed drug release. ALD TiO 2 coated acetaminophen particles show cytocompatibility whereas those coated with thicker ZnO coatings exhibit the most cytotoxicity among the ALD materials under study when assessed in vitro by their effect on intestinal Caco-2 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Active flow control insight gained from a modified integral boundary layer equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Avraham

    2016-11-01

    Active Flow Control (AFC) can alter the development of boundary layers with applications (e.g., reducing drag by separation delay or separating the boundary layers and enhancing vortex shedding to increase drag). Historically, significant effects of steady AFC methods were observed. Unsteady actuation is significantly more efficient than steady. Full-scale AFC tests were conducted with varying levels of success. While clearly relevant to industry, AFC implementation relies on expert knowledge with proven intuition and or costly and lengthy computational efforts. This situation hinders the use of AFC while simple, quick and reliable design method is absent. An updated form of the unsteady integral boundary layer (UIBL) equations, that include AFC terms (unsteady wall transpiration and body forces) can be used to assist in AFC analysis and design. With these equations and given a family of suitable velocity profiles, the momentum thickness can be calculated and matched with an outer, potential flow solution in 2D and 3D manner to create an AFC design tool, parallel to proven tools for airfoil design. Limiting cases of the UIBL equation can be used to analyze candidate AFC concepts in terms of their capability to modify the boundary layers development and system performance.

  15. Surface characterization and stability of an epoxy resin surface modified with polyamines grafted on polydopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; Vercammen, Yannick; Van Vaeck, Luc; Vanderleyden, Els; Dubruel, Peter; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on polydopamine and polyamine surface modifications of an etched epoxy cresol novolac (ECN) resin using the 'grafting to' method. Three different polyamines are used for the grafting reactions: branched polyethyleneimine (B-PEI), linear polyethyleneimine (L-PEI) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). These modifications are compared to control materials prepared via direct deposition of polyamines. The stability of the modifications toward a concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) environment is evaluated. The modified surfaces are characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-S-SIMS).

  16. Modeling three-dimensional surface morphology of biocake layer in a membrane bioreactor based on fractal geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leihong; Yang, Lining; Lin, Hongjun; Zhang, Meijia; Yu, Haiying; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Wang, Fangyuan; Zhou, Xiaoling; Li, Renjie

    2016-12-01

    While the adsorptive fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is highly dependent of the surface morphology, little progress has been made on modeling biocake layer surface morphology. In this study, a novel method, which combined static light scattering method for fractal dimension (D f ) measurement with fractal method represented by the modified two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function, was proposed to model biocake layer surface in a MBR. Characterization by atomic force microscopy showed that the biocake surface was stochastic, disorder, self-similarity, and with non-integer dimension, illustrating obvious fractal features. Fractal dimension (D f ) of sludge suspension experienced a significant change with operation of the MBR. The constructed biocake layer surface by the proposed method was quite close to the real surface, showing the feasibility of the proposed method. It was found that D f was the critical factor affecting surface morphology, while other factors exerted moderate or minor effects on the roughness of biocake layer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water Surface Ripples Generated by the Turbulent Boundary Layer of a Surface-Piercing Moving Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washuta, N.; Masnadi, N.; Duncan, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    Free surface ripples created by subsurface turbulence along a surface-piercing moving wall are studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes, which are separated by 7.5 meters. One of the two 7.5-m-long belt sections between the rollers is in contact with the water in a large open-surface water tank and the water level is adjusted so that the top of the belt pierces the water free surface. The belt is launched from rest with a 3 g acceleration in order to quickly reach a steady state velocity. This belt motion creates a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer created along the side of a ship hull moving at the belt velocity, with a length equivalent to the length of belt that has passed the measurement region. The water surface ripples generated by the subsurface turbulence are measured in a plane normal to the belt using a cinematic LIF technique. It is found that the overall RMS surface fluctuations increase linearly with belt speed and that the spatial distributions of the fluctuations show a sharp increase near the wall. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Modified Titanium Surface-Mediated Effects on Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Amol; Duyck, Joke; Braem, Annabel; Vleugels, Jozef; Petite, Hervé; Logeart-Avramoglou, Delphine; Naert, Ignace; Martens, Johan A.; Vandamme, Katleen

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification of titanium implants is used to enhance osseointegration. The study objective was to evaluate five modified titanium surfaces in terms of cytocompatibility and pro-osteogenic/pro-angiogenic properties for human mesenchymal stromal cells: amorphous microporous silica (AMS), bone morphogenetic protein-2 immobilized on AMS (AMS + BMP), bio-active glass (BAG) and two titanium coatings with different porosity (T1; T2). Four surfaces served as controls: uncoated Ti (Ti), Ti functionalized with BMP-2 (Ti + BMP), Ti surface with a thickened titanium oxide layer (TiO2) and a tissue culture polystyrene surface (TCPS). The proliferation of eGFP-fLuc (enhanced green fluorescence protein-firefly luciferase) transfected cells was tracked non-invasively by fluorescence microscopy and bio-luminescence imaging. The implant surface-mediated effects on cell differentiation potential was tracked by determination of osteogenic and angiogenic parameters [alkaline phosphatase (ALP); osteocalcin (OC); osteoprotegerin (OPG); vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)]. Unrestrained cell proliferation was observed on (un)functionalized Ti and AMS surfaces, whereas BAG and porous titanium coatings T1 and T2 did not support cell proliferation. An important pro-osteogenic and pro-angiogenic potential of the AMS + BMP surface was observed. In contrast, coating the Ti surface with BMP did not affect the osteogenic differentiation of the progenitor cells. A significantly slower BMP-2 release from AMS compared to Ti supports these findings. In the unfunctionalized state, Ti was found to be superior to AMS in terms of OPG and VEGF-A production. AMS is suggested to be a promising implant coating material for bioactive agents delivery. PMID:28788407

  19. Modified Titanium Surface-Mediated Effects on Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Chaudhari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of titanium implants is used to enhance osseointegration. The study objective was to evaluate five modified titanium surfaces in terms of cytocompatibility and pro-osteogenic/pro-angiogenic properties for human mesenchymal stromal cells: amorphous microporous silica (AMS, bone morphogenetic protein-2 immobilized on AMS (AMS + BMP, bio-active glass (BAG and two titanium coatings with different porosity (T1; T2. Four surfaces served as controls: uncoated Ti (Ti, Ti functionalized with BMP-2 (Ti + BMP, Ti surface with a thickened titanium oxide layer (TiO2 and a tissue culture polystyrene surface (TCPS. The proliferation of eGFP-fLuc (enhanced green fluorescence protein-firefly luciferase transfected cells was tracked non-invasively by fluorescence microscopy and bio-luminescence imaging. The implant surface-mediated effects on cell differentiation potential was tracked by determination of osteogenic and angiogenic parameters [alkaline phosphatase (ALP; osteocalcin (OC; osteoprotegerin (OPG; vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A]. Unrestrained cell proliferation was observed on (unfunctionalized Ti and AMS surfaces, whereas BAG and porous titanium coatings T1 and T2 did not support cell proliferation. An important pro-osteogenic and pro-angiogenic potential of the AMS + BMP surface was observed. In contrast, coating the Ti surface with BMP did not affect the osteogenic differentiation of the progenitor cells. A significantly slower BMP-2 release from AMS compared to Ti supports these findings. In the unfunctionalized state, Ti was found to be superior to AMS in terms of OPG and VEGF-A production. AMS is suggested to be a promising implant coating material for bioactive agents delivery.

  20. Voltammetric Determination of Acetaminophen in the Presence of Codeine and Ascorbic Acid at Layer-by-Layer MWCNT/Hydroquinone Sulfonic Acid-Overoxidized Polypyrrole Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Saberi, Reyhaneh-Sadat

    2011-01-01

    A very sensitive electrochemical sensor constructed of a glassy carbon electrode modified with a layer-by-layer MWCNT/doped-overoxidized polypyrrole (oppy/MWCNT /GCE) was used for the determination of acetaminophen (AC) in the presence of codeine and ascorbic acid (AA). In comparison to the bare glassy carbon electrode, a considerable shift in the peak potential together with an increase in the peak current was observed for AC on the surface of oppy/MWCNT/GCE, which can be related to the enla...

  1. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Borowski, Tomasz; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Lelątko, Józef; Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Low temperature plasma nitriding process of NiTi shape memory alloy is presented. • The possibility of treatment details of sophisticated shape. • TiN surface layer has diffusive character. • TiN surface layer increases corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy. • Produced TiN layer modify the biological properties of NiTi alloy. - Abstract: NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications

  2. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Borowski, Tomasz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Sowińska, Agnieszka [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Lelątko, Józef [Silesia University, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Wierzchoń, Tadeusz, E-mail: twierz@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Low temperature plasma nitriding process of NiTi shape memory alloy is presented. • The possibility of treatment details of sophisticated shape. • TiN surface layer has diffusive character. • TiN surface layer increases corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy. • Produced TiN layer modify the biological properties of NiTi alloy. - Abstract: NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications.

  3. Impacts of Ocean Waves on the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Simulations and Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Peter P; McWilliams, James C; Melville, W. K

    2008-01-01

    ... planetary boundary layers (PBL). Efforts were focused on the effects of surface gravity waves on the near-surface dynamics, surface fluxes, and coupling between the atmospheric and oceanic PBLs...

  4. Spectroscopic Study of the Interaction of Carboxyl-Modified Gold Nanoparticles with Liposomes of Different Chain Lengths and Controlled Drug Release by Layer-by-Layer Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwa, Nishu; De, Soumya Kanti; Adhikari, Chandan; Chakraborty, Anjan

    2017-12-21

    In this article, we investigate the interactions of carboxyl-modified gold nanoparticles (AuC) with zwitterionic phospholipid liposomes of different chain lengths using a well-known membrane probe PRODAN by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy. We use three zwitterionic lipids, namely, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), and 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), which are widely different in their phase transition temperatures to form liposome-AuC assemblies. The steady-state and time-resolved studies indicate that the AuC brings in stability toward liposomes by local gelation. We observe that the bound AuC detach from the surface of the liposomes under pH ≈ 5 due to protonation of the carboxyl group, thus eliminating the electrostatic interaction between nanoparticles and head groups of liposomes. The detachment rate of AuC from the liposome-AuC assemblies is different for the aforementioned liposomes due to differences in their fluidity. We exploited the phenomena for the controlled release of a prominent anticancer drug Doxorubicin (DOX) under acidic conditions for different zwitterionic liposomes. The drug release rate was further optimized by coating of liposome-AuC assemblies with oppositely charged polymer (P), polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride, followed by a mixture of lipids L (DMPC:DMPG) and again with a polymer in a layer-by-layer fashion to obtain capsule-like structures. This system is highly stable for weeks, as confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging, and inhibits premature release. The layer coating was confirmed by hydrodynamic size and zeta potential measurements of the systems. The capsules obtained are of immense importance as they can control release of the drug from the systems to a large extent.

  5. A Study of the Surface Photovoltage of ZnO-Resin Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, I; Kimura, T; Endo, K

    1969-01-01

    The surface photovoltage of ZnO resin layer has been used as the basis for an imaging process generally known as chargeless electrophotography. This paper explores effects of the ambient air pressure and the layer temperature on the surface photovoltage of ZnO resin layers. Experiments were made by using ZnO-silicone resin layer, ZnO-alkyd resin layer, and ZnO-acryl resin layer. The surface potential of the dark adapted layers were measured while the ambient air pressure decreased, and the surface photovoltage and its decay curve were measured under various ambient air pressures. ZnO-silicone resin layer showed a remarkably high sensitivity in terms of surface photovoltage to the ambient air pressure changes. Marked variations were observed in the surface potential of the dark adapted layers both in air and in a vacuum of 5 x 10(-5) Torr when the layer temperature had been slowly raised. The surface potential exhibited a maximum peak when silicone resin was used as a binder and a minimum peak when alkyd resin or acryl resin was used, both peaks being registered at a temperature slightly higher than room temperature in air. After the layers had been annealed for a few hours at a high temperature, relationships between the surface photovoltage and the layer temperature were measured while the layer temperature decreased. The surface photovoltage and its decay of the ZnO-silicone resin layer revealed higher sensitivity to the changes of ambient air pressure and layer temperature than to those of other ZnO-resin layers. This difference is accounted for by a specific property of the silicone resin that enforces adsorption of the water molecule onto the surface of ZnO. Some applications of the above experiments are also discussed.

  6. A Modified Dynamic Surface Controller for Delayed Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibeji, Naji; Kirsch, Nicholas; Dicianno, Brad E; Sharma, Nitin

    2017-08-01

    A widely accepted model of muscle force generation during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a second-order nonlinear musculoskeletal dynamics cascaded to a delayed first-order muscle activation dynamics. However, most nonlinear NMES control methods have either neglected the muscle activation dynamics or used an ad hoc strategies to tackle the muscle activation dynamics, which may not guarantee control stability. We hypothesized that a nonlinear control design that includes muscle activation dynamics can improve the control performance. In this paper, a dynamic surface control (DSC) approach was used to design a PID-based NMES controller that compensates for EMD in the activation dynamics. Because the muscle activation is unmeasurable, a model based estimator was used to estimate the muscle activation in realtime. The Lyapunov stability analysis confirmed that the newly developed controller achieves semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) tracking for the musculoskeletal system. Experiments were performed on two able-bodied subjects and one spinal cord injury subject using a modified leg extension machine. These experiments illustrate the performance of the new controller and compare it to a previous PID-DC controller that did not consider muscle activation dynamics in the control design. These experiments support our hypothesis that a control design that includes muscle activation improves the NMES control performance.

  7. Eco-friendly aqueous core surface-modified nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, C; Musumeci, T; Lauro, M R; Puglisi, G

    2015-01-01

    In this work, positively charged nanocapsules have been developed for potential ocular delivery exploiting the deposition of PLA onto the droplet surface of a W/O nanoemulsion prepared by the reversed procedure of the PIT method. PLA in combination with different amounts of various oils and surfactants have been studied in order to select the best formulation for polymeric nanocapsule preparation. The traditional visual observation together with the Turbiscan(®) technology were exploited in order to identify the best combination of polymer/oil for nanocapsule preparation. Two different primary surfactants (Span(®) 60 and Span(®) 80) have been tested to select their influence on the field of existence of the nanoemulsion by the construction of the pseudoternary phase diagrams. Cationic hybrid NC have been prepared by the addition of a coating layer of DDAB. The physico-chemical and morphological properties of all the prepared nanocapsules have been evaluated and compared by PCS, DSC and AFM. Therefore, positively charged nanocapsules can be easily prepared by a simple eco-friendly technique that exploits biocompatible materials avoiding a large input of mechanical energy as a potential ocular delivery systems for hydrophilic compounds or gene materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of carbon embedding on the tribological properties of magnetic media surface with and without a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, M Abdul; Yang, H; Bhatia, C S; Sinha, S K

    2011-01-01

    Carbon embedding (≤1 nm) in the top surface of cobalt (∼100 nm) sputtered on a silicon surface is used as a surface modification technique to evaluate the tribological properties with or without an ultra-thin layer of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant. The carbon embedding is achieved using the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique at an ion energy of 90 eV. Transport of ions in matter simulations, time-of-flight secondary ion spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used to study the carbon embedding profiles and surface chemical composition. The XPS results show that carbon embedding using the ion energy of 90 eV results in the formation of about 58 ± 6% of tetrahedral (sp 3 ) carbon hybridization. Furthermore, the XPS results also show that the carbon embedding is effective in improving the anti-oxidation resistance of cobalt. Ball-on-disk tribological tests are conducted at a contact pressure of 0.26 GPa on the modified cobalt surface with or without the PFPE layer. It is observed that the average coefficient of friction is reduced considerably from a value of approximately 0.7 to 0.42 after the surface modification. The coefficient of friction is further reduced to ∼0.26 after the deposition of an ultra-thin layer of PFPE over the modified surface, which is lower than a friction coefficient of 0.4 from commercial media. The modified cobalt surface also shows much better wear life than the present day commercial media.

  9. Contact-free calibration of an asymmetric multi-layer interferometer for the surface force balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabajew, Marco; van Engers, Christian D.; Perkin, Susan

    2017-12-01

    The Surface Force Balance (SFB, also known as Surface Force Apparatus, SFA) has provided important insights into many phenomena within the field of colloid and interface science. The technique relies on using white light interferometry to measure the distance between surfaces with sub-nanometer resolution. Up until now, the determination of the distance between the surfaces required a so-called "contact calibration," an invasive procedure during which the surfaces are brought into mechanical contact. This requirement for a contact calibration limits the range of experimental systems that can be investigated with SFB, for example, it precludes experiments with substrates that would be irreversibly modified or damaged by mechanical contact. Here we present a non-invasive method to measure absolute distances without performing a contact calibration. The method can be used for both "symmetric" and "asymmetric" systems. We foresee many applications for this general approach including, most immediately, experiments using single layer graphene electrodes in the SFB which may be damaged when brought into mechanical contact.

  10. Patterning of gold nanoparticles on fluoropolymer films by using patterned surface grafting and layer-by-layer deposition techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang-Hee; Hwang, In-Tae; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak; Kwon, Oh-Sun; Shin, Kwanwoo

    2013-09-11

    The patterning of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the surface of a fluoropolymer substrate by using patterned surface grafting and layer-by-layer deposition techniques is described. The surface of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluorovinyl ether) (PFA) substrate was selectively implanted with 150 keV proton ions. Peroxide groups were successfully formed on the implanted PFA surface, and their concentration depended on the fluence. Acrylic acid was graft polymerized onto the implanted regions of the PFA substrate, resulting in well-defined patterns of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on the PFA substrate. The surface properties of the PAA-patterned PFA surface, such as chemical compositions, wettability, and morphology, were investigated. The surface analysis results revealed that PAA was definitely present on the implanted regions of the PFA surface, and the degree of grafting was dependent on three factors: fluence, grafting time, and monomer concentration. Furthermore, GNP patterns were generated on the prepared PAA-patterned PFA surface by layer-by-layer deposition of GNPs and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride). The multilayers of GNPs were deposited only onto the PAA-grafted regions separated by bare PFA regions, and the resulting GNP patterns exhibited good electrical conductivity.

  11. Laser-Modified Surface Enhances Osseointegration and Biomechanical Anchorage of Commercially Pure Titanium Implants for Bone-Anchored Hearing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Omar; Simonsson, Hanna; Palmquist, Anders; Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegrated implants inserted in the temporal bone are a vital component of bone-anchored hearing systems (BAHS). Despite low implant failure levels, early loading protocols and simplified procedures necessitate the application of implants which promote bone formation, bone bonding and biomechanical stability. Here, screw-shaped, commercially pure titanium implants were selectively laser ablated within the thread valley using an Nd:YAG laser to produce a microtopography with a superimposed nanotexture and a thickened surface oxide layer. State-of-the-art machined implants served as controls. After eight weeks’ implantation in rabbit tibiae, resonance frequency analysis (RFA) values increased from insertion to retrieval for both implant types, while removal torque (RTQ) measurements showed 153% higher biomechanical anchorage of the laser-modified implants. Comparably high bone area (BA) and bone-implant contact (BIC) were recorded for both implant types but with distinctly different failure patterns following biomechanical testing. Fracture lines appeared within the bone ~30–50 μm from the laser-modified surface, while separation occurred at the bone-implant interface for the machined surface. Strong correlations were found between RTQ and BIC and between RFA at retrieval and BA. In the endosteal threads, where all the bone had formed de novo, the extracellular matrix composition, the mineralised bone area and osteocyte densities were comparable for the two types of implant. Using resin cast etching, osteocyte canaliculi were observed directly approaching the laser-modified implant surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed canaliculi in close proximity to the laser-modified surface, in addition to a highly ordered arrangement of collagen fibrils aligned parallel to the implant surface contour. It is concluded that the physico-chemical surface properties of laser-modified surfaces (thicker oxide, micro- and nanoscale texture) promote bone bonding

  12. Lateral surface superlattices in strained InGaAs layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.

    2000-08-01

    Lateral Surface Superlattices were fabricated by etching in strained InGaAs layers above a GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG channel. These were etched both by dry plasma wet chemical etching to produce periods of 100nm, 200nm and 300nm. These superlattices were fabricated on Hall bars to allow four terminal measurement and a blanket gate was placed on top, to allow variations in the carrier concentration. The magnetoresistance effects of these superlattices were studied at varying values of gate voltage, which varies the carrier concentration and the electrostatic periodic potential and at temperatures down to 45mK in a dilution refrigerator. From the oscillations observed in the magnetoresistance trace's it is possible to calculate the magnitude of the periodic potential. This showed that the etched, strained InGaAs was producing an anisotropic piezoelectric potential, along with an isotropic electrostatic potential. The variation in period allowed a study of the change of this piezoelectric potential with the period as well as a study of the interactions between the electrostatic and piezoelectric potentials. Further, at the lowest temperatures a strong interaction was observed between the Commensurability Oscillations, caused by the periodic potential, and the Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations due to the Landau. Levels. This interaction was studied as it varied with temperature and carrier concentration. (author)

  13. Study on the Surface Microstructure of a Modified STD61 Steel Mold Used for the Die Casting Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ha-Young; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kang, Minwoo; Lee, Suk-Jin; Lee, Young-Kook [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Won Jon [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Suk; Kim, Byung-Hoon [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The surface microstructure and crack formation of an aluminum die-casting mold were investigated. The mold was made of a modified STD61 steel, and was used for more than 165,000 cycles. The mold surface consisted of four layers; an oxidized layer, a decarburized layer, a network carbide layer and a tempered martensite matrix. The depth down to the hardest network carbide layer was ⁓200 μm. Inside the matrix, M{sub 3}C transition carbides were dissolved so that solute C joined pre-existing M{sub 2}3C{sub 6} and MC carbides to make them coarse. About 60% of thermal fatigue cracks had a depth less than 200 μm due to the hard network carbide layer, which obstructed the propagation of cracks. Cracks of over 200 μm were filled with oxide wedges of Al and Si which was which flown from the molten alloy as well as the Fe oxide.

  14. Investigation of surface properties of physico-chemically modified natural fibres using inverse gas chromatography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cordeiro, N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a suitable method to determine surface energy of natural fibres when compared to wetting techniques. In the present study, the surface properties of raw and modified lignocellulosic fibres have been investigated...

  15. Supersmooth and modified surface of sapphire crystals: Formation, characterization, and applications in nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muslimov, A. E.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Butashin, A. V.; Vlasov, V. P.; Deryabin, A. N.; Roshchin, B. S.; Sulyanov, S. N.; Kanevsky, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    The results of studying the state of the surface of sapphire crystals by a complex of methods in different stages of crystal treatment are considered by an example of preparing sapphire substrates with a supersmooth surface. The possibility of purposefully forming regular micro- and nanoreliefs and thin transition layers using thermal and thermochemical impacts are considered. The advantages of sapphire substrates with a modified surface for forming heteroepitaxial CdTe and ZnO semiconductor films and ordered ensembles of gold nanoparticles are described. The results of the experiments on the application of crystalline sapphire as a material for X-ray optical elements are reported. These elements include total external reflection mirrors and substrates for multilayer mirrors, output windows for synchrotron radiation, and monochromators working in the reflection geometry in X-ray spectrometers. In the latter case, the problems of the defect structure of bulk crystals sapphire and the choice of a method for growing sapphire crystals of the highest structural quality are considered.

  16. Supersmooth and modified surface of sapphire crystals: Formation, characterization, and applications in nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, A. E.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Butashin, A. V.; Vlasov, V. P.; Deryabin, A. N.; Roshchin, B. S.; Sulyanov, S. N.; Kanevsky, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    The results of studying the state of the surface of sapphire crystals by a complex of methods in different stages of crystal treatment are considered by an example of preparing sapphire substrates with a supersmooth surface. The possibility of purposefully forming regular micro- and nanoreliefs and thin transition layers using thermal and thermochemical impacts are considered. The advantages of sapphire substrates with a modified surface for forming heteroepitaxial CdTe and ZnO semiconductor films and ordered ensembles of gold nanoparticles are described. The results of the experiments on the application of crystalline sapphire as a material for X-ray optical elements are reported. These elements include total external reflection mirrors and substrates for multilayer mirrors, output windows for synchrotron radiation, and monochromators working in the reflection geometry in X-ray spectrometers. In the latter case, the problems of the defect structure of bulk crystals sapphire and the choice of a method for growing sapphire crystals of the highest structural quality are considered.

  17. Influence of the surface structure on the filtration performance of UV-modified PES membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kæselev, Bozena Alicja; Kingshott, P.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    Poly (ether sulfone) (PES) 50 kDa membranes were surface modified by irradiation with UV light (254 nm) in the presence of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidine (NVP), 2-acrylamidoglycolic acid monohydrate (AAG) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AAP). The surfaces of the modified membranes were c...

  18. Anion-intercalated layered double hydroxides modified test strips for detection of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Sun, Jianchao; Fan, Hai; Ai, Shiyun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a novel approach for facile and rapid detection of heavy metal ions using anion-intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified test strips is demonstrated. By intercalating Fe(CN)6(4-) or S(2-) anions into the interlayers of LDHs on the filter paper, various heavy metal ions can be easily detected based on the color change before and after reaction between the anions and the heavy metal ions. Upon the dropping of heavy metal ions solutions to the test strips, the colors of the test strips changed instantly, which can be easily observed by naked eyes. With the decrease of the concentration, the color depth changed obviously. The lowest detection concentration can be up to 1×10(-6) mol L(-1). Due to the easily intercalation of anions into the interlayer of the LDHs on test trips, this procedure provides a general method for the construction of LDHs modified test strips for detection of heavy metal ions. The stability of the prepared test strips is investigated. Furthermore, all the results were highly reproducible. The test strips may have potential applications in environmental monitoring fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainev Dmitriy V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process and the formation of the quality of the surface machined. This effect has been confirmed by the study results of the combined cutting method with advanced plastic deformation (APD. The work estimates the impact of the change in the surface layer properties on the forces and temperature of cutting, stability of the chip formation and quality parameters of the surface machined.

  20. A modified low-temperature wafer bonding method using spot pressing bonding technique and water glass adhesive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Shengkai; Wang, Yinghui; Chen, Dapeng

    2018-02-01

    A modified low-temperature wafer bonding method using a spot pressing bonding technique and a water glass adhesive layer is proposed. The electrical properties of the water glass layer has been studied by capacitance–voltage (C–V) and electric current–voltage (I–V) measurements. It is found that the adhesive layer can be regarded as a good insulator in terms of leakage current density. The bonding mechanism and the motion of bubbles during the thermal treatment are investigated. The dominant factor for the bubble motion in the modified bonding process is the gradient of pressure introduced by the spot pressing force. It is proved that the modified method achieves low-temperature adhesive bonding, minimizes the effect of water desorption, and provides good bonding performance.

  1. Enhancing osseointegration using surface-modified titanium implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Oh, N.; Liu, Y.; Chen, W.; Oh, S.; Appleford, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, K.; Park, S.; Bumgardner, J.; Haggard, W.; Ong, J.

    2006-07-01

    Osseointegrated dental implants are used to replace missing teeth. The success of implants is due to osseointegration or the direct contact of the implant surface and bone without a fibrous connective tissue interface. This review discusses the enhancement of osseointegration by means of anodized microporous titanium surfaces, functionally macroporous graded titanium coatings, nanoscale titanium surfaces, and different bioactive factors.

