WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface irrigation systems

  1. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  2. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  3. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Mailapalli, Damodhara R.; Raghuwanshi, Narendra S.; Singh, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in fur...

  4. On farm evaluation of the effect of low cost drip irrigation on water and crop productivity compared to conventional surface irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisiri, N.; Senzanje, A.; Rockstrom, J.; Twomlow, S. J.

    This on-farm research study was carried out at Zholube irrigation scheme in a semi-arid agro tropical climate of Zimbabwe to determine how low cost drip irrigation technologies compare with conventional surface irrigation systems in terms of water and crop productivity. A total of nine farmers who were practicing surface irrigation were chosen to participate in the study. The vegetable English giant rape ( Brassica napus) was grown under the two irrigation systems with three fertilizer treatments in each system: ordinary granular fertilizer, liquid fertilizer (fertigation) and the last treatment with no fertilizer. These trials were replicated three times in a randomized block design. Biometric parameters of leaf area index (LAI) and fresh weight of the produce, water use efficiency (WUE) were used to compare the performance of the two irrigation systems. A water balance of the inflows and outflows was kept for analysis of WUE. The economic profitability and the operation, maintenance and management requirements of the different systems were also evaluated. There was no significant difference in vegetable yield between the irrigation systems at 8.5 ton/ha for drip compared to 7.8 ton/ha in surface irrigation. There were significant increases in yields due to use of fertilizers. Drip irrigation used about 35% of the water used by the surface irrigation systems thus giving much higher water use efficiencies. The leaf area indices were comparable in both systems with the same fertilizer treatment ranging between 0.05 for surface without fertilizer to 6.8 for low cost drip with fertigation. Low cost drip systems did not reflect any labour saving especially when manually lifting the water into the drum compared to the use of siphons in surface irrigation systems. The gross margin level for surface irrigation was lower than for low cost drip irrigation but the gross margin to total variable cost ratio was higher in surface irrigation systems, which meant that surface

  5. Prospects for Improving Gravity-Fed Surface Irrigation Systems in Mediterranean European Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Masseroni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, most irrigation practices in Southern Europe have been based on gravity-fed surface irrigation systems. Currently, these systems remain a relevant typology in the European Union (EU member states of the Mediterranean areas, where it is often the only sustainable method for farmers due to the small size of agricultural holdings, their reduced capacity and readiness to invest and the low ratio between yield profits and irrigation costs. In the last several years, in response to European and national directives, surface irrigation has garnered increasing attention at the political and bureaucratic levels due to frequent criticisms of its postulated low efficiency and high water wastage. However, these systems commonly provide a number of ecosystem services and nature-based solutions that increase the positive externalities in different rural socio-ecological contexts and often have the potential to extend these services and provide solutions that are compatible with economical sustainability. This study aims to discuss the prospects for new practices and for the rehabilitation and modernization of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems in EU Mediterranean areas to enhance water efficiency, thus gaining both economic advantages and environmental benefits. The difficulties, stimuli for improvements and peculiarities of the irrigation water management of four rural environments located in Italy, Spain and Portugal were analyzed and compared to the current state of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems with hypothetical future improvements achievable by innovative technologies and practices. In these different case studies, the current gravity-fed surface irrigation systems have an obsolete regulatory structure; water-use efficiency is not a driving criterion for the management of the conveyance and distribution canal network, and farmers are not yet adequately encouraged to adopt more efficient gravity-fed irrigation practices

  6. A flexible system for the estimation of infiltration and hydraulic resistance parameters in surface irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical to the use of modeling tools for the hydraulic analysis of surface irrigation systems is characterizing the infiltration and hydraulic resistance process. Since those processes are still not well understood, various formulations are currently used to represent them. A software component h...

  7. Converting Surface Irrigation to Pressurized Irrigation Systems and its Effecton Yield of OrangeTrees (Case Study:North of Khouzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorramian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: North of the Khouzestan is one of the most important citrus production center. Usually border irrigation is used to irrigate citrus in this area. This system has generally low application efficiency. Several investigations in other arid region have demonstrated in addition to improved irrigation efficiency with low-volume pressurized irrigation systems, citrus trees have adapted with these new irrigation systems. However limited information exists on the performance of mature orchards converted from border surface irrigation to pressurized irrigation systems. Therefore, the current research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of converting surface irrigation to pressurized irrigation systems on mature citrus trees in climate conditions of North Khouzestan. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during three years at Safiabad Agricultural Research Center to evaluate the yield of citrus trees and the quality of fruits for two Marss and Valencia varieties which grow 7 years previously with surface irrigation and converted to pressurized irrigation systems. The treatments consisted of six irrigation methods including Overhead sprinkle irrigation (OHSI, Under tree sprinkle irrigation(UTSI, Trickle irrigation(TI(six 8 L/h Netafim emitters, Microjet irrigation (MI(two 180 microjet were located under canopy near of the trunk at opposite sides of trunk,Bubbler irrigation(BI(a single located under the canopy of each treeandSurface irrigation(SI method.Soil texture was clay loam well drained without salinity(ECe=0.69ds m-1, with 1.25 percent organic carbon. The experimental design was completely randomized design. The trees were irrigated during spring and summer seasons. For calculating irrigation water depth in TI, MI and BI systems, daily evaporation from a class A evaporation pan of the Safiabad weather station (nearby the experimental field was collected, and evapotranspiration of the citrus trees was calculated applying a

  8. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  9. Behavior of arthroscopic irrigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, G. J. M.; Dusée, L.; Herder, J. L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Pistecky, P. V.

    2005-01-01

    In the literature, no consensus exists about optimal irrigation of joints during arthroscopic operations. The goal of this paper is to study the behavior of irrigation systems resulting in the proposal of guidelines for optimal irrigation. To this end, optimal irrigation is defined as the steady

  10. Assessing actual evapotranspiration via surface energy balance aiming to optimize water and energy consumption in large scale pressurized irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Maltese, A.; Moreno Hidalgo, M. A.; Provenzano, G.; Còrcoles, J. I.

    2017-10-01

    Satellite imagery provides a dependable basis for computational models that aimed to determine actual evapotranspiration (ET) by surface energy balance. Satellite-based models enables quantifying ET over large areas for a wide range of applications, such as monitoring water distribution, managing irrigation and assessing irrigation systems' performance. With the aim to evaluate the energy and water consumption of a large scale on-turn pressurized irrigation system in the district of Aguas Nuevas, Albacete, Spain, the satellite-based image-processing model SEBAL was used for calculating actual ET. The model has been applied to quantify instantaneous, daily, and seasonal actual ET over high- resolution Landsat images for the peak water demand season (May to September) and for the years 2006 - 2008. The model provided a direct estimation of the distribution of main energy fluxes, at the instant when the satellite overpassed over each field of the district. The image acquisition day Evapotranspiration (ET24) was obtained from instantaneous values by assuming a constant evaporative fraction (Λ) for the entire day of acquisition; then, monthly and seasonal ET were estimated from the daily evapotranspiration (ETdaily) assuming that ET24 varies in proportion to reference ET (ETr) at the meteorological station, thus accounting for day to day variation in meteorological forcing. The comparison between the hydrants water consumption and the actual evapotranspiration, considering an irrigation efficiency of 85%, showed that a considerable amount of water and energy can be saved at district level.

  11. Planning for an Irrigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. Howard; Anderson, Carl L.

    The publication, with the aid of tables and colored illustrations and diagrams, presents information to help the farmer who is considering the installation of an irrigation system determine whether or not to irrigate, the type of system to use, and the irrigation cost and return on investment. Information is presented on the increase in yield to…

  12. Using Automation to Improve Surface Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area (WRA 08), also called the Mid-South, 2 million ha of cropland (80% of the irrigated farmland) employ surface irrigation, almost equally divided between furrow (52%) and controlled flooding (48%). Because Mid-South farmers experience less-than-optimal surf...

  13. Assessing the performance of surface and subsurface drip systems on irrigation water use efficiency of citrus orchards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo Martinez-Gimeno, Maria; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Bonet, Luis; Intrigliolo, Diego S.; Badal, Eduardo; Ballestrer, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries, water scarcity represents a real environmental concern at present and, according to the current climate change models predictions, the problem will be amplified in the future. In order to deal with this issue, application of strategies aimed to optimize the water resources in agriculture and to increase water use efficiency have become essential. On the one hand, it is important the election of the appropriate irrigation system for each particular case. On the other hand, identify the best management options for that specific irrigation system is crucial to optimize the available water resources without affecting yield. When using water saving strategies, however, it is a must to monitor the soil and/or crop water status in order to know the level of stress reached by the plants and to avoid levels that could lead to detrimental effects on yield. Stem water potential, ψstem, expressing the instantaneous condition of crop water stress, is considered a robust indicator of crop water status. The main objective of this study was to assess the performance of a surface (DI) and subsurface (SDI) drip irrigation system in a citrus orchard with 7 (DI7, SDI7) or 14 emitters (DI14, SDI14) per plant, in terms of irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and possible amount of water saving. The experiment was carried out in 2014 and 2015 in Alberique, Spain, (39˚ 7'31" N, 0˚ 33'17" W), in a commercial orchard (Citrus clementina, Hort. ex Tan. 'Arrufatina') in which four different treatments with three replications (12 sub-plots) were prepared according to a complete randomized block design. Irrigation doses and timing were scheduled based on the estimated maximum crop evapotranspiration corrected according to measurements of ψstem and soil water content, and weather forecasts. In order to limit the maximum crop water stress, the thresholds of ψstem were assumed in the range between -0.8 and -1.0 MPa from January to June and between -1.0 and -1

  14. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  15. Representation of solid and nutrient concentrations in irrigation water from tailwater recovery systems by surface water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailwater recovery (TWR) systems are being implemented on agricultural landscapes to create an additional source of irrigation water. Existing studies have sampled TWR systems using grab samples; however, the applicability of solids and nutrient concentrations in these samples to water being irrigat...

  16. Using SWAT-MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water interactions in an intensively irrigated stream-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X.; Bailey, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural irrigated watersheds in semi-arid regions face challenges such as waterlogging, high soil salinity, reduced crop yield, and leaching of chemical species due to extreme shallow water tables resulting from long-term intensive irrigation. Hydrologic models can be used to evaluate the impact of land management practices on water yields and groundwater-surface water interactions in such regions. In this study, the newly developed SWAT-MODFLOW, a coupled surface/subsurface hydrologic model, is applied to a 950 km2 watershed in the Lower Arkansas River Valley (southeastern Colorado). The model accounts for the influence of canal diversions, irrigation applications, groundwater pumping, and earth canal seepage losses. The model provides a detailed description of surface and subsurface flow processes, thereby enabling detailed description of watershed processes such as runoff, infiltration, in-streamflow, three-dimensional groundwater flow in a heterogeneous aquifer system with sources and sinks (e.g. pumping, seepage to subsurface drains), and spatially-variable surface and groundwater exchange. The model was calibrated and tested against stream discharge from 5 stream gauges in the Arkansas River and its tributaries, groundwater levels from 70 observation wells, and evapotranspiration (ET) data estimated from satellite (ReSET) data during the 1999 to 2007 period. Since the water-use patterns within the study area are typical of many other irrigated river valleys in the United States and elsewhere, this modeling approach is transferable to other regions.

  17. A MICROCOMPUTER MODEL FOR IRRIGATION SYSTEM EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Buller, Orlan H.; Dvorak, Gary J.; Manges, Harry L.

    1988-01-01

    ICEASE (Irrigation Cost Estimator and System Evaluator) is a microcomputer model designed and developed to meet the need for conducting economic evaluation of adjustments to irrigation systems and management techniques to improve the use of irrigated water. ICEASE can calculate the annual operating costs for irrigation systems and has five options that can be used to economically evaluate improvements in the pumping plant or the way the irrigation system is used for crop production.

  18. SURDEV: surface irrigation software; design, operation, and evaluation of basin, border, and furrow irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurriëns, M.; Zerihun, D.; Boonstra, J.; Feyen, J.

    2001-01-01

    SURDEV is a computer package for the design, operation, and evaluation of surface irrigation. SURDEV combines three sub-programs: BASDEV (for basin irrigation), FURDEV (for furrow irrigation), and BORDEV for (border irrigation). This combination enables the user to simulate many of the problems

  19. Sprinkler irrigation-pesticide best management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.; Ehteshami, M.

    1992-01-01

    The relative reduction in potential groundwater contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices, and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate irrigation application depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with a one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of groundwater can be reduce...

  20. Increase globe artichoke cropping sustainability using sub-surface drip-irrigation systems in a Mediterranean coastal area for reducing groundwater withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantino, Alberto; Marchina, Chiara; Bonari, Enrico; Fabbrizzi, Alessandro; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades in coastal areas of the Mediterranean basin, human growth posed severe stresses on freshwater resources due to increasing demand by agricultural, industrial and civil activities, in particular on groundwater. This in turn led to worsening of water quality, loss/reduction of wetlands, up to soil salinization and abandonment of agricultural areas. Within the EU LIFE REWAT project a number of demonstration measures will take place in the lower Cornia valley (Livorno, Italy), both structural (pilot) and non-structural (education, dissemination and capacity building), aiming at achieving sustainable and participated water management. In particular, the five demonstration actions are related to: (1) set up of a managed aquifer recharge facility, (2) restoration of a Cornia river reach, (3) water saving in the civil water supply sector, (4) water saving in agriculture, (5) reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation purposes. Thus, the REWAT project general objective is to develop a new model of governance for sustainable development of the lower Cornia valley based on the water asset at its core. As per water use in agriculture, the lower Cornia valley is well known for the horticultural production. In this regard, globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. (Fiori)) crops, a perennial cool-season vegetable, cover a surface of about 600 ha. In order to increase stability and productivity of the crop, about 2000 - 4000 m3 ha-1 yr-1 of irrigation water is required. Recent studies demonstrated that yield of different crops increases using Sub-surface Drip-Irrigation (SDI) system under high frequency irrigation management enhancing water use efficiency. In the SDI systems, the irrigation water is delivered to the plant root zone, below the soil surface by buried plastic tubes containing embedded emitters located at regular spacing. Within the LIFE REWAT, the specific objectives of the pilot on irrigation efficiency is to (i) demonstrate the

  1. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  2. Modernisation Strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines: Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, M.L.F.

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the nature and impact of irrigation system rehabilitation on increasing the actual area irrigated by the publicly funded canal irrigation systems of the Philippines. It proposes a system diagnosis approach for the development of a more appropriate and climate-smart irrigation

  3. Remote sensing based water-use efficiency evaluation in sub-surface irrigated wine grape vines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Carlos Espinoza; Khot, Lav R.; Jacoby, Pete; Sankaran, Sindhuja

    2016-05-01

    Increased water demands have forced agriculture industry to investigate better irrigation management strategies in crop production. Efficient irrigation systems, improved irrigation scheduling, and selection of crop varieties with better water-use efficiencies can aid towards conserving water. In an ongoing experiment carried on in Red Mountain American Viticulture area near Benton City, Washington, subsurface drip irrigation treatments at 30, 60 and 90 cm depth, and 15, 30 and 60% irrigation were applied to satisfy evapotranspiration demand using pulse and continuous irrigation. These treatments were compared to continuous surface irrigation applied at 100% evapotranspiration demand. Thermal infrared and multispectral images were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle during the growing season. Obtained results indicated no difference in yield among treatments (p<0.05), however there was statistical difference in leaf temperature comparing surface and subsurface irrigation (p<0.05). Normalized vegetation index obtained from the analysis of multispectral images showed statistical difference among treatments when surface and subsurface irrigation methods were compared. Similar differences in vegetation index values were observed, when irrigation rates were compared. Obtained results show the applicability of aerial thermal infrared and multispectral images to characterize plant responses to different irrigation treatments and use of such information in irrigation scheduling or high-throughput selection of water-use efficient crop varieties in plant breeding.

  4. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: dynamic global simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-04-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatio-temporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a dynamic representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a process-based bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded worldmap of dynamically retrieved irrigation efficiencies reflecting differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with lowest values (values (> 60%) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2396 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1212 km3, of which 511 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e. lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76%, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15%, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for assessing

  5. An integrated crop and hydrologic modeling system to estimate hydrologic impacts of crop irrigation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. McNider; C. Handyside; K. Doty; W.L. Ellenburg; J.F. Cruise; J.R. Christy; D. Moss; V. Sharda; G. Hoogenboom; Peter Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses a coupled gridded crop modeling and hydrologic modeling system that can examine the benefits of irrigation and costs of irrigation and the coincident impact of the irrigation water withdrawals on surface water hydrology. The system is applied to the Southeastern U.S. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version (GriDSSAT) of...

  6. Comparative Study of Water and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Potato Crop under Fertigation and Surface Irrigating Systems by Using Labeled Nitrogen (15N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah Haidara, H. M.; Amin Alkirshi, A. H.; Saleh Husien, A.

    2007-01-01

    This research activity was conducted at Central Highland Research Station Farm-Dhamar, on potato Crop (Diamant cv.), during three seasons of 2000, 2001, and 2003.The objective of this activity was to study the Nitrogen Fertilizer Use Efficiency (WUE) which applied in different dosages with irrigation water (fertigation) and one dosage to the soil under surface irrigation, by using Labeled nitrogen fertilizer ( 15N ), comparing the quantity of irrigation water applied through Drip irrigation method and surface irrigation and its effect on WUE and yield of potato crop. The basic experiment was planted in randomized completely block design (RCBD) with five replications during 2000 season and six replication in 2001.and five treatments were tested (N1= 50kg N/ha, N2 =100kg N/ha, N3=150kg N/ha and N4=200kgN/ha as fertigated treatments under drip irrigation and Ns = 150kg N/ha as surface Nitrogen Application under surface irrigation. While in the 2003 season Verification trial was conducted with two replications, two treatments and RCB design. Results indicated that using Drip irrigation method in application of water saved 38% of irrigation water as compared to Surface irrigation. Fertigated treatments (N1, N2, N3 and N4) were, significantly superior to Surface Nitrogen Application treatment (NS), fertigated treatment (N3) gave the highest values of WUE which were 5.3, 6.4 and 6.1 kg/m3 for the three seasons (2000, 2001, 2003 respectively) with an average of 5.9 kg/m3 comparing to the surface Nitrogen Application treatment (NS) which gave the less yield per unit of water which was 3.8, 3.6 and 3.9 kg /m3 for the three seasons 2000, 2001 and 2003 respectively with an average of 3.7 kg/m3.The Average yield of potato tubers for (N3) treatment in the three seasons was 30 .3 t/ha comparing to the (NS) treatment, which gave an average of 29,5t/ha.The fertigatetd treatment (N1) recorded the highest efficient use of nitrogen Fertilizer followed by (N3) compare to the surface

  7. Application of near-surface geophysics as part of a hydrologic study of a subsurface drip irrigation system along the Powder River floodplain near Arvada, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, James I.; Veloski, Garret; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Engle, Mark A.; Lipinski, Brian A.; Hammack, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming has occurred since 1997. National attention related to CBNG development has focused on produced water management, which is the single largest cost for on-shore domestic producers. Low-cost treatment technologies allow operators to reduce their disposal costs, provide treated water for beneficial use, and stimulate oil and gas production by small operators. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems are one potential treatment option that allows for increased CBNG production by providing a beneficial use for the produced water in farmland irrigation.Water management practices in the development of CBNG in Wyoming have been aided by integrated geophysical, geochemical, and hydrologic studies of both the disposal and utilization of water. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have utilized multi-frequency airborne, ground, and borehole electromagnetic (EM) and ground resistivity methods to characterize the near-surface hydrogeology in areas of produced water disposal. These surveys provide near-surface EM data that can be compared with results of previous surveys to monitor changes in soils and local hydrology over time as the produced water is discharged through SDI.The focus of this investigation is the Headgate Draw SDI site, situated adjacent to the Powder River near the confluence of a major tributary, Crazy Woman Creek, in Johnson County, Wyoming. The SDI system was installed during the summer of 2008 and began operation in October of 2008. Ground, borehole, and helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) conductivity surveys were conducted at the site prior to the installation of the SDI system. After the installation of the subsurface drip irrigation system, ground EM surveys have been performed quarterly (weather permitting). The geophysical surveys map the heterogeneity of the near-surface

  8. Sensitivity of Landsat 8 Surface Temperature Estimates to Atmospheric Profile Data: A Study Using MODTRAN in Dryland Irrigated Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2017-09-26

    its impact on the TIR bands. Days with high AOD content (AOD > 0.5) in the evaluation study seem to consistently underestimate in-situ LSTs by 1-2 K, suggesting that MODTRAN is unable to accurately simulate the aerosol conditions for the TIR bands. Comparisons between available in-situ and Landsat 8 derived LST illustrate a range of seasonal and land surface dynamics and provide an assessment of retrieval accuracy throughout the nine-month long study period. In terms of the choice of atmospheric profile, when excluding the in-situ data, results show a mean absolute range of between 1.2 K to 1.8 K over bare soil and 3.3 K to 3.8 K over alfalfa for the different meteorological forcing, with the AIRS profile providing the best reproduction over the studied arid land irrigation region.

  9. Advances in Estimation of Parameters for Surface Irrigation Modeling and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematical models of the surface irrigation process are becoming standard tools for analyzing the performance of irrigation systems and developing design and operational recommendations. A continuing challenge to the practical use of these tools is the difficulty in characterizing required model ...

  10. Influence of Irrigation Scheduling Using Thermometry on Peach Tree Water Status and Yield under Different Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Remotely-sensed canopy temperature from infrared thermometer (IRT sensors has long been shown to be effective for detecting plant water stress. A field study was conducted to investigate peach tree responses to deficit irrigation which was controlled using canopy to air temperature difference (ΔT during the postharvest period at the USDA-ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center in Parlier, California, USA. The experimental site consisted of a 1.6 ha early maturing peach tree orchard. A total of 18 IRT sensors were used to control six irrigation treatments including furrow, micro-spray, and surface drip irrigation systems with and without postharvest deficit irrigation. During the postharvest period in the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 growing seasons, ΔT threshold values at mid-day was tested to trigger irrigation in three irrigation systems. The results showed that mid-day stem water potentials (ψ for well irrigated trees were maintained at a range of −0.5 to −1.2 MPa while ψ of deficit irrigated trees dropped to lower values. Soil water content in deficit surface drip irrigation treatment was higher compared to deficit furrow and micro-spray irrigation treatments in 2012. The number of fruits and fruit weight from peach trees under postharvest deficit irrigation treatment were less than those well-watered trees; however, no statistically significant (at the p < 0.05 level reduction in fruit size or quality was found for trees irrigated by surface drip and micro-spray irrigation systems by deficit irrigation. Beside doubles, we found an increased number of fruits with deep sutures and dimples which may be a long-term (seven-year postharvest regulated deficit irrigation impact of deficit irrigation on this peach tree variety. Overall, deployment of IRT sensors provided real-time measurement of canopy water status and the information is valuable for making irrigation

  11. The effect of irrigation time and type of irrigation fluid on cartilage surface friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärke, F; Awiszus, F; Lohmann, C H; Stärke, C

    2018-01-01

    It is known that fluid irrigation used during arthroscopic procedures causes a wash-out of lubricating substances from the articular cartilage surface and leads to increased friction. It was the goal of this study to investigate whether this effect depends on the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. Rabbit hind legs were used for the tests. The knees were dissected and the friction coefficient of the femoral cartilage measured against glass in a boundary lubrication state. To determine the influence of irrigation time and fluid, groups of 12 knees received either no irrigation (control), 15, 60 or 120min of irrigation with lactated Ringer's solution or 60min of irrigation with normal saline or a sorbitol/mannitol solution. The time of irrigation had a significant effect on the static and kinetic coefficient of friction (CoF), as had the type of fluid. Longer irrigation time with Ringer's solution was associated with increased friction coefficients (relative increase of the kinetic CoF compared to the control after 15, 60 and 120min: 16%, 76% and 88% respectively). The sorbitol/mannitol solution affected the static and kinetic CoF significantly less than either Ringer's or normal saline. The washout of lubricating glycoproteins from the cartilage surface and the associated increase of friction can be effectively influenced by controlling the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. The time of exposure to the irrigation fluid should be as short as possible and monosaccharide solutions might offer a benefit compared to salt solutions in terms of the resultant friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Movement of Irrigation Water in Soil from a Surface Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abbas Dawood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available rickle irrigation is one of the most conservative irrigation techniques since it implies supplying water directly on the soil through emitters. Emitters dissipate energy of water at the end of the trickle irrigation system and provide water at emission points. The area wetted by an emitter depends upon the discharge of emitter, soil texture, initial soil water content, and soil permeability. The objectives of this research were to predict water distribution profiles through different soils for different conditions and quantify the distribution profiles in terms of main characteristics of soil and emitter. The wetting patterns were simulated at the end of each hour for a total time of application of 12 hrs, emitter discharges of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 lph, and five initial volumetric soil water contents. Simulation of water flow from a single surface emitter was carried out by using the numerically-based software Hydrus-2D/3D, Version 2.04. Two approaches were used in developing formulas to predict the domains of the wetted pattern. In order to verify the results obtained by implementing the software Hydrus-2D/3D a field experiment was conducted to measure the wetted diameter and compare measured values with simulated ones. The results of the research showed that the developed formulas to express the wetted diameter and depth in terms of emitter discharge, time of application, and initial soil water content are very general and can be used with very good accuracy.

  13. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  14. Constraining Agricultural Irrigation Surface Energy Budget Feedbacks in Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufforth, M. E.; Desai, A. R.; Suyker, A.

    2017-12-01

    The expansion and modernization of irrigation increased the relevance of knowing the effects it has on regional weather and climate feedbacks. We conducted a set of observationally-constrained simulations determining the result irrigation exhibits on the surface energy budget, the atmospheric boundary layer, and regional precipitation feedbacks. Eddy covariance flux tower observations were analyzed from two irrigated and one rain-fed corn/soybean rotation sites located near Mead, Nebraska. The evaluated time period covered the summer growing months of June, July, and August (JJA) during the years when corn grew at all three sites. As a product of higher continuous surface moisture availability, the irrigated crops had significantly higher amounts of energy partitioned towards latent heating than the non-irrigated site. The daily average peak of latent heating at the rain-fed site occurred before the irrigated sites and was approximately 45 W/m2 lower. Land surface models were evaluated on their ability to reproduce these effects, including those used in numerical weather prediction and those used in agricultural carbon cycle projection. Model structure, mechanisms, and parameters that best represent irrigation-surface energy impacts will be compared and discussed.

  15. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    conclusion of the monitoring phase, turf specialists from California State University, Fresno determined the appearance of the smart plot was slightly less...studies conducted on farms in California that demonstrate activities that: 1) lead to more efficient applied water use or enhance water quality; 2...irrigation audit of the sprinklers systems was conducted by the Center for Irrigation Technology (CIT), California State University, Fresno to ensure the

  16. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  17. Comparison of traditional and ET-based irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated cotton in the arid southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of irrigation scheduling tools to produce cotton under-surface irrigation in the arid southwesternUSA is minimal. In the State of Arizona, where traditional irrigation scheduling is the norm, producersuse an average of 1460 mm annually to grow a cotton crop. The purpose of this paper was to ...

  18. The Effects of Great Plains Irrigation on the Surface Energy Balance, Regional Circulation, and Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Huber

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation provides a needed source of water in regions of low precipitation. Adding water to a region that would otherwise see little natural precipitation alters the partitioning of surface energy fluxes, the evolution of the planetary boundary layer, and the atmospheric transport of water vapor. The effects of irrigation are investigated in this paper through the employment of the Advanced Research (ARW Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF using a pair of simulations representing the extremes of an irrigated and non-irrigated U.S. Great Plains region. In common with previous studies, irrigation in the Great Plains alters the radiation budget by increasing latent heat flux and cooling the surface temperatures. These effects increase the net radiation at the surface, channeling that energy into additional latent heat flux, which increases convective available potential energy and provides downstream convective systems with additional energy and moisture. Most noteworthy in this study is the substantial influence of irrigation on the structure of the Great Plains Low-level Jet (GPLLJ. The simulation employing irrigation is characterized by a positive 850-mb geopotential height anomaly, a result interpreted by quasi-geostrophic theory to be a response to low-level irrigation-induced cooling. The modulation of the regional-scale height pattern associated with the GPLLJ results in weaker flow southeast of the 850-mb anomaly and stronger flow to the northwest. Increased latent heat flux in the irrigated simulation is greater than the decrease in regional transport, resulting in a net increase in atmospheric moisture and a nearly 50% increase in July precipitation downstream of irrigated regions without any change to the number of precipitation events.

  19. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  20. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation system. (a) Identification. A colonic irrigation system is a device intended to instill water into the colon...

  1. Cleaning of Root Canal System by Different Irrigation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Miano, Lucas Martinati; Chávez-Andrade, Gisselle Moraima; Torres, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves; Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning of main and lateral canals using the irrigation methods: negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and manual irrigation (MI). Resin teeth were used. After root canal preparation, four lateral canals were made at 2 and 7 mm from the apex. Root canals were filled with contrast solution and radiographed pre- and post-irrigation using digital radiographic system [radiovisiography (RVG)]. The irrigation protocols were: MI1-manual irrigation [22 G needle at 5 mm short of working length-WL]; MI2-manual irrigation (30G needle at 2 mm short of WL); PUI; EV1-EndoVac (microcannula at 1 mm short of WL); EV2-Endovac (microcannula at 3 mm short of WL). The obtained images, initial (filled with contrast solution) and final (after irrigation) were analyzed by using image tool 3.0 software. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests (5% significance level). EV1 and EV2, followed by PUI showed better cleaning capacity than manual irrigation (MI1 and MI2) (p irrigation and PUI promoted better cleaning of main and simulated lateral canals. Conventional manual irrigation technique may promote less root canal cleaning in the apical third. For this reason, the search for other irrigation protocols is important, and EndoVac and PUI are alternatives to contribute to irrigation effectiveness.

  2. Internal surface roughness of plastic pipes for irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes S. da Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Assuming that a roughness meter can be successfully employed to measure the roughness on the internal surface of irrigation pipes, this research had the purpose of defining parameters and procedures required to represent the internal surface roughness of plastic pipes used in irrigation. In 2013, the roughness parameter Ra, traditional for the representation of surface irregularities in most situations, and the parameters Rc, Rq, and Ry were estimated based on 350 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and low-density polyethylene (LDPE pipes. Pressure losses were determined from experiments carried out in laboratory. Estimations of pressure loss varied significantly according to the roughness parameters (Ra, Rc, Rq, and Ry and the corresponding pipe diameter. Therefore, specific values of roughness for each pipe diameter improves accuracy in pressure losses estimation. The average values of internal surface roughness were 3.334 and 8.116 μm for PVC and LDPE pipes, respectively.

  3. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  4. Field Comparison of Fertigation Vs. Surface Irrigation of Cotton Crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on previous results of the same nature, one nitrogen rate 180 kg N ha -1 was tested under two-irrigation methods, surface irrigation and drip fertigation of cotton (Cultivar Rakka-5) for two consecutive seasons 2000 and 2001. The study aimed to answer various questions regarding the applicability of drip fertigation at farm level and the effect of its employment on yield and growth parameters, compared to surface irrigation. Nitrogen fertilizer was either injected in eight equally split applications for the drip fertigated cotton or divided in four unequally split applications as recommend by Ministry of Agriculture (20% before planting, 40% at thinning, 20% after 60 days from planting and 20% after 75 days after planting). 15 N labeled urea was used to evaluate nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. The experimental design was randomized block design with seven replicates. Results showed that drip fertigation led to water saving exceeding 50% in some cases. Field germination percentage was highly increased under drip- fertigated cotton relative to surface-irrigated cotton. Dry matter and seed cotton yield of surface-irrigated cotton was slightly higher than that of drip-fertigated cotton in the first growing season. The reason for that was due to the hot spill that occurred in the region, which exposed the cotton crop to water stress and consequently pushed the cotton into early flowering. Lint properties were not affected by the introduction of drip-fertigation. Actually some properties were improved relative to the standard properties identified by the cotton Bureau.Nitrogen uptake was slightly increased under drip fertigation whereas nitrogen use efficiencies were not constant along the growing seasons. The reason for that could be lateral leaching and root proliferation into the labeled and unlabeled subplots. Field water use efficiency was highly increased for both growing seasons under drip fertigation practice. The rate of field water use efficiencies

  5. Fertigation - Injecting soluble fertilizers into the irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Jeremy R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Fertigation (fertilization + irrigation) is the newest way for nursery managers to apply fertilizer, and has become a standard practice in container nurseries. Because of the inherent inefficient water distribution patterns in field irrigation systems, fertigation has not been widely used in bareroot nurseries. However, a bareroot nursery with a center-pivot irrigation...

  6. Soil and water management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadera, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive

  7. Water quality of surface runoff and lint yield in cotton under furrow irrigation in Northeast Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of furrow irrigation in row crop production is a common practice through much of the Midsouth US. Problems with these systems arise when nutrients are transported off-site through surface runoff. A field study with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) was conducted to understand the impact of tillage...

  8. Irrigated and non-irrigated radiofrequency ablation systems and ways of non-irrigated RF systems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, A. V.; Evtushenko, V. V.; Bykov, A. N.; Sergeev, V. S.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Kistenev, Yu. V.; Anfinogenova, Ya. D.; Smyshlyaev, K. A.; Kurlov, I. O.

    2015-11-01

    Improving of radiofrequency ablation systems for the myocardium is one of the fundamental problems of cardiac surgery. We used pig left ventricular myocardium as a working model. Mean thickness of the left ventricular wall was 10.1 ± 5.6 mm. The studies were performed on 10 hearts. The mean weight of hearts was 294.7 ± 21g. Research is being done on the electrophysical bench in 2 stages. In the first stage the hearts were placed on the electrophysical bench and heated to 36.6°C. In the second stage heart cooled to 20°C. The monopolar radiofrequency exposure was processing on the myocardium by two types of electrodes: spherical irrigated electrode and non-irrigated penetrating one within 20 seconds. The electrical resistance of the myocardium was measured at different temperatures before and after exposure. This paper shows that the decrease in ambient temperature combined with using of new penetrating electrodes for radiofrequency ablation gives better results than using of irrigated and non-irrigated systems. This method allows significantly reduce time exposure for a maximum depth of destruction in the myocardium.

  9. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  10. A Real-time Irrigation Forecasting System in Jiefangzha Irrigation District, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the irrigation efficiency, we need to know when and how much to irrigate in real time. If we know the soil moisture content at this time, we can forecast the soil moisture content in the next days based on the rainfall forecasting and the crop evapotranspiration forecasting. Then the irrigation should be considered when the forecasting soil moisture content reaches to a threshold. Jiefangzha Irrigation District, a part of Hetao Irrigation District, is located in Inner Mongolia, China. The irrigated area of this irrigation district is about 140,000 ha mainly planting wheat, maize and sunflower. The annual precipitation is below 200mm, so the irrigation is necessary and the irrigation water comes from the Yellow river. We set up 10 sites with 4 TDR sensors at each site (20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 80cm depth) to monitor the soil moisture content. The weather forecasting data are downloaded from the website of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The reference evapotranspiration is estimated based on FAO-Blaney-Criddle equation with only the air temperature from ECMWF. Then the crop water requirement is forecasted by the crop coefficient multiplying the reference evapotranspiration. Finally, the soil moisture content is forecasted based on soil water balance with the initial condition is set as the monitoring soil moisture content. When the soil moisture content reaches to a threshold, the irrigation warning will be announced. The irrigation mount can be estimated through three ways: (1) making the soil moisture content be equal to the field capacity; (2) making the soil moisture saturated; or (3) according to the irrigation quota. The forecasting period is 10 days. The system is developed according to B2C model with Java language. All the databases and the data analysis are carried out in the server. The customers can log in the website with their own username and password then get the information about the irrigation forecasting

  11. Modulation of physiological hemostasis by irrigation solution: comparison of various irrigation solutions using a mouse brain surface bleeding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yasutaka; Doi, Kazuhisa; Harada, Daisuke; Kamikawa, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    Intraoperative bleeding often obscures the surgical field and may cause neurological damage. The irrigation fluids used during surgery might affect physiological hemostasis because they modulate the extracellular fluid composition of the bleeding area directly. The authors therefore investigated the influence of irrigation fluid on hemostasis in a mouse brain surface bleeding model. The cerebral cortices of ddY strain mice were exposed under irrigation with normal saline, lactated Ringer (LR) solution, or artificial CSF (ACF-95). To investigate the influence of electrolytes, calcium, potassium, or both were also added to the saline. After 10 minutes of irrigation at 100 ml/hour, sequential photographs of the surgical area were taken with a microscope, and the number of bleeding points was counted visually. Irrigation and counting were performed in a masked manner. There were significantly more bleeding points after irrigation with normal saline than with ACF-95; LR solution had a similar effect on physiological hemostasis as ACF-95. Saline augmented with calcium or potassium and calcium was superior to normal saline in terms of hemostasis. The authors demonstrated that the irrigation fluid used in neurosurgery affects bleeding at the surgical site. To avoid surgical site bleeding, ACF-95 and LR solution should be used as irrigation fluids instead of normal saline. The calcium and potassium content of irrigation solutions seems to be important in hemostasis.

  12. Set up of an automatic water quality sampling system in irrigation agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable w...

  13. Hydrological interdependencies of irrigation systems and river catchments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.; Prieto, D.; Giesen, van de N.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses (re)distributing effects of small and large irrigation systems at the catchment scale. Scales of catchment and system, each with their own temporal and spatial properties, are to be integrated. To be able to quantify water fluxes in irrigation, water fluxes within the system at

  14. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkerim, A I; Eusuf, M M R Sami; Salami, M J E; Aibinu, A; Eusuf, M A

    2013-01-01

    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors

  15. Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System Using Sweet Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gravitational drip irrigation system was developed using available materials. The system consisting of 4.0 l/hr Netafim pressure-compensating emitters was used to irrigate 0.0015 ha of land where sweet corn was planted under variable water applications in a randomised complete block design with three treatments.

  16. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated whether electronic controllers in irrigation systems effectively save water. The study also assessed the effect of these controllers on crop yield using drip and sprinkler irrigation systems in severely arid climate conditions. Evapotranspiration (ET) controllers were installed in experimental fields of wheat ...

  17. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    (Ci, and stomatal conductance (gs between (09.30 – 11.30 h on a fully expanded current season leaves situated at mid canopy height. Statistical assessments of differences between mean values were performed by the LSD test at P = 0.05. Results and Discussion The results revealed that reclaimed water enhanced fruit yield, weight (15%, volume (23% and leaf photosynthesis (22% in plants compared with clear water. Recycled water was found to supply more nutrients than clear water. High nutrient concentrations in RW, compared to those in clear water, result in nutrient accumulation in the soil, making them available to plant roots to promote overall plant growth and fruit production. Improved N, P, K nutrition of wastewater-irrigated plants has been reported (Farooq et al, 2006. Olive leaves and stems represent storage organs for N and release it in response to the metabolic demands of developing reproductive and vegetative organs (Fernandez-Escobar et al., 2004. However, Al-Abasi et al. (2009 found no statistical differences. Irrigation with SLI systems increased the photosynthesis (33%, and stomatal conductance (57% when compared with surface irrigation systems. The results showed that reclaimed water had a significant effect on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. However, fruit length and firmness had no significant difference. Substomatal CO2 decreased when the SI systems were used for irrigation. Also SLI system could enhance fruit yield (65%, weight (17%, photosynthesis (32% and chlorophyll Fluorescence (Fv/Fm (18%. The SLI systems with recycled water induced greater shoot growth, total leaf surface area, and transpiration during the entire growing period. This led to an overall positive effect on mean fruit weight and total fruit production per tree. The SLI system applying RW led to more photosynthesis by 34% as compared to the SI system. In the present study, the SLI system delivered water directly in the root zone and improved water availability, which

  18. Satellite Irrigation Monitoring and Management Support in California with the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Johnson, L.; Lund, C.; Michaelis, A.; Pierce, L.; Guzman, A.; Hiatt, S.; Purdy, A. J.; Lee, C.; Rosevelt, C.; Fletcher, N.; Votava, P.; Milesi, C.; Hashimoto, H.; Wang, W.; Sheffner, E. J.; Nemani, R.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite data can be used to map crop evapotranspiration over large areas and make irrigation scheduling more practical, convenient, and accurate, but requires the development of new tools and computing frameworks to support operational use in irrigation scheduling and water management. We present findings from the development and deployment of a prototype system for irrigation scheduling and management support. The system utilizes the NASA Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to integrate satellite observations and meteorological observations to map basal crop coefficient (Kcb) and evapotranspiration (ETcb) values for multiple crop types in the Central Valley of California at spatial resolutions that are useful for irrigation management at the field level (30m). Integration of data from the NOAA NWS Forecasted Reference Evapotranspiration (FRET) system also allows forecasting of irrigation demand with lead times of up to one week, supporting both irrigation scheduling and water delivery planning. Information is distributed to agricultural producers and water managers via a web-based irrigation management decision support system, web services, and hand held devices. We also present comparisons of estimates of ETcb from the prototype system against estimates from other methods, including surface renewal stations, energy balance models, and water balance models driven with data from wireless sensor networks deployed in operational agricultural fields across California.

  19. THE ECOSYSTEM APPROACHES TO THE OPERATION OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Olgarenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new methodological approaches to optimize the functioning processes of irrigation systems that have been passed a wide industrial verification in irrigation systems of the North Caucasus and proved from the standpoint of the landscape approach and on the basis of the laws of the technics, cybernetics, ecology and economic and mathematical methods. The methodological approach that has been proposed allows to consider the system as a multifactorial, closed with adjustable anthropogenic impacts on the environment, which allowed to develop a model of the irrigation system as a management object, taking into account environmental considerations and impacts on it natural and controllable factors, as well as the optimization factors. Determined classification which is required for operational planning and management of irrigation, including information and referral, seasonal and operational information. Improved planning and management process ensures of the irrigation forecast model, consisting of a control unit information base and the space-time optimization.

  20. Towards Global Simulation of Irrigation in a Land Surface Model: Multiple Cropping and Rice Paddy in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Rodell, Matthew; Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural land use significantly influences the surface water and energy balances. Effects of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes include repartitioning of latent and sensible heat fluxes, an increase in net radiation, and an increase in soil moisture and runoff. We are working on representing irrigation practices in continental- to global-scale land surface simulation in NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Because agricultural practices across the nations are diverse, and complex, we are attempting to capture the first-order reality of the regional practices before achieving a global implementation. This study focuses on two issues in Southeast Asia: multiple cropping and rice paddy irrigation systems. We first characterize agricultural practices in the region (i.e., crop types, growing seasons, and irrigation) using the Global data set of monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRCA2000) dataset. Rice paddy extent is identified using remote sensing products. Whether irrigated or rainfed, flooded fields need to be represented and treated explicitly. By incorporating these properties and processes into a physically based land surface model, we are able to quantify the impacts on the simulated states and fluxes.

  1. Use of Clay Deposits in Water Management of Calcareous Sandy Soils Under-surface and Sub-surface Drip Irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omran, A.; Falatah, A.; Sheta, A.; Al-Harbi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation (levels and methods) and type of clay deposits on lettuce yield, water use efficiency WUE and the distributions of soil moisture and salts in the root zone of sandy calcareous soils. A field experiment was conducted at the college experimental station in 2002-2003. It consists of three clay deposits, three rates (0, 1.0 and 2.0%), and four total irrigation applied water levels, 360 mm (T1), 520 mm (T2), 635 mm (T3) and 822 mm (T4), using surface and subsurface drip irrigation. Results indicated that yield was significantly increased with the increase of irrigation level, whereas WUE significantly decreased with increase of irrigation level. The average yield increased by 9.30% in a high irrigation level compared to a moderate irrigation level, and decreased by 14.2% at the more stressed irrigation level. WUE decreased by 49.0% at a moderate irrigation level and yield was significantly affected by amendment rates. The difference between surface and subsurface drip on yields and WUE were also significant. Results indicated that the moisture content of the subsurface treated layer increased dramatically, while salts were accumulated at the surface and away from the emitters in subsurface drip irrigation. The advantages of surface drip irrigation were related to the relative decrease in salt accumulation in the root zone area where the plant roots were active and the water content was relatively high. (author)

  2. Performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at Mambilla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in discharge can also be adjusted via use of uniform laterals, risers, and nozzles. This study further recommends an incorporation of a soil and water laboratory for the company to aid in monitoring the soil and water quality of the irrigation area. Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation ...

  3. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  4. Performance evaluation of a center pivot variable rate irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI) for center pivots offers potential to match specific application rates to non-uniform soil conditions along the length of the lateral. The benefit of such systems is influenced by the areal extent of these variations and the smallest scale to which the irrigation syste...

  5. Rainwater use by cotton under different irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater Use by Cotton Under Different Irrigation Systems To increase the efficiency by which agronomic crops use water input from both irrigation and rain during the growing season requires quantifying the proportion of rainfall used by the crop for any rain event. The rainfall pattern in the Texa...

  6. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P......, K, Mg and micronutrients, and in addition 120 kg N/ha in the gun irrigated treatments and 36 kg N/ha in the drip-fertigated. For the latter, portion of 20 kg N/ha was applied whenever plant N concentration approached a critical value as simulated by the Daisy model. As a result differences in soil...

  7. Irrigation and fertigation with drip and alternative micro irrigation systems in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation using conventional drip and alternative micro irrigation systems were evaluated in six cultivars of northern highbush blueberry. The drip system consisted of two laterals of drip tubing, with 2 L/h in-line emitters (point source) spaced every 0.45 m, on each s...

  8. Sorption of pathogens during sub-surface drip irrigation with wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Laillach; Gillerman Gillerman, Leonid; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Oron, Gideon

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity continues to be one of the major threats to human survival in many regions worldwide, such as Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the State of California in the US. Due to a mixture of factors such as population growth, reduction in water resources availability and higher demand for high quality waters in these regions these countries face water shortage issues that stem from overuse, extensive extraction of groundwater, and frequent drought events. In addition, there are increases in environmental and health awareness that have led to intensive efforts in the treatment and reuse of nonconventional water sources, mainly wastewater and greywater. One approach to water shortages issues is to use wastewater as means to close the gap between supply and demand. However, the need to treat wastewater and to disinfect it forces additional economic burden on the users, primarily for agricultural irrigation. A possible solution might be to use the soil as a sorbent for the contained pathogens. Under sub-surface drip irrigation, not allowing the wastewater to reach the soil surface, the pathogens will remain in the soil. It was as well shown in field experiments that the opening size of roots will not allow pathogens to penetrate into the plants. Additional advantages such as water saving, protection of the pipe systems and others are also important. Field experiments in commercial fields just emphasize the main advantages of sub-surface drip irrigation.

  9. Observations of flow path interactions with surface structures during initial soil development stage using irrigation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Steffen; Biemelt, Detlef; Badorreck, Annika; Gerke, Horst H.

    2010-05-01

    Structures and processes are dynamically linked especially during initial stages of soil and ecosystem development. Here we assume that soil pore structures and micro topography determine the flow paths and water fluxes as well as further structure changes. Reports about flow path developments at the soil surface are still limited because of an insufficient knowledge of the changing micro topography at the surface. The objective of this presentation is to evaluate methods for parameterisation of surface micro topography for analysing interactions between infiltration and surface runoff. Complex irrigation experiments were carried out at an experimental site in the neighbourhood of the artificially created water catchment "Chicken Creek". The irrigation rates between 160 mm/h and 250 mm/h were held constant over a time period of 20 minutes. The incoming intensities were measured as well as the raindrop-velocity and -size distributions. The surface runoff was continuously registered, soil samples were taken, and soil water potential heads were monitored using tensiometers. Surface and subsurface flow paths were identified using different tracers. The soil surface structures were recorded using a high resolution digital camera before, during, and after irrigation. Micro topography was surveyed using close-range photogrammetry. With this experimental design both, flow paths on the surface and in the soil as well as structure and texture changes could be observed simultaneously. In 2D vertical cross-sections, the effect of initial sediment deposition structure on infiltration and runoff was observed. Image analysis of surface pictures allowed identifying structural and soil textural changes during the runoff process. Similar structural changes related to surface flow paths were found with the photogrammetric surface analysis. We found evidence for the importance of the initial structures on the flow paths as well as a significant influence of the system development

  10. Irrigation management using an expert system, soil water potentials, and vegetative indices for spatial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems are irrigation systems that are capable of applying different water depths both in the direction of travel and along the length of the irrigation system. However, when compared to traditional irrigation systems, VRI systems require a higher level of management...

  11. Modeled effects of irrigation on surface climate in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhen; Xiong, Zhe; Tang, Qiuhong

    2017-08-01

    In Northwest China, water originates from the mountain area and is largely used for irrigation agriculture in the middle reaches. This study investigates the local and remote impact of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. An irrigation scheme was developed and incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Noah-MP land surface scheme (WRF/Noah-MP). The effects of irrigation is assessed by comparing the model simulations with and without consideration of irrigation (hereafter, IRRG and NATU simulations, respectively) for five growth seasons (May to September) from 2009 to 2013. As consequences of irrigation, daily mean temperature decreased by 1.7°C and humidity increased by 2.3 g kg-1 (corresponding to 38.5%) over irrigated area. The temperature and humidity of IRRG simulation matched well with the observations, whereas NATU simulation overestimated temperature and underestimated humidity over irrigated area. The effects on temperature and humidity are generally small outside the irrigated area. The cooling and wetting effects have opposing impacts on convective precipitation, resulting in a negligible change in localized precipitation over irrigated area. However, irrigation may induce water vapor convergence and enhance precipitation remotely in the southeastern portion of the Heihe River Basin.

  12. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: global simulation of processes and linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-07-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatiotemporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a process-based representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded world map of irrigation efficiencies that are calculated in direct linkage to differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with the lowest values (values (> 60 %) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2469 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1257 km3, of which 608 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e., lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76 %, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15 %, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for

  13. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-01-01

    Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has reve...

  14. Irrigation Induced Surface Cooling in the Context of Modern and Increased Greenhouse Gas Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Puma, Michael J.; Krakauer, Nir Y.