  2. Multi-scale cell/surface interaction on modified titanium aluminum vanadium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo

    This dissertation presents a series of experimental studies of the effects of multi-scale cell/surface interactions on modified Ti-6Al-4V surfaces. These include laser-grooved surfaces; porous structures and RGD-coated laser-grooved surfaces. A nano-second DPSS UV lasers with a Gaussian pulse energy profile was used to introduce the desired micro-groove geometries onto Ti-6Al-4V surfaces. This was done without inducing micro-cracks or significant changes in surface chemistry within the heat affected zones. The desired 8-12 mum groove depths and widths were achieved by the control of pulse frequency, scan speed, and the lens focal length that controls spot size. The interactions between human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and laser-grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces were investigated after 48 hours of cell culture. The cell behavior, including cell spreading, alignment and adhesion, was elucidated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), immuno-fluorescence staining and enzymatic detachment. Contact guidance was shown to increase as grooved spacing decreased. For the range of micro-groove geometries studied, micro-grooves with groove spacings of 20 mum provided the best combination of cell orientation and adhesion. Short-term adhesion experiments (15 mins to 1 day) also revealed that there is a positive correlation between cell orientation and cell adhesion. Contact guidance on the micro-grooved surfaces is shown to be enhanced by nano- and micro-scale asperities that provide sites for the attachment of lamellopodia during cell locomotion and spreading. Contact guidance is also promoted by the geometrical confinement provided by laser grooves. An experimental study of initial cell spreading and ingrowth into Ti-6Al-4V porous structures was also carried out on porous structures with different pore sizes and geometries. A combination of SEM, the tetrazolium salt (MTT) colorimetric assay and enzymatic detachment were used to study cell spreading and adhesion. The extent of cell

  3. Development of genetically modified eliminable human dermal fibroblast feeder cells for ocular surface regeneration medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingli; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Takamatsu, Fumihiko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-11-15

    Cultured human corneal limbal stem/progenitor cells are usually established and maintained on feeder layers. However, animal feeder cells are associated with viral infection, pathogen transmission, and xenogenic contamination. All feeder cells also can be mixed easily into cell-sheet production, causing self-contamination. We developed a line of labeled, immortalized, eliminable human dermal fibroblast cells to eliminate these problems. The enhanced green fluorescent protein gene, human-derived telomerase reverse transcriptase gene, and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene were transfected into human dermal fibroblast cells to establish labeled, immortalized, eliminable feeder cells. Established eliminable dermal fibroblasts (TERT+TK-D) were treated with mitomycin, cocultured with human limbal stem/progenitor cells to regenerate epithelium sheets, and compared with 3T3 feeder cells. Established TERT+TK-D feeder cells maintained immortalization, visualization, and eliminable characteristics during 6 months of continuous passages. The colony-forming efficiency of limbal stem/progenitor cells was similar in the TERT+TK-D group (11.77 ± 0.21%) and the 3T3 group (12.8 ± 1.61%) (P = 0.332). All cell sheets were well stratified into 4 to 5 layers. The TERT+TK-D group colonies and epithelial cell sheets showed weaker staining of corneal epithelium differentiation marker K3 than the 3T3 group and quantitative analysis of mRNA transcripts. Moreover, PCR analysis against the long terminal repeat sequence of the lentiviral vector integrated into the genetically modified feeder cells showed no contamination of ganciclovir-treated regeneration epithelial sheets. Genetically modified, labeled, immortalized, eliminable human dermal feeder cells are promising substitutes for 3T3 feeder cells for xenogeny-free ocular surface regeneration.

  4. Electrochemical Cathodic Polarization, a Simplified Method That Can Modified and Increase the Biological Activity of Titanium Surfaces: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Bernedo Alcazar

    Full Text Available The cathodic polarization seems to be an electrochemical method capable of modifying and coat biomolecules on titanium surfaces, improving the surface activity and promoting better biological responses.The aim of the systematic review is to assess the scientific literature to evaluate the cellular response produced by treatment of titanium surfaces by applying the cathodic polarization technique.The literature search was performed in several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Scielo and EBSCO Host, until June 2016, with no limits used. Eligibility criteria were used and quality assessment was performed following slightly modified ARRIVE and SYRCLE guidelines for cellular studies and animal research.Thirteen studies accomplished the inclusion criteria and were considered in the review. The quality of reporting studies in animal models was low and for the in vitro studies it was high. The in vitro and in vivo results reported that the use of cathodic polarization promoted hydride surfaces, effective deposition, and adhesion of the coated biomolecules. In the experimental groups that used the electrochemical method, cellular viability, proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, or bone growth were better or comparable with the control groups.The use of the cathodic polarization method to modify titanium surfaces seems to be an interesting method that could produce active layers and consequently enhance cellular response, in vitro and in vivo animal model studies.

  5. Effect of plasma surface functionalization on preosteoblast cells spreading and adhesion on a biomimetic hydroxyapatite layer formed on a titanium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Sung Woon; Ko, Yeong Mu; Kim, Byung Hoon, E-mail: kim5055@chosun.ac.kr

    2013-12-15

    This study examined the plasma surface modification of biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) formed on a titanium (Ti) surface as well as its influence on the behavior of preosteoblast cells. Ti substrates pre-treated with a plasma-polymerized thin film rich in carboxyl groups were subjected to a biomimetic process in a simulated body fluid solution to synthesize the HAp. The HAp layer grown on Ti substrate was then coated with two types of plasma polymerized acrylic acid and allyl amine thin film. The different types of Ti substrates were characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. HAp with a Ca/P ratio from 1.25 to 1.38 was obtained on the Ti substrate and hydrophilic carboxyl (-COOH) and amine (-NH{sub 2}) functional groups were introduced to its surface. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface of the HAp coatings and the morphology of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results showed that the -COOH-modified HAp surfaces promoted the cell spreading synergistically by changing the surface morphology and chemical state.-NH{sub 2} modified HAp had the lowest cell spreading and proliferation compared to HAp and -COOH-modified HAp. These results correspond to fluorescein analysis, which showed many more cell spreading of COOH/HAp/Ti surface compared to HAp and NH{sub 2} modified HAp. A MTT assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation. The results showed that the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells increased in the order of COOH/HAp/Ti > HAp/Ti > NH{sub 2}/Ti > Ti, corresponding to the effect of cell spreading for 6 days. The change in morphology and the chemical surface properties of the biomaterial via plasma polymerization can affect the behavior of MC3T3-E1 cells.

  6. Surface analysis of topmost layer of epitaxial layered oxide thin film: Application to delafossite oxide for oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kenji; Adachi, Hideaki; Miyata, Nobuhiro; Hinogami, Reiko; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2018-02-01

    Delafossite oxides (ABO2) have a layered structure with alternating layers of A and B elements, the topmost layer of which appears to determine their performance, such as the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity. In this study, we investigated the topmost layer of single-domain (0 0 1)-oriented AgCoO2 epitaxial thin film for potential use as an OER catalyst. The thin film was confirmed to possess OER activity at a level comparable to the catalyst in powder form. Atomic scattering spectroscopy revealed the topmost layer to be composed of CoO6 octahedra. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that the oxidation of Co at the surface did not change under different potentials, which suggests that there is no valence fluctuation of Co in the stable CoO6 octahedral structure. However, the oxidation number of Co at the surface was lower than that in the bulk. Our density functional theoretical calculations also showed the Co atoms at the surface to have a slightly higher electron occupancy than those in the bulk, and suggests that the unoccupied t2g states of Co at the surface have an influence on OER activity.

  7. Attenuation of Temperature Fluctuations on an External Surface of the Wall by a Phase Change Material-Activated Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Heim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodical changes of temperature on an external surface of building envelope, e.g., thermal stress or excessive heat gains, is often an undesirable phenomenon. The idea proposed and described in the following paper is to stabilize the external surface temperature in a period of significant heat gains by the originally developed, novel composite modified by phase change material (PCM and applied as an external, thin finishing plaster layer. The PCM composite is made from porous, granulated perlite soaked with paraffin wax (Tm = 25 °C and macro-encapsulated by synthetic resin. The effect of temperature attenuation was estimated for two designated periods of time—the heat gains season (HGS and the heat losses season (HLS. The attenuation coefficient (AC was proposed as evaluation parameter of isothermal storage of heat gains determining the reduction of temperature fluctuations. The maximum registered temperature of an external surface for a standard insulation layer was around 20 K higher than for the case modified by PCM. The calculated values of AC were relatively constant during HGS and around two times lower for PCM case. The obtained results confirmed that the proposed modification of an external partition by equipped with additional PCM layer can be effectively used to minimize temperature variations and heat flux in the heat gains season.

  8. Screen-printed carbon electrode modified on its surface with amorphous carbon nitride thin film: Electrochemical and morphological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamouss, F. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France); Tessier, P.-Y. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Djouadi, A. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Besland, M.-P. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Boujtita, M. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France)]. E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.fr

    2007-04-20

    The surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified by using amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN {sub x}) thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to characterise respectively the morphology and the chemical structure of the a-CN {sub x} modified electrodes. The incorporation of nitrogen in the amorphous carbon network was demonstrated by X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The a-CN {sub x} layers were deposited on both carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) and silicon (Si) substrates. A comparative study showed that the nature of substrate, i.e. SPCE and Si, has a significant effect on both the surface morphology of deposited a-CN {sub x} film and their electrochemical properties. The improvement of the electrochemical reactivity of SPCE after a-CN {sub x} film deposition was highlighted both by comparing the shapes of voltammograms and calculating the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant.

  9. Surface modification of layered zirconium phosphates: a novel pathway to multifunctional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Brian M; Díaz, Agustín; Clearfield, Abraham

    2014-07-21

    The intercalation of inorganic layered materials has resulted in a wide range of applicability. In such cases the applicability of the material is largely dependent upon the species intercalated within the layer, and the layered material acts largely as a host. Recently, the surface modification of inorganic layered materials has been investigated and it has been shown that the exterior layers can be exclusively functionalized. The advent of surface chemistry allows for the synthesis of particles with both a controlled interlayer and surface. This approach can be used to tailor nanoparticles for specific applications. Herein we review the surface chemistry of α-zirconium bis(monohydrogen orthophosphate) monohydrate (Zr(HPO4)2·H2O, α-ZrP) along with some applications of recent interest. Not only can these reactions be applied to α-ZrP, but similar chemistry can also be expanded to other layered materials and systems.

  10. Identification of a surface layer structure and analysis of humidity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    institutional effort to probe the atmospheric boundary layer over the monsoon trough over northern India. For this experiment, four micrometeorological towers were set up at four different locations along the normal position of the trough. One such ...

  11. Modelling of deformation process for the layer of elastoviscoplastic media under surface action of periodic force of arbitrary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheyev, V. V.; Saveliev, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Description of deflected mode for different types of materials under action of external force plays special role for wide variety of applications - from construction mechanics to circuits engineering. This article con-siders the problem of plastic deformation of the layer of elastoviscolastic soil under surface periodic force. The problem was solved with use of the modified lumped parameters approach which takes into account close to real distribution of normal stress in the depth of the layer along with changes in local mechanical properties of the material taking place during plastic deformation. Special numeric algorithm was worked out for computer modeling of the process. As an example of application suggested algorithm was realized for the deformation of the layer of elasoviscoplastic material by the source of external lateral force with the parameters of real technological process of soil compaction.

  12. Impacts of Ocean Waves on the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Simulations and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    than about 5 m s −1 (Makin, Kudryavtsev & Mastenbroek 1995; Banner & Peirson 1998). Ocean boundary layers with vortex force and stochastic breaking...amplitude. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 342, 157–174. Makin, V. K., Kudryavtsev , V. N. & Mastenbroek, C. 1995 Drag of the sea surface. Boundary- Layer Met. 73...to study some of the impacts of fast-moving waves on marine surface layers (e.g., Gent and Taylor 1976; Gent 1977; Li 1995; Kudryavtsev and Makin 2004

  13. A Chemical-Adsorption Strategy to Enhance the Reaction Kinetics of Lithium-Rich Layered Cathodes via Double-Shell Surface Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lichao; Li, Jiajun; Cao, Tingting; Wang, Huayu; Zhao, Naiqin; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Liu, Enzuo

    2016-09-21

    Sluggish surface reaction kinetics hinders the power density of Li-ion battery. Thus, various surface modification techniques have been applied to enhance the electronic/ionic transfer kinetics. However, it is challenging to obtain a continuous and uniform surface modification layer on the prime particles with structure integration at the interface. Instead of classic physical-adsorption/deposition techniques, we propose a novel chemical-adsorption strategy to synthesize double-shell modified lithium-rich layered cathodes with enhanced mass transfer kinetics. On the basis of experimental measurement and first-principles calculation, MoO2S2 ions are proved to joint the layered phase via chemical bonding. Specifically, the Mo-O or Mo-S bonds can flexibly rotate to bond with the cations in the layered phase, leading to the good compatibility between the thiomolybdate adsorption layer and layered cathode. Followed by annealing treatment, the lithium-excess-spinel inner shell forms under the thiomolybdate adsorption layer and functions as favorable pathways for lithium and electron. Meanwhile, the nanothick MoO3-x(SO4)x outer shell protects the transition metal from dissolution and restrains electrolyte decomposition. The double-shell modified sample delivers an enhanced discharge capacity almost twice as much as that of the unmodified one at 1 A g(-1) after 100 cycles, demonstrating the superiority of the surface modification based on chemical adsorption.

  14. Layer-by-Layer Method for the Synthesis and Growth of Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks (SURMOFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shekhah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A layer-by-layer method has been developed for the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs and their deposition on functionalized organic surfaces. The approach is based on the sequential immersion of functionalized organic surfaces into solutions of the building blocks of the MOF, i.e., the organic ligand and the inorganic unit. The synthesis and growth of different types of MOFs on substrates with different functionalization, like COOH, OH and pyridine terminated surfaces, were studied and characterized with different surface characterization techniques. A controlled and highly oriented growth of very homogenous films was obtained using this method. The layer-by-layer method offered also the possibility to study the kinetics of film formation in more detail using surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance. In addition, this method demonstrates the potential to synthesize new classes of MOFs not accessible by conventional methods. Finally, the controlled growth of MOF thin films is important for many applications like chemical sensors, membranes and related electrodes.

  15. A study of structure and properties of molecularly thin methanol film using the modified surface forces apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gutian; Cai, Di; Wu, Gensheng; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Yin; Xiang, Nan

    2014-11-01

    A novel approach for studying the adsorption and evaporation processes of molecularly thin methanol film by the modified surface forces apparatus (M-SFA) is reported. This method can be used precisely to measure the thickness, morphology, and mechanical properties of the film confined between two mica surfaces in a real-time manner at gas atmosphere. By observing the adsorption and evaporation processes of the methanol molecule, it is found that the first adsorbed layer of the methanol film on the mica surface behaves as a solid-like structure. The thickness of this layer is measured to be about 3.2 Å, approximately equal to the diameter of a methanol molecule. Besides, this first adsorbed layer can carry normalized loads of more than 5.6 atm due to the carrying capacity conserved by the bond of mica-OH. The outer layers of the methanol film are further adsorbed with the increase of the exposure time, which are liquid-like and can be easily eliminated out from the substrate. The present study suggests that the interacting mode between hydroxy and mica is of great potential in material science and biomedical systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Silicalite-1 zeolite membranes on unmodified and modified surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicalite-1 zeolite membranes were prepared hydrothermally on the porous ceramic supports, both unmodified and modified with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) as a coupling agent following ex situ (secondary) crystal growth process. The microstructure of the membranes was examined by scanning electron ...

  17. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  18. Modified surface testing method for large convex aspheric surfaces based on diffraction optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haidong; Wang, Xiaokun; Xue, Donglin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2017-12-01

    Large convex aspheric optical elements have been widely applied in advanced optical systems, which have presented a challenging metrology problem. Conventional testing methods cannot satisfy the demand gradually with the change of definition of "large." A modified method is proposed in this paper, which utilizes a relatively small computer-generated hologram and an illumination lens with certain feasibility to measure the large convex aspherics. Two example systems are designed to demonstrate the applicability, and also, the sensitivity of this configuration is analyzed, which proves the accuracy of the configuration can be better than 6 nm with careful alignment and calibration of the illumination lens in advance. Design examples and analysis show that this configuration is applicable to measure the large convex aspheric surfaces.

  19. Thiol-ene thermosets exploiting surface reactivity for layer-by-layer structures and control of penetration depth for selective surface reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Westh, Andreas; Pereira Rosinha Grundtvig, Ines

    Thiol-ene thermosets have been shown to be an efficient platform for preparation of functional polymer surfaces. Especially the effectiveness and versatility of the system has enabled a large variety of network properties to be obtained in a simple and straight-forward way. Due to its selectivity...... groups in thµe surface of thiol-ene thermosets, it is possible to prepare surface functional thermosets or to exploit the reactive groups for modular construction and subsequent chemical bonding. Here a different approach preparing monolithic layer-by-layer structures with controlled mechanical...... in controlling the penetration depth and surface grafting. The methodology was used for surface immobilization of enzymes providing a direct link between the distribution of enzymes on the surface and the activity of the reactor....

  20. Covalent attachment of cell-adhesive peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (GRGD) to poly(etheretherketone) surface by tailored silanization layers technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yanyan [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, Chengdong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhang, Lifang, E-mail: zhanglfcioc@163.com [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • The carbonyl groups on PEEK surface were effectively reduced to hydroxyl groups using sodium borohydride. • Silanization layers technique was employed to immobilize the cell-adhesive peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (GRGD) on hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK sheet surface by covalent chemical attachment. • XPS, surface profiler and water contact angle measurements proved the presence of GRGD on PEEK surface. • Osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) attachment and proliferation were improved effectively on GRGD-modified PEEK surface. - Abstract: Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semicrystalline polymer that combines excellent mechanical properties, broad chemical resistance and bone-like stiffness and is widely used in biomedical fields. However, PEEK is naturally bioinert, leading to limited biomedical applications, especially when a direct bone-implant osteointegration is desired. In this study, a three-step reaction procedure was employed to immobilize the cell-adhesive peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (GRGD) on the surface of PEEK sheet by covalent chemical attachment to favor cell adhesion and proliferation. First, hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK surfaces were silanized with 7-Oct-1-enyltrichlorosilane (OETS) in dry cyclohexane, resulting in a silanization layer with terminal ethenyl. Second, the terminal ethylenic double bonds of the silanization layer on PEEK surface were converted to carboxyl groups through acidic potassium manganate oxidation. Finally, GRGD was covalently attached by carbodiimide mediated condensation between the carboxyl on PEEK surface and amine presents in GRGD. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, surface profiler and water contact angle measurements were applied to characterize the modified surfaces. The effect of cells attachment and proliferation on each specimen was investigated. Pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) attachment, spreading and proliferation

  1. Covalent attachment of cell-adhesive peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (GRGD) to poly(etheretherketone) surface by tailored silanization layers technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Xiong, Chengdong; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lifang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The carbonyl groups on PEEK surface were effectively reduced to hydroxyl groups using sodium borohydride. • Silanization layers technique was employed to immobilize the cell-adhesive peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (GRGD) on hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK sheet surface by covalent chemical attachment. • XPS, surface profiler and water contact angle measurements proved the presence of GRGD on PEEK surface. • Osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) attachment and proliferation were improved effectively on GRGD-modified PEEK surface. - Abstract: Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semicrystalline polymer that combines excellent mechanical properties, broad chemical resistance and bone-like stiffness and is widely used in biomedical fields. However, PEEK is naturally bioinert, leading to limited biomedical applications, especially when a direct bone-implant osteointegration is desired. In this study, a three-step reaction procedure was employed to immobilize the cell-adhesive peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (GRGD) on the surface of PEEK sheet by covalent chemical attachment to favor cell adhesion and proliferation. First, hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK surfaces were silanized with 7-Oct-1-enyltrichlorosilane (OETS) in dry cyclohexane, resulting in a silanization layer with terminal ethenyl. Second, the terminal ethylenic double bonds of the silanization layer on PEEK surface were converted to carboxyl groups through acidic potassium manganate oxidation. Finally, GRGD was covalently attached by carbodiimide mediated condensation between the carboxyl on PEEK surface and amine presents in GRGD. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, surface profiler and water contact angle measurements were applied to characterize the modified surfaces. The effect of cells attachment and proliferation on each specimen was investigated. Pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) attachment, spreading and proliferation

  2. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan, E-mail: ajgu@suda.edu.cn; Liang, Guozheng, E-mail: lgzheng@suda.edu.cn

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • A green technology is setup to build unique surface structure on aramid fiber (AF). • The method is layer-by-layer self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and layered double hydroxide. • The surface of AF is adjustable by controlling the self-assembly cycle number. • New AF has excellent surface activity, anti-UV, thermal and mechanical properties. • The origin behind attractive performances of new AFs was intensively studied. - Abstract: Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91–95%, about 29–14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and

  3. A literature review of surface alteration layer effects on waste glass behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    When in contact with an aqueous solution, nuclear waste glass is subject to a chemical attack that results in progressive alteration. During tills alteration, constituent elements of the glass pass into the solution; elements initially in solution diffuse into, or are adsorbed onto, the solid; and new phases appear. This results in the formation of surface layers on the reacted glass. The glass corrosion and radionuclide release can be better understood by investigating these surface layer effects. In the past decade, there have been numerous studies regarding the effects of surface layers on glass reactions. This paper presents a systematic analysis and summary of the past knowledge regarding the effects of surface layers on glass-water interaction. This paper describes the major formation mechanisms of surface layers; reviews the role of surface layers in controlling mass transport and glass reaction affinity (through crystalline phases, an amorphous silica, a gel layer, or all the components in the glass); and discusses how the surface layers contribute to the retention of radionuclides during glass dissolution

  4. Characterization of a surface modified carbon cryogel and a carbon supported Pt catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA M. BABIĆ

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A carbon cryogel, synthesized by carbonization of a resorcinol/formaldehyde cryogel and oxidized in nitric acid, was used as catalyst support for Pt nano-particles. The Pt/C catalyst was prepared by a modified polyol synthesis method in an ethylene glycol (EG solution. Characterization by nitrogen adsorption showed that the carbon cryogel support and the Pt/C catalyst were mesoporous materials with high specific surface areas (SBET > 400 m2 g-1 and large mesoporous volumes. X-Ray diffraction of the catalyst demonstrated the successful reduction of the Pt precursor to metallic form. TEM Images of the Pt/C catalyst and Pt particle size distribution showed that the mean Pt particle size was about 3.3 nm. Cyclic voltammetry (CV experiments at various scan rates (from 2 to 200 mV s-1 were performed in 0.5 mol dm-3 HClO4 solution. The large capacitance of the oxidized carbon cryogel electrode, which arises from a combination of the double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, associated with the participation of surface redox-type reactions was demonstrated. For the oxidized carbon cryogel, the total specific capacitance determined by 1/C vs. ν0.5 extrapolation method was found to be 386 F g-1. The hydrogen oxidation reaction at the investigated Pt/C catalyst proceeded as an electrochemically reversible, two-electron direct discharge reaction.

  5. Surface modified natural zeolite as a carrier for sustained diclofenac release: A preliminary feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Bruno; Catalanotti, Lilia; Cappelletti, Piergiulio; Langella, Alessio; Mercurio, Mariano; Serri, Carla; Biondi, Marco; Mayol, Laura

    2015-06-01

    In view of zeolite potentiality as a carrier for sustained drug release, a clinoptilolite-rich rock from California (CLI_CA) was superficially modified with cetylpyridinium chloride and loaded with diclofenac sodium (DS). The obtained surface modified natural zeolites (SMNZ) were characterized by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD) and laser light scattering (LS). Their flowability properties, drug adsorption and in vitro release kinetics in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) were also investigated. CLI_CA is a Na- and K-rich clinoptilolite with a cationic exchange ability that fits well with its zeolite content (clinoptilolite=80 wt%); the external cationic exchange capacity is independent of the cationic surfactant used. LS and CLSM analyses have shown a wide distribution of volume diameters of SMNZ particles that, along with their irregular shape, make them cohesive with scarce flow properties. CLSM observation has revealed the localization of different molecules in/on SMNZ by virtue of their chemical nature. In particular, cationic and polar probes prevalently localize in SMNZ bulk, whereas anionic probes preferentially arrange themselves on SMNZ surface and the loading of a nonpolar molecule in/on SMNZ is discouraged. The adsorption rate of DS onto SMNZ was shown by different kinetic models highlighting the fact that DS adsorption is a pseudo-second order reaction and that the diffusion through the boundary layer is the rate-controlling step of the process. DS release in an ionic medium, such as SIF, can be sustained for about 5h through a mechanism prevalently governed by anionic exchange with a rapid final phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Alignment of liquid crystals : on geometrically and chemically modified surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of two main parts. The first part describes a new model to explain the complex role of surface materials and surface geometry in the liquid crystal (LC) alignment, which has been a subject of intensive debate over the last 40 years. The second part presents a potentially cost

  7. Surface passivation investigation on ultra-thin atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide layers for their potential application to form tunnel layer passivated contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zheng; Ling, Zhi Peng; Nandakumar, Naomi; Kaur, Gurleen; Ke, Cangming; Liao, Baochen; Aberle, Armin G.; Stangl, Rolf

    2017-08-01

    The surface passivation performance of atomic layer deposited ultra-thin aluminium oxide layers with different thickness in the tunnel layer regime, i.e., ranging from one atomic cycle (∼0.13 nm) to 11 atomic cycles (∼1.5 nm) on n-type silicon wafers is studied. The effect of thickness and thermal activation on passivation performance is investigated with corona-voltage metrology to measure the interface defect density D it(E) and the total interface charge Q tot. Furthermore, the bonding configuration variation of the AlO x films under various post-deposition thermal activation conditions is analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) is used as capping layer on ultra-thin AlO x tunneling layers to further reduce the surface recombination current density to values as low as 42 fA/cm2. This work is a useful reference for using ultra-thin ALD AlO x layers as tunnel layers in order to form hole selective passivated contacts for silicon solar cells.

  8. Copper hexacyanoferrate formation on the modified silica surface with DAB-Am-16 dendrimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Devaney R. do; Gabriel Junior, Suelino; Bicalho, Urquisa O.; Paim, Leonardo L.

    2009-01-01

    The dendrimer hexadecamine poly(propylene)imine (DAB-Am-16) of third generation (G-3) was anchored on the silica gel surface. The modified silica interact easily with Cu 2+ and then with hexacyanoferrate to form copper hexacyanoferrate. The modified silica was characterized by following techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and cyclic voltammetry. As application of the composite obtained, the modified silica containing copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCFSD) was tested for a voltammetric determination of nitrite using a graphite paste modified electrode. The modified graphite paste electrode can be applied also to the determination of others biological substances with success. (author)

  9. Synergistic Effect of Superhydrophobicity and Oxidized Layers on Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloy Surface Textured by Nanosecond Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Modestov, Alexander D; Domantovsky, Alexandr G; Emelyanenko, Kirill A

    2015-09-02

    We report a new efficient method for fabricating a superhydrophobic oxidized surface of aluminum alloys with enhanced resistance to pitting corrosion in sodium chloride solutions. The developed coatings are considered very prospective materials for the automotive industry, shipbuilding, aviation, construction, and medicine. The method is based on nanosecond laser treatment of the surface followed by chemisorption of a hydrophobic agent to achieve the superhydrophobic state of the alloy surface. We have shown that the surface texturing used to fabricate multimodal roughness of the surface may be simultaneously used for modifying the physicochemical properties of the thick surface layer of the substrate itself. Electrochemical and wetting experiments demonstrated that the superhydrophobic state of the metal surface inhibits corrosion processes in chloride solutions for a few days. However, during long-term contact of a superhydrophobic coating with a solution, the wetted area of the coating is subjected to corrosion processes due to the formation of defects. In contrast, the combination of an oxide layer with good barrier properties and the superhydrophobic state of the coating provides remarkable corrosion resistance. The mechanisms for enhancing corrosion protective properties are discussed.

  10. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.

    picture of the actual inversion phenomena occurring in this area. Figure 1 illustrates the procedure adopted in finding the inversion stations. If the temperature difference (Del T) obtained from (T U –T L ) is greater than 0.2°C, then the station... is more or less consistent. Figure 3-A shows the frequency distribution of temperature difference of the inversion layer (Del T). Figure 3-B shows the frequency distribution of the thickness of the inversion layers in meters (Di). Del T is distributed over...

  11. Expansible apparatus for removing the surface layer from a concrete object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing the surface layer from a concrete object are described. The method consists of providing a hole having a circular wall in the surface layer of the object, the hole being at least as deep as the thickness of the surface layer to be removed, and applying an outward wedging pressure on the wall of the hole sufficient to spall the surface layer around the hole. By the proper spacing of an appropriate number of holes, it is possible to remove the entire surface layer. The apparatus consists of an elongated tubular-shaped body having a relatively short handle with a solid wall at one end. The wall of the remainder of the body contains a plurality of evenly spaced longitudinal cuts to form a relatively long expandable section. The outer end of the expandable section has an expandable, wedge-shaped spalling edge extending from the outer surface of the wall, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body, and expanding means in the body for outwardly expanding the expandable section and forcing the spalling edge into the wall of a hole with sufficient outward pressure to spall away the surface layer of concrete. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for removing surface layers of concrete which are radioactively contaminated

  12. Molecular Layer Deposition-Modified 5A Zeolite for Highly Efficient CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhuonan; Dong, Qiaobei; Xu, Weiwei L; Zhou, Fanglei; Liang, Xinhua; Yu, Miao

    2018-01-10

    Effective pore mouth size of 5A zeolite was engineered by depositing an ultrathin layer of microporous TiO 2 on its external surface and appropriate pore misalignment at the interface. As a result, a slightly bigger N 2 molecule (kinetic diameter: 0.364 nm) was effectively excluded, whereas CO 2 (kinetic diameter: 0.33 nm) adsorption was only influenced slightly. The prepared composite zeolite sorbents showed an ideal CO 2 /N 2 adsorption selectivity as high as ∼70, a 4-fold increase over uncoated zeolite sorbents, while maintaining a high CO 2 adsorption capacity (1.62 mmol/g at 0.5 bar and 25 °C) and a fast CO 2 adsorption rate.