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that expected warming trends from increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing have been locally masked by irrigation induced cooling, and it is uncertain how the magnitude of this irrigation masking effect will change in the future. Using an irrigation dataset integrated into a global general circulation model, we investigate the equilibrium magnitude of irrigation induced cooling under modern (Year 2000) and increased (A1B Scenario, Year 2050) GHG forcing, using modern irrigation rates in both scenarios. For the modern scenario, the cooling is largest over North America, India, the Middle East, and East Asia. Under increased GHG forcing, this cooling effect largely disappears over North America, remains relatively unchanged over India, and intensifies over parts of China and the Middle East. For North America, irrigation significantly increases precipitation under modern GHG forcing; this precipitation enhancement largely disappears under A1B forcing, reducing total latent heat fluxes and the overall irrigation cooling effect. Over India, irrigation rates are high enough to keep pace with increased evaporative demand from the increased GHG forcing and the magnitude of the cooling is maintained. Over China, GHG forcing reduces precipitation and shifts the region to a drier evaporative regime, leading to a relatively increased impact of additional water from irrigation on the surface energy balance. Irrigation enhances precipitation in the Middle East under increased GHG forcing, increasing total latent heat fluxes and enhancing the irrigation cooling effect. Ultimately, the extent to which irrigation will continue to compensate for the warming from increased GHG forcing will primarily depend on changes in the background evaporative regime, secondary irrigation effects (e.g. clouds, precipitation), and the ability of societies to maintain (or increase) current irrigation rates.

  15. Projected energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L. D.; Hellickson, M. L.; Schmisseur, W. E.; Shearer, M. N.

    1978-10-01

    A computer model has been developed to predict present and future regional water, energy, labor, and capital requirements of irrigated agricultural production in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The energy requirements calculated were on-farm pumping, and total energies. Total energies are the combined energies of on-farm pumping, manufacture, and installation. Irrigation system selections and modifications were based on an economic analysis utilizing the following input parameters: water, energy, labor, and capital costs and requirements; groundwater and surface water pumping lifts; improved application efficiencies; and pumping plant efficiencies. Major conclusions and implications of this analysis indicate that: as water application efficiencies increases additional quantities of water will not become available to other users; an overall increase in water application efficiencies resulted in decreases in gross water applications and increases in overall on-farm pumping and total energy consumptions; more energy will be consumed as pumping and total energies than will be conserved through decreased diversion pumping energy requirements; pump-back and similar technologies have the potential of both increasing application efficiencies and energy conservation; and the interrelationships understood between applying water in quantities greater than required for crop consumptive use and leaching, and late season in-steam flow augmentation and/or aquifer recharge are not well understood, and sound policy decisions concerning agricultural use of water and energy cannot be made until these interrelationships are better understood.

  16. Performance assessment of the Gash Delta Spate Irrigation System, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebreamlak, Araya Z.; Tanakamaru, Haruya; Tada, Akio; Adam, Bashir M. Ahmed; Elamin, Khalid A. E.

    2018-02-01

    The Gash Delta Spate Irrigation System (GDSIS), located in eastern Sudan with a net command area of 100 000 ha (an area currently equipped with irrigation structures), was established in 1924. The land is irrigated every 3 years (3-year rotation) or every 2 years (2-year rotation) so that about 33 000 or 50 000 ha respectively can be cultivated annually. This study deals with assessing the performance of the 3- and 2-year rotation systems using the Monte Carlo simulation. Reliability, which is a measure of how frequently the irrigation water supply satisfies the demand, and vulnerability, which is a measure of the magnitude of failure, were selected as the performance criteria. Combinations of five levels of intake ratio and five levels of irrigation efficiency for the irrigation water supply of each rotation system were analysed. Historical annual flow data of the Gash River for 107 years were fit to several frequency distributions. The Weibull distribution was the best on the basis of the Akaike information criteria and was used for simulating the ensembles of annual river flow. The reliabilities and vulnerabilities of both rotation systems were evaluated at typical values of intake ratio and irrigation efficiency. The results show that (i) the 3-year rotation is more reliable in water supply than the 2-year rotation, (ii) the vulnerability of the 3-year rotation is lower than that of the 2-year rotation and (iii) therefore the 3-year rotation is preferable in the GDSIS. The sensitivities of reliability and vulnerability to changes in intake ratio and irrigation efficiency were also examined.

  17. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected

  18. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    southwestern U.S., requiring states, particularly California , to establish mandates for reductions in water usage . On April 1, 2015, Governor Brown...and mostly dry summer season) in southern California , it is not a cost effective method to reduce potable water usage for landscape irrigation...mean time between failures MTTF mean time to failure MWDSC Metropolitan Water District of Southern California NAVFAC EXWC Naval Facilities

  19. Assessing irrigated agriculture's surface water and groundwater consumption by combining satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L; Mainuddin, Mohammed; Kirby, John M; Chiew, Francis H S; McVicar, Tim R; Vaze, Jai

    2016-01-15

    Globally, irrigation accounts for more than two thirds of freshwater demand. Recent regional and global assessments indicate that groundwater extraction (GWE) for irrigation has increased more rapidly than surface water extraction (SWE), potentially resulting in groundwater depletion. Irrigated agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions is usually from a combination of stored surface water and groundwater. This paper assesses the usefulness of remotely-sensed (RS) derived information on both irrigation dynamics and rates of actual evapotranspiration which are both input to a river-reach water balance model in order to quantify irrigation water use and water provenance (either surface water or groundwater). The assessment is implemented for the water-years 2004/05-2010/11 in five reaches of the Murray-Darling Basin (Australia); a heavily regulated basin with large irrigated areas and periodic droughts and floods. Irrigated area and water use are identified each water-year (from July to June) through a Random Forest model which uses RS vegetation phenology and actual evapotranspiration as predicting variables. Both irrigated areas and actual evapotranspiration from irrigated areas were compared against published estimates of irrigated areas and total water extraction (SWE+GWE).The river-reach model determines the irrigated area that can be serviced with stored surface water (SWE), and the remainder area (as determined by the Random Forest Model) is assumed to be supplemented by groundwater (GWE). Model results were evaluated against observed SWE and GWE. The modelled SWE generally captures the observed interannual patterns and to some extent the magnitudes, with Pearson's correlation coefficients >0.8 and normalised root-mean-square-error<30%. In terms of magnitude, the results were as accurate as or better than those of more traditional (i.e., using areas that fluctuate based on water resource availability and prescribed crop factors) irrigation modelling. The RS

  20. Comparison of sealer penetration using the EndoVac irrigation system and conventional needle root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Tuncer, Aysun; Unal, Bayram

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the EndoVac irrigation system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and conventional endodontic needle irrigation on sealer penetration into dentinal tubules. Forty single-rooted, recently extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the irrigation technique used: conventional endodontic needle irrigation and EndoVac irrigation. All teeth were instrumented using the ProFile rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) labeled with fluorescent dye. Transverse sections at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the root apex were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The total percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were then measured. Mann-Whitney test results showed that EndoVac irrigation resulted in a significantly higher percentage of sealer penetration than conventional irrigation at both the 1- and 3-mm levels (P irrigation system significantly improved the sealer penetration at the 1- to 3-mm level over that of conventional endodontic needle irrigation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulated optimization of crop yield through irrigation system design and operation based on the spatial variability of soil hydrodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurovich, L.; Stern, J.; Ramos, R.

    1983-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation and kriging techniques were applied to soil infiltrability data from a 20 hectare field, to separate homogeneous irrigation units. Border irrigation systems were designed for each unit and combinations of units by using DESIGN, a computer model based on soil infiltrability and hydraulics of surface water flow, which enables optimal irrigation systems to be designed. Water depths effectively infiltrated at different points along the irrigation run were determined, and the agronomic irrigation efficiency of the unit evaluated. A modification of Hanks' evapotranspiration model, PLANTGRO, was used to evaluate plant growth, relative crop yield and soil-water economy throughout the growing season, at several points along each irrigation unit. The effect of different irrigation designs on total field yield and total water used for irrigation was evaluated by integrating yield values corresponding to each point, volume and inflow time during each irrigation. For relevant data from winter wheat grown in the central area of Chile during 1981, simulation by an interactive and sequentially recurrent use of DESIGN and PLANTGRO models, was carried out. The results obtained indicate that, when a field is separated into homogeneous irrigation units on the basis of the spatial variability of soil infiltrability and the border irrigation systems are designed according to soil characteristics, both a significant yield increase and less water use can be obtained by comparison with other criteria of field zonification for irrigation management. The use of neutrometric determinations to assess soil-water content during the growing season, as a validation of the results obtained in this work, is discussed. (author)

  2. Comparison of positive-pressure, passive ultrasonic, and laser-activated irrigations on smear-layer removal from the root canal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar-Helft, Sharonit; Sarp, Ayşe Sena Kabaş; Stabholtz, Adam; Gutkin, Vitaly; Redenski, Idan; Steinberg, Doron

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three irrigation techniques for smear-layer removal with 17% EDTA. Cleaning and shaping the root canal system during endodontic treatment produces a smear layer and hard tissue debris. Three irrigation techniques were tested for solution infiltration of this layer: positive-pressure irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, and laser-activated irrigation. Sixty extracted teeth were divided into six equal groups; 17% EDTA was used for 60 sec irrigation of five of the groups. The groups were as follows: Group 1, treated only with ProTaper™ F3 Ni-Ti files; Group 2, positive-pressure irrigation, with a syringe; Group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; Group 4, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root; Group 5, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; and Group 6, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the smear layer is removed most efficiently using laser-activated irrigation at low energy with 17% EDTA, inserted either at the working length or only in the coronal upper third of the root. Amounts of Ca, P, and O were not significantly different on all treated dentin surfaces. Smear-layer removal was most effective when the root canals were irrigated using Er:YAG laser at low energy with 17% EDTA solution. Interestingly, removal of the smear layer along the entire canal was similar when the laser was inserted in the upper coronal third and at 1 mm short of the working length of the root canal. This effect was not observed with the ultrasonic and positive-pressure techniques.

  3. Irrigation System through Intelligent Agents Implemented with Arduino Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo SALAZAR

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The water has become in recent years a valuable and increasingly scarce. Its proper use in agriculture has demanded incorporate new technologies, mainly in the area of ICT. In this paper we present a smart irrigation system based on multi-agent architecture using fuzzy logic. The architecture incorporates different types of intelligent agents that an autonomous way monitor and are responsible for deciding if required enable / disable the irrigation system. This project proposes a real and innovative solution to the problem of inadequate water use with current irrigation systems employed in agricultural projects. This article presents the different technologies used, their adaptation to the solution of the problem and briefly discusses the first results obtained.

  4. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrutia Cobo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands

  5. Ring Irrigation System (RIS design through customer preference representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Infandra I.Z.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural field, irrigation is one of the most interesting considerations affecting the rate of plant growth and development. Micro-irrigation as the dripping or sprinkle method is one of the irrigation types that applies the small amount of water for fulfilling the humidity requirement. The most important factors affecting the demand of water for plants are soil conditions and effect of climatic factors. With less human labour required, to improve the irrigation method from the recent days, analyzing water used or water permeation automatically through the soil moisture has been raised as the interesting topic. Proposed in this research is the ring irrigation system (RIS which is introduced as an alternative channel for emitters that drip water directly onto the soil at the plant’s root zone where the soil conditions before and after watering can be quickly detected by the sensors. This RIS can be used for the potted plant, green house, or other small farm fields. Product design and development (PDD is applied in this research for assisting the designer to understand and create the RIS prototype properly according to the customer’s requirements where the suggested functions obtained will be added and tested.

  6. Effect of Different Irrigation Water Regime on Cucumber Yield and Water Use under Sprinkler System

    OpenAIRE

    Adeogun, E. O

    2017-01-01

    A research study was conducted on irrigation research field in National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization, NCAM, Ilorin, Nigeria to determine the effect of different irrigation water regime on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) yield, water use efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency. Cucumber grown under field condition using sprinkler irrigation system on an irrigation research field showed good production responses. Yield of cucumber was reasonably appreciable when the crop was admin...

  7. Impact of Soil Resistance to Penetration in the Irrigation Interval of Supplementary Irrigation Systems at the Humid Pampa, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández J., P.; Befani M., R.; Boschetti N., G.; Quintero C., E.; Díaz E., L.; Lado, M.; Paz-González, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Avellaneda District, located in northeastern of Santa Fe Province, Argentina, has an average annual rainfall of 1250 mm per year, but with a high variability in their seasonal distribution. Generally, the occurrence of precipitation in winter is low, while summer droughts are frequent. The yearly hydrological cycle shows a water deficit, given that the annual potential evapotranspiration is estimated at 1330 mm. Field crops such as soybean, corn, sunflower and cotton, which are affected by water stress during their critical growth periods, are dominant in this area. Therefore, a supplemental irrigation project has been developed in order to identify workable solutions. This project pumps water from Paraná River to provide a water supply to the target area under irrigation. A pressurized irrigation system operating on demand provides water to a network of channels, which in turn deliver water to farms. The scheduled surface of irrigation is 8800 hectares. The maximum flow rate was designed to be 8.25 m3/second. The soils have been classified as Aquic Argiudolls in areas of very gentle slopes, and Vertic Argiudolls in flat and concave reliefs; neither salinity nor excess sodium affect the soils of the study are. The objective of this study was to provide a quantitative data set to manage the irrigation project, through the determination of available water (AW), easily available water (EAw) and optimal water range (or interval) of the soil horizons. The study has been conducted in a text area of 1500 hectares in surface. Five soil profiles were sampled to determine physical properties (structure stability, effective root depth, infiltration, bulk density, penetration resistance and water holding capacity), chemical properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, salinity, and sodium content ) and morphological characteristics of the successive horizons. Also several environmental characteristics were evaluated, including: climate, topographic

  8. Spray-irrigation system attached to high-speed drills for simultaneous prevention of local heating and preservation of a clear operative field in spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Manabu; Morris, Shayne; Goto, Tetsu; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2010-01-01

    Heat generation due to drilling during spinal surgery is potentially hazardous to nerves. Saline irrigation is often performed to prevent such local heating, but sometimes floods and obscures the operative field. We have developed a spray-irrigation system for attachment to high-speed drills, which sprays saline solution with an air-jet in the direction of the surface cut by the drill. We anticipated that this air jet would create a clearer operative view by displacing excess fluid, and would also provide an added cooling effect greater than that of irrigation with saline. This study was designed to evaluate these predicted effects of the spray-irrigation system compared to conventional irrigation. A thermography study was performed to confirm the cooling effect of the spray-irrigation system. A plaster board coated with adhesives was drilled at 100,000 rpm along a 10-cm line for a duration of 20 seconds. Thermograms were recorded every minute, without cooling, with irrigation, and with the spray-irrigation system. To examine the operative views, continuous drilling for a period of seconds was performed with conventional irrigation and with the spray-irrigation system. Local heating was inhibited by the spray-irrigation system to 14-30% of that with irrigation. A clear operative field was maintained during continuous drilling using the spray-irrigation system through the air-jet action of the system. The spray-irrigation system can simultaneously provide effective cooling and a clear operative field during surgical manipulations with high-speed drills.

  9. Control of soil moisture with radio frequency in a photovoltaic-powered drip irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Mahir; ÖZDEN, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Solar-powered irrigation systems are becoming increasingly widespread. However, the initial setup costs of these systems are very high. To reduce these costs, both the energy usage and the prevention of losses from irrigation systems are very important. In this study, a drip irrigation control system of 1000 dwarf cherry trees was controlled using soil moisture sensors in order to prevent excessive water consumption and energy losses in a solar-powered irrigation system. The control sys...

  10. Influence of big power motors for irrigation of electric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Gialuca, V.; Trombetta, O.R.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of rural electrification in CPFL - Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the influence of big power motors installation for irrigation in electric system are shown. Considerations about rural market, energy consumption, planning of distribution and transmission line and some calculations are also presented. (author)

  11. performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at mambilla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEM AT MAMBILLA. BEVERAGE LIMITED, KAKARA-GEMBU, TARABA STATE-NIGERIA. F. G. Ngasoh1 C. C. Anyadike2, *, C. C. Mbajiorgu3 and M. N. Usman4. 1, 2, 3, 4 DEPT. OF AGRICULTURAL & BIORESOURCES ENGINEERING, UNIV. OF NIGERIA ...

  12. Transformations accompanying a shift from surface to drip irrigation in the Cànyoles Watershed, Valencia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sese-Minguez, Saioa; Boesveld, Harm; Asins-Velis, Sabina; Kooij, van der Saskia; Maroulis, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is widely promoted in Spain to increase agricultural production and to save water. In the Cànyoles watershed, Valencia, we analysed the consequences of change from surface irrigation to drip irrigation over the past 25 years. There were a number of transformations resulting from,

  13. Simulation and management of on-demand irrigation systems: a combined agrohydrological and remote sensing approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urso, D' G.

    2001-01-01

    Rational use of water resources in agriculture requires improvements in the efficiency of irrigation. Many irrigation systems, particularly in Mediterranean regions, have been enhanced by replacing open channel conveyance systems with pressurised pipelines. This allows to provide water

  14. Comparison of two negative pressure systems and syringe irrigation for root canal irrigation: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Fretes, V R; Ortiz, C P; Mereles, R; Sosa, V; Yubero, M F; Escobar, P M; Heilborn, C

    2016-02-01

    To compare in a laboratory study two negative pressure systems and syringe irrigation, regarding the delivery of a contrast solution (CS) to working length (WL) and into simulated lateral canals and the effective volume of irrigant aspirated during negative pressure irrigation. Twenty single-canaled incisor training models were constructed with six simulated lateral canals each (2, 4 and 6 mm to WL) and a size 40, 0.04 taper apical size canal. Each model underwent all irrigation procedures (EndoVac at WL (EndoVac-0) and WL-2 mm (EndoVac-2), iNP needle with negative pressure (iNPn) and syringe irrigation with the iNP needle (iNPs) and a 30-G side-slot needle placed at WL (SI0) and WL-2 (SI2) mm in a crossover design. CS was delivered at 4 mL min(-1) for 60 s with a peristaltic pump and a recovery device collected the volume (in mL) of irrigant suctioned by the negative pressure groups. The irrigation procedures were digitally recorded, and a still image of the 60-s time-point of irrigation was evaluated for CS distance to WL (in millimetres) after irrigation and penetration into lateral canals (3-point scale). Statistical tests used were Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test. EndoVac-0, iNPn and iNPs had median distances of CS to WL of 0 mm, followed by SI0 (0.2 mm), SI2 (0.7 mm) and EndoVac-2 (1.7 mm). There were no significant differences between EndoVac-0, iNPn, iNPs and SI0, but these were significantly different to SI2 and EndoVac-2 (P irrigation and that collected by iNPn (4 mL), but these were significantly greater than EndoVac-0 (2.8 mL, P irrigation procedures were ineffective at penetration into lateral canals. iNPn, EndoVac-0, iNPs and SI0 achieved greater irrigant penetration to WL. iNPn was able to collect a median volume of CS (4 mL) similar to that delivered by syringe irrigation (iNPp, SI0 and SI2). An adequate irrigant penetration into lateral canals could not be achieved by any of the systems. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John

  15. Phosphorus distribution in sandy soil profile under drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gendy, R.W.; Rizk, M.A.; Abd El Moniem, M.; Abdel-Aziz, H.A.; Fahmi, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at to studying the impact of irrigation water applied using drip irrigation system in sandy soil with snap bean on phosphorus distribution. This experiment was carried out in soils and water research department farm, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority, cairo, Egypt. Snap bean was cultivated in sandy soil and irrigated with 50,37.5 and 25 cm water in three water treatments represented 100, 75 and 50% ETc. Phosphorus distribution and direction of soil water movement had been detected in three sites on the dripper line (S1,S2 and S3 at 0,12.5 and 25 cm distance from dripper). Phosphorus fertilizer (super phosphate, 15.5% P 2 O 5 in rate 300 kg/fed)was added before cultivation. Neutron probe was used to detect the water distribution and movement at the three site along soil profile. Soil samples were collected before p-addition, at end developing, mid, and late growth stages to determine residual available phosphorus. The obtained data showed that using 50 cm water for irrigation caused an increase in P-concentration till 75 cm depth in the three sites of 100% etc treatment, and covered P-requirements of snap bean for all growth stages. As for 37.5 and 25 cm irrigation water cannot cover all growth stages for P-requirements of snap bean. It could be concluded that applied irrigation water could drive the residual P-levels till 75 cm depth in the three sites. Yield of the crop had been taken as an indicator as an indicator profile. Yield showed good response according to water quantities and P-transportation within the soil profile

  16. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management (SAFIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, L.; Kloppmann, W.; Battilani, A.; Bertaki, M.; Blagojevic, S.; Chartzoulakis, K.; Dalsgaard, A.; Forslund, A.; Jovanovic, Z.; Kasapakis, I.

    2009-04-01

    The safe use of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation needs to address the risks for humans (workers, exposed via contact with irrigation water, soil, crops and food, consumers, exposed via ingestion of fresh and processed food), for animals (via ingestion of crops an soil), for the crops and agricultural productivity (via salinity and trace element uptake), for soil (via accumulation or release of pollutants) as well as for surface, groundwaters and the associated ecosystems (via runoff and infiltration, Kass et al., 2005, Bouwer, 2000). A work package in the EU FP5 project SAFIR is dedicated to study the impact of wastewater irrigation on the soil-water-plant-product system. Its monitoring program comprises pathogens and inorganic pollutants, including both geogenic and potentially anthropogenic trace elements in the aim to better understand soil-irrigation water interactions. The SAFIR field study sites are found in China, Italy, Crete, and Serbia. A performance evaluation of SAFIR-specific treatment technology through the monitoring of waste water and irrigation water quality was made through waste water chemical and microbiological qualities, which were investigated upstream and downstream of the SAFIR specific treatment three times per season. Irrigation water transits through the uppermost soil decimetres to the crop roots. The latter will become, in the course of the irrigation season, the major sink of percolating water, together with evaporation. The water saving irrigation techniques used in SAFIR are surface and subsurface drip irrigation. The investigation of the solid soil phase concentrates on the root zone as main transit and storage compartment for pollutants and, eventually, pathogens. The initial soil quality was assessed through a sampling campaign before the onset of the first year irrigation; the soil quality has been monitored throughout three years under cultivation of tomatoes or potatoes. The plot layout for each of the study sites

  17. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  18. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  19. Modeling Change in Watershed Streamflow, Groundwater Recharge and Surface Water - Groundwater Interactions Due to Irrigation and Associated Diversions and Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, H.; Caldwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of irrigation and associated surface water (SW) diversions and groundwater (GW) pumping on instream flows, groundwater recharge and SW-GW interactions are being examined using a watershed-scale coupled SW-GW flow model. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model GSFLOW (Markstrom et al., 2008), an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW), is being utilized for this effort. Processes represented in this model include daily rain, snowfall, snowmelt, streamflow, surface runoff, interflow, infiltration, soil-zone evapotranspiration, and subsurface unsaturated and groundwater flow and evapotranspiration. The Upper Smith River watershed, an important agricultural and recreational area in west-central Montana, is being used as the basis for watershed climate, topography, hydrography, vegetation, soil properties as well as scenarios of irrigation and associated practices. The 640 square kilometer watershed area has been discretized into coincident 200 m by 200 m hydrologic response units (for climate and soil zone flow processes) and grid blocks (for unsaturated zone and GW flow processes). The subsurface GW system is discretized into 6 layers representing Quaternary alluvium, Tertiary sediments and bedrock. The model is being used to recreate natural, pre-development streamflows and GW conditions in the watershed. The results of this simulation are then compared to a simulation with flood and sprinkler irrigation supplied by SW diversion and GW pumping to examine the magnitude and timing of changes in streamflow, groundwater recharge and SW-GW interactions. Model results reproduce observed hydrologic responses to both natural climate variability and irrigation practices. Periodic irrigation creates increased evapotranspiration and GW recharge in cultivated areas of the watershed as well as SW-GW interactions that are more dynamic than under natural conditions.

  20. Spray Irrigation Effects on Surface-Layer Stability in an Experimental Citrus Orchard during Winter Freezes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.; Martsolf, J. David

    1997-02-01

    Observations taken by two surface radiation and energy budget stations deployed in the University of Florida/Institute for Food and Agricultural Service experimental citrus orchard in Gainesville, Florida, have been analyzed to identify the effects of sprayer irrigation on thermal stability and circulation processes within the orchard during three 1992 winter freeze episodes. Lapse rates of temperature observed from a micrometeorological tower near the center of the orchard were also recorded during periods of irrigation for incorporation into the analysis. Comparisons of the near-surface temperature lapse rates observed with the two energy budget stations show consistency between the two sites and with the tower-based lapse rates taken over a vertical layer from 1.5 to 15 m above ground level. A theoretical framework was developed that demonstrates that turbulent-scale processes originating within the canopy, driven by latent heat release associated with condensation and freezing processes from water vapor and liquid water released from sprayer nozzles, can destabilize lapse rates and promote warm air mixing above the orchard canopy. The orchard data were then analyzed in the context of the theory for evidence of local overturning and displacement of surface-layer air, with warmer air from aloft driven by locally buoyant plumes generated by water vapor injected into the orchard during the irrigation periods. It was found that surface-layer lapse rates were lower during irrigation periods than under similar conditions when irrigation was not occurring, indicating a greater degree of vertical mixing of surface-layer air with air from above treetops, as a result of local convective overturning induced by the condensation heating of water vapor released at the nozzles of the sprinklers. This provides an additional explanation to the well-accepted heat of fusion release effect, of how undertree irrigation of a citrus orchard during a freeze period helps protect crops

  1. Integrating Satellite and Surface Sensor Networks for Irrigation Management Applications in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Johnson, L.; Post, K. M.; Guzman, A.; Zaragoza, I.; Spellenberg, R.; Rosevelt, C.; Michaelis, A.; Nemani, R. R.; Cahn, M.; Frame, K.; Temesgen, B.; Eching, S.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite mapping of evapotranspiration (ET) from irrigated agricultural lands can provide agricultural producers and water managers with information that can be used to optimize agricultural water use, especially in regions with limited water supplies. The timely delivery of information on agricultural crop water requirements has the potential to make irrigation scheduling more practical, convenient, and accurate. We present a system for irrigation scheduling and management support in California and describe lessons learned from the development and implementation of the system. The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) framework integrates satellite data with information from agricultural weather networks to map crop canopy development, basal crop coefficients (Kcb), and basal crop evapotranspiration (ETcb) at the scale of individual fields. Information is distributed to agricultural producers and water managers via a web-based irrigation management decision support system and web data services. SIMS also provides an application programming interface (API) that facilitates integration with other irrigation decision support tools, estimation of total crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and calculation of on-farm water use efficiency metrics. Accuracy assessments conducted in commercial fields for more than a dozen crop types to date have shown that SIMS seasonal ETcb estimates are within 10% mean absolute error (MAE) for well-watered crops and within 15% across all crop types studied, and closely track daily ETc and running totals of ETc measured in each field. Use of a soil water balance model to correct for soil evaporation and crop water stress reduces this error to less than 8% MAE across all crop types studied to date relative to field measurements of ETc. Results from irrigation trials conducted by the project for four vegetable crops have also demonstrated the potential for use of ET-based irrigation management strategies to reduce total applied water by

  2. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Irrigation Water: A Case of Tank Irrigation Systems in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Chandrasekaran

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic value of tank irrigation water was determined through Contingency Valuation Method by analyzing farmers’ willingness to pay for irrigation water under improved water supply conditions during wet and dry seasons of paddy cultivation. Quadratic production function was also used to determine the value of irrigation water. The comparison of the economic value of water estimated using different methods strongly suggests that the present water use pattern will not lead to sustainable use of the resource in the tank command areas. Policy options for sustainable use of irrigation water and management of tanks in India were suggested.

  3. Web/smart phone based control and feedback systems for irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the internet and mobile devices in the control and feedback of irrigation systems is reviewed. This role is placed in the larger context of four distinct components required for irrigation management, including 1. the control panel; 2. remote control; 3. soil, plant, and weather (SPW) se...

  4. Drip and Surface Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of Tomato Crop Using Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellouli, H.J.; Askri, H.; Mougou, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nations in the arid and semi-arid regions, especially the Arab countries, will have to take up an important challenge at the beginning of the 21 st century: increasing food production in order to realise food security for growing population, wile optimising the use of limited water resources. Using and adapting management techniques like the drip irrigation system could obtain the later. This would allow reduction in water losses by bare soil evaporation and deep percolation. Consequently improved water use efficiency could be realised. In this way, this work was conducted as a contribution on the Tunisian national programs on the optimisation of the water use. By mean a field study at Cherfech Experimental Station (30 km from Tunis), the effect of the irrigation system on the water use efficiency (WUE)-by a season tomato crop-was monitored by comparing three treatments receiving equivalent quantities of fertiliser: Fertigation, Drip irrigation and Furrow irrigation. Irrigation was scheduled by mean calculation of the water requirement based on the agro meteorological data, the plant physiological stage and the soil water characteristics (Clay Loam). The plant water consumption (ETR) was determined by using soil water balance method, where rainfall and amount of irrigation water readily measured

  5. Decision Support system- DSS- for irrigation management in greenhouses: a case study in Campania Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Eugenia; De Mascellis, Roberto; Riccardi, Maria; Basile, Angelo; D'Urso, Guido; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Tedeschi, Anna

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean Countries the proper management of water resources is important for the preservation of actual production systems. The possibility to manage water resources is possible especially in the greenhouses systems. The challenge to manage the soil in greenhouse farm can be a strategy to maintain both current production systems both soil conservation. In Campania region protected crops (greenhouses and tunnels) have a considerable economic importance both for their extension in terms of surface harvested and also for their production in terms of yields. Agricultural production in greenhouse is closely related to the micro-climatic condition but also to the physical and agronomic characteristics of the soil-crop system. The protected crops have an high level of technology compare to the other production systems, but the irrigation management is still carried out according to empirical criteria. The rational management of the production process requires an appropriate control of climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, wind) and agronomical inputs (irrigation, fertilization,). All these factors need to be monitored as well is possible, in order to identify the optimal irrigation schedule. The aim of this work is to implement a Decision Support system -DSS- for irrigation management in greenhouses focused on a smart irrigation control based on observation of the agro-climatic parameters monitored with an advanced wireless sensors network. The study is conducted in a greenhouse farm of 6 ha located in the district of Salerno were seven plots were cropped with rocket. Preliminary a study of soils proprieties was conducted in order to identify spatial variability of the soil in the farm. So undisturbed soil samples were collected to define chemical and physical proprieties; moreover soil hydraulic properties were determined for two soils profiles deemed representation of the farm. Then the wireless sensors, installed at different depth in the soils

  6. Energy use and economical analysis of seedy watermelon production for different irrigation systems in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholla Moradi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource and energy use efficiency is one of the principal requirements of eco-efficient and sustainable agriculture. Seedy watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris; Joboni population is irrigated by two methods including full and reduced irrigation systems in Iran. The objective of the present study was to compare seedy watermelon production in full (high input and reduced (low input irrigation systems in terms of irrigation water energy use efficiency (IWEUE, energy budget and economic analysis. Data were collected from 116 full irrigated and 93 reduced irrigated farms in northeast of Iran by using a face-to-face questionnaire in 2011–2012. The results showed that the total energy consumed under high input systems was 25625.94 MJ ha−1, whereas under low input was 3129.3 MJ ha−1. IWEUE and all of the energy indexes were improved in the reduced irrigation system compared to the full condition. The direct and renewable energies in the reduced irrigation system were higher than full irrigation. The economical analysis indicated that higher return was gained by the full irrigation system due to higher yield compared to the reduced irrigation system. Human labor had the highest impact on seedy watermelon among the other inputs based on the Cobb–Douglas production function.

  7. Pedoarchaeology of Early Agricultural Period Irrigation Systems in the Tucson Basin of the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburg, Jeffrey; Nials, Fred

    2017-04-01

    Pedoarchaeological studies were conducted at the Las Capas and Sunset Road sites in the Tucson Basin of Arizona in order to document and evaluate soil productivity and hydraulic soil properties of ancient agricultural irrigation systems. These ancient irrigated fields are on the margin of the Santa Cruz River floodplain, between two alluvial fans where high water tables and stable to aggrading geomorphic conditions facilitated diverting water from drainages and directing it to fields by gravity-fed canal irrigation. Archaeological investigations at these sites recently provided opportunities for documenting the configuration and evolution of the oldest irrigation systems yet identified in the United States, the earliest dating to more than three millennia in age. This research is significant archaeologically because of: (1) the antiquity ( 575-1225 B.C.) of the Early Agricultural period irrigation systems at these sites, (2) the fact that irrigation systems dated to different times are separated stratigraphically within the sites, and (3) the fact that extensive, well-preserved gridded irrigation features were identified using mechanical stripping, with nearly 100 ancient footprints preserved on a buried agricultural surface at Sunset Road. The stratigraphic separation of buried surfaces that were irrigated and the abundant cultivated irrigation plots facilitated soil sampling so that field, border, and uncultivated control samples could be compared in order to measure the anthropogenic effects of agriculture on soil quality in the irragric soils. Long-term indicators of agricultural soil quality such as organic carbon, nutrient content, and hydraulic soil water properties such as available water capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, indicate that soil changes were generally favorable for agricultural production and that these ancient irrigation systems were sustainable. Canals regularly supplied water to the fields, but they also supplied nutrient

  8. Wastewater retreatment and reuse system for agricultural irrigation in rural villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Minkyeong; Kang, Donghyeon; Kim, Dongeok; Kim, YoungJin; Lee, Sangbong

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes and continuous population growth increase water demands that will not be met by traditional water resources, like surface and ground water. To handle increased water demand, treated municipal wastewater is offered to farmers for agricultural irrigation. This study aimed to enhance the effluent quality from worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages, retreat effluent to meet water quality criteria for irrigation, and assess any health-related and environmental impacts from using retreated wastewater irrigation on crops and in soil. We developed the compact wastewater retreatment and reuse system (WRRS), equipped with filters, ultraviolet light, and bubble elements. A pilot greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate lettuce growth patterns and quantify the heavy metal concentration and pathogenic microorganisms on lettuce and in soil after irrigating with tap water, treated wastewater, and WRRS retreated wastewater. The purification performance of each WRRS component was also assessed. The study findings revealed that existing worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages could meet the water quality criteria for treated effluent and also reuse retreated wastewater for crop growth and other miscellaneous agricultural purposes.

  9. Advanced Monitoring and Management Systems for Improving Sustainability in Precision Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olutobi Adeyemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the irrigation of crops is the largest consumptive user of fresh water. Water scarcity is increasing worldwide, resulting in tighter regulation of its use for agriculture. This necessitates the development of irrigation practices that are more efficient in the use of water but do not compromise crop quality and yield. Precision irrigation already achieves this goal, in part. The goal of precision irrigation is to accurately supply the crop water need in a timely manner and as spatially uniformly as possible. However, to maximize the benefits of precision irrigation, additional technologies need to be enabled and incorporated into agriculture. This paper discusses how incorporating adaptive decision support systems into precision irrigation management will enable significant advances in increasing the efficiency of current irrigation approaches. From the literature review, it is found that precision irrigation can be applied in achieving the environmental goals related to sustainability. The demonstrated economic benefits of precision irrigation in field-scale crop production is however minimal. It is argued that a proper combination of soil, plant and weather sensors providing real-time data to an adaptive decision support system provides an innovative platform for improving sustainability in irrigated agriculture. The review also shows that adaptive decision support systems based on model predictive control are able to adequately account for the time-varying nature of the soil–plant–atmosphere system while considering operational limitations and agronomic objectives in arriving at optimal irrigation decisions. It is concluded that significant improvements in crop yield and water savings can be achieved by incorporating model predictive control into precision irrigation decision support tools. Further improvements in water savings can also be realized by including deficit irrigation as part of the overall irrigation management

  10. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel

    2014-11-17

    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  11. Surface irrigation reduces the emission of volatile 1,3-dichloropropene from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, D J; Yates, S R

    2007-04-01

    Low-cost, practicable techniques are required to limit the release of volatile organic compound-containing fumigants such as 1,3-D to the atmosphere. In this study, we aimed to quantify 1,3-D diffusion and emission from laboratory soil columns maintained under realistic conditions and thereby assess the efficacy of soil irrigation as a technique for reducing emissions. In two soils (one relatively high, and one relatively low, in organic matter), irrigation led to a limiting of upward diffusion of the fumigant and to the maintenance of higher soil gas concentrations. Therefore, rather than being emitted from the column, the 1,3-D was maintained in the soil where it was ultimately degraded. As a consequence, emission of 1,3-D from the irrigated columns was around half of thatfrom the nonirrigated columns. It is concluded that surface irrigation represents an effective, low-cost, and readily practicable approach to lessening the environmental impact of 1,3-D fumigant use. In addition, the higher organic matter soil exhibited emissions of around one-fifth of the lower organic matter soil in both irrigated and nonirrigated treatments, due to markedly enhanced degradation of the fumigant. Organic matter amendment of soils may, therefore, also represent an extremely effective, relatively low-cost approach to reducing 1,3-D emissions.

  12. Go Grey - A Laundry to Landscape Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, S.

    2017-12-01

    California residents have dealt with severe drought and high water bills for the few past years[1]. The objective of our project is to use the concept of greywater irrigation to build a low cost, adaptable, and easy to install irrigation system to collect the greywater from the washing machine and use it to water the plants. This system can reduce a household's water usage, extend the life of a septic system, and save time on watering plants by recycling the water from the washing machine. Our simple system requires PVC pipes, a three-way water diverter (valve), a mesh coffee filter, and a water (rain) barrel. The water from the washing machine travels through the three-way valve, which diverts it either to the garden or to the sewer. The PVC pipes lead outside to the garden, where the water barrel is located. The water goes through the mesh coffee filter that is attached on top of the barrel, so that lint and other impurities can be filtered out. The water collected in the barrel will travel through drip irrigation or through a hose to directly water the roots of the plants. This fully functional greywater system was successfully constructed and tested through various trails. We used a Kenmore standard 4.5 cubic feet front load high efficiency washer which uses less water compared to the traditional washers and measured the water collected in water barrel after each wash. Irrespective of the size of the load, the amount of water collected from each wash remained almost the same.. However, we collected enough grey water from each washer load to fill the rain barrel and water the plants in the garden. We were able apply the concept of greywater irrigation successfully to build our own low cost, adaptable, and easy to install greywater system that can be used in any household to water plants in the garden. Our system recycles the water from the washer instead of just wasting it thereby reducing a household's water usage and water bill especially during the time of

  13. On the waterfront : water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a South Indian canal irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed harvests and famines in the past. A large scale irrigation system was constructed to solve these problems. The system is operational since 1953 and was completed in 1968. The area to be irrigated ...

  14. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, P.E.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Liu, J.; Yan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimization procedure for photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • An hourly simulation model is the basis of the optimization procedure. • The effectiveness of the new optimization approach has been tested to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availability of groundwater resources and the effect of water supply on crop yield, but also the investment cost of photovoltaic water pumping system and the revenue from crop sale. A simulation model, which combines the dynamics of photovoltaic water pumping system, groundwater level, water supply, crop water demand and crop yield, is employed during the optimization. To prove the effectiveness of the new optimization approach, it has been applied to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. Results show that the optimal configuration can guarantee continuous operations and lead to a substantial reduction of photovoltaic array size and consequently of the investment capital cost and the payback period. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of the prices of photovoltaic modules and forage on the optimization. Results show that the water resource is a determinant factor

  15. OVERFLOW DAMS ON SMOLL CHANNELS OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainov Mihail Petrovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article has data on potential designs of overflow structures made of soil rather than concrete. The most reliable and cheap ones are dykes made of sandbags. This viewpoint is substantiated by the operation of peatland irrigation systems, constructed in the Moscow region in 2011 — 2012. The construction of overflow sandbag dykes must have slope/riverbed protection structures to withstand their erosion by open and filtration flows of the downstream. Designs of overflow dykes having their downstream sides protected by geosynthetic coats, which are patented by other hydraulic engineers, have proven unreliable.

  16. Automatic aeroponic irrigation system based on Arduino’s platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, A. P.; Obando, F. A.; Morales, J. G.; Vargas, G.

    2017-06-01

    The recirculating hydroponic culture techniques, as aeroponics, has several advantages over traditional agriculture, aimed to improve the efficiently and environmental impact of agriculture. These techniques require continuous monitoring and automation for proper operation. In this work was developed an automatic monitored aeroponic-irrigation system based on the Arduino’s free software platform. Analog and digital sensors for measuring the temperature, flow and level of a nutrient solution in a real greenhouse were implemented. In addition, the pH and electric conductivity of nutritive solutions are monitored using the Arduino’s differential configuration. The sensor network, the acquisition and automation system are managed by two Arduinos modules in master-slave configuration, which communicate one each other wireless by Wi-Fi. Further, data are stored in micro SD memories and the information is loaded on a web page in real time. The developed device brings important agronomic information when is tested with an arugula culture (Eruca sativa Mill). The system also could be employ as an early warning system to prevent irrigation malfunctions.

  17. IMPROVING SUPERVISORY CONTROL WATER DISTRIBUTION OF IRRIGATION CANALS RECLAMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Aleksandrovich Tkachev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Examine issues of dispatching management of water distribution systems in the reclamation channels using a systematic approach. Materials and methods: Integrated automated control systems are actively developed implemented to manage water distribution in irrigation canals. It needs to take into account the dynamic processes of water flow while the automation of water distribution in open channel irrigation network system must. Imitating mathematical modeling of water distribution during transient driving mode is the process of studying the dynamic properties of these automated control systems on the basis of analytic solutions of differential equations in partial derivatives. Results: Algorithms and mathematical models in the form of a software package, which describes the behavior of object of control, while it’s depending on its condition, control actions and possible disturbances. The elements functional water distribution mathematical model constructed on the basis of control algorithms taking into account the work of the majority of water consumers “on demand”. Conclusion: Based on the simulation and field research there were presented recommendations on the calculation of the propagation time of the disturbance waves in open channels, regarding the selection and appointment of the optimum parameters of channels and structures on them, the lengths of the calculated areas, slope of the bottom of the distribution channels, pressures and quantities shutter opens on structures, the choice of cross-sections sections of the channels for the installation of control equipment at unsteady flow regime.

  18. Obstruction and uniformity in drip irrigation systems by applying treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of wastewater in agriculture is an alternative to control surface water pollution, and helps to promote the rational use of water. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the obstruction and uniformity of application of treated wastewater in drip irrigation systems. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. The treatments were composed by the factorial combination of two factors: three types of water (supply water-ABAST, effluent of a constructed wetland system -WETLAND and upflow of anaerobic reactor effluent followed by constructed wetland system -UASB + WETLAND, and two drip irrigation systems (surface and subsurface, set in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The results indicated that the pH, suspended solids, total iron and coliforms of the WETLAND and UASB + WETLAND treatments represented a severe risk of clogging of drippers; the flow of the emitters increased as the service pressure was increased; values of CUC and CUD in surface and subsurface drip were classified as excellent in ABAST and WETLAND treatments. The degree of clogging reduced as pressure under surface and subsurface drip was increased.

  19. Breaking the Vicious Cycle in Irrigation Farming System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a pilot investigation into irrigation activities and the need for a reform to attain food security in Nigeria. Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the. Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ilorin was chosen as epitome of irrigation projects in Nigeria. Structured questionnaire were administered on the 135 farmers ...

  20. The Application of Drip Irrigation System on Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Setyaningrum, Diah Ayu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the performance of drip irrigation systems, determine performance of tomato treated under the irrigation systems.Field research was conducted at the Laboratory of Land and Water Resources Engineering; and at the Laboratory ofintegrated field, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung in August 2013 to December 2013.Irrigation systems consisted of main componens: water supplies, Polythilene lateral tube, and emitters. Emitter on every pot, were made of Polythile...

  1. Simulating the Effects of Irrigation over the U.S. in a Land Surface Model Based on Satellite Derived Agricultural Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Mutlu; Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Toll, David L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel method is introduced for integrating satellite derived irrigation data and high-resolution crop type information into a land surface model (LSM). The objective is to improve the simulation of land surface states and fluxes through better representation of agricultural land use. Ultimately, this scheme could enable numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to capture land-atmosphere feedbacks in managed lands more accurately and thus improve forecast skill. Here we show that application of the new irrigation scheme over the continental US significantly influences the surface water and energy balances by modulating the partitioning of water between the surface and the atmosphere. In our experiment, irrigation caused a 12% increase in evapotranspiration (QLE) and an equivalent reduction in the sensible heat flux (QH) averaged over all irrigated areas in the continental US during the 2003 growing season. Local effects were more extreme: irrigation shifted more than 100 W/m from QH to QLE in many locations in California, eastern Idaho, southern Washington, and southern Colorado during peak crop growth. In these cases, the changes in ground heat flux (QG), net radiation (RNET), evapotranspiration (ET), runoff (R), and soil moisture (SM) were more than 3 W/m(sup 2), 20 W/m(sup 2), 5 mm/day, 0.3 mm/day, and 100 mm, respectively. These results are highly relevant to continental- to global-scale water and energy cycle studies that, to date, have struggled to quantify the effects of agricultural management practices such as irrigation. Based on the results presented here, we expect that better representation of managed lands will lead to improved weather and climate forecasting skill when the new irrigation scheme is incorporated into NWP models such as NOAA's Global Forecast System (GFS).

  2. An analysis of solar energy and irrigation systems in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senol, Ramazan

    2012-01-01

    Pumping water is considered a common need all around the world. Standalone PV technologies are being increasingly used for midsize pumping applications. PV powered pumping systems offer simplicity, reliability, and low maintenance for irrigation systems. PV powered pump is particularly appropriate for water supply in remote areas where no electricity grid is available. In this paper, the technical and economical feasibility of photovoltaic pumping of water in Turkey has been studied. Here, the study has focused on small and medium-size mobile applications using energy and water-conserving forms of drip irrigation to apple orchard on up to 0.5 ha of land in Eğirdir District. Life cycle cost (LCC) method has been applied to determine the economic life of the PV modules, and the diesel pumping in Turkey taken as 25 years. - Highlights: ► In this paper, a water pumping system with mobile PV power station examined. ► The technical and economical feasibility of photovoltaic pumping in Turkey was studied. ► Here the study focused on small and medium-size mobile applications. ► LCC method applied to determine the economic life of the PV modules, and the diesel pumping in Turkey.

  3. Spatio-temporal estimation of consumptive water use for assessment of irrigation system performance and management of water resources in irrigated Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M.; Liedl, R.; Awan, U. K.

    2015-06-01

    Reallocation of water resources in any irrigation scheme is only possible by detailed assessment of current irrigation performance. The performance of the Lower Chenab Canal (LCC) irrigation system in Pakistan was evaluated at large spatial and temporal scales. Evaporative Fraction (EF) representing the key element to assess the three very important performance indicators of equity, adequacy and reliability, was determined by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm (SEBAL) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Spatially based estimations were performed at irrigation subdivisions, lower and upper LCC and, whole LCC scales, while temporal scales covered months, seasons and years for the study period from 2005 to 2012. Differences in consumptive water use between upper and lower LCC were estimated for different crops and possible water saving options were explored. The assessment of equitable water distribution indicates smaller coefficients of variation and hence less inequity within each subdivision except Sagar (0.08) and Bhagat (0.10). Both adequacy and reliability of water resources are found lower during kharif as compared to rabi with variation from head to tail reaches. Reliability is quite low from July to September and in February/March. This is mainly attributed to seasonal rainfalls. Average consumptive water use estimations indicate almost doubled water use (546 mm) in kharif as compared to (274 mm) in rabi with significant variability for different cropping years. Crop specific consumptive water use reveals rice and sugarcane as major water consumers with average values of 593 mm and 580 mm, respectively, for upper and lower LCC, followed by cotton and kharif fodder. The water uses for cotton are 555 mm and 528 mm. For kharif fodder, corresponding values are 525 mm and 494 mm for both regions. Based on the differences in consumptive water use, different land use land cover change scenarios were evaluated with regard to savings

  4. Matching soil salinization and cropping systems in communally managed irrigation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malota, Mphatso; Mchenga, Joshua

    2018-03-01

    Occurrence of soil salinization in irrigation schemes can be a good indicator to introduce high salt tolerant crops in irrigation schemes. This study assessed the level of soil salinization in a communally managed 233 ha Nkhate irrigation scheme in the Lower Shire Valley region of Malawi. Soil samples were collected within the 0-0.4 m soil depth from eight randomly selected irrigation blocks. Irrigation water samples were also collected from five randomly selected locations along the Nkhate River which supplies irrigation water to the scheme. Salinity of both the soil and the irrigation water samples was determined using an electrical conductivity (EC) meter. Analysis of the results indicated that even for very low salinity tolerant crops (ECi irrigation water was suitable for irrigation purposes. However, root-zone soil salinity profiles depicted that leaching of salts was not adequate and that the leaching requirement for the scheme needs to be relooked and always be adhered to during irrigation operation. The study concluded that the crop system at the scheme needs to be adjusted to match with prevailing soil and irrigation water salinity levels.

  5. A comprehensive guide for designing more efficient irrigation systems with respect to application control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddam, Issam; Schuetze, Niels

    2017-04-01

    The worldwide water scarcity problems are expected to aggravate due to the increasing population and the need to produce more food. Irrigated agriculture is considered the highest consumer of fresh water resources with a rate exceeds 70% of global consumption. Consequently, an improvement in the efficiency of all irrigation methods, such as furrow or drip irrigation, becomes more necessary and urgent. Therefore, a more precise knowledge about soil water distribution in the root zone and the water balance components is required. For this purpose and as a part of the SAPHIR project (Saxonian Platform for high Performance Irrigation), a 2D simulation- based study was performed with virtual field conditions. The study investigates the most important design parameters of many irrigation systems, such as irrigation intensity and duration, and shows there influence on the water distribution efficiency. Furthermore, three main soil textures are used to test the impact of the soil hydraulic properties on irrigation effectiveness. A numerous number of irrigation scenarios of each irrigation system was simulated using HYDRUS 2D. Thereafter, the results were digitally calculated, compiled and made available online in the so called "Irrigation Atlases". The irrigation atlases provide graphical results of the soil moisture and pressure head distributions in the root zone. Moreover, they contain detailed information of the water balance for all simulated scenarios. The most studies evaluate the irrigation water demands on local, regional or global scales and for that an efficient water distribution is required. In this context, the irrigation atlases can serve as a valuable tool for the implementation of planned irrigation measures.

  6. Impacts of Irrigation on Daily Extremes in the Coupled Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Krakauer, Nir; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenka, Larissa; Kelly, Maxwell; Wada, Yoshihide

    2014-01-01

    Widespread irrigation alters regional climate through changes to the energy and water budgets of the land surface. Within general circulation models, simulation studies have revealed significant changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables. Here we investigate the feedbacks of irrigation with a focus on daily extremes at the global scale. We simulate global climate for the year 2000 with and without irrigation to understand irrigation-induced changes. Our simulations reveal shifts in key climate-extreme metrics. These findings indicate that land cover and land use change may be an important contributor to climate extremes both locally and in remote regions including the low-latitudes.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the amount of debris extruded apically using conventional syringe, passive ultrasonic irrigation and EndoIrrigator Plus system: Anin vitrostudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Vidhi Prabhakar; Naik, Balaram Damodar; Pachlag, Amit Kashinath; Yeli, Mahantesh Mrityunjay

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effects of conventional syringe, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and EndoIrrigator Plus on the amount of apically extruded debris. Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars were selected and randomly assigned to three groups ( n = 10). The root canals were irrigated with conventional syringe, PUI, and EndoIrrigator Plus. Sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigant, and debris was collected in a previously described experimental model (Myers and Montgomery 1991). It was then stored in an incubator at 37°C for 10 days to evaporate the irrigant before weighing the dry debris. The mean weight of debris was assessed, one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of values, and post hoc Tukey's test was used between groups ( P = 0.05). The EndoIrrigator Plus group extruded significantly less debris than PUI and conventional syringe groups ( P extruded significantly less debris than conventional syringe irrigation group ( P extruded significantly less debris than the PUI system and the conventional syringe irrigation system, 3. PUI system extruded significantly less debris than the conventional syringe irrigation system.

  8. A Smart Irrigation Approach Aided by Monitoring Surface Soil Moisture using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienhold, K. J.; Li, D.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a critical component in the optimization of irrigation scheduling in water resources management. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) equipped with multispectral sensors represent an emerging technology capable of detecting and estimating soil moisture for irrigation and crop management. This study demonstrates a method of using a UAV as an optical and thermal remote sensing platform combined with genetic programming to derive high-resolution, surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates. The objective is to evaluate the feasibility of spatially-variable irrigation management for a golf course (about 50 acres) in North Central Texas. Multispectral data is collected over the course of one month in the visible, near infrared and longwave infrared spectrums using a UAV capable of rapid and safe deployment for daily estimates. The accuracy of the model predictions is quantified using a time domain reflectometry (TDR) soil moisture sensor and a holdout validation test set. The model produces reasonable estimates for SSM with an average coefficient of correlation (r) = 0.87 and coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.76. The study suggests that the derived SSM estimates be used to better inform irrigation scheduling decisions for lightly vegetated areas such as the turf or native roughs found on golf courses.

  9. The Impact of Regular and Periodic Irrigation on the Fertility and Productivity of an Ordinary Chernozem of the Azov Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchedrin, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of regular and periodic irrigation on the fertility and productivity of an ordinary chernozem cultivated under different conditions within the same cereal-fodder crop rotation is discussed. The investigation object is located in the area of the Azov irrigation system on the second terrace of the Don River in Rostov oblast. Irrigation water for the system is taken from the Veselovsk water reservoir. Its salinity is 1.7-2.1 g/dm3, and the salt composition is sulfate-sodium. The field experiments were performed in 2006-2013 on three experimental plots. Two of them were regularly irrigated; the third plot was periodically irrigated with alternation of 2-year-long periods with and without irrigation. Our study proved that periodic irrigation could be applied in the chernozemic zone. This new irrigation mode contributes to the preservation of the natural soil-forming process and stops the development of unfavorable processes typical of the lands irrigated with water of inadequate quality. In eight years of cultivation of the ordinary chernozem with periodic irrigation, the soil humus content increased by 10% (from 3.80 to 4.15%), and the yield reached 66.0 t/ha of fodder units. This was 9% higher than the yield obtained upon regular irrigation without agroameliorative measures and 12% lower than the yield upon regular irrigation in combination with soil-protective measures. Our data suggest that periodic irrigation is promising for the chernozemic zone, because it ensures lower water loads and preservation of the irrigated chernozems.

  10. A Quantitative Socio-hydrological Characterization of Water Security in Large-Scale Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A.; Muhammad, A.; Wescoat, J. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale, legacy canal systems, such as the irrigation infrastructure in the Indus Basin in Punjab, Pakistan, have been primarily conceived, constructed, and operated with a techno-centric approach. The emerging socio-hydrological approaches provide a new lens for studying such systems to potentially identify fresh insights for addressing contemporary challenges of water security. In this work, using the partial definition of water security as "the reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water", supply reliability is construed as a partial measure of water security in irrigation systems. A set of metrics are used to quantitatively study reliability of surface supply in the canal systems of Punjab, Pakistan using an extensive dataset of 10-daily surface water deliveries over a decade (2007-2016) and of high frequency (10-minute) flow measurements over one year. The reliability quantification is based on comparison of actual deliveries and entitlements, which are a combination of hydrological and social constructs. The socio-hydrological lens highlights critical issues of how flows are measured, monitored, perceived, and experienced from the perspective of operators (government officials) and users (famers). The analysis reveals varying levels of reliability (and by extension security) of supply when data is examined across multiple temporal and spatial scales. The results shed new light on evolution of water security (as partially measured by supply reliability) for surface irrigation in the Punjab province of Pakistan and demonstrate that "information security" (defined as reliable availability of sufficiently detailed data) is vital for enabling water security. It is found that forecasting and management (that are social processes) lead to differences between entitlements and actual deliveries, and there is significant potential to positively affect supply reliability through interventions in the social realm.

  11. The distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Barros de Oliveira Silva, André Luiz; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to reach high yield and to increase longevity of plants. The SDI allows improving the water use efficiency, due to the application of water and nutrients in the root zone plants. It is necessary knowledge of soil and plant parameters, such as root system to improve irrigation system use efficiency. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system. The mentioned equipment enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars root system. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars. The irrigation was performed by subsurface drip system and the soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. Three access tubes with 1.05 m-length were used for each cultivar. The images were caught with Root Scanner CI-600™ in two dates, 38 and 58 days after harvest (DAH) of cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon) in five depths and were analyzed by the software RootSnap! ™. The results show that, except for cultivar IACSP94-2094, more than 80% of root length was found in the first 0.40 m of soil profile. Until 38 DAH the root growth of cultivar IACSP94-2101 were approximately fourfold higher than other three ones in the 0 to 0.20 m layer, sevenfold higher to 0.20 to 0.40 m layer and threefold to 0.40 to 0.60 m soil profile layer. However, between 38 and 58 DAH the cultivar SP79-1011 presented higher growth taxes, being almost twofold higher than IACSP94-2101 at 0 to

  12. Set up of an automatic water quality sampling system in irrigation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2013-12-23

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS) for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines) in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system's technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  13. Nitrogen Management Affects Nitrous Oxide Emissions under Varying Cotton Irrigation Systems in the Desert Southwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Kevin F; Hunsaker, Doug J; Williams, Clinton F; Thorp, Kelly R; Rockholt, Sharette M; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Venterea, Rodney T; Barnes, Edward M

    2018-01-01

    Irrigation of food and fiber crops worldwide continues to increase. Nitrogen (N) from fertilizers is a major source of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (NO) in irrigated cropping systems. Nitrous oxide emissions data are scarce for crops in the arid western United States. The objective of these studies was to assess the effect of N fertilizer management on NO emissions from furrow-irrigated, overhead sprinkler-irrigated, and subsurface drip-irrigated cotton ( L.) in Maricopa, AZ, on Trix and Casa Grande sandy clay loam soils. Soil test- and canopy-reflectance-based N fertilizer management were compared. In the furrow- and overhead sprinkler-irrigated fields, we also tested the enhanced efficiency N fertilizer additive Agrotain Plus as a NO mitigation tool. Nitrogen fertilizer rates as liquid urea ammonium nitrate ranged from 0 to 233 kg N ha. Two applications of N fertilizer were made with furrow irrigation, three applications under overhead sprinkler irrigation, and 24 fertigations with subsurface drip irrigation. Emissions were measured weekly from May through August with 1-L vented chambers. NO emissions were not agronomically significant, but increased as much as 16-fold following N fertilizer addition compared to zero-N controls. Emission factors ranged from 0.10 to 0.54% of added N fertilizer emitted as NO-N with furrow irrigation, 0.15 to 1.1% with overhead sprinkler irrigation, and emissions due to addition of Agrotain Plus to urea ammonium nitrate was inconsistent. This study provides unique data on NO emissions in arid-land irrigated cotton and illustrates the advantage of subsurface drip irrigation as a low NO source system. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Design and implementation of expert decision system in Yellow River Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuping, Wang; Bingbing, Lei; Jie, Pan

    2018-03-01

    How to make full use of water resources in the Yellow River irrigation is a problem needed to be solved urgently. On account of the different irrigation strategies in various growth stages of wheat, this paper proposes a novel irrigation expert decision system basing on fuzzy control technique. According to the control experience, expert knowledge and MATLAB simulation optimization, we obtain the irrigation fuzzy control table stored in the computer memory. The controlling irrigation is accomplished by reading the data from fuzzy control table. The experimental results show that the expert system can be used in the production of wheat to achieve timely and appropriate irrigation, and ensure that wheat growth cycle is always in the best growth environment.

  15. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Heinz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O, a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system’s technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  16. Interferometric microscopy study of the surface roughness of Portland cement under the action of different irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Palacios, Maria L; Berástegui-Jimeno, Esther M; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Some investigations suggested common Portland cement (PC) as a substitute material for MTA for endodontic use; both MTA and PC have a similar composition. The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness of common PC before and after the exposition to different endodontic irrigating solutions: 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Fifty PC samples in the form of cubes were prepared. PC was mixed with distilled water (powder/liquid ratio 3:1 by weight). The samples were immersed for one minute in 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% EDTA and 5% sodium hypochlorite. After gold coating, PC samples were examined using the New View 100 Zygo interferometric microscope. It was used to examine and register the surface roughness and the profile of two different areas of each sample. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out, and as the requirements were not met, use was made of the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of the results obtained, followed by contrasts using Tukey's contrast tests. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 5% significantly reduced the surface roughness of PC, while 20% citric acid significantly increased surface roughness. The other evaluated citric acid concentration (10%) slightly increased the surface roughness of PC, though statistical significance was not reached. EDTA at a concentration of 17% failed to modify PC surface roughness. Irrigation with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 20% citric acid lowered and raised the roughness values, respectively. The surface texture of PC is modified as the result of treatment with different irrigating solutions commonly used in endodontics, depending on their chemical composition and concentration.

  17. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation

  18. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  19. Gated or ungated : water control in government-built irrigation systems : comparative research in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, T.M.S.

    1996-01-01


    The control, allocation and distribution, of water is the core process of an irrigation system. It is the process by which the available water is divided and distributed to the smaller irrigation units within the system, which in turn is distributed further down to the individual water

  20. Developing wind and/or solar powered crop irrigation systems for the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale, off-grid irrigation systems (less than 2.5 ha) that are powered by wind or solar energy are cost effective, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. It was found that partitioning t...

  1. FEATURES OF MINERAL NUTRITION FOR TOMATO PLANTS WITH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN OPEN FIELD CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Akhmetova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dagestan is the largest region with irrigation system of agriculture in Russia. Irrigated lands provide 70% of total plant production. The field cultivation is carried on arable land in plain region of the republic. The drip irrigation as an ecologically safe technology for watering is regarded as major means for vegetable production farming. This approach maintains the propitious level of water and air in the soil without surface and deep drainage of irrigating water. These irrigated lands are expected to be used first of all for valuable and profitable crops such as tomato that is a leading crop in Dagestan. The experimental work was carried out at OOO ‘Dagagrocomplex’, Aleksandro-Nevskoye, in Tarumovskiy region. The aim of the study was to determinate the optimal dose of mineral fertilizers and the way of their application to improve the productivity without quality loss. The complex analysis of the technology for tomato production under drip irrigation through nontransplanting culture showed its high efficiency, because volume and quality of yield directly depended on soil moisture and precise supporting of mineral nutrition rates. The maximal yield of tomato fruits, 88.7-94.5 t/ha was observed with once mineral fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60 with soil humidity 70-80% (field moisture capacity, and also at the dose of N180P135K60 with basic application of N100 in nutrition rate. The result of the study showed that the optimization of two factors, namely soil water rate and mineral nutrition, enabled to produce additionally 39.2 t/ha. It was shown the tight connection between yielding and its quality; when yielding 95 t/ha, the increased contents of dry matter to 7.01%, sugar to 3.8% vitamin C to 18.46% were noticed. The high quality of produced output was supported by pre-watering threshold of moisture at 75-80% (field moisture capacity, when once fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60. 

  2. Towards a smart automated surface irrigation management in rice-growing areas in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Masseroni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the leading rice producer in Europe, accounting for more than half of the total high-quality production of this crop. Rice is traditionally grown in fields that remain flooded starting with crop establishment until close to harvest, and this traditional irrigation technique (i.e., continuous submergence is recognised as an important water resource sink (almost 40% of the irrigation water available worldwide is used for paddy areas. Meanwhile, the water management in rice areas requires a high level of labour because it is based on maintaining a predetermined water height in paddy fields and because the regulation of input and output flow is typically operated manually by the farmer. This study reveals the hardware and software characteristics of an automated and remote controlled technology tested for the first time in a rice farm near Pavia (Italy, during the 2016 growing season, aiming at a more efficient and less burdensome irrigation management system for rice fields. A water level sensor in the field provides the data required to govern the inflow regulation gate in real-time, according to the precise time to cut off the flow rate. Using a dedicated web page, the farmer can control flows, volumes and water levels in the fields by operating directly on the gate if necessary or setting the irrigation program according to his agronomic practices.

  3. Evaluation system of water ecological civilization of irrigation area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, D.; Zhang, S.; Li, X. C.; Zhu, Y.; Li, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Irrigation area is an important carrier, and also has a pivotal role in the construction of water ecological civilization in China, as well as worldwide. This work extracted the five basic characteristics of water ecological civilization of irrigated area, namely "resource saving, efficient production, ecological nature, beautiful environment, and civilized consciousness". Further, based on the frequency analysis of indicators related to the evaluation of irrigation area, we proposed the evaluation system of water ecological civilization of irrigated area. Taking an irrigation district of Huaian City, Jiangsu Province, China as an example, we carried out the case evaluation in use of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Thus, we provide the theoretical and technical reference for the construction and assessment of water ecological civilization of irrigation district to both China and abroad.

  4. Arsenic contamination of the soil-wheat system irrigated with high arsenic groundwater in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junting; Guo, Huaming; Wei, Chao

    2014-10-15

    As one of the most important crop in the world, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was irrigated with low As water and high As water. However, little is known about As cycling in the soil-wheat-water system. Two wheat fields (site G and site Y), irrigated with high dissolved As (178 μg L(-1)) groundwater and low dissolved As (8.2 μg L(-1)) surface water, respectively, were systematically sampled in the Hetao Basin, including irrigation water, soils and plants. The annual As (including dissolved As and suspended As) input per m(2) was estimated at 140 and 36.7 mg in site G and site Y, respectively. Topsoils of site G contained relatively higher As content (average 18.8 mg kg(-1)) than those of site Y (13.8 mg kg(-1)). Arsenic content of wheat grains in site G is systematically higher than in the site Y, which were positively correlated with non-specifically sorbed-As and amorphous Fe/Al oxide-bound As in topsoils. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater led to As accumulation in irrigated soils and the increase in As bioavailability, and subsequently resulted in the increase in As content of wheat grain. It suggested that less problematic water resources should be used for wheat irrigation in order to avoid As accumulation in the soil-plant system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the Viability of Sub-Surface Drip Irrigation for Resource-Efficient Alfalfa Production in Central and Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Zaccaria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In California, alfalfa is grown on a large area ranging between 325,000 and 410,000 hectares and ranks among the thirstiest crops. While the hay production industry is often scrutinized for the large usage of the state’s agricultural water, alfalfa is a crucial feed-supplier for the livestock and dairy sectors, which rank among the most profitable commodity groups in the state. Sub-surface drip irrigation (SDI, although only practiced on approximately 2% of the alfalfa production area in California, is claimed to have the potential to significantly increase hay yield (HY and water productivity (WP compared with surface irrigation (SI. In 2014–2016 we interviewed a number of growers pioneering SDI for alfalfa production in Central and Southern California who reported that yield improvements in the order of 10–30% and water saving of about 20–30% are achievable in SDI-irrigated fields compared with SI, according to their records and perceptions collected over few years of experience. Results from our research on SDI at the University of California, Davis, revealed significantly smaller yield gain (~5% and a slight increase of water use (~2–3% that are similar to findings from earlier research studies. We found that most of the interviewed alfalfa producers are generally satisfied with their SDI systems, yet face some challenges that call for additional research and educational efforts. Key limitations of SDI include high investment costs, use of energy to pressurize water, the need for more advanced irrigation management skills, and better understanding of soil-water dynamics by farm personnel. SDI-irrigated fields also need accurate water monitoring and control, attentive prevention and repair of rodent damages, and careful salinity management in the root zone. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the viability of the SDI technology for alfalfa production on the basis of preliminary results of our research and extension activities, with

  6. Technical Evaluation of Sprinkler Irrigation Systems which were Implemented in Tea Fields of the Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kourosh majdsalimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Designing and management of sprinkler irrigation systems depend on the situation and location of its implementation and often rely on professional and long-term tests (9. Having a good irrigation system depends on knowledge of the relationship between soil, water, plants, irrigation scheduling, the required amount of irrigation water to the water-holding capacity of soil, climate and plant growth (6.The less use of sprinkler irrigation systems and less performed research projects in the Guilan province, lack of correct design parameters due to shortage of the required parameters for local and regional planning, has led to reliance on charts and tables. Therefore, planning water resources cannot be performed well and with accurate details. According to many researchers (8, the technical evaluation should be a regular and short-term process to review the problems and possible performance of irrigation systems. Merriam and Keller (10 defined the assessment of an irrigation system analysis, based on field measurements in real terms during the normal work of the system. Therefore, to develop these systems over the next few years, it is essential to evaluate the use of irrigation systems and review the performance of existing problems and utilizing the results to improve it. The aim of this study was to assess the current status of implemented irrigation systems in the tea plantations of Guilan and evaluate their performance. Materials and Methods: In this study, six classic sprinkler irrigation systems in tea fields of Guilan province were evaluated during two years. Sprinkler irrigation systems of semi-portable, solid-set and solid-set (hand-move sprinkler were selected randomly. To evaluate this irrigation systems, Christiansen’s uniformity coefficient (CU, distribution uniformity (DU, potential application efficiency of low-quarter (PELQ and application efficiency of low-quarter (AELQ in the form of trial blocks were estimated by

  7. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  8. The Influence of Climate Change on Irrigated Water Demands and Surface Water Availability of the Yellow River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, T. J.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Balancing irrigated water demands and surface water availability is critical for sustainable water resources management. In China, irrigation is the largest water user, and there is concern that irrigated water demands will be affected by climate change. If the relationship between climate change, irrigated water demands and surface water availability is quantified, then effective measures can be developed to maintain food production while ensuring water sustainability. This research focuses on the Yellow River, the second longest in China, and analyzes the impact of historical and projected climate change on agricultural water demands and surface water availability. Corn and wheat are selected as representative crops to estimate the effect of temperature and precipitin changes on irrigated water demands. The VIC model is used to simulate daily streamflow throughout the Yellow River, providing estimates of surface water availability. Overall, results indicate the irrigated water need and surface water availability are impacted by climate change, with spatially varying impacts depending on spatial patterns of climate trends and river network position. This research provides insight into water security in the Yellow River basin, indicating where water efficiency measures are needed and where they are not.

  9. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Reule, Curtis A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from soil. Emissions were monitored from several irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 246 kg N ha(-1) during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Cropping systems included conventional-till (CT) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), no-till (NT) continuous corn, NT corn-dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (NT-CDb), and NT corn-barley (Hordeum distichon L.) (NT-CB). In 2005, half the N was subsurface band applied as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) at planting to all corn plots, with the rest of the N applied surface broadcast as a polymer-coated urea (PCU) in mid-June. The entire N rate was applied as UAN at barley and dry bean planting in the NT-CB and NT-CDb plots in 2005. All plots were in corn in 2006, with PCU being applied at half the N rate at corn emergence and a second N application as dry urea in mid-June followed by irrigation, both banded on the soil surface in the corn row. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during the growing season using static, vented chambers (1-3 times wk(-1)) and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Linear increases in N(2)O emissions were observed with increasing N-fertilizer rate, but emission amounts varied with growing season. Growing season N(2)O emissions were greater from the NT-CDb system during the corn phase of the rotation than from the other cropping systems. Crop rotation and N rate had more effect than tillage system on N(2)O emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions from N application ranged from 0.30 to 0.75% of N applied. Spikes in N(2)O emissions after N fertilizer application were greater with UAN and urea than with PCU fertilizer. The PCU showed potential for reducing N(2)O emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

  10. Microbial transport from dairying under two spray-irrigation systems in Canterbury, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Murray; Noonan, Mike; Hector, Ross; Bright, John

    2010-01-01

    Transport through the soil and vadose zone to groundwater of Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms, and Campylobacter spp. from pasturing of dairy cows was studied on two working dairy farms under a traveling irrigator and a center pivot system. Leachate was collected from 1.5 m depth using a large linear lysimeter over a period of 4 yr after rainfall or irrigation applied using a traveling irrigator. There was little transport of fecal coliforms or Campylobacter from irrigation applications of 55 mm. There was some transport of fecal coliforms at applications of 80 mm (corresponding to irrigation plus heavy rainfall) but no detectable Campylobacter. When fresh cow pats were placed on half of the lysimeter plots with an 80-mm water application, there was transport of fecal coliforms and Campylobacter, but levels of Campylobacter were low (spray irrigation was monitored monthly from September 2001 to June 2007, with 60% of samples being collected from downgradient wells. Escherichia coli were detected in 5.4 and 2.8% of samples from upgradient and downgradient wells, respectively, at concentrations of >or=1 cfu 100 mL(-1). Campylobacter was detected in 0.7% of samples over the study period, with equal percentages from up- and downgradient wells. The results indicate minimal impact of dairying at these sites on microbial quality of groundwater as a result of spray irrigation using traveling irrigators at rates of approximately 55 mm every 2 wk or center pivot irrigators at 18 mm every 3 to 4 d.

  11. Nitrogen management impacts nitrous oxide emissions under varying cotton irrigation systems in the American Desert Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation of food and fiber crops worldwide continues to increase. Nitrogen (N) from fertilizers is a major source of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) in irrigated cropping systems. Nitrous oxide emissions data are scarce for crops in the arid Western US. The objective of these studies...

  12. Automated Irrigation System using Weather Prediction for Efficient Usage of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, A.; Alakananda, T.; Apoorva, M. L.; Ramesh, T. K.

    2017-08-01

    In agriculture the major problem which farmers face is the water scarcity, so to improve the usage of water one of the irrigation system using drip irrigation which is implemented is “Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms” (AISPF). But this method has some drawbacks which can be improved and here we are with a method called “Automated irrigation system using weather prediction for efficient usage of water resources’ (AISWP), it solves the shortcomings of AISPF process. AISWP method helps us to use the available water resources more efficiently by sensing the moisture present in the soil and apart from that it is actually predicting the weather by sensing two parameters temperature and humidity thereby processing the measured values through an algorithm and releasing the water accordingly which is an added feature of AISWP so that water can be efficiently used.

  13. Emergy evaluation of a pumping irrigation water production system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhaohui; Webber, Michael; Chen, Jing; Wang, Weiguang

    2014-03-01

    The emergy concept was used to evaluate a pumping irrigation water production system in China. A framework for emergy evaluation of the significance of irrigation water and its production process was developed. The results show that the irrigation water saved has the highest emergy value (8.73E + 05 sej·J-1), followed by the irrigation water supplied to farmlands (1.72E + 05 sej·J-1), the pumped water (4.81E + 04 sej·J-1), with the lowest value shown from water taken from the local river (3.72E + 04 sej·J-1). The major contributions to the emergy needed for production are the inputs of soil and water. This production system could contribute to the irrigated agriculture and economy, according to several calculated emergy indices: emergy yield ratio ( EYR), emergy investment ratio ( EIR), environmental load ratio ( ELR), and environmental sustainability index ( ESI). The comparative analysis shows that the emergy theory and method, different from the conventional monetary-based analysis, could be used to evaluate irrigation water and its production process in terms of the biophysical account. Additional emergy evaluations should be completed on different types of water production and irrigated agricultural systems to provide adequate guidelines for the sustainability of irrigation development.

  14. Agro-ecology and irrigation technology : comparative research on farmer-managed irrigation systems in the Mid-hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parajuli, U.N.

    1999-01-01

    Design and management of irrigation infrastructure in farmer managed irrigation systems (FMISs) are strongly influenced by social and agro-ecological conditions of an area. This thesis analyzes the elements of social and agro-ecological conditions in FMISs in the mid-hills of Nepal and

  15. Structuring properties of irrigation systems : Understanding relations between humans and hydraulics through modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Irrigation systems were clearly important in ancient times in supplying crops with water. This requires physical distribution facilities and socio-political arrangements to coordinate between actors. Resulting systems are highly diverse, and are being studied extensively within archeology and

  16. Assessment of apically extruded debris and irrigant produced by different nickel-titanium instrument systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükyilmaz, Ebru; Savas, Selcuk; Saygili, Gokhan; Uysal, Banu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preparation time and the amounts of apically extruded debris and irrigant using different nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Forty-five extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were selected and divided into three groups. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions, using a reciprocating single-file system, a single-file rotary system and a multiple-file rotary system. Bidistilled water was used as the irrigant solution. The apically extruded debris and irrigant were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The amounts of extruded debris and irrigant were assessed with a precision micro-balance. The Eppendorf tubes were incubated at 37°C for 15 days. After the incubation period, they were weighed again to assess the debris extrusion. The time required to prepare the canals was also recorded. The results were statistically analyzed using MANOVA and Bonferroni's adjustment. Considering the apically extruded debris and irrigant, there were no statistically significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The Reciproc group produced the highest debris (0.000632 ± 0.000162 gr) and irrigant (0.844587 ± 0.437814 ml) extrusion values. While the least extruded debris was observed with OneShape (0,000431 ± 0,000171 gr), the least extruded irrigant was observed with ProTaper system (0.564147 ± 0.370596 ml). Instrumentation was faster using the Reciproc than the other two instruments (70.27 ± 13.38 s) (p < 0.05). All of the instrumentation systems used in this study produced apical debris and irrigant extrusion. The reciprocating single-file system tended to produce more debris and irrigant extrusion, compared with the rotary systems. Considering the preparation time, the single-file systems appeared to be advantageous due to their working time.

  17. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  18. Quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arid regions which suffer from water scarcity. A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University at Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the effect of two irrigation ...

  19. The Effect of Irrigation and Nitrogen on Growth Attributes and Chlorophyll Content of Garlic in Line Source Sprinkler Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahim motalebifard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With 12 million tons production per year, garlic is the fourth important crop in world. In addition to its medical value, it has been used in food industry. The Hamedan province with 1900 ha cultivation area and 38 percent of production is one of the most important garlic area productions in Iran. Few studies on water use and management of garlic exist in the world. Garlic is very sensitive to water deficit especially in tubers initiation and ripening periods. The current research was done because of scarce research on garlic production under water deficit condition in Iran and importance of plant nutrition and nutrients especially nitrogen on garlic production under stressful conditions. Nitrogen is necessary and important element for increasing the yield and quality of garlic. Application of nitrogen increases the growth trend of garlic such as number of leaves, leaf length and plant body. Reports have shown that garlic has high nitrogen requirement, particularly in the early stages of growth. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted for evaluating the combined effects of nitrogen and irrigation on the yield and quality of garlic (Allium sativumL.. The study was performed as a split-block based on randomized complete blocks design with factors of irrigation at four levels (0-3(normal irrigation, 3-6 (slight water deficit, 6-9 (moderate water deficit and 9-12 (sever water deficit meters distance from main line source sprinkler system, nitrogen at four levels (0, 50,100 and 150 kg nitrogen per ha using three replications and line source sprinkler irrigation system. The total water of irrigation levels was measured by boxes that were fixed in meddle of each plot. The statistical analysis of results were performed using themethod described by Hanks (1980. The chlorophyll index was measured using the chlorophyll meter 502 (Minolta, Spain. The chlorophyll a and bwas measured by the method described by Arnon (1946 and Gross (1991

  20. Evaluating the use of sharpened land surface temperature for daily evapotranspiration estimation over irrigated crops in arid lands

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides data on land surface characteristics, useful for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). Land-surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of ET and surface moisture status. However, TIR imagery usually operates at a coarser resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform, making it sometimes unsuitable for monitoring of field-scale crop conditions. This study applies the data mining sharpener (DMS; Gao et al., 2012) technique to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which sharpens the 1 km thermal data down to the resolution of the optical data (250-500 m) based on functional LST and reflectance relationships established using a flexible regression tree approach. The DMS approach adopted here has been enhanced/refined for application over irrigated farming areas located in harsh desert environments in Saudi Arabia. The sharpened LST data is input to an integrated modeling system that uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate daily estimates of evapotranspiration. Results are evaluated against available flux tower observations over irrigated maize near Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Successful monitoring of field-scale changes in surface fluxes are of importance towards an efficient water use in areas where fresh water resources are scarce and poorly monitored. Gao, F.; Kustas, W.P.; Anderson, M.C. A Data Mining Approach for Sharpening Thermal Satellite Imagery over Land. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 3287-3319.

  1. Improvements in irrigation system modelling when using remotely sensed ET for calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Opstal, J. D.; Neale, C. M. U.; Lecina, S.

    2014-10-01

    Irrigation system modelling is often used to aid decision-makers in the agricultural sector. It gives insight on the consequences of potential management and infrastructure changes. However, simulating an irrigation district requires a considerable amount of input data to properly represent the system, which is not easily acquired or available. During the simulation process, several assumptions have to be made and the calibration is usually performed only with flow measurements. The advancement of estimating evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing is a welcome asset for irrigation system modelling. Remotely-sensed ET can be used to improve the model accuracy in simulating the water balance and the crop production. This study makes use of the Ador-Simulation irrigation system model, which simulates water flows in irrigation districts in both the canal infrastructure and on-field. ET is estimated using an energy balance model, namely SEBAL, which has been proven to function well for agricultural areas. The seasonal ET by the Ador model and the ET from SEBAL are compared. These results determine sub-command areas, which perform well under current assumptions or, conversely, areas that need re-evaluation of assumptions and a re-run of the model. Using a combined approach of the Ador irrigation system model and remote sensing outputs from SEBAL, gives great insights during the modelling process and can accelerate the process. Additionally cost-savings and time-savings are apparent due to the decrease in input data required for simulating large-scale irrigation areas.

  2. Distribution of the root system of peach palm under drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano da Silva Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of technologies has resulted in increased productivity and the more rational management of peach palm, with irrigation being an important tool for certain regions. Thus, studies leading to proper crop management are extremely important, such as the estimate of the effective depth of the root system, which is indispensable for proper irrigation management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation depths, as applied by drip irrigation, on the distribution of the root system of peach palm. This experiment was conducted in Ilha Solteira, São Paulo State, Brazil, with drip irrigation, with the two systems (flow of 0.0023 m3 h-1 consisting of four irrigation treatments corresponding to 0, 50, 100 and 150% of Class ‘A’ pan evaporation. After five years, an analysis of the Bactris gasipaes root system was performed at a distance of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 meters from the trunk, collecting sampling at two depths (0.0 to 0.3 m and 0.3 to 0.6 m via the auger method (volumetric analysis. We concluded that the effective depth of the root system used for irrigation management should be a maximum of 0.3 meters.

  3. Modeling of Mixed Crop Field Water Demand and a Smart Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Shyan Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan average annual rainfall is approximately 2500 mm. In particular, 80% of the rainfall occurs in summer, and most of the heavy rainfall is caused by typhoons. The situation is worsening as climate change results in uneven rainfall, both in spatial and temporal terms. Moreover, climate change has resulted the variations in the seasonal rainfall pattern of Taiwan, thereby aggravating the problem of drought and flooding. The irrigation water distribution system is mostly manually operated, which produces difficulty with regard to the accurate calculation of conveyance losses of channels and fields. Therefore, making agricultural water usage more efficient in the fields and increasing operational accuracy by using modern irrigation systems can ensure appropriate irrigation and sufficient yield during droughts. If agricultural water, which accounts for 70% of the nation’s total water usage, can be allocated more precisely and efficiently, it can improve the efficacy of water resource allocation. In this study, a system dynamic model was used to establish an irrigation water management model for a companion and intercropping field in Central Taiwan. Rainfall and irrigation water were considered for the water supply, and the model simulated two scenarios by reducing 30% and 50% of the planned irrigation water in year 2015. Results indicated that the field storage in the end block of the study area was lower than the wilting point under the 50% reduced irrigation water scenario. The original irrigation plan can be reduced to be more efficient in water usage, and a 50% reduction of irrigation can be applied as a solution of water shortage when drought occurs. However, every block should be irrigated in rotation, by adjusting all water gates more frequently to ensure that the downstream blocks can receive the allocated water to get through the drought event.

  4. A Dynamic Decision Support System for Farm Water Management in Surface Irrigation: Model Development and Application Un Sistema de Soporte Dinámico de Decisión para la Gestión de Agua Predial en Riego Superficial: Desarrollo y Aplicación del Modelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos I. Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An online dynamic decision support system (DDSS was developed, to support the farm water management in surface irrigation. The online DDSS was based on the formulation and integration of three components: a dynamic-relational data base, an administrator model, and a graphical user interface. The DDSS allows routines of actualization, edition and addition of online data, providing information in real time. The online DDSS was applied in an orange orchard (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cv. Valencia Late under furrow irrigation. The results pointed out that the time irrigation cutoff was the main significant management factor, to decrease the hazard of leaching, superficial runoff and percolation. Applying the results obtained with the DDSS, furrow irrigation efficiencies could be improved up to values equals to 95.89% for application efficiency and 94.61% for total distribution efficiency. As a conclusion, the DDSS demonstrated to be a useful tool to assist the decision making process, providing proper information for the management of the available water resource at farm level.Se desarrolló un sistema de soporte dinámico de decisión (SSDD en línea, con el objetivo de asistir la gestión del agua predial en riego superficial. El SSDD en línea se basó en la formulación e integración de tres componentes: una base de datos relacional dinámica, un modelo administrador y una interfaz gráfica de usuario. El SSDD permite rutinas de actualización, edición y adición de información en línea, proporcionando información en tiempo real. El SSDD en línea se aplicó en un huerto de naranjos (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cv. Valencia Late bajo riego por surcos. Los resultados indicaron que el tiempo de corte es la variable significativa de decisión para disminuir el riesgo de lixiviación, escorrentía superficial y percolación. Aplicando los resultados obtenidos con el SSDD, las eficiencias del riego por surco podrían mejorarse, alcanzando valores

  5. Economic Analysis of Transformation of Traditional Irrigation Systems to Modern Systems of Wheat Production in the Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Esfanjari Kenari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study different irrigation methods of wheat in the Fars province were analyzed using metafrontier approach technological gap ratio. For this purpose, information about 100 farmers that were interviewed randomly in 2013 was used. The sample farms were divided into two groups (with and without sprinkler irrigation systems based on  the different irrigation methods. The results of estimating the regional frontier production function showed that the technical efficiency for the group with sprinkler irrigation system and the group without sprinkler irrigation system is 0.87 and 0.82, respectively. It means that these producers with a certain amount of average input produce about 87 percent and 82 percent of the product, respectively that could possibly be produced using the same amount of input and available technology. The technical efficiency relative to the metafrontier production function in the group with sprinkler irrigation system and in the group without sprinkler irrigation is 0.84 and 0.72, respectively. The technological gap ratio for the above two groups is 0.96 and 0.88, which means that the sprinkler irrigation system has a better technical performance, and it has a higher technological gap ratio when compared with the with no irrigation system. This is a promising point for policy makers in the field of agriculture since production level could be improved by improvement in the production techniques and proper use of available resources. The results of the factors that are effective in acceptance of technology of sprinkler irrigation system that was evaluated using the Probit model have showed that variables of farmer experiment, their attending extension classes, farmer’s property, loan, risky propensities and ownership of wells all have a positive and significant effect on acceptance of technology of sprinkler irrigation systems.

  6. Water reuse and cost-benefit of pumping at different spatial levels in a rice irrigation system in UPRIIS, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, M. M.; Bouman, B. A. M.; Van de Giesen, N.; Mushtaq, S.; Vlek, P.; Khan, S.

    As agricultural water resources in Asia become increasingly scarce, the irrigation efficiency of rice must be improved. However, in this region there is very limited information available about water use efficiency across spatial levels in irrigation systems. This study quantifies the volume of water reuse and its related cost-benefits at five different spatial levels, ranging from 1500 ha to 18,000 ha, under gravity-fed irrigation system in Upper Pumpanga River Integrated Irrigation System (UPRIIS), Philippines. The major sources of water reuse are considered, namely groundwater pumping, pumping from creeks, combined use and irrigation supplies from check dams. The volume of water available from all four sources of water reuse was quantified through extensive measurements. Production functions were developed to quantify water-yield relationships and to measure the economic value of water reuse. This study was conducted during the dry season of 2001, which existed from 19 November 2000 until 18 May 2001. The water reuse by pumping and check dams was 7% and 22% of the applied surface water at District 1 level. The reuse of surface water through check dams increased linearly with 4.6 Mm 3 per added 1000 ha. Similarly, the total amount of reused water from pumping is equivalent to 30% of the water lost through rice evapotranspiration during the dry season 2001. The results showed that water reuse plays a dominant role in growing a rice crop during the dry season. The result showed no difference in pumping costs between the creek (US0.011/m 3) and shallow pumps (US0.012/m 3). The marginal value of productivity (MVP) of water reuse from creek (US0.044/m 3) was slightly higher than the water reuse through the pumping ground water (US0.039/m 3). Results also indicated that the total volume pumped per ha (m 3/ha) was ranging from 0.39 to 6.93 m 3/ha during the dry season. The results clearly indicate that the quantification of amount of water reuse is very crucial for

  7. Simulating the reactive transport of nitrogen species in a regional irrigated agricultural groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. T.; Gates, T. K.

    2011-12-01

    The fate and transport of nitrogen (N) species in irrigated agricultural groundwater systems is governed by irrigation patterns, cultivation practices, aquifer-surface water exchanges, and chemical reactions such as oxidation-reduction, volatilization, and sorption, as well as the presence of dissolved oxygen (O2). We present results of applying the newly-developed numerical model RT3D-AG to a 50,400-ha regional study site within the Lower Arkansas River Valley in southeastern Colorado, where elevated concentrations of NO3 have been observed in both groundwater and surface water during the recent decade. Furthermore, NO3 has a strong influence on the fate and transport of other contaminants in the aquifer system such as selenium (Se) through inhibition of reduction of dissolved Se as well as oxidation of precipitate Se from outcropped and bedrock shale. RT3D-AG, developed by appending the multi-species reactive transport finite-difference model RT3D with modular packages that account for variably-saturated transport, the cycling of carbon (C) and N, and the fate and transport of O2 within the soil and aquifer system, simulates organic C and organic N decomposition and mineralization, oxidation-reduction reactions, and sorption. System sources/sinks consist of applied fertilizer and manure; crop uptake of ammonium (NH4) and NO3 during the growing season; mass of O2, NO3, and NH4 associated with irrigation water and canal seepage; mass of O2, NO3, and NH4 transferred to canals and the Arkansas River from the aquifer; and dead root mass and after-harvest stover mass incorporated into the soil organic matter at the end of the growing season. Chemical reactions are simulated using first-order Monod kinetics, wherein the rate of reaction is dependent on the concentration of the reactants as well as temperature and water content of the soil. Fertilizer and manure application timing and loading, mass of seasonal crop uptake, and end-of-season root mass and stover mass are

  8. Design of Remote Monitoring System of Irrigation based on GSM and ZigBee Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao xi, Zheng; Fang, Zhao; Shuaifei, Shao

    2018-03-01

    To solve the problems of low level of irrigation and waste of water resources, a remote monitoring system for farmland irrigation based on GSM communication technology and ZigBee technology was designed. The system is composed of sensors, GSM communication module, ZigBee module, host computer, valve and so on. The system detects and closes the pump and the electromagnetic valve according to the need of the system, and transmits the monitoring information to the host computer or the user’s Mobile phone through the GSM communication network. Experiments show that the system has low power consumption, friendly man-machine interface, convenient and simple. It can monitor agricultural environment remotely and control related irrigation equipment at any time and place, and can better meet the needs of remote monitoring of farmland irrigation.

  9. The implementation of biofiltration systems, rainwater tanks and urban irrigation in a single-layer urban canopy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuzere, Matthias; Coutts, Andrew; Goehler, Maren; Broadbent, Ashley; Wouters, Hendrik; van Lipzig, Nicole; Gebert, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Urban vegetation is generally considered as a key tool to modify the urban energy balance through enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). Given that vegetation is most effective when it is healthy, stormwater harvesting and retention strategies (such as water sensitive urban design) could be used to support vegetation and promote ET. This study presents the implementation of a vegetated lined bio-filtration system (BFS) combined with a rainwater tank (RWT) and urban irrigation system in the single-layer urban canopy model Community Land Model-Urban. Runoff from roof and impervious road surface fractions is harvested and used to support an adequate soil moisture level for vegetation in the BFS. In a first stage, modelled soil moisture dynamics are evaluated and found reliable compared to observed soil moisture levels from biofiltration pits in Smith Street, Melbourne (Australia). Secondly, the impact of BFS, RWT and urban irrigation on ET is illustrated for a two-month period in 2012 using varying characteristics for all components. Results indicate that (i) a large amount of stormwater is potentially available for indoor and outdoor water demands, including irrigation of urban vegetation, (ii) ET from the BFS is an order of magnitude larger compared to the contributions from the impervious surfaces, even though the former only covers 10% of the surface fraction and (iii) attention should be paid to the cover fraction and soil texture of the BFS, size of the RWT and the surface fractions contributing to the collection of water in the RWT. Overall, this study reveals that this model development can effectuate future research with state-of-the-art urban climate models to further explore the benefits of vegetated biofiltration systems as a water sensitive urban design tool optimised with an urban irrigation system to maintain healthy vegetation.

  10. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  11. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has already a large impact on the availability of water resources. Many regions in South-East Asia are assumed to receive less water in the future, dramatically impacting the production of the most important staple food: rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice is the primary food source for nearly half of the World's population, and is the only cereal that can grow under wetland conditions. Especially anaerobic (flooded) rice fields require high amounts of water but also have higher yields than aerobic produced rice. In the past different methods were developed to reduce the water use in rice paddies, like alternative wetting and drying or the use of mixed cropping systems with aerobic (non-flooded) rice and alternative crops such as maize. A more detailed understanding of water and nutrient cycling in rice-based cropping systems is needed to reduce water use, and requires the investigation of hydrological and biochemical processes as well as transport dynamics at the field scale. New developments in analytical devices permit monitoring parameters at high temporal resolutions and at acceptable costs without much necessary maintenance or analysis over longer periods. Here we present a new type of automatic sampling set-up that facilitates in situ analysis of hydrometric information, stable water isotopes and nitrate concentrations in spatially differentiated agricultural fields. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The whole system is maintained with special developed software for remote control of the system via internet. We

  12. Surface Drainage and Mulching Drip-Irrigated Tomatoes Reduces Soil Salinity and Improves Fruit Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Maomao; Zhu, Lvdan; Jin, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    A study on the effects of mulched drip irrigation combined with surface drainage on saline soil and tomatoes was conducted in coastal areas of eastern China, where the crops are subjected to excessive salt. The treatments contained three irrigation rates-200, 250 and 300 m3/ha-and three drain ditch depths-10, 20 and 30 cm. The contents of soil salinity, organic matter and available nutrient were observed, and the tomato plant height, stem diameter and leaf area index during different growth periods were recorded. Results showed that the total removal rate of salt from soil at a 0-1 m depth was 8.7-13.2% for the three drainages. Compared with the control, the treatments increased the content of available N (by 12.1-47.1%) and available K (by 5.0-21.9%) in the soils inside the mulch and decreased the content of available N (by 3.4-22.1%) and available K (by 7.5-16.4%) in the soils outside the mulch. For tomatoes, the plant height and the stem diameter was increased significantly by the irrigations but was not significantly affected by the drainages, and the leaf area index was increased by 0.39~1.76, 1.10~2.90 and 2.80~6.86 respectively in corresponding to the seedling, flowering and fruit-set stage. Moreover, yield-increase rates of 7.9-27.6% were found for the treatments compared to the control with a similar amount of applied water.

  13. Optimal design of pressurized irrigation systems. Application cases (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mireya Lapo Pauta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research completed with the intention of finding the most economical solution in the design of pressurized irrigation networks, while efficiently meet service delivery. A systematic methodology is proposed that combines two optimization techniques through a “hybrid method” in, which linear programming, nonlinear programming and genetic algorithms are fused. The overall formulations of the problem of optimal dimensioning consist of minimizing an objective function constituted through the associated cost of the pipes that form the network. This methodology was implemented in three networks a fictitious irrigation and two irrigation networks (Tuncarta and Cariyacu located in the cities of Loja and Chimborazo which yielded optimal design  solutions. Finally different scenarios were simulated in both models to obtain an overview of the operation of the hydraulic variables

  14. Novel approach to evaluate the dynamic variation of wind drift and evaporation losses under moving irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Mohammad Z. Amini; Sparkle L. Malone; Hank W. Loescher

    2015-01-01

    The increased need for water and food security requires the development of new approaches to save water through irrigation management strategies, particularly for center pivot irrigation. To do so entails monitoring of the dynamic variation in wind drift and evaporation losses (WDELs) of irrigation systems under different weather conditions and for relatively long time...

  15. Irrigation with isoproterenol during ureterorenoscopy causes no systemic side-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene U; Jakobsen, Joern S; Frimodt-Moeller, Poul C

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Ureterorenoscopy causes complications that may be related to high intrarenal pressures generated during irrigation. Endoluminal isoproterenol administration has been shown to reduce pelvic pressure in pigs. The objective of this study was to investigate possible systemic side-effects o......Objective. Ureterorenoscopy causes complications that may be related to high intrarenal pressures generated during irrigation. Endoluminal isoproterenol administration has been shown to reduce pelvic pressure in pigs. The objective of this study was to investigate possible systemic side......-effects of isoproterenol irrigation during ureterorenoscopy in humans. Material and methods. Seven patients undergoing ureterorenoscopy due to renal stone disease were included. A 5-Fr catheter was retrogradely placed in the renal pelvis for pressure measurements. Prior to irrigation with isoproterenol (0.1 microg....../ml), ureterorenoscopy was performed with saline irrigation. Renal pelvic pressure, blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after isoproterenol irrigation. Venous blood was drawn for isoproterenol measurements. Results. Endoluminal isoproterenol irrigation produced no changes in mean heart rate (HR...

  16. Proposed Fuzzy-NN Algorithm with LoRaCommunication Protocol for Clustered Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Kontogiannis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern irrigation systems utilize sensors and actuators, interconnected together as a single entity. In such entities, A.I. algorithms are implemented, which are responsible for the irrigation process. In this paper, the authors present an irrigation Open Watering System (OWS architecture that spatially clusters the irrigation process into autonomous irrigation sections. Authors’ OWS implementation includes a Neuro-Fuzzy decision algorithm called FITRA, which originates from the Greek word for seed. In this paper, the FITRA algorithm is described in detail, as are experimentation results that indicate significant water conservations from the use of the FITRA algorithm. Furthermore, the authors propose a new communication protocol over LoRa radio as an alternative low-energy and long-range OWS clusters communication mechanism. The experimental scenarios confirm that the FITRA algorithm provides more efficient irrigation on clustered areas than existing non-clustered, time scheduled or threshold adaptive algorithms. This is due to the FITRA algorithm’s frequent monitoring of environmental conditions, fuzzy and neural network adaptation as well as adherence to past irrigation preferences.

  17. A compact to revitalise large-scale irrigation systems: A ‘theory of change’ approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Lankford

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In countries with transitional economies such as those found in South Asia, large-scale irrigation systems (LSIS with a history of public ownership account for about 115 million ha (Mha or approximately 45% of their total area under irrigation. In terms of the global area of irrigation (320 Mha for all countries, LSIS are estimated at 130 Mha or 40% of irrigated land. These systems can potentially deliver significant local, regional and global benefits in terms of food, water and energy security, employment, economic growth and ecosystem services. For example, primary crop production is conservatively valued at about US$355 billion. However, efforts to enhance these benefits and reform the sector have been costly and outcomes have been underwhelming and short-lived. We propose the application of a 'theory of change' (ToC as a foundation for promoting transformational change in large-scale irrigation centred upon a 'global irrigation compact' that promotes new forms of leadership, partnership and ownership (LPO. The compact argues that LSIS can change by switching away from the current channelling of aid finances controlled by government irrigation agencies. Instead it is for irrigators, closely partnered by private, public and NGO advisory and regulatory services, to develop strong leadership models and to find new compensatory partnerships with cities and other river basin neighbours. The paper summarises key assumptions for change in the LSIS sector including the need to initially test this change via a handful of volunteer systems. Our other key purpose is to demonstrate a ToC template by which large-scale irrigation policy can be better elaborated and discussed.

  18. An optimal management of water for a turf irrigation system in Milan area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelis, Maria Laura; Mazzoleni, Abramo

    2015-04-01

    The design of an irrigation system is not just "draw", but a complex organization that takes into account of a whole range of information that are inherently contained in the graphic representation of the final plan. The various stages that make up the activity of designing an irrigation system include: general survey of the site to be irrigated, meteorological analysis of the site and the calculation of the water requirement, development of the project with the choice and location of the components. The use of a numerical model based on water balance in a soil-water-atmosphere system allows the evaluation of the optimal water requirement as a function of meteorological characteristics. The water saving is enabled through a smart programming of a modern automation system for irrigation. The meteorological data analysis was conducted choosing from the series of two special years: the year 2002, particularly rainy, and the other in 2007, extraordinarily drought. The determination of the water requirements of turf was conducted on a daily scale. The water consumption was calculated in a classic irrigation system that covers the delivery of 5 mm of water per day, interrupted only by a rain sensor. In the second case water consumption was analysed by managing an irrigation controller based on actual water needs of turf day by day. For the two years in question water savings ranges between 13 and 27%.

  19. quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Key Words: Furrow irrigation, water use efficiency, Zea mays. RÉSUMÉ. Produire plus de .... The strip was divided by plastic strips into three sub-plots .... peas with cereals helps to reduce the level of weed-infestation. (Corre-Hellou et al., 2011). This indicates high twining between maize and cowpea for making use of land.