  13. Effect of laser modified surface microtopochemistry on endothelial cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, A C; Rouais, F; Lazare, S; Bordenave, L; Baquey, Ch

    2007-02-15

    The introduction of microelectronics technology in the area of biological sciences has brought forth previously unforeseeable applications such as DNA or protein biochips, miniaturized, multiparametric biosensors for high performance multianalyte assays, DNA sequencing, biocomputers, and substrates for controlled cell growth (i.e. tissue engineering). We developed and investigated a new method using "cold" excimer laser beam technology combined with microlithographical techniques to create surfaces with well defined 3D microdomains in order to delineate critical microscopic surface features governing cell-material interactions. Microfabricated surfaces with microgrooves 30-3 microm deep, 10 - 1 microm wide spaced 30 microm apart were obtained with micron resolution, by "microsculpturing" polymer model surfaces using a computer controlled laser KrF excimer beam coupled with a microlithographic projection technique. The laser beam after exiting a mask was focused onto the polymer target surface via an optical setup allowing for a 10-fold reduction of the mask pattern. Various 3D micropatterned features were obtained at the micron level. Reproducible submicron features could also be obtained using this method. Subsequently, model human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured on the laser microfabricated surfaces in order to study the effects of specific microscopic surface features on cell deposition and orientation. Cell deposition patterns were found to be microstructure dependant, and showed cell orientation dependency for features in the cell range dimension, a behaviour significantly different from that of a previously studied cell model (osteoprogenitor cell). This model may be a promising in so far as it is very rapid (a time frame less than a second per square centimeter of micropatterned surface) and provides further insights into the effects of surface microtopography on cell response with possible applications in the field of biosensors

  14. Surface modification of passive iron by alkyl-phosphonic acid layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paszternak, A. [Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67 (Hungary); Stichleutner, S. [Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, 1117 Budapest, Pazmany P. setany 1/a (Hungary); Felhosi, I.; Keresztes, Z. [Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67 (Hungary); Nagy, F.; Kuzmann, E.; Vertes, A.; Homonnay, Z. [Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, 1117 Budapest, Pazmany P. setany 1/a (Hungary); Peto, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege ut 29-33 (Hungary); Kalman, E. [Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67 (Hungary)], E-mail: erika.kalman@chemres.hu

    2007-12-01

    Phosphonate layer formation on passive iron surface has been investigated by electrochemical, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Electrochemical methods revealed that the prepassivation of iron surface results in stabilization of the phosphonate layer exhibiting favorable corrosion resistance. The rate of anodic dissolution is continuously decreasing due to the time-dependent formation of a protective phosphonate layer. The large R{sub ct} values of 1-20 M{omega} cm{sup 2} indicate rather high blocking effect of metal dissolution by the phosphonate layer. The phosphonate layer formation has been also followed by the decrease of capacitance. CEMS investigations were carried out to evaluate the differences in the composition of the passive layer as a result of the phosphonate treatment. Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated the presence of iron phosphonate. Changes in morphology due to the phosphonate layer formation have been observed.

  15. A Strontium-Modified Titanium Surface Produced by a New Method and Its Biocompatibility In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundong Liu

    Full Text Available To present a new and effective method of producing titanium surfaces modified with strontium and to investigate the surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of titanium (Ti surfaces modified with strontium (Sr for bone implant applications.Sr-modified Ti surfaces were produced by sequential treatments with NaOH, strontium acetate, heat and water. The surface characteristics and the concentration of the Sr ions released from the samples were examined. Cell adhesion, morphology and growth were investigated using osteoblasts isolated from the calvaria of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. Expression of osteogenesis-related genes and proteins was examined to assess the effect of the Sr-modified Ti surfaces on osteoblasts.The modified titanium surface had a mesh structure with significantly greater porosity, and approximately5.37±0.35at.% of Sr was incorporated into the surface. The hydrophilicity was enhanced by the incorporation of Sr ions and water treatment. The average amounts of Sr released from the Sr-modified plates subjected to water treatment were slight higher than the plates without water treatment. Sr promoted cellular adhesion, spreading and growth compared with untreated Ti surfaces. The Sr-modified Ti plates also promoted expression of osteogenesis-related genes,and expression of OPN and COL-І by osteoblasts. Ti plates heat treated at 700°C showed increased bioactivity in comparison with those treated at 600°C. Water treatment upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes.These results show that Sr-modification of Ti surfaces may improve bioactivity in vitro. Water treatment has enhanced the response of osteoblasts. The Sr-modified Ti heat-treated at 700°C exhibited better bioactivity compared with that heated at 600°C.

  16. A Strontium-Modified Titanium Surface Produced by a New Method and Its Biocompatibility In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chundong; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Lichao; Zhang, Xinhua; Chen, Qiuyue; Wu, Buling

    2015-01-01

    To present a new and effective method of producing titanium surfaces modified with strontium and to investigate the surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of titanium (Ti) surfaces modified with strontium (Sr) for bone implant applications. Sr-modified Ti surfaces were produced by sequential treatments with NaOH, strontium acetate, heat and water. The surface characteristics and the concentration of the Sr ions released from the samples were examined. Cell adhesion, morphology and growth were investigated using osteoblasts isolated from the calvaria of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. Expression of osteogenesis-related genes and proteins was examined to assess the effect of the Sr-modified Ti surfaces on osteoblasts. The modified titanium surface had a mesh structure with significantly greater porosity, and approximately5.37±0.35at.% of Sr was incorporated into the surface. The hydrophilicity was enhanced by the incorporation of Sr ions and water treatment. The average amounts of Sr released from the Sr-modified plates subjected to water treatment were slight higher than the plates without water treatment. Sr promoted cellular adhesion, spreading and growth compared with untreated Ti surfaces. The Sr-modified Ti plates also promoted expression of osteogenesis-related genes,and expression of OPN and COL-І by osteoblasts. Ti plates heat treated at 700°C showed increased bioactivity in comparison with those treated at 600°C. Water treatment upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. These results show that Sr-modification of Ti surfaces may improve bioactivity in vitro. Water treatment has enhanced the response of osteoblasts. The Sr-modified Ti heat-treated at 700°C exhibited better bioactivity compared with that heated at 600°C.

  17. Effects of fluid layer at micropolar orthotropic boundary surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The displacement, microrotation and stress components for a micropolar orthotropic elastic solid so obtained in the physical domain are computed numerically by applying the numerical inversion technique. Micropolarity and anisotropy effects along with that of the depth of the fluid layer on various expressions have been ...

  18. Effects of fluid layer at micropolar orthotropic boundary surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Effects of a fluid layer at a micropolar orthotropic elastic solid inter- face to a moving point load have been studied. After using the Fourier transform an eigen value approach has been employed to solve the problem. The displacement, microrotation and stress components for a micropolar orthotropic elastic solid so.

  19. The constitution and microstructure of laser surface-modified metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jogender

    1992-09-01

    The applications oflasers in the processing of metals, ceramics, and semiconductors range from surface glazing of thin films on semiconductors to thick surface cladding on metals. Lasers have the unique capability of rapid heating, melting, and quenching of the substrate, which results in the formation of new engineering materials with metastable microstructures. This article describes the microstructural evolution of laser-glazed and laser-clad alloys treated with a pulse or continuous-wave CO2 laser.

  20. The nanostructure and microstructure of SiC surface layers deposited by MWCVD and ECRCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dul, K.; Jonas, S.; Handke, B.

    2017-12-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to investigate ex-situ the surface topography of SiC layers deposited on Si(100) by Microwave Chemical Vapour Deposition (MWCVD) -S1,S2 layers and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECRCVD) - layers S3,S4, using silane, methane, and hydrogen. The effects of sample temperature and gas flow on the nanostructure and microstructure have been investigated. The nanostructure was described by three-dimensional surface roughness analysis based on digital image processing, which gives a tool to quantify different aspects of surface features. A total of 13 different numerical parameters used to describe the surface topography were used. The scanning electron image (SEM) of the microstructure of layers S1, S2, and S4 was similar, however, layer S3 was completely different; appearing like grains. Nonetheless, it can be seen that no grain boundary structure is present in the AFM images.

  1. Surface activity and molecular characteristics of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidized linoleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Surface activity and molecular changes of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified with oxidized linoleic acid (OLA) prepared at 60, 70 and 80 °C at different times were investigated. Modification of gelatin with OLA could improve surface activity of resulting gelatin as evidenced by the decreased surface

  2. Polyethylene/organically-modified layered-silicate nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songtipya, P.; Jimenez-Gasco, M. M.; Manias, E.

    2009-03-01

    Despite the very intensive research on polymer nanocomposites, the opportunities for new functionalities possible by nanofillers still remain largely untapped. Here, we present polyethylene/inorganic nanocomposites that exhibit strongly enhanced mechanical performance and, at the same time, also an antimicrobial activity originating from the organo-filler nature. Specifically, PE/organically-modified layered-silicate nanocomposites were prepared via melt-processing, and antimicrobial activity was designed by proper choice of their organic modification. Their antimicrobial activity was measured against three micotoxinogen fungal strains (Penicillium roqueforti and claviforme, and Fusarium graminearum) as model soil-borne plant and food contaminants. Montmorillonite-based organofillers, which only differ in their organic modification, were used to exemplify how these surfactants can be designed to render antifungal activity to the nanocomposites. The comparative discussion of the growth of fungi on unfilled PE and nanocomposite PE films is used to demonstrate how the antimicrobial efficacy is dictated by the surfactant chemistry and, further, how the nanocomposites' inhibitory activity compares to that of the organo-fillers and the surfactants.

  3. Modulating Protein Adsorption on Oxygen Plasma Modified Polysiloxane Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marletta, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper we report the study on the adsorption behaviour of three model globular proteins, Human Serum Albumin, Lactoferrin and Egg Chicken Lysozyme onto both unmodified surfaces of a silicon-based polymer and the corresponding plasma treated surfaces. In particular, thin films of hydrophobic polysiloxane (about 90 degree of static water contact angle, WCA) were converted by oxygen plasma treatment at reduced pressure into very hydrophilic phases of SiOx (WCA less than 5 degree). The kinetics of protein adsorption processes were investigated by QCM-D technique, while the chemical structure and topography of the protein adlayer have been studied by Angular resolved-XPS and AFM respectively. It turned out that Albumin and Lysozyme exhibited the opposite preferential adsorption respectively onto the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, while Lactoferrin did not exhibit significant differences. The observed protein behaviour are discussed both in terms of surface-dependent parameters, including surface free energy and chemical structure, and in terms of protein-dependent parameters, including charge as well as the average molecular orientation in the adlayers. Finally, some examples of differential adsorption behaviour of the investigated proteins are reported onto nanopatterned polysiloxane surfaces consisting of hydrophobic nanopores surrounded by hydrophilic (plasma-treated) matrix and the reverse

  4. Modeling of adsorption of toxic chromium on natural and surface modified lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalhori, Ebrahim Mohammadi, E-mail: zarrabi62@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box No: 31485/561, Alborz, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34220 Davutpasa, Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Uygur, Nihan, E-mail: uygur.n@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Adiyaman University, 02040 Altinsehir, Adiyaman (Turkey); Zarrabi, Mansur, E-mail: mansor62@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box No: 31485/561, Alborz, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shmeis, Reham M. Abu, E-mail: r.abushmeis@yahoo.com [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra University, PO Box 140753, code 11814, Amman (Jordan)

    2013-12-15

    Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) modified with an aqueous solution of magnesium chloride MgCl{sub 2} and hydrogen peroxide H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was used to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption properties of the used adsorbents were investigated through batch studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effect created by magnesium chloride on the modification of the LECA surface was greater than that of hydrogen peroxide solution and showed a substantial increase in the specific surface area which has a value of 76.12 m{sup 2}/g for magnesium chloride modified LECA while the values of 53.72 m{sup 2}/g, and 11.53 m{sup 2}/g were found for hydrogen peroxide modified LECA and natural LECA, respectively. The extent of surface modification with enhanced porosity in modified LECA was apparent from the recorded SEM patterns. XRD and FTIR studies of themodified LECA surface did not show any structural distortion. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the modified Freundlich kinetic model and the equilibrium data fitted the Sips and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations better than other models. Maximum sorption capacities were found to be 198.39, 218.29 and 236.24 mg/g for natural LECA, surface modified LECA with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and surface modified LECA with MgCl{sub 2}, respectively. Adsorbents were found to have only a weak effect on conductivity and turbidity of aqueous solutions. Spent natural and surface modified LECA with MgCl{sub 2} was best regenerated with HCl solution, while LECA surface modified with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was best regenerated with HNO{sub 3} concentrated solution. Thermal method showed a lower regeneration percentage for all spent adsorbents.

  5. Chemical switches and logic gates based on surface modified semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Szacilowski; Wojciech, Macyk [Jagiellonian Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-02-15

    Photoelectrochemical properties of multicomponent photo-electrodes based on titanium dioxide and cadmium sulfide powders modified with hexacyanoferrate complexes have been examined. Photocurrent responses were recorded as functions of applied potential and photon energy. Surprisingly, the photocurrent can be switched between positive and negative values as a result of potential or photon energy changes. This new effect called Photo Electrochemical Photocurrent Switching (PEPS) opens a possibility of new chemical switches and logic gates construction. Boolean logic analysis and a tentative mechanism of the device are discussed. (authors)

  6. Turbulent flux modelling with a simple 2-layer soil model and extrapolated surface temperature applied at Nam Co Lake basin on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gerken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a surface model with two soil-layers for use in a high-resolution circulation model that has been modified with an extrapolated surface temperature, to be used for the calculation of turbulent fluxes. A quadratic temperature profile based on the layer mean and base temperature is assumed in each layer and extended to the surface. The model is tested at two sites on the Tibetan Plateau near Nam Co Lake during four days during the 2009 Monsoon season. In comparison to a two-layer model without explicit surface temperature estimate, there is a greatly reduced delay in diurnal flux cycles and the modelled surface temperature is much closer to observations. Comparison with a SVAT model and eddy covariance measurements shows an overall reasonable model performance based on RMSD and cross correlation comparisons between the modified and original model. A potential limitation of the model is the need for careful initialisation of the initial soil temperature profile, that requires field measurements. We show that the modified model is capable of reproducing fluxes of similar magnitudes and dynamics when compared to more complex methods chosen as a reference.

  7. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  8. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar, E-mail: amohammadi@sharif.edu [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  9. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil-water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil-water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  10. In Vitro Analysis of Fibronectin-Modified Titanium Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Wei-Fang; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Haw-Ming; Lin, Che-Tong; Teng, Nai-Chia; Chang, Wei Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background Glow discharge plasma (GDP) procedure is an effective method for grafting various proteins, including albumin, type I collagen, and fibronectin, onto a titanium surface. However, the behavior and impact of titanium (Ti) surface modification is yet to be unraveled. Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate and analyze the biological properties of fibronectin-grafted Ti surfaces treated by GDP. Materials and Methods Grade II Ti discs were initially cleaned and autoclaved to obtain original specimens. Subsequently, the specimens were GDP treated and grafted with fibronectin to form Ar-GDP (Argon GDP treatment only) and GDP-fib (fibronectin coating following GDP treatment) groups. Blood coagulation test and MG-63 cell culture were performed to evaluate the biological effects on the specimen. Results There was no significant difference between Ar-GDP and GDP-fib groups in blood compatibility analysis. While in the MTT test, cellular proliferation was benefited from the presence of fibronectin coating. The numbers of cells on Ar-GDP and GDP-fib specimens were greater than those in the original specimens after 24 h of culturing. Conclusions GDP treatment combined with fibronectin grafting favored MG-63 cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation on titanium surfaces, which could be attributed to the improved surface properties. PMID:26731536

  11. Electric double layer interactions in bacterial adhesion to surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, AT; Norde, W; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    2002-01-01

    The DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek) theory was originally developed to describe interactions between non-biological lyophobic colloids such as polystyrene particles, but is also used to describe bacterial adhesion to surfaces. Despite the differences between the surface of bacteria and

  12. Observational constraints on Arctic boundary-layer clouds, surface moisture and sensible heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Boisvert, L.; Klaus, D.; Dethloff, K.; Ganeshan, M.

    2016-12-01

    The dry, cold environment and dynamic surface variations make the Arctic a unique but difficult region for observations, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Spaceborne platforms have been the key vantage point to capture basin-scale changes during the recent Arctic warming. Using the AIRS temperature, moisture and surface data, we found that the Arctic surface moisture flux (SMF) had increased by 7% during 2003-2013 (18 W/m2 equivalent in latent heat), mostly in spring and fall near the Arctic coastal seas where large sea ice reduction and sea surface temperature (SST) increase were observed. The increase in Arctic SMF correlated well with the increases in total atmospheric column water vapor and low-level clouds, when compared to CALIPSO cloud observations. It has been challenging for climate models to reliably determine Arctic cloud radiative forcing (CRF). Using the regional climate model HIRHAM5 and assuming a more efficient Bergeron-Findeisen process with generalized subgrid-scale variability for total water content, we were able to produce a cloud distribution that is more consistent with the CloudSat/CALIPSO observations. More importantly, the modified schemes decrease (increase) the cloud water (ice) content in mixed-phase clouds, which help to improve the modeled CRF and energy budget at the surface, because of the dominant role of the liquid water in CRF. Yet, the coupling between Arctic low clouds and the surface is complex and has strong impacts on ABL. Studying GPS/COSMIC radio occultation (RO) refractivity profiles in the Arctic coldest and driest months, we successfully derived ABL inversion height and surface-based inversion (SBI) frequency, and they were anti-correlated over the Arctic Ocean. For the late summer and early fall season, we further analyzed Japanese R/V Mirai ship measurements and found that the open-ocean surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) can explain 10 % of the ABL height variability, whereas mechanisms such as cloud

  13. Novel surface display system for proteins on non-genetically modified gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, T; Kanninga, R; Neef, J; Audouy, SAL; van Roosmalen, ML; Steen, A; Buist, G; Kok, J; Kuipers, OP; Robillard, G; Leenhouts, K

    A novel display system is described that allows highly efficient immobilization of heterologous proteins on bacterial surfaces in applications for which the use of genetically modified bacteria is less desirable. This system is based on nonliving and non-genetically modified gram-positive bacterial

  14. X-ray evaluation of residual stress distributions within surface machined layer generated by surface machining and sequential welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yuu; Okano, Shigetaka; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    The excessive tensile residual stress generated by welding after surface machining may be an important factor to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nuclear power plants. Therefore we need to understand and control the residual stress distribution appropriately. In this study, residual stress distributions within surface machined layer generated by surface machining and sequential welding were evaluated by X-ray diffraction method. Depth directional distributions were also investigated by electrolytic polishing. In addition, to consider the effect of work hardened layer on the residual stress distributions, we also measured full width at half maximum (FWHM) obtained from X-ray diffraction. Testing material was a low-carbon austenitic stainless steel type SUS316L. Test specimens were prepared by surface machining with different cutting conditions. Then, bead-on-plate welding under the same welding condition was carried out on the test specimens with different surface machined layer. As a result, the tensile residual stress generated by surface machining increased with increasing cutting speed and showed nearly uniform distributions on the surface. Furthermore, the tensile residual stress drastically decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Then, the residual stress approached 0 MPa after the compressive value showed. FWHM also decreased drastically with increasing measurement depth and almost constant value from a certain depth, which was almost equal regardless of the machining condition, within surface machined layer in all specimens. After welding, the transverse distribution of the longitudinal residual stress varied in the area apart from the weld center according to machining conditions and had a maximum value in heat affected zone. The magnitude of the maximum residual stress was almost equal regardless of the machining condition and decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Finally, the

  15. Dynamical structure of the turbulent boundary layer on rough surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav; Jonáš, Pavel; Hladík, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 603-604 ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulent boundary layer * rough wall * hairpin vortex Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pamm.201110291/abstract

  16. Controlled amino-functionalization by electrochemical reduction of bromo and nitro azobenzene layers bound to Si(111) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullien, Daniela; Thüne, Peter C; Jager, Wolter F; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; de Smet, Louis C P M

    2014-09-28

    4-Nitrobenzenediazonium (4-NBD) and 4-bromobenzenediazonium (4-BBD) salts were grafted electrochemically onto H-terminated, p-doped silicon (Si) surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry experiments clearly showed layer thicknesses of 2-7 nm, which indicate multilayer formation. Decreasing the diazonium salt concentration and the reaction time resulted in a smaller layer thickness, but did not prevent the formation of multilayers. It was demonstrated, mainly by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), that the diazonium salts not only react with the H-terminated Si surface, but also with electrografted phenyl groups via azo-bond formation. These azo bonds can be electrochemically reduced at Ered = -1.5 V, leading to the corresponding amino groups. This reduction resulted in a modest decrease in layer thickness, and did not yield monolayers. This indicates that other coupling reactions, notably a biphenyl coupling, induced by electrochemically produced phenyl radicals, take place as well. In addition to the azo functionalities, the nitro functionalities in electrografted layers of 4-NBD were independently reduced to amino functionalities at a lower potential (Ered = -2.1 V). The presence of amino functionalities on fully reduced layers, both from 4-NBD- and 4-BBD-modified Si, was shown by the presence of fluorine after reaction with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). This study shows that the electrochemical reduction of azo bonds generates amino functionalities on layers produced by electrografting of aryldiazonium derivatives. In this way multifunctional layers can be formed by employing functional aryldiazonium salts, which is believed to be very practical in the fabrication of sensor platforms, including those made of multi-array silicon nanowires.

  17. Al2O3 dielectric layers on H-terminated diamond: Controlling surface conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Koeck, Franz A.; Dutta, Maitreya; Wang, Xingye; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates how the surface conductivity of H-terminated diamond can be preserved and stabilized by using a dielectric layer with an in situ post-deposition treatment. Thin layers of Al2O3 were grown by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) on H-terminated undoped diamond (100) surfaces. The changes of the hole accumulation layer were monitored by correlating the binding energy of the diamond C 1s core level with electrical measurements. The initial PEALD of 1 nm Al2O3 resulted in an increase of the C 1s core level binding energy consistent with a reduction of the surface hole accumulation and a reduction of the surface conductivity. A hydrogen plasma step restored the C 1s binding energy to the value of the conductive surface, and the resistance of the diamond surface was found to be within the range for surface transfer doping. Further, the PEALD growth did not appear to degrade the surface conductive layer according to the position of the C 1s core level and electrical measurements. This work provides insight into the approaches to establish and control the two-dimensional hole-accumulation layer of the H-terminated diamond and improve the stability and performance of H-terminated diamond electronic devices.

  18. Cold cathode emission studies on topographically modified few layer and single layer MoS2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Anand P. S.; Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Mendoza, Frank; Rivera, Adriana M.; Kumar, Mohit; Dash, Saroj P.; Morell, Gerardo; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured materials, such as carbon nanotubes, are excellent cold cathode emitters. Here, we report comparative field emission (FE) studies on topographically tailored few layer MoS2 films consisting of ⟨0001⟩ plane perpendicular (⊥) to c-axis (i.e., edge terminated vertically aligned) along with planar few layer and monolayer (1L) MoS2 films. FE measurements exhibited lower turn-on field Eto (defined as required applied electric field to emit current density of 10 μA/cm2) ˜4.5 V/μm and higher current density ˜1 mA/cm2, for edge terminated vertically aligned (ETVA) MoS2 films. However, Eto magnitude for planar few layer and 1L MoS2 films increased further to 5.7 and 11 V/μm, respectively, with one order decrease in emission current density. The observed differences in emission behavior, particularly for ETVA MoS2 is attributed to the high value of geometrical field enhancement factor (β), found to be ˜1064, resulting from the large confinement of localized electric field at edge exposed nanograins. Emission behavior of planar few layers and 1L MoS2 films are explained under a two step emission mechanism. Our studies suggest that with further tailoring the microstructure of ultra thin ETVA MoS2 films would result in elegant FE properties.

  19. Abrasive wear mechanisms and surface layer structure of refractory materials after mechanical working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, Y.V.; Lotsko, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms of abrasive wear and surface layer structure formation after different kinds of mechanical working are considered in terms of fracture and plastic deformation mechanisms for various refractory materials. The principles for classification of abrasive wear mechanisms are proposed, the four types of wear mechanisms are distinguished for various combinations of fractures and plastic deformation types. The concept of characteristic deformation temperature t * (knee temperature) is used. Detailed examples are given of investigating the surface layer structures in grinded crystals of sapphire and molybdenum. The amorphisation tendency of the thinnest surface layer while mechanical polishing is discussed separately. 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  20. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, E. B., E-mail: eugene.chubenko@gmail.com; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P. [Belarusian State University of Information and RadioElectronics (Belarus)

    2016-03-15

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  1. Hard Surface Layers by Pack Boriding and Gaseous Thermo-Reactive Deposition and Diffusion Treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Bottoli, Federico; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2017-01-01

    subjected to TRD (chromizing and titanizing) and boriding treatments. For the steels with low carbon content, chromizing results in surface alloying with chromium, i.e., formation of a (soft) “stainless” surface zone. Steels containing higher levels of carbon form chromium carbide (viz. Cr23C6, Cr7C3......) layers with hardnesses up to 1800 HV. Titanizing of ARNE tool steel results in a surface layer consisting of TiC with a hardness of approximately 4000 HV. Duplex treatments, where boriding is combined with subsequent (TRD) titanizing, result in formation of hard TiB2 on top of a thick layer of Fe...

  2. Study on the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Duan Rongliang; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Zuo Changming; Zhao Chunpei; Chen Hong

    1997-01-01

    The influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography (GC). Carbon monoxide adsorption on the oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased and the atomic ratio (O/U) is decreased by 7.2%. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere after the surface reaction is increased by 11.0%. The investigation indicates that the surface layer can prevent the further oxidation uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  3. Measuring body layer vibration of vocal folds by high-frame-rate ultrasound synchronized with a modified electroglottograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-07-01

    The body-cover concept suggests that the vibration of body layer is an indispensable component of vocal fold vibration. To quantify this vibration, a synchronized system composed of a high-frame-rate ultrasound and a modified electroglottograph (EGG) was employed in this paper to simultaneously image the body layer vibration and record the vocal fold vibration phase information during natural phonations. After data acquisition, the displacements of in vivo body layer vibrations were measured from the ultrasonic radio frequency data, and the temporal reconstruction method was used to enhance the measurement accuracy. Results showed that the modified EGG, the waveform and characteristic points of which were identical to the conventional EGG, resolved the position conflict between the ultrasound transducer and EGG electrodes. The location and range of the vibrating body layer in the estimated displacement image were more clear and discernible than in the ultrasonic B-mode image. Quantitative analysis for vibration features of the body layer demonstrated that the body layer moved as a unit in the superior-inferior direction during the phonation of normal chest registers.

  4. A new partial SOI-LDMOSFET with a modified buried oxide layer for improving self-heating and breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali Mahabadi, S E; Orouji, Ali A; Keshavarzi, P; Moghadam, Hamid Amini

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, we propose a partial silicon-on-insulator (P-SOI) lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor (LDMOSFET) with a modified buried layer in order to improve breakdown voltage (BV) and self-heating effects (SHEs). The main idea of this work is to control the electric field by shaping the buried layer. With two steps introduced in the buried layer, the electric field distribution is modified. Also a P-type window introduced makes the substrate share the vertical voltage drop, leading to a high vertical BV. Moreover, four interface electric field peaks are introduced by the buried P-layer, the Si window and two steps, which modulate the electric field in the SOI layer and the substrate. Hence, a more uniform electric field is obtained; consequently, a high BV is achieved. Furthermore, the Si window creates a conduction path between the active layer and substrate and alleviates the SHE. Two-dimensional simulations show that the BV of double step partial silicon on insulator is nearly 69% higher and alleviates SHEs 17% in comparison with its single step partial SOI counterpart and nearly 265% higher and alleviate SHEs 18% in comparison with its conventional SOI counterpart

  5. Physico-chemical characterisation of surface modified particles for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stank, Katharina; Steckel, Hartwig

    2013-05-01

    Surface modification of drugs for inhalation is a possibility to influence interparticulate forces. This can be necessary to achieve a sufficient aerosolisation during powder inhalation as the cohesiveness of the micronised drug can be reduced. In addition, the interaction with propellants in pressurised metered dose inhaler can be changed. This can be used to improve the physical stability of the suspension based formulations. A dry particle coating process was used for the alteration of particle surfaces. The blending of micronised salbutamol sulphate (SBS) with different concentrations of magnesium stearate (Mgst) or glycerol monostearate (GMS) was followed by co-milling with an air jet mill. The powder properties were characterised by SEM, EDX, laser diffraction, BET and inverse gas chromatography. Physical mixtures generated by Turbula blending were compared to co-milled samples. A slight particle size reduction was determined. The Mgst deposition on SBS particles was detected by EDX measurements. The dispersive surface energy of SBS is lowered and the energy distribution is more homogenous for the co-milled samples. This study proves the application of co-milling for surface modification in the inhalation area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficiency of surface modified Ti coated with copper nanoparticles to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Titanium (Ti) used as condenser material in nuclear power plants encounter severe biofouling in marine environment which in turn affects the efficiency of the metal. To reduce the biofouling by marine microorganisms, surface modification of the Ti was carried out by anodization process to obtain nanotubes ...