  20. Breaking the Vicious Cycle in Irrigation Farming System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Eight key parameters of maize cultivation selected for this study include crop yield, quantity ... inadequate. The two water pumps are old and they need replacement. .... which decision makers and investors are seeking to introduce irrigation in the hope of meeting objectives not shared by the local society. Crops are selected.

  1. Using hydraulic modeling to simulate human interactions with water resources in an Omani irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Themis; Ertsen, Maurits; Düring, Bleda; Kolen, Jan

    2017-04-01

    In the dry Southern Oman, more than a thousand years ago, a large water system that connected the mountain mass with the coastal region was constructed. Its length (up to 30 km) and the fact that the coastal region has a rich groundwater aquifer create confusion as to why the system was initially built. Nonetheless, it was abandoned a couple of centuries later only to be partially revived by small farming communities in the 17th to 18th century. The focus of our research is one of the irrigation systems that used the water conveyed from the large water system. Not much is known about these small irrigation systems functioning in the Wadi Al Jizzi of the greater Sohar region. There are no written records and we can only make guesses about the way the systems were managed based on ethnographical studies and the traditional Omani techniques. On the other hand, the good preservation state of the canals offers a great opportunity for hydraulic reconstruction of irrigation events. More than that, the material remains suggest and at the same time limit the ways in which humans interacted with the system and the water resources of the region. All irrigation activities and some daily activities had to be realized through the canal system and only if the canal system permits it these actions would have been feasible. We created a conceptual model of irrigation that includes the human agent and feedback mechanisms through hydraulics and then we simulated irrigation events using the Sobek software. Scenarios and sensibility analysis were used to address the unknown aspects of the system. Our research yielded insights about the way the farming community interacted with the larger water system, the levels of co-ordination and co-operation required for successful irrigation and the predisposition of conflict and power relations.

  2. Participatory Rural Appraisal for Diagnostic Analysis of spate irrigation systems in Raya Valley, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Castelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spate irrigation is a complex and unique form of water management, which represent the main source of irrigation water in semi-arid river catchments. Water is diverted from seasonal rivers by using diversion structures made by stones, earth and brushwood, located within the river bed. The modernisation of spate irrigation realised in Raya Valley (northern Ethiopia resulted in disappointing performances. One of the main reasons for this failure was the poor consideration of the characteristics of seasonal catchments and local communities’ needs and preferences. Local farmers, who showed a deep knowledge of the river system, were involved only at the level of consultation. The aim of this research was to develop a participatory Diagnostic Analysis (DA for a traditional non-modernised spate irrigation system in Raya Valley, in order to involve local farmers within the development process, and to build a solid knowledge basis for effective improvements. A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA of the Harosha spate irrigation system was undertaken. PRA techniques focusing on spatial, temporal, socio-economical and spatiotemporal aspects of the system were performed with local farmers in order to identify and rank main problems and constraints to development. Farmers recognised the need of more resistant diversion structures and gabion walls for the stabilisation of the river bank. The involvement of farmers also helped to highlight that not only irrigation-related problems, but also flood-related problems threaten agricultural production and rural livelihoods. Rather than an irrigation system approach, an approach integrating irrigation development and flood risk mitigation is suggested for framing future development strategies.

  3. Apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite using different root canal irrigation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ross P; Baumgartner, J Craig; Sedgley, Christine M

    2011-12-01

    Root canal irrigation carries a risk of extrusion of irrigant into the periapical tissues. The objective of this study was to compare different irrigation systems in matched pairs of teeth prepared to an apical size of 35.06 and 50.06 by measuring the frequency and extent of apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) into a simulated periapical environment. The null hypothesis was tested that there is no difference between systems. Bilaterally matched pairs (n = 10) of single-canal extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented to an apical size of either 35.06 or 50.06. Teeth were embedded in a gel containing the pH-sensitive dye M-cresol purple that changes from yellow at pH 7.4 to purple at pH 9. Root canals were irrigated with 6% NaOCl (pH 11) by using EndoActivator (EA), EndoVac (EV), Rispi-Sonic/MicroMega 1500 (MM), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and syringe irrigation with a slot-tipped needle (SN), so that each tooth underwent all irrigation procedures in a randomized crossover design. Apical extrusion was evaluated by image analyses. The frequency of extrusion was less in teeth with apical preparation size 35.06 (36%) compared with 50.06 (60%) (P = .014) and was dependent on the irrigation system in 35.06 (P = .039) but not 50.06 groups. In the 35.06 group the frequency of extrusion was less for EV than for MM and SN (both P = .029). The extent of extrusion was less for MM compared with PUI (P = .024) and SN (P = .046) in the 35.06 group and greater for SN compared with all other systems in the 50.06 group (P root canal irrigation system and apical preparation size. The extent of extrusion depended on the irrigation system, with syringe and slotted-needle irrigation resulting in the greatest extent of extrusion. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of apically extruded debris and irrigant using different file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kütük, B; Akpınar, K E; Altunbaş, D

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris and irrigant during cleaning and shaping with different file systems. Seventy-five extracted mandibular premolar and canine teeth were randomly divided into five groups (n = 15). The root canals were instrumented by using Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany), Twisted File (TF; Sybron Endo, Orange, California, USA), Reciproc (VDW), Self-Adjusting File (SAF; Re Dent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel) systems, and K-type stainless steel hand file (Mani Inc., Tochigi, Japan). Apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed Eppendorf tubes. Extruded irrigant was collected from the cannula by using a plastic insulin syringe. After drying, the amount of apically extruded debris was established by subtracting the initial weight from the final weight of the tubes. After performing the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, data were analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis test at a significance level of P value less than 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between the file systems in terms of debris and irrigant extrusion. Mtwo group produced the highest mean debris extrusion value and the TF group produced the less compared with the other files. The least mean irrigant extrusion value was associated with the SAF group, whereas the highest mean irrigant extrusion value was associated with the Reciproc group. Under the conditions of the study, all file systems were associated with apical debris and irrigant extrusion.

  5. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  6. Reconstructing the hydrological behavior of an ancient irrigation system at "micro" scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Ertsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigation systems could be regarded as major links between human agents and their environment. In continuous interaction humans adapt to their environment overcoming the limitation of natural conditions, through modification of the environment. The paper aims at reproducing the original appearance of an ancient irrigation system and understanding the interactions among various elements constituting an irrigation system through a case study of Zhengguo canal system of China. Human beings play a vital role on the establishment and maintenance of physical infrastructure as well as the management of water flows allocation, while geographical environment and climate strongly determine the supply of water source. In addition, the population might be the trigger for the generation of an irrigation system. Population size and crop product yields would have been closely connected; in case of crop failure, the population may have decreased. Water division expresses how much water would be available for crops; and crop water requirement manifests how much water the crops could use or would require. We attempt to reconstruct the hydrological behavior of an ancient irrigation system by taking into account the needs of the users and the resulting daily management of the irrigation system. To do this we used a model that integrated hydroloogy and control measures. A hydraulic model (SOBEK) is used to simulate water flows pattern under different hydrological conditions and flow-control arrangements. Secondly, based on the results of above modeling, a crop model (Aquacrop) is adopted to develop a set of scenarios presenting different irrigating schedules for the calculation of crop products yields. At last, the fluctuation law between crop products and population are analyzed. Given the climate conditions during operating periods, a series of scenarios is developed to obtain potential water allocation in the SOBEK modeling. The differences within the results of water discharges

  7. A utilização dos recursos hídricos no sistema de irrigação por superfície (inundação na cultura do arroz mediante as normatizações / Use of water resources in irrigation system by surface (flood in rice cultivation by the standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Paula Lorensi

    2010-11-01

    use of water through surface irrigation which is highlighted by the flood irrigation, such as the standardization deployed, including, whenever it is possible, information obtained by Brazilian research. The use of water for each hectare of rice grown in Rio Grande do Sul ranges from 9.000 to 25.000m3 ha-1 ano-1, and it is not possible to estimate accurately the real consumption when we only know the soil, the management planting system. This is a considerable amount when it is compared to other uses of water. The water resources use right bestowal is the instrument the user receives a permission to use water, in other words, it is a document that guarantees taking water flow and a certain water source, in a set place for a particular use, during a specified period of time (LORENSI, 2008. Rio Grande do Sul state is going through a quantitative setting up of irrigators to establish environmental licensing, where the majority of them are rice growers. The environmental license is, nowadays, a necessity and an important tool that contributes to the proper use of water resources and sustainable development of irrigated agriculture.

  8. SWAT application in intensive irrigation systems: Model modification, calibration and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Dechmi, Farida; Burguete, Javier; Skhiri, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a well established, distributed, eco-hydrologic model. However, using the study case of an agricultural intensive irrigated watershed, it was shown that all the model versions are not able to appropriately reproduce the total streamflow in such system when the irrigation source is outside the watershed. The objective of this study was to modify the SWAT2005 version for correctly simulating the main hydrological processes. Crop yield, total streamfl...

  9. Leaf surface structures enable the endemic Namib desert grass Stipagrostis sabulicola to irrigate itself with fog water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Nebelsick, A; Ebner, M; Miranda, T; Gottschalk, V; Voigt, D; Gorb, S; Stegmaier, T; Sarsour, J; Linke, M; Konrad, W

    2012-08-07

    The Namib grass Stipagrostis sabulicola relies, to a large degree, upon fog for its water supply and is able to guide collected water towards the plant base. This directed irrigation of the plant base allows an efficient and rapid uptake of the fog water by the shallow roots. In this contribution, the mechanisms for this directed water flow are analysed. Stipagrostis sabulicola has a highly irregular surface. Advancing contact angle is 98° ± 5° and the receding angle is 56° ± 9°, with a mean of both values of approximately 77°. The surface is thus not hydrophobic, shows a substantial contact angle hysteresis and therefore, allows the development of pinned drops of a substantial size. The key factor for the water conduction is the presence of grooves within the leaf surface that run parallel to the long axis of the plant. These grooves provide a guided downslide of drops that have exceeded the maximum size for attachment. It also leads to a minimum of inefficient drop scattering around the plant. The combination of these surface traits together with the tall and upright stature of S. sabulicola contributes to a highly efficient natural fog-collecting system that enables this species to thrive in a hyperarid environment.

  10. Water and agriculture in arid systems: a dynamic model of irrigation of Mazarron and Aguilas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Fernandez, J.; Esteve Selma, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The intensive use of groundwater resources in the new irrigated lands of Mazarron-Aguilas has led to the over-exploitation of the local aquifer and thus, to seawater intrusion, water salinization and falling off water tables, all of them key processes of desertification. The simulation results show that the unrealistic perceptions about the relationships between irrigated land and water resources constitutes a key factor to explain the highly unsustainable dynamics of irrigated lands in Mazarron and Aguilas and the whole SE Spain. The increase in water resources does not eliminate the problem because the feedback loops and endogenous factors of the system lead to a further increase in irrigated land and continuation of the water deficit, which shows a highly counter-intuitive behaviour. (Author) 3 refs.

  11. Small Acreage Irrigation Management

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Field irrigation application methods include surface (wild flooding, border, furrow, basins), sprinkler (hand line, wheel move, solid set, center pivot), low flow or micro-irrigation (drip, trickle, micro-spray), and subirrigation (water table manipulation under special conditions).

  12. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Pietro Elia; Li, Hailong; Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Yan, Jinyue

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availabil...

  13. Effect of irrigation systems on temporal distribution of malaria vectors in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shunji; Kaga, Takumi

    2014-04-01

    Previous research models have used climate data to explain habitat conditions of Anopheles mosquitoes transmitting malaria parasites. Although they can estimate mosquito populations with sufficient accuracy in many areas, observational data show that there is a tendency to underestimate the active growth and reproduction period of mosquitoes in semi-arid agricultural regions. In this study, a new, modified model that includes irrigation as a factor was developed to predict the active growing period of mosquitoes more precisely than the base model for ecophysiological and climatological distribution of mosquito generations (ECD-mg). Five sites with complete sets of observational data were selected in semi-arid regions of India for the comparison. The active growing period of mosquitoes determined from the modified ECD-mg model that incorporated the irrigation factor was in agreement with the observational data, whereas the active growing period was underestimated by the previous ECD-mg model that did not incorporate irrigation. This suggests that anthropogenic changes in the water supply due to extensive irrigation can encourage the growth of Anopheles mosquitoes through the alteration of the natural water balance in their habitat. In addition, it was found that the irrigation systems not only enable the active growth of mosquitoes in dry seasons but also play an important role in stabilizing the growth in rainy seasons. Consequently, the irrigation systems could lengthen the annual growing period of Anopheles mosquitoes and increase the maximum generation number of mosquitoes in semi-arid subtropical regions.

  14. Fruit yield and root system distribution of 'Tommy Atkins' mango under different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the fruit yield and the distribution of 'Tommy Atkins' mango root system under different irrigation regimes in the semiarid region of Bahia. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and three replicates: 1 - Irrigation supplying 100% of ETc in phases I, II and III; 2 - Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI supplying 50% of ETc in phase I (beginning of flowering to early fruit growth; 3 - RDI supplying 50% ETc in phase II (start of expansion until the beginning of physiological maturity; 4 - RDI supplying 50% ETc in phase III (physiological mature fruits; 5 - No irrigation during all three phases. The regulated deficit irrigation supplying 50% of the ETc during phase I and II provided larger root length density of 'Tommy Atkins' mango. Regardless of management strategy, the roots were developed in all evaluated soil volume and the highest density is concentrated from 0.50 to 1.50 m distance from the trunk and in 0.20 to 0.90 m depth in the soil, that suggests this region to be the best place for fertilizer application as well for soil water sensor placement. The application of RDI during fruit set does not influence either root distribution or production. Root system and crop production is significantly reduced under no irrigation conditions.

  15. Area-Averaged Surface Fluxes in a Semiarid Region with Partly Irrigated Land: Lessons Learned from EFEDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochum, A.M.; Debruin, H.A.R.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Calera Belmonte, A.

    2006-01-01

    The European Field Experiment in a Desertification-Threatened Area (EFEDA) provides a comprehensive land surface dataset for a semiarid Mediterranean environment with natural vegetation and cultivated dry and irrigated land. This paper discusses the methods and practical aspects of deriving

  16. Heat as a Tracer for Estimation of Soil Drainage Following Irrigation Above a Tile Drain System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M. V.; Bentley, L. R.; Cey, E. E.

    2009-05-01

    Salt-affected soil is one of the most common environmental issues facing the petroleum hydrocarbon industry. Large quantities of brines are often co-produced with gas and oil and have been introduced into the environment through, for example, flare pits, drilling operations and pipe line breaks. Salt must be flushed from the soil and tile drain systems can be used to collect salt water which is then be routed for disposal. An accelerated remediation experiment by soil flushing over a 2 m deep tile drain system was monitored by tensiometers, and thermocouples. Water table elevation was monitored with pressure transducers. A 20 m by 20 m experimental plot was irrigated with 10 m3 of water on each of three consecutive days for an approximate total of 75 mm of water. The irrigation event was repeated three times over a period of 4 weeks. Due to a lack of access to the individual tile drains, direct measurement of drainage rates was not possible. One component of evaluating the success of the accelerated remediation experiment is the fraction of applied irrigation water that infiltrated to depth. Drainage rates beneath the irrigated plot were estimated by heat transport modeling using HYDRUS-1D, a numerical code for the solution of Richards unsaturated flow equation and the heat equation. Temperature and soil matric potential time series were recorded beneath the irrigated plot and at a control location at four depths, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 m, at 15 minute intervals. Data was recorded for the duration of the irrigation period and for 8 weeks following. The temperature time series beneath the irrigated plot shows a broad increase relative to the control and shorter duration increases in direct response to the irrigation events. Heat modelling results are compared to field measurements.

  17. Using Hydrus 2-D to assess the emitters optimal position for Eggplants under surface and subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Autovino, Dario; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdel Hamid; Provenznao, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the work is to assess the emitters optimal position for Eggplant crop (Solanum melongena L.) in a sandy loam soil irrigated with surface or subsurface drip irrigation systems, by means of field measurements and simulations carried out with Hydrus-2D model. Initially, the performance of the model is evaluated on the basis of the comparison between simulated soil water contents (SWC) and the corresponding measured in two plots, in which laterals with coextruded emitters are laid on the soil surface (T0) and at 20 cm depth (T20), respectively. In order to choose the best position of the lateral, the results of different simulation runs, carried out by changing the installation depth of the lateral (5 cm, 15 cm and 45 cm) were compared in terms of ratio between actual transpiration and total amount of water provided during the entire growing season (WUE). Experiments were carried out, from April to June 2007, at Institut Supérieur Agronomique de Chott Mériem (Sousse, Tunisia). In the two plots, plants were spaced 0.40 m along the row and 1.2 m between the rows. Each plot was irrigated by means of laterals with coextruded emitters spaced 0.40 m and discharging a flow rate equal to 4.0 l h-1 at a nominal pressure of 100 kPa. In each plot, spatial and temporal variability of SWCs were acquired with a Time Domain Reflectometry probe (Trime-FM3), on a total of four 70 cm long access tubes, installed along the direction perpendicular to the plant row, at distances of 0, 20, 40 and 60 cm from the emitter. Irrigation water was supplied, accounting for the rainfall, every 7-10 days at the beginning of the crop cycle (March-April) and approximately once a week during the following stages till the harvesting (May-June), for a total of 15 one-hour watering. To run the model, soil evaporation, Ep, and crop transpiration, Tp were determined according to the modified FAO Penman-Monteith equation and the dual crop coefficient approach, whereas soil hydraulics

  18. Using Tracer Tests to Estimate Vertical Recharge and Evaluate Influencing Factors for Irrigated Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D.; Jin, M.; Brusseau, M.; Ma, B.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate estimation of vertical groundwater recharge is critical for (semi) arid regions, especially in places such as the North China Plain where vertical recharge comprises the largest portion of recharge. Tracer tests were used to estimate vertical recharge beneath agricultural systems irrigated by groundwater, and to help delineate factors that influence recharge. Bromide solution was applied to trace infiltration in the vadose zone beneath irrigated agricultural fields (rotated winter wheat and summer maize, orchards, and cotton) and non-irrigated woodlands at both piedmont plain (Shijiazhaung) and alluvial and lacustrine plains (Hengshui) in the North China Plain. The tracer tests lasted for more than two years, and were conducted at a total of 37 sites. Tracer solution was injected into the subsurface at a depth of 1.2 m before the rainy season. Soil samples were then collected periodically to observe bromide transport and estimate recharge rates at the point-scale. For these experiments, the only irrigation the fields received was that applied by the landowners. In addition to these tests, a controlled irrigation experiment was conducted at a single wheat and maize site. The results showed that recharge rates were lower for the alluvial and lacustrine plains sites, which comprise finer-textured soils than those present in the piedmont plain. Specifically, the recharge rate ranged between 56-466 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 110-564 mm/a beneath orchard, and 0-21 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.17 for the piedmont plain sites, while the recharge rate ranged between 26-165 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 6-40 mm/a beneath orchard, 87-319 mm/a beneath cotton, and 0-32 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.10 for the alluvial and lacustrine plain sites. Irrigation provided the primary contribution to recharge, with precipitation providing a minor contribution. The results of both the uncontrolled and controlled

  19. Simulating selenium and nitrogen fate and transport in coupled stream-aquifer systems of irrigated regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Christopher D.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Gates, Timothy K.; Heesemann, Brent E.; Morway, Eric D.

    2018-01-01

    Elevated levels of selenium (Se) in aqueous environments can harm aquatic life and endanger livestock and human health. Although Se occurs naturally in the rocks and soils of many alluvial aquifers, mining and agricultural activities can increase its rate of mobilization and transport to surface waters. Attention is given here to regions where nonpoint source return flows from irrigated lands carry pollutant loads to aquifers and streams, contributing to concentrations that violate regulatory and performance standards. Of particular concern is the heightened level and mobilization of Se influenced by nitrate (NO3), a harmful pollutant in its own right. We present a numerical model that simulates the reactive transport of Se and nitrogen (N) species in a coupled groundwater-surface water system. Building upon a conceptual model that incorporates the major processes affecting Se and NO3 transport in an irrigated watershed, the model links the finite-difference models MODFLOW, UZF-RT3D, and OTIS, to simulate flow and reactive transport of multiple chemical species in both the aquifer and a stream network, with mass exchange between the two. The capability of the new model is showcased by calibration, testing, and application to a 500 km2 region in Colorado’s Lower Arkansas River Valley using a rich data set gathered over a 10-yr period. Simulation of spatial and temporal distributions of Se concentration reveals conditions that exceed standards in groundwater for approximately 20% of the area. For the Arkansas River, standards are exceeded by 290%–450%. Simulation indicates that river concentrations of NO3 alone are near the current interim standard for the total of all dissolved N species. These results indicate the need for future use of the developed model to investigate the prospects for land and water best management practices to decrease pollutant levels.

  20. Simulating selenium and nitrogen fate and transport in coupled stream-aquifer systems of irrigated regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Christopher D.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Gates, Timothy K.; Heesemann, Brent E.; Morway, Eric D.

    2018-05-01

    Elevated levels of selenium (Se) in aqueous environments can harm aquatic life and endanger livestock and human health. Although Se occurs naturally in the rocks and soils of many alluvial aquifers, mining and agricultural activities can increase its rate of mobilization and transport to surface waters. Attention is given here to regions where nonpoint source return flows from irrigated lands carry pollutant loads to aquifers and streams, contributing to concentrations that violate regulatory and performance standards. Of particular concern is the heightened level and mobilization of Se influenced by nitrate (NO3), a harmful pollutant in its own right. We present a numerical model that simulates the reactive transport of Se and nitrogen (N) species in a coupled groundwater-surface water system. Building upon a conceptual model that incorporates the major processes affecting Se and NO3 transport in an irrigated watershed, the model links the finite-difference models MODFLOW, UZF-RT3D, and OTIS, to simulate flow and reactive transport of multiple chemical species in both the aquifer and a stream network, with mass exchange between the two. The capability of the new model is showcased by calibration, testing, and application to a 500 km2 region in Colorado's Lower Arkansas River Valley using a rich data set gathered over a 10-yr period. Simulation of spatial and temporal distributions of Se concentration reveals conditions that exceed standards in groundwater for approximately 20% of the area. For the Arkansas River, standards are exceeded by 290%-450%. Simulation indicates that river concentrations of NO3 alone are near the current interim standard for the total of all dissolved N species. These results indicate the need for future use of the developed model to investigate the prospects for land and water best management practices to decrease pollutant levels.

  1. Efficiency of water application of irrigation systems based on microsprinkling in banana plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Jadavi Pereira da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Further food production may be limited by the reduced availability of water resources. Since irrigated agriculture is the productive sector that presents a higher demand of water, this sector has been under intense pressure in order to ensure food production with improved efficiency of water use. This study aimed to use the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique to measure percolation losses and to determine water application efficiency of banana (Musa spp. trees using microsprinkler irrigation systems. Three systems were studied: (i one 32 L h-1 microsprinkler for four plants; (ii one 60 L h-1 microsprinkler for four plants; and (iii one 60 L h-1 microsprinkler for two plants. Systems that replace water to the soil with the lowest variation of infiltrated water depths at different distances from plant pseudostem were the most efficient. The water application efficiency of microsprinkler irrigation systems using the (i, (ii, and (iii microsprinkler systems were 85%, 80 % and 90 % respectively.

  2. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    highly degrade the environment, applied without practices of soil and water conservation. Such production systems are associated with a variety of environmental problems, such as soil erosion, the extensive pumping of groundwater, the partial obstruction of surface drainage to form artificial lakes, the contamination of groundwater, among others. The environmental impacts generated by all these problems assume a greater importance due to the complete absence of monitoring the continuous lowering of the water table and the changes in water quality. We consider that the main management strategies for developing sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in this area should be based on monitoring water use efficiency, increasing water availability in the root zone and also preventing runoff, leaching and evaporation of water from the soil. Therefore, techniques were applied as green manures with legumes without incorporation of the biomass, non-mechanized and curve-level soil preparation, planting in level, soil cover with crop residues, fertirrigation with solid fertilization of low value, the conduct of tomato especially supported by plastic string attached to a trellis, drip irrigation, and monitoring soil water potential (SWP) with Watermak sensors. At the end of the tomato cycle, water use efficiency and the productivity were compared at 8 micro-plots installed in the 3 studied production systems: conventional tillage (CT-H), minimum tillage (MT-H), both with "wetting irrigation with garden hose", and no-tillage with drip irrigation (NT-D). For each production system, soil physical properties were characterized and soil water potential (SWP) and soil temperature were continuously monitored at different depths (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm), as well as the total water volume used in each irrigation. In parallel, we also compared the development of the root system and the final productivity for each one of the three production systems. The results obtained in this

  3. Groundwater-fed irrigation impacts spatially distributed temporal scaling behavior of the natural system: a spatio-temporal framework for understanding water management impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Laura E.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2014-03-01

    Regional scale water management analysis increasingly relies on integrated modeling tools. Much recent work has focused on groundwater-surface water interactions and feedbacks. However, to our knowledge, no study has explicitly considered impacts of management operations on the temporal dynamics of the natural system. Here, we simulate twenty years of hourly moisture dependent, groundwater-fed irrigation using a three-dimensional, fully integrated, hydrologic model (ParFlow-CLM). Results highlight interconnections between irrigation demand, groundwater oscillation frequency and latent heat flux variability not previously demonstrated. Additionally, the three-dimensional model used allows for novel consideration of spatial patterns in temporal dynamics. Latent heat flux and water table depth both display spatial organization in temporal scaling, an important finding given the spatial homogeneity and weak scaling observed in atmospheric forcings. Pumping and irrigation amplify high frequency (sub-annual) variability while attenuating low frequency (inter-annual) variability. Irrigation also intensifies scaling within irrigated areas, essentially increasing temporal memory in both the surface and the subsurface. These findings demonstrate management impacts that extend beyond traditional water balance considerations to the fundamental behavior of the system itself. This is an important step to better understanding groundwater’s role as a buffer for natural variability and the impact that water management has on this capacity.

  4. Groundwater-fed irrigation impacts spatially distributed temporal scaling behavior of the natural system: a spatio-temporal framework for understanding water management impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, Laura E; Maxwell, Reed M

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale water management analysis increasingly relies on integrated modeling tools. Much recent work has focused on groundwater–surface water interactions and feedbacks. However, to our knowledge, no study has explicitly considered impacts of management operations on the temporal dynamics of the natural system. Here, we simulate twenty years of hourly moisture dependent, groundwater-fed irrigation using a three-dimensional, fully integrated, hydrologic model (ParFlow-CLM). Results highlight interconnections between irrigation demand, groundwater oscillation frequency and latent heat flux variability not previously demonstrated. Additionally, the three-dimensional model used allows for novel consideration of spatial patterns in temporal dynamics. Latent heat flux and water table depth both display spatial organization in temporal scaling, an important finding given the spatial homogeneity and weak scaling observed in atmospheric forcings. Pumping and irrigation amplify high frequency (sub-annual) variability while attenuating low frequency (inter-annual) variability. Irrigation also intensifies scaling within irrigated areas, essentially increasing temporal memory in both the surface and the subsurface. These findings demonstrate management impacts that extend beyond traditional water balance considerations to the fundamental behavior of the system itself. This is an important step to better understanding groundwater’s role as a buffer for natural variability and the impact that water management has on this capacity. (paper)

  5. Linked hydrologic and social systems that support resilience of traditional irrigation communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, A.; Guldan, S.; Boykin, K.; Cibils, A.; Gonzales, M.; Hurd, B.; Lopez, S.; Ochoa, C.; Ortiz, M.; Rivera, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Steele, C.

    2015-01-01

    Southwestern US irrigated landscapes are facing upheaval due to water scarcity and land use conversion associated with climate change, population growth, and changing economics. In the traditionally irrigated valleys of northern New Mexico, these stresses, as well as instances of community longevity in the face of these stresses, are apparent. Human systems have interacted with hydrologic processes over the last 400 years in river-fed irrigated valleys to create linked systems. In this study, we ask if concurrent data from multiple disciplines could show that human-adapted hydrologic and socioeconomic systems have created conditions for resilience. Various types of resiliencies are evident in the communities. Traditional local knowledge about the hydrosocial cycle of community water management and ability to adopt new water management practices is a key response to disturbances such as low water supply from drought. Livestock producers have retained their irrigated land by adapting: changing from sheep to cattle and securing income from outside their livestock operations. Labor-intensive crops decreased as off-farm employment opportunities became available. Hydrologic resilience of the system can be affected by both human and natural elements. We find, for example, that there are multiple hydrologic benefits of traditional irrigation system water seepage: it recharges the groundwater that recharges rivers, supports threatened biodiversity by maintaining riparian vegetation, and ameliorates impacts of climate change by prolonging streamflow hydrographs. Human decisions to transfer water out of agriculture or change irrigation management, as well as natural changes such as long-term drought or climate change, can result in reduced seepage and the benefits it provides. We have worked with the communities to translate the multidisciplinary dimensions of these systems into a common language of causal loop diagrams, which form the basis for modeling future scenarios to

  6. A comparative analysis of the impacts of climate change and irrigation on land surface and subsurface hydrology in the North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Guoyong; Tang, Qiuhong; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-02-01

    The Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4) was used to investigate and compare the effects of climate change and irrigation on terrestrial water cycle. Three climate change scenarios and one irrigation scenario (IRRIG) were simulated in the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change and human perturbations in China. The climate change scenarios consist of (1) HOT (i.e. temperature increase by 2oC); (2) HOTWET (same with HOT but with an increase of precipitation by 15%); (3) HOTDRY (same with HOT but with a decrease of precipitation by 15%). In the IRRIG scenario, the irrigation scheme was calibrated to simulate irrigation amounts that match the actual irrigation amounts and irrigation was divided between surface water and groundwater withdrawals based on census data. Our results show that the impacts of climate change were more widespread while those of irrigation were concentrated only over the agricultural regions. Specifically, the mean water table depth was simulated to decline persistently by over 1 m annually due to groundwater exploitation during the period of 1980-2000, while much smaller effects were induced by climate change. Although irrigation has comparable effects on surface fluxes and surface soil moisture as climate change, it has much greater effects on water table depth and groundwater storage. Moreover, irrigation has much larger effects on the top layer soil moisture whereas increase in precipitation associated with climate change exerts more influence on lower layer soil moisture. This study emphasizes the need to accurately account for irrigation impacts in adapting to climate change.

  7. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Pawlowski

    Full Text Available Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2, as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield.

  8. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Meghan N; Crow, Susan E; Meki, Manyowa N; Kiniry, James R; Taylor, Andrew D; Ogoshi, Richard; Youkhana, Adel; Nakahata, Mae

    2017-01-01

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2), as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP) compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield.

  9. Loss of surface horizon of an irrigated soil detected by radiometric images of normalized difference vegetation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The use of the soil in the Humid Pampa of Argentina has changed since the mid-1990s from agricultural-livestock production (that included pastures with direct grazing) to a purely agricultural production. Also, in recent years the area under irrigation by central pivot has been increased to 150%. The waters used for irrigation are sodium carbonates. The combination of irrigation and rain increases the sodium absorption ratio of soil (SARs), consequently raising the clay dispersion and reducing infiltration. This implies an increased risk of soil loss. A reduction in the development of white clover crop (Trifolium repens L.) was observed at an irrigation plot during 2015 campaign. The clover was planted in order to reduce the impact of two maize (Zea mays L.) campaigns under irrigation, which had increased soil SAR and deteriorated soil structure. SPOT-5 radiometric normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images were used to determine two zones of high and low production. In each zone, four random points were selected for further geo-referenced field sampling. Two geo-referenced measures of effective depth and surface soil sampling were carried out in each point. Texture of soil samples was determined by Pipette Method of Sedimentation Analysis. Data exploratory analysis showed that low production zone had a media effective depth = 80 cm and silty clay loam texture, while high production zone had a media effective depth > 140 cm and silt loam texture. The texture class of the low production zone did not correspond to prior soil studies carried out by the INTA (National Institute of Agricultural Technology), which showed that those soil textures were silt loam at surface and silty clay loam at sub-surface. The loss of the A horizon is proposed as a possible explanation, but further research is required. Besides, the need of a soil cartography actualization, which integrates new satellite imaging technologies and geo-referenced measurements with soil sensors is

  10. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Tarlera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flooding after 30 days of emergence, CF30; and an alternative system (controlled deficit irrigation allowing for wetting and drying, AWDI. AWDI showed mean cumulative CH4 emission values of 98.4 kg CH4 ha−1, 55 % lower compared to CF30, while no differences in nitrous oxide emissions were observed between treatments ( p > 0.05. No yield differences between irrigation systems were observed in two of the rice seasons ( p > 0.05 while AWDI promoted yield reduction in one of the seasons ( p< 0.05. When rice yield and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions were considered together, the AWDI irrigation system allowed for lower yield-scaled total global warming potential (GWP. Higher irrigation water productivity was achieved under AWDI in two of the three rice seasons. These findings suggest that AWDI could be an option for reducing GHG emissions and increasing irrigation water productivity. However, AWDI may compromise grain yield in certain years, reflecting the importance of the need for fine tuning of this irrigation strategy and an assessment of the overall tradeoff between relationships in order to promote its adoption by farmers.

  11. On the waterfront : water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a South Indian canal irrigation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed

  12. SWAT application in intensive irrigation systems: Model modification, calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmi, Farida; Burguete, Javier; Skhiri, Ahmed

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThe Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a well established, distributed, eco-hydrologic model. However, using the study case of an agricultural intensive irrigated watershed, it was shown that all the model versions are not able to appropriately reproduce the total streamflow in such system when the irrigation source is outside the watershed. The objective of this study was to modify the SWAT2005 version for correctly simulating the main hydrological processes. Crop yield, total streamflow, total suspended sediment (TSS) losses and phosphorus load calibration and validation were performed using field survey information and water quantity and quality data recorded during 2008 and 2009 years in Del Reguero irrigated watershed in Spain. The goodness of the calibration and validation results was assessed using five statistical measures, including the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). Results indicated that the average annual crop yield and actual evapotranspiration estimations were quite satisfactory. On a monthly basis, the values of NSE were 0.90 (calibration) and 0.80 (validation) indicating that the modified model could reproduce accurately the observed streamflow. The TSS losses were also satisfactorily estimated (NSE = 0.72 and 0.52 for the calibration and validation steps). The monthly temporal patterns and all the statistical parameters indicated that the modified SWAT-IRRIG model adequately predicted the total phosphorus (TP) loading. Therefore, the model could be used to assess the impacts of different best management practices on nonpoint phosphorus losses in irrigated systems.

  13. The use of landscape fabric and supplemental irrigation to enhance survival and growth of woody perennials planted on reclaimed surface mine lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R .C. Musselman; F. W. Smith; W. D. Shepperd; L. A. Asherin; B. W. Gee

    2009-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the effectiveness of landscape fabric and supplemental irrigation in survival and growth of woody perennials planted on reclaimed surface coal mine lands. The study compared growth and survival of nursery grown potted aspen and serviceberry planted with or without landscape fabric, and with or without biweekly supplemental irrigation...

  14. Generic E. coli levels in surface and nontraditional irrigation water in the mid Atlantic in relation to FSMA water quality standards: A CONSERVE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The use of surface (pond and river) and nontraditional (reclaimed wastewater, produce wash water) irrigation water (SNIW) could reduce stress on ground water resources. However, it is essential to understand how these irrigation sources may influence the microbiological safety of fresh...

  15. KAJIAN ASET NIRWUJUD DALAM MANAJEMEN SISTEM IRIGASI Study on Intangible Assets in Irrigation System Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Tri Waskitho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at studying on intangible assets at irrigation system management. The research method consisted oftwo stages. The first stage was data collecting which was done by questionnaire and interview on management of Water Use Associations (WUA in Mejing irrigation system in Bantul, Sapon irrigation system in Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta, and Molek irrigation system in Malang, East Java. The second stage was data analysis which was done using ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System.The research result indicated that knowledge management falls into four main components: (i learning organization, (ii principle of organization, (iii policy and strategy of organization, and (iv information and communication technology which are integrated for controlling intangible assets in irrigation system. Intangible assets consisted of human capital, structural capital, and relation capital which are integrated for controlling performance of irrigation system. Knowledge management in Mejing and Sapon irrigation systems were in moderate-good condition (3.81 in1-5 scale and in Molek irrigation system was poor (2.37. Intangible assets in Mejing, Sapon, and Molek irrigation systems were in moderate-good condition (3.61. Effectiveness of performance in Sapon, Mejing, and Molek irrigation systems were very good (0.89-0.95 and were very potential to develop. Each irrigation system had different priorities ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji kondisi aset nirwujud dalam manajemen sistem irigasi ditinjau dari manajemenpengetahuan. Metode penelitian terdiri dari dua tahap. Tahap pertama adalah pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan kuesioner dan wawancara dengan pengurus Perkumpulan Petani Pemakai Air (P3A di Daerah Irigasi (DI Mejing di kabupaten Bantul, dan DI Sapon di kabupaten Kulon Progo, propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, dan DI Molek di kabupaten Malang, Jawa Timur. Tahap kedua adalah analisa data yang dilakukan dengan ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro

  16. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  17. Design and Season Influence Nitrogen Dynamics in Two Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands Treating Nursery Irrigation Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. White

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands (CWs are used to remediate runoff from a variety of agricultural, industrial, and urban sources. CW remediation performance is often evaluated at the laboratory scale over durations less than one year. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of CW design (cell depth and residence time on nitrogen (N speciation and fate across season and years in two free water surface wetlands receiving runoff from irrigated plant production areas at an ornamental plant nursery. Water quality (mg·L−1 of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, dissolved oxygen and oxidation reduction potential was monitored at five sites within each of two CWs each month over four years. Nitrate-N was the dominant form of ionic N present in both CWs. Within CW1, a deep cell to shallow cell design, nitrate comprised 86% of ionic N in effluent. Within CW2, designed with three sequential deep cells, nitrate comprised only 66% of total N and ammonium comprised 27% of total N in CW2 effluent. Differences in ionic N removal efficacies and shifts in N speciation in CW1 and CW2 were controlled by constructed wetland design (depth and hydraulic retention time, the concentration of nutrients entering the CW, and plant species richness.

  18. Assess the potential of solar irrigation systems for sustaining pasture lands in arid regions - A case study in Northwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yingdong; Liu, Jiahong; Wang, Hao; Liu, Miao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We figured out the appropriate indicators for solar irrigation. → We analyzed the economic benefits of solar irrigation system. → The geographic allocation of grasslands suitable for solar irrigation in Qinghai province is presented. → The appropriate region for solar irrigation is also discussed. → The problems and countermeasures of PV pumping irrigation are considered. - Abstract: The combined impact of global climate change and increasing human activities has led to the severe deterioration of grasslands in China. Using the solar irrigation systems is an effective way for sustaining pasture lands in arid regions. A solar irrigation system is the device that uses the solar cell from the sun's radiation to generate electricity for driving the pump. And photovoltaic pump consists of an array of photovoltaic cells and pumps water from a well or reservoir for irrigation. Although ecologists and organizations constantly work and find ways to conserve grasslands through irrigation systems that use solar energy, issues on water resources are not yet thoroughly discussed. This paper takes into account the main factors in the study of water resources, including precipitation and groundwater, to analyze the feasibility of using a photovoltaic (PV) pumping irrigation. The appropriate area for such a PV pumping irrigation in Qinghai Province is also presented. The results show that the grasslands appropriate for PV pumping cover about 8.145 million ha, accounting for 22.3% of the grasslands in the entire province. Finally, the problems and countermeasures of PV pumping irrigation, including the impact on regional water balance, groundwater level and highland permafrost, are also considered.

  19. Fuzzy System of Irrigation Applied to the Growth of Habanero Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) under Protected Conditions in Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Martha Rocio; Gorricho, Juan Luis; Palma Gamboa, Oscar; Huerta, Mónica Karel; Rivas, David; Erazo Rodas, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest user of water worldwide by using about 70 percent of total consumption. The world food production depends on the availability of water, considering factors such as demographic and climate change, so the use of efficient irrigation is necessary to apply the correct amount of water to crops. The traditional irrigation systems generally program their scheme based on measurements made at Class A evaporimeter pan. In this paper an irrigation scheme defined by an algorith...

  20. Carbon and water fluxes and footprints in tropical agricultural systems under rainfed and irrigated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Morillas, L.; Dalmagro, H. J.; D'Acunha, B.; Kim, Y.; Suarez, A.; Couto, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    In this talk, we will summarize results obtained using three tropical agricultural water observatories in Guanacaste, Costa Rica and Mato Grosso, Brazil. These flux towers and associated sensors enable detailed assessments of carbon use and water use efficiencies for crops under rain-fed and irrigated conditions. In addition to directly assessing water consumption from crops via eddy covariance, determination of water footprints and water use efficiencies using sensors and integrating it with remotely sensed data make it possible to (i) evaluate and compare different irrigation systems used in the study regions (drip, pivot and flood irrigation), (ii) assess the effect of irrigation over the local water balance to identify vulnerabilities associated with intensive water extraction for irrigation, and (iii) study the effect of inter-annual water availability fluctuations on crop water use. We conclude by comparing volumetric water footprints for crops, their carbon footprints, and water and carbon use efficiencies of crops produced under business-as-usual and alternative soil and water management scenarios.

  1. Carbon retention in the soil–plant system under different irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2010-01-01

    received 2.0 g chemical nitrogen (N), while in Exp. II, 1.6 g chemical N and maize residue containing 0.4 g organic N were applied into the pot. The results showed that, in both experiments, the concentration and the amount of total C in the soil were lower in FI and PRI as compared to DI, presumably due......Carbon (C) sequestration through irrigation management is a potential strategy to reduce C emissions from agriculture. Two experiments (Exps. I and II) were conducted to investigate the effects of different irrigation strategies on C retention in the soil-plant system in order to evaluate...... their environmental impacts. Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Cedrico) were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and alternate partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) at early fruiting stage. In Exp. I, each plant...

  2. Impact of the Invasion of Modern Irrigation Systems in the Oasis of Lahmar, South Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherif Rezzoug

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the oasis dwellers of the Algerian Sahara exploit the groundwater through the use of traditional techniques such as foggaras (traditional technique of irrigation in the Algerian southwest, and wells of chadouf (pendulum wells. In the oasis of Lahmar, in Southwest Algeria, the farmers use foggaras (known by the name of foggaras ain - foggaras of source to irrigate their fields. Nowadays though, due to the indiscriminate use of modern systems (boreholes and pumps to procure water for irrigation and urban consumption, over-exploitation and drying off of water sources have been one the rise while traditional techniques are becoming day by day out of service and, what is more, palm groves have almost completely disappeared.

  3. Adubarroz: a brazilian experience for fertilization and liming recommendation of irrigated rice via computational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Campos Carmona

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Recommendations for fertilizing irrigated rice in southern Brazil have been constantly evolving over years. In this process, the influence of factors such as the development cycle of varieties and sowing period increased. Thus, computational tools that take these and others important aspects into account can potentiate the fertilization response of rice. This study describes the computer program "ADUBARROZ". The software provides recommendations of fertilizer rates and liming requirements of irrigated rice, based on information entered by the user. The system takes various factors that regulate the crop response to fertilization into account. A final report is established with the graphical representation of input management over time.

  4. Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Hand-Pump Infuser and UROMAT Endoscopic Automatic System for Irrigation Through a Flexible Ureteroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Daniel J; Owyong, Michael; Parkhomenko, Egor; Patel, Roshan M; Landman, Jaime; Clayman, Ralph V

    2018-02-13

    To evaluate the flow characteristics produced by a manual and automated-pump irrigation system connected to a flexible ureteroscope. An in vitro analysis of a manual hand-pump infuser (HP) and the UROMAT Endoscopic Automatic System for Irrigation ® (E.A.S.I.) pump was performed. Standard irrigation tubing was used to connect a three-way valve to a flexible ureteroscope, the irrigation system, and a digital manometer. Flow rate and irrigation pressure measurements were recorded over a 15-minute period using pressure settings of 150 and 200 mm Hg for both irrigation pump systems. Once the HP was inflated to the initial pressure, it was not reinflated over the course of the trial. Data were collected with the working channel unoccupied and with placement of a 200 μm (0.6F) holmium laser fiber, 1.7F nitinol stone retrieval basket, or 2.67F guidewire. The difference in pressure measured at the site of inflow of irrigation to the ureteroscope was significantly greater using the HP compared to the E.A.S.I. pump at pressure settings of 150 mm Hg with and without the use of ureteroscopic instrumentation (p pump systems. The flow rates of irrigation produced by the HP and the E.A.S.I. pump are similar at pressures of 150 and 200 mm Hg irrespective of the occupancy of a ureteroscope's working channel during the first 5-minutes of irrigation. Irrigation pressure at the entry site of the ureteroscope is subject to significant variability with use of the HP compared to the E.A.S.I. pump irrigation system.

  5. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  6. Multivariate time series modeling of short-term system scale irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Kushan C.; Western, Andrew W.; George, Biju; Nawarathna, Bandara

    2015-12-01

    Travel time limits the ability of irrigation system operators to react to short-term irrigation demand fluctuations that result from variations in weather, including very hot periods and rainfall events, as well as the various other pressures and opportunities that farmers face. Short-term system-wide irrigation demand forecasts can assist in system operation. Here we developed a multivariate time series (ARMAX) model to forecast irrigation demands with respect to aggregated service points flows (IDCGi, ASP) and off take regulator flows (IDCGi, OTR) based across 5 command areas, which included area covered under four irrigation channels and the study area. These command area specific ARMAX models forecast 1-5 days ahead daily IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR using the real time flow data recorded at the service points and the uppermost regulators and observed meteorological data collected from automatic weather stations. The model efficiency and the predictive performance were quantified using the root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE), anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) and mean square skill score (MSSS). During the evaluation period, NSE for IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR across 5 command areas were ranged 0.98-0.78. These models were capable of generating skillful forecasts (MSSS ⩾ 0.5 and ACC ⩾ 0.6) of IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR for all 5 lead days and IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR forecasts were better than using the long term monthly mean irrigation demand. Overall these predictive performance from the ARMAX time series models were higher than almost all the previous studies we are aware. Further, IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR forecasts have improved the operators' ability to react for near future irrigation demand fluctuations as the developed ARMAX time series models were self-adaptive to reflect the short-term changes in the irrigation demand with respect to various pressures and opportunities that farmers' face, such as

  7. A low cost microcontroller-based automated irrigation system for two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maintaining soil water level is a necessary and pre-requisite for optimum crops production. Water is the essential elements for proper growth of crops in its optimum level; however its excessiveness should be avoided. Since irrigation is a dominant consumer of water, there must be a system which regulates the level of water ...

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL LAND SYSTEMS AND WATER USE DURING THE APPLICATION OF PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko OKA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The identification of water rights is essential to the application of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM policies. Water and agricultural land have traditionally had strong relationships. We must clarify land tenure conditions and their relationships with water rights. This paper presents the results of studies focused on the relationships between agricultural land systems and water use in several African and Asian countries. It describes different situations related to land systems and water use, as well as the relationships between them. In study areas, in addition to historical backgrounds, land tenure may be associated with the extent to which state, customary, and individual involvements affect farmers’ de facto water rights. In general, water rights are clearly established in developed countries because formal administration of land and water resources has been functional and well-established. In developing countries, further institutional arrangements may be required to enable farmers to maintain water rights and increase efficient water use and management. However, no single solution is available. This paper describes how local contexts may vary with respect to land and water tenure. When PIM is introduced into irrigation schemes, it must be carefully integrated into agricultural land systems and the regulation of water rights in target areas. First, a land management system must be developed that secures farmers’ rights to ensure rational/optimal use of irrigation water. This offers important implications for rice irrigation and other crops that requires relatively intense and long-term investments in land development and advanced water management.

  9. The history of the construction of main state irrigation systems in the postwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chepurda

    2017-03-01

    It was established that the construction of large public irrigation systems in Ukraine started in 1951 stated that hydro construction that unfolded in the south of Ukraine, opened prospects to final elimination of the impact of drought and dry winds, the prospects for an unprecedented economic prosperity of the area.

  10. Simplified Equations to Estimate Flushline Diameter for Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A formulation of the Hazen-Williams equation is typically used to determine the diameter of the common flushline that is often used at the distal end of subsurface drip irrigation systems to aid in joint flushing of a group of driplines. Although this method is accurate, its usage is not intuitive a...

  11. On the Waterfront. Water Distribution, Technology and Agrarian Change in a South Indian Canal Irrigation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    This book analyses the struggle over water in a large-scale irrigation system in Raichur District, Karnataka, South India. It looks at water control as a simultaneously technical, managerial and socio-political process. The triangle of accommodation of different categories of farmers (head-enders

  12. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-update

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems Project (MERIMIS) was formulated at a meeting of experts from the region in Jordan in 2003. Funded by the U.S. Department of State, it is a cooperative regional project bringing together participants from Israel, Jordan, Palestini...

  13. Nitrate pollution and its transfer in surface water and groundwater in irrigated areas: a case study of the Piedmont of South Taihang Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fadong; Liu, Qiang; Suzuki, Yoshimi

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation projects have diverted water from the lower reaches of the Yellow River in China for more than 50 years and are unique in the world. This study investigated the effect of irrigation practices on the transfer and regional migration mechanisms of nitrate (NO3(-)) in surface water and groundwater in a Yellow River alluvial fan. Hydrochemical indices (EC, pH, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and HCO(3-)) and stable isotopic composition (δ18O and δD) were determined for samples. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to identify the sources of water constituents. Kriging was employed to simulate the spatial diffusion of NO3(-) and stable isotopes. Our results demonstrated that the groundwater exhibited more complex saline conditions than the surface water, likely resulting from alkaline conditions and lixiviation. NO3(-) was detected in all samples, 87.0% of which were influenced by anthropogenic activity. The NO3(-) pollution in groundwater was more serious than the common groundwater irrigation areas in the North China Plain (NCP), and was also slightly higher than that in surface water in the study area, but this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In addition, the groundwater sites with higher NO3(-) concentrations did not overlap with the spatial distribution of fertilizer consumption, especially in the central and western parts of the study area. NO3(-) distributions along the hydrogeological cross-sections were related to the groundwater flow system. Hydrochemical and environmental isotopic evidences indicate that surface water-groundwater interactions influence the spatial distribution of NO3(-) in the Piedmont of South Taihang Mountains.

  14. Evaluation of hydrocyclone as pre-filter in irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívio José Soccol

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a hydrocyclone to separate sand in irrigation water. To do this, it an experiment was conducted where the hydrocyclone was operated with pressures and discharge that varied from 10 to 60 kPa and from 1,159.90 L h-1 to 2,603.60 L h-1, respectively. During the tests, the sand concentration in suspension varied from 2.81 g L-1 to 7.01 g L-1. The results showed that the best efficiency was obtained with pressure differentials of 10 and 30 kPa, with cut size (d70 of 50 µm.Neste trabalho, o principal objetivo foi avaliar a capacidade de um hidrociclone em reter areia suspensa na água de irrigação. O hidrociclone operou com diferenciais de pressão que variaram de 10 a 60 kPa e vazões entre 1.159,90 a 2.603,60 L h-1. A concentração de areia na suspensão variou de 2,81 a 7,01 g L-1. Os resultados mostraram que as melhores eficiências de remoção foram obtidas para os diferenciais de pressão de 10 e 30 kPa, e diâmetros de corte (d70 de 50 µm.

  15. Wastewater treatment by a modular, domestic-scale reedbed system for safe horticultural irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Chris; Maheshwari, Basant

    2015-12-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the sequential treatment performance of a commercial, domestic-scale modular reedbed system intended to provide safe horticultural irrigation water. Previously only mechanical treatment systems involving forced aeration with subsequent disinfection, usually by tablet-chlorination, had been accredited in Australia. The modular design of the hybrid, subsurface-flow reedbed system offered 5 control points where monitoring and management of the treatment train could be carried out. Ten chemical parameters (chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved oxygen percentage saturation and suspended solids) and 4 microbial parameters (total coliform, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens) reached satisfactory levels as a result of the treatment process. Health requirements for safe horticultural irrigation were met by the outlet of the second reedbed, providing a high level of treatment-backup capacity in terms of the remaining 2 reedbeds. This suggested that chlorination was a redundant backup precaution in treating irrigation water to the acceptable regional guideline level for all horticultural uses, including the spray irrigation of salad crops eaten raw. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. CANDI: A decision support system for management of agricultural pesticides with irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, R. C.; Aly, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of pesticides is an integral part of today's agriculture. Pesticides contribute significantly to improved crop productivity and to public health. Some pesticides, even in extremely low concentrations, can pose a risk to human health and to the environment. Applied to plants or soil, pesticides can leach to the groundwater or may be washed off by surface water. A portion of water that has fallen on the earth, either from precipitation or irrigation, infiltrates the soil through pore sp...

  17. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management, EU Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    a multi-disciplinary team, with food safety and quality experts, engineers, agronomists and economists from17 research institutes and private companies in Europe, Israel and China working together. The project assesses potential risks to farmers. Coupled with farm management and economic models, a new......Globally, agricultural irrigation is the number one user of freshwater. Agriculture consumes about 70% of all water withdrawn worldwide, and up to 95% in some developing countries. The SAFIR project contributes to solving this challenge, addressing two major public concerns at the same time...... irrigated as sub-surface drip irrigation. KU-Life and AaU-DJF are the major partners in SAFIR of important work packages covering development of new irrigation strategies, use of waste water for irrigation, modelling, risk assessment and economy. The Danish partners are now aiming at implementation...

  18. Where indigenous water management practices overcome failures of structures: The Wadi Laba spate irrigation system in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehari, A.H.; Schultz, E.; Depeweg, H.

    2005-01-01

    The only source of irrigation water in the Wadi Laba (ephemeral stream) spate irrigation system is the flood, which is highly unpredictable in occurrence and amount. It frequently damages the brushwood and indigenous earthen structures, locally known as agims and musghas, making (re)construction and

  19. Agronomic and physiological performance of Teqing x Lemont introgression rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines under limited irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice is a staple food for almost half of the world. Most rice in the world, including the USA, is produced under a flooded paddy system that makes rice one of the most irrigated grain crops on earth. With many water resources being depleted due to high irrigation demands, it has become essential to ...

  20. Effects of surface and subsurface drip irrigation regimes with saline water on yield and water use efficiency of potato in arid conditions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia El Mokh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted on a sandy soil during spring of 2009 and autumn of 2010 in southern Tunisia for evaluating the effects of two drip irrigation methods and three irrigation regimes on soil moisture and salinity, yield and water use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. The surface drip (SDI and subsurface drip (SSDI irrigation methods were used. Irrigation regimes consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI100, 60% (DI60 and 30% (DI30. FI100 was considered as full irrigation while DI60 and DI30 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Well water with an ECi of 7.0 dS/m was used for irrigation. Findings are globally consistent between the two experiments. Results show that soil moisture content and salinity were significantly affected by irrigation treatments and methods. Higher soil moisture content and lower soil salinity were maintained with SSDI than SDI for all irrigation treatments. For both irrigation methods, higher salinity and lower moisture content in the root zone are observed under DI60 and DI30 treatments compared to FI100. Potato yields were highest over two cropping periods for the SSDI method although no significant differences were observed with the SDI. Irrigation regimes resulted in significant difference in both irrigation methods on yield and its components. Yields were highest under FI100. Compared to FI100, considerable reductions in potato yields were observed under DI60 and DI30 deficit treatments resulting from a reduction in tubers number/m² and average tuber weight and size. Water use efficiency (WUE was found to vary significantly among irrigation methods and treatments and varied between 5.9 and 20.5 kg/m3. WUE of SSDI method had generally higher values than SDI. The lowest WUE values were observed for the FI100 treatment, while the highest values were obtained under DI30 treatment for both methods. SSDI method provides

  1. Integrated water-crop-soil-management system for evaluating the quality of irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Sentis, I.

    1983-01-01

    The authors make use of an independent balance of the salts and ions present in the water available for irrigation, based on the residence times in the soil solution that are allowed by solubility limits and drainage conditions, to develop an efficient system for evaluating the quality of such water which combines the factors: water, crop, soil and management. The system is based on the principle that such quality depends not only on the concentration and composition of the salts dissolved in the water, but also on existing possibilities and limitations in using and managing it in respect of the soil and crops, with allowance for the crop's tolerance of salinity, drainage conditions and hydrological properties of the soils, climate and current or potential practices for the management of the irrigation. If this system is used to quantify approximately the time behaviour of the concentration and composition of the salts in the soil solution, it is possible not only to predict the effects on soil, crops and drainage water, but also to evaluate the various combinations of irrigation water, soil, crops and management and to select the most suitable. It is also useful for fairly accurately diagnosing current problems of salinity and for identifying alternatives and possibilities for reclamation. Examples of its use for these purposes in Venezuela are presented with particular reference to the diagnosis of the present and future development of ''salino-sodic'' and ''sodic'' soils by means of low-salt irrigation water spread over agricultural soils with very poor drainage in a sub-humid or semi-arid tropical climate. The authors also describe the use of radiation techniques for gaining an understanding of the relations between the factors making up the system and for improving the quantitative evaluations required to diagnose problems and to select the best management methods for the available irrigation water. (author)

  2. Evaluation of water distribution under pivot irrigation systems using remote sensing imagery in eastern Nile delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Farg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods for center pivot evaluation depend on the water depth distribution along the pivot arm. Estimation and mapping the water depth under pivot irrigation systems using remote sensing data is essential for calculating the coefficient of uniformity (CU of water distribution. This study focuses on estimating and mapping water depth using Landsat OLI 8 satellite data integrated with Heerman and Hein (1968 modified equation for center pivot evaluation. Landsat OLI 8 image was geometrically and radiometrically corrected to calculate the vegetation and water indices (NDVI and NDWI in addition to land surface temperature. Results of the statistical analysis showed that the collected water depth in catchment cans is also highly correlated negatively with NDVI. On the other hand water, depth was positively correlated with NDWI and LST. Multi-linear regression analysis using stepwise selection method was applied to estimate and map the water depth distribution. The results showed R2 and adjusted R2 0.93 and 0.88 respectively. Study area or field level verification was applied for estimation equation with correlation 0.93 between the collected water depth and estimated values.

  3. Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pinte

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Continuously adjusting allocation decisions based on the hydrologic status of the system will lead to the temporary reallocation of some (or all of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users. Such a dynamic allocation process will increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, this process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

  4. Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits) of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Continuously adjusting allocation decisions based on the hydrologic status of the system will lead to the temporary reallocation of some (or all) of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users. Such a dynamic allocation process will increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, this process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

  5. Reclaimed water as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes: distribution system and irrigation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Fahrenfeld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater is increasingly being reused to achieve sustainable water management in arid regions. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in recycled water, particularly after it has passed through the distribution system, and to consider point-of-use implications for soil irrigation. Three separate reclaimed wastewater distribution systems in the western U.S. were examined. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to quantify ARGs corresponding to resistance to sulfonamides (sul1, sul2, macrolides (ermF, tetracycline (tet(A, tet(O, glycopeptides (vanA, and methicillin (mecA, in addition to genes present in waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumophila (Lmip, Escherichia coli (gadAB, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ecfx, gyrB. In a parallel lab study, the effect of irrigating an agricultural soil with secondary, chlorinated, or dechlorinated wastewater effluent was examined in batch microcosms. A broader range of ARGs were detected after the reclaimed water passed through the distribution systems, highlighting the importance of considering bacterial re-growth and the overall water quality at the point of use. Screening for pathogens with qPCR indicated presence of Lmip and gadAB genes, but not ecfx or gyrB. In the lab study, chlorination was observed to reduce 16S rRNA and sul2 gene copies in the wastewater effluent, while dechlorination had no apparent effect. ARGs levels did not change with time in soil slurries incubated after a single irrigation event with any of the effluents. However, when irrigated repeatedly with secondary wastewater effluent (not chlorinated or dechlorinated, elevated levels of sul1 and sul2 were observed. This study suggests that reclaimed water may be an important reservoir of ARGs, especially at the point of use, and that attention should be directed towards the fate of ARGs in irrigation water and the implications for human health.

  6. Effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality of sugar beet Beta vulgaris irrigated with saline groundwater (fertigation and surface irrigation) and grown under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2009-07-01

    In a field experiment Sugar beet Beta vulgaris was grown as a spring crop during the growing seasons of 2004 and 2006, in salt affected soil, previously planted with sesbania and barley (2005 and 2003) to evaluate the response of sugar beet to two irrigation methods, (drip fertigation and surface irrigation), different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and its effect on yield and quality. Different rates of nitrogen fertilizers (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N/ ha) as urea (46% N) were injected for drip irrigation or broadcasted for the surface-irrigated treatments in four equally split applications. The 15 N labelled urea was applied to sub-plots of 1.0 m 2 in each experimental unit in a manner similar to that of unlabeled urea. Irrigation scheduling was carried out using the direct method of neutron scattering technique. Sugar beet was irrigated when soil moisture in the upper 25 cm was 80% of the field capacity (FC) and such practice continued until the six leaf stage. From the latter stage until harvest, sugar beet was irrigated when soil moisture in the upper 50 cm reached 80% of the FC. The amount of irrigation water applied, electrical conductivity of the soil paste, dry matter and fresh roots yield, total nitrogen uptake and N derived from fertilizer were also determined. Furthermore, Nitrogen use as well as water use-efficiencies for dry matter and roots yield were also calculated. Results revealed that sugar beets and dry matter yield increased with increasing N input up to 100-150 kg N/ha which was indicated by the higher dry matter yield, and sugar beet yield. Sugar percentage was also increased relative to the average percentage recorded in Syria. Crop water use efficiencies, for both the drip-fertigated and surface-irrigated treatments were increased in most cases with increasing rate of nitrogen fertilizer. During the course of this study, small increases in soil salinity under both irrigation methods were observed. Higher increases in soil salinity was

  7. Reduced Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tomato Cropping Systems under Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, T.; Suddick, E. C.; Six, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    In California, agriculture and forestry account for 8% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which 50% is accounted for by nitrous oxide (N2O). Furrow irrigation and high temperatures in the Central Valley, together with conventional fertilization, are ideal for the production of food, but also N2O. These conditions lead to high N2O fluxes, but also mean there is great potential to reduce N2O emissions by optimizing fertilizer use and irrigation practices. Improving fertilizer use by better synchronizing nitrogen (N) availability and crop demand can reduce N losses and fertilizer costs. Smaller, more frequent fertilizer applications can increase the synchrony between available soil N and crop N uptake. Fertigation allows for more control over how much N is being added and can therefore allow for better synchrony throughout the growing season. In our study, we determined how management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, tillage and harvest, affect direct N2O emissions in typical tomato cropping systems. We evaluated two contrasting irrigation managements and their associated fertilizer application method, i.e. furrow irrigation and knife injection versus drip irrigation and fertigation. Across two tomato-growing seasons, we found that shifts in fertilizer and irrigation water management directly affect GHG emissions. Seasonal N2O fluxes were 3.4 times lower under drip versus furrow irrigation. In 2010, estimated losses of fertilizer N as N2O were 0.60 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in the drip system versus 2.06 ± 0.11 N2O-N kg ha-1 yr-1 in the furrow system, which was equivalent to 0.29% and 0.87% of the added fertilizer, respectively. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were also lower in the drip system (2.21 ± 0.16 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) than the furrow system (4.65 ± 0.23 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1). Soil mineral N, dissolved organic carbon and soil moisture also varied between the two systems and correlated positively with N2O and CO2 emissions, depending

  8. Septic arthritis of the knee: Presentation of a novel irrigation-suction system tested in a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Kuno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The established treatment for bacterial arthritis of the knee joint is arthroscopic surgery with irrigation and debridement. The aim of this article is to summarize the relevant data in treating bacterial arthritis of the knee joint, and based on these findings to present a novel irrigation suction system, tested in a cadaver study, as an additional tool in the postoperative treatment phase of arthroscopic surgery for knee joint infections. Method The novel automated irrigation-suction system presented here was compared to conventional continuous suction irrigation in a total of six knee joints. All knee joints were filled with 80 ml methylene blue stain and rinsed by two different methods. Fluid specimens were taken after ten and twenty minutes to be compared by photometric extinction measurement at a wave length of 500 nm. Results After ten minutes, the average extinction was e1C = 0.8 for the continuous suction irrigation and e1N = 0.4 for the novel irrigation-suction system. After twenty minutes, we recorded an average extinction of e2C = 0.3 for continuous suction irrigation and e2N = 0.001 for the novel irrigation-suction system. The students t-test revealed superior results after ten and twenty minutes of washing out the knee joints with a p Conclusion A novel irrigation-suction system may be an effective tool for postoperative knee joint irrigation in arthroscopic therapy for bacterial arthritis of the knee. Further animal studies are needed to verify the effects in vivo.

  9. Behavior, balance and distribution of sediments within irrigation systems. Application to Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vabre, Alexandre

    2000-01-01

    This PhD work is part of a research program between Cemagref, CEA and IWMI. It aims at studying the sediment deposition phenomena in irrigation Systems of Pakistan. Indeed, many Systems are subject to an excessive sediment deposition that widely disturbs their functioning. A pragmatic approach of the problem is chosen, and the sediment deposition description is realized through global methods. This choice is done in order to allow the developed methods and tools to be utilized directly by the irrigation managers. A global numerical modeling method (GSM) is proposed. It lies on classical laws of sediment transport but a new formalism is proposed for the expression of the deposition. It's a relationship between the sediment trapping efficiency of a reach and its sediment transport capacity. Also, criteria are defined for the definition of homogeneous reaches in the system. An outline of GSM is implemented on a sediment deposition data set of an actual System in Pakistan (Jamrao). A measurement campaign using radio-activable tracers is then carried out on this site to complete the GSM working data set Also, such a campaign with it only is a description method of the deposition phenomena in the irrigation System. The strength of the modeling approach laws is then tested on another case study of irrigation System in Pakistan (Chashma). The results are very much encouraging because the GSM model could be calibrated and validated on several actual deposition trends with quite moderate errors for such a tool. Also, the constituted data set from the tracer campaign was found minimum and sufficient to implement the GSM. Moreover, it has been possible to use the GSM for irrigation management applications. A design criterion for stable canals is proposed. And the GSM has allowed to identify an hydraulic operational scenario on an irrigation System that decreases the deposition. The perspectives of this work are to test the GSM approach on other data sets and then to

  10. Monitoring of the humus status of soils of the Ingulets irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovitsii, P. S.

    2012-03-01

    The results of long-term studies (1957-2007) of the changes in the morphology of soil profiles and in the reserves and fractional composition of the humus in the soils of the Ingulets irrigation system are discussed. After 50 years of irrigation, the boundaries of the genetic horizons shifted downward by 15-30 cm. The redistribution of the humus took place: its content decreased to a low level in the plow layer of the irrigated and rainfed soils and significantly increased in the layer of 60-100 cm so that the reserves of humus in the layer of 0-100 cm somewhat increased and corresponded to a moderate level. The distribution of humus in the soil profiles was characterized by the gradual lowering down the soil profile. The concentration of nitrogen in the humus of the irrigated southern chernozems was very low. The degree of humification of the soil organic matter was high. The humus was of the humate type in the upper horizons and of the fulvate-humate type in the lower horizons.

  11. A comparison of precision mobile drip irrigation, LESA and LEPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision mobile drip irrigation (PMDI) is a surface drip irrigation system fitted onto moving sprinkler systems that applies water through the driplines as they are dragged across the field. This application method can conserve water by limiting runoff, and reducing evaporative losses since the wat...

  12. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  13. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri......The present paper presents the SAFIR project (www.safir4eu.org), which addresses two fundamental problems that over the past decade increasingly have become concerns of the general public: the one problem being the jeopardizing of safety and quality of our food products, while the other being...... the increasing competition for clean freshwater. The SAFIR project has a multi-disciplinary approach, which integrates the European as well as the global dimension of the EU-policy on food quality and safety. The main driving force behind the project idea is new research results that demonstrated that scheduled...

  14. Performance of cotton crop grown under surface irrigation and drip fertigation. I. seed cotton yield, dry matter production, and lint properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Somi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Drip fertigation is a key factor in modern irrigated agriculture, where water and fertilizers are the most expensive inputs for this irrigation method. Drip fertigation experiments were carried out a Hama, north of Syria (Tezeen's Irrigation Research Station), for four consecutive years 1995 - 1998. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutim L.) variety Aleppo 33/1 was planted after unfertilized maize in order to deplete as much as possible the available N and reduce the field variability on the corresponding experimental units and irrigated thereafter. Treatments consisted of two irrigation methods (Surface irrigation and drip fertigation) and five N rates within drip fertigated cotton, including the control (N 0 = 0, N 1 = 60, N 2 = 120, N 3 = 180, N 4 240 kg N ha -1 ). The N fertilizer treatment for surface irrigated cotton was 180 kg N ha -1 in accordance with the recommended rate of ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. The experimental design was randomized block design with six replicates. Fertigation resulted in large water saving, and highly improved field water-use efficiency. Further, increasing N application rates under drip fertigation increased dry matter yield. The principal benefit of drip fertigation was the achievement of higher field water-use efficiencies, which were increased more than three-fold for both dry matter and seed cotton yield, relative to surface irrigation. The highest water-use efficiencies were obtained with the addition of 180 and 240 kg N ha -1 in 1995 and 1996 and 120 kg N ha -1 in 1997 and 1998. Dry matter production and partitioning among different plant parts at physiological maturity stage varied due to N input and irrigation methods. The overall dry matter distribution among different plant structures for drip fertigated-treatments was: Stems, 20.3 - 21.3%; leaves 26.3 - 28.7%; and fruiting forms, 50 - 53.2%. For the surface-irrigated treatment, the partitioning was stems, 23.1%; leaves, 28.3%; and fruiting form, 48.6%. The

  15. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mya Su Kyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21-58-30 N Latitude and 96-5-0 E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25mday.

  16. Suitability Evaluation of Surface Water for Irrigation: a Case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MRS T. NWAKUNOBI

    River Mu in Makurdi Area of Benue State, Nigeria, was evaluated for its suitability as irrigation water source. Both qualitative and quantitative studies of the river water were carried out. Results of laboratory analysis show that the concentration values of physical and chemical parameters such as electrical conductivity, pH ...

  17. Sustainable crop intensification through surface water irrigation in Bangladesh? A geospatial assessment of landscape-scale production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnik, Timothy J; Schulthess, Urs; Ahmed, Zia Uddin; McDonald, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Changing dietary preferences and population growth in South Asia have resulted in increasing demand for wheat and maize, along side high and sustained demand for rice. In the highly productive northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, farmers utilize groundwater irrigation to assure that at least two of these crops are sequenced on the same field within the same year. Such double cropping has had a significant and positive influence on regional agricultural productivity. But in the risk-prone and food insecure lower Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (EIGP), cropping is less intensive. During the dryer winter months, arable land is frequently fallowed or devoted to lower yielding rainfed legumes. Seeing opportunity to boost cereals production, particularly for rice, donors and land use policy makers have consequently reprioritized agricultural development investments in this impoverished region. Tapping groundwater for irrigation and intensified double cropping, however, is unlikely to be economically viable or environmentally sound in the EIGP. Constraints include saline shallow water tables and the prohibitively high installation and energetic extraction costs from deeper freshwater aquifers. The network of largely underutilized rivers and natural canals in the EIGP could conversely be tapped to provide less energetically and economically costly surface water irrigation (SWI). This approach is now championed by the Government of Bangladesh, which has requested USD 500 million from donors to implement land and water use policies to facilitate SWI and double cropping. Precise geospatial assessment of where freshwater flows are most prominent, or where viable fallow or low production intensity cropland is most common, however remains lacking. In response, we used remotely sensed data to identify agricultural land, detect the temporal availability of freshwater in rivers and canals, and assess crop production intensity over a three-year study period in a 33,750

  18. Straw decomposition of nitrogen-fertilized grasses intercropped with irrigated maize in an integrated crop-livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Magalhães Pariz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest limitation to the sustainability of no-till systems in Cerrado environments is the low quantity and rapid decomposition of straw left on the soil surface between fall and spring, due to water deficit and high temperatures. In the 2008/2009 growing season, in an area under center pivot irrigation in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, this study evaluated the lignin/total N ratio of grass dry matter , and N, P and K deposition on the soil surface and decomposition of straw of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, P. maximum cv. Mombaça, Brachiaria. brizantha cv. Marandu and B. ruziziensis, and the influence of N fertilization in winter/spring grown intercropped with maize, on a dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in split-plots; the plots were represented by eight maize intercropping systems with grasses (sown together with maize or at the time of N side dressing. Subplots consisted of N rates (0, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 year-1 sidedressed as urea (rates split in four applications at harvests in winter/spring, as well as evaluation of the straw decomposition time by the litter bag method (15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days after straw chopping. Nitrogen fertilization in winter/spring of P. maximum cv. Tanzânia, P. maximum cv. Mombaça, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and B. ruziziensis after intercropping with irrigated maize in an integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage proved to be a technically feasible alternative to increase the input of straw and N, P and K left on the soil surface, required for the sustainability of the system, since the low lignin/N ratio of straw combined with high temperatures accelerated straw decomposition, reaching approximately 30 % of the initial amount, 90 days after straw chopping.

  19. Possibilities for conservation and efficiency of irrigation systems in hydropower; Possibilidades de conservacao e eficientizacao hidroenergetica em sistemas de irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Augusto Nelson Carvalho; Ricardo, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Grupo de Energia], emails: augusto@unifei.edu.br, mateus@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a literature review on efficiency and conservation of electricity and water in irrigation systems, focusing on the pumping systems used for that purpose. It's made an introduction to the theory about pumping systems and irrigation, which provides the conceptual basis for the understanding of the technologies and best practices on conservation and rational use of water and electricity presented in the paper development. (author)

  20. Scale Effects of Water Saving on Irrigation Efficiency: Case Study of a Rice-Based Groundwater Irrigation System on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the scale effect of water saving in Bielahonghe (BLH Basin, a rice-cultivating district on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Water budgets with different surface irrigation water supply ratios and water-saving measures were simulated with a semi-distributed water balance model. PFnws, representing the ratio of rice evapotranspiration to net water supply (the total amount of irrigation and precipitation minus the amount of water reused, was employed to assess the water use efficiency. Seven spatial scales (noted from S1 to S7, ranging from a single field (317.87 ha to the whole basin (about 100,800 ha were determined. PFnws values were quantified across scales and several water-saving measures, including water-saving irrigation regimes, canal lining, and a reduction of the surface water supply ratio (SWSR. The results indicated that PFnws increased with scale and could be calculated by a fitted power function (PFnws = 0.736Area0.033, R2 = 0.58. Furthermore, PFnws increased most prominently when the scale increased from S1 to S2. The water-saving irrigation regime (WSIR had the most substantial water-saving effect (WSE at S1. Specifically, PFnws improved by 21.2% at S1 when high-intensity WSIR was applied. Additionally, the WSE values of S3 and S5 were slightly higher than at other scales when the branch canal water delivery coefficient increased from 0.65 to 0.80 through canal lining. Furthermore, the PFnws at each scale varied with SWSR. Specifically, PFnws from S3 to S7 improved as SWSR decreased from 0.4 to 0.3 but remained approximately constant when SWSR decreased from 0.3 to 0.

  1. Institutional and structural barriers for implementing on-farm water saving irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Boesen, Mads Vejlby; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Population growth and increased global water demand has intensified the need to apply water more efficiently. As the main global water user the agricultural sector needs special attention. In this study, the water saving potential of new drip irrigation systems has been investigated in five...... different regions in Europe and China. From a technical point of view, these solutions have a high potential to increase the water application efficiency at the farm level. In practice, however, farmers often have low economic incentives to adopt these technical solutions. This study assesses the likely...... been designed to collect information on agricultural practices, irrigation systems, water availability, and water administrations in five regions in Greece, Italy, Serbia and China from the EU funded research project SAFIR. Findings from this case study analysis indicate that the incentives to shift...

  2. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic--aerobic system for irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ghunmi, Lina; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant effluent flow rate and varying liquid volume. Subsequent aerobic step is equipped with mechanical aeration and the system is insulated for sustaining winter conditions. The COD removal achieved by the anaerobic and aerobic units in summer and winter are 45%, 39% and 53%, 64%, respectively. Sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor has a concentration of 168 and 8 mg VSL(-1), respectively. Stability of sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors is 80% and 93%, respectively, based on COD. Aerobic effluent quality, except for pathogens, agrees with the proposed irrigation water quality guidelines for reclaimed water in Jordan.

  3. Culinary and pressure irrigation water system hydroelectric generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Cory [Water Works Engineers, Pleasant Grove City, UT (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Pleasant Grove City owns and operates a drinking water system that included pressure reducing stations (PRVs) in various locations and flow conditions. Several of these station are suitable for power generation. The City evaluated their system to identify opportunities for power generation that can be implemented based on the analysis of costs and prediction of power generation and associated revenue. The evaluation led to the selection of the Battle Creek site for development of a hydro-electric power generating system. The Battle Creek site includes a pipeline that carries spring water to storage tanks. The system utilizes a PRV to reduce pressure before the water is introduced into the tanks. The evaluation recommended that the PRV at this location be replaced with a turbine for the generation of electricity. The system will be connected to the utility power grid for use in the community. A pelton turbine was selected for the site, and a turbine building and piping system were constructed to complete a fully functional power generation system. It is anticipated that the system will generate approximately 440,000 kW-hr per year resulting in $40,000 of annual revenue.

  4. Irrigation, Planting Date And Intra-Row Spacing Effects On Soybean Grown Under Dry Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, A. M. A. [احمد محمد علي اسماعيل; Khalifa, F. M.

    1987-01-01

    Two soybean cultivars (Glycine maxima (L) Merr.) differing in maturity period, leaf size and stem height were sown five times at fortnight intervals during the rainy season at four intra—row spacings under supplementary irrigation at one site and under rainfed conditions at another site in the central rainlands of Sudan. Cultivars responded differently to the system of production. Sowing date and moisture availability were the main factors controlling soybean production. The late maturing cul...

  5. Documenting Hydrological Benefits of Traditional Acequia Irrigation Systems: Collaborative Research in New Mexico, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Guldan, Steven J.; Fernald, Alexander G.; Ochoa, Carlos G.

    2015-01-01

    [EN] In New Mexico, USA, acequia-based agriculture is under threat as pressures rise to transfer water and land out of agriculture. The amount and cash value of agricultural production coming out of acequia-irrigated valleys is not great when compared to many production areas – yet, the overall value of acequia agricultural systems may go beyond food and fiber production in ways not apparent to the general public. Research on the hydrology of acequias has been carried out in co...

  6. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  7. Analysis and comparison of modern methods of turf irrigation, verifying the capability of existing information systems through the use of numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelis, Maria Laura; Facoetti, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The automated irrigation of parks and gardens in public areas has become more and more a common practice due to the many benefits it brings in terms of improving the quality of urban green areas. Since this practice requires significant volumes of water, and this becomes increasingly scarce and expensive, it is necessary that the design criteria and use management aim at maximizing the irrigation efficiency. There are conflicting relationship and competition between trees and turf for several reasons. On one hand the different irrigation needs can cause excess water in the root zones of the trees, on the other hand the surface roots of trees and the shade created from the leaves by the dripline (projection line of the canopy) determine an unfavorable area to the growth of the turf because of light factor. It follows that for an optimal design of an irrigation system is necessary to separate the turf areas from trees, with the disadvantage of considerably complicate the geometries of the sprinklers. Each tree or group of trees need to be associated to a not irrigated area. This problem seems not to have a specifically bibliographical evidence, although there are operating standards primarily used to define buffer zones for trees from constructions (British Standard 5837:2005). Ideally, a high number of sprinklers is required to follow the shape of the areas perfectly. Hence, an additional step is necessary to simplify these geometries, identifying a correct scheme for the sprinkler spacing. Such a sequence of geometric operations has been tested on the "Indro Montanelli" park in Milan, obtaining a reduction of the irrigated area of 47% and a water saving of around 30%. We intend to continue the research applying the model to other parks, verifying its applicability in different situations.

  8. The Performance of Equalization Model of Water Allocation Inter Irrigation Areas in River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farriansyah Anang M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, water is public goods so it is necessary to control water allocation. Inequity of water allocation between water users is expanding largely, including irrigation as the largest user, while the density of headworks in the river are getting higher. Considering that water is limited, the practice of irrigation water allocation needs to be refined, from the traditional equity to volumetric equity. MEQAA (Model Equalisasi Alokasi Air/Equalization Model of Water Allocation plays a role in determining water sharing between headworks in order to meet the maximum-equal K-factor in river. MEQAA-Generic is a calculation machine with: analog-deterministic dynamic model; network equation according to mass balance and linear optimization; independent-based system; sustainability-efficiency-equity constraints; Ms. Excel-VBA. The inputs are: scheme system, local inflow, and irrigation demand. The outputs are: K-factor, release and ecosystem quote. The model performance is identified by comparing the output to the class of K-factor based on treatment of water distribution. The model test is performed in an uncontrolled and complicated system in Kukusan Tanggek watershed with 24 headworks in Lombok river basin. As long as it is adequate for water sharing, MEQAA-G can always produce maximum-equal K-factor. The output model is used to operation control.

  9.   Transanal Irrigation System for Paediatric Faecal Incontinence: A Single Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Nasher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of the PeristeenⒸ transanal irrigation system when treating faecal incontinence in children due to chronic idiopathic constipation. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted of the first cohort of patients affected with faecal incontinence and referred to our centre for PeristeenⒸ transanal irrigation treatment between January 2010 and December 2012. Patients with neurogenic bowel disturbance were excluded. A previously described and validated faecal continence scoring system was used to assess bowel function and social problems before and after treatment with PeristeenⒸ. Results. 13 patients were referred for PeristeenⒸ transanal irrigation during the study period. Mean time of using PeristeenⒸ  was 12.6 months (±0.6 months and mean length of follow-up was 21.2 months (±0.9 months. All patients were noted to have an improvement in their faecal continence score, with a mean improvement from 9.7 ± 1.4 to 14.8 ± 2.7 (P=0.0008 and a reduction in episodes of soiling and increasing in quality of life scores. Conclusion. In this initial study, PeristeenⒸ appears to be a safe and effective bowel management system, which improves bowel function and quality of life in children affected with faecal incontinence as a result of chronic idiopathic constipation, Hirschsprung’s disease, and anorectal malformations.

  10. Hydraulic performance evaluation of pressure compensating (pc) emitters and micro-tubing for drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrio, A.G.; Asif, M.; Jahangir, I.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation system is necessary for those areas, where the water scarcity issues are present. The present study was conducted at the field station of Climate Change, Alternate Energy and Water Resources Institute (CAEWRI), National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, during 2013, regarding drip irrigation system. Drip irrigation system depends on uniform emitter application flow. All the emitters were tested and replicated thrice at pressure head (34 to 207Kpa) with an increment of 34 Kpa. The minimum and maximum discharges were 1.32 - 3.52, 3.36 - 5.42, and 43.22 - 100.99 Lph, with an average of 2.42, 4.63 and 73.66 Lph, for Bow Smith, RIS and Micro-tubing, respectively. It indicates that more than 90% of emission uniformity (EU) and uniformity coefficient (CU) for all Emitters, which shows excellent water application with least standard deviation, ranging 0.12 to 2.37, throughout the operating pressure heads in all emitters. An average coefficient of variation (CV) of all emitters were behaving less than 0.07, indicating an excellent class at all operating pressure heads between 34 to 207 Kpa. Moreover, the relationship of discharge and pressure of emitters indicates that discharge increased with the increase of pressure head. The Q-H curve plays key role in the selection of emitters. (author)

  11. Nitrogen Balance of Effluent Irrigated Silage Cropping Systems in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen (N balance in a double-cropped, effluent spray irrigation system was examined for several years in southern Australia. The amounts of N added by irrigation, removed in the crop, and lost by ammonia (NH3 volatilisation, denitrification, and leaching were measured. Results from the project provide pig producers with the knowledge necessary to evaluate the efficiency of such systems for managing N, and enable sustainable effluent reuse practices to be developed. Oats were grown through the winter (May to November without irrigation, and irrigated maize was grown during the summer/autumn (December to April. Approximately 18 mm of effluent was applied every 3 days. The effluent was alkaline (pH 8.3 and the average ammoniacal-N (NH4+ + NH3 concentration was 430 mg N/l (range: 320 to 679 mg N/l. Mineral N in the 0- to 1.7-m layer tended to increase during the irrigation season and decrease during the winter/spring. About 2000 kg N/ha was found in the profile to a depth of 2 m in October 2000. N removed in the aboveground biomass (oats + maize was 590 and 570 kg N/ha/year, equivalent to ≈25% of the applied N. Average NH3 volatilisation during the daytime (6:00 to 19:00 was 2.74 kg N/ha, while volatilisation at night (19:00 to 6:00 was 0.4 kg N/ha, giving a total of 3.1 kg N/ha/day. This represents ≈12% of the N loading, assuming that these rates apply throughout the season. The balance of the N accumulated in the soil profile during the irrigation season, as 15N-labelled N studies confirmed. The high recovery of the 15N-labelled N, and the comparable distribution of 15N and Br in the soil profile, implied that there was little loss of N by denitrification, even though the soil was wet enough for leaching of both tracers.

  12. Nitrogen balance of effluent irrigated silage cropping systems in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C J; Snow, V O; Leuning, R; Hsu, D

    2001-11-21

    The nitrogen (N) balance in a double-cropped, effluent spray irrigation system was examined for several years in southern Australia. The amounts of N added by irrigation, removed in the crop, and lost by ammonia (NH3) volatilisation, denitrification, and leaching were measured. Results from the project provide pig producers with the knowledge necessary to evaluate the efficiency of such systems for managing N, and enable sustainable effluent reuse practices to be developed. Oats were grown through the winter (May to November) without irrigation, and irrigated maize was grown during the summer/autumn (December to April). Approximately 18 mm of effluent was applied every 3 days. The effluent was alkaline (pH 8.3) and the average ammoniacal-N (NH4+ + NH3) concentration was 430 mg N/l (range: 320 to 679 mg N/l). Mineral N in the 0- to 1.7-m layer tended to increase during the irrigation season and decrease during the winter/spring. About 2000 kg N/ha was found in the profile to a depth of 2 m in October 2000. N removed in the aboveground biomass (oats + maize) was 590 and 570 kg N/ha/year, equivalent to 25% of the applied N. Average NH3 volatilisation during the daytime (6:00 to 19:00) was 2.74 kg N/ha, while volatilisation at night (19:00 to 6:00) was 0.4 kg N/ha, giving a total of 3.1 kg N/ha/day. This represents approximately 12% of the N loading, assuming that these rates apply throughout the season. The balance of the N accumulated in the soil profile during the irrigation season, as 15N-labelled N studies confirmed. The high recovery of the 15N-labelled N, and the comparable distribution of 15N and Br in the soil profile, implied that there was little loss of N by denitrification, even though the soil was wet enough for leaching of both tracers.

  13. A Solar Energy Powered Autonomous Wireless Actuator Node for Irrigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lajara, Rafael; Alberola, Jorge; Pelegr?-Sebasti?, Jos?

    2010-01-01

    The design of a fully autonomous and wireless actuator node ("wEcoValve mote") based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is presented. The system allows remote control (open/close) of a 3-lead magnetic latch solenoid, commonly used in drip irrigation systems in applications such as agricultural areas, greenhouses, gardens, etc. The very low power consumption of the system in conjunction with the low power consumption of the valve, only when switching positions, allows the system to be solar powered...

  14. Fertigation - Injecting soluble fertilizers into the irrigation system: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Jeremy R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this article in the Summer 2009 issue covered basic mineral nutrition, the 3 components of a fertigation system, and the chemical calculations forformulating your own custom fertigation solutions. In this second and final part, we'll discuss types of fertilizer injectors, fertigation scheduling, and how to check injector function and determine...

  15. A Wireless Low Power Valve Controller for Drip Irrigation Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Tai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation control systems in fields generally include a large number of sensors and valves; controlling these devices efficiently can be achieved by using distributed irrigation control (DIC, which has the advantages of reduced wiring and piping costs and easier installation and maintenance. In this study, a wireless low power valve controller for drip irrigation control systems was developed and tested. The specific tasks included the controller design (hardware and software, energy consumption tests, and field tests. The controller uses the highly integrated JN5139 module, which is based on IEEE802.15.4, for hardware design; low power consumption sleep algorithms for software design; and two alkaline batteries for supply of power to the valve controller. Results of laboratory and field tests show continuous working days of the valve controller powered by two alkaline batteries are at least 3 months under different sleep periods and frequencies of valve control. The controller described here is characterized as reliable, low cost, easy to install, and having low power consumption.

  16. Design and Management of Irrigation Systems Diseño y Manejo de Sistemas de Riego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A Holzapfel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation systems should be a relevant agent to give solutions to the increasing demand of food, and to the development, sustainability and productivity of the agricultural sector. The design, managing, and operation of irrigation systems are crucial factors to achieve an efficient use of the water resources and the success in the production of crops and orchards. The aim of this paper is to analyze knowledge and investigations that enable to identify the principal criteria and processes that allow improving the design and managing of the irrigation systems, based on the basic concept that they facilitate to develop agriculture more efficient and sustainable. The design and managing of irrigation systems must have its base in criteria that are relevant, which implies to take into account agronomic, soil, hydraulic, economic, energetic, and environmental factors. The optimal design and managing of irrigation systems at farm level is a factor of the first importance for a rational use of water, economic development of the agriculture and its environmental sustainability.Los sistemas de riego deberían ser un agente relevante para dar soluciones a la demanda creciente de alimentos, y el desarrollo, sustentabilidad y productividad del sector agrícola. El diseño, manejo, y operación de los sistemas de riego son factores cruciales para lograr un uso eficiente de los recursos hídricos y el éxito en la producción de cultivos y frutales. El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar conocimientos e investigaciones que permitan identificar los principales criterios y procesos para mejorar el diseño y manejo de los sistemas de riego, basados en el concepto básico de desarrollar una agricultura más eficiente y sostenible. El diseño y manejo de los sistemas de riego deben tener su base en criterios que sean relevantes, lo que implica considerar aspectos agronómicos, de suelo, hidráulicos, económicos, energéticos, y ambientales. El diseño y

  17. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant using two new reciprocating and one continuous rotation single file systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems.Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20 were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One and one rotary (One Shape single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05. Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05.Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.

  18. SAR change detection for monitoring the impact of the rehabilitation of the Arghandab irrigation system in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busler, Jennifer; Ghazel, Mohsen; Kotamraju, Vinay; Vandehei, Lisa; Aubé, Guy; Froese, Corey

    2012-06-01

    Tracking the progress and impact of large scale projects in areas of active conflict is challenging. In early 2010, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) broke ground on an ambitious project to rehabilitate a network of just under 600 km of canals that supply water from the Arghandab River throughout southern Kandahar Province thereby restoring a reliable and secure water supply and stimulating a once vibrant agricultural region. Monitoring the region for signs of renewal is difficult due to the large areal extent of the irrigated land and safety concerns. With the support of the Canadian Space Agency, polarimetric change detection techniques are applied to space-borne SAR data to safely monitor the area through a time-series of RADARSAT-2 images acquired during the rehabilitation ground work and subsequent growing seasons. Change detection maps delineating surface cover improvement will aid CIDA in demonstrating the positive value of Canada's investment in renovating Afghanistan's irrigation system to improve water distribution. This paper examines the use of value-added SAR imaging products to provide short- and long-term monitoring suitable for assessing the impact and benefit of large scale projects and discusses the challenges of integrating remote sensing products into a non-expert user community.

  19. Review of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jee Yoo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Eliminating the residual debris and bacteria in the root canal system is one of the main purposes of the endodontic treatment. However, the complexity on the anatomy of the root canal system makes it difficult to eliminate the bacterial biofilm existing along the root canal surface and necrotic pulp tissue by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation. Recently, more effective irrigant delivery systems for root canal irrigation have been developed. The purpose of this review was to present an overview of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices available in endodontics. Review The contents of this paper include as follows; - syringe-needle irrigation, manual dynamic irrigation, brushes - sonic and ultrasonic irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, rotary brush, RinsEndo, EndoVac, Laser Conclusion Though technological advances during the last decade have brought to fruition new agitation devices that rely on various mechanisms, there are few evidence based study to correlate the clinical efficacy of these devices with improved outcomes except syringe irrigation with needle and ultrasonic irrigation. The clinicians should try their best efforts to deliver antimicrobial and tissue solvent solutions in predictable volumes safely to working length.

  20. Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture in Irrigated Lands by Assimilation of Landsat Vegetation Indices, Surface Energy Balance Products, and Relevance Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso F. Torres-Rua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial surface soil moisture can be an important indicator of crop conditions on farmland, but its continuous estimation remains challenging due to coarse spatial and temporal resolution of existing remotely-sensed products. Furthermore, while preceding research on soil moisture using remote sensing (surface energy balance, weather parameters, and vegetation indices has demonstrated a relationship between these factors and soil moisture, practical continuous spatial quantification of the latter is still unavailable for use in water and agricultural management. In this study, a methodology is presented to estimate volumetric surface soil moisture by statistical selection from potential predictors that include vegetation indices and energy balance products derived from satellite (Landsat imagery and weather data as identified in scientific literature. This methodology employs a statistical learning machine called a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM to identify and relate the potential predictors to soil moisture by means of stratified cross-validation and forward variable selection. Surface soil moisture measurements from irrigated agricultural fields in Central Utah in the 2012 irrigation season were used, along with weather data, Landsat vegetation indices, and energy balance products. The methodology, data collection, processing, and estimation accuracy are presented and discussed.

  1. A California Statewide App to Simulate Fate of Nitrate in Irrigated Agricultural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, E.; Walkinshaw, M.; Harter, T.; O'Geen, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater resources are very important for California's economic development and environmental sustainability. Nitrate is by far the most widespread anthropogenic groundwater pollutant in California's mostly alluvial groundwater basins. Major sources are synthetic fertilizer and dairy manure, but also septic systems and urban wastewater effluent. Here, we evaluate agricultural soils in California according to their risk for nitrate leaching. We conducted over 1 million numerical simulations taking into account the effect of climate, crop type, irrigation and fertilization management scenarios across all 4,568 agricultural soil profiles occurring in California. The assessment was done solving 1-D Richards equation and the advection-dispersion equation numerically. This study is focused on the complex water and nitrate dynamics occurring at the shallow vadose zone (rootzone). The results of this study allow the construction of state-wide maps which can be used for the identification of high-risk regions and the design of agricultural nutrient management policy. We investigate how pollution risk can be minimized by adopting simple irrigation and fertilization methods. Furthermore, we show that these methods are more effective for the most permeable soil profiles along with high demanding crops in terms of fertilization amount and irrigation water. We also present how seasonal (winter) climate conditions contribute on nitrate leaching.

  2. Efficacy of Laser Activated Irrigation on Apically Extruded Debris with Different Preparation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuştarcı, Alper; Er, Kürşat

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate apical extrusion of debris in canals prepared with three nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file systems [Twisted File Adaptive (TFA), SybronEndo, Orange, CA], Reciproc [(RP), VDW, Munich, Germany], and Revo-S [(RS), MicroMega, Besançon, France] and two irrigation [conventional needle (CNI) and laser-activated (LAI)] techniques. Although previous studies have evaluated the amount of apically extruded debris by various instrumentation and irrigation methods, none of them have investigated the effect of LAI during the root canal preparation on debris extrusion. Ninety extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars with straight canals were randomly assigned to six groups (n=15) according to the file and irrigation protocols used: (1) TFA and LAI group, (2) RP and LAI group, (3) RS and LAI group, (4) TFA and CNI group, (5) RP and CNI group, and (6) RS and CNI group. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal preparation was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction to compare groups. LAI groups extruded more debris than CNI groups (p0.017). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the agitation method, such as LAI, had a significant effect on the amount of extrusion.

  3. Distribution Of 15N Fertilizer Added To Sandy Soil Under Drip Irrigation System As Affected By Irrigation Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GADALLA, A.M.; GALAL, Y.G.M.; EL-GENDY, R.W.; ISMAIL, M.M.; EL-DEGWY, S.M.; KASSAB, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron moisture meter and stable nitrogen isotope ( 15 N) were used to follow horizontal and vertical water movement and N-fertilizer added to soil before and after irrigation. The data indicated that soil moisture distribution and values of total hydraulic potential depend on soil moisture content. Characterization of nitrogen in soil for all sites around the emitter indicated spatial variability with different soil depths due to leaching and volatilization processes. Moreover, water movement and flow direction greatly were characterized by active evaporation depth which was 30 cm.

  4. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  5. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  6. The efficacy of dynamic irrigation using a commercially available system (RinsEndo) determined by removal of a collagen 'bio-molecular film' from an ex vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, S; Gulabivala, K; Mordan, N; Ng, Y-L

    2008-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of three irrigation protocols using an established ex vivo bio-molecular film model. Thirty human teeth with single straight canals were randomly allocated to three groups [static, manual-dynamic, automated-dynamic (RinsEndo]; each with a sub-group (n = 5) for needle position at 4 or 10 mm short of the working length (WL). The root canals were prepared to apical size 40, taper 0.08. The teeth were split longitudinally into two halves and a standard coat of stained-collagen was applied to the canal surfaces. The re-assembled teeth were irrigated using one of the protocols with the irrigation needle at one of two positions. Digital images of the canal surfaces, before and after irrigation with 18 mL of 2.5% NaOCl, were used to score surface coverage with stained-collagen using image-analyses (ipWin4). The data were analysed using linear regression models. The canal area covered with stained-collagen was significantly (P irrigation (manual/automated) compared with static irrigation; but automated-dynamic irrigation was significantly (P = 0.037) less effective than manual-dynamic irrigation. The 'orientation of needle port', 'corono-apical level of canal' and 'apical extent of needle placement' were significant (P irrigation. Residual collagen was most evident in the coronal third. Deeper penetration of the needle tip resulted in significantly (P irrigation was significantly more effective (16%) than static irrigation but significantly less effective (5%) than manual-dynamic irrigation. Irrigation was more effective (7%) when the needle was placed closer to WL.

  7. Assessing Energy Flow in Rainfed and Irrigated Wheat Fields of Shahrekourd Township under two Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein kazemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Energy analysis of agricultural ecosystem is essential for sustainable production. The relation between agriculture and energy is very close. Agriculture is an energy consumer and the energy supplier. Agriculture’s use of energy is recognized in three external inputs: labor, machines, and fertilizers (Connor et al., 2011. Significant gains in energy efficiency were arisen in agriculture following the phenomenal increase in energy prices in the 1970s. Greater use of diesel motors, larger tractors, using conservation tillage methods and optimized fertilizer use efficiency were the main causes (Ozkan et al., 2004. Safa & Samarasinghe (2013 were reported that fuel consumption in tillage and harvesting was more than other operations in wheat fields of Canterbury, New Zealand. Effective application of agricultural techniques and efficient use of support inputs can minimize environmental problems and in consequence promote sustainable agricultural intensification. In this study, the energy flow investigated in irrigated and rain-fed wheat cropping systems under two tillage and no-tillage methods in the Shahrekourd city, during 2013. Materials and methods The study was carried out in the Sharekourd city (Chaharmahal Bakhteyari province. This region is located within 32º 20' and 32º 21' Lat. N, 50º 48' and 50º 50' Lon. E. Data were collected from 40 farmers with questionnaire method. In this study, a randomized complete design with four scenarios (rain-fed and irrigated farming with tillage and no-tillage systems was used, that 10 farms were considered as a replication in each scenario. All data detail information on the questionnaire were averaged and arranged. First, all inputs and outputs of wheat production were determined, quantified and entered into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and then transformed into energy units and expressed in MJ.ha-1. Based on the total energy equivalents of the inputs and output and the energy use

  8. Nitrogen dynamics in the soil-plant system under deficit and partial root-zone drying irrigation strategies in potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahnazari, Ali; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    . In 2005, FI and PRD2 were investigated, where FI plants received 100% of evaporative demands, while PRD2 plants received 70% water of FI at each irrigation event after tuber initiation. In 2006, besides FI and PRD2 treatments, DI and PRDI receiving 70% water of FI during the whole season were also studied....... Crop N uptake and residual NH (4)-N and NO3-N to a depth of 0-50 cm, at 10 cm intervals were analyzed. For both years, the PRD2 treatment resulted in 30% water saving and maintained yield as compared with the FI treatment, while when investigated in 2006 only, DI and PRDI treatments resulted......Experiments were conducted in lysimeters with sandy soil under an automatic rain-out shelter to study the effects of subsurface drip irrigation treatments, full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying (PRD), on nitrogen (N) dynamics in the soil-plant system of potatoes...