  7. Surface characterization of silver and palladium modified glassy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. In this work, the influence of silver and palladium on the surface of undoped, boron doped and phosphorus doped glassy carbon has been studied. The silver and palladium concentrations in solution, after metal deposition, were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The morphology of metal coatings.

  8. Hypercrosslinked large surface area porous polymer monoliths for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography of small molecules featuring zwitterionic functionalities attached to gold nanoparticles held in layered structure

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yongqin; Lin, Zhixing; Svec, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to porous polymer monoliths hypercrosslinked to obtain large surface areas and modified with zwitterionic functionalities through the attachment of gold nanoparticles in a layered architecture has been developed. The capillary columns were used for the separation of small molecules in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode. First, a monolith with a very large surface area of 430 m2/g was prepared by hypercrosslinking from a generic poly(4-methylstyrene-co-vinylben...

  9. Modified hot-conditioning of PHT system surfaces of PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, G.

    1997-01-01

    The increased awareness on the importance of controlling activity transport and radiation buildup on out-of-core surfaces of water cooled nuclear reactors is leading to a host of measures both from chemistry as well as engineering sides being undertaken. Passivation of the surfaces of structural materials is one such. Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors of CANDU design use large surface area of carbon steel alloy in the Primary Heat Transport System. Hot-conditioning of the PHT system with deoxygenated light water at temperatures ≅ 473 - 523 K during commissioning stage is done to form a protective magnetite film on the surfaces of carbon steel essentially to guard this material from corrosion during the intervening period between initial commissioning and first fuel loading and achieving nuclear heat. However, a need is felt to improve the quality of this magnetite film and control the crud release so that the twin objectives of controlling the corrosion of carbon steel and reducing a possible deposition of corrosion products on surfaces of fuel clad could be achieved. Laboratory static autoclave investigations have been carried out on the formation of protective magnetite film on carbon steel at 473 K, pH 10 (pH at 298 K) deoxygenated aqueous solutions of chelants like HEDTA, DTPA, NTA apart from EDTA. Additionally, influence of AVT chemicals like hydrazine, cyclohexylamine, morpholine and additives like glucose, boric acid has been studied. The data have been compared with the standard procedure of hot-conditioning namely with simple LiOH. It is found that chelants increase the base metal loss but the oxide formed is more protective than the one formed under simple LiOH treatment. The efficiency of passivation is greatly enhanced by hydrazine and boric acid while it is adversely affected by glucose. AVT chemicals acts as effective corrosion inhibitors. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Effect of Cholesterol on the Stability and Lubrication Efficiency of Phosphatidylcholine Surface Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorkin, Raya; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The lubrication properties of saturated PC lipid vesicles containing high cholesterol content under high loads were examined by detailed surface force balance measurements of normal and shear forces between two surface-attached lipid layers. Forces between two opposing mica surfaces bearing

  11. Research Note : Near-surface layer replacement for sparse data: Is interpolation needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Yimin; Verschuur, D.J.; Luo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Near-surface problem is a common challenge faced by land seismic data processing, where often, due to near-surface anomalies, events of interest are obscured. One method to handle this challenge is near-surface layer replacement, which is a wavefield reconstruction process based on downward

  12. Influence of changes in surface layer properties on tire/pavement noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.; Van Keulen, W.; Ceylan, H.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in tire/pavement noise caused by variations in the road surface characteristics. This research is based on the analysis of noise and surface characteristics collected from sections with 25 mm thickness thin layer surfacings in the Netherlands. Investigations are first

  13. Characterization of Modified and Polymer Coated Alumina Surfaces by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Yehia El-Naggar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prepared, modified, and coated alumina surfaces were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to investigate the surface properties of the individual and double modified samples. FTIR helps in reporting the changes occurred in hydroxyl groups as well as the structure changes as a result of thermal treating, hydrothermal treating, silylation treating, alkali metal treating, coating, and bonding with polymer. FTIR spectroscopy represents the strength and abundance of surface acidic OH which determine the adsorption properties of polar and nonpolar sorbents. Generally, all treated samples exhibit decrease of OH groups compared with those of parent ones producing alumina surfaces of different adsorptive powers.

  14. Laminar boundary layer response to rotation of a finite diameter surface patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klewicki, J.C.; Hill, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The responses of the flat plate laminar boundary layer to perturbations generated by rotating a finite patch of the bounding surface are explored experimentally. The size of the surface patch was of the same order as the boundary layer thickness. The displacement thickness Reynolds number range of the boundary layers explored was 72-527. The rotation rates of the surface patch ranged from 2.14 to 62.8 s-1. Qualitative flow visualizations and quantitative molecular tagging velocimetry measurements revealed that rotation of a finite surface patch generates an asymmetric loop-like vortex. Significant features of this vortex include that, (i) the sign of the vorticity in the vortex head is opposite that of the boundary layer vorticity regardless of the sign of the input rotation, (ii) one leg of the vortex exhibits motion akin to solid body rotation while the other leg is best characterized as a spanwise shear layer, (iii) the vortex leg exhibiting near solid body rotation lifts more rapidly from the surface than the leg more like a shear layer, and (iv) the vortex leg exhibiting near solid body rotation always occurs on the side of the surface patch experiencing downstream motion. These asymmetries switch sides depending on the sign of the input rotation. The present results are interpreted and discussed relative to analytical solutions for infinite geometries. By way of analogy, plausible connections are drawn between the present results and the influences of wall normal vortices in turbulent boundary layer flows

  15. [Texture variation of CC 5052 aluminum alloy slab from surface to center layer by XRD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Biao; Liu, Wen-Chang; Ma, Xiao-Yi; Li, Jian; Yang, Qing-Xiang; Wang, Shan; Ma, Min; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Y M

    2013-05-01

    For improvement of the processing and gaining uniformity texture structure and performance of direct chill cast CCAA 5052 aluminum alloy band after first hot rolling with different reduction, the material was annealed at 454 degrees C and then cold rolling with different reduction was conducted, the texture at surface, quarter and center layer of the sample was tested and examined by X-ray diffraction method, the data calculated using special software and the difference of texture at surface, quarter and center layer was analyzed. There existed an elevated gradient of intensity from surface layer to center layer after cold rolled with less than or equal to 40% reduction, The main texture of beta is stronger mainly due to transformation from remainder exposure, while the goss and remainder is infirm, the state of texture at each layer is close to each other after cold rolling with reduction high than 56.1%.

  16. Seasonal features of atmospheric surface-layer characteristics over a tropical coastal station in Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, K.B.R.R.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of air-borne effluents occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where turbulence is the main physical processes. In the surface layer of ABL, the mechanical (shear) generation of turbulence exceeds the buoyant generation or consumption of turbulence. In this layer, under steady state and horizontally homogeneous conditions various forces in the governing equation can be neglected and one can apply Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) to estimate the turbulent fluxes and other surface layer variables. Understanding the turbulent characteristics of the surface layer is vital for modeling of turbulent diffusion in regional numerical weather and pollution dispersion models. The objective of this study is to verify the validity of the MOST at the coastal site Kalpakkam under various atmospheric stability conditions with respect to different seasons for modeling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents

  17. Imaging Analysis of Carbohydrate-Modified Surfaces Using ToF-SIMS and SPRi

    OpenAIRE

    Bolles, Kathryn M.; Cheng, Fang; Burk-Rafel, Jesse; Dubey, Manish; Ratner, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Covalent modification of surfaces with carbohydrates (glycans) is a prerequisite for a variety of glycomics-based biomedical applications, including functional biomaterials, glycoarrays, and glycan-based biosensors. The chemistry of glycan immobilization plays an essential role in the bioavailability and function of the surface bound carbohydrate moiety. However, the scarcity of analytical methods to characterize carbohydrate-modified surfaces complicates efforts to optimize glycan surface ch...

  18. Modified expression of surface glyconjugates in stored human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, A.; Ganguly, P.

    1987-01-01

    Platelets are anucleated cells which play an important part in blood coagulation and thrombosis. These cells may be stored in the blood bank for only 4/5 days. In order to improve the storage of platelets, it is essential to first understand the changes in these cells due to storage. In this work, human platelets were stored in autologous plasma at 4 0 or 22 0 and their surface changes were monitored with three lectins - wheat germ afflutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (Con A) and lentil lectin (LL). Blood was drawn from healthy donors and platelet rich plasma (PRP) was collected by slow speed centrifugation. Platelets stored at either temperature for different times showed increased sensitivity to agglutination by WGA after 34-48 hrs. Lectins, Con A and LL, which were not agglutinating to fresh platelets readily caused agglutination after 48-72 hrs. The platelets stored for 25 hrs or longer period were insensitive to thrombin but showed enhanced aggregation with WGA. Labelling of surface glycoconjugates of stored platelets with 3 H-boro-hydride revealed progressive loss of a glycoprotein of Mr 150,000 (GPIb infinity) together with the appearance of components of Mr 69,000; Mr 60,000; Mr 25,000. New high molecular weight glycoproteins were also detected only in stored platelets. The author studies clearly indicate that modification or altered expression of platelets surface glycoproteins may be one factor of storage related dysfunction of platelets

  19. Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shape tablet composed of a core layer matrix made mainly of the enteric polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate and two barrier layers on either sides made of ethylcellulose. He showed that the system is capable of providing a.

  20. Surface passivation of GaAs nanowires by the atomic layer deposition of AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtrom, I. V., E-mail: igorstrohm@mail.ru; Bouravleuv, A. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Samsonenko, Yu. B.; Khrebtov, A. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Soshnikov, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Reznik, R. R.; Cirlin, G. E., E-mail: cirlin@beam.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Dhaka, V.; Perros, A.; Lipsanen, H. [Aalto University (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    It is shown that the atomic layer deposition of thin AlN layers can be used to passivate the surface states of GaAs nanowires synthesized by molecular-beam epitaxy. Studies of the optical properties of samples by low-temperature photoluminescence measurements shows that the photoluminescence-signal intensity can be increased by a factor of up to five by passivating the nanowires with a 25-Å-thick AlN layer.

  1. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10 −12 –1 × 10 −8 mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R 2 = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10 −12 mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media

  2. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin, E-mail: txwei@bit.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10{sup −12}–1 × 10{sup −8} mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10{sup −12} mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media.

  3. Surface engineering of zirconium particles by molecular layer deposition: Significantly enhanced electrostatic safety at minimum loss of the energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lijun; Yan, Ning; Hao, Haixia; An, Ting; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Because of its high volumetric heat of oxidation, Zr powder is a promising high energy fuel/additive for rocket propellants. However, the application of Zr powder is restricted by its ultra-high electrostatic discharge sensitivity, which poses great hazards for handling, transportation and utilization of this material. By performing molecular layer deposition of polyimide using 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic anhydride and ethylenediamine as the precursors, Zr particles can be uniformly encapsulated by thin layers of the polymer. The thicknesses of the encapsulation layers can be precisely controlled by adjusting the number of deposition cycle. High temperature annealing converts the polymer layer into a carbon coating. Results of thermal analyses reveal that the polymer or carbon coatings have little negative effect on the energy release process of the Zr powder. By varying the thickness of the polyimide or carbon coating, electrostatic discharge sensitivity of the Zr powder can be tuned in a wide range and its uncontrolled ignition hazard can be virtually eliminated. This research demonstrates the great potential of molecular layer deposition in effectively modifying the surface properties of highly reactive metal based energetic materials with minimum sacrifices of their energy densities.

  4. Seasonal cyclogenesis and the role of near-surface stratified layer in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Tilvi, V.

    The role of the near-surface stratified layer developed due to the spread of low salinity waters under the influence of freshwater influx on the cyclogenesis over the Bay of Bengal is addressed. The seasonal variation of the Effective Oceanic Layer...

  5. Formation of Titanium Carbide in the Surface Layer of Cavityless-Cast Iron-Carbon Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovcharenko, P. G.; Leshchev, A. Yu.; Makhneva, T. M.

    2018-01-01

    Special features of formation of titanium carbide in the surface layer of castings of iron-carbon alloys obtained with the use of investment patterns and "Ti - C" and "FeTi - C" alloying compositions are considered. The phase composition, the structure, and the hardness of the alloyed layers are determined.

  6. A manufacturing method for multi-layer polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    An advanced manufacturing technology which provides multi-layered polysilicon surface micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, the addition of another design layer to a 4 levels process to create a 5 levels process allows consideration of fundamentally new architecture in designs for weapon advanced surety components.

  7. Time-resolved PIV measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over wind-driven surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey; Stegmeir, Matt

    2017-11-01

    Complex interactions at the air-water interface result in two-way coupling between wind-driven surface waves and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Turbulence generated at the surface plays an important role in aquatic ecology and biogeochemistry, exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, and it is important for the transfer of energy and controlling evaporation. Energy transferred from the ABL promotes the generation and maintenance of waves. A fraction of the energy is transferred to the surface mixed layer through the generation of turbulence. Energy is also transferred back to the ABL by waves. There is a need to quantify the details of the coupled boundary layers of the air-water system to better understand how turbulence plays a role in the interactions. We employ time-resolved PIV to measure the detailed structure of the air and water boundary layers under varying wind and wave conditions in the newly developed IIHR Boundary-Layer Wind-Wave Tunnel. The facility combines a 30-m long recirculating water channel with an open-return boundary layer wind tunnel. A thick turbulent boundary layer is developed in the 1 m high air channel, over the water surface, allowing for the study of boundary layer turbulence interacting with a wind-driven wave field.

  8. Investigation of Corrosion and Cathodic Protection in Reinforced Concrete. II : Properties of Steel Surface Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Van Breugel, K.; Lodhi, Z.F.; Ye, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the formation of corrosion products on the steel surface (using as-received low carbon construction steel) in reinforced concrete in conditions of corrosion and subsequent transformation of these layers in conditions of cathodic protection (CP).

  9. The influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wind regime (Mahrt et al. ... Influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent fluxes. 1401. Table 1. Specifications of the eddy ..... different soil and vegetation properties and other regional climatic factors. Earlier, it was found that.

  10. A parametric description of a skewed puff in the diabatic surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, T.

    1982-10-01

    The spreading of passive material in the stable, neutral and unstable surface layer from an instantaneous ground source is parameterized in a form appropriate for use with an operational puff diffusion model. (author)

  11. FORMING A PARTING LAYER OF COATING ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOULD DURING DIE-CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pivovarchik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the study of the possibility of accumulation of the lubricating layer coating on the surface of the separation process of foundry equipment with high pressure die casting aluminum alloys.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Surface Layer Properties of High Thermal Conductivity Tool Steel after Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Świercz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials require the use of advanced technology in manufacturing complex shape parts. One of the modern materials widely used in the tool industry for injection molds or hot stamping dies is high conductivity tool steel (HTCS 150. Due to its hardness (55 HRC and thermal conductivity at 66 W/mK, this material is difficult to machine by conventional treatment and is being increasingly manufactured by nonconventional technology such as electrical discharge machining (EDM. In the EDM process, material is removed from the workpiece by a series of electrical discharges that cause changes to the surface layers properties. The final state of the surface layer directly influences the durability of the produced elements. This paper presents the influence of EDM process parameters: discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on surface layer properties. The experimental investigation was carried out with an experimental methodology design. Surface layers properties including roughness 3D parameters, the thickness of the white layer, heat affected zone, tempered layer and occurring micro cracks were investigated and described. The influence of the response surface methodology (RSM of discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on the thickness of the white layer and roughness parameters Sa, Sds and Ssc were described and established.

  13. Thermographic analysis of plasma facing components covered by carbon surface layer in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarein, Jean-Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Tokamaks are reactors based on the thermonuclear fusion energy with magnetic confinement of the plasma. In theses machines, several MW are coupled to the plasma for about 10 s. A large part of this power is directed towards plasma facing components (PFC). For better understanding and control the heat flux transfer from the plasma to the surrounding wall, it is very important to measure the surface temperature of the PFC and to estimate the imposed heat flux. In most of tokamaks using carbon PFC, the eroded carbon is circulating in the plasma and redeposited elsewhere. During the plasma operations, this leads at some locations to the formation of thin or thick carbon layers usually poorly attached to the PFC. These surface layers with unknown thermal properties complicate the calculation of the heat flux from IR surface temperature measurements. To solve this problem, we develop first, inverse method to estimate the heat flux using thermocouple (not sensitive to the carbon surface layers) temperature measurements. Then, we propose a front face pulsed photothermal method allowing an estimation of layers thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity and the thermal contact resistance between the layer and the tile. The principle is to study with an infrared sensor, the cooling of the layer surface after heating by a short laser pulse, this cooling depending on the thermal properties of the successive layers. (author) [fr

  14. Zinc Tantalum Oxynitride (ZnTaO2N Photoanode Modified with Cobalt Phosphate Layers for the Photoelectrochemical Oxidation of Alkali Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakarn Arunachalam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoanodes fabricated by the electrophoretic deposition of a thermally prepared zinc tantalum oxynitride (ZnTaO2N catalyst onto indium tin oxide (ITO substrates show photoactivation for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER in alkaline solutions. The photoactivity of the OER is further boosted by the photodeposition of cobalt phosphate (CoPi layers onto the surface of the ZnTaO2N photoanodes. Structural, morphological, and photoelectrochemical (PEC properties of the modified ZnTaO2N photoanodes are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet visible (UV−Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques. The presence of the CoPi layer significantly improved the PEC performance of water oxidation in an alkaline sulphate solution. The photocurrent-voltage behavior of the CoPi-modified ZnTaO2N anodes was improved, with the influence being more prominent at lower oxidation potentials. A stable photocurrent density of about 2.3 mA·cm−2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE was attained upon visible light illumination. Relative to the ZnTaO2N photoanodes, an almost three-fold photocurrent increase was achieved at the CoPi/ZnTaO2N photoelectrode. Perovskite-based oxynitrides are modified using an oxygen-evolution co-catalyst of CoPi, and provide a new dimension for enhancing the photoactivity of oxygen evolution in solar-assisted water-splitting reactions.

  15. Pt-modified carbon nanotube networked layers for enhanced gas microsensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penza, M.; Rossi, R.; Alvisi, M.; Suriano, D.; Serra, E.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) networked films have been grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology onto miniaturized low-cost alumina substrates, coated by nanosized Co-catalyst for growing CNTs, to perform chemical detection of toxic gasses (NO 2 and NH 3 ), greenhouse gasses (CO 2 and CH 4 ) and domestic safety gasses (CO and C 2 H 5 OH) at an operating sensor temperature of 120 °C. The morphology and structure of the CNTs networks have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A dense network of bundles of multiple tubes consisting of multi-walled carbon nanostructures appears with a maximum length of 1–5 μm and single-tube diameter varying in the range of 5–40 nm. Surface modifications of the CNTs networks with sputtered Platinum (Pt) nanoclusters, at tuned loading of 8, 15 and 30 nm, provide higher sensitivity for significantly enhanced gas detection compared to un-decorated CNTs. This could be caused by a spillover of the targeted gas molecules onto Pt-catalyst surface with a chemical gating into CNTs layers. The measured electrical conductance of the functionalized CNTs upon exposures of a given oxidizing and reducing gas is modulated by a charge transfer model with p-type semiconducting characteristics. The effect of activated carbons as chemical filters to reduce the influence of the domestic interfering alcohols on CO gas detection has been studied. Functionalized CNT gas sensors exhibited better performances compared to unmodified CNTs, making them highly promising candidates for functional applications of gas control and alarms.

  16. Lamellae Evolution of Stereocomplex-Type Poly(Lactic Acid/Organically-Modified Layered Zinc Phenylphosphonate Nanocomposites Induced by Isothermal Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-An Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stereocomplex-type poly(lactic acid (SC-PLA/oleylamine-modified layered zinc phenylphosphonate (SC-PLA/m-PPZn nanocomposites are successfully fabricated using a solution mixing process. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD analysis reveals that the structural arrangement of the oleylamine-modified PPZn exhibits a large interlayer spacing of 30.3 Å. In addition, we investigate the temperature effect on the real-time structural arrangement of PPZn and m-PPZn. The results indicated that the lattice expansion of m-PPZn with increasing temperature leads to an increase in the interlayer spacing from 30.3 to 37.1 Å as the temperature increases from 30 to 150 °C. The interlayer spacing decreases slightly as the temperature further increases to 210 °C. This behavior might be attributed to interlayer oleylamine elimination, which results in hydrogen bonding destruction between the hydroxide sheets and water molecules. As the temperature reaches 240 °C, the in situ WAXD patterns show the coexistence of m-PPZn and PPZn. However, the layered structures of m-PPZn at 300 °C are almost the same as those of PPZn, after the complete degradation temperature of oleylamine. The morphology of the SC-PLA/m-PPZn nanocomposites characterized using WAXD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM demonstrates that most partial delamination layered materials are randomly dispersed in the SC-PLA matrix. Small-angle X-ray scattering reveals that higher crystal layer thickness and lower surface free energy is achieved in 0.25 wt% SC-PLA/m-PPZn nanocomposites. These results indicate that the introduction of 0.25 wt% m-PPZn into SC-PLA reduces the surface free energy, thereby increasing the polymer chain mobility.

  17. Three Dimensional Dynamics of Freshwater Lenses in the Oceans Near Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    the potential impact of these fluxes on the barrier layer and Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite image formations. By...contributing to the salinity field detected in the Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) sat- ellite footprints. The barrier layer (Lukas...operational algorithms for sea surface salinity satellites. Oceanic advection and mixing funda- mentally affect the sea surface salinity sig - nal

  18. Boron Diffused Thermoluminescent Surface Layer in LiF TLDs for Skin Dose Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul; Majborn, Benny

    1980-01-01

    A new high-temperature glow peak produced in a thin surface layer of LiF TLDs by diffusion of boron into the LiF material has been studied for skin dose assessments in personnel dosimetry.......A new high-temperature glow peak produced in a thin surface layer of LiF TLDs by diffusion of boron into the LiF material has been studied for skin dose assessments in personnel dosimetry....

  19. Streams and magnetic fields in surface layers of Ap-stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolginov, A.Z.; Urpin, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Magnetic field generation of Ap-stars is considered. It is shown that in the surface layers of Ap-stars inhomogeneity of chemical composition produces a strong magnetic field. Velocities of possible circulation of stellar matter are estimated. It is shown that circulation does not prevent the process of the magnetic field generation. It needs the order of million years, for arranging the stationary magnetic field in surface layers

  20. Interfacial characterization and analytical applications of chemically-modified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianhong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-02-23

    The goal of this work is to explore several new strategies and approaches to the surface modification and the microscopic characterization of interfaces in the areas mainly targeting sensor technologies that are of interest to environmental control or monitoring, and scanning probe microscopies techniques that can monitor interfacial chemical reactions in real time. Centered on the main theme, four specific topics are presented as four chapters in this dissertation following the general introduction. Chapter 1 describes the development of two immobilization schemes for covalently immobilizing fluoresceinamine at cellulose acetate and its application as a pH sensing film. Chapter 2 investigates the applicability of SFM to following the base-hydrolysis of a dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at gold in situ. Chapter 3 studies the mechanism for the accelerated rate of hydrolysis of the dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at Au(111) surface. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of an electrochemical approach to the elimination of chloride interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis of waste water. The procedures, results and conclusions are described in each chapter. This report contains the introduction, references, and general conclusions. Chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base. 95 refs.

  1. Modifying Thermal Transport in Colloidal Nanocrystal Solids with Surface Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minglu; Ma, Yuanyu; Wang, Robert Y

    2015-12-22

    We present a systematic study on the effect of surface chemistry on thermal transport in colloidal nanocrystal (NC) solids. Using PbS NCs as a model system, we vary ligand binding group (thiol, amine, and atomic halides), ligand length (ethanedithiol, butanedithiol, hexanedithiol, and octanedithiol), and NC diameter (3.3-8.2 nm). Our experiments reveal several findings: (i) The ligand choice can vary the NC solid thermal conductivity by up to a factor of 2.5. (ii) The ligand binding strength to the NC core does not significantly impact thermal conductivity. (iii) Reducing the ligand length can decrease the interparticle distance, which increases thermal conductivity. (iv) Increasing the NC diameter increases thermal conductivity. (v) The effect of surface chemistry can exceed the effect of NC diameter and becomes more pronounced as NC diameter decreases. By combining these trends, we demonstrate that the thermal conductivity of NC solids can be varied by an overall factor of 4, from ∼0.1-0.4 W/m-K. We complement these findings with effective medium approximation modeling and identify thermal transport in the ligand matrix as the rate-limiter for thermal transport. By combining these modeling results with our experimental observations, we conclude that future efforts to increase thermal conductivity in NC solids should focus on the ligand-ligand interface between neighboring NCs.

  2. Coupling of therapeutic molecules onto surface modified coralline hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, R; Ramakrishna, S

    2004-07-01

    Surface modification and coupling of therapeutic molecules, tetracycline, onto coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA) and their in vitro evaluations were described in this study. Initially, CHA was graft polymerized with glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) using redox initiators and subsequently coupled to tetracycline through epoxy groups. The CHA grafted with polyGMA (CHA-g-PGMA) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for proof of grafting. The absorption peaks pertaining to epoxy and ester carbonyl groups were observed for the graft polymer due to PGMA grafting. The XRD results signified that there was no secondary phase in the apatite lattice and crystallinity was also not affected by grafting, which suggested that the PGMA chains were grafted only on the surface of CHA. Drug loading and releasing was evaluated and found that CHA-g-PGMA exhibited higher loading efficiency than CHA. The in vitro release of tetracycline was performed in phosphate buffered saline under physiological condition and the release profiles showed that the tetracycline-containing graft polymer releases the drug for prolonged period as compared to CHA. Based on the experimental results, CHA-g-PGMA appears to be a promising biomaterial for drug delivery.

  3. The surface layer of austempered ductile iron investment castings properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Myszka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a unique process of carbonnitriding and nitriding the precision casting surfaces of austempered ductile iron. The results of the research are pointing that adequate process parameters allow to obtain multiple increase of wear resistance and a significant increase of corrosion resistance. Also, changes of cast microstructure and hardness are presented.

  4. Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Studies on surface reactivity of substrate iron (Fe-particles) were made in the tribo-chemical environment of alkyl octadecenoates. Two alkyl octadecenoates namely ethyl octadecenoate and methyl. 12-hydroxy octadecenoate, slightly different in their chemical nature, were taken for preparing the chemisorbed ...

  5. Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Studies on surface reactivity of substrate iron (Fe-particles) were made in the tribo-chemical environment of alkyl octadecenoates. Two alkyl octadecenoates namely ethyl octadecenoate and methyl. 12-hydroxy octadecenoate, slightly different in their chemical nature, were taken for preparing the chemisorbed reaction films ...

  6. Covalent attachment of cell-adhesive peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (GRGD) to poly(etheretherketone) surface by tailored silanization layers technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Xiong, Chengdong; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lifang

    2014-11-01

    Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semicrystalline polymer that combines excellent mechanical properties, broad chemical resistance and bone-like stiffness and is widely used in biomedical fields. However, PEEK is naturally bioinert, leading to limited biomedical applications, especially when a direct bone-implant osteointegration is desired. In this study, a three-step reaction procedure was employed to immobilize the cell-adhesive peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (GRGD) on the surface of PEEK sheet by covalent chemical attachment to favor cell adhesion and proliferation. First, hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK surfaces were silanized with 7-Oct-1-enyltrichlorosilane (OETS) in dry cyclohexane, resulting in a silanization layer with terminal ethenyl. Second, the terminal ethylenic double bonds of the silanization layer on PEEK surface were converted to carboxyl groups through acidic potassium manganate oxidation. Finally, GRGD was covalently attached by carbodiimide mediated condensation between the carboxyl on PEEK surface and amine presents in GRGD. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, surface profiler and water contact angle measurements were applied to characterize the modified surfaces. The effect of cells attachment and proliferation on each specimen was investigated. Pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) attachment, spreading and proliferation were improved effectively on GRGD-modified PEEK surface. PEEK modified with GRGD on its surface has potential use in orthopedic or dental implants.

  7. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-09-01

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U 3 O 8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  8. EMF measurements across the front of combustion wave during layer by layer surface laser sintering of exothermal powder compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkovskiy, I.; Sherbakov, V.; Morozov, Yu.

    2007-06-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) and manufacturing (M) is a novel layer-by-layer fabrication technique which has become increasingly popular due to its inherent flexibility for the manufacture of simple and complex 3D parts. Early we had been shown opportunity of selective laser sintering (SLS) of different type powder systems (intermetallics, ceramics, ferrites, high-temperature superconductors), traditional use for self-propagated high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The non-thermal heating affect of an external electromagnetic field during SHS is related to the specific system under study due to differences in movement of defects and ions at the 'plasma-like' molten combustion wave front. We have developed and refined the testing scheme for electro-thermal phenomena studies which can directly influence on the SHS combustion wave front. This work studies electromotive force (EMF) measurements across the front of combustion wave during layer by layer surface laser sintering of exothermal powder compositions (Ni-Ti, Ni-Al). Analysis using an analog-digital-analog computer converter allowed some control of the laser movement and hence some control of the exothermal reaction - in so doing it provided near optimum conditions for forming layered 3D articles. Comparative results of structural-phase transformation during laser control SHS in reaction-capable compositions are presented.

  9. A novel amperometric immunosensor based on layer-by-layer assembly of gold nanoparticles-multi-walled carbon nanotubes-thionine multilayer films on polyelectrolyte surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Chaofeng [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)], E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn; Chai Yaqin; Tang Mingyu; Chai Rong; He Xiulan [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2007-11-12

    A highly sensitive and label-free amperometric immunosensor has been developed for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) based on layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes-thionine (MWNTs-THI) and chitosan (CHIT) on 3-mercaptopropanesulfonic, sodium salt (MPS)-modified gold electrode surface by electrostatic adsorption. The stepwise LBL assembly process of electroactive species on electrode surface was characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) in PBS. The factors influencing the performance of the resulting immunosensor were studied in detail. The morphologies of MWNTs, MWNTs-THI and GNPs-MWNTs-THI-CHIT were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immunosensor was highly sensitive to CEA with a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL{sup -1} (signal/noise ratio of 3) and the linear range with two concentration intermittences was from 0.5 to 15.0 ng mL{sup -1} and from 15.0 to 200.0 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively. In addition, the prepared immunosensor could be regenerated 10 times with 5 M urea solution. When the immunosensor was stored at 4 deg. C and measured intermittently (every 4-6 days), no apparent change was found over 3 months. The immunosensor system showed an excellent reproducibility and stability.

  10. Effect of High-Speed Milling Parameters on Surface Metamorphic Layer of TC17 Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAN Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide the relatively accurate experimental basis for optimizing parameters and controlling surface metamorphic layer, ball end high-speed milling experiments of TC17 titanium alloy were carried out utilizing one of experimental design techniques based on the response surface methodology. The surface roughness prediction model was built, variance analyses were applied to check the significances of surface roughness model and input parameters, the effect of parameters on surface roughness was analyzed. Meanwhile, the residual stress, microhardness and microstructure under the condition of high, medium and low level of parameters were investigated. Results indicate that the model can predict the surface roughness effectively and feed per tooth and radial depth of cut have an obvious effect on surface roughness. Compressive residual stresses are detected on all milled surfaces and surface residual stresses are increased with the increase of the level of the milling parameters. The compressive residual stress layer is approximately 20 μm regardless of milling parameters level used. The process of thermal softening, then work hardening, and finally tending to stabilize are observed in the microhardness profiles. Grains of the surface layer are broken and bent, the thickness of plastic deformation layer is approximately 10 μm.

  11. The Influence of the Tool Surface Texture on Friction and the Surface Layers Properties of Formed Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šugárová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological texturing of forming tool surfaces has high potential to reduce friction and tool wear and also has impact on the surface layers properties of formed material. In order to understand the effect of different types of tool textures, produced by nanosecond fibre laser, on the tribological conditions at the interface tool-formed material and on the integrity of formed part surface layers, the series of experimental investigations have been carried out. The coefficient of friction for different texture parameters (individual feature shape, including the depth profile of the cavities and orientation of the features relative to the material flow was evaluated via a Ring Test and the surface layers integrity of formed material (surface roughness and subsurface micro hardness was also experimentally analysed. The results showed a positive effect of surface texturing on the friction coefficients and the strain hardening of test samples material. Application of surface texture consisting of dimple-like depressions arranged in radial layout contributed to the most significant friction reduction of about 40%. On the other hand, this surface texture contributed to the increase of surface roughness parameters, Ra parameter increased from 0.49 μm to 2.19 μm and the Rz parameter increased from 0.99 μm to 16.79 μm.

  12. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan; Liang, Guozheng

    2017-07-01

    Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO2 and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91-95%, about 29-14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and modified fibers. The excellent comprehensive properties of BL-AFs demonstrate that the green method provided in this study is facile and effective to completely solve the bottlenecks of aramid fibers, and developing higher performance organic fibers.

  13. High Efficiency Acetylcholinesterase Immobilization on DNA Aptamer Modified Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orada Chumphukam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here the in vitro selection of DNA aptamers for electric eel acetylcholinesterase (AChE. One selected aptamer sequence (R15/19 has a high affinity towards the enzyme (Kd = 157 ± 42 pM. Characterization of the aptamer showed its binding is not affected by low ionic strength (~20 mM, however significant reduction in affinity occurred at high ionic strength (~1.2 M. In addition, this aptamer does not inhibit the catalytic activity of AChE that we exploit through immobilization of the DNA on a streptavidin-coated surface. Subsequent immobilization of AChE by the aptamer results in a 4-fold higher catalytic activity when compared to adsorption directly on to plastic.

  14. Performance of Low-Volume Roads with Wearing Course Layer of Silty Sandy Soil Modified with Rice Husk Ash and Lime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behak Katz, L.; Musso Laespiga, M.

    2016-07-01

    Rice husk ash (RHA) is a by-product of rice milling. Its use as soil stabilizer is a way to replace the final disposal with environmental benefit. However, RHA is not cementitious itself but when mixed with lime forms cements which improve the soil properties. A research of performance of a silty sandy soil modified with RHA and lime as wearing course layer of low-volume roads was conducted through two full-scale test sections with different pavements built in Artigas, northern Uruguay. The alkaline reactivity of RHA is low because the husk burning is not controlled. The soil-RHA-lime mix design was conducted according to the Thompson’s Method. The pavement test sections were monitored through deflection measures by Benkelman beam and observations of surface condition. The deflections decreased over time in both test sections due to the development of cementation of the study materials. After one year, the dust emission was reduced, the wet skid resistance of pavement surfaces improved and there was not rutting. The researched pavements have had a good performance under the existing traffic and environmental conditions, demonstrating that wearing course layer of silty sand modified with RHA and lime is an alternative to improve the condition of low-volume roads and to replace the final disposal of RHA, with environmental, social and economic benefits. (Author)

  15. Photogeneration of singlet oxygen by the phenothiazine derivatives covalently bound to the surface-modified glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacha-Grzechnik, Agata, E-mail: agata.blacha@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Piwowar, Katarzyna; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Koscielniak, Piotr; Szuber, Jacek [Institute of Electronics, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Zak, Jerzy K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The selected group of four NH{sub 2}-derivatives of phenothiazine was grafted to Glassy Carbon (GC) surface. • The grafted phenothiazines are able to generate {sup 1}O{sub 2} when activated by the radiation. • Such modified solid surfaces may find their application in the wastewater treatment. - Abstract: The selected group of four amine-derivatives of phenothiazine was covalently grafted to the glassy carbon surface in the four-step procedure consisting of the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt followed by the electrochemical and chemical post-modification steps. The proposed strategy involves the bonding of linker molecule to which the photosensitizer is attached. The synthesized organic layers were characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry, XPS and Raman Spectroscopy. It was shown that the phenothiazines immobilized via proposed strategy retain their photochemical properties and are able to generate {sup 1}O{sub 2} when activated by the laser radiation. The effectiveness of in situ singlet oxygen generation by those new solid photoactive materials was determined by means of UVVis spectroscopy. The reported, covalently modified solid surfaces may find their application as the singlet oxygen photogenerators in the fine chemicals’ synthesis or in the wastewater treatment.

  16. Ligation-based mutation detection and RCA in surface un-modified OSTE+ polymer microfluidic chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saharil, Farizah; Ahlford, Annika; Kuhnemund, Malte

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, we demonstrate DNA mutation detection in surface un-modified polymeric microfluidic chambers without suffering from bubble trapping or bubble formation. Microfluidic devices were manufactured in off-stoichiometry thiol-ene epoxy (OSTE+) polymer using an uncomplicated and rapid...... during bio-operation at elevated temperatures. In contrast, PMMA, PDMS and COP microfluidic devices required specific surface treatment....

  17. Free surface simulation of a two-layer fluid by boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weoncheol Koo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer fluid with free surface is simulated in the time domain by a two-dimensional potential-based Numerical Wave Tank (NWT. The developed NWT is based on the boundary element method and a leap-frog time integration scheme. A whole domain scheme including interaction terms between two layers is applied to solve the boundary integral equation. The time histories of surface elevations on both fluid layers in the respective wave modes are verified with analytic results. The amplitude ratios of upper to lower elevation for various density ratios and water depths are also compared.

  18. Effect of electric spark pulses on surface layer structure of chromium monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstyukhin, A.I.; Krapivka, N.A.; Barinov, I.P.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of electric spark pulses on the character of fracture of surface layers of chromium monocrystals during cutting in crystallographic planes (100), (110) and (111) is established. Crystallographical anisotropy of defect formation is determined and the value of defective layers during cutting in the above planes is found. A conclusion is made that cracks in chromium monocrystals of commercial grade during electric-spark cutting are formed in planes (100) and more seldom in (111) ones. A high-temperature annealing for the reduction of initial properties of chromium surface layers is suggested

  19. Absorption and reflectivity of the lithium niobate surface masked with a graphene layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Salas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed simulations of the interaction of a graphene layer with the surface of lithium niobate utilizing density functional theory and molecular dynamics at 300K and atmospheric pressure. We found that the graphene layer is physisorbed on the lithium niobate surface with an adsorption energy of -0.8205 eV/(carbon-atom. Subsequently, the energy band structure, the optical absorption and reflectivity of the new system were calculated. We found important changes in these physical properties with respect to the corresponding ones of a graphene layer and of a lithium niobate crystal.

  20. The mechanism of the surface alloy layer creation for cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Walasek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed description of the process of creation of a surface alloy layer (using high-carbon ferrochromium on the cast steel casting. The mechanism of the surface alloy layer is based on the known theories [5,6]. The proposed course of formation of the layers has been extended to decarburization stage of steel. The research included proving the presence of carbon-lean zone. The experiment included the analysis of the distribution of elements and microhardness measurement.

  1. Formation Mechanism of Surface Metamorphic Layer on Turning End Face of GH4169 Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Changfeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Turning experiments and Deform-3D finite element methods were used to study the formation mechanism of surface metamorphic layer on turning GH4169 processed. The investigations were carried out by analyzing the changing of cutting force, the temperature and strain field, the residual stress, micro-hardness, microstructure, as well as the distribution of the above all along the direction of the depth under various process parameters. The results show that the surface metamorphic layer is formed due to the thermal-mechanical coupled effects on the microstructure of the material in the machining process. The cutting force, heat and strain of surface material are increased with the increase of machining intensity. Besides the higher strength of machining, the greater changes of plastic deformation, metallographic and grain deformation are acquired. In the range of processing parameters, the temperature layer is 130-200 μm,the strain layer is 100-220 μm, the residual stress layer is 80-110 μm, the depth of hardening layer is 50-80 μm, and the depth of surface metamorphic layer is 2.5-5μm.

  2. Investigation of Selective Laser Melting Surface Alloyed Aluminium Metal Matrix Dispersive Reinforced Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamburov, V. V.; Dimitrova, R. B.; Kandeva, M. K.; Sofronov, Y. P.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the improvement of mechanical properties and in particular wear resistance of laser surface alloyed dispersive reinforced thin layers produced by selective laser melting (SLM) technology. The wear resistance investigation of aluminium matrix composite layers in the conditions of dry friction surface with abrasive particles and nanoindentation tests were carried out. The process parameters (as scan speed) and their impact on the wear resistant layers have been evaluated. The alloyed layers containing metalized SiC particles were studied by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The obtained experimental results of the laser alloyed thin layers show significant development of their wear resistance and nanohardness due to the incorporated reinforced phase of electroless nickel coated SiC particles.

  3. Cellular interactions of surface modified nanoporous silicon particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbo, Luis M; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Mäkilä, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo; Laaksonen, Päivi; Salonen, Jarno; Linder, Markus B; Hirvonen, Jouni; Airaksinen, Anu J; Santos, Hélder A

    2012-05-21

    In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, (125)I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi nanoparticles incubated in pH 7.4, which renders the particles the possibility for further track-imaging applications. The results highlight the potential of HFBII coating for improving wettability, increasing biocompatibility and possible intestinal association of PSi nanoparticulates for drug delivery applications.

  4. Surface modified alginate microcapsules for 3D cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chiung Wen; Chueh, Di-Yen; Chen, Peilin

    2016-06-01

    Culture as three dimensional cell aggregates or spheroids can offer an ideal platform for tissue engineering applications and for pharmaceutical screening. Such 3D culture models, however, may suffer from the problems such as immune response and ineffective and cumbersome culture. This paper describes a simple method for producing microcapsules with alginate cores and a thin shell of poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) to encapsulate mouse induced pluripotent stem (miPS) cells, generating a non-fouling surface as an effective immunoisolation barrier. We demonstrated the trapping of the alginate microcapsules in a microwell array for the continuous observation and culture of a large number of encapsulated miPS cells in parallel. miPS cells cultured in the microcapsules survived well and proliferated to form a single cell aggregate. Droplet formation of monodisperse microcapsules with controlled size combined with flow cytometry provided an efficient way to quantitatively analyze the growth of encapsulated cells in a high-throughput manner. The simple and cost-effective coating technique employed to produce the core-shell microcapsules could be used in the emerging field of cell therapy. The microwell array would provide a convenient, user friendly and high-throughput platform for long-term cell culture and monitoring.

  5. Immunoadjuvant activity of the nanoparticles’ surface modified with mannan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Azita; Hamdy, Samar; Ghotbi, Zahra; Samuel, John; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2014-09-01

    Mannan (MN) is the natural ligand for mannose receptors, which are widely expressed on dendritic cells (DCs). The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of formulation parameters on the immunogenicity of MN-decorated poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) in terms of their ability to stimulate DC phenotypic as well as functional maturation. For this purpose, NPs were formulated from either ester-terminated or COOH-terminated PLGA. Incorporation of MN in NPs was achieved through encapsulation, physical adsorption or chemical conjugation. Murine bone marrow derived DCs (BMDCs) were treated with various NP formulations and assessed for their ability to up-regulate DC cell surface markers, secrete immunostimulatory cytokines and to activate allogenic T cell responses. DCs treated with COOH-terminated PLGA-NPs containing chemically conjugated MN (MN-Cov-COOH) have shown superior performance in improving DC biological functions, compared to the rest of the formulations tested. This may be attributed to the higher level of MN incorporation in the former formulation. Incorporation of MN in PLGA NPs through chemical conjugation can lead to enhanced DC maturation and stimulatory function. This strategy may be used to develop more effective PLGA-based vaccine formulations.

  6. Californium-252 plasma desorption mass analysis of proteins adsorbed on polymer and modified-polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A new Cf-252 plasma desorption mass spectrometer has been built specifically for the analysis of large biomolecules. This mass spectrometer was used to investigate the interactions between proteins adsorbed onto polymer surfaces and how the chemical nature of the polymer surface influences the production of stable, gas-phase molecule ions. Chemical modification of the polymer surfaces was achieved by means of ultra-violet irradiation, resulting in the production of a more hydrophilic surface. Analysis of a series of model compounds adsorbed onto modified and non-modified polymer surfaces indicates that the wettability of the surface is an important influence in the production of stable molecular ions. This information was then utilized to aid in the analysis of lysozyme, myoglobin, and porcine trypsin

  7. Polyethylenimine surface layer for enhanced virus immobilization on cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiliket, Ghania; Ladam, Guy; Nguyen, Quang Trong; Lebrun, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    Thin regenerated cellulose films are prepared by hydrolysis of cellulose acetate (CA). A polycation, namely polyethylenimine (PEI), is then adsorbed onto the films. From QCM-D analysis, PEI readily adsorbs from a 0.1% w/v solution in NaCl 0.2 M (ca. 100 ng cm-2). Further PEI adsorption steps at higher PEI concentrations induce a linear growth of the PEI films, suggesting that free adsorption sites still exist after the initial adsorption. The adsorbed PEI chains are resistant to variations of the ionic strength up to NaCl 1 M. Promisingly, the adsorption of T4D bacteriophages are 15-fold more efficient onto the PEI-treated, compared to the native regenerated cellulose films, as measured by QCM-D. This confirms the strong affinity between the negatively charged viruses and PEI, even at low PEI concentration, probably governed by strong electrostatic attractive interactions. This result explains the remarkable improvement of the affinity of medical masks for virus droplets when one of their cellulose layers was changed by two-PEI-functionalized cellulose-based filters.

  8. Double-layered hyaluronic acid/stearic acid-modified polyethyleneimine nanoparticles encapsulating (-)-gossypol: a nanocarrier for chiral anticancer drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hao; Li, Ke; Lan, Lan; Ma, Jingwen; Zeng, Yun; Xu, Liang; Wu, Daocheng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance the water solubility and antitumor efficacy of (-)-gossypol. Polyethyleneimine conjugated with stearic acid (PgS) was used for loading and protecting (-)-gossypol through hydrogen bonding. Double-layered hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified PgS nanoparticles encapsulating (-)-gossypol [(-)-G-PgSHAs] were prepared through a two-step fabrication process. The nanoparticles possessed a uniform spherical shape with a dynamic size of 110.9 ± 2.4 nm, which was determined through...

  9. Where surface physics and fluid dynamics meet: rupture of an amphiphile layer by fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, M M; Goldburg, W I; Cressman, J R; Kellay, H

    2006-03-14

    We investigate the fluctuating pattern created by a jet of fluid impingent upon an amphiphile-covered surface. This microscopically thin layer is initially covered with 50 microm floating particles so that the layer can be visualized. A vertical jet of water located below the surface and directed upward drives a hole in this layer. The hole is particle-free and is surrounded by the particle-laden amphiphile region. The jet ruptures the amphiphile layer creating a particle-free region that is surrounded by the particle-covered surface. The aim of the experiment is to understand the (fluctuating) shape of the ramified interface between the particle-laden and particle-free regions.

  10. Identification and characterization of the surface-layer protein of Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Omar; Brailsford, Alan; Wright, Anne; Faraar, Jeremy; Campbell, Jim; Fairweather, Neil

    2007-09-01

    Many bacterial species produce a paracrystalline layer, the surface layer, which completely surrounds the exterior of the cell. In some bacteria, the surface layer is implicated in pathogenesis. Two proteins present in cell wall extracts from Clostridium tetani have been investigated and identified one of these has been unambiguously as the surface-layer protein (SLP). The gene, slpA, has been located in the genome of C. tetani E88 that encodes the SLP. The molecular mass of the protein as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is considerably larger than that predicted from the gene; however the protein does not appear to be glycosylated. Furthermore, analysis of five C. tetani strains, including three recent clinical isolates, shows considerable variation in the sizes of the SLP.

  11. CHARACTERIZING SURFACE LAYERS IN NITINOL USING X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopfel, R.; Mehta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nitinol is a shape memory alloy whose properties allow for large reversible deformations and a return to its original geometry. This nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy has become a material used widely in the biomedical fi eld as a stent to open up collapsed arteries. Both ambient and biological conditions cause surface oxidation in these devices which in turn change its biocompatibility. The thickness of oxidized layers can cause fractures in the material if too large and can allow for penetration if too thin. Depending on the type and abundance of the chemical species on or near the surface, highly toxic metal ions can leak into the body causing cell damage or even cell death. Thus, biocompatibility of such devices is crucial. By using highly surface sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the surface of these structures, it is possible to decipher both layer composition and layer thickness. Two samples, both of which were mechanically polished, were investigated. Of the two samples, one was then exposed to a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution to mimic the chemical properties of blood, while the other remained unexposed. Although both samples were found to have oxide layers of appropriate thickness (on the order of a few nm), it was found that the sample exposed to the saline solution had a slightly thicker oxide layer and more signifi cantly, a phosphate layer very near the surface suggesting toxic metal components are well contained within the sample. These are considerable indications of a biocompatible device.

  12. SURFACE LAYER ACCRETION IN CONVENTIONAL AND TRANSITIONAL DISKS DRIVEN BY FAR-ULTRAVIOLET IONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Whether protoplanetary disks accrete at observationally significant rates by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) depends on how well ionized they are. Disk surface layers ionized by stellar X-rays are susceptible to charge neutralization by small condensates, ranging from ∼0.01 μm sized grains to angstrom-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ion densities in X-ray-irradiated surfaces are so low that ambipolar diffusion weakens the MRI. Here we show that ionization by stellar far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation enables full-blown MRI turbulence in disk surface layers. Far-UV ionization of atomic carbon and sulfur produces a plasma so dense that it is immune to ion recombination on grains and PAHs. The FUV-ionized layer, of thickness 0.01-0.1 g cm -2 , behaves in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic limit and can accrete at observationally significant rates at radii ∼> 1-10 AU. Surface layer accretion driven by FUV ionization can reproduce the trend of increasing accretion rate with increasing hole size seen in transitional disks. At radii ∼<1-10 AU, FUV-ionized surface layers cannot sustain the accretion rates generated at larger distance, and unless turbulent mixing of plasma can thicken the MRI-active layer, an additional means of transport is needed. In the case of transitional disks, it could be provided by planets.

  13. Enhanced magneto-optical imaging of internal stresses in the removed surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agalidi, Yuriy; Kozhukhar, Pavlo; Levyi, Sergii; Turbin, Dmitriy

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes a software method of reconstructing the state of the removed surface layer by visualising internal stresses in the underlying layers of the sample. Such a problem typically needs to be solved as part of forensic investigation that aims to reveal original marking of a sample with removed surface layer. For example, one may be interested in serial numbers of weapons or vehicles that had the surface layer of metal removed from the number plate. Experimental results of studying gradient internal stress fields in ferromagnetic sample using the NDI method of magneto-optical imaging (MOI) are presented. Numerical modelling results of internal stresses enclosed in the surface marking region are analysed and compared to the experimental results of magneto-optical imaging (MOI). MOI correction algorithm intended for reconstructing internal stress fields in the removed surface layer by extracting stresses retained by the underlying layers is described. Limiting ratios between parameters of a marking font are defined for the considered correction algorithm. Enhanced recognition properties for hidden stresses left by marking symbols are experimentally verified and confirmed.

  14. Microstructure evolution and tribological properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber surface modified by atmospheric plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming-xue; Zhang, Zhao-xiang; Peng, Xu-dong; Lin, Xiu-zhou

    2017-09-01

    For the purpose of prolonging the service life for rubber sealing elements, the frictional behavior of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) surface by dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatments was investigated in this paper. Surface microstructure and chemical composition were measured by atomic force microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Water contact angles of the modified rubber surface were also measured to evaluate the correlation between surface wettability and tribological properties. The results show that plasma treatments can improve the properties of the NBR against friction and wear effectively, the surface microstructure and roughness of plasma-modified NBR surface had an important influence on the surface tribological behavior, and the wear depth first decreased and then increased along with the change of plasma treatment time. It was found that the wettability of the modified surface was gradually improved, which was mainly due to the change of the chemical composition after the treatment. This study suggests that the plasma treatment could effectively improve the tribological properties of the NBR surface, and also provides information for developing wear-resistant NBR for industrial applications.

  15. Preparation of lanthanum fluoride nanolayers by depositing ionic layers on silicon surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuchkov, B.S.; Tolstoi, V.P.; Murin, I.V.; Kirillov, S.N. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-10

    The kinetics of growth of LaF{sub 3} nanolayers on silicon surface was studied. Influences due to preparation conditions (the concentration and the pH values of the solution, the time of surface treatment, the number of cycles of ionic layer deposition) were evaluated.

  16. Macrofauna under sea ice and in the open surface layer of the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, Hauke; van Franeker, Jan-Andries; Cisewski, Boris; Leach, Harry; Van de Putte, Anton P.; Meesters, Erik (H. W. G.); Bathmann, Ulrich; Wolff, Wirn J.

    2011-01-01

    A new fishing gear was used to sample the macrozooplankton and micronekton community in the surface layer (0-2 m) under ice and in open water, the Surface and Under Ice Trawl (SUIT). In total, 57 quantitative hauls were conducted in the Lazarev Sea (Southern Ocean) during 3 different seasons (autumn

  17. Macrofauna under sea ice and in the open surface layer of the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Franeker, van J.A.; Cisewski, B.; Leach, H.; Putte, van de A.P.; Meesters, H.W.G.; Bathmann, U.; Wolff, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new fishing gear was used to sample the macrozooplankton and micronekton community in the surface layer (0–2 m) under ice and in open water, the Surface and Under Ice Trawl (SUIT). In total, 57 quantitative hauls were conducted in the Lazarev Sea (Southern Ocean) during 3 different seasons (autumn

  18. CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE OF STERN LAYER CAPACITANCES AND SURFACE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS IN SILICA-BASED NANOFLUIDIC CHANNELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; Frey, J.; Bruus, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    ]. The current models used to describe surface phenomena in nanofluidics can differ by orders of magnitude from experimentally measured values [2]. To mitigate the discrepancies, we hypothesize that the Stern-layer capacitance Cs and the surface equilibrium constants pKa, vary with the composition of the solid...

  19. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Mayser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes.

  20. [Calcium-oxygen modified amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon layers as biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner-Reisel, A; Schürer, C; Nischan, C; Klemm, V; Irmer, G; Müller, E

    2002-01-01

    Undoped and Ca-O-modified diamond-like carbon coatings were deposited by a direct current discharge. Hardness and Young's modulus of Ca-O-modified DLCs were reduced in comparison with the undoped DLC, but the adherence of the Ca-O-modified films is improved. Ca-O-modified DLCs have a higher fraction of nano-crystalline regions with carbon in sp2 hybridisation. In addition, an increased oxygen content and CaCO3 was identified in Ca-O-modified DLCs. While mouse fibroblasts of the type L929 attach and grow on unmodified diamond-like carbon coatings synthesized by the decomposition of hydrocarbon, the addition of CaO-H2O into the precursor gas improves the coatings biological acceptance by the cells.

  1. Stability of underpotentially deposited Ag layers on a Au(111) surface studied by surface X-ray scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Toshihiro; Takakusagi, Satoru; Uosaki, Kohei

    2009-01-01

    Stability of underpotentially deposited (upd) Ag layers on Au(111) surface was investigated by surface X-ray scattering (SXS). While the complete pseudomorphic Ag bilayer on Au(111) surface obtained by upd at 10 mV (vs. Ag/Ag+) was maintained its structure even after the circuit was disconnected and the surface was exposed to ambient atmosphere, the pseudomorphic Ag monolayer obtained by upd at 50 mV was converted to a partial bilayer with the coverage of 0.66 ML and 0.46 ML for the 1st and 2...

  2. Surface crack formation on rails at grinding induced martensite white etching layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten Jørn; Fæster, Søren; Dhar, Somrita

    2017-01-01

    The connection between profile grinding of rails, martensite surface layers and crack initiation has been investigated using visual inspection, optical microscopy and 3D X-ray computerized tomography. Newly grinded rails were extracted and found to be covered by a continuous surface layer...... of martensite with varying thickness formed by the grinding process. Worn R350HT and R200 rails were extracted from the Danish rail network as they had transverse bands resembling grinding marks on the running surface. The transverse bands were shown to consist of martensite which had extensive crack formation...

  3. Problems of surface morphology and layer deposition during plasma etching processes. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, H.-J.; Krausse, J.; Voigt, R.

    1982-01-01

    The plasma etching of Si in CF 4 -, CF 4 /O 2 - and CF 4 /H 2 plasmas was investigated in dependence on the etching gas, the plasma conditions (pressure, power density) and etching time in different reactors. A roughening of the surface and the formation of a 'semi-amorphous' surface layer with a powder-like morphology was detected by TEM-and RHEED methods. It is supposed that the surface layer has a fundamental consequence as an intermediate state in the etching mechanism. (author)

  4. Layer-by-layer generation of PEG-based regenerable immunosensing surfaces for small-sized analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Maria; Ben Haddada, Maroua; Méthivier, Christophe; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar; Boujday, Souhir

    2015-05-15

    Small molecules (haptens) like pharmaceuticals or peptides can serve as targets for antibody binding in competitive immunoassay-based flow-through assays. In this work, a strategy for preparing polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings for subsequent hapten immobilization on glass-type silica surfaces is presented and characterized in detail. Two substrates bearing terminal silanol groups were utilized, a glass slide and a silicon wafer. First, surfaces were thoroughly cleaned and pretreated to generate additional silanol groups. Then, a silane layer with terminal epoxy groups was created using 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPTS). Epoxy groups were used to bind a layer of diamino-poly(ethylene glycol) (DAPEG) with terminal amino groups. Finally, the low molecular weight compound diclofenac was bound to the surface to be used as model ligand for competitive biosensing of haptens. The elementary steps were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle measurement, grazing-angle attenuated total reflection (GA-ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The data collected using these techniques have confirmed the successive grafting of the molecular species, evidencing, that homogeneous monolayers were created on the silica surfaces and validated the proposed mechanism of functionalization. The resulting surfaces were used to investigate polyclonal anti-diclofenac antibodies recognition and reversibility using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements or an automated flow-through immunoassay with chemiluminescence (CL) read-out. For both techniques, recognition and reversibility of the antibody binding were observed. The stability of sensors over time was also assessed and no decrease in CL response was observed upon 14 days in aqueous solution. The herein presented strategy for surface functionalization can be used in the future as reproducible and reusable universal platform for hapten

  5. Surface layer composition of titania produced by various methods. The change of layer state under illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharenko, V; Daibova, E; Zmeeva, O; Kosova, N

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of experimental data over titanium dioxide powders prepared by various ways under ambient air is carried out. The results over TiO 2 prepared by high-temperature heating of anatase, produced by burning of titanium micro particles and grinding of rutile crystal are used for that comparison. Water and carbon dioxide were the main products released from the surface of the titania powders. It was found that under UV irradiation absorbed by titania, in absent oxygen, water effectively reacts with lattice oxygen of titanium dioxide. (paper)

  6. Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.