  9. Detection of Anthropogenic pressures on western Mediterranean irrigation systems (La Albufera de Valencia agriculture system, eastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Andreu, V.; Picó, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigation systems are considered as one of the major landscapes features in western Mediterranean environments. Both socio-economic and cultural elements are interrelated in their development and preservation. Generally, due to their location in flat lands and close to major urban-industrial zones, irrigation lands are suffering of intense pressures that can alter their agricultural values, environmental quality and, consequently, the sustainability of the systems. To understand the nature of anthropogenic pressures on large Mediterranean water agricultural systems a methodology based on environmental forensics criteria has been developed and applied to La Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Eastern Spain), a protected area where traditional irrigation systems exists since Muslim times (from 8th to 15th centuries). The study analysed impacts on water and soils, for the first case the fate of emerging contaminants of urban origin (pharmaceuticals and illegal drugs) are analysed. Impact on soils is analysed using the dynamics urban expansion and the loss and fragmentation of soils. The study focused is organised around two major procedures: (1) analysis of 16 water samples to identify the presence of 14 illicit drugs and 17 pharmaceutical compounds by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry techniques; (2) spatial analysis with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) integrating different sources and data formats such as water analysis, social, location of sewage water treatment plan and the synchronic comparison of two soil sealing layers -for the years 1991 and 2010. Results show that there is a clear trend in the introduction of pharmaceutical in the irrigation water through previous use of urban consumption and, in many cases, for receiving the effluents of wastewaters treatment plants. Impacts on soils are also important incidence in the fragmentation and disappearance of agricultural land due to soil sealing, even within the protected area of the Natural Park

  10. An Interactive Real-time Decision Support System for Leachate Irrigation on Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill disposal is still the most common and economical practice for municipal solid waste in most countries. However, heavily polluted leachate generated by excess rainwater percolating through the landfill waste is the major drawback of this practice. Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used as alternative cover systems to minimize percolation by evapotranspiration. Leachate recirculation is one of the least expensive options for leachate treatment. The combination of ET cover systems and leachate recirculation can be an economical and environment-friendly practice for landfill leachate management. An interactive real-time decision support system is being developed to better manage leachate irrigation using historical and forecasting weather data, and real time soil moisture data. The main frame of this system includes soil water modules, and plant-soil modules. An inverse simulation module is also included to calibrate certain parameters based on observed data when necessary. It would be an objectives-oriented irrigation management tool to minimize landfill operation costs and negative environmental impacts.

  11. Teores de nutrientes na alface irrigada com água residuária aplicada por sistemas de irrigação Nutrients levels in lettuce irrigated with wastewater applied by irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvio Sandri

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar a composição química da parte aérea da alface, cv. Elisa, irrigada com água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas e água de um depósito de fonte hídrica superficial, cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, utilizando-se dos sistemas de irrigação por aspersão convencional, gotejamento subterrâneo e superficial. O experimento compreendeu o período de 17-8 a 3-10-2001, e as análises químicas da alface foram realizadas aos 47 dias após o transplantio das mudas em campo. A parte aérea da alface foi analisada quanto ao teor de nitrogênio total, nitrato, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, sódio, boro, cobalto e molibdênio. O sódio e o enxofre apresentaram teores maiores que o máximo adequado na parte aérea da alface e o magnésio menor, enquanto para os demais elementos químicos foram normais e adequados, considerando os padrões para plantas bem nutridas, não sendo influenciados pelo tipo de água. O sódio foi o elemento químico que apresentou a maior elevação na parte aérea nos tratamentos irrigados com água residuária, apresentando diferença significativa em relação à água do depósito superficial nos três sistemas de irrigação. A utilização dos diferentes sistemas de irrigação para aplicação de água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas não interferiu no teor de nutrientes na parte aérea.A trial was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition in the aerial part of lettuce, cv. 'Elisa', irrigated with wastewater treated with constructed wetland and source deposit water, grown on a Rhodic Hapludox Soil, using the irrigation systems sprinkle, subsurface drip and surface drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out from August 17th to October 3rd of 2001 and the chemical analyses of the lettuce were accomplished to 47 days after transplanting of the seedling

  12. Water Governance and Adaptation to Disturbances in Irrigated Semi-Arid Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. P.; McCord, P. F.; McBride, L.; Gower, D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate and other physical drivers of environmental systems are modifying the global availability of water for irrigation. At the same time population growth is placing an increased demand on water resources as local municipalities promote agricultural production as a mechanism to support human welfare and development. Substantial has research focused on household-level agricultural decision-making and adaptation. But equally important are institutional dynamics, or the rules implemented to allocate water resources across different user groups. Previous work has identified design principles for common-pool resource systems that tend to lead to sustained governance regimes. Likewise, past research has addressed the issue of "institutional fit", or locally adapted governance arrangements characterized through governance structure. However, much of the complexity behind institutional dynamics and adaptive capacity lies in the translation of data to information to knowledge, and how this sequence contributes to effective cross-scale water management and decision-making - an arena that has arguably received less attention in the water management literature. We investigate the interplay between governance regimes, data/information and institutional dynamics in irrigation systems in semi-arid regions of Kenya. In particular, we articulate the role of knowledge and data in institutional dynamics at multiple levels of analysis. How do users at different decision-making levels incorporate social and hydrological information in water governance? What data is needed to develop the information and knowledge users need for effective management? While governance structure is certainly a critical component of water management systems - we emphasize the interplay between the data-information-knowledge sequence and institutional dynamics. We present findings from household and manager-level surveys examining irrigation practices and the institutions designed to equitably allocate

  13. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between syringe and sonic irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth.

  14. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysin Dumani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2 and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl associated with sonic (Vibringe irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between syringe and sonic irrigation systems with Ca(OCl2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth.

  15. AUTOMATED IRRIGATION SYSTEM CONSTITUTED OF ELECTRONIC ELEMENTS, MOBILE DEVICE AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF SPRINKLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Delia González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This document presents the development of an automated irrigation system, which consisted of a sprinkler that has a range of 16 meters in diameter using only sprinklers per one hectare of land, water pump, hose, water containers, electro valves, relays, electronic components such as humidity and temperature sensor, ultrasonic sensor, LCD screen, microcontroller (Arduino Mega, for communication a bluetooth module and a mobile device (Android. The agile methodology used was Extreme XP Programming, following its 4 phases, planning, design, development and testing. With this an automated irrigation system was used that was developed to monitor temperature, humidity and to generate a saving in the water thanks to the census of the container of the same, as well as the reduction of maintenance costs, this can be activated or deactivated by the user regardless of the conditions. The system complies with the characteristics of a utility model, because these models are all those objects, tools, appliances or tools that, as a result of a change in their layout, configuration, structure or form, present a different function with respect to the parts that integrate it or advantages in terms of its usefulness and thanks to the search carried out in IMPI. In the study of the state of the art the search was made in the data bases of Mexico in SIGA (Information System of the Gazette of the Industrial Property and internationally in Thomson, the results showed that there were similar sy

  16. Spatial variability of surface temperature as related to cropping practice with implications for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Millard, J. P.; Reginato, R. J.; Jackson, R. D.; Idso, S. B.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Goettelman, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Crop stress measured using thermal infrared emission is evaluated with the stress-degree-day (SDD) concept. Throughout the season, the accumulation of SDD during the reproductive stage of growth is inversely related to yield. This relationship is shown for durum wheat, hard red winter wheat, barley, grain sorghum and soybeans. It is noted that SDD can be used to schedule irrigations for maximizing yields and for applying remotely sensed data to management of water resources. An airborne flight with a thermal-IR scanner was used to examine the variability in temperature that may exist from one field to another and to determine realistic within-field temperature variations. It was found that the airborne and the ground-based data agreed very well and that there was less variability in the fields that were completely covered with crops than those of bare soil.

  17. Impacts of irrigation on land-atmosphere interactions in high-resolution model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawston, Patricia M.

    In the United States, irrigation represents the largest consumptive use of freshwater and accounts for approximately one-third of total water usage. Irrigation impacts soil moisture and can ultimately influence clouds and precipitation through land-planetary boundary layer (PBL) coupling processes. This dissertation is a collection of three studies that analyze the impact of irrigation on the atmosphere using NASA modeling tools the Land Information System (LIS) and the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting Model (NU-WRF) framework. The first study investigates the effects of drip, flood, and sprinkler irrigation methods on land-atmosphere interactions, including land-PBL coupling and feedbacks at the local scale. The offline and coupled simulation results show that regional irrigation impacts are sensitive to time, space, and method and that irrigation cools and moistens the surface over and downwind of irrigated areas, ultimately resulting in both positive and negative feedbacks on the PBL depending on the time of day and background climate conditions. The second study assesses the sprinkler irrigation scheme physics and model sensitivity to choice of irrigation intensity and greenness fraction over a small, high resolution domain in Nebraska and evaluates the model performance with Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) observations. Results show that differences between experiments are small at the interannual scale, but become more apparent at seasonal and daily time scales. In addition, field-scale heterogeneity resulting from the individual actions of farmers is not captured by the model and the amount of irrigation applied by the model exceeds that applied at the two irrigated fields. However, the seasonal timing of irrigation and soil moisture contrasts between irrigated and non-irrigated areas are simulated well by the model. The third study assesses the individual and combined impacts of irrigation and wind turbines on surface fluxes, near surface

  18. Appropriate rehabilitation strategy for a traditional irrigation supply system: a case from the Babai area in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, B; Verhoeven, R; Troch, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies primary canals of three traditional irrigation systems in the southern plains of Nepal. It offers a scientific interpretation of the indigenous technology applied to the systems, which facilitates to use the same channel network for irrigation, drainage and flood management. The flood management technology of the farmers by diverting as much discharge as possible to the field channels results in the reduction of discharge towards the downstream part of the main channel. It is depicted in the simulation study that uses the river analysis program HEC-RAS 4.0. A cascade of weirs is found to be the most cost effective and user-friendly option to upgrade these systems preserving the existing irrigation, drainage as well as flood management functions. This study suggests that the conventional irrigation design principles should be applied very cautiously with full knowledge of the existing socio-institutional setting, hydro-ecological regime and indigenous technology for upgrading any traditional irrigation system successfully. The indigenous flood management technology strengthens the emerging concept that the floods in the Ganges plain are to be managed, not controlled.

  19. Uncertainties in modelling the climate impact of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Irrigation-based agriculture constitutes an essential factor for food security as well as fresh water resources and has a distinct impact on regional and global climate. Many issues related to irrigation's climate impact are addressed in studies that apply a wide range of models. These involve substantial uncertainties related to differences in the model's structure and its parametrizations on the one hand and the need for simplifying assumptions for the representation of irrigation on the other hand. To address these uncertainties, we used the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System model into which a simple irrigation scheme was implemented. In order to estimate possible uncertainties with regard to the model's more general structure, we compared the climate impact of irrigation between three simulations that use different schemes for the land-surface-atmosphere coupling. Here, it can be shown that the choice of coupling scheme does not only affect the magnitude of possible impacts but even their direction. For example, when using a scheme that does not explicitly resolve spatial subgrid scale heterogeneity at the surface, irrigation reduces the atmospheric water content, even in heavily irrigated regions. Contrarily, in simulations that use a coupling scheme that resolves heterogeneity at the surface or even within the lowest layers of the atmosphere, irrigation increases the average atmospheric specific humidity. A second experiment targeted possible uncertainties related to the representation of irrigation characteristics. Here, in four simulations the irrigation effectiveness (controlled by the target soil moisture and the non-vegetated fraction of the grid box that receives irrigation) and the timing of delivery were varied. The second experiment shows that uncertainties related to the modelled irrigation characteristics, especially the irrigation effectiveness, are also substantial. In general the impact of irrigation on the state of the land

  20. Influence of a passive sonic irrigation system on the elimination of bacteria from root canal systems: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, S Kirk; Safavi, Kamran; Spangberg, Larz S W; Kaufman, Blythe

    2010-08-01

    The present investigation evaluated the ability of a new passive sonic irrigation (sonic group) system (EndoActivator) to eliminate cultivable bacteria from root canals in vivo and compared it with that of standard syringe irrigation (control group). Data were obtained by using bacteriologic sampling of root canals treated by endodontic residents. Sampling results from 1 session of treatment were then compared with results obtained after intervisit calcium hydroxide disinfection and a second session of treatment. There was no significant difference in the ability of sonic group and control group to eliminate cultivable bacteria from root canals (P > .05). A second session and intervisit calcium hydroxide disinfection were able to eliminate cultivable bacteria from significantly more teeth than a single session of treatment (P < .05). These in vivo results strengthen the case for a multi-visit approach to the treatment of apical periodontitis. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inter-comparison of four remote sensing based surface energy balance methods to retrieve surface evapotranspiration and water stress of irrigated fields in semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, J.; Boulet, G.; Jarlan, L.; Fieuzal, R.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Ezzahar, J.; Er-Raki, S.; Bigeard, G.; Merlin, O.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Watts, C.; Chehbouni, G.

    2013-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperature can provide a good proxy for water stress level and is therefore particularly useful to estimate spatially distributed evapotranspiration. Instantaneous stress levels or instantaneous latent heat flux are deduced from the surface energy balance equation constrained by this equilibrium temperature. Pixel average surface temperature depends on two main factors: stress and vegetation fraction cover. Methods estimating stress vary according to the way they treat each factor. Two families of methods can be defined: the contextual methods, where stress levels are scaled on a given image between hot/dry and cool/wet pixels for a particular vegetation cover, and single-pixel methods which evaluate latent heat as the residual of the surface energy balance for one pixel independently from the others. Four models, two contextual (S-SEBI and a triangle method, inspired by Moran et al., 1994) and two single-pixel (TSEB, SEBS) are applied at seasonal scale over a four by four km irrigated agricultural area in semi-arid northern Mexico. Their performances, both at local and spatial standpoints, are compared relatively to energy balance data acquired at seven locations within the area, as well as a more complex soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model forced with true irrigation and rainfall data. Stress levels are not always well retrieved by most models, but S-SEBI as well as TSEB, although slightly biased, show good performances. Drop in model performances is observed when vegetation is senescent, mostly due to a poor partitioning both between turbulent fluxes and between the soil/plant components of the latent heat flux and the available energy. As expected, contextual methods perform well when extreme hydric and vegetation conditions are encountered in the same image (therefore, esp. in spring and early summer) while they tend to exaggerate the spread in water status in more homogeneous conditions (esp. in winter).

  2. Irrigation and groundwater in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Iftikhar Kazmi, Syed

    2010-05-01

    Introduction of large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in late nineteenth century without a drainage system resulted in water table rise consequently giving rise to water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem government initiated salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP) in 1960. Initially 10,000 tube wells were installed in different areas, which not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the full irrigation motivated framers to install private tube wells. Present estimate of private tube wells in Punjab alone is around 0.6 million and 48 billion cubic meter of groundwater is used for irrigation, contributing is 1.3 billion to the economy. The Punjab meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tubewells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. As the importance of groundwater in sustaining human life and ecology is evident so are the threats to its sustainability due to overexploitation, but sufficient information for its sustainable management especially in developing countries is still required. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. Groundwater recharge is broadly defined as water that reaches the aquifer from any direction (Lerner 1997). Sustainability and proper management of groundwater resource requires reliable quantification of the resource. In order to protect the resource from contamination and over exploitation, identification of recharge sources and their contribution to resource is a basic requirement. Physiochemical properties of some pesticides and their behavior in soil and water can make them potential tracers of subsurface moisture movement. Pesticides are intensively used in the area to

  3. Efficiency optimization of a photovoltaic water pumping system for irrigation in Ouargla, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louazene, M. L.; Garcia, M. C. Alonso; Korichi, D.

    2017-02-01

    This work is technical study to contribute to the optimization of pumping systems powered by solar energy (clean) and used in the field of agriculture. To achieve our goals, we studied the techniques that must be entered on a photovoltaic system for maximum energy from solar panels. Our scientific contribution in this research is the realization of an efficient photovoltaic pumping system for irrigation needs. To achieve this and extract maximum power from the PV generator, two axes have been optimized: 1. Increase in the uptake of solar radiation by choice an optimum tilt angle of the solar panels, and 2. it is necessary to add an adaptation device, MPPT controller with a DC-DC converter, between the source and the load.

  4. Dermatophilosis in sheep raised under rotational grazing systems on irrigated pastures in the Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Diniz Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Seventeen outbreaks of dermatophilosis are reported from three farms affecting Santa Inês and Santa Inês x Dorper sheep that were reared in irrigated areas with rotational grazing at a stocking rate of 50 to 100 sheep per hectare, in the Brazilian semiarid region. Most outbreaks occurred after rains and affected sheep of different ages, with morbidity rates of 0.77% to 31%. Clinical signs were dermatitis with crusts that stood out easily and left areas of alopecia. Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated in cultures in 5% sheep blood agar by means of Haalstra’s method. Histologically, the epidermis showed extensive multifocal areas of ortho and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis with intracorneal microabscesses and presence of D. congolensis. Sheep affected were isolated from the flocks and they recovered after treatment with 70,000IU of procaine penicillin G and 70mg of dihydrostreptomycin sulphate per kg of bodyweight. Dermatophilosis is a frequent endemic disease in rotational grazing systems with irrigated pastures and high stocking rates, which occurs with higher frequency after rains and can be controlled efficiently through isolation of the affected sheep, followed by application of a single dose of penicillin and streptomycin.

  5. Evaluation of Different Irrigation Methods for an Apple Orchard Using an Aerial Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke M. Bulanon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular monitoring and assessment of crops is one of the keys to optimal crop production. This research presents the development of a monitoring system called the Crop Monitoring and Assessment Platform (C-MAP. The C-MAP is composed of an image acquisition unit which is an off-the-shelf unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV equipped with a multispectral camera (near-infrared, green, blue, and an image processing and analysis component. The experimental apple orchard at the Parma Research and Extension Center of the University of Idaho was used as the target for monitoring and evaluation. Five experimental rows of the orchard were randomly treated with five different irrigation methods. An image processing algorithm to detect individual trees was developed to facilitate the analysis of the rows and it was able to detect over 90% of the trees. The image analysis of the experimental rows was based on vegetation indices and results showed that there was a significant difference in the Enhanced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ENDVI among the five different irrigation methods. This demonstrates that the C-MAP has very good potential as a monitoring tool for orchard management.

  6. Simulated climate effects of desert irrigation geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Moore, John C.; Cao, Long; Ji, Duoying; Zhao, Liyun

    2017-04-01

    Geoengineering, the deliberate large-scale manipulation of earth’s energy balance to counteract global warming, is an attractive proposition for sparsely populated deserts. We use the BNU and UVic Earth system models to simulate the effects of irrigating deserts under the RCP8.5 scenario. Previous studies focused on increasing desert albedo to reduce global warming; in contrast we examine how extending afforestation and ecological projects, that successfully improve regional environments, fair for geoengineering purposes. As expected desert irrigation allows vegetation to grow, with bare soil or grass gradually becoming shrub or tree covered, with increases in terrestrial carbon storage of 90.3 Pg C (UVic-ESCM) - 143.9 Pg C (BNU-ESM). Irrigating global deserts makes the land surface temperature decrease by 0.48 °C and land precipitation increase by 100 mm yr-1. In the irrigated areas, BNU-ESM simulates significant cooling of up to 4.2 °C owing to the increases in low cloud and latent heat which counteract the warming effect due to decreased surface albedo. Large volumes of water would be required to maintain global desert irrigation, equivalent 10 mm/year of global sea level (BNU-ESM) compensate for evapotranspiration losses. Differences in climate responses between the deserts prompt research into tailored albedo-irrigation schemes.

  7. Simulation of a precision irrigation-system based on a pedo-specific calibrated wireless soil moisture sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashey-Jansen, S.; Timpf, S.

    2009-04-01

    In many climatic regions, the availability of water in soils determines to a large extent their agricultural productiveness. The hydrologic balance in soils is the result of complex physical processes, which are influenced by diverse geo-parameters with enormous spatial-temporal variations. Therefore, the measurement and quantitative based monitoring of the soil moisture dynamics has always been in the focus of soil physics and soil ecology. Especially in irrigated agricultural areas information about the actual soil water dynamics can deliver valuable data to optimize the irrigation practice with regard to volume and duration of irrigation. Novel irrigation equipment requires a fine control of the water distribution in the soil. One solution would be to have sensors near the plants' roots controlling the water inflow depending on the particular demand. Regarding the aspects of climatic change and the decrease of water resources, the term "precision irrigation" is being increasingly discussed. Only in this way we can meet the requirements due to the small-scale heterogeneities in soils. Such a precision irrigation must be based on objective and quantitative criteria, which focus primarily on the physical soil properties and hydrologic balances. This requires measuring arrangements with high spatial resolution in the horizontal and vertical directions. Such a dense soil-hydrological measuring network should ideally be composed of wireless micro-sensors, which are distributed in the investigated soil section and thereby collect data of relevant parameters in the pedosphere using a high temporal resolution and transmitting the information to a central logger-unit. This contribution will present a simulation-based approach of a precision irrigation-system with particular consideration of pedo-specific properties.

  8. Energetic expense in the conduction of the physic nut culture: comparative between the dried and irrigated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Michelle Sato; Frigo, Elisandro Pires; Klar, Antonio Evaldo; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsuitsui [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: msfrigo@fca.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    The discussion around new vegetable raw materials for biofuel, production have been being very important for the consolidation of the National Program of Biofuel Production and Use (PNPB) in Brazil. In this scenery, a potential culture which could be pointed for such a thing is the physic nut one, however, the studies about it are very poor. Thus the goal of this present paper was to compare the energetic expense to this culture conduction, in two different productive systems, the dried and the irrigated ones, so as to identify the less dependent system on not-renewable energy, therefore, the most energetically sustainable one for these conduction operations. The selected planting was one of the areas of the company NNE Minas Agro-Florestal Ltda., in Janauba/MG; there were identified two operations for the dried system and four operations for the irrigated system. The adopted methodology was based in bibliographical revision. The dried system showed an energetic consumption of 1.151,22 MJ. ha{sup -1} and the irrigated one was 5.325,43 MJ . ha{sup -1}. In relation to the expenditure by source, the dried one used 2,72% by biological source and 97,28% by industrial source; and the irrigated system used 0,87% by biological source and 99,14% by industrial source. The conclusion is that the conduction with the dried system is the most efficient and sustainable from the energetic point of view. (author)

  9. The effect of irrigation uniformity on irrigation water requirements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of water in South Africa. Due to the limited amount of water resources, the efficient and equitable use of water is of paramount importance. This can only be achieved through effective design, maintenance and management of irrigation systems. The uniformity with which an irrigation ...

  10. Water Leakage and Nitrate Leaching Characteristics in the Winter Wheat–Summer Maize Rotation System in the North China Plain under Different Irrigation and Fertilization Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in Huantai County from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen (N fertilization and irrigation management practices on water leakage and nitrate leaching in the dominant wheat–maize rotation system in the North China Plain (NCP. Two N fertilization (NF1, the traditional one; NF2, fertilization based on soil testing and two irrigation (IR1, the traditional one; IR2, irrigation based on real-time soil water content monitoring management practices were designed in the experiments. Water and nitrate amounts leaving the soil layer at a depth of 2.0 m below the soil surface were calculated and compared. Results showed that the IR2 effectively reduced water leakage and nitrate leaching amounts in the two-year period, especially in the winter wheat season. Less than 10 percent irrigation water could be saved in a dry winter wheat season, but about 60 percent could be saved in a wet winter wheat season. Besides, 58.8 percent nitrate under single NF2IR1 and 85.2 percent under NF2IR2 could be prevented from leaching. The IR2 should be considered as the best management practice to save groundwater resources and prevent nitrate from leaching. The amounts of N input play a great role in affecting nitrate concentrations in the soil solutions in the winter wheat–summer maize rotation system. The NF2 significantly reduced N inputs and should be encouraged in ordinary agricultural production. Thus, nitrate leaching and groundwater contamination could be alleviated, but timely N supplement might be needed under high precipitation condition.

  11. GSFLOW model simulations used to evaluate the impact of irrigated agriculture on surface water - groundwater interaction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Watershed-scale coupled surface water (SW) – groundwater (GW) flow modeling was used to examine changes in streamflow and SW – GW interaction resulting from...

  12. Results of infected total knee arthroplasty treated with arthroscopic debridement and continuous antibiotic irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Arthroscopic debridement combined with continuous antibiotic irrigation and suction is an effective treatment for patients with acute presentation of late infected total knee arthroplasty.

  13. Surface and internalized Escherichia coli O157:H7 on field-grown spinach and lettuce treated with spray-contaminated irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Webb, Cathy C; Diaz-Perez, Juan Carlos; Phatak, Sharad C; Silvoy, John J; Davey, Lindsey; Payton, Alison S; Liao, Jean; Ma, Li; Doyle, Michael P

    2010-06-01

    Numerous field studies have revealed that irrigation water can contaminate the surface of plants; however, the occurrence of pathogen internalization is unclear. This study was conducted to determine the sites of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination and its survival when the bacteria were applied through spray irrigation water to either field-grown spinach or lettuce. To differentiate internalized and surface populations, leaves were treated with a surface disinfectant wash before the tissue was ground for analysis of E. coli O157:H7 by direct plate count or enrichment culture. Irrigation water containing E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2), 10(4), or 10(6) CFU/ml was applied to spinach 48 and 69 days after transplantation of seedlings into fields. E. coli O157:H7 was initially detected after application on the surface of plants dosed at 10(4) CFU/ml (4 of 20 samples) and both on the surface (17 of 20 samples) and internally (5 of 20 samples) of plants dosed at 10(6) CFU/ml. Seven days postspraying, all spinach leaves tested negative for surface or internal contamination. In a subsequent study, irrigation water containing E. coli O157:H7 at 10(8) CFU/ml was sprayed onto either the abaxial (lower) or adaxial (upper) side of leaves of field-grown lettuce under sunny or shaded conditions. E. coli O157:H7 was detectable on the leaf surface 27 days postspraying, but survival was higher on leaves sprayed on the abaxial side than on leaves sprayed on the adaxial side. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into lettuce leaves also occurred with greater persistence in leaves sprayed on the abaxial side (up to 14 days) than in leaves sprayed on the adaxial side (2 days).

  14. A new concept of irrigation response units for effective management of surface and groundwater resources: a case study from the multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-09-09

    When estimating canal water supplies for large-scale irrigation schemes and especially in arid regions worldwide, the impact of all factors affecting the gross irrigation requirements (GIR) are not properly accounted for, which results in inefficient use of precious freshwater resources. This research shows that the concept of irrigation response units (IRU)—areas having unique combinations of factors effecting the GIR—allows for more precise estimates of GIR. An overlay analysis of soil texture and salinity, depth and salinity of groundwater, cropping patterns and irrigation methods was performed in a GIS environment, which yielded a total of 17 IRUs combinations of the Oktepa Zilol Chashmasi water consumers’ association in multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Groundwater contribution, leaching requirements, losses in the irrigation system through field application and conveyance and effective rainfall were included in GIR estimates. The GIR varied significantly among IRUs [average of 851 mm (±143 mm)] with a maximum (1051 mm) in IRU-12 and a minimum (629 mm) in IRUs-15, 16. Owing to varying groundwater levels in each IRU, the groundwater contribution played a key role in the estimation of the GIR. The maximum groundwater contribution occurred in IRUs dominated by cotton–fallow rotations as evidenced by an average value of 159 mm but a maximum of 254 mm and a minimum of 97 mm. Percolation losses depended on irrigation methods for different crops in their respective IRUs. The novel approach can guide water managers in this and similar regions to increase the accuracy of irrigation demands based on all the factor effecting the GIR. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  15. Calibration Curve of Neutron Moisture Meter for Sandy Soil under Drip Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abd El- Moniem M.; Gendy, R. W.; Bedaiwy, M. N.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a neutron calibration curve in order to be able to use the neutron probe in sandy soils under drip irrigation systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Soil and Water Department of the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority. Three replicates were used along the lateral lines of the drip irrigation system. For each dripper, ten neutron access tubes were installed to 100-cm depth at distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm from the dripper location around the drippers on the lateral line, as well as between lateral lines. The neutron calibrations were determined at 30, 45, and 60-cm depths. Determining coefficients as well as t-test in pairs were employed to detect the accuracy of the calibrations. Results indicated that in order for the neutron calibration curve to express the whole wet area around the emitter; three-access tubes must be installed at distances of 5, 15, and 25 cm from the emitter. This calibration curve will be correlating the average count ratio (CR) at the studied soil depth of the three locations (5, 15, and 25-cm distances from the emitter) to the average moisture content (θ) for this soil depth of the entire wetted area. This procedure should be repeated at different times in order to obtain different θ and C.R values, so that the regression equation of calibration curve at this soil depth can be obtained. To determine the soil moisture content, the average CR of the three locations must be taken and substituted into the regression equation representing the neutron calibration curve. Results taken from access tubes placed at distances of 15 cm from the emitter, showed good agreement with the average calibration curve both for the 45- and the 60-cm depths, suggesting that the 15-cm distance may provide a suitable substitute for the simultaneous use of the three different distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm. However, the obtained results show also that the neutron calibration curves of the 30-cm depth for

  16. Technical and economical evaluation of tape drip and drip line irrigation systems in a strawberry greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra HOSSEINIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in a strawberry greenhouse to examine the technical and the economical evaluation of two drip irrigation systems including the tape and the drip line in the northern part of Iran. The result showed that all of the technical indices with tape were higher than drip line, and due to statistical analysis reveal a significant difference (P < 0.05. Yield and water productivity (WP with tape were higher than drip line (P < 0.05. Benefit per drop (BPD and net benefit per drop (NBPD with tape were higher than drip line. Net present value, internal rate of capital return and benefit to cost ratio in drip line were higher than tape. In general, regarding technical evaluation tape was better than drip line, besides according to the economical evaluation the drip ­lines were better than tape.

  17. Irrigation Efficiency and Uniformity of Aeroponics System a Case Study in Parung Hydroponics Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastowo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the irrigation efficiency and coefficient of unttotmity (CU of the existing aeroponics system has been conducted for one growing season of petsai (Brassica pekinensis L in Parung - Bogor, Indonesia. The evaluation covers the CU of the spray discharge, pH, temperature and electrical conductivity (EC of the nutrient solution. It was concluded that the CU of spray discharge, pH and temperature of the nutrient solution were relatively high, but the CU of EC of the nutrient solution was relatively low. Conveyance efficiency and water-use efficiency were about 84.38% and 40.09%, respectively. The average crop water requirement was about 1,457 cc/crop/season or equal to 16,870 cc per Kg of petsai produced.

  18. Effect of irrigation to winter wheat on the radiation use efficiency and yield of summer maize in a double cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanqi, Li; Yuhai, Chen; Xunbo, Zhou; Songlie, Yu; Changcheng, Guo

    2012-01-01

    In north China, double cropping of winter wheat and summer maize is a widely adopted agricultural practice, and irrigation is required to obtain a high yield from winter wheat, which results in rapid aquifer depletion. In this experiment conducted in 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005, we studied the effects of irrigation regimes during specific winter wheat growing stage with winter wheat and summer maize double cropping systems; we measured soil moisture before sowing (SMBS), the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) capture ratio, grain yield, and the radiation use efficiency (RUE) of summer maize. During the winter wheat growing season, irrigation was applied at the jointing, heading, or milking stage, respectively. The results showed that increased amounts of irrigation and irrigation later in the winter wheat growing season improved SMBS for summer maize. The PAR capture ratio significantly (LSD, P wheat should be irrigated in later stages to achieve reasonable grain yield for both crops.

  19. Microleakage evaluation of adhesive systems following pulp chamber irrigation with sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddas, Mohammad Javad; Moosavi, Horieh; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of delaying composite resin restorative procedures bonded with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems on microleakage following root canal irrigation with sodium hy-pochlorite (NaOCl) solution. Materials and methods. The roofs of pulp chambers and roots (1–2 mm below furcation) of 40 human first molar teeth were cut and pulp tissues completely removed. The teeth were randomly divided into two main groups (n = 20). Group E (experimental) was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group C (control) was left untreated. For the experimental group, after obturation of root canals with gutta-percha and sealing the cavity with Cavit, the specimens were stored in artificialsaliva for two weeks. Then each group was divided into two subgroups according to the total-etch or self-etch adhesive application protocol: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Clearfil SE Bond. The specimens were restored with composite resin using each bonding agent: Z250 and Clearfil Photo Core, respectively. Fluid filtration method was used for evaluation of microleakage. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA ( α= 0.05). Results. Two types of dentin adhesive systems showed no statistically significant differences in microleakage (P = 0.77). NaOCl-treated groups demonstrated significantly higher microleakage values compared to the non-NaOCl-treated groups (P= 0.001). The interaction between the two factors was not significant (P = 0.78). Conclusion. Differences in inlay temperature had no effect on microleakage. CAD/CAM inlays had lower cement thick-ness than laboratory-made inlays, but this was not related to their microleakage.

  20. Microleakage Evaluation of Adhesive Systems Following Pulp Chamber Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Moghaddas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of delaying composite resin restorative procedures bonded with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems on microleakage following root canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution. Materials and methods. The roofs of pulp chambers and roots (1–2 mm below furcation of 40 human first molar teeth were cut and pulp tissues completely removed. The teeth were randomly divided into two main groups (n = 20. Group E (experimental was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group C (control was left untreated. For the experimental group, after obturation of root canals with gutta-percha and sealing the cavity with Cavit, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva for two weeks. Then each group was divided into two subgroups according to the total-etch or self-etch adhesive application protocol: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Clearfil SE Bond. The specimens were restored with composite resin using each bonding agent: Z250 and Clearfil Photo Core, respectively. Fluid filtration method was used for evaluation of microleakage. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05. Results. Two types of dentin adhesive systems showed no statistically significant differences in microleakage (P = 0.77. NaOCl-treated groups demonstrated significantly higher microleakage values compared to the non-NaOCl-treated groups (P = 0.001. The interaction between the two factors was not significant (P = 0.78. Conclusion. Differences in inlay temperature had no effect on microleakage. CAD/CAM inlays had lower cement thickness than laboratory-made inlays, but this was not related to their microleakage.

  1. Control with anionic polyacrylamide of runoff and erosion induced by irrigation on Alentejo soils: surface and sprinkler irrigation (center pivot Controlo do escorrimento e da erosão em solos do Alentejo com poliacrilamidas aniónicas: rega de superfície e por aspersão (rampas rotativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Mediterranean soils in Southern Portugal, now being converted to irrigation, were under rain-fed agriculture, in areas of sensitive soils, eroded or with high potential for erosion. The particular characteristic of these soils is its rapidly permeable A-horizon overlaying a B-horizon of very low permeability. Such fact leads to low infiltration of the applied irrigation water and, consequently high limitations to irrigation. Therefore for these soils to be under irrigation it is important to adopt soil and water conservation practices and correctly manage the irrigation systems, hoping that these practices will favour agriculture yields and preserve the environment by reducing runoff, preventing soil loss and enhancing the infiltration of applied water. One of the strategies that can be used to achieve such goals and also help to improve the soil physical properties is the use of soil conditioners, particularly the anionic polyacrylamide (PAM. Encouraging results have been obtained in the irrigated soils of Southern Portugal with their use being able to stabilize soil surface structure and curb irrigation-induced erosion in surface irrigation as well as in sprinkler irrigated fields. Since 1997, studies of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM application have been conducted on field experiments, under surface irrigation and on contour and slopping furrows, and also with pressurized irrigation (center pivot and sprinkler simulators, as well as in more controlled laboratory studies, to test the PAM usefulness in controlling erosion and enhancing infiltration of irrigated soils. Several methodologies of applying PAM have been tested (direct application to the soil surface, in water suspension and later applied to furrows and pressurized systems through the irrigation water, and in multiple and/or single applications as well as several application rates and timing. The results have been conclusive and in most of the studied soils PAM application

  2. Response of transplanted aspen to irrigation and weeding on a Colorado reclaimed surface coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Wayne D. Shepperd; Frederick W. Smith; Lance A. Asherin; Brian W. Gee

    2012-01-01

    Successful re-establishment of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) on surface-mined lands in the western United States is problematic because the species generally regenerates vegetatively by sprouting from parent roots in the soil; however, topsoil is removed in the mining process. Previous attempts to plant aspen on reclaimed mine sites have failed because...

  3. Comparison of Water Distribution Characteristics for Two Kinds of Sprinklers Used for Center Pivot Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sprinkler selection influences the water distribution uniformity of center pivot irrigation systems. The sprinkling uniformity of the center pivot is crucial for the yield and quality of crops on a large scale. Rotating and fixed spray plate sprinklers (RSPSs and FSPSs are the two most popular types. However, sprinkler selection is mainly based on price, not on differences in performance between them. Under low-wind field conditions, the water distributions of individual RSPSs and FSPSs with different nozzles (2.78, 4.76, and 6.75 mm in diameter were measured using a catch can method. Cubic spline interpolation was used for data conversion for FSPS measurements; the nozzle configuration model was used to simulate the water distribution of the same-nozzle-sprinkler pipe section and full circular irrigated areas in a simulated center pivot under three sprinkler intervals of 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 m respectively. Results showed that (1 individual RSPSs distributed the most water around the sprinkler, whereas individual FSPSs distributed the most water over a ring-shaped region at the periphery of the sprinkler, and the wetted radii for RSPSs and FSPSs ranged from 4.88 to 7.05 m and from 5.02 to 6.85 m, respectively; (2 same-nozzle-sprinkler pipe sections of RSPSs distributed the most water around the central axes of the pipe sections, and their sprinkling uniformities were 44.7%–51.0%, whereas FSPSs distributed the most water over both sides of the axes symmetrically, and less water around the axes, with sprinkling uniformities of 40.3%–58.0%; and (3 the sprinkling uniformities of the full circular irrigated areas were 85.8%–91.7% and 85.8%–86.2% when using RSPSs and FSPSs, respectively, under different sprinkler intervals, and the uniformities were 3.1% and 6.2% higher using RSPSs than FSPSs with sprinkler intervals of 3.0 and 4.5 m, respectively. RSPS accommodated larger sprinkler intervals (>3.0 m and maintained superior sprinkling

  4. Hydraulic performance evaluation of the Wadi Laba spate irrigation System in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehari, A.H.; Depeweg, H.; Schultz, E.

    2005-01-01

    Spate irrigation is a method of harvesting and managing floodwater, which is unpredictable in timing and volume. In the spate-irrigated area of 16 000 ha in Eritrea, the farmers have for decades used brushwood and earthen diversion and distribution structures, locally known as Agims and Musghas, to

  5. Agronomic, physiological and biochemical evaluations of rice under a water-deficit irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustainability of conventional flood irrigation management in rice is a concern worldwide considering the uncertain patterns of precipitation and depletion of aquifers used for irrigation. This same concern is shared in USA rice producing areas and, thus, development of rice varieties that can t...

  6. Middle East Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-Some science products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similarities in the aridity of environments and water scarcity for irrigation allow common approaches to irrigation management problems and research methods in the Southern Great Plains of the United States and the Middle East. Measurement methods involving weighing lysimeters and eddy covariance sy...

  7. A Solar Energy Powered Autonomous Wireless Actuator Node for Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lajara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of a fully autonomous and wireless actuator node (“wEcoValve mote” based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is presented. The system allows remote control (open/close of a 3-lead magnetic latch solenoid, commonly used in drip irrigation systems in applications such as agricultural areas, greenhouses, gardens, etc. The very low power consumption of the system in conjunction with the low power consumption of the valve, only when switching positions, allows the system to be solar powered, thus eliminating the need of wires and facilitating its deployment. By using supercapacitors recharged from a specifically designed solar power module, the need to replace batteries is also eliminated and the system is completely autonomous and maintenance free. The “wEcoValve mote” firmware is based on a synchronous protocol that allows a bidirectional communication with a latency optimized for real-time work, with a synchronization time between nodes of 4 s, thus achieving a power consumption average of 2.9 mW.

  8. Inputs of nutrients and fecal bacteria to freshwaters from irrigated agriculture: case studies in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, Robert J; Nash, David; Schmidt, Jochen; Larned, Scott T; Rivers, Mark R; Feehan, Pat

    2011-07-01

    Increasing demand for global food production is leading to greater use of irrigation to supplement rainfall and enable more intensive use of land. Minimizing adverse impacts of this intensification on surface water and groundwater resources is of critical importance for the achievement of sustainable land use. In this paper we examine the linkages between irrigation runoff and resulting changes in quality of receiving surface waters and groundwaters in Australia and New Zealand. Case studies are used to illustrate impacts under different irrigation techniques (notably flood and sprinkler systems) and land uses, particularly where irrigation has led to intensification of land use. For flood irrigation, changes in surface water contaminant concentrations are directly influenced by the amount of runoff, and the intensity and kind of land use. Mitigation for flood irrigation is best achieved by optimizing irrigation efficiency. For sprinkler irrigation, leaching to groundwater is the main transport path for contaminants, notably nitrate. Mitigation measures for sprinkler irrigation should take into account irrigation efficiency and the proximity of intensive land uses to sensitive waters. Relating contaminant concentrations in receiving groundwaters to their dominant causes is often complicated by uncertainty about the subsurface flow paths and the possible pollutant sources, viz. drainage from irrigated land. This highlights the need for identification of the patterns and dynamics of surface and subsurface waters to identify such sources of contaminants and minimize their impacts on the receiving environments.

  9. A new model for simulating supplemental irrigation and the hydro-economic potential of a rainwater harvesting system in humid subtropical climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, P.K.; Van der Zaag, P.; Soupir, M.L.; Singh, V.P.

    2013-01-01

    Here we have developed a new model to simulate supplemental irrigation and the hydro-economic potential of a rainwater harvesting system in rainfed agricultural areas. Using the model, soil moisture in rainfed crop land, supplemental irrigation requirements, rainwater storage in an on-farm reservoir

  10. Using Remote Sensing Technology on the Delimitation of the Conservation Area for the Jianan Irrigation System Cultural Landsccape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the cultural landscape has become an important issue for cultural heritages throughout the world. It represents the "combined works of nature and of man" designated in Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention. When a landscape has a cultural heritage value, important features should be marked and mapped through the delimitation of a conservation area, which may be essential for further conservation work. However, a cultural landscape’s spatial area is usually wider than the ordinary architectural type of cultural heritage, since various elements and impact factors, forming the cultural landscape’s character, lie within a wide geographic area. It is argued that the conservation of a cultural landscape may be influenced by the delimitation of the conservation area, the corresponding land management measures, the limits and encouragements. The Jianan Irrigation System, an historical cultural landscape in southern Taiwan, was registered as a living cultural heritage site in 2009. However, the system’s conservation should not be limited to just only the reservoir or canals, but expanded to irrigated areas where farmland may be the most relevant. Through the analysis process, only approximately 42,000 hectares was defined as a conservation area, but closely related to agricultural plantations and irrigated by the system. This is only half of the 1977 irrigated area due to urban sprawl and continuous industrial expansion.

  11. On-farm irrigation reservoirs for surface water storage in eastern Arkansas: Trends in construction in response to aquifer depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Reba, M. L.; Massey, J. H.; Adviento-Borbe, A.

    2017-12-01

    On-farm surface water storage reservoirs have been constructed to address declines in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, the primary source of irrigation for most of the row crops grown in eastern Arkansas. These reservoirs and their associated infrastructure represent significant investments in financial and natural resources, and may cause producers to incur costs associated with foregone crop production and long-term maintenance. Thus, an analysis of reservoir construction trends in the Grand Prairie Critical Groundwater Area (GPCGA) and Cache River Critical Groundwater Area (CRCGA) was conducted to assist future water management decisions. Between 1996 and 2015, on average, 16 and 4 reservoirs were constructed per year, corresponding to cumulative new reservoir surface areas of 161 and 60 ha yr-1, for the GPCGA and the CRCGA, respectively. In terms of reservoir locations relative to aquifer status, after 1996, 84.5% of 309 total reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and 91.0% of 78 in the CRCGA were located in areas with remaining saturated aquifer thicknesses of 50% or less. The majority of new reservoirs (74% in the GPCGA and 63% in the CRCGA) were constructed on previously productive cropland. The next most common land use, representing 11% and 15% of new reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and CRCGA, respectively, was the combination of a field edge and a ditch, stream, or other low-lying area. Less than 10% of post-1996 reservoirs were constructed on predominately low-lying land, and the use of such lands decreased in both critical groundwater areas during the past 20 years. These disparities in reservoir construction rates, locations, and prior land uses is likely due to groundwater declines being first observed in the GPCGA as well as the existence of two large-scale river diversion projects under construction in the GPCGA that feature on-farm storage as a means to offset groundwater use.

  12. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  13. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  14. FARM LEVEL IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY DECISIONS OVER TIME

    OpenAIRE

    Schuck, Eric C.; Green, Gareth P.

    2002-01-01

    A time-series cross-sectional model of irrigation technology choice is developed for an irrigation district in California's Central Valley to show how changes in the relative price of irrigation water and variations in water supply over time influence the choice of irrigation system. Results indicate changes in crop mix and variations in water supply are at least as important as price in determining the choice of irrigation system.

  15. On the sensitivity of Land Surface Temperature estimates in arid irrigated lands using MODTRAN

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2015-11-29

    Land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface moisture status. However, in order to retrieve the ET with an accuracy approaching 10%, LST should be retrieved to within 1 ◦C or better, disregarding other elements of uncertainty. The removal of atmospheric effects is key towards achieving a precise estimation of LST and it requires detailed information on water vapor. The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) onboard Landsat 8 captures data in two long wave thermal bands with 100-meter resolution. However, the US Geological Survey has reported a calibration problem of TIRS bands caused by stray light, resulting in a higher bias in one of its two bands (4% in band 11, 2% in band 10). Therefore, split-window algorithms for the estimation of LST might not be reliable. Our work will focus on the impact of using different atmospheric profiles (e.g. weather prediction models, satellite) for the estimation of LST derived from MODTRAN by using one of the TIRS bands onboard Landsat 8 (band 10). Sites with in-situ measurements of LST are used as evaluation sources. Comparisons between the measured LST and LST derived based on different atmospheric profile inputs to MODTRAN are carried out from 2 Landsat-overpass days (DOY 153 and 160 2015). Preliminary results show a mean absolute error of around 3 ◦C between in-situ and estimated LST over two different crops (alfalfa and carrot) and bare soil.

  16. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the influencing factors were analyzed, particularly the acknowledgment of farmers, the installation proportion of tube wells, the social benefits. Great achievements have been gained in the implementation, and the management targets have been achieved, including accurately metering overall irrigation groundwater production, assisting in the total amount control and quota management, reducing groundwater exploitation, and improving water use efficiency. However, shortcomings remain in the implementation process, such as single initial investment channels, imperfect policy system construction, a lack of retrieving and analyzing data, and the unbalanced development between areas. Countermeasures and suggestions for these problems are discussed in this article.

  17. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  18. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  19. Evaluation of Fluent Software for Simulation and Costruction of a Variable Rate Sprinkler for an Autonomous Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Roshan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is today’s world biggest challenge which requires different countries to manage their water resources in the most efficient way. Sprinkler irrigation increases water consumption efficiency due to more uniform distribution of water across the field. Precision farming is based on the site-specific use of inputs according to soil characteristics and plant needs. One of the main inputs for agricultural production is water. Thus, efficient use of water resources based on variable rate irrigation is considered to be a basic approach of precision irrigation. The main purpose of this study was to simulate and fabricate a variable flow sprinkler, applicable in solid set sprinkler irrigation system. The preliminary drawing of the proposed sprinkler, which equipped with a flow and pressure control plunger, was simulated using Fluent software. The actual sprinkler was then fabricated and evaluated in a field. The performance of the sprinkler was evaluated at three pressure levels, three plunger positions (at the points of the least and biggest sprinkler’s cross section for water passage and three diameters of outlet nozzle opening. Results showed that the plunger had the capability of varying outlet flow and pressure in the sprinkler and trends in flow and pressure variation as affected by the plunger position was very complicated. The Fluent model for conditions with fully open of the plunger and half opened was effectively efficient. However, as the plunger closed the water passage more than the half of cross section, the model did not show an acceptable efficiency.

  20. Bacterial biomes and potential human pathogens in irrigation water and leafy greens from different production systems described using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, M; Chidamba, L; Korsten, L

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the influence of irrigation water microbial quality on leafy green vegetables produced in commercial and small-scale farms as well as homestead gardens using pyrosequencing. Next generation sequencing analysis of the V1-V3 hypervariable region of bacterial 16S rDNA was used to compare bacterial diversity in irrigation water sources and on leafy vegetables. In all samples (12) analysed, the phylum Proteobacteria (64·5%), class Gammaproteobacteria (56·6%) and genus Aeromonas (14·4%) were found to be dominant. Of the total Escherichia sequences detected in tested samples, lettuce (16·3%) from the one commercial farm harboured more sequences than cabbage from the small-scale farm (1·3%) or homestead gardens (1·9%). Escherichia sequences were detected in both irrigation water (4·6%) and on cabbage (1·3%) samples from the small-scale farm. The genus Salmonella was absent in borehole water but was detected in the holding dam water (biomes in irrigation water and on leafy greens were described with pyrosequencing and revealed insights into prevalence of potential and opportunistic pathogens across different production systems. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. PENGENDALIAN ASET NIRWUJUD DALAM MANAJEMEN SISTEM IRIGASI: KONSEP DAN PENGEMBANGAN MODEL (Controlling Intangible Assets in Irrigation System Management:Concept and Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Tri Waskitho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation was an important component of the agricultural development in Indonesia, but it had many problems. Irrigation management was inefficient, irrigation networks were damaged and farmers participation were poor. These problems were caused by poor of intangible assets. The research aimed at developing the concept and the model of controlling intangible assets in irrigation system management. The research method consisted of two stages. The first stage was developing the concept. The concept of controlling intangible assets in irrigation system management was developed based on principles of knowledge management. The concept stated that intangible assets in irrigation system can be controlled using knowledge management. The second stage was developing the model which consisted of model building and sensivity analysis. Model of controlling intangible assets in irrigation system management was build using neuro-fuzzy. The model had three submodels: knowledge management, intangible assets and performance of irrigation system. Evaluating the model was done in Sapon irrigation system in Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. Data collecting was done using questionnaire on nine Water Use Associations. Data analysis was done using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. The model had been evaluated using correlation coefficient, Mean Absolute Percentage Error and Root Mean Square Error. Result of the study indicated that the concept of controlling intangible assets in irrigation system management had developed based on knowledge management. The concept stated that irrigation system management had to balance between tangible assets and intangible assets. Intangible assets which had amortization need be controlled. Controlling intangible assets can be done by knowledge management. The model of controlling intangible assets in irrigation system management could predict intangible assets and performance of irrigation system well. The model linked knowledge

  2. Use of neutron scattering meter to detect soil moisture distribution under trickle irrigation system in sandy soil of inshas, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-moniem, M.; El-gendy, R.W.; Gadalla, A.M.; Hamdy, A.; Zeedan, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the soil moisture distribution under different quantities of irrigation water in cultivated sandy soil with squash, using drip irrigation system. This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Three rates of applied irrigation water (100, 75 and 50 % ETc) were used. Three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distances from the emitter between drippers and laterals lines) were chosen to measure soil moisture contents (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that the maximum width, in onion shape of water distribution under drip irrigation system, was at 45 cm depth at 0 site. From the study of soil moisture distribution, the overlapping between each two neighbor drippers played a good role in increasing soil moisture content at the 25 site rather than the rest sites. Water distribution was affected with plant location within the wet area as well as the used irrigation water quantities. Water distribution between drippers and laterals did not differ much approximately. The highest soil moisture depletion was at 12.5 site (between drippers) for 100 and 75 % ETc rather than the rest treatments. 100 % ETc treatment introduced the highest soil moisture depletion in the first stage of plant growth season for the three sites (between drippers and laterals). In the last stage of plant growth season, water re-distribution phenomena resulted from the changeable total hydraulic potential, which played important role for interpretation of results

  3. A coupled human-natural systems analysis of irrigated agriculture under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2016-09-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes due to changes in climate and land use are challenging the sustainability of agricultural water systems. Farmers must adapt their management strategies in order to secure food production and avoid crop failures. Investigating the potential for adaptation policies in agricultural systems requires accounting for their natural and human components, along with their reciprocal interactions. Yet this feedback is generally overlooked in the water resources systems literature. In this work, we contribute a novel modeling approach to study the coevolution of irrigated agriculture under changing climate, advancing the representation of the human component within agricultural systems by using normative meta-models to describe the behaviors of groups of farmers or institutional decisions. These behavioral models, validated against observational data, are then integrated into a coupled human-natural system simulation model to better represent both systems and their coevolution under future changing climate conditions, assuming the adoption of different policy adaptation options, such as cultivating less water demanding crops. The application to the pilot study of the Adda River basin in northern Italy shows that the dynamic coadaptation of water supply and demand allows farmers to avoid estimated potential losses of more than 10 M€/yr under projected climate changes, while unilateral adaptation of either the water supply or the demand are both demonstrated to be less effective. Results also show that the impact of the different policy options varies as function of drought intensity, with water demand adaptation outperforming water supply adaptation when drought conditions become more severe.