  7. A fine surface roughness electroless Ni–P–PTFE composite modified stamper for light guide plate application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, K; Fu, C

    2010-01-01

    Electroless Ni–P–PTFE composite coating technology takes advantage of the beneficial properties from both Ni–P alloy and PTFE, such as good wear resistance, good anti-adhesion, dry lubrication, low coefficient of friction and good corrosion resistance. It has been applied in many mold industries. However, the Ni–P–PTFE composite coating suffers from bad surface roughness, when the PTFE particles incorporate into a Ni–P matrix. This severely hampers the technology to be applied to optical grade applications. In this paper, we propose a trick to generate a fine surface roughness (FSR) electroless Ni–P–PTFE composite to modify a nickel stamper. Using this new method, the nickel stamper can be covered by a Ni–P–PTFE functional layer and can keep the original surface property at the same time, namely the optical properties. We have chosen 4.5 inch (97 mm × 59 mm × 0.6 mm) light guide plates (LGPs) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure. For the sake of comparison, the LGPs were produced by injection molding with three kinds of stampers including an original SUS430 master, an electroless Ni–P–PTFE composite coated nickel stamper and an FSR electroless Ni–P–PTFE composite modified stamper. We measured and discussed the optical performances at both the element level and system level, namely complete back light units.

  8. Steady Boundary Layer Disturbances Created By Two-Dimensional Surface Ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    Multiple experiments have shown that surface roughness can enhance the growth of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves in a laminar boundary layer. One of the common observations from these studies is a ``wall displacement'' effect, where the boundary layer profile shape remains relatively unchanged, but the origin of the profile pushes away from the wall. The objective of this work is to calculate the steady velocity field (including this wall displacement) of a laminar boundary layer over a surface with small, 2D surface ripples. The velocity field is a combination of a Blasius boundary layer and multiple disturbance modes, calculated using the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The method of multiple scales is used to include non-parallel boundary layer effects of O (Rδ- 1) ; the non-parallel terms are necessary, because a wall displacement is mathematically inconsistent with a parallel boundary layer assumption. This technique is used to calculate the steady velocity field over ripples of varying height and wavelength, including cases where a separation bubble forms on the leeward side of the ripple. In future work, the steady velocity field will be the input for stability calculations, which will quantify the growth of T-S waves over rough surfaces. The author would like to acknowledge the support of the Kevin T. Crofton Aerospace & Ocean Engineering Department at Virginia Tech.

  9. Self-Assembled Layering of Magnetic Nanoparticles in a Ferrofluid on Silicon Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis-Bröhl, Katharina; Vreeland, Erika C; Gomez, Andrew; Huber, Dale L; Saini, Apurve; Wolff, Max; Maranville, Brian B; Brok, Erik; Krycka, Kathryn L; Dura, Joseph A; Borchers, Julie A

    2018-02-07

    This article describes the three-dimensional self-assembly of monodisperse colloidal magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) from a dilute water-based ferrofluid onto a silicon surface and the dependence of the resultant magnetic structure on the applied field. The NPs assemble into close-packed layers on the surface followed by more loosely packed ones. The magnetic field-dependent magnetization of the individual NP layers depends on both the rotational freedom of the layer and the magnetization of the adjacent layers. For layers in which the NPs are more free to rotate, the easy axis of the NP can readily orient along the field direction. In more dense packing, free rotation of the NPs is hampered, and the NP ensembles likely build up quasi-domain states to minimize energy, which leads to lower magnetization in those layers. Detailed analysis of polarized neutron reflectometry data together with model calculations of the arrangement of the NPs within the layers and input from small-angle scattering measurements provide full characterization of the core/shell NP dimensions, degree of chaining, arrangement of the NPs within the different layers, and magnetization depth profile.

  10. Enhanced biofouling resistance of polyethersulfone membrane surface modified with capsaicin derivative and itaconic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian; Gao, Xueli; Wang, Qun; Sun, Haijing; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gao, Congjie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PES membrane was modified with a capsaicin derivative. • UV-assisted graft polymerization was carried out on membrane surface. • The capsaicin derivative modified membrane shows better antibiofouling property. - Abstract: The culprit of biofouling is the reproduction of viable microorganisms on the membrane surface. Recently, functionalization of membrane surface with natural antibacterial agents has drawn great attention. This work presents the fabrication of antibiofouling polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes by UV-assisted photo grafting of capsaicin derivative (N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-acrylamide, HMBA) and itaconic acid (IA) on the surface of PES membrane. Results of FTIR-ATR, water static contact angle (WSCA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis confirmed the successful grafting of HMBA and IA on the membrane surface. We investigated the antifouling and antibacterial properties of these membranes using BSA and Escherichia coli as the test model, respectively. During a 150-min test, the modified membranes show much lower flux decline (42.7% for PES-g-1H0I, 22.2% for PES-g-1H1I and 7.7% for PES-g-1H5I) when compared with the pristine membrane (flux declined by 77%). The modified membranes exhibit excellent antibacterial activity (nearly 100%) when UV irradiation time was 6 min. The morphological study suggested that the E. coli on the pristine membrane showed a regular and smooth surface while that on the modified membrane was disrupted, which validated the antibacterial activity of the modified membranes.

  11. Enhanced biofouling resistance of polyethersulfone membrane surface modified with capsaicin derivative and itaconic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Gao, Xueli, E-mail: gxl_ouc@126.com [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Wang, Qun; Sun, Haijing; Wang, Xiaojuan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Gao, Congjie, E-mail: gaocjie@ouc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PES membrane was modified with a capsaicin derivative. • UV-assisted graft polymerization was carried out on membrane surface. • The capsaicin derivative modified membrane shows better antibiofouling property. - Abstract: The culprit of biofouling is the reproduction of viable microorganisms on the membrane surface. Recently, functionalization of membrane surface with natural antibacterial agents has drawn great attention. This work presents the fabrication of antibiofouling polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes by UV-assisted photo grafting of capsaicin derivative (N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-acrylamide, HMBA) and itaconic acid (IA) on the surface of PES membrane. Results of FTIR-ATR, water static contact angle (WSCA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis confirmed the successful grafting of HMBA and IA on the membrane surface. We investigated the antifouling and antibacterial properties of these membranes using BSA and Escherichia coli as the test model, respectively. During a 150-min test, the modified membranes show much lower flux decline (42.7% for PES-g-1H0I, 22.2% for PES-g-1H1I and 7.7% for PES-g-1H5I) when compared with the pristine membrane (flux declined by 77%). The modified membranes exhibit excellent antibacterial activity (nearly 100%) when UV irradiation time was 6 min. The morphological study suggested that the E. coli on the pristine membrane showed a regular and smooth surface while that on the modified membrane was disrupted, which validated the antibacterial activity of the modified membranes.

  12. The Effects of Land Surface Heating And Roughness Elements on the Structure and Scaling Laws of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannam, Khaled

    The atmospheric boundary-layer is the lowest 500-2000 m of the Earth's atmosphere where much of human life and ecosystem services reside. This layer responds to land surface (e.g. buoyancy and roughness elements) and slowly evolving free tropospheric (e.g. temperature and humidity lapse rates) conditions that arguably mediate and modulate biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Such response often results in spatially- and temporally-rich turbulence scales that continue to be the subject of inquiry given their significance to a plethora of applications in environmental sciences and engineering. The work here addresses key aspects of boundary layer turbulence with a focus on the role of roughness elements (vegetation canopies) and buoyancy (surface heating) in modifying the well-studied picture of shear-dominated wall-bounded turbulence. A combination of laboratory channel experiments, field experiments, and numerical simulations are used to explore three distinct aspects of boundary layer turbulence. These are: • The concept of ergodicity in turbulence statistics within canopies: It has been long-recognized that homogeneous and stationary turbulence is ergodic, but less is known about the effects of inhomogeneity introduced by the presence of canopies on the turbulence statistics. A high resolution (temporal and spatial) flume experiment is used here to test the convergence of the time statistics of turbulent scalar concentrations to their ensemble (spatio-temporal) counterpart. The findings indicate that within-canopy scalar statistics have a tendency to be ergodic, mostly in shallow layers (close to canopy top) where the sweeping flow events appear to randomize the statistics. Deeper layers within the canopy are dominated by low-dimensional (quasi-deterministic) von Karman vortices that tend to break ergodicity. • Scaling laws of turbulent velocity spectra and structure functions in near-surface atmospheric turbulence: the existence of a logarithmic scaling in the

  13. Diffusion of C and Cr During Creation of Surface Layer on Cast Steel Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szajnar J.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In paper a method of improvement in utility properties of unalloyed cast steel casting in result of diffusion of C and Cr in process of creation of surface layer is presented. The aim of paper was determination of diffusion range of basic elements of alloyed surface layer. Moreover a quantitative analysis of carbides phase strengthens alloyed surface layer of casting was carried out. The results of studies shown that important factors of surface layer creation are maximal temperature Tmax on granular insert – cast steel boundary dependent of pouring temperature, granularity Zw of Fe-Cr-C alloy insert and thickness of casting wall gśo. On the basis of obtained results was affirmed that with increase of thickness of casting wall increases range of diffusion in solid state in Fe-Cr-C grains and in liquid state. Moreover the range of Tmax = 13001500oC favours creation of the proper alloyed surface layers on cast steel.

  14. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland); Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo [Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Wood Materials Science, ETH Zürich, Stefano-Franscini-Platz 3, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Applied Wood Materials Laboratory, Empa − Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Testing and Research, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Österberg, Monika, E-mail: monika.osterberg@aalto.fi [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A facile sonication route to produce aqueous wax dispersions is developed. • The wax dispersion is naturally stable and free of surfactants or stabilizers. • Wax and ZnO particles are coated onto wood using layer-by-layer assembly. • The coating brings superhydrophobicity while preserving moisture buffering. • ZnO improves the color stability of wood to UV light. - Abstract: Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering

  15. Hard Coat Layers by PE-CVD Process for the Top Surface of Touch Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunishi, T; Sato, N; Yazawa, K

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect surface from damages, the high pencil hardness and the high abrasion resistance are required for the hard coat layers on polyethylene telephthalate (PET) films for the application of touch panel surface. We have already found that the UV-curing-hard-coat-polymer (UHP) coated PET films show the poor abrasion resistance, while they have the high pencil hardness. It reveals that the abrasion resistance of hard coat layers of the UHP is not simply dependent on the pencil hardness. In this work, we have studied to improve the abrasion resistance of SiOC films as hard coat layers, which were formed by PE-CVD process on UHP coated PET. The abrasion resistance was evaluated by Taber abrasion test. PE-CVD hard coat layers which formed on UHP coater PET films have showed the better abrasion resistance and have the possibility of substitution to the thin glass sheets for touch panel application.

  16. Noncontact Quantification of Topography of Anterior Corneal Surface and Bowman's Layer With High-Speed OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalia, Himanshu; Francis, Mathew; Gangil, Tarun; Chandapura, Rachana S; Kurian, Mathew; Shetty, Rohit; Nelson, Everette Jacob Remington; Sinha Roy, Abhijit

    2017-05-01

    To quantify keratometry and wavefront aberration of the anterior corneal surface and epithelium-Bowman's layer interface using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). Twenty-five normal eyes and 25 eyes with keratoconus were retrospectively analyzed. The anterior corneal edge and epithelium-Bowman's layer interface were segmented from 12 distortion-corrected OCT B-scans. Axial tangential curvatures and wavefront aberration were calculated by ray tracing and 6th order Zernike analyses. All eyes underwent simultaneous imaging with Pentacam (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany). The Pentacam elevation data were used for aberration analyses using the same ray-tracing method. The paired t test was used to compare the variables. In normal eyes, mean steep axis and maximum keratometry of OCT of the anterior corneal surface and epithelium-Bowman's layer interface were significantly greater than the same of the Pentacam anterior corneal surface (P OCT surfaces was greater than the same of the Pentacam surface by a factor of 4. In eyes with keratoconus, mean steep axis and maximum keratometry of the OCT epithelium-Bowman's layer interface was the greatest (P OCT epithelium-Bowman's layer interface was the greatest (P OCT epithelium-Bowman's layer interface were significantly greater than those of the Pentacam anterior corneal surface. A noncontact method to quantify the topography and aberrations of corneal surfaces with OCT was presented. OCT measurements yielded greater curvature and aberrations than Pentacam in both normal and keratoconic eyes. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(5):330-336.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huiying; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.

  18. Interfacial layers from the protein HFBII hydrophobin: dynamic surface tension, dilatational elasticity and relaxation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Nikola A; Marinova, Krastanka G; Gurkov, Theodor D; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Blijdenstein, Theodorus B J; Arnaudov, Luben N; Pelan, Eddie G; Lips, Alex

    2012-06-15

    The pendant-drop method (with drop-shape analysis) and Langmuir trough are applied to investigate the characteristic relaxation times and elasticity of interfacial layers from the protein HFBII hydrophobin. Such layers undergo a transition from fluid to elastic solid films. The transition is detected as an increase in the error of the fit of the pendant-drop profile by means of the Laplace equation of capillarity. The relaxation of surface tension after interfacial expansion follows an exponential-decay law, which indicates adsorption kinetics under barrier control. The experimental data for the relaxation time suggest that the adsorption rate is determined by the balance of two opposing factors: (i) the barrier to detachment of protein molecules from bulk aggregates and (ii) the attraction of the detached molecules by the adsorption layer due to the hydrophobic surface force. The hydrophobic attraction can explain why a greater surface coverage leads to a faster adsorption. The relaxation of surface tension after interfacial compression follows a different, square-root law. Such behavior can be attributed to surface diffusion of adsorbed protein molecules that are condensing at the periphery of interfacial protein aggregates. The surface dilatational elasticity, E, is determined in experiments on quick expansion or compression of the interfacial protein layers. At lower surface pressures (<11 mN/m) the experiments on expansion, compression and oscillations give close values of E that are increasing with the rise of surface pressure. At higher surface pressures, E exhibits the opposite tendency and the data are scattered. The latter behavior can be explained with a two-dimensional condensation of adsorbed protein molecules at the higher surface pressures. The results could be important for the understanding and control of dynamic processes in foams and emulsions stabilized by hydrophobins, as well as for the modification of solid surfaces by adsorption of such

  19. Comparison between clinical and audiological results of tympanoplasty with double layer graft (modified sandwich fascia) technique and single layer graft (underlay fascia and underlay cartilage) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemade, Sanjana Vijay; Shinde, Kiran Jaywant; Sampate, Pratibha Bharat

    2017-08-27

    Surgical repair of the tympanic membrane, termed a type one tympanoplasty is a tried and tested treatment modality. Overlay or underlay technique of tympanoplasty is common. Sandwich Tympanoplasty is the combined overlay and underlay grafting of tympanic membrane. To describe and evaluate the modified sandwich graft (mediolateral double layer graft) tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia and areolar fascia. To compare the clinical and audiological outcome of modified sandwich tympanoplasty with underlay tympanoplasty. A total of 88 patients of chronic otitis media were studied. 48 patients (Group A) underwent type one tympanoplasty with modified sandwich graft. Temporalis fascia was underlaid and the areolar fascia was overlaid. 48 patients (Group B) underwent type one tympanoplasty with underlay fascia technique. 48 patients (Group C) underwent type one tympanoplasty with underlay cartilage technique. We assessed the healing and hearing results. Successful graft take up was accomplished in 47 patients (97.9%) in Group A, in 40 patients (83.3%) Group B, and in 46 (95.8%) patients in Group C. The average Air-Bone gap closure achieved in Group A was 24.4±1.7dB, in Group B, it was 22.5±3.5dB and in group C, it was 19.8±2.6dB. Statistically significant difference was found in graft healing rate. Difference in hearing improvement was not statistically significant. Double layered graft with drum-malleus as a 'meat' of sandwich maintains a perfect balance between sufficient stability and adequate acoustic sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced osteoblast responses to poly ether ether ketone surface modified by water plasma immersion ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heying; Lu, Tao; Meng, Fanhao; Zhu, Hongqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-05-01

    Poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) offers a set of characteristics superior for human implants; however, its application is limited by the bio-inert surface property. In this work, PEEK surface was modified using single step plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment with a gas mixture of water vapor as a plasma resource and argon as an ionization assistant. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the microstructure and composition of the modified PEEK surface. The water contact angle and zeta-potential of the surfaces were also measured. Osteoblast precursor cells MC3T3-E1 and rat bone mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the PEEK samples to evaluate their cytocompatibility. The obtained results show that the hydroxyl groups as well as a "ravined structure" are constructed on water PIII modified PEEK. Compared with pristine PEEK, the water PIII treated PEEK is more favorable for osteoblast adhesion, spreading and proliferation, besides, early osteogenic differentiation indicated by the alkaline phosphatase activity is also up-regulated. Our study illustrates enhanced osteoblast responses to the PEEK surface modified by water PIII, which gives positive information in terms of future biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on electroactive and electrocatalytic surfaces of single walled carbon nanotube-modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas-Torres, David; Huerta, Francisco; Montilla, Francisco; Morallon, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the electrocatalysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrodes has been performed in this work. Nanotube-modified electrodes present a surface area much higher than the bare glassy carbon surfaces as determined by capacitance measurements. Several redox probes were selected for checking the reactivity of specific sites at the carbon nanotube surface. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the electrode improves the kinetics for all the reactions studied compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode with variations of the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant up to 5 orders of magnitude. The most important effects are observed for the benzoquinone/hydroquinone and ferrocene/ferricinium redox couples, which show a remarkable improvement of their electron transfer kinetics on SWCNT-modified electrodes, probably due to strong π-π interaction between the organic molecules and the walls of the carbon nanotubes. For many of the reactions studied, less than 1% of the nanotube-modified electrode surface is transferring charge to species in solution. This result suggests that only nanotube tips are active sites for the electron transfer in such cases. On the contrary, the electroactive surface for the reactions of ferrocene and quinone is higher indicating that the electron transfer is produced also from the nanotube walls.

  2. Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorods via a modified sequential two-step deposition method for efficiency enhancement in perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruankham, Pipat; Wongratanaphisan, Duangmanee; Gardchareon, Atcharawon; Phadungdhitidhada, Surachet; Choopun, Supab; Sagawa, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorod substrates with less pinholes is crucial for achieving high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. In this work, a two-step sequential deposition method is modified to achieve an appropriate property of perovskite (MAPbI3) film. Surface treatment of perovskite layer and its precursor have been systematically performed and their morphologies have been investigated. By pre-wetting of lead iodide (PbI2) and letting it dry before reacting with methylammonium iodide (MAI) provide better coverage of perovskite film onto ZnO nanorod substrate than one without any treatment. An additional MAI deposition followed with toluene drop-casting technique on the perovskite film is also found to increase the coverage and enhance the transformation of PbI2 to MAPbI3. These lead to longer charge carrier lifetime, resulting in an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 1.21% to 3.05%. The modified method could been applied to a complex ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles substrate. The enhancement in PCE to 3.41% is observed. These imply that our introduced method provides a simple way to obtain the full coverage and better transformation to MAPbI3 phase for enhancement in performances of perovskite solar cells.

  3. Formation of a nanocrystalline layer on the surface of stone wool fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; Korsgaard, Martin; Kirkegaard, Lise Frank

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, we report a simple approach for creating a nanocrystalline layer on the surface of stone wool fibers (SWFs) with a basalt-like composition. The approach is based on a preoxidation process of the SWFs in atmospheric air at a temperature around the glass transition temperature....... The nanocrystalline layer plays a significant role in enhancing the high-temperature stability of the SWFs....

  4. Heat-resistant organic molecular layer as a joint interface for metal reduction on plastics surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Jing [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Aisawa, Sumio, E-mail: aisawa@iwate-u.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Hirahara, Hidetoshi [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Kudo, Takahiro [Sulfur Chemical Institute, 210, Collabo MIU, 4-3-5, Ueda, Morioka 020-0066 (Japan); Mori, Kunio [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Sulfur Chemical Institute, 210, Collabo MIU, 4-3-5, Ueda, Morioka 020-0066 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ adsorption behaviors of TES on PA6 surface were clarified by QCM. • Highest adsorption of TES on PA6 was obtained in pH 3 and 0.1 M solution. • Molecular layers of TES with uniform structures were prepared on PA6 surface. • TES layer improved PA6 local heat resistance from 150 °C to 230 °C. • TES molecular layer successfully reduced Ag ion to Ag{sup 0}. - Abstract: Heat-resistant organic molecular layers have been fabricated by triazine-based silane coupling agent for metal reduction on plastic surfaces using adsorption method. These molecular layers were used as an interfacial layer between polyamide (PA6) and metal solution to reduce Ag{sup +} ion to Ag{sup 0}. The interfacial behaviors of triazine molecular layer at the interfaces between PA6 and Ag solution were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The kinetics of molecular adsorption on PA6 was investigated by using triazine-based silane coupling agent solutions at different pH and concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM), and local nano thermal analysis were employed to characterize the surfaces and interfaces. The nano thermal analysis results show that molecular layers of triazine-based silane coupling agent greatly improved heat resistance of PA6 resin from 170 °C up to 230 °C. This research developed an in-depth insight for molecular behaviors of triazine-based silane coupling agent at the PA6 and Ag solution interfaces and should be of significant value for interfacial research between plastics and metal solution in plating industry.

  5. Study of surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles coated with dielectric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia-Yu; Huang, Chan-yan; Dai, Ning; Zhu, Da-ming

    2011-08-01

    In this work, atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to deposit different thickness layers of Al2O3 on Au nanoparticles fabricated by thermal annealing of Au thin films. The effects of the Au-coated Al2O3 layer thickness variation to local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in gold (Au) nanoparticles was investigated using transmission surface plasmon resonance (T-SPR) spectroscopy. Thermal annealing of ultrathin films of Au sputtered on transparent substrates can get a dispersed metal particles system which exhibit transmission spectra showing an extinction band attributed to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The particles prepared by thermal annealing are much more like elliptical rather than sphere. The dielectric medium layer Al2O3 was deposited on these Au particles with the thickness from few nanometers to tens of nanometers by ALD. We found that All the LSPR peak positions of particles on different substrates red shifted as the thickness of deposition layer increase, but the LSPR red-shift effect of particles on alumina substrate was much more remarkable than particles on glass substrate. The results in this paper show that it is a very continent method to manipulate LSPR position which is a profound useful effect in solar cell application by controlling the deposition layer thickness on particles prepared by thermal annealing on suitable substrate.

  6. Relevance of sub-surface chip layers for the lifetime of magnetically trapped atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H. B.; Henkel, C; Haller, E.

    2005-01-01

    on the thickness of that layer, as long as the layers below have a much smaller conductivity; essentially the same magnetic noise would be obtained with a metallic membrane suspended in vacuum. Based on our theory we give general scaling laws of how to reduce the effect of surface magnetic noise on the trapped...... measurements where the center of a side guide trap is laterally shifted with respect to the current carrying wire using additional bias fields. Comparing the experiment to theory, we find a fair agreement and demonstrate that for a chip whose topmost layer is metallic, the magnetic noise depends essentially...

  7. Removing device and method for radiation-contaminated concrete surface layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Kiyoshi.

    1996-01-01

    When a radiation-contaminated concrete surface layer is crushed, peeled or melted, and the products generated by the procedures are captured by sucking, the activity of the products is measured. It is judged whether the result is higher than a predetermined level or not, and when the activity is lowered to a predetermined level or less, the portion to be crushed, peeled or melted is moved and the radiation-contaminated concrete surface layer is thus successively removed. In the device of the present invention, microwave energy, millimeter wave energy, or AC arc plasma is used as an energy irradiation means. With such procedures, the contaminated concrete surface layer can be removed efficiently with neither more nor less. (T.M.)

  8. Structure of the surface layer protein of the outer membrane of Spirillum serpens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, R.M.; Chiu, W.; Grano, D.

    1979-01-01

    The outer membrane of the Gram negative bacterium, Spirillum serpens VHA, possesses an ordered surface-layer protein. A morphological model of this protein is proposed on the basis of electron micrographs that have been obtained of unstained, hydrated specimens as well as of negatively stained specimens. The molecular weight of the protein monomer in this model is consistent with the surface-layer protein molecular weight obtained by gel electrophoresis and estimated to be 140,000. In addition, gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of proteins of MW approx. = 35,000 and MW approx. = 78,000, which remain associated with the outer membrane under conditions where the ordered surface-layer protein is released in soluble form.

  9. Manufacture of silicon-based devices having disordered sulfur-doped surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, III, James Edward; Mazur, Eric

    2008-04-08

    The present invention provides methods of fabricating a radiation-absorbing semiconductor wafer by irradiating at least one surface location of a silicon substrate, e.g., an n-doped crystalline silicon, by a plurality of temporally short laser pulses, e.g., femtosecond pulses, while exposing that location to a substance, e.g., SF.sub.6, having an electron-donating constituent so as to generate a substantially disordered surface layer (i.e., a microstructured layer) that incorporates a concentration of that electron-donating constituent, e.g., sulfur. The substrate is also annealed at an elevated temperature and for a duration selected to enhance the charge carrier density in the surface layer. For example, the substrate can be annealed at a temperature in a range of about 700 K to about 900 K.

  10. Imaging Analysis of Carbohydrate-Modified Surfaces Using ToF-SIMS and SPRi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Dubey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Covalent modification of surfaces with carbohydrates (glycans is a prerequisite for a variety of glycomics-based biomedical applications, including functional biomaterials, glycoarrays, and glycan-based biosensors. The chemistry of glycan immobilization plays an essential role in the bioavailability and function of the surface bound carbohydrate moiety. However, the scarcity of analytical methods to characterize carbohydrate-modified surfaces complicates efforts to optimize glycan surface chemistries for specific applications. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS is a surface sensitive technique suited for probing molecular composition at the biomaterial interface. Expanding ToF-SIMS analysis to interrogate carbohydrate-modified materials would increase our understanding of glycan surface chemistries and advance novel tools in the nascent field of glycomics. In this study, a printed glycan microarray surface was fabricated and subsequently characterized by ToF-SIMS imaging analysis. A multivariate technique based on principal component analysis (PCA was used to analyze the ToF-SIMS dataset and reconstruct ToF-SIMS images of functionalized surfaces. These images reveal chemical species related to the immobilized glycan, underlying glycan-reactive chemistries, gold substrates, and outside contaminants. Printed glycoarray elements (spots were also interrogated to resolve the spatial distribution and spot homogeneity of immobilized glycan. The bioavailability of the surface-bound glycan was validated using a specific carbohydrate-binding protein (lectin as characterized by Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRi. Our results demonstrate that ToF-SIMS is capable of characterizing chemical features of carbohydrate-modified surfaces and, when complemented with SPRi, can play an enabling role in optimizing glycan microarray fabrication and performance.

  11. Imaging Analysis of Carbohydrate-Modified Surfaces Using ToF-SIMS and SPRi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolles, Kathryn M; Cheng, Fang; Burk-Rafel, Jesse; Dubey, Manish; Ratner, Daniel M

    2010-07-07

    Covalent modification of surfaces with carbohydrates (glycans) is a prerequisite for a variety of glycomics-based biomedical applications, including functional biomaterials, glycoarrays, and glycan-based biosensors. The chemistry of glycan immobilization plays an essential role in the bioavailability and function of the surface bound carbohydrate moiety. However, the scarcity of analytical methods to characterize carbohydrate-modified surfaces complicates efforts to optimize glycan surface chemistries for specific applications. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface sensitive technique suited for probing molecular composition at the biomaterial interface. Expanding ToF-SIMS analysis to interrogate carbohydrate-modified materials would increase our understanding of glycan surface chemistries and advance novel tools in the nascent field of glycomics. In this study, a printed glycan microarray surface was fabricated and subsequently characterized by ToF-SIMS imaging analysis. A multivariate technique based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the ToF-SIMS dataset and reconstruct ToF-SIMS images of functionalized surfaces. These images reveal chemical species related to the immobilized glycan, underlying glycan-reactive chemistries, gold substrates, and outside contaminants. Printed glycoarray elements (spots) were also interrogated to resolve the spatial distribution and spot homogeneity of immobilized glycan. The bioavailability of the surface-bound glycan was validated using a specific carbohydrate-binding protein (lectin) as characterized by Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRi). Our results demonstrate that ToF-SIMS is capable of characterizing chemical features of carbohydrate-modified surfaces and, when complemented with SPRi, can play an enabling role in optimizing glycan microarray fabrication and performance.