  4. Postoperative Pain after Foraminal Instrumentation with a Reciprocating System and Different Irrigating Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal da; Monteiro,Maria Rachel; Belladonna,Felipe Gonçalves; Almeida,José Flávio; De-Deus,Gustavo; Neves,Aline de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare postoperative pain after foraminal instrumentation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel irrigation protocol in nonvital single-rooted teeth after reciprocating instrumentation. Sixty-two volunteers presenting a single root canal diagnosed with asymptomatic necrosis and apical periodontitis were randomized into 2 experimental groups regarding the irrigation protocol (ie, 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX gel groups)...

  5. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  6. Nutrition of Tithonia diversifolia and attributes of the soil fertilized with biofertilizer in irrigated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fertilization with biofertilizer associated with the use of irrigation favors nutrient uptake by plants and soil chemical properties; however, these effects are little studied in Tithonia diversifolia in semiarid regions. This study evaluated the effect of doses of bovine biofertilizer and irrigation on accumulation of nutrients in the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia plants and on soil chemical attributes. The study was carried out from December 3, 2014 to November 28, 2015, and arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, consisting of five doses of bovine biofertilizer (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 m3 ha-1, combined with and without irrigation. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, using three replicates. Irrigation promoted increased accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and B in leaves of Tithonia diversifolia in the first cutting. However, the high bicarbonate concentration in the irrigation water and the occurrence of rainfall during the second crop increased the accumulation of Cu in the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia under rainfed condition, compared with irrigated plants. The increase in biofertilizer doses contributed to the increment of base saturation and the contents of organic matter, P and K in soil.

  7. An optimization model to design and manage subsurface drip irrigation system for alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelous, M.; Kamai, T.; Vrugt, J. A.; Simunek, J.; Hanson, B.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is one of the most efficient and cost-effective methods for watering alfalfa plants. Lateral installation depth and distance, emitter discharge, and irrigation time and frequency of SDI, in addition to soil and climatic conditions affect alfalfa’s root water uptake and yield. Here we use a multi-objective optimization approach to find optimal SDI strategies. Our approach uses the AMALGAM evolutionary search method, in combination with the HYDRUS-2D unsaturated flow model to maximize water uptake by alfalfa’s plant roots, and minimize loss of irrigation and drainage water to the atmosphere or groundwater. We use a variety of different objective functions to analyze SDI. These criteria include the lateral installation depth and distance, the lateral discharge, irrigation duration, and irrigation frequency. Our framework includes explicit recognition of the soil moisture status during the simulation period to make sure that the top soil is dry for harvesting during the growing season. Initial results show a wide spectrum of optimized SDI strategies for different root distributions, soil textures and climate conditions. The developed tool should be useful in helping farmers optimize their irrigation strategy and design.

  8. A DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF WATER SAVINGS FROM ADVANCED IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Hornbaker, Robert H.; Mapp, Harry P., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A computerized grain sorghum plant growth model is combined with recursive programming to analyze the potential irrigation water savings from adopting irrigation scheduling and low pressure center pivot irrigation technology. Results indicate that irrigation pumping can be reduced with increased yields and net returns by adopting low energy precision application (LEPA) irrigation systems. Variations in input and output prices affect optimal irrigation quantities for low pressure irrigation sy...

  9. Irrigation dynamics associated with positive pressure, apical negative pressure and passive ultrasonic irrigations: a computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, José Enrique; Nurbakhsh, Babak; Layton, Gillian; Bussmann, Markus; Kishen, Anil

    2014-08-01

    Complexities in root canal anatomy and surface adherent biofilm structures remain as challenges in endodontic disinfection. The ability of an irrigant to penetrate into the apical region of a canal, along with its interaction with the root canal walls, will aid in endodontic disinfection. The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine the irrigation dynamics of syringe irrigation with different needle tip designs (open-ended and closed-ended), apical negative pressure irrigation with the EndoVac® system, and passive ultrasonic-assisted irrigation, using a computational fluid dynamics model. Syringe-based irrigation with a side-vented needle showed a higher wall shear stress than the open-ended but was localised to a small region of the canal wall. The apical negative pressure mode of irrigation generated the lowest wall shear stress, while the passive-ultrasonic irrigation group showed the highest wall shear stress along with the greatest magnitude of velocity. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2013 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  10. Optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas: an integrated modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zheng, Yi; Tian, Yong; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid agricultural areas, groundwater (GW) is an important water source of irrigation, in addition to surface water (SW). Groundwater pumping would significantly alter the regional hydrological regime, and therefore complicate the water resources management process. This study explored how to optimize the conjunctive use of SW and GW for agricultural irrigation at a basin scale, based on integrated SW-GW modeling and global optimization methods. The improved GSFLOW model was applied to the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland river basin in China. Two surrogate-based global optimization approaches were implemented and compared, including the well-established DYCORS algorithm and a new approach we proposed named as SOIM, which takes radial basis function (RBF) and support vector machine (SVM) as the surrogate model, respectively. Both temporal and spatial optimizations were performed, aiming at maximizing saturated storage change of midstream part conditioned on non-reduction of irrigation demand, constrained by certain annual discharge for the downstream part. Several scenarios for different irrigation demand and discharge flow are designed. The main study results include the following. First, the integrated modeling not only provides sufficient flexibility to formulation of optimization problems, but also makes the optimization results more physically interpretable and managerially meaningful. Second, the surrogate-based optimization approach was proved to be effective and efficient for the complex, time-consuming modeling, and is quite promising for decision-making. Third, the strong and complicated SW-GW interactions in the study area allow significant water resources conservation, even if neither irrigation demand nor discharge for the downstream part decreases. Under the optimal strategy, considerable part of surface water division is replaced by 'Stream leakage-Pump' process to avoid non-beneficial evaporation via canals. Spatially

  11. Small Scale Irrigation Systems: A Training Manual. Planning--Construction--Operation and Maintenance of Small Scale Irrigation Systems. A Two-Week In-Service Training Program for Peace Corps Volunteers. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc., Manhattan, KS.

    This manual provides materials for a two-week inservice training program for Peace Corps volunteers on the planning, construction, and operation and maintenance of small-scale irrigation systems. The workshop is designed to be given by two experienced professionals: one with practical knowledge of irrigation system design, operation, and…

  12. Performances du goutte à goutte enterré pour l’irrigation de jeunes palmiers dattiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BOURZIZA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In oasis areas, surface water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. Groundwater resources are often overexploited, and are of poor quality for their high salinity degree. Water conservation and economy have therefore become imperative for better oases durability. If localized irrigation is currently recommended in Morocco for saving water, its use in the sub-desert areas does not keep water safe from high evaporation rates. An alternative to this system would be the use of subsurface drip irrigation. This technique is defined as an application of water under soil surface through drippers, which discharge water at generally similar rates as the surface drip irrigation. As subsurface drip irrigation is a newly introduced technique in Morocco, a better understanding in local conditions of the infiltration process around a buried source, and its impact on plant growth is necessarily required. This study aims to contribute to improving the efficiency of water use by testing the performance of subsurface drip irrigation system, especially in areas where water is a limited resource. The objectives of this research are performance evaluation in arid conditions of the subsurface drip irrigation system for young date palms compared to the surface drip, as well as determining the appropriate method of flow measurement for a buried dripper. In this context, an experimental plot was installed on a farm in the region of Erfoud (Errachidia Province, Southeast Morocco to characterize the respective performances of surface and subsurface drip irrigation on young date palm. Flow measurement to calculate the uniformity of the application of water was done through two methods: a flow measurement of drippers above the surface and another one underground. The latter method has also helped us to estimate losses through evaporation for both irrigation techniques. In addition, in order to compare the effect of two irrigation modes, plants were identified at random

  13. Economic profitability in conventional and irrigated coffee production systems in three municipalities in the Marilia region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Nogueira Turco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic benefit of coffee cultivation, with a focus on the distinction between conventional and irrigated coffee production systems. For the development of the study, the various productive systems were delineated from the data provided by a sample of producers to generate a matrix of average technical coefficients. The methodology used to estimate the operating cost of production is the one used by the Instituto de Economia Agrícola (IEA. Profitability indicators were also evaluated. Results indicated that the effective operational cost (EOC incurred in the irrigated production system is higher than that in the conventional system. As regards the cost composition, in the conventional coffee production system, the largest cost incurred is on fertilizers among all inputs, whereas in the irrigated production system, the largest cost incurred is on machinery and equipment that are mainly used in harvesting, for the period 2013-2015. Profitability index of the conventional coffee production system in 2015 was 44.8%, and that of the drip irrigated production system was 49.7%. In 2014, profitability rates were negative for both the conventional (-13.9% and irrigated coffee production systems (-8.6%. The most preferable choice was found to be the irrigated production system, as it allows reducing the risk of loss in production during prolonged periods of water shortage as well as greater yields due to a larger production of grains.

  14. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  15. RAF/5/071: Enhancing Crop Nutrition and Soil and Water Management and Technology Transfer in Irrigated Systems for Increased Food Production and Income Generation (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijali, I.

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective is to enhance food security, income and the resilience of smallholder farmers through climate change adaptive, mitigation and coping strategies and specific objective to Improve water and nitrogen use efficiency under different irrigated cropping systems using quantifying nuclear technique. Technologies perfected at KALRO transferred to pastoral communities (Maasai land). Technologies included drip irrigation systems for vegetables and orchards, water harvesting ponds dam lining, Solar pump, greenhouse management techniques and introduction of new crops such as sweet potatoes, green grams and sorghums. A low-cost solar-powered irrigation pump has been developed by on-station testing and demonstration was done for a small solar pump

  16. Design of an automatic sprinkler irrigation system for the Welsh onion growing, in La Puerta farm (Tota-Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armando Pinto-Medina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design for automating sprinkler irrigation system in a Welsh onion growing, which poses the required parameters, establishes the differences, advantages and results related to the traditional irrigation system used in this region (Tota, Boyacá. Starting from the resources owned by the farming unit, calculations of water requests of the plant, taking into account the crop evapotranspiration, the irrigation planning with certain factors on the basis of effective storage of soils. Two different technologies for the design are presented: hard-wired and programmable logic. The hard-wired logic system is developed as an automatic cyclical sequence with four work timed stages; on the other hand, the programmable logic controller PLC used, is the Easy-512-DC of Moller, which is provided with eight digital inputs and four relay outputs, programmed in Ladder according to the sequence of the process.

  17. Reconstructing the Spatio-Temporal Development of Irrigation Systems in Uzbekistan Using Landsat Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Koellner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of irrigated agriculture during the Soviet Union (SU era made Central Asia a leading cotton production region in the world. However, the successor states of the SU in Central Asia face on-going environmental damages and soil degradation that are endangering the sustainability of agricultural production. With Landsat MSS and TM data from 1972/73, 1977, 1987, 1998, and 2000 the expansion and densification of the irrigated cropland could be reconstructed in the Kashkadarya Province of Uzbekistan, Central Asia. Classification trees were generated by interpreting multitemporal normalized difference vegetation index data and crop phenological knowledge. Assessments based on image-derived validation samples showed good accuracy. Official statistics were found to be of limited use for analyzing the plausibility of the results, because they hardly represent the area that is cropped in the very dry study region. The cropping area increased from 134,800 ha in 1972/73 to 470,000 ha in 2009. Overlaying a historical soil map illustrated that initially sierozems were preferred for irrigated agriculture, but later the less favorable solonchaks and solonetzs were also explored, illustrating the strategy of agricultural expansion in the Aral Sea Basin. Winter wheat cultivation doubled between 1987 and 1998 to approximately 211,000 ha demonstrating its growing relevance for modern Uzbekistan. The spatial-temporal approach used enhances the understanding of natural conditions before irrigation is employed and supports decision-making for investments in irrigation infrastructure and land cultivation throughout the Landsat era.

  18. A rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in Pakistan; Evaluacion rapida de una zona de riego tipica de Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Carmona, Victor Manuel; Ojeda-Bustamante, Waldo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Contijoch, Manuel [Banco Mundial (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results obtained on the implementation of a rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in the province of Punjab in Pakistan. The purpose of the evaluation was to know the present irrigation service quality and to propose some alternative to improve it. The evaluation results were: the canal inflow is smaller than peak crop water requirement; net aquifer loss; crops are always under stress which is reflected on low crop yields, the secondary canal network has not control structures and was not designed for rotation, insufficient human-human communication between canal operators; the operators have no complementary training course to enhance their capacity; discrepancy between the service the canal is supposed to provide and the real service it offers. The suggested actions to improve the irrigation service were: the irrigation service must be client oriented; the irrigation users should participate to determine the irrigation service characteristics; the difference between actual and stage irrigation service must be eliminated; clear definition on water allocation; implement a modernization program to provide the irrigation service required. The evaluation methodology used can be applied in other countries like Mexico for the analysis of large irrigation systems making an optimal use of time and resources. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos al aplicar una metodologia de evaluacion rapida de sistemas de riego a una zona de la provincia del Punjab, Pakistan. El objetivo de la evaluacion fue conocer el estado actual del servicio de riego que ofrece la agencia responsable del manejo del riego en un distrito del Punjab y proponer alternativas para mejorarlo. Los principales resultados de esta evaluacion fueron los siguientes: la falta de capacidad de los canales, el abatimiento neto del acuifero; el estres hidrico continuo de los cultivos, que propicia un bajo rendimiento; la red secundaria de canales no

  19. Adult anopheline ecology and malaria transmission in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J

    2004-01-01

    Surface irrigation in the Punjab province of Pakistan has been carried out on a large scale since the development of the Indus Basin Irrigation System in the late 19th century. The objective of our study was to understand how the population dynamics of adult anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culici...... transmission than we observed. To assess the overall importance of irrigation-related sites in the epidemiology of malaria in the Punjab, more studies are needed to compare irrigated and non-irrigated areas.......Surface irrigation in the Punjab province of Pakistan has been carried out on a large scale since the development of the Indus Basin Irrigation System in the late 19th century. The objective of our study was to understand how the population dynamics of adult anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera......: Culicidae) could be related to malaria transmission in rural areas with intensive irrigation and a history of malaria epidemics. In this paper we present our observations from three villages located along an irrigation canal in South Punjab. The study was carried out from 1 April 1999 to 31 March 2000...

  20. Simulating Water Allocation and Cropping Decisions in Yemen’s Abyan Delta Spate Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Jin-Uk Marchant

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture employs more Yemenis than any other sector and spate irrigation is the largest source of irrigation water. Spate irrigation however is growing increasingly difficult to sustain in many areas due to water scarcity and unclear sharing of water amongst users. In some areas of Yemen, there are no institutionalised water allocation rules which can lead to water related disputes. Here, we propose a proof-of-concept model to evaluate the impacts of different water allocation patterns to assist in devising allocation rules. The integrated model links simple wadi flow, diversion, and soil moisture-yield simulators to a crop decision model to evaluate impacts of different water allocation rules and their possible implications on local agriculture using preliminary literature data. The crop choice model is an agricultural production model of irrigation command areas where the timing, irrigated area and crop mix is decided each month based on current conditions and expected allocations. The model is applied to Yemen’s Abyan Delta, which has the potential to be the most agriculturally productive region in the country. The water allocation scenarios analysed include upstream priority, downstream priority, equal priority (equal sharing of water shortages, and a user-defined mixed priority that gives precedence to different locations based on the season. Once water is distributed according to one of these allocation patterns, the model determines the profit-maximising plant date and crop selection for 18 irrigated command areas. This aims to estimate the impacts different water allocation strategies could have on livelihoods. Initial results show an equal priority allocation is the most equitable and efficient, with 8% more net benefits than an upstream scenario, 10% more net benefits than a downstream scenario, and 25% more net benefits than a mixed priority.

  1. Multipurpose floating platform for hyperspectral imaging, sampling and sensing of surface water sources used in irrigation and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to design, construct, and test the self-propelled aquatic platform for imaging, multi-tier water sampling, water quality sensing, and depth profiling to document microbial content and environmental covariates in the interior of irrigation ponds and reservoirs. The plat...

  2. A review of groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riasat, Ali; Mallants, Dirk; Walker, Glen; Silberstein, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of recharge under irrigated agriculture is one of the most important but difficult tasks. It is the least understood component in groundwater studies because of its large variability in space and time and the difficulty of direct measurement. Better management of groundwater resources is only possible if we can accurately determine all fluxes going into and out of a groundwater system. One of the major challenges facing irrigated agriculture in Australia, and the world, is to reduce uncertainty in estimating or measuring the recharge flux. Reducing uncertainty in groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture is a pre-requisite for effective, efficient and sustainable groundwater resource management especially in dry areas where groundwater usage is often the key to economic development. An accurate quantification of groundwater recharge under irrigated systems is also crucial because of its potential impacts on soil profile salinity, groundwater levels and groundwater quality. This paper aims to identify the main recharge control parameters thorough a review of past field and modelling recharge studies in Australia. We find that the main recharge control parameters under irrigated agriculture are soil type, irrigation management, watertable depth, land cover or plant water uptake, soil surface conditions, and soil, irrigation water and groundwater chemistry. The most commonly used recharge estimation approaches include chloride mass balance, water budget equation, lysimeters, Darcy's law and numerical models. Main sources and magnitude of uncertainty in recharge estimates associated with these approaches are discussed.

  3. Influence of genotype, cultivation system and irrigation regime on antioxidant capacity and selected phenolics of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M

    2016-07-01

    Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of Decisive Factors Determining the Continued Use of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Agriculture Irrigation in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The success or failure of operating a rainwater harvesting system (RWH depends on both technological and non-technological factors. The importance of non-technological factors in attaining sustainable RWH operation is rarely emphasized. This study aims to assess the contribution of non-technological factors through determining decisive factors involved in the use of RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing. The RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing are not operating as well as expected. If the decisive factors are identified to be non-technological, the significance of non-technological factors will be highlighted. Firstly, 10 impact factors comprising non-technological and technological factors are selected according to both a literature review and interviews with RWH managers. Following this, through an artificial data mining method, rough set analysis, the decisive factors are identified. Results show that two non-technological factors, “doubts about rainwater quality” and “the availability of groundwater” determine whether these systems will continue or cease RWH operation in Beijing. It is, thus, considered necessary to improve public confidence in and motivation on using rainwater for agriculture irrigation, as this is the main obstacle in the sustainable and successful operation of RWHs. Through a case study of RWHs in Beijing, the study verifies the importance of acknowledging non-technological factors to achieve sustainable water management and considers that such factors should receive more attention by decision makers and researchers.

  5. Stormwater harvesting for irrigation purposes: an investigation of chemical quality of water recycled in pervious pavement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnadi, Ernest O; Newman, Alan P; Coupe, Stephen J; Mbanaso, Fredrick U

    2015-01-01

    Most available water resources in the world are used for agricultural irrigation. Whilst this level of water use is expected to increase due to rising world population and land use, available water resources are expected to become limited due to climate change and uneven rainfall distribution. Recycled stormwater has the potential to be used as an alternative source of irrigation water and part of sustainable water management strategy. This paper reports on a study to investigate whether a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) technique, known as the pervious pavements system (PPS) has the capability to recycle water that meets irrigation water quality standard. Furthermore, the experiment provided information on the impact of hydrocarbon (which was applied to simulate oil dripping from parked vehicles onto PPS), leaching of nutrients from different layers of the PPS and effects of nutrients (applied to enhance bioremediation) on the stormwater recycling efficiency of the PPS. A weekly dose of 6.23 × 10(-3) L of lubricating oil and single dose of 17.06 g of polymer coated controlled-release fertilizer granules were applied to the series of 710 mm × 360 mm model pervious pavement structure except the controls. Rainfall intensity of 7.4 mm/h was applied to the test models at the rate of 3 events per week. Analysis of the recycled water showed that PPS has the capability to recycle stormwater to a quality that meets the chemical standards for use in agricultural irrigation irrespective of the type of sub-base used. There is a potential benefit of nutrient availability in recycled water for plants, but care should be taken not to dispose of this water in natural water courses as it might result in eutrophication problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation between E. coli levels and the presence of foodborne pathogens in surface irrigation water: Establishment of a sampling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchado, Pilar; Hernandez, Natalia; Gil, Maria I; Ivanek, Renata; Allende, Ana

    2018-01-01

    To establish the association between microbial indicators and the presence of foodborne pathogens in irrigation water, Escherichia coli was enumerated using two quantification methods (plate counts and PMA-qPCR) and presence/absence of pathogenic microorganisms, including five strains from the Shiga toxigenic E. coli (O157:H7, O26, O103, O111 and O145) and Salmonella spp. were evaluated. The results confirmed that surface water can be considered a microbial hazard when used for irrigation. The levels of viable E. coli were very similar to those of cultivable E. coli, except for irrigation water obtained from water reservoirs. Comparison between the E. coli counts in samples positive and negative for the presence of pathogenic bacteria for the evaluated water sources identified E. coli level of 2.35 log cfu/100 mL as a cut-off able to correctly predict positive and negative samples with 93% sensitivity and 66% specificity, respectively. Thus, for the samples with levels of E. coli under 2.35 log cfu/100 mL (e.g., 2.24 log cfu/100 mL) there was a 90% probability that the samples were not contaminated with pathogenic microorganism in locations with similar prevalence. E. coli levels in irrigation water were affected by the ambient temperature confirming that water source and climate conditions should be taken into account by growers when designing a sampling program and the frequency of the monitoring to make a better and more efficient use of their resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiological Evaluation of Penetration of the Irrigant according to Three Endodontic Irrigation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Dhaimy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This experimental study is to compare radiographs based on the penetration depth of the irrigant following three final irrigation techniques. Material and Method. A sample of sixty teeth with single roots were prepared with stainless steel K files followed by mechanized Ni-Ti files iRace® under irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Radiopaque solution was utilized to measure the penetration depth of the irrigant. Three irrigation techniques were performed during this study: (i passive irrigation, (ii manually activated irrigation, and (iii passive irrigation with an endodontic needle CANAL CLEAN®. Radiographs were performed to measure the length of irrigant penetration in each technique. Results. In comparison, passive irrigation with a conventional syringe showed infiltration of the irrigant by an average of 0.682±0.105, whereas the manually activated irrigation technique indicated an average of 0.876±0.066 infiltration. Irrigation with an endodontic syringe showed an average infiltration of 0.910±0.043. The results revealed highly significant difference between the three irrigation techniques (α=5%. Conclusion. Adding manual activation to the irrigant improved the result by 20%. This study indicates that passive irrigation with an endodontic needle has proved to be the most effective irrigation technique of the canal system.

  8. Soil salinity and water productivity of carrot-millet system as influenced by irrigation regimes with saline water in arid regions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia - El Mokh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted for three years to determine the effects of irrigation regimes with saline water (3.6 dS/m on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of carrot and millet under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Carrot and millet were grown during fall-winter and summer seasons on a sandy soil and surface and drip-irrigated with well water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. For three years, a complete randomized block design with four replicates was used to evaluate five irrigation regimes. Irrigation regimes consisted in water replacements of cumulated ETc at levels of 100% (SWB100, full irrigation, 80% (DI-80, 60% (DI-60, when the readily available water in SWB100 treatment is depleted, deficit irrigation during ripening stage (SWB100-DI60 and farmer method corresponding to irrigation practices implemented by the local farmers. The results showed that soil salinity was significantly affected by irrigation treatments. Higher soil salinity was maintained in the root zone with DI-60 and farmer irrigation treatments than full irrigation (SWB100. SWB100-DI60 and DI-80 treatments resulted also in low ECe values. Soil salinity was kept within acceptable limits for the growth of the crops grown in the rotation when SWB100, SWB100-DI60 and DI-80 strategies were employed. The rainfalls received during fall-winter and spring periods were effective in leaching salts from the soil profile. During the three year period, carrot and millet yield was highest for the SWB100 full treatment, (29.5, 28.7 and 26.8 t/ha for carrot and 27.2, 28.3 and 26.9 q/ha for millet although no significant differences were observed with the regulated deficit irrigation treatment (SWB100-DI60. However, the DI-80 and DI-60 deficit irrigation treatments caused significant reductions in carrot and millet yields through a reduction in roots number and weight, panicle number, kernel number and weight in comparison with SWB100. The farmer

  9. Effect of different levels of water consumptive use of squash under drip irrigation system on salt distribution, yield and water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Moniem, M.; El-Gendy, R.W.; Gadalla, A.M.; Hamdy, A.; Zeedan, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to trace the distribution of salts and fertilizers through drip irrigation system and the response of squash (yield and water use efficiency) to irrigation treatments, i.e. T1 (100 % ETc), T2 (75 % ETc) and T3 (50 % ETc). This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Soil samples were taken from three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distance from the emitters between drippers and laterals lines) for evaluating the salt content (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that salt accumulation was noticed at the surface layer and was affected by the direction of soil water movement (horizontal and vertical motion). The highest salt concentrations were in 75 % and 50 % ETc treatments between emitters and laterals. As for the three sites, salt concentration behaved in the sequence: 25 >12.5 > 0 cm sites. For squash yield, the first treatment produced high yield without significant differences between the second treatment so, 75 % ETc treatment was considered the best one for saving water

  10. Modeling and assessing field irrigation water use in a canal system of Hetao, upper Yellow River basin: Application to maize, sunflower and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Hao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Water saving in irrigation is a key issue in the upper Yellow River basin. Excessive irrigation leads to water waste, water table rising and increased salinity. Land fragmentation associated with a large dispersion of crops adds to the agro-hydrological complexity of the irrigation system. The model HYDRUS-1D, coupled with the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach (dualKc), was applied to simulate the water and salt movement processes. Field experiments were conducted for maize, sunflower and watermelon crops in the command area of a typical irrigation canal system in Hetao Irrigation District during 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated in three crop fields using two-year experimental data. Simulations of soil moisture, salinity concentration and crop yield fitted well with the observations. The irrigation water use was then evaluated and results showed that large amounts of irrigation water percolated due to over-irrigation but their reuse through capillary rise was also quite large. That reuse was facilitated by the dispersion of crops throughout largely fragmented field, thus with fields reusing water percolated from nearby areas due to the rapid lateral migration of groundwater. Beneficial water use could be improved when taking this aspect into account, which was not considered in previous researches. The non-beneficial evaporation and salt accumulation into the root zone were found to significantly increase during non-growth periods due to the shallow water tables. It could be concluded that when applying water saving measures, close attention should be paid to cropping pattern distribution and groundwater control in association with irrigation scheduling and technique improvement.

  11. Irrigation mitigates against heat extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Fischer, Erich; Visser, Auke; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use gridded observations and ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on hot extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Finally we find that present-day irrigation is partly masking GHG-induced warming of extreme temperatures, with particularly strong effects in South Asia. Our results overall underline that irrigation substantially reduces our exposure to hot temperature extremes and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  12. HYDRUS Simulation of Sustainable Brackish Water Irrigation in a Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangkang He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater resources in the North China Plain (NCP are near depletion due to the unceasing overexploitation of deep groundwater, by far the most significant source of freshwater in the region. To deal with the deepening freshwater crisis, brackish water (rich but largely unused water in agriculture is increasingly being used in irrigation in the region. However, inappropriate irrigation with brackish water could lead to soil salinization and cropland degradation. To evaluate such negative impacts, the HYDRUS-1D model was used to simulate soil salt transport and accumulation under 15 years of irrigation with brackish water. The irrigation scenarios included brackish water irrigation during the wintering and jointing stages of winter wheat and then freshwater irrigation just before the sowing of summer maize. Freshwater irrigation was done to leach out soil salts, which is particularly vital in dry years. For the littoral region of the plain, HYDRUS-ID was used to simulate the irrigated cropping system stated above for a total period of 15 years. The results showed that it was feasible to use brackish water twice in one year, provided freshwater irrigation was performed before sowing summer maize. Freshwater irrigation, in conjunction with precipitation, leached out soil salts from the 100 cm root-zone depth. The maximum salt accumulation was in the 160–220 cm soil layer, which ensured that root-zone soil was free of restrictive salinity for crop growth. Precipitation was a critical determinant of the rate and depth leaching of soil salt. Heavy rainfall (>100 mm caused significant leaching of soluble salts in the 0–200 cm soil profile. Salt concentration under brackish water irrigation had no significant effect on the variations in the trend of soil salt transport in the soil profile. The variations of soil salinity were mainly affected by hydrological year type, for which the buried depth of soil salt was higher in wet years than in dry years

  13. A Matter of Relationships : Actor-Networks of Colonial Rule in the Gezira Irrigation System, Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    In the first half of the 20th century, colonial rulers, a British firm and Sudanese farmers changed the Gezira Plain in Sudan into a large-scale irrigated cotton scheme. Gezira continues to be in use up to date. Its story shows how the abstract concept 'development' is shaped through the agency of

  14. Leveraging water delivery. Irrigation technology choices and operations and maintenance in smallholder systems in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chidenga, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Irrigation development and management in Zimbabwe like many other sub-Saharan countries has problems related to sustainability. These problems are of a socio-technical nature related to both physical artefacts and configuration of the water delivery continuum as well as the social, economic,

  15. Management systems in irrigated rice affect physical and chemical soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Pauletto, E.A.; Pinto, L.F.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lowland soils are commonly found in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern of Brazil, where they represent around 20% of the total area. Deficient drainage is the most important natural characteristic of these soils which therefore are mainly in use for irrigated rice (Oriza sativa). Degradation

  16. Water production for irrigation and drinking needs in remote arid communities using closed-system greenhouse: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Kabeel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water needs for agriculture, food production and drinking are considered one of the most critical challenges facing the world in the present days. This is due mainly to the scarcity and lack of fresh water resources, and the increasing ground water salinity. Most of these countries have a high solar energy potential. This potential can be best developed by solar desalination concepts and methods specifically suited for rural water supply, irrigation. In this paper, a humidification–dehumidification (HD water desalination system with several technologies for irrigation and drinking needs in remote arid areas is introduced from technical and economic point of views. This study has investigated (1 detailed discussion of technical developments, economical and sustainable aspects; (2 benefits of the new design over traditional applications, desalination and other irrigation methods; (3 specific requirements and implementation challenges in remote and cold regions; (4 performance and reliability improvement possible techniques. Recommended researches and projects leading to high efficiency, economical and sustainable applications of some desalination devices driven by solar energy are highlighted.

  17. Brackish groundwater membrane system design for sustainable irrigation: Optimal configuration selection using analytic hierarchy process and multi-dimension scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni eLew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent high demands for reuse of salty water for irrigation affected membrane producers to assess new potential technologies for undesirable physical, chemical and biological contaminants removal. This paper studies the assembly options by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP model and the multi-dimension scaling (MDS techniques. A specialized form of MDS (CoPlot software enables presentation of the AHP outcomes in a two dimensional space and the optimal model can be visualized clearly. Four types of 8 membranes were selected: (i Nanofiltration low rejection and high flux (ESNA1-LF-LD, 86% rejection, 10,500gpd; (ii Nanofiltration medium rejection and medium flux (ESNA1-LF2-LD, 91% rejection, 8,200gpd; (iii Reverse Osmosis high rejection and high flux (CPA5-MAX, 99.7 rejection, 12,000gpd ; and (iv Reverse Osmosis medium rejection and extreme high flux (ESPA4-MAX, 99.2 rejection, 13,200gpd. The results indicate that: (i Nanofiltration membrane (High flux and Low rejection can produce water for irrigation with valuable levels of nutrient ions and a reduction in the sodium absorption ratio (SAR, minimizing soil salinity; this is an attractive option for agricultural irrigation and is the optimal solution; and (ii implementing the MDS approach with reference to the variables is consequently useful to characterize membrane system design.

  18. Techno-economic feasibility of the irrigation system for the grassland and farmland conservation in China: Photovoltaic vs. wind power water pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Pietro Elia; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel design procedure for photovoltaic and wind power water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • The design procedure is proved conducting dynamic simulations of the water supply and water demand. • The technical and economic effectiveness of photovoltaic water pumping systems is proved simulating the crop yield response. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) and wind power water pumping (WPWP) systems for irrigation represent innovative solutions for the restoration of degraded grassland and the conservation of farmland in remote areas of China. The present work systematically compares the technical and economic suitability of such systems, providing a general approach for the design and selection of the suitable technology for irrigation purposes. The model calculates the PVWP and WPWP systems sizes based on irrigation water requirement (IWR), solar irradiation and wind speed. Based on the lowest PVWP and WPWP systems components costs, WPWP systems can compete with PVWP systems only at high wind speed and low solar irradiation values. Nevertheless, taking into account the average specific costs both for PVWP and WPWP systems, it can be concluded that the most cost-effective solution for irrigation is site specific. According to the dynamic simulations, it has also been found that the PVWP systems present better performances in terms of matching between IWR and water supply compared to the WPWP systems. The mismatch between IWR and pumped water resulted in a reduction of crop yield. Therefore, the dynamic simulations of the crop yield are essential for economic assessment and technology selection

  19. Effect of Irrigation to Winter Wheat on the Radiation Use Efficiency and Yield of Summer Maize in a Double Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Quanqi, Li; Yuhai, Chen; Xunbo, Zhou; Songlie, Yu; Changcheng, Guo

    2012-01-01

    In north China, double cropping of winter wheat and summer maize is a widely adopted agricultural practice, and irrigation is required to obtain a high yield from winter wheat, which results in rapid aquifer depletion. In this experiment conducted in 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005, we studied the effects of irrigation regimes during specific winter wheat growing stage with winter wheat and summer maize double cropping systems; we measured soil moisture before sowing (SMBS), the photosynt...

  20. Controls on selenium distribution and mobilization in an irrigated shallow groundwater system underlain by Mancos Shale, Uncompahgre River Basin, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Taylor J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Thomas, Judith; Keith, Gabrielle

    2016-10-01

    Elevated selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water and groundwater have become a concern in areas of the Western United States due to the deleterious effects of Se on aquatic ecosystems. Elevated Se concentrations are most prevalent in irrigated alluvial valleys underlain by Se-bearing marine shales where Se can be leached from geologic materials into the shallow groundwater and surface water systems. This study presents groundwater chemistry and solid-phase geochemical data from the Uncompahgre River Basin in Western Colorado, an irrigated alluvial landscape underlain by Se-rich Cretaceous marine shale. We analyzed Se species, major and trace elements, and stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate in groundwater and aquifer sediments to examine processes governing selenium release and transport in the shallow groundwater system. Groundwater Se concentrations ranged from below detection limit (< 0.5 μg L{sup −1}) to 4070 μg L{sup −1}, and primarily are controlled by high groundwater nitrate concentrations that maintain oxidizing conditions in the aquifer despite low dissolved oxygen concentrations. High nitrate concentrations in non-irrigated soils and nitrate isotopes indicate nitrate is largely derived from natural sources in the Mancos Shale and alluvial material. Thus, in contrast to areas that receive substantial NO{sub 3} inputs through inorganic fertilizer application, Se mitigation efforts that involve limiting NO{sub 3} application might have little impact on groundwater Se concentrations in the study area. Soluble salts are the primary source of Se to the groundwater system in the study area at-present, but they constitute a small percentage of the total Se content of core material. Sequential extraction results indicate insoluble Se is likely composed of reduced Se in recalcitrant organic matter or discrete selenide phases. Oxidation of reduced Se species that constitute the majority of the Se pool in the study area could be a potential

  1. Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric D.; Gates, Timothy K.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the world’s key agricultural production systems face big challenges to both water quantity and quality due to shallow groundwater that results from long-term intensive irrigation, namely waterlogging and salinity, water losses, and environmental problems. This paper focuses on water quantity issues, presenting finite-difference groundwater models developed to describe shallow water table levels, non-beneficial groundwater consumptive use, and return flows to streams across two regions within an irrigated alluvial river valley in southeastern Colorado, USA. The models are calibrated and applied to simulate current baseline conditions in the alluvial aquifer system and to examine actions for potentially improving these conditions. The models provide a detailed description of regional-scale subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow processes, thereby enabling detailed spatiotemporal description of groundwater levels, recharge to infiltration ratios, partitioning of ET originating from the unsaturated and saturated zones, and groundwater flows, among other variables. Hybrid automated and manual calibration of the models is achieved using extensive observations of groundwater hydraulic head, groundwater return flow to streams, aquifer stratigraphy, canal seepage, total evapotranspiration, the portion of evapotranspiration supplied by upflux from the shallow water table, and irrigation flows. Baseline results from the two regional-scale models are compared to model predictions under variations of four alternative management schemes: (1) reduced seepage from earthen canals, (2) reduced irrigation applications, (3) rotational lease fallowing (irrigation water leased to municipalities, resulting in temporary dry-up of fields), and (4) combinations of these. The potential for increasing the average water table depth by up to 1.1 and 0.7 m in the two respective modeled regions, thereby reducing the threat of waterlogging and lowering non-beneficial consumptive use

  2. The Rieti Land Reclamation Authority relevance in the management of surface waters for the irrigation purposes of the Rieti Plain (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Martarelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Rieti Plain is crowned by calcareous-marly reliefs (Rieti and Sabini Mountains and represents an intra-Apennine Plio- Quaternary alluvial and fluvial-lacustrine basin formed after multistage extensional tectonic processes. This territory presents huge amounts of water resources (Velino and Turano rivers; several springs; Lungo and Ripasottile lakes, relics of ancient Lacus Velinus. The aquifers occurring in the reliefs often have hydraulic continuity with the Rieti plain groundwater (detected at about 1-4 m below ground surface, which has general flow directions converging from the reliefs to the lake sector. Hydraulic exchanges between groundwater and surface waters are variable in space and time and play a relevant role for groundwater resource distribution. The Rieti Land Reclamation Authority was instituted in 1929 by Royal Decree N. 34171-3835, and integrates eight former authorities, dating the end of 1800s. It contributes to maintain the reclamation actions in the Rieti Plain, which started with the realization of the Salto and Turano artificial reservoirs, along two left tributaries of Velino River. The hydroelectric energy production purposes struggle with the reclamation and flood mitigation activities in the plain. The Land Reclamation Authority actuated the Integrated Reclamation General Project through the realization of pumping stations, connection and drainage canals, forestry-hydraulic works, rural roads, movable dams along Velino River and irrigation ditches. The irrigation activities, granted by the derivation of 5 m3/s from the Velino River, are carried out through 194,000 hectares within the territory of 42 municipalities of the Rieti Province. The Rieti Land Reclamation Authority contributes to the irrigation needs and to the environmental and hydrogeological protection and monitoring.

  3. Water-right and water-allocation procedures of farmers' managed perennial spate irrigation systems of mithawan watershed, D.G. Khan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted on water rights, water allocation and local institutions prevailing in the perennial spate irrigation systems of Mithawan watershed o D.G. Khan District of Punjab. The Study Area was selected is the Mthawan watershed on the D.G. Khan-Quetta Road almost 70 kms from D.G. Khan and 10 km away from the road, representing real-life operating systems. Small-scale isolated and large-scale contiguous perennial spate irrigation systems were selected for study. A three-prong methodology was designed covering (a) interactive dialogue of the focus groups to document the community-perceptions regarding systems water-rights, water allocation and local institution prevailing in the area; (b) structured interviews to document systematic data regarding some of the study-aspects; and (c) diagnostic surveys to document some of the measured data regarding scheme performance. Water rights and allocation procedures both in small-scale isolated and large-scale Contiguous perennial spate irrigation-system are very clearly defined and do not change with time and space. Local institutions like Biradri and Muchi take care of just allocation of water. An irrigator is deputed who takes care of allocated time among various tribes. At the same time, the community is bringing more area under irrigation. Obviously it has increased water-requirements and in turn management of irrigation system. Previously they were reconstructing the diversion structure only. Present expansion in irrigated area has increased the necessity of maintaining the water-conveyance network more frequently, particularly at critical sections. However, the realization regarding water-losses still needs to be promoted. The linkages of resource-management with water-productivity are going to be the future area of consideration in theses systems, due to expansion of the system largely because of increased population and urge to increase their livelihood. (author)

  4. Ex vivo evaluation of four final irrigation protocols on the removal of hard-tissue debris from the mesial root canal system of mandibular first molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, G B; Versiani, M A; Silva-Sousa, Y T; Bruniera, J F B; Pécora, J D; Sousa-Neto, M D

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of four final irrigation protocols on the reduction of hard-tissue debris accumulated within the mesial root canal system of mandibular first molars using micro-CT analysis. Forty mesial roots of mandibular molars with a single and continuous isthmus connecting the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals (Vertucci's Type I configuration) were selected and scanned at a resolution of 8.6 μm. Canals were enlarged sequentially using WaveOne Small and Primary instruments activated in reciprocating motion without intracanal irrigation to allow debris to accumulate within the mesial root canal system. Then, specimens were anatomically matched and distributed into four groups (n = 10), according to the final irrigation protocol: apical positive pressure (APP), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), Self-adjusting File (SAF) and XP-endo Finisher (XPF). The final irrigation procedures were performed over 2 min using a total of 5.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl per canal. Reconstructed data sets were coregistered, and the mean percentage reduction of accumulated hard-tissue debris after the final irrigation procedures was compared statistically between groups using the anovapost hoc Tukey test with a significance level set at 5%. Reduction of accumulated hard-tissue debris was observed in all groups after the final irrigation protocol. Overall, PUI and XPF groups had higher mean percentage reductions of accumulated hard-tissue debris (94.1% and 89.7%, respectively) than APP and SAF groups (45.7% and 41.3%, respectively) (P  0.05) or APP and SAF groups (P > 0.05). The PUI technique and XP-endo Finisher instrument were associated with significantly lower levels of AHTD compared with conventional irrigation and the modified SAF system protocol in mesial root canals of mandibular molars. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The improvement of the quality of polluted irrigation water through a phytoremediation process in a hydroponic batch culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningdyah, Catur

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a phytoremediation process using some local hydro macrophytes to reduce fertilizer residue in irrigation water in order to support healthy agriculture and to prevent eutrophication and algae bloom in water. A phytoremediation process was carried out in a hydroponic floating system by using transparent plastic bags of 1 m in diameter and 1 m in height that were placed in collecting ponds before they were used for agricultural activities. Paddy soils were used as substrates in this system. The irrigation water was treated with nutrient enrichment (Urea and SP-36 fertilizers). Then, the system was planted with remediation actors (Azolla sp., Ipomoea aquatica, Limnocharis flava, Marsilea crenata, polyculture of those hydro macrophytes and control). The improvement of the water quality as a result of the phytoremediation process was characterized by a decline in the concentration of some physicochemical parameters, which were measured at 7 days after incubation, as well as an increase in the plankton diversity index value. The results showed that all of the hydro macrophytes used in this research, which was grown in the hydroponic batch culture system for a period of 7 days, were able to significantly improve the irrigation water quality, which was enriched by the synthetic fertilizers Urea and SP36. This was reflected by a significant decrease in the concentration of water TSS, nitrate, BOD, COD and total phosphate and an increase in the value of water DO at 7 days after incubation. Improvement of the water quality is also reflected in the increasing plankton diversity index value as a bioindicator of water pollution indicating a change in the pollution status from moderately polluted to slightly polluted at 7 days after incubation.

  6. Comparison of water distribution mechanisms under two localized irrigation techniques (Drip Irrigation & Buried Diffuser) for one week irrigation period in a sandy soil of southeastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Ines; Kodešová, Radka; Mechergui, Mohamed; Nikodem, Antonín; Moussa, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The majority of agricultural ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin of northern Africa suffer from water shortage and positions these regions in a highly vulnerable to climate change. In arid regions of Tunisia and exactly in the Southeastern part, during each growing season, plant productivity in sandy-loamy soils is dramatically reduced by limited availability of soil water and nutrients. Thus, highly permeable soils are unable to retain adequate water and nutrient resource in the plant root zone. Moreover, the investments of supplemental irrigation and agricultural amendments of additional fertilization are not sustainable due to the leaching of water supplies and nutrients, which severely limit agricultural productivity. In addition, inadequate soil water distribution, costly irrigation and fertilization leads to negative responses to plant nutrients added to highly permeable soils. That's why we should use irrigation techniques with high water use efficiency. This paper focuses on the comparison between two localized irrigation techniques which are the Drip Irrigation (DI) and the Buried Diffuser (BD) that has the same flow rates (4 l/h). The BD is buried at 15 cm depths. Experimental data was obtained from Smar-Médenine located in South-East of Tunisia. The water distribution at the soil surface for BD is very important about 195 cm2 while for the DI is about 25.12 cm2. The HYDRUS 2D/3D model helped to evaluate the water distribution and compare the water balance obtained with those two irrigation techniques for one week irrigation period. There is a rapid kinetic which has a duration of 3 hours (irrigation time) and a slow kinetic which is the result of the water distribution in the soil, the plant uptake and the effect of climatic condition. There are two mechanisms that affect the two irrigation techniques: the water distribution and the position of irrigation system. As a result, irrigation with BD goes dipper in the soil. The transmission zone for this

  7. China’s Water-Saving Irrigation Management System: Policy, Implementation, and Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Yao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increased competition for water, the Chinese government has determined to promote water-saving irrigation (WSI followed by a range of institutional arrangements and policy goals. Three management mechanisms are analyzed in this study in terms of effectiveness, including the top-down regulation mechanism using direct control or economic instruments, the design-bid funding mechanism mobilizing local governments by competitive grants program, and the bottom-up participation mechanism transferring more irrigation management responsibilities to end-users. Although the WSI management has achieved notable improvements by the combination of different mechanisms, conflicts among different policy goals, uneven distribution of financial resources, and insufficient participation from water users caused the difficulty in aligning stakeholders’ incentives. Approaches are needed to enable sustainable management by coordinating incentives from different stakeholders in the management, as well as incorporating end water users to assist decision-making.

  8. Interproximal biofilm removal by intervallic use of a sonic toothbrush compared to an oral irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Tawakoli, Pune N; Sauer, Bärbel; Becker, Klaus; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Attin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the potential of biofilm removal in interproximal tooth regions using intervallic cleaning with an oral irrigator or a sonic toothbrush. Methods Three-species biofilms (Streptococcus mutans (OMZ 918), Streptococcus oralis SK 248 (OMZ 60), Actinomyces naeslundii (OMZ 745)) were grown on hydroxyapatite discs for 3?days in culture media. Every 24?h, specimens were incubated for 15?min in resazurin solution (i.e., culture medium and...

  9. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Christian-Smith, J., L. Allen, M. Cohen, P. Schulte, C. Smith, and P. Gleick. 2010. California Farm Water Success Stories. Pacific Institute...Fort Hood Site John Bushoven California State University, Center of Irrigation Technology, 5370 Chestnut Ave, Fresno CA 93740-8021 (559 977...District of Southern California NAVFAC EXWC Naval Facilities Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center NBVC Naval Base Ventura County PLC

  10. Intercomparison of four remote-sensing-based energy balance methods to retrieve surface evapotranspiration and water stress of irrigated fields in semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, J.; Boulet, G.; Jarlan, L.; Fieuzal, R.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Ezzahar, J.; Er-Raki, S.; Bigeard, G.; Merlin, O.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Watts, C.; Chehbouni, G.

    2014-03-01

    Instantaneous evapotranspiration rates and surface water stress levels can be deduced from remotely sensed surface temperature data through the surface energy budget. Two families of methods can be defined: the contextual methods, where stress levels are scaled on a given image between hot/dry and cool/wet pixels for a particular vegetation cover, and single-pixel methods, which evaluate latent heat as the residual of the surface energy balance for one pixel independently from the others. Four models, two contextual (S-SEBI and a modified triangle method, named VIT) and two single-pixel (TSEB, SEBS) are applied over one growing season (December-May) for a 4 km × 4 km irrigated agricultural area in the semi-arid northern Mexico. Their performance, both at local and spatial standpoints, are compared relatively to energy balance data acquired at seven locations within the area, as well as an uncalibrated soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model forced with local in situ data including observed irrigation and rainfall amounts. Stress levels are not always well retrieved by most models, but S-SEBI as well as TSEB, although slightly biased, show good performance. The drop in model performance is observed for all models when vegetation is senescent, mostly due to a poor partitioning both between turbulent fluxes and between the soil/plant components of the latent heat flux and the available energy. As expected, contextual methods perform well when contrasted soil moisture and vegetation conditions are encountered in the same image (therefore, especially in spring and early summer) while they tend to exaggerate the spread in water status in more homogeneous conditions (especially in winter). Surface energy balance models run with available remotely sensed products prove to be nearly as accurate as the uncalibrated SVAT model forced with in situ data.

  11. Interproximal biofilm removal by intervallic use of a sonic toothbrush compared to an oral irrigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawakoli, Pune N; Sauer, Bärbel; Becker, Klaus; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Attin, Thomas

    2015-08-05

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the potential of biofilm removal in interproximal tooth regions using intervallic cleaning with an oral irrigator or a sonic toothbrush. Three-species biofilms (Streptococcus mutans (OMZ 918), Streptococcus oralis SK 248 (OMZ 60), Actinomyces naeslundii (OMZ 745)) were grown on hydroxyapatite discs for 3 days in culture media. Every 24 h, specimens were incubated for 15 min in resazurin solution (i.e., culture medium and 10 % v/v alamarBlue®) to measure the metabolic activity with a fluorescence spectrophotometer in relative fluorescence units (rfu) at baseline. Then, specimens were fixed in interproximal holding devices and underwent treatment with an oral irrigator (WF; Waterpik® Sensonic WP-100E), an active sonic toothbrush (WPa), or an inactive sonic toothbrush (WPi; Waterpik® Sensonic SR-3000E) for 10 s (n = 18/group). Untreated biofilms served as controls (CO). After treatment, bacterial activity was re-measured, and specimens were re-grown in fresh medium for 24 h until next cleaning procedure. Altogether, cleaning was repeated in intervals of three treatment days (d1, d2, d3). After d3, SEM images were taken (n = 8) and CFU was measured (n = 3). Metabolic activity was analyzed for each disc separately, rfu values were averaged for d1 to compare initial biofilm stability, and ratios of baseline and post-treatment values were compared. Results were analyzed using ANOVA with the post-hoc Scheffé test, or Kruskal-Wallis with post-hoc Mann-Whitney test. Median baseline rfu-values of d1 resulted in 7821.8 rfu (interquartile range = 5114.5). Highest reduction in metabolic activity was recorded significantly for the oral irrigator used for 10 s (residual activity per day d1: WF 17.9 %, WPa 58.8 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 89.6 %; d2: WF 36.8 %, WPa 85.2 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 90.0 %; d3: WF 17.2.%, WPa 79.6 %, WPi 96.3 %, CO 116.3 %). SEM images of untreated specimens (CO) and specimens treated with the sonic toothbrush

  12. Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, C. M.; Gowda, P. H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Xiao, X.

    2009-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts’ ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater models to evaluate economic feasibility for various crop rotations systems and irrigation management practices. In this study, we used a novel approach to derive an irrigated area map covering a 4-county area (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties) in the northwest region of the Texas High Plains from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on August 13, 2008. The spectral band ratios and vegetation indices were used to define threshold value for the irrigated pixels. The hierarchical rule-based decision tree classification algorithm was employed to delineate final irrigated class. Ground truth data collected for accuracy assessment included land cover type, irrigation practices and their geographic locations using a global positioning system. Accuracy assessment of the irrigated area map indicated that we achieved an overall mapping accuracy of 96% with omission and commission errors at 9% and 8%, respectively, which are mainly due to clouds and shadows of clouds. Irrigated acreages of summer crops derived from the TM image closely matched with that from agricultural statistical reports for the 4-county area. At present, a spring image is being processed to identify irrigated area planted with winter wheat in the study area. The combined irrigated area map will be used in the comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes.

  13. The reorganization of irrigation system in Piedmont; La riorganizzazione del sistema irriguo piemontese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratti, S. [Associazione Irrigazione Est Sesia, Direzione Generale, Novara (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    In Piedmont, outside the areas interested by two big Irrigation Consortia East Sesia (in Novara) and West Sesia Baraggia (in Vercelli), the irrigation organization is managed by a big number of very small bodies. To avoid the inconveniences of this situation, it was necessary the compiling and the approving a Regional bill that, among other things, promotes a rational reassessment of irrigations. The bill became the Regional law: Reclamation and irrigation directions, n. 21 August 9. 1999. The Head II is dedicated to the Reclamation and Drainage Consortia, while the Head III concerns the Irrigation Consortia, moreover, are provided Reclamation and Irrigation Consortia (items no. 47 and 48) which are Organizations carrying out, beyond peculiar Irrigation Consortium's functions, reclamation's activity too, such as already happening for East Sesia in Novara. Italian agriculture, and so Piedmont's agriculture too, is nowadays substantially conditioned by decisions made inside the European Community's agricultural policy, Community which Italy takes part. European Community's agriculture, subject to bigger production's costs determined by ecological and sanitary bonds, non-existent elsewhere, meets great difficulties to become part of world market where agricultural products prices are often very cheaper; from here a number of problems that have not still found a clear and definitive strategy of solution. In this ambit there is also the requirement to equalize Consortia operating structures to the new opportunities offered by the recent National and Regional laws about soil defence, territory and environment safeguard and development. [Italian] Le irrigazioni in Piemonte, al di fuori delle aree interessate de due grandi enti irrigui dell'Est Sesia (Novara) e dell'Ovest Sesia Baraggia (Vercelli), risultano frammentate in numerosissimi organismi consortili con dimensioni medie assai modeste. Per ovviare gli inconvenienti derivanti

  14. Micro-pressure drip irrigation technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... 1National Engineering Research Center for Water-saving Irrigation at Yangling, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,. Chinese Academy of ... Key words: Irrigation, drip irrigation, micro-pressure systems, agricultural and environmental biotechnology, ..... Based on an analysis of polyethylene (PE) plastic.

  15. Impacto de los sistemas de riego por goteo en arándanos Impact of drip irrigation systems in blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pannunzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo examinó los efectos de diferentes sistemas de riego por goteo en el rendimiento de la variedad O´Neal de arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L. El estudio se realizó en Zarate (33º 41’ S y 59º 41’ W, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El cultivo se implantó en agosto de 2001, la primera cosecha se efectuó en octubre de 2003. El objetivo fue determinar cual era el sistema de riego por goteo que maximizaba el rendimiento, siendo los tratamientos, un lateral de tubería de goteo por fila de plantas con goteros a 40 cm (T1 y dos laterales de tubería de goteo con goteros a 20 cm por fila de plantas (T2. El porcentaje de suelo mojado por sistema se incrementa a medida que aumenta el número de emisores por metro lineal. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados, con bloques de cinco plantas y cinco repeticiones por tratamiento. La cosecha de 2003, reportó rendimientos de 2436 kg ha-1 para el tratamiento T1 y de 4335 kg ha-1 para tratamiento T2. El mojado parcial del suelo que realiza el tratamiento T1, de menor cantidad de goteros por metro lineal, no es suficiente para mojar un porcentaje de suelo compatible con altos rendimientos.The experiment examined the effects of different drip irrigation systems in an O´Neal variety of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. It was contucted at Zarate (33º 41’ S and 59º 41’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plants of the experiment were planted in August of 2001, after one year in nursery. The first harvest was realized in October of 2003. The main scope of the experiment was to find the irrigation system which maximized yields. Treatments were: one drip irrigation line with drippers at 40 cm (T1 and two laterals with drippers at 20 cm per row (T2. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design, each one with 5 plants and 5 replications. During the harvest of October and November of 2003, reported yields were 2436 kg ha-1 for the treatment T1 and

  16. Residuejams and their effect on Infiltration, Runoff and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in Furrow Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailapalli, D. R.; Wallender, W. W.; Horwath, W.; Ma, S.; Lazicki, P.

    2007-12-01

    Crop residue, which consists of small debris of different sizes, is an important resource in agricultural ecosystems. It plays a vital role in conservation tillage as a best management practice (BMP) for reducing runoff, sediment, nutrient and pesticide transport from irrigated fields. In furrow irrigation, the predominant irrigation method in the world, as irrigation or winter runoff water moves along a furrow, it lifts the unanchored residue and transports across the field. The complex interaction of multiple residue pieces (debris) with itself, the soil matrix, and the fluid cause jams to form along the furrow. The residuejams can be thought of logjams in fluvial rivers or channels which help in increasing channel roughness to reduce flow velocities and shear stress along eroding banks. The logjams also create a hydraulic shadow, a low-velocity zone for some distance upstream that allows sediment to settle out and stabilize. Similarly, the residuejams help in formation of catchments, which promote increased infiltration and settlement of sediments along the furrow. The infiltration and residue interaction with the soil-water influence the runoff, sediment, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export. The reduction of DOC export is critical to enhancing drinking water resources by reducing reactive sources of DOC that form carcinogenic by-products in the disinfection process. Hence, investigation of geomorphology of the residuejams is essential to understand their impact on infiltration, runoff and DOC concentration. This study focuses on the formation of residuejams and their effect on the infiltration, runoff and DOC concentration from 122 m long furrow plots with cover crop (CC), no-till (NT) and standard tillage (ST). These treatments (CC, NT and ST) were replicated three times using randomized complete block design and the plots initially, had 10, 32 and 42% of residue cover (sunflower residue on ST and NT; sunflower and wheat residue on CC plot

  17. Exploration technology surface systems: Surface Habitats And Construction (SHAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschbein, Murray

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of exploration technology program - surface systems are: (1) to develop technology emplace and to build an outpost on the moon and Mars; and (2) to develop concepts for permanent habitats and enclosures on the Moon and Mars.

  18. Evaluation of an operational real-time irrigation scheduling scheme for drip irrigated citrus fields in Picassent, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dazhi; Hendricks-Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Han, Xujun; Jiménez Bello, Miguel Angel; Martínez Alzamora, Fernando; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture accounts worldwide for 40% of food production and 70% of fresh water withdrawals. Irrigation scheduling aims to minimize water use while maintaining the agricultural production. In this study we were concerned with the real-time automatic control of irrigation, which calculates daily water allocation by combining information from soil moisture sensors and a land surface model. The combination of soil moisture measurements and predictions by the Community Land Model (CLM) using sequential data assimilation (DA) is a promising alternative to improve the estimate of soil and plant water status. The LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) was chosen to assimilate soil water content measured by FDR (Frequency Domain Reflectometry) into CLM and improve the initial (soil moisture) conditions for the next model run. In addition, predictions by the GFS (Global Forecast System) atmospheric simulation model were used as atmospheric input data for CLM to predict an ensemble of possible soil moisture evolutions for the next days. The difference between predicted and target soil water content is defined as the water deficit, and the irrigation amount was calculated by the integrated water deficit over the root zone. The corresponding irrigation time to apply the required water was introduced in SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition system) for each citrus field. In total 6 fields were irrigated according our optimization approach including data assimilation (CLM-DA) and there were also 2 fields following the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) water balance method and 4 fields controlled by farmers as reference. During the real-time irrigation campaign in Valencia from July to October in 2015 and June to October in 2016, the applied irrigation amount, stem water potential and soil moisture content were recorded. The data indicated that 5% 20% less irrigation water was needed for the CLM-DA scheduled fields than for the other fields

  19. Spatial Zonation Model of Local Irrigation System Sustainability (A Case of Subak System in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Sriartha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at designing a spatial zonation model of a subak sustainability type based on the internal and external dimentions from 69 subaks in three districts in Badung regency. The internal dimention was measured based on subak capability index in implementing Tri Hita Karana (THK philosophy. The external dimention was measured by using index of four variables, namely: road density, population density, social economic facilities, and number of nonfarmer families.The data were analyzed using descriptive quantitative technique and spatial analysis using Geographical Information System (GIS software. The results found three zones of subak sustainability type, spatially follows the principle of distance decay of the growth of tourism and city center. Unsustainable - less sustainable subak zone dominates short distance zone, sustainable - less sustainable subak zone dominates transitional zone, while sustainable subak zone dominates long distance zone. To protect subak from destruction, less sustainable subaks have to be restored into sustainable ones and the sustainable subaks should be made eternal/exclusive subaks

  20. KOEFISIEN TANAMAN PADI SAWAH PADA SISTEM IRIGASI HEMAT AIR Crop Coefficient for Paddy Rice Field under Water Saving Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Sujono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional irrigation for paddy rice is the leading of consumer of water, about 80 % of the water resource availabilityused for irrigation purpose. This phenomenon is related to the way how to estimate the crop water requirement where crop coefficient for paddy rice (k (Prosida is always greater than one starting from planting up to nearly harvesting. In this research, a number of water saving irrigations (WSI systems for paddy rice cultivation using pots such asalternate wetting and drying (AWD, shallow water depth with wetting and drying (SWD, semi-dry cultivation (SDC, system of rice intensification (SRI, and  AWD with mulch (AWD-Mul were applied. The amount of irrigated water and when it should be irrigated depend on evapotranspiration rate, soil moisture condition and the WSI system used. For this purpose, daily measurement of the pot weight was carried out. Crop coefficient (k  is then caluculated as a cratio between crop and reference evapotranspiration computed using Penman-Montheit  method. Results show that up to 45 days after transplanting, the k of WSI treatments were around half of the k (Prosida values currently used for computing the water requirement, whereas at the productive stage the k of WSI systems were relatively equal (AWD, SDC to or greater (SRI, SWD than the k (Prosida. Based on the the k values, the AWD and the SDC systems could save much water compared to the SRI or the SWD. Water saving could be increased by applying the AWD with mulch. ABSTRAK Irigasi padi sawah dengan sistem tradisional merupakan sistem irigasi  yang boros air, hampir 80 % sumber air yang ada untuk irigasi. Hal ini tidak terlepas dari perhitungan kebutuhan air tanaman dengan nilai koefisien tanaman (k menurut Standar Perencanaan Irigasi (Prosida selalu lebih besar dari satu mulai dari tanam hingga menjelang panen.Dalam penelitian ini beberapa metoda budidaya padi hemat air seperti alternate wetting and drying (AWD, shallow water depth

  1. New Approaches to Irrigation Scheduling of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using evapotranspiration (ET data for scheduling irrigations on vegetable farms is challenging due to imprecise crop coefficients, time consuming computations, and the need to simultaneously manage many fields. Meanwhile, the adoption of soil moisture monitoring in vegetables has historically been limited by sensor accuracy and cost, as well as labor required for installation, removal, and collection of readings. With recent improvements in sensor technology, public weather-station networks, satellite and aerial imaging, wireless communications, and cloud computing, many of the difficulties in using ET data and soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling of vegetables can now be addressed. Web and smartphone applications have been developed that automate many of the calculations involved in ET-based irrigation scheduling. Soil moisture sensor data can be collected through wireless networks and accessed using web browser or smartphone apps. Energy balance methods of crop ET estimation, such as eddy covariance and Bowen ratio, provide research options for further developing and evaluating crop coefficient guidelines of vegetables, while recent advancements in surface renewal instrumentation have led to a relatively low-cost tool for monitoring crop water requirement in commercial farms. Remote sensing of crops using satellite, manned aircraft, and UAV platforms may also provide useful tools for vegetable growers to evaluate crop development, plant stress, water consumption, and irrigation system performance.

  2. a System Dynamics Approach for Looking at the Human and Environmental Interactions of Community-Based Irrigation Systems in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, C. G.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2012-12-01

    In the arid southwestern United States community water management systems have adapted to cope with climate variability and with socio-cultural and economic changes that have occurred since the establishment of these systems more than 300 years ago. In New Mexico, the community-based irrigation systems were established by Spanish settlers and have endured climate variability in the form of low levels of precipitation and have prevailed over important socio-political changes including the transfer of territory between Spain and Mexico, and between Mexico and the United States. Because of their inherent nature of integrating land and water use with society involvement these community-based systems have multiple and complex economic, ecological, and cultural interactions. Current urban population growth and more variable climate conditions are adding pressure to the survival of these systems. We are conducting a multi-disciplinary research project that focuses on characterizing these intrinsically complex human and natural interactions in three community-based irrigation systems in northern New Mexico. We are using a system dynamics approach to integrate different hydrological, ecological, socio-cultural and economic aspects of these three irrigation systems. Coupled with intensive field data collection, we are building a system dynamics model that will enable us to simulate important linkages and interactions between environmental and human elements occurring in each of these water management systems. We will test different climate variability and population growth scenarios and the expectation is that we will be able to identify critical tipping points of these systems. Results from this model can be used to inform policy recommendations relevant to the environment and to urban and agricultural land use planning in the arid southwestern United States.

  3. Development of a decision support system for precision management of conjunctive use of treated wastewater for irrigation in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanatha P. W. Jayasuriya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at finding alternative options for conjunctive use of treated wastewater (TW with groundwater (GW minimizing the irrigation water from aquifers in the Al-Batinah region with the assistance of a Decision Support System (DSS. Oman is facing a three-facet problem of lowering of GW table, wastewater over-production and excess TW. Approved guidelines for use of TW with tertiary treatments are of two classes: class-A (for vegetables consumed raw, class-B (after cooking. The developed DSS is comprised of four management subsystems: (1 data management in Excel, (2 model and knowledge management by macro programming in Excel, (3 with linear programming (LP optimization models including transportation algorithms, and (4 user interface with Excel or Visual Basic (VB. The results are based on two extreme scenarios: zero TW excess, and zero GW used for irrigation. The DSS could predict water balance for number of crop rotations, and based on adjustable cost variables farmer profit margins could be created. Crop selections and rotation could be done using LP optimizations while transportation algorithm could organize best locations and capacities for treatment plants and the wastewater collection and transportation to farming areas via treatment plants. The developed DSS will be very useful as a water management, optimization and planning tool.

  4. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for Jackson, Calhoun, and Gadsden Counties in Florida, and Houston County in Alabama, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2015-09-18

    A detailed inventory of irrigated crop acreage is not available at the level of resolution needed to accurately estimate water use or to project future water demands in many Florida counties. This report provides a detailed digital map and summary of irrigated areas for 2014 within Jackson, Calhoun, and Gadsden Counties in Florida, and Houston County in Alabama. The irrigated areas were delineated using land-use data and orthoimagery that were then field verified between June and November 2014. Selected attribute data were collected for the irrigated areas, including crop type, primary water source, and type of irrigation system. Results of the 2014 study indicate that an estimated 31,608 acres were irrigated in Jackson County during 2014. This estimate includes 25,733 acres of field crops, 1,534 acres of ornamentals and grasses (including pasture), and 420 acres of orchards. Specific irrigated crops include cotton (11,759 acres), peanuts (9,909 acres), field corn (2,444 acres), and 3,235 acres of various vegetable (row) crops. The vegetable acreage includes 1,714 acres of which 857 acres were planted with both a spring and fall crop on the same field (double cropped). Overall, groundwater was used to irrigate 98.6 percent of the total irrigated acreage in Jackson County during 2014, whereas surface water and wastewater were used to irrigate the remaining 1.4 percent.

  5. Water Pricing and Implementation Strategies for the Sustainability of an Irrigation System: A Case Study within the Command Area of the Rakh Branch Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Uzair Qamar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The command area of the Rakh branch canal grows wheat, sugarcane, and rice crops in abundance. The canal water, which is trivial for irrigating these crops, is conveyed to the farms through the network of canals and distributaries. For the maintenance of this vast infrastructure; the end users are charged on a seasonal basis. The present water charges are severely criticized for not being adequate to properly manage the entire infrastructure. We use the residual value to determine the value of the irrigation water and then based on the quantity of irrigation water supplied to farm land coupled with the infrastructure maintenance cost, full cost recovery figures are executed for the study area, and policy recommendations are made for the implementation of the full cost recovery system. The approach is unique in the sense that the pricings are based on the actual quantity of water conveyed to the field for irrigating crops. The results of our analysis showed that the canal water is severely under charged in the culturable command area of selected distributaries, thus negating the plan of having a self-sustainable irrigation system.

  6. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  7. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  8. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2015-05-12

    Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) is becoming a useful tool for soil characterization due to its fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil moisture and salinity. In this research, a new EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water. In situ measurements of vertical bulk electrical conductivity (σb) were recorded in different pits along one of the transects to calibrate the EMI measurements and to compare with the modeled electrical conductivity (σ) obtained by the joint inversion of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. Estimates of σ were then converted into the universal standard of soil salinity measurement (i.e., electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste extract – ECe). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was repeatedly measured with the CMD mini-Explorer to investigate the temperature stability of the new system at a fixed location, where the ambient air temperature increased from 26°C to 46°C. Results indicate that the new EMI system is very stable in high temperature environments, especially above 40°C, where most other approaches give unstable measurements. In addition, the distribution pattern of soil salinity is well estimated quantitatively by the joint inversion of multicomponent EMI measurements. The approach of joint inversion of EMI measurements allows for the quantitative mapping of the soil salinity distribution pattern and can be utilized for the management of soil salinity.

  9. Breeding for high production of leaves of baobab (Adansonia digitata L) in an irrigated hedge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korbo, Adama; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Sanou, Haby

    2013-01-01

    evaluated monthly from the third month after establishment. We found lowered leaf productivity during the dry season despite the plants being irrigated. We provide the first estimates of heritability for leaf production and growth of the species. We assumed that the families of seed from open...... productivity were moderate to low, predicting moderate genetic gain from selection. Strong genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated between diameter and leaf production, indicating that simple selection for diameter can efficiently increase leaf production. The dry weight/fresh weight ratio...... was not significantly different among provenances or families within provenances. Based on the findings, we discuss how breeding can increase the total leaf production and its seasonal distribution....

  10. A matter of relationships: Actor-networks of colonial rule in the Gezira irrigation system, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurits Ertsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the 20th century, colonial rulers, a British firm and Sudanese farmers changed the Gezira Plain in Sudan into a large-scale irrigated cotton scheme. Gezira continues to be in use up to date. Its story shows how the abstract concept 'development' is shaped through the agency of humans and non-humans alike in government offices and muddy fields. Gezira provides a well-suited starting point for moving into the networks of development without any pre-suggested division in terms of levels, contexts or relations. Hierarchies, arenas and institutions do exist. Such power relations are associations between humans and non-humans: relatively stable relations are typically produced when non-human agency is involved, for example through books, roads, and money. The Gezira case shows the potential of actor-network theory in building and understanding of conceptual and empirical links between water, infrastructure and political rule.

  11. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation.

  12. Local land-atmosphere feedbacks limit irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Mark; Ma, Shaoxiu; Pitman, Andy

    2017-05-01

    Irrigation is known to influence regional climate but most studies forecast and simulate irrigation with offline (i.e. land only) models. Using south eastern Australia as a test bed, we demonstrate that irrigation demand is fundamentally different between land only and land-atmosphere simulations. While irrigation only has a small impact on maximum temperature, the semi-arid environment experiences near surface moistening in coupled simulations over the irrigated regions, a feedback that is prevented in offline simulations. In land only simulations that neglect the local feedbacks, the simulated irrigation demand is 25% higher and the standard deviation of the mean irrigation rate is 60% smaller. These local-scale irrigation-driven feedbacks are not resolved in coarse-resolution climate models implying that use of these tools will overestimate irrigation demand. Future studies of irrigation demand must therefore account for the local land-atmosphere interactions by using coupled frameworks, at a spatial resolution that captures the key feedbacks.

  13. Irrigation Controllers Specification and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense labeled irrigation controllers, which act like a thermostat for your sprinkler system telling it when to turn on and off, use local weather and landscape conditions to tailor watering schedules to actual conditions on the site.

  14. Remote-Sensing-Based Evaluation of Relative Consumptive Use Between Flood- and Drip-Irrigated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Baquero, G. F.; Jordan, D. L.; Whittaker, A. T.; Allen, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Governments and water authorities are compelled to evaluate the impacts of agricultural irrigation on economic development and sustainability as water supply shortages continue to increase in many communities. One of the strategies commonly used to reduce such impacts is the conversion of traditional irrigation methods towards more water-efficient practices. As part of a larger effort by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission to understand the environmental and economic impact of converting from flood irrigation to drip irrigation, this study evaluates the water-saving effectiveness of drip irrigation in Deming, New Mexico, using a remote-sensing-based technique combined with ground data collection. The remote-sensing-based technique used relative temperature differences as a proxy for water use to show relative differences in crop consumptive use between flood- and drip-irrigated fields. Temperature analysis showed that, on average, drip-irrigated fields were cooler than flood-irrigated fields, indicating higher water use. The higher consumption of water by drip-irrigated fields was supported by a determination of evapotranspiration (ET) from all fields using the METRIC Landsat-based surface energy balance model. METRIC analysis yielded higher instantaneous ET for drip-irrigated fields when compared to flood-irrigated fields and confirmed that drip-irrigated fields consumed more water than flood-irrigated fields planted with the same crop. More water use generally results in more biomass and hence higher crop yield, and this too was confirmed by greater relative Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for the drip irrigated fields. Results from this study confirm previous estimates regarding the impacts of increased efficiency of drip irrigation on higher water consumption in the area (Ward and Pulido-Velazquez, 2008). The higher water consumption occurs with drip because, with the limited water supplies and regulated maximum limits on pumping amounts, the

  15. Implications of non-sustainable agricultural water policies for the water-food nexus in large-scale irrigation systems: A remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zayed, Islam Sabry; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a novel monitoring tool based on Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data to examine the status of water distribution and Water Use Efficiency (WUE) under changing water policies in large-scale and complex irrigation schemes. The aim is to improve our understanding of the water-food nexus in such schemes. With a special reference to the Gezira Irrigation Scheme (GeIS) in Sudan during the period 2000-2014, the tool devised herein is well suited for cases where validation data are absent. First, it introduces an index, referred to as the Crop Water Consumption Index (CWCI), to assess the efficiency of water policies. The index is defined as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) over agricultural areas to total ETa for the whole scheme where ETa is estimated using the Simplified Surface Energy Balance model (SSEB). Second, the tool uses integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (iNDVI), as a proxy for crop productivity, and ETa to assess the WUE. Third, the tool uses SSEB ETa and NDVI in an attempt to detect wastage of water. Four key results emerged from this research as follows: 1) the WUE has not improved despite the changing agricultural and water policies, 2) the seasonal ETa can be used to detect the drier areas of GeIS, i.e. areas with poor irrigation water supply, 3) the decreasing trends of CWCI, slope of iNDVI-ETa linear regression and iNDVI are indicative of inefficient utilization of irrigation water in the scheme, and 4) it is possible to use SSEB ETa and NDVI to identify channels with spillover problems and detect wastage of rainwater that is not used as a source for irrigation. In conclusion, the innovative tool developed herein has provided important information on the efficiency of a large-scale irrigation scheme to help rationalize laborious water management processes and increase productivity.

  16. Impact of the reusing of food manufacturing wastewater for irrigation in a closed system on the microbiological quality of the food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneduce, Luciano; Gatta, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Libutti, Angela; Tarantino, Emanuele; Bellucci, Micol; Troiano, Eleonora; Spano, Giuseppe

    2017-11-02

    In order to evaluate if the reuse of food industry treated wastewater is compatible for irrigation of food crops, without increased health risk, in the present study a cropping system, in which ground water and treated wastewater were used for irrigation of tomato and broccoli, during consecutive crop seasons was monitored. Water, crop environment and final products were monitored for microbial indicators and pathogenic bacteria, by conventional and molecular methods. The microbial quality of the irrigation waters influenced sporadically the presence of microbial indicators in soil. No water sample was found positive for pathogenic bacteria, independently from the source. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in soil samples, independently from the irrigation water source. No pathogen was found to contaminate tomato plants, while Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were detected on broccoli plant, but when final produce were harvested, no pathogen was detected on edible part. The level of microbial indicators and detection of pathogenic bacteria in field and plant was not dependent upon wastewater used. Our results, suggest that reuse of food industry wastewater for irrigation of agricultural crop can be applied without significant increase of potential health risk related to microbial quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of irrigation performance: contribution to improve water management in a small catchment in the Brazilian savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Marioti, Juliana; Steenhuis, Tammo; Wallender, Wesley

    2010-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the major consumer of surface water in Brazil using over 70% of the total supply. Due to the growing competition for water among different sectors of the economy, sustainable water use can only be achieved by decreasing the portion of water used by the irrigated agriculture. Thus, in order to maintain yield, farmers need to irrigate more efficiently. There is little known on irrigation efficiency in Brazil. Therefore a study was carried out in the Buriti Vermelho basin to assess the irrigation performance of existing system. The experimental basin has a drainage area of 940 hectares and is located in the eastern part of the Federal District, in the Brazilian savanna region. Agriculture is the main activity. There is a dominance of red latosols. Several types of land use and crop cover are encountered in the basin. Conflicts among farmers for water are increasing. As water, in quality and quantity, is crucial to maintain the livelihood of the population in the basin, concern about risk of water lack due to climatic and land use change is in place. Once irrigation is the main water user in the basin, to increase water availability and reduce conflicts a water resource management plan has to be established. For this purpose, irrigation system performance has to be understood. The objective of this work was to assess the performance and the management of irrigation (small and big) that has been carried out by farmers in the Buriti Vermelho experimental watershed. A survey undertaken in 2007 was used to identify the irrigation systems in the basin. It was verified that irrigation is practiced by both small (area up to 6 hectare) and big farmers. Small farmers usually crop limes and vegetables and use micro-irrigation, drip, sprinkler, guns or furrow to irrigate them. Big farmers plant annual crops and use center pivot as irrigation system. In this first assessment 13 irrigation systems were evaluated: five conventional sprinklers, four drip

  18. Irrigation effects on soil attributes and grapevine performance in a 'Godello' vineyard of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, María; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Martínez, Emma M.; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Rey, Benjamín J.; Cancela, Javier J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation systems are increasingly being used in Galician vineyards. However, a lack of information about irrigation management can cause a bad use of these systems and, consequently, reductions in berry quality and loss of water resources. In this context, experiences with Galician cultivars may provide useful information. A field experiment was carried out over two seasons (2012-2013) on Vitis vinifera (L.) cv. 'Godello' in order to assess the effects of irrigation on soil attributes, grapevine performance and berry composition. The field site was a commercial vineyard located in A Rúa (Ourense-NW Spain). Rain-fed vines (R) were compared with two irrigation systems: surface drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). Physical and chemical characteristics of soil were analyzed after installing irrigation systems at the beginning of each season, in order to assess the effects that irrigation might have on soil attributes. Soil water content, leaf and stem water potentials and stomatal conductance were periodically measured over the two seasons. Yield components including number of clusters, yield per plant and cluster average weight were taken. Soluble solids, pH, total acidity and amino acids contents were measured on the grapes at harvest. Pruning weight was also recorded. Soil attributes did not significantly vary due to the irrigation treatments. Stem water potentials were significantly lower for R plants on certain dates through the season, whereas stomatal conductance was similar for the three treatments in 2013, while in 2012 SDI plants showed greater stomatal conductance values. SDI plants yielded more than those R due to both a greater number of clusters per plant and to heavier clusters. Pruning weight was significantly higher in SI plants. Berry composition was similar for the three treatments except for the amino acids content, which was higher under SDI conditions. These results may be helpful for a sustainable management of irrigation

  19. THE USE OF THE TERRITORY OF THE SÃO FRANCISCO VALLEY: AGRICULTURAL TECHNICAL SYSTEM OF IRRIGATED FRUIT FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C. Nascimento Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes aspects of Milton Santos' theoretical and methodological guidance with the presentation of the issue of master's thesis, conducted at the Department of Geography, University of São Paulo between 1998 and 2001. The purpose is to indicate the theoretical reference that supported the research, which aimed to investigate new uses of the territory in Submédio São Francisco Valley, northeast region of Brazil. Since mid-1970s, with the selective expansion of the technical scientific and informational milieu across the country, constitutes in part of the semi arid portion, in the municipalities of Petrolina (Pernambuco and Juazeiro (Bahia, the agricultural technical system of irrigated fruit farming to export. The dynamics of the regional territory – objects and actions – was examined in the light of the modernization and specialization of production in field.

  20. Integrated assessment of conservation opportunities in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Lezberg, A.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    This report documents research to identify the potential energy savings and cost per kWh saved for implementing currently available energy conservation measures in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest. A computer model that simulates the energy consumption process of irrigation systems and estimates the levelized costs of undertaking conservation investments is the primary analytical tool used in this research. Using engineering and economic input parameters for the various conservation measures that could potentially be implemented in irrigated agriculture, the Irrigation Sector Energy Planning (ISEP) model generates estimates of energy savings and cost per kWh saved for the measures. All parameters input to the ISEP model are based upon empirical field data. Results provided by the ISEP model indicate tht by the year 2003 a total of approximately 158.6 average MW of energy could potentially be saved in the Pacific Northwest irrigation sector on all sprinkler-irrigated acres. Approximately 130.4 average MW can be saved on acres currently by sprinkler, while an additional 28.2 average MW could be saved on new acres that are forecast to come under irrigation in the next 20 years. The largest share of the total savings (47%) is estimated to come from the use of low-pressure irrigation. Over 60% of the total potential savings 158.6 average MW is estimated to be available for a cost per kWh saved of 20 mills or less and over 75% could be achieved for a cost of 30 mills or less. Savings from low-pressure irrigation and the redesign of fittings and mainlines will normally cost less than 20 mills per kWh saved. Almost all of the savings that are estimated to cost more than 30 mills per kWh saved to obtain are savings from improved irrigation scheduling on irrigated acres that use surface water and have low average pumping lifts.

  1. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  2. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for Polk County, Florida, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Berry, Darbi; Dixon, Joann F.

    2017-08-16

    spray emitters. The remaining 3.2 percent of the irrigated acreage was irrigated by a sprinkler system (2,360 acres) or subsurface flood systems (504 acres). Groundwater was the primary source of water used on irrigated acreage (88 percent, or 78,050 acres); the remaining 10,602 acres (12 percent) used groundwater combined with surface water as the irrigation source.The irrigated acreage estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for this 2016 inventory (88,652 acres) is about 11 percent higher than the 79,869 acres estimated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) for 2012. Citrus and pasture in Polk County show the biggest difference in irrigated acreage between the USGS and USDA totals. Irrigated citrus acreage inventoried in 2016 by the USGS totaled 83,996 acres, whereas the USDA reported 78,305 acres of citrus in 2012. The USGS identified 6 acres of irrigated pasture and 20 acres of hay, whereas the USDA reported 6,631 acres of irrigated pasture and 1,349 acres of hay for 2012. In general, differences between the 2016 USGS field-verified acreage totals and acreage published by the USDA for 2012 could be due to (1) irrigated acreage for some specific crops increased or decreased substantially during the 4-year interval between 2012 and 2016 because of production or economic changes, (2) the assumption that if an irrigation system was present, it was used in 2016, when in fact some landowners may not have used their irrigation systems during this growing period even if they had a crop in the field, or (3) the amount of irrigated acreage published by the USDA for selected crops may be underestimated as a result of how information is obtained and formulated by the agency during census compilations.

  3. Managing diminished irrigation capacity with preseason irrigation and plant density for corn production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the irrigation systems today in the U.S. Central Great Plains no longer have the capacity to match peak irrigation needs during the summer and must rely on soil water reserves to buffer the crop from water stress. Considerable research was conducted on preseason irrigation in the U.S. Great ...

  4. An economic assessment of local farm multi-purpose surface water retention systems in a Canadian Prairie setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Pamela; Yassin, Fuad; Belcher, Kenneth; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-12-01

    There is a need to explore more sustainable approaches to water management on the Canadian Prairies. Retention pond installation schemes designed to capture surface water may be a viable option that would reduce water stress during drought periods by providing water for irrigation. The retention systems would serve to capture excess spring runoff and extreme rainfall events, reducing flood potential downstream. Additionally, retention ponds may be used for biomass production and nutrient retention. The purpose of this research was to investigate the economic viability of adopting local farm surface water retention systems as a strategic water management strategy. A retention pond was analyzed using a dynamic simulation model to predict its storage capacity, installation and upkeep cost, and economic advantage to farmers when used for irrigation. While irrigation application increased crop revenue, the cost of irrigation and reservoir infrastructure and installation costs were too high for the farmer to experience a positive net revenue. Farmers who harvest cattails from retention systems for biomass and available carbon offset credits can gain 642.70/hectare of harvestable cattail/year. Cattail harvest also removes phosphorus and nitrogen, providing a monetized impact of 7014/hectare of harvestable cattail/year. The removal of phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, and avoided flooding damages of the retention basin itself provide an additional 17,730-18,470/hectare of retention system/year. The recommended use of retention systems is for avoided flood damages, nutrient retention, and biomass production. The revenue gained from these functions can support farmers wanting to invest in irrigation while providing economic and environmental benefits to the region.

  5. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  6. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15-17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  7. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-08-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and

  8. Assessment of region, farming system, irrigation source and sampling time as food safety risk factors for tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Marine, Sasha C; Micallef, Shirley A; Wang, Fei; Pahl, Donna M; Melendez, Meredith V; Kline, Wesley L; Oni, Ruth A; Walsh, Christopher S; Everts, Kathryne L; Buchanan, Robert L

    2015-03-02

    In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, small- and medium-sized farmers use varied farm management methods and water sources to produce tomatoes. It is unclear whether these practices affect the food safety risk for tomatoes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, and assess risk factors for Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and bacterial indicators in pre-harvest tomatoes and their production areas. A total of 24 organic and conventional, small- to medium-sized farms were sampled for six weeks in Maryland (MD), Delaware (DE) and New Jersey (NJ) between July and September 2012, and analyzed for indicator bacteria, Salmonella and STEC. A total of 422 samples--tomato fruit, irrigation water, compost, field soil and pond sediment samples--were collected, 259 of which were tomato samples. A low level of Salmonella-specific invA and Shiga toxin genes (stx1 or stx2) were detected, but no Salmonella or STEC isolates were recovered. Of the 422 samples analyzed, 9.5% were positive for generic E. coli, found in 5.4% (n=259) of tomato fruits, 22.5% (n=102) of irrigation water, 8.9% (n=45) of soil, 3/9 of pond sediment and 0/7 of compost samples. For tomato fruit, farming system (organic versus conventional) was not a significant factor for levels of indicator bacteria. However, the total number of organic tomato samples positive for generic E. coli (1.6%; 2/129) was significantly lower than for conventional tomatoes (6.9% (9/130); (χ(2) (1)=4.60, p=0.032)). Region was a significant factor for levels of Total Coliforms (TC) (p=0.046), although differences were marginal, with western MD having the highest TC counts (2.6 log CFU/g) and NJ having the lowest (2.0 log CFU/g). Tomatoes touching the ground or plastic mulch harbored significantly higher levels of TC compared to vine tomatoes, signaling a potential risk factor. Source of irrigation water was a significant factor for all indicator bacteria (pfactors contributing

  9. Assessment of large aperture scintillometry for large-area surface energy fluxes over an irrigated cropland in north India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danodia, Abhishek; Sehgal, V. K.; Patel, N. R.; Dhakar, R.; Mukherjee, J.; Saha, S. K.; Kumar, A. Senthil

    2017-07-01

    Amount of available net energy and its partitioning into sensible, latent and soil heat fluxes over an agricultural landscape are critical to improve estimation of evapotranspiration and modelling parse (ecosystem modelling, hydrological and meteorological modelling). Scintillometry is a peculiar and robust methodology to provide structure parameter of refractive index and energy balance. Scintillometer has proven for assessment of sensible and latent heat flux, which is based on the principle of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Scintillometer has been installed in the agricultural experimental farm of ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, with a spatial covering path length of 990 m of irrigated and cultivable agricultural landscape. This paper discusses the patterns of energy flux as diurnal and seasonal basis at scintillometer path which was mainly covered by maize in Kharif and wheat in Rabi season during a crop growing seasons of 2014-2015. The biophysical parameters (leaf area, soil moisture, crop height) were recorded at a temporal resolution of fortnight basis along the path length at usual sampling distance. The Bowen ratio value for both Kharif and Rabi season was 0.76 and 0.88, respectively by scintillometer. Leaf area index had a significantly positive correlation with latent heat flux (R2 =0.80) while a significantly negative correlation with sensible heat flux (R2{=}-0.79). Soil moisture had a significant negative correlation with sensible heat flux (R2{=}-0.68). The average evapotranspiration from crop land was 1.58 mm d^{-1} and total evapotranspiration was 543 mm over the 12 months study period. This study defines that large aperture scintillometer is robust instrument which can evaluate energy flux over a large area with a long term series time domain. Moreover, further studied should be conducted to use in crop simulation modelling, developing of new model with calibration and validation of remote sensing energy balance

  10. The strategies of local farmers' water management and the eco-hydrological effects of irrigation-drainage engineering systems in world heritage of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Terraces are built in mountainous regions to provide larger area for cultivation,in which the hydrological and geomorphological processes are impacted by local farmers' water management strategies and are modified by manmade irrigation-drainage engineering systems.The Honghe Hani Rice Terraces is a 1300a history of traditional agricultural landscape that was inscribed in the 2013 World Heritage List.The local farmers had developed systematic water management strategies and built perfect irrigation-drainage engineering systems to adapt the local rainfall pattern and rice farming activities.Through field investigation,interviews,combined with Geographic Information Systems,Remote Sensing images and Global Positioning Systems technology,the water management strategies as well as the irrigation-drainage systems and their impacts on eco-hydrological process were studied,the results indicate:Firstly,the local people created and maintained an unique woodcarving allocating management system of irrigating water over hundreds years,which aids distributing water and natural nutrition to each terrace field evenly,and regularly according to cultivation schedule.Secondly,the management of local people play an essential role in effective irrigation-drainage engineering system.A ditch leader takes charge of managing the ditch of their village,keeping ample amount of irrigation water,repairing broken parts of ditches,dealing with unfair water using issues,and so on.Meanwhile,some traditional leaders of minority also take part in.Thus, this traditional way of irrigation-drainage engineering has bringed Hani people around 1300 years of rice harvest for its eco-hydrological effects.Lastly we discuss the future of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces,the traditional cultivation pattern has been influenced by the rapid development of modern civilization,in which some related changes such as the new equipment of county roads and plastic channels and the water overusing by tourism are not totally

  11. Genetic variability in elite barley genotypes based on the agro-morphological characteristics evaluated under irrigated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernando Amabile

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently, researches have shown that the Brazilian savannah has a great potential to supply the demand for barley grains. The purpose of this study was to assess the genetic variability in 39 elite barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes based on the agro-morphological traits of a crop irrigated in the savannah system. An irrigation experiment in the design of complete randomized block with four replicates was conducted at Federal District - Brazil. The evaluated traits were: distance from the last knot to the rachis, distance from the flag leaf to rachis, spike length, number of grains by ear, flag leaf area, plant height, silking, lodging, grain yield, thousand-seed weight, protein content and grain commercial classification. After using analysis of variance the means were used to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among all genotypes pairs based on the Mahalanobis’ generalized distance. Cluster analysis using genetic distance matrix was performed having Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic Means method (UPGMA as the criteria. Highly significant differences were found among the genotypes for all traits evaluated. The high coefficient of genetic variation indicates the possibility of having genetic gains for all traits. The traits that most contributed to the variability were the flag leaf area and silking, while the protein content and lodging were the traits that contributed the least. Based on the cluster analysis, at least three major groups of similarity were found. There was a clustering trend of two and six-rowed materials. The most divergent genotypes were PFC 2005123, Antártica-1, Nandi and FM 404.

  12. Survey of 218 organic contaminants in groundwater derived from the world's largest untreated wastewater irrigation system: Mezquital Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Luis E; Mora, Abrahan; Moreau, Cristina; Mahlknecht, Jürgen; Hernández-Antonio, Arturo; Ramírez, Aldo I; Barrios-Piña, Héctor

    2018-05-01

    The Mezquital Valley system is the world's oldest and largest example with regard to use of untreated wastewater for agricultural irrigation. Because of the artificial high recharge associated with the Mezquital Valley aquifers, groundwater is extracted for human consumption, and there are plans to use this groundwater as a water resource for Mexico City. Thus, this study analyzed 218 organic micro-contaminants in wastewater, springs, and groundwater from Mezquital Valley. Five volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nine semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were detected in the wastewater used for irrigation. Only two SVOCs [bis-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate and dibutyl phthalate] were detected in all the wastewater canals and groundwater sources, whereas no VOCs were detected in groundwater and springs. Of the 118 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and 7 reproductive hormones measured, 65 PhACs and 3 hormones were detected in the wastewater. Of these, metformin, caffeine, and acetaminophen account for almost sixty percent of the total PhACs in wastewater. Nevertheless, 23 PhACs were detected in groundwater sources, where the majority of these compounds have low detection frequencies. The PhACs sulfamethoxazole, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide, carbamazepine, and benzoylecgonine (primary cocaine metabolite) were frequently detected in groundwater, suggesting that although the soils act as a filter adsorbing and degrading the majority of the organic pollutant content in wastewater, these PhACs still reach the aquifer. Therefore, the presence of these PhACs, together with the high levels of the endocrine disruptor bis-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate, indicate that water sources derived from the recharge of the studied aquifers may pose a risk to consumer health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribuição de água no solo aplicado por gotejamento enterrado e superficial Soil water distribution for subsurface and surface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C. Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido à falta de estudos sobre o movimento da água quando aplicada abaixo da superfície, realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a distribuição de água aplicada pelo sistema de gotejamento enterrado e convencional. O experimento de campo foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da ESALQ/USP - Piracicaba, SP. Para o estudo, trincheiras foram abertas e instaladas sondas de TDR, dispostas a 0,05; 0,15; 0,25; 0,35 e 0,45 m profundidade, e a 0,05; 0,15; 0,25; 0,35 m comprimento, totalizando 17 sondas por trincheira. Os tratamentos foram baseados na profundidade de aplicação (0,0 e 0,10 m e vazão aplicada (2 e 4 L h-1: ENT2; ENT4; SUP2 e SUP4. A cada hora era aplicado 1 L de água (total de 10 L, seguida de leituras com o TDR. Medições do disco úmido e saturado foram feitas com régua milimetrada; além disso, estabeleceu-se um volume controle onde foi avaliada a uniformidade de aplicação; assim, foi possível verificar, em relação aos sistemas superficiais, que os sistemas enterrados apresentaram menor área superficial molhada e atingiram maior largura e profundidade; já as maiores concentrações foram obtidas próximas ao ponto de emissão.Studies of sub-surface water movement is an interesting topic in irrigation but, in spite of the its importance, there is little literature. One of the purposes of this study was to contribute to this subject and evaluate the distribution of water applied by both subsurface drip irrigation (SDI and conventional irrigation. Experiments were conducted at the Department of Rural Engineering (ESALQ/USP, located at Piracicaba, SP. Trenches were opened and 17 three-rod TDR probes were installed, placed at 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 m depths, and to 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 m intervals. This procedure was repeated using a dripper buried at 0 and 0.10 m for each discharge rate of 2 and 4 L h-1 tested. Wetted soil volume was observed with 1 L of water

  14. Near-surface distributions of soil water and water repellency under three effluent irrigation scemes in a blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thwaites, L.A.; Rooij, de G.H.; Salzman, S.; Allinson, G.; Stagnitti, F.; Carr, R.; Versace, V.; Struck, S.; March, T.

    2006-01-01

    Water repellent soils are difficult to irrigate and susceptible to preferential flow, which enhances the potential for accelerated leaching to groundwater of hazardous substances. Over 5 Mha of Australian soil is water repellent, while treated municipal sewage is increasingly used for irrigation.

  15. Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Surface Waters Information Management System (SWIMS) has been designed to meet multi-agency hydrologic database needs for Kansas. The SWIMS project was supported...

  16. Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-03-01

    The Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) climate research site. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet. The Surface Meteorological Observation Systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other model output. They are also used to “ground-truth” other remote sensing equipment.

  17. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation...

  18. Crop water productivity under increasing irrigation capacities in Romania. A spatially-explicit assessment of winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the southern lowlands of the country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Improved water use efficiency in agriculture is a key issue in terms of sustainable management and consumption of water resources in the context of peoples' increasing food demands and preferences, economic growth and agricultural adaptation options to climate variability and change. Crop Water Productivity (CWP), defined as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to actual evapotranspiration or as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to volume of supplied irrigation water (Molden et al., 1998), is a useful indicator in the evaluation of water use efficiency and ultimately of cropland management, particularly in the case of regions affected by or prone to drought and where irrigation application is essential for achieving expected productions. The present study investigates the productivity of water in winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the Romanian Plain (49 594 sq. km), an important agricultural region in the southern part of the country which is increasingly affected by drought and dry spells (Sandu and Mateescu, 2014). The scope of the analysis is to assess the gains and losses in CWP for the two crops, by considering increased irrigated cropland and improved fertilization, these being the most common measures potentially and already implemented by the farmers. In order to capture the effects of such measures on agricultural water use, the GIS-based EPIC crop-growth model (GEPIC) (Williams et al., 1989; Liu, 2009) was employed to simulate yields, seasonal evapotranspiration from crops and volume of irrigation water in the Romanian Plain for the 2002 - 2013 interval with focus on 2007 and 2010, two representative years for dry and wet periods, respectively. The GEPIC model operates on a daily time step, while the geospatial input datasets for this analysis (e.g. climate data, soil classes and soil parameters, land use) were harmonized at 1km resolution grid cell. The sources of the spatial data are mainly the national profile agencies

  19. Hydraulic performance of locally made LDPE-Pipes for drip irrigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Mangrio, A.G.; Ibrar, S.U.

    2007-01-01

    LDPE pipes give controlled and efficient irrigation practices for plant-water requirement. All five sizes of pipes i.e. 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm with wall thicknesses of 1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mm respectively in 100 and 200 m lengths were selected for determination of pressure-discharge relationships, manufacturing coefficient of variation and friction coefficient. The pipes were operated at pressure ranging from 10 to 50 psi (7.00 -35.00 meter head) with an increment of 5 psi. The discharge of different sizes of LDPE pipes was measured under various pressures. The average discharge of the pipes with 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm pipe sizes between 10 to 50 psi pressure heads were 0.058, 0.301, 0.402, 0.909 and 2.076 lps respectively for 100 meter pipe length and 0.056, 0.10, 0.13, 0.45 and 1.993 lps respectively for 200 meter pipe length. The average friction head loss of the pipes with 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm pipe sizes between 10 to 50 psi pressure heads were 3.21, 2.51, 1.66, 3.99 and 3.64 meter per 100 meter pipe length and 6.44, 5.03, 3.15, 6.79 and 6.85 meter per 200 meter pipe length respectively. The average C-value of all sizes of selected pipes for both lengths between 10-50 psi was indicated 18% less than the recommend value. Results indicated that the discharge, friction head losses and friction coefficient increased with the increase in pressure. This study helped describe the optimal pressure requirement to achieve the desirable discharge low friction head losses and minimum friction coefficients. (author)

  20. Fabrication and evaluation of a reservoir tillage machine to reduce runoff from farms with sprinkler irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A Rostami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, in a lot of farm land due to reasons such as high density, heavy textured soils, steep terrain and a large body of water at each irrigation, rapid and complete absorption of water in the soil does not happen and runoff will be accrued