  12. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering ability and some UV protection, all achieved using an environmentally friendly coating process, which is beneficial to retain the natural appearance of wood and improve indoor air quality and comfort.

  13. Reduction of microbial contamination on the surfaces of layer houses using slightly acidic electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, L; Cao, W; Zheng, W C; Zhang, Q; Li, B M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) in reducing pathogens on pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces in the presence of organic matter and estimate its efficacy in comparison with povidone iodine solution for reducing pathogenic microorganisms on internal surfaces of layer houses. Pure cultures of E.coli, S.enteritidis, and S.aureus and cotton fabric surfaces inoculated with these strains were treated with SAEW in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the absence of BSA, complete inactivation of all strains in pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces was observed after 2.5 and 5 min treatment with SAEW at 40 mg/L of available chlorine concentration (ACC), respectively. The bactericidal efficiency of SAEW increased with increasing ACC, but decreased with increasing BSA concentration. Then, the surfaces of the layer houses were sprayed with SAEW at 60, 80, and 100 mg/L of ACC and povidone iodine using the automated disinfection system at a rate of 110 mL/m(2), respectively. Samples from the floor, wall, feed trough, and egg conveyor belt surfaces were collected with sterile cotton swabs before and after spraying disinfection. Compared to tap water, SAEW and povidone iodine significantly reduced microbial populations on each surface of the layer houses. SAEW with 80 or 100 mg/L of ACC showed significantly higher efficacy than povidone iodine for total aerobic bacteria, staphylococci, coliforms, or yeasts and moulds on the floor and feed trough surfaces (P conveyor belt. Results suggest that SAEW exerts a higher or equivalent bactericidal efficiency for the surfaces compared to povidone iodine, and it may be used as an effective alternative for reducing microbial contamination on surfaces in layer houses. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Application of a modified electrochemical system for surface decontamination of radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Lim, Y.K.; Yang, H.Y.; Shin, S.W.; Song, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional and modified electrolytic decontamination experiments were performed in a solution of sodium sulfate for the decontamination of carbon steel as the simulated metal wastes which are generated in large amounts from nuclear power plants. The effect of reaction time, current density and concentration of electrolytes in the modified electrolytic decontamination system were examined to remove the surface contamination of the simulated radioactive metal wastes. As for the results of this research, the modified electrochemical decontamination process can decontaminate more effectively than the conventional decontamination process by applying different anode material which causes higher induced electro-motive forces. When 0.5 M sodium sulfate, 0.4 A/cm 2 current density and 30 minutes reaction time were applied in the modified process, a 16 μm thickness change that is expected to remove most surface contamination in radioactive metal wastes was achieved on carbon steel which is the main material of radioactive metal waste in nuclear power plants. The decontamination efficiency of metal waste showed similar results with the small and large lab-scale modified electrochemical system. The application of this modified electrolytic decontamination system is expected to play a considerable role for decontamination of radioactive metal waste in nuclear power plants in the near future. (author)

  15. `Surface-Layer' momentum fluxes in nocturnal slope flows over steep terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, H. J.; Pardyjak, E.; Higgins, C. W.; Parlange, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    A common working definition for the `surface layer' is the lowest 10% of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where the turbulent fluxes are essentially constant. The latter part of this definition is a critical assumption that must hold for accurate flux estimations from land-surface models, wall models, similarity theory, flux-gradient relations and bulk transfer methods. We present cases from observed momentum fluxes in nocturnal slope flows over steep (35.5 degree), alpine terrain in Val Ferret, Switzerland that satisfy the classical definitions of the surface layer and other cases where no traditional surface layer is observed. These cases broadly fall into two distinct flow regimes occurring under clear-sky conditions: (1) buoyancy-driven, `katabatic flow', characterized by an elevated velocity maximum (katabatic jet peak) and (2) `downslope winds', for which larger-scale forcing prevents formation of a katabatic jet. Velocity profiles in downslope wind cases are quite similar to logarithmic profiles typically observed over horizontal and homogeneous terrain, and the corresponding momentum fluxes roughly resemble a constant-flux surface-layer. Contrastingly, velocity profiles in the katabatic regime exhibit a jet-like shape. This jet strongly modulates the corresponding momentum fluxes, which exhibit strong gradients over the shallow katabatic layer and usually change sign near the jet peak, where the velocity gradients also change sign. However, a counter-gradient momentum flux is frequently observed near the jet peak (and sometimes at higher levels), suggesting strong non-local turbulent transport within the katabatic jet layer. We compare our observations with katabatic flow theories and observational studies over shallow-angle slopes and use co-spectral analyses to better identify and understand the non-local transport dynamics. Finally, we show that because of the counter-gradient momentum fluxes, surface layer stability and even local stability can be

  16. Tuning Tribological Performance of Layered Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelets in Oil by Surface and Interlayer Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Yong, Huaisong; Sun, Dazhi

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) inorganic layered nanoplatelets exhibit superior lubricating properties in both solid states and oil dispersions. In this paper, we have systematically investigated the effects of surface and interlayer modifications on the tribological performance of layered α-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets in mineral oil. The pristine layered ZrP nanoplatelets were first reacted with silanes of different alkyl chains to achieve outer surface modifications, followed by intercalation with different alkyl amines to alter the interlayer spacing. Friction and anti-wear studies on ZrP nanoplatelets with various modifications in mineral oils suggest that a longer alkyl chain on the outer surfaces along with a small increase in interlayer spacing would lead to a better tribological behavior especially under a relatively heavy load condition. Our results illustrate the ability of tuning the tribological properties of 2D layered nanoplatelets in oils by varying their surface and interlayer functionalities and would be helpful for understanding the underlying tribological mechanisms of nanolubricating oils containing 2D layered nanoplatelets. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Evidence of a Transition Layer between the Free Surface and the Bulk

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2018-02-21

    The free surface, a very thin layer at the interface between polymer and air, is considered the main source of the perturbations in the properties of ultrathin polymer films, i.e., nanoconfinement effects. The structural relaxation of such a layer is decoupled from the molecular dynamics of the bulk. The free surface is, in fact, able to stay liquid even below the temperature where the polymer resides in the glassy state. Importantly, this surface layer is expected to have a very sharp interface with the underlying bulk. Here, by analyzing the penetration of n-hexane into polystyrene films, we report on the existence of a transition region, not observed by previous investigations, extending for 12 nm below the free surface. The presence of such a layer permits reconciling the behavior of interfacial layers with current models and has profound implications on the performance of ultrathin membranes. We show that the expected increase in the flux of the permeating species is actually overruled by nanoconfinement.

  18. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  19. Tuning Tribological Performance of Layered Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelets in Oil by Surface and Interlayer Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Yong, Huaisong; Sun, Dazhi

    2017-09-20

    Two-dimensional (2D) inorganic layered nanoplatelets exhibit superior lubricating properties in both solid states and oil dispersions. In this paper, we have systematically investigated the effects of surface and interlayer modifications on the tribological performance of layered α-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets in mineral oil. The pristine layered ZrP nanoplatelets were first reacted with silanes of different alkyl chains to achieve outer surface modifications, followed by intercalation with different alkyl amines to alter the interlayer spacing. Friction and anti-wear studies on ZrP nanoplatelets with various modifications in mineral oils suggest that a longer alkyl chain on the outer surfaces along with a small increase in interlayer spacing would lead to a better tribological behavior especially under a relatively heavy load condition. Our results illustrate the ability of tuning the tribological properties of 2D layered nanoplatelets in oils by varying their surface and interlayer functionalities and would be helpful for understanding the underlying tribological mechanisms of nanolubricating oils containing 2D layered nanoplatelets. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  20. Modifying the photodetachment near a metal surface by a weak electric field

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, B. C.; Du, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    We show the photodetachment cross sections of H near a metal surface can be modified using a weak static electric field. The modification is possible because the oscillatory part of the cross section near a metal surface is directly connected with the transit-time and the action of the detached-electron closed-orbit which can be changed systematically by varying the static electric field strength. Photodetachment cross sections for various photon energies and electric field values are calcula...

  1. Evaluation of Foaming Performance of Bitumen Modified with the Addition of Surface Active Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Mrugała, Justyna; Maciejewski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the analysis of the performance of foamed bitumen modified using surface active agents. Although, bitumen foaming permits production of asphalt concrete and other asphalt mix types without using chemical additives in significantly reduced temperatures, the decrease in processing temperatures still impacts the adhesion performance and bitumen coating of aggregates in final mixes. Therefore, in some cases it may be feasible to incorporate adhesion promoters and surface active agents into warm and half-warm mixes with foamed bitumen to increase their service life and resilience. Because of the various nature of the available surface active agents, varying bitumen compatibility and their possible impact on the rheological properties of bitumen, the introduction of surface active agents may significantly alter the bitumen foaming performance. The tests included basic performance tests of bitumen before and after foaming. The two tested bitumen were designated as 35/50 and 50/70 penetration grade binders, which were modified with a surface active agent widely used for improving mixture workability, compactibility and adhesion in a wide range of asphalt mixes and techniques, specifically Warm Mix Asphalt. Alongside to the reference unmodified bitumen, binders with 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% surface active agent concentration were tested. The analysis has shown a positive influence of the modifier on the foaming performance of both of the base bitumen increasing their maximum expansion ratio and bitumen foam halflife. In the investigations, it was found that the improvement was dependent on the bitumen type and modifier content. The improved expansion ratio and foam half-life has a positive impact on the aggregate coating and adhesion, which together with the adhesion promoting action of the modifier will have a combined positive effect on the quality of produced final asphalt mixes.

  2. A force field for tricalcium aluminate to characterize surface properties, initial hydration, and organically modified interfaces in atomic resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratan K; Fernández-Carrasco, Lucia; Flatt, Robert J; Heinz, Hendrik

    2014-07-21

    Tricalcium aluminate (C3A) is a major phase of Portland cement clinker and some dental root filling cements. An accurate all-atom force field is introduced to examine structural, surface, and hydration properties as well as organic interfaces to overcome challenges using current laboratory instrumentation. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrates excellent agreement of computed structural, thermal, mechanical, and surface properties with available experimental data. The parameters are integrated into multiple potential energy expressions, including the PCFF, CVFF, CHARMM, AMBER, OPLS, and INTERFACE force fields. This choice enables the simulation of a wide range of inorganic-organic interfaces at the 1 to 100 nm scale at a million times lower computational cost than DFT methods. Molecular models of dry and partially hydrated surfaces are introduced to examine cleavage, agglomeration, and the role of adsorbed organic molecules. Cleavage of crystalline tricalcium aluminate requires approximately 1300 mJ m(-2) and superficial hydration introduces an amorphous calcium hydroxide surface layer that reduces the agglomeration energy from approximately 850 mJ m(-2) to 500 mJ m(-2), as well as to lower values upon surface displacement. The adsorption of several alcohols and amines was examined to understand their role as grinding aids and as hydration modifiers in cement. The molecules mitigate local electric fields through complexation of calcium ions, hydrogen bonds, and introduction of hydrophobicity upon binding. Molecularly thin layers of about 0.5 nm thickness reduce agglomeration energies to between 100 and 30 mJ m(-2). Molecule-specific trends were found to be similar for tricalcium aluminate and tricalcium silicate. The models allow quantitative predictions and are a starting point to provide fundamental understanding of the role of C3A and organic additives in cement. Extensions to impure phases and advanced hydration stages are feasible.

  3. The effect of using waste newspaper in surface layers on physical and mechanical properties of three-layer particleboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid vaziri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made from recycled newspaper in the surface layers were investigated. Coarse and fine wood chips and recycled newspaper with dimension of 0.5 × 4 cm2 were used. The variable in this research were the ratio of recycled newspaper to wood chips (at five levels; 0:100, 15:85, 30:70, 45:55, 60:40. Urea formaldehyde resin used at 10% content on dry weight basis of the wood particles and newspaper and ammonium chloride was used as a catalyst to 2% of the dry weight of adhesive. Physical and mechanical properties of panels measured according to EN Standard. The results showed that panels containing recycled newspapers at the level of 45% had the highest bending strength and modulus of elasticity. Internal bonding and screw holding strength decreased with increasing of recycled newspaper and control sample had the highest strength. Water absorption and thickness swelling increased with increasing of recycled newspaper portion. On the basis of results of this study can be concluded that particleboard containing recycled newspapers in the surface layers up to the level of 30% can be used for general purpose boards and interior fitments (including furniture for use in dry conditions.

  4. Antiferroelectric surface layers in a liquid crystal as observed by synchrotron x-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, E. F.; de Jeu, W. H.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1986-01-01

    The X-ray reflectivity form the surface of a liquid crystal with terminally polar (cyano substituted) molecules has been studied using a high-resolution triple-axis X-ray spectrometer in combination with a synchrotron source. It is demonstrated that at the surface of the smectic Al phase a few...... antiferroelectric double layers develop that can be distinguished from the bulk single layer structure. A model is developed that separates the electron density in a contribution from the molecular form factor, and from the structure factor of the mono- and the bilayers, respectively. It shows that (i) the first...

  5. Effectiveness of Protective Action of Coatings from Moisture Sorption into Surface Layer of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the sorption process of surface layers of sand moulds covered by zirconium and zirconium - graphite alcohol coatings are presented in the paper. Investigations comprised two kinds of sand grains (silica sand and reclaimed sand of moulding sand with furan resin. Tests were performed under conditions of a high relative air humidity 75 - 85% and a constant temperature within the range 28 – 33°C. To evaluate the effectiveness of coatings protective action from moisture penetration into surface layers of sand moulds gravimetric method of quantitavie moisture sorption and ultrasonic method were applied in measurements.

  6. Adhesion of oxide layer to metal-doped aluminum hydride surface: Density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Tomoki; Itoi, Junichi; Kannan, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to evaluate the adhesion energy of the oxide layer to the metal-doped surface of hydrogen storage material, aluminum hydride (alane, AlH3). The total energy calculations using slab model revealed that the surface doping of some metals to aluminum hydride weakens the adhesion strength of the oxide layer. The influence of titanium, iron, cobalt, and zirconium doping on adhesion strength were evaluated. Except for iron doping, the adhesion strength becomes weak by the doping.

  7. Comparison of mechanical properties of surface layers with use of nanoindentation and microindentation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zeleňák

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is a mutual comparison of different methods for evaluation of mechanical properties of surface layers. Mechanical properties were tested with the use of nanoindentation and microindentation tests. Different loads and constant deformation speed were used in both cases. For the evaluation of mechanical properties, the AISI 304 type Chromium-Nickel steel commonly used in mechanical engineering industry was tested. Knowledge of relations and differences between nano and micromechanical properties is necessary for understanding of mechanical processes continuously occurring in surface layers during cutting processes.

  8. Macro-carriers of plastic deformation of steel surface layers detected by digital image correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanitsa, D. G., E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru; Ustinov, A. M., E-mail: artemustinov@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Potekaev, A. I., E-mail: potekaev@spti.tsu.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, A. A., E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kopanitsa, G. D., E-mail: georgy.kopanitsa@mail.com [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents a study of characteristics of an evolution of deformation fields in surface layers of medium-carbon low-alloy specimens under compression. The experiments were performed on the “Universal Testing Machine 4500” using a digital stereoscopic image processing system Vic-3D. A transition between stages is reflected as deformation redistribution on the near-surface layers. Electronic microscopy shows that the structure of the steel is a mixture of pearlite and ferrite grains. A proportion of pearlite is 40% and ferrite is 60%.

  9. The effect of surface layer properties on bendability of ultra-high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, Anna-Maija; Kaijalainen, Antti; Kesti, Vili

    2016-10-01

    Bendability is an important property for ultra-high strength steel because air-bending is the most common forming process for the material. In this paper the bendability of two ultra-high strength steels with similar mechanical properties but different bendability was investigated using tensile testing with optical strain measurements. The tensile tests were conducted also for specimens cut from the surface layer and the middle layer of the sheet. It was discovered that the mechanical properties of the surface of the sheet affect the bendability in great manner.

  10. Pellet fusion gain calculations modified by electrostatic double layers and by spin polarized nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.; Cicchitelli, L.; Elijah, J.S.; Ghatak, A.K.; Goldsworthy, M.T.; Lalousis, P.; Eliezer, S.

    1984-01-01

    All preceding hydrodynamic computations of plasmas are wrong if the thermal conductivity is essential because electronic thermal conductivity is decreased in plasma inhomogeneities due to electrostatic double layers. In the worst case, ionic conductivity remains. We compare this with a possible electronic conductivity by the fast tail of the energy distribution. Using the volume ignition for fusion gain computations, we study the increase of gain by spin-polarization of nuclei for the DT reaction especially in non-linear ranges. Gain can increase by a factor 3.1. Contents are the following: electrostatic fields and double layers in inhomogeneous plasma, change of thermal conduction by double layers, consequences for pellet fusion, gain calculation with spin polarized nuclei. (Mori, K.)

  11. Optimization of Phospholipase A1 Immobilization on Plasma Surface Modified Chitosan Nanofibrous Mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Beig Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A1 is known as an effective catalyst for hydrolysis of various phospholipids in enzymatic vegetable oil degumming. Immobilization is one of the most efficient strategies to improve its activity, recovery and functional properties. In this study, chitosan-co-polyethylene oxide (90:10 nanofibrous mat was successfully fabricated and modified with atmospheric plasma at different times (2, 6 and 10 min to interact with enzyme molecules. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the membranes retained uniform nanofibrous and open porous structures before and after the treatment. PLA1 was successfully immobilized onto the membrane surfaces via covalent bonds with the functional groups of chitosan nanofibrous mat. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the immobilization conditions for reaching the maximum immobilization efficiency. Enzyme concentration, pH, and immobilization time were found to be significant key factors. Under optimum conditions (5.03 h, pH 5.63, and enzyme dosage 654.36 UI, the atmospheric plasma surface modified chitosan nanofibers reached the highest immobilization efficiency (78.50%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the control and plasma surface-modified chitosan nanofibers revealed the functional groups of nanofibers and their reaction with the enzyme. The results indicated that surface modification by atmospheric plasma induced an increase in PLA1 loading on the membrane surfaces.

  12. A theory for natural convection turbulent boundary layers next to heated vertical surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, W.K. Jr.; Capp, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    The turbulent natural convection boundary layer next to a heated vertical surface is analyzed by classical scaling arguments. It is shown that the fully developed turbulent boundary layer must be treated in two parts: and outer region consisting of most of the boundary layer in which viscous and conduction terms are negligible and an inner region in which the mean convection terms are negligible. The inner layer is identified as a constant heat flux layer. A similarity analysis yields universal profiles for velocity and temperature in the outer and constant heat flux layers. An asymptotic matching of these profiles in an intermediate layer (the buoyant sublayer) yields analytical expressions for the buoyant sublayer profiles. Asymptotic heat transfer and friction laws are obtained for the fully developed boundary layers. Finally, conductive and thermo-viscous sublayers characterized by a linear variation of velocity and temperature are shown to exist at the wall. All predictions are seen to be in excellent agreement with the abundant experimental data. (author)

  13. Fabrication of sensitive enzymatic biosensor based on multi-layered reduced graphene oxide added PtAu nanoparticles-modified hybrid electrode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Faruk Hossain

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive amperometric glucose sensor was developed by immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx onto multi-layer reduced graphene oxide (MRGO sheets decorated with platinum and gold flower-like nanoparticles (PtAuNPs modified Au substrate electrode. The fabricated MRGO/PtAuNPs modified hybrid electrode demonstrated high electrocatalytic activities toward oxidation of H2O2, to which it had a wide linear response that ranged from 0.5 to 8 mM (R2 = 0.997, and high sensitivity of 506.25 μA/mMcm2. Furthermore, glucose oxidase-chitosan composite and cationic polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA were assembled by a casting method on the surface of MRGO/PtAuNPs modified electrode. This as-fabricated hybrid biosensor electrode exhibited high electrocatalytic activity for the detection of glucose in PBS. It demonstrated good analytical properties in terms of a low detection limit of 1 μM (signal-to-noise ratio of 3, short response time (3 s, high sensitivity (17.85 μA/mMcm2, and a wide linear range (0.01-8 mM for glucose sensing. These results reveal that the newly developed sensing electrode offers great promise for new type enzymatic biosensor applications.

  14. Fabrication of sensitive enzymatic biosensor based on multi-layered reduced graphene oxide added PtAu nanoparticles-modified hybrid electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Faruk; Park, Jae Y

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive amperometric glucose sensor was developed by immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) onto multi-layer reduced graphene oxide (MRGO) sheets decorated with platinum and gold flower-like nanoparticles (PtAuNPs) modified Au substrate electrode. The fabricated MRGO/PtAuNPs modified hybrid electrode demonstrated high electrocatalytic activities toward oxidation of H2O2, to which it had a wide linear response that ranged from 0.5 to 8 mM (R2 = 0.997), and high sensitivity of 506.25 μA/mMcm2. Furthermore, glucose oxidase-chitosan composite and cationic polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) were assembled by a casting method on the surface of MRGO/PtAuNPs modified electrode. This as-fabricated hybrid biosensor electrode exhibited high electrocatalytic activity for the detection of glucose in PBS. It demonstrated good analytical properties in terms of a low detection limit of 1 μM (signal-to-noise ratio of 3), short response time (3 s), high sensitivity (17.85 μA/mMcm2), and a wide linear range (0.01-8 mM) for glucose sensing. These results reveal that the newly developed sensing electrode offers great promise for new type enzymatic biosensor applications.

  15. Functional solid additive modified PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer for enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Binrui; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Muthuchamy, Nallal; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Lee, Jae-Sung; Jiang, Yu; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Sae-Wan; Kim, Ju-Seong; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Jin-Beom; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-03-24

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is most commonly used as an anode buffer layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). However, its hygroscopic and acidic nature contributes to the insufficient electrical conductivity, air stability and restricted photovoltaic (PV) performance for the fabricated PSCs. In this study, a new multifunctional additive, 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DOH), has been used in the PEDOT: PSS buffer layer to obtain modified properties for PEDOT: PSS@DOH and achieve high PV performances. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS@DOH films was markedly improved compared with that of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS@DOH film exhibited excellent optical characteristics, appropriate work function alignment, and good surface properties in BHJ-PSCs. When a poly(3-hexylthiohpene):[6,6]-phenyl C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester blend system was applied as the photoactive layer, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting PSCs with PEDOT:PSS@DOH(1.0%) reached 3.49%, outperforming pristine PEDOT:PSS, exhibiting a power conversion enhancement of 20%. The device fabricated using PEDOT:PSS@DOH (1.0 wt%) also exhibited improved thermal and air stability. Our results also confirm that DOH, a basic pyridine derivative, facilitates adequate hydrogen bonding interactions with the sulfonic acid groups of PSS, induces the conformational transformation of PEDOT chains and contributes to the phase separation between PEDOT and PSS chains.

  16. Surface modified Al2O3 in fluorinated polyimide/Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the mechanical and thermal properties of polymers (Li et al. 2010). Herein, we wish to report the synthesis and characte- rization of fluorinated PI–Al2O3 nanocomposite films via in situ polymerization using different contents of surface modified Al2O3 nanoparticles as filler and fluorinated PI as the matrix. PI which was used ...

  17. Systematic screening of different surface modifiers for the production of physically stable nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Maria L A D; Müller, Rainer H; Möschwitzer, Jan P

    2015-03-01

    The role of a surface modifier is important in the formation of stable nanosuspensions. In this study, a simple and systematic screening method for selecting optimum surface modifiers was performed by utilizing a low-energy wet ball milling method. Nine surface modifiers from different classes with different stabilization mechanisms were applied on six different models of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Particle size analysis showed that at concentration five times higher than the critical micelle concentration, SDS and sodium cholate (anionic surfactant) showed the highest percent success to produce stable nanosuspensions with particle size smaller than 250 nm. Similar findings were also shown by poloxamer 188 (nonionic surfactant) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose E5 (polymeric stabilizer) at concentration 1% (w/v) and 0.8% (w/v), respectively. In addition, combinations of anionic surfactant and nonionic surfactant as well as combinations of anionic surfactant and polymeric stabilizer showed high percent success in the formation of stable nanosuspensions. In general, no correlation can be found between the physicochemical characteristics of the model API (molecular weight, melting point, log P, pKa, and crystallinity) with its feasibility to be nanosized. The concentration and the principle of stabilization of surface modifier determine the formation of stable nanosuspensions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Surface characterization of weathered wood-plastic composites produced from modified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Fabiyi; Armando G. McDonald; Nicole M. Stark

    2007-01-01

    The effects of weathering on the surface properties of wood-plastic composites (WPC) were examined. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) based WPCs made from modified wood flour (untreated, extractives free, and holocellulose (delignified) fibers) were subjected to accelerated (xenon-arc) weathering. Colorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to...

  19. Boundary layers of aqueous surfactant and block copolymer solutions against hydrophobic and hydrophilic solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steitz, Roland; Schemmel, Sebastian; Shi Hongwei; Findenegg, Gerhard H

    2005-01-01

    The boundary layer of aqueous surfactants and amphiphilic triblock copolymers against flat solid surfaces of different degrees of hydrophobicity was investigated by neutron reflectometry (NR), grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Solid substrates of different hydrophobicities were prepared by appropriate surface treatment or by coating silicon wafers with polymer films of different chemical natures. For substrates coated with thin films (20-30 nm) of deuterated poly(styrene) (water contact angle θ w ∼ 90), neutron reflectivity measurements on the polymer/water interface revealed a water depleted liquid boundary layer of 2-3 nm thickness and a density about 90% of the bulk water density. No pronounced depletion layer was found at the interface of water against a less hydrophobic polyelectrolyte coating (θ w ∼ 63). It is believed that the observed depletion layer at the hydrophobic polymer/water interface is a precursor of the nanobubbles which have been observed by AFM at this interface. Decoration of the polymer coatings by adsorbed layers of nonionic C m E n surfactants improves their wettability by the aqueous phase at surfactant concentrations well below the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Here, GISANS experiments conducted on the system SiO 2 /C 8 E 4 /D 2 O reveal that there is no preferred lateral organization of the C 8 E 4 adsorption layers. For amphiphilic triblock copolymers (PEO-PPO-PEO) it is found that under equilibrium conditions they form solvent-swollen brushes both at the air/water and the solid/water interface. In the latter case, the brushes transform to uniform, dense layers after extensive rinsing with water and subsequent solvent evaporation. The primary adsorption layers maintain properties of the precursor brushes. In particular, their thickness scales with the number of ethylene oxide units (EO) of the block copolymer. In the case of dip-coating without

  20. Shear rheology of mixed protein adsorption layers vs their structure studied by surface force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Basheva, Elka S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2015-08-01

    The hydrophobins are proteins that form the most rigid adsorption layers at liquid interfaces in comparison with all other investigated proteins. The mixing of hydrophobin HFBII with other conventional proteins is expected to reduce the surface shear elasticity and viscosity, E(sh) and η(sh), proportional to the fraction of the conventional protein. However, the experiments show that the effect of mixing can be rather different depending on the nature of the additive. If the additive is a globular protein, like β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, the surface rigidity is preserved, and even enhanced. The experiments with separate foam films indicate that this is due to the formation of a bilayer structure at the air/water interface. The more hydrophobic HFBII forms the upper layer adjacent to the air phase, whereas the conventional globular protein forms the lower layer that faces the water phase. Thus, the elastic network formed by the adsorbed hydrophobin remains intact, and even reinforced by the adjacent layer of globular protein. In contrast, the addition of the disordered protein β-casein leads to softening of the HFBII adsorption layer. Similar (an even stronger) effect is produced by the nonionic surfactant Tween 20. This can be explained with the penetration of the hydrophobic tails of β-casein and Tween 20 between the HFBII molecules at the interface, which breaks the integrity of the hydrophobin interfacial elastic network. The analyzed experimental data for the surface shear rheology of various protein adsorption layers comply with a viscoelastic thixotropic model, which allows one to determine E(sh) and η(sh) from the measured storage and loss moduli, G' and G″. The results could contribute for quantitative characterization and deeper understanding of the factors that control the surface rigidity of protein adsorption layers with potential application for the creation of stable foams and emulsions with fine bubbles or droplets. Copyright © 2014

  1. Femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures on magnetic layer targets: The roles of femtosecond-laser interaction and of magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Klaus; Ratzke, Markus; Varlamova, Olga; Reif, Juergen

    2017-09-01

    We investigate femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on a complex multilayer target, namely a 20-GB computer hard disk (HD), consisting of a metallic substrate, a magnetic layer, and a thin polymeric protective layer. Depending on the dose (fluence × number of pulses) first the polymeric cover layer is completely removed, revealing a periodic surface modulation of the magnetic layer which seems not to be induced by the laser action. At higher dose, the magnetic layer morphology is strongly modified by laser-induced periodic structures (LIPS) and, finally, kind of an etch stop is reached at the bottom of the magnetic layer. The LIPS shows very high modulation depth below and above the original surface level. In the present work, the role of magnetization and magneto-mechanic forces in the structure formation process is studied by monitoring the bit-wise magnetization of the HD with a magnetic force microscope. It is shown that the structures at low laser dose are reflecting the magnetic bits. At higher dose the magnetic influence appears to be extinguished on the account of LIPS. This suggests a transient overcoming the Curie temperature and an associated loss of magnetic order. The results compare well with our model of LIPS/LIPSS formation by self-organized relaxation from a laser-induced thermodynamic instability.

  2. Heat transfer control in a plane magnetic fluid layer with a free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashtovoi, V.G.; Pogirnitskaya, S.G.; Reks, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The heat transfer mechanisms that are specific to a magnetic liquid have been already investigated extensively. The high sensitivity of the free magnetic liquid surface to the external magnetic field introduces a new feature into the heat transfer process. In the present work, the authors have investigated the possibility of controlling the heat transfer through the phenomenon of magnetic liquid surface instability in a uniform magnetic field. The conditions for heat transfer through a chamber, partially filled with a magnetic liquid, are governed by the characteristics of the free liquid surface and by its stability and development in the supercritical magnetic fields. The authors consider a model two-dimensional problem of heat transfer through a two-layer medium consisting of horizontally situated immiscible layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic liquids with given thermal conductivities. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the interface of the liquids represents a plane surface. In fields which exceed the critical magnitude, the interface is deformed along the wave. As the field intensity is increased, the amplitude of interface distortion becomes larger. The two-dimensional shape of the free magnetic liquid surface may be realized experimentally using two plane layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic liquids in a uniform magnetic field tangent to the interface of the component layers. 7 refs., 9 figs

  3. Permeation Properties and Pore Structure of Surface Layer of Fly Ash Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Qiu, Qiwen; Xing, Feng; Pan, Dong

    2014-05-30

    This paper presents an experimental study on the nature of permeation properties and pore structure of concrete surface layers containing fly ash. Concretes containing different dosages of fly ash as a replacement for cement (15% and 30% by weight of total cement materials, respectively) were investigated. Concrete without any fly ash added was also employed as the reference specimen. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the surface layer properties of concrete including chloride transport, apparent water permeability and pore structure. The results demonstrate that incorporation of fly ash, for the early test period, promotes the chloride ingress at the surface layer of concrete but substituting proportions of fly ash may have little impact on it. With the process of chloride immersion, the chloride concentration at the surface layer of concrete with or without fly ash was found to be nearly the same. In addition, it is suggested that the water permeability at the concrete surface area is closely related to the fly ash contents as well as the chloride exposure time. Pore structure was characterized by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The modification of pore structure of concrete submersed in distilled water is determined by the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash and the calcium leaching effect. The pozzolanic reaction was more dominant at the immersion time of 180 days while the calcium leaching effect became more evident after 270 days.

  4. Air Entrainment and Surface Ripples in a Turbulent Ship Hull Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Naeem; Erinin, Martin; Duncan, James H.

    2017-11-01

    The air entrainment and free-surface fluctuations caused by the interaction of a free surface and the turbulent boundary layer of a vertical surface-piercing plate is studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes. This belt device is mounted inside a large water tank with the water level set just below the top edge of the belt. The belt, rollers, and supporting frame are contained within a sheet metal box to keep the device dry except for one 6-meter-long straight test section. The belt is accelerated suddenly from rest until reaching constant speed in order to create a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer that would exist along a surface-piercing towed flat plate. Surface ripples are measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique with the laser sheet oriented parallel or normal to the belt surface. Air entrainment events and bubble motions are recorded from underneath the water surface using a stereo imaging system. Measurements of small bubbles, that tend to stay submerged for a longer time, are planned via a high-speed digital in-line holographic system. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Improvement and protection of niobium surface superconductivity by atomic layer deposition and heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proslier, T.; /IIT, Chicago /Argonne; Zasadzinski, J.; /IIT, Chicago; Moore, J.; Pellin, M.; Elam, J.; /Argonne; Cooley, L.; /Fermilab; Antoine, C.; /Saclay

    2008-11-01

    A method to treat the surface of Nb is described, which potentially can improve the performance of superconducting rf cavities. We present tunneling and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements at the surface of cavity-grade niobium samples coated with a 3 nm alumina overlayer deposited by atomic layer deposition. The coated samples baked in ultrahigh vacuum at low temperature degraded superconducting surface. However, at temperatures above 450 C, the tunneling conductance curves show significant improvements in the superconducting density of states compared with untreated surfaces.

  6. Voltammetric Determination of Acetaminophen in the Presence of Codeine and Ascorbic Acid at Layer-by-Layer MWCNT/Hydroquinone Sulfonic Acid-Overoxidized Polypyrrole Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shahrokhian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A very sensitive electrochemical sensor constructed of a glassy carbon electrode modified with a layer-by-layer MWCNT/doped-overoxidized polypyrrole (oppy/MWCNT /GCE was used for the determination of acetaminophen (AC in the presence of codeine and ascorbic acid (AA. In comparison to the bare glassy carbon electrode, a considerable shift in the peak potential together with an increase in the peak current was observed for AC on the surface of oppy/MWCNT/GCE, which can be related to the enlarged microscopic surface area of the electrode. The effect of the experimental conditions on the electrode response, such as types of counter ion, pyrrole and counter ion concentration, potential and number of cycles in the polymerization procedure, amount of MWCNT, and the pH, were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was obtained over two concentration ranges of 2 × 10−7–6 × 10−6 M and 4 × 10−5–1 × 10−4 M of AC with a linear correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.9959 and 0.9947, respectively. The estimated detection limit (3σ for AC was obtained as 5 × 10−8 M. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the pharmaceutical preparations of AC, and a recovery of 95% with a relative standard deviation of 0.98% was obtained for AC.

  7. In situ surface-enhanced raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (<100 mu L) with a compact three-electrode configuration for in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC

  8. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin T

    2015-01-01

    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (<100 μL) with a compact three-electrode configuration for in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC system

  9. Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9,10]. Multi-layered tablets have showed a growing attention as a useful controlled release tool with multiple other applications such as drug combinations with reduced chance of interaction and/or inducing multi-drug release profiles in one.

  10. Surface and subsurface layers characterization in artworks using conoscopic laser holography and acoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Giacomo; Apostolidis, Georgios; Karagiannis, Georgios; Galeotti, Monica; Daffara, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    The characterization of the surface morphology and the material layers stratigraphy is a pivotal step in several stages of the conservation process of the artwork. Generally, optimal characterization of the surface cannot be achieved using a single technique but is not always possible to find techniques that can be coupled effectively. Surface maps were retrieved using acoustic microscopy and conoscopic laser holography over a set of reference samples. The surface maps compared for showing possible way to better characterize the surface morphology when their information is combined. The final data give us a more complete surface and subsurface digitalization while the results obtained are discussed highlighting the main pros and cons of the two techniques. Thus besides having insights on the effectiveness and on the performance of the processes, it is also evident that uncertainties associated with the measurement can be overcome and a single more accurate representation of the surface can be derived using both scanning methods.

  11. Making Nonsticky Surfaces of Sticky Materials: Self-Organized Microtexturing of Viscoelastic Elastomeric Layers by Tearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandip; Deshpande, Tushar; Chaudhari, Nayantika; Singh, Yogesh R G; Raut, Janhavi; Joshi, Yogesh M; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2018-03-27

    Fabrication of large area, multiscale microtextured surfaces engineered for antiadhesion properties remains a challenge. Compared to an elastic surface, viscoelastic solids show much higher surface stickiness, tack, and adhesion owing to the increased contact area and energy dissipation. Here, we show a simple, low cost, large-area and high throughput method with roll-to-roll compatibility to fabricate multiscale, rough microstructures resistant to adhesion in a viscoelastic layer by controlled tearing of viscous film. Even a high adhesive strength viscoelastic solid layer, such as partially cured PDMS, is made nonsticky simply by its controlled tearing. The torn surface shows a fracture induced, self-organized leaflike micropattern resistant to sticking. The topography and adhesion strength of these structures are readily tuned by changing the tearing speed and the film thickness. The microtexture displays a springlike recovery, low adhesive strength, and easy release properties even under the high applied loads.

  12. Vibration analysis of bonded double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplate systems based on a modified strain gradient theory incorporating surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalpoor, Ali; Kiani, Ali

    2017-03-01

    On the basis of the modified strain gradient theory, the present paper deals with the theoretical analysis of the free vibration of coupled double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplates by Kelvin-Voigt visco-Pasternak medium. To establish static equilibrium of atoms on the each nanoplate surface, the effects of the surface layers are considered. The properties of material in the thickness direction vary according to the power low distribution. Kirchhoff plate assumption and Hamilton's variational principle are employed to achieve the partial differential equations for three different cases of vibration (out-of-phase, in-phase, and one nanoplate of the system being stationary) and corresponding boundary conditions. Navier's approach which satisfies the simply supported boundary conditions applied to analytically investigate the size effect on the natural frequencies of double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplate systems. Numerical studies are carried out to illustrate the influence of viscoelastic damping structural of the nanoplates, damping coefficient of the visco-Pasternak medium, independent length scale parameter, aspect ratio, surface properties, and other factors on the frequency behavior system. Some numerical results of this research illustrate that the frequencies may increase or decrease with respect to the sign of the surface properties of FGMs.

  13. Structure of the regular surface layer of Aquaspirillum serpens MW5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M; Murray, R G

    1982-04-01

    The structure of the regular surface layer of Aquaspirillum serpens MW5 has been investigated by electon microscopy supplemented by computer image processing and least-squares analysis. The layer has a ribbed appearance, both on the bacterium and in isolated, negatively stained fragments. However, detailed analysis indicated that the layer was composed of two hexagonal sheets having p6mm symmetry and a = 16 nm. One sheet was staggered by one half repeat along a (1,0) line of the p6nm lattice relative to the second so that, in projection, the pattern of the composite layer was a translational moiré, characterized by a series of ribs spaced 16 nm apart. The ribbed layer had cmm symmetry with a = 32 nm and b = 18.5 nm. Analysis of this pattern indicated that the two p6nm hexagonal sheets were unevenly stained, and this was confirmed by using least-squares methods to simulate the observed pattern by combining two hexagonal patterns. The general structure of the layer was consistent with a role as a selective and protective barrier on the cell surface.

  14. Foam Core Particleboards with Intumescent FRT Veneer: Cone Calorimeter Testing With Varying Adhesives, Surface Layer Thicknesses, and Processing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Johannes Welling; Ali Shalbafan

    2014-01-01

    Intumescent FRT Veneers adhered to the surface of foam core particleboard to provide adequate fire protection were evaluated by means of cone calorimeter tests (ASTM E1354). The foam core particleboards were prepared with variations in surface layer treatment, adhesives, surface layer thicknesses, and processing conditions. Ignitability, heat release rate profile, peak...

  15. SH surface acoustic wave propagation in a cylindrically layered piezomagnetic/piezoelectric structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianke; Xian, Kai; Wang, Ji

    2009-01-01

    SH surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) propagation in a cylindrically layered magneto-electro-elastic structure is investigated analytically, where a piezomagnetic (or piezoelectric) material layer is bonded to a piezoelectric (or piezomagnetic) substrate. By means of transformation, the governing equations of the coupled waves are reduced to Bessel equation and Laplace equation. The boundary conditions imply that the displacements, shear stresses, electric potential, and electric displacements are continuous across the interface between the layer and the substrate together with the traction free at the surface of the layer. The magneto-electrically open and shorted conditions at cylindrical surface are taken to solve the problem. The phase velocity is numerically calculated for different thickness of the layer and wavenumber for piezomagnetic ceramics CoFe(2)O(4) and piezoelectric ceramics BaTiO(3). The effects of magnetic permeability on propagation properties of SH-SAW are discussed in detail. The distributions of displacement, magnetic potential and magneto-electromechanical coupling factor are also figured and discussed.

  16. Phase transformations during machining and properties of surface layers in zirconium dioxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, O.N.; Krivoshej, G.S.; Stel'mashenko, N.A.; Trefilov, V.I.; Shevchenko, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    The methods of X-ray allow studying phase composition and inner stresses in the surface layers of partially stabilized zirconium dioxide after mashining. It is shown that under conditions of abrasive treatment transitions from tetragonal into rhomboedric and monoclinic phases initiate. As a result of phase transitions fields of compressible stresses achieving 900 MPa under grinding with ACM abrasive are created on the surface. An essential increase of hardness due to growth of the brittle fauilure resistance and deformation hardening is revealed

  17. Cd(II) removal on surface-modified activated carbon: equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianjun; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Yufei

    2016-10-01

    Commercial pulverous activated carbon (AC-0) was modified through two steps: oxidize AC-0 acid firstly, impregnate it with iron using ferric chloride secondly. Orthogonal experiment was conducted then to prepare modified activated carbon with high Cd(II) adsorption capacity (ACNF). Batch adsorption experiments were undertaken to determine the adsorption characteristics of Cd(II) from aqueous solution onto AC-0 and ACNF and the effect of pH, contact time and initial Cd(II) concentration. The results indicate that: the adsorption behavior of Cd(II) on ACNF can be well fitted with Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of ACNF was 2.3 times higher than that of AC-0, supporting a monolayer coverage of Cd(II) on the surface. The kinetics of the adsorption process can be described by pseudo-second-order rate equation very well, and the adsorption capacity increased from 0.810 mg/g to 0.960 mg/g after modification. Compared with AC-0, the kinetic parameters of ACNF showed a higher adsorption rate through the aqueous solution to the solid surface and a lower intraparticle diffusion rate. Surface modification resulted in a lower Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore size because of the collapse and blockage of pores, according to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, while the total number of surface oxygen acid groups increased, and this was supposed to contribute to the enhanced adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon.

  18. The Control of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through Modified Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Logan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells continue to receive widespread attention due to their potential to revolutionise treatments in the fields of both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Adult stem cells, specifically mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, play a vital role in the natural events surrounding bone healing and osseointegration through being stimulated to differentiate along their osteogenic lineage and in doing so, they form new cortical and trabecular bone tissue. Understanding how to control, manipulate, and enhance the intrinsic healing events modulated through osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by the use of modified surfaces and biomaterials could potentially advance the fields of both orthopaedics and dentistry. This could be by either using surface modification to generate greater implant stability and more rapid healing following implantation or the stimulation of MSCs ex vivo for reimplantation. This review aims to gather publications targeted at promoting, enhancing, and controlling the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs through biomaterials, nanotopographies, and modified surfaces for use in implant procedures.

  19. Surface analysis of gold nanoparticles functionalized with thiol-modified glucose SAMs for biosensor applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eSpampinato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP.The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules.Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behaviour of the glucose-modified particles in presence of the maltose binding protein.

  20. Surface analysis of gold nanoparticles functionalized with thiol-modified glucose SAMs for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Valentina; Parracino, Mariaantonietta; La Spina, Rita; Rossi, Francois; Ceccone, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP). The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules. Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behaviour of the glucose-modified particles in presence of the maltose binding protein.

  1. Numerical simulation of binary collisions using a modified surface tension model with particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhongguo; Xi Guang; Chen Xi

    2009-01-01

    The binary collision of liquid droplets is of both practical importance and fundamental value in computational fluid mechanics. We present a modified surface tension model within the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, and carry out two-dimensional simulations to investigate the mechanisms of coalescence and separation of the droplets during binary collision. The modified surface tension model improves accuracy and convergence. A mechanism map is established for various possible deformation pathways encountered during binary collision, as the impact speed is varied; a new pathway is reported when the collision speed is critical. In addition, eccentric collisions are simulated and the effect of the rotation of coalesced particle is explored. The results qualitatively agree with experiments and the numerical protocol may find applications in studying free surface flows and interface deformation

  2. Antibacterial activity and biofilm inhibition by surface modified titanium alloy medical implants following application of silver, titanium dioxide and hydroxyapatite nanocoatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besinis, A; Hadi, S D; Le, H R; Tredwin, C; Handy, R D

    2017-04-01

    One of the most common causes of implant failure is peri-implantitis, which is caused by bacterial biofilm formation on the surfaces of dental implants. Modification of the surface nanotopography has been suggested to affect bacterial adherence to implants. Silver nanoparticles are also known for their antibacterial properties. In this study, titanium alloy implants were surface modified following silver plating, anodisation and sintering techniques to create a combination of silver, titanium dioxide and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocoatings. Their antibacterial performance was quantitatively assessed by measuring the growth of Streptococcus sanguinis, proportion of live/dead cells and lactate production by the microbes over 24 h. Application of a dual layered silver-HA nanocoating to the surface of implants successfully inhibited bacterial growth in the surrounding media (100% mortality), whereas the formation of bacterial biofilm on the implant surfaces was reduced by 97.5%. Uncoated controls and titanium dioxide nanocoatings showed no antibacterial effect. Both silver and HA nanocoatings were found to be very stable in biological fluids with material loss, as a result of dissolution, to be less than 0.07% for the silver nanocoatings after 24 h in a modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer. No dissolution was detected for the HA nanocoatings. Thus, application of a dual layered silver-HA nanocoating to titanium alloy implants creates a surface with antibiofilm properties without compromising the HA biocompatibility required for successful osseointegration and accelerated bone healing.

  3. Chemical functionalization of ceramic tile surfaces by silane coupling agents: polymer modified mortar adhesion mechanism implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli Mansur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion between tiles and mortars are crucial to the stability of ceramic tile systems. From the chemical point of view, weak forces such as van der Waals forces and hydrophilic interactions are expected to be developed preferably at the tiles and polymer modified Portland cement mortar interface. The main goal of this paper was to use organosilanes as primers to modify ceramic tile hydrophilic properties to improve adhesion between ceramic tiles and polymer modified mortars. Glass tile surfaces were treated with several silane derivatives bearing specific functionalities. Contact angle measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were used for evaluating the chemical changes on the tile surface. In addition, pull-off tests were conducted to assess the effect on adhesion properties between tile and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate, EVA, modified mortar. The bond strength results have clearly shown the improvement of adherence at the tile-polymer modified mortar interface, reflecting the overall balance of silane, cement and polymer interactions.

  4. Bone Formation from Porcine Dental Germ Stem Cells on Surface Modified Polybutylene Succinate Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis Abay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing and providing a scaffold are very important for the cells in tissue engineering. Polybutylene succinate (PBS has high potential as a scaffold for bone regeneration due to its capacity in cell proliferation and differentiation. Also, stem cells from 3rd molar tooth germs were favoured in this study due to their developmentally and replicatively immature nature. In this study, porcine dental germ stem cells (pDGSCs seeded PBS scaffolds were used to investigate the effects of surface modification with fibronectin or laminin on these scaffolds to improve cell attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation for tissue engineering applications. The osteogenic potentials of pDGSCs on these modified and unmodified foams were examined to heal bone defects and the effects of fibronectin or laminin modified PBS scaffolds on pDGSC differentiation into bone were compared for the first time. For this study, MTS assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effects of modified and unmodified surfaces. For the characterization of pDGSCs, flow cytometry analysis was carried out. Besides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP assay, von Kossa staining, real-time PCR, CM-Dil, and immunostaining were applied to analyze osteogenic potentials of pDGSCs. The results of these studies demonstrated that pDGSCs were differentiated into osteogenic cells on fibronectin modified PBS foams better than those on unmodified and laminin modified PBS foams.

  5. A unified account of perceptual layering and surface appearance in terms of gamut relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony; McDonnell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    When we look at the world--or a graphical depiction of the world--we perceive surface materials (e.g. a ceramic black and white checkerboard) independently of variations in illumination (e.g. shading or shadow) and atmospheric media (e.g. clouds or smoke). Such percepts are partly based on the way physical surfaces and media reflect and transmit light and partly on the way the human visual system processes the complex patterns of light reaching the eye. One way to understand how these percepts arise is to assume that the visual system parses patterns of light into layered perceptual representations of surfaces, illumination and atmospheric media, one seen through another. Despite a great deal of previous experimental and modelling work on layered representation, however, a unified computational model of key perceptual demonstrations is still lacking. Here we present the first general computational model of perceptual layering and surface appearance--based on a boarder theoretical framework called gamut relativity--that is consistent with these demonstrations. The model (a) qualitatively explains striking effects of perceptual transparency, figure-ground separation and lightness, (b) quantitatively accounts for the role of stimulus- and task-driven constraints on perceptual matching performance, and (c) unifies two prominent theoretical frameworks for understanding surface appearance. The model thereby provides novel insights into the remarkable capacity of the human visual system to represent and identify surface materials, illumination and atmospheric media, which can be exploited in computer graphics applications.

  6. Electron microscopy of an aluminum layer grown on the vicinal surface of a gallium arsenide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovygin, M. V., E-mail: lemi@miee.ru; Borgardt, N. I. [National Research University of Electronic Technology “MIET” (Russian Federation); Kazakov, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Seibt, M. [Universität Göttingen, IV. Physikalisches Institut (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    A thin Al layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a misoriented GaAs (100) substrate is studied by transmission electron microscopy. Electron diffraction data and bright-field, dark-field, and high-resolution images show that, in the layer, there are Al grains of three types of crystallographic orientation: Al (100), Al (110), and Al (110)R. The specific structural features of the interfaces between the differently oriented grains and substrate are studied by digital processing of the high-resolution images. From quantitative analysis of the dark-field images, the relative content and sizes of the differently oriented grains are determined. It is found that atomic steps at the substrate surface cause an increase in the fraction and sizes of Al (110)R grains and a decrease in the fraction of Al (100) grains, compared to the corresponding fractions and sizes in the layer grown on a singular substrate surface.

  7. Surface Wave Propagation in a Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusion Material under an Inviscid Liquid Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the propagation of Rayleigh type surface waves in an isotropic microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half space under a layer of inviscid liquid. The secular equation for surface waves in compact form is derived after developing the mathematical model. The dispersion curves giving the phase velocity and attenuation coefficients with wave number are plotted graphically to depict the effect of an imperfect boundary alongwith the relaxation times in a microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half space under a homogeneous inviscid liquid layer for thermally insulated, impermeable boundaries and isothermal, isoconcentrated boundaries, respectively. In addition, normal velocity component is also plotted in the liquid layer. Several cases of interest under different conditions are also deduced and discussed.

  8. Effect of inversion layer at iron pyrite surface on photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2018-03-01

    Iron pyrite has great potential as a thin-film solar cell material because it has high optical absorption, low cost, and is earth-abundant. However, previously reported iron pyrite solar cells showed poor photovoltaic characteristics. Here, we have numerically simulated its photovoltaic characteristics and band structures by utilizing a two-dimensional (2D) device simulator, ATLAS, to evaluate the effects of an inversion layer at the surface and a high density of deep donor defect states in the bulk. We found that previous device structures did not consider the inversion layer at the surface region of iron pyrite, which made it difficult to obtain the conversion efficiency. Therefore, we remodeled the device structure and suggested that removing the inversion layer and reducing the density of deep donor defect states would lead to a high conversion efficiency of iron pyrite solar cells.

  9. Using of standard marine radar for determination of a water surface and an atmosphere near-surface layer parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatov, Nikolay A.; Bakhanov, Victor V.; Ermoshkin, Aleksei V.; Kazakov, Vasily I.; Kemarskaya, Olga N.; Titov, Victor I.; Troitskaya, Yulia I.

    2014-10-01

    At present time radar methods of the seas and oceans diagnostics are actively developing. Using of the radar stations based on satellites and planes allows to receive information on a sea surface and a atmosphere near-surface layer with coverage of big water surface areas independently of day time. The developed methods of satellite radio images processing can be applied to marine radar stations. In Institute of Applied Physics RAS works on sea surface diagnostics systems development on the basis of standard marine radar are actively conducted. Despite smaller coverage of the territory in comparison with satellite data, marine radar have possibility to record spatially temporary radar images and to receive information on a surrounding situation quickly. This work deals with results of the researches which were conducted within the international expedition in the Atlantic Ocean in the autumn of 2012 on a route Rotterdam (Netherlands) - Ushuaya (Argentina) - Antarctica — Ushuaya. During this expedition a complex measurements of a sea surface, a atmosphere near-surface layer parameters and subsurface currents in the wide range of hydroweather conditions, including the storm were carried out. The system developed in IAP RAS on the basis of a marine radar ICOM MR-1200RII and the ADC (Analog Digital Converter) block for data recording on the personal computer was used. Display of a non-uniform near-surface current on sea surface radar images in storm conditions is shown. By means of the high-speed anemometer and meteorological station the measurements of the atmosphere parameters were carried out. Comparison of the anemometer data with calculated from radar images is carried out. Dependence of radar cross section from wind speed in the wide range of wind speeds, including storm conditions is investigated. Possibility of marine radar using for surface waves intensity and ice situation estimates also as icebergs detection is shown.

  10. Instrumental research method of qualitative composition of landfill gas in the surface layer of landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, I. R.; Kashapov, N. F.; Gilmanshina, S. I.; Galeeva, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    The article analyzes the practice of waste management in Russia. The system of target indicators of the efficient landfills functioning is formalized. The method of instrumental analysis of concentration and qualitative composition of landfill gas in the surface layer of the Samosyrovo landfill is presented.

  11. Existence of torsional surface waves in an earth's crustal layer lying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Existence of torsional surface waves in an earth's crustal layer lying over a sandy mantle. Sumit Kumar Vishwakarma1,2,∗ and Shishir Gupta1. 1Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826 004, India. 2Department of Mathematics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science–Pilani,. Hyderabad ...

  12. Waves on the surface of a magnetic fluid layer in a traveling magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, K.; Zeidis, I.; Naletova, V.A.; Turkov, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    The plane flow of a layer of incompressible viscous magnetic fluid with constant magnetic permeability under the action of a traveling magnetic field is analyzed. The strength of the magnetic field producing a sinusoidal traveling small-amplitude wave on the surface of a magnetic fluid is found. This flow can be used in designing mobile robots

  13. Photo-oxidation : Major sink of oxygen in the ocean surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, W. W. C.; Laane, R. W. P. M.; Ruardij, P.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the oxygen demand associated with photochemical processes in the surface layer of oceans and seas worldwide is of the same order of magnitude as the amount of oxygen released by photosynthesis of the world's marine phytoplankton. Both estimates are of necessity quite rough

  14. Photo-oxidation: Major sink of oxygen in the ocean surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, W.W.C.; Laane, R.W.P.M.; Ruardij, P.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the oxygen demand associated with photochemical processes in the surface layer of oceans and seas worldwide is of the same order of magnitude as the amount of oxygen released by photosynthesis of the world's marine phytoplankton. Both estimates are of necessity quite rough

  15. Theoretical investigation of layered zeolite frameworks: Surface properties of 2D zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermann, Jan; Trachta, Michal; Nachtigall, P.; Bludský, Ota

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 227, May 15 (2014), s. 2-8 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : layered zeolite frameworks * surface properties * 2D zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  16. Relation between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Impact Factors under Severe Surface Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhuan Ao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a comprehensive analysis on the diurnal variation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL in summer of Badain Jaran Desert and discussed deeply the effect of surface thermal to ABL, including the Difference in Surface-Air Temperature (DSAT, net radiation, and sensible heat, based on limited GPS radiosonde and surface observation data during two intense observation periods of experiments. The results showed that (1 affected by topography of the Tibetan Plateau, the climate provided favorable external conditions for the development of Convective Boundary Layer (CBL, (2 deep CBL showed a diurnal variation of three- to five-layer structure in clear days and five-layer ABL structure often occurred about sunset or sunrise, (3 the diurnal variation of DSAT influenced thickness of ABL through changes of turbulent heat flux, (4 integral value of sensible heat which rapidly converted by surface net radiation had a significant influence on the growth of CBL throughout daytime. The cumulative effect of thick RML dominated the role after CBL got through SBL in the development stage, especially in late summer, and (5 the development of CBL was promoted and accelerated by the variation of wind field and distribution of warm advection in high and low altitude.

  17. Surface wave propagation in a double liquid layer over a liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The frequency equation is derived for surface waves in a liquidsaturated porous half-space supporting a double layer, that of inhomogeneous and homogeneous liquids. Asymptotic approximations of Bessel functions are used for long and short wavelength cases. Certain other problems are discussed as special cases.

  18. The use of artificial intelligence methods for visual analysis of properties of surface layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wójcicki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The article presents a selected area of research on the possibility of automatic prediction of material properties based on the analysis of digital images. Original, holistic model of forecasting properties of surface layers based on a multi-step process that includes the selected methods of processing and analysis of images, inference with the use of a priori knowledge bases and multi-valued fuzzy logic, and simulation with the use of finite element methods is presented. Surface layers characteristics and core technologies of their production processes such as mechanical, thermal, thermo-mechanical, thermo-chemical, electrochemical, physical are discussed. Developed methods used in the model for the classification of images of the surface layers are shown. The objectives of the use of selected methods of processing and analysis of digital images, including techniques for improving the quality of images, segmentation, morphological transformation, pattern recognition and simulation of physical phenomena in the structures of materials are described.[b]Keywords[/b]: image analysis, surface layer, artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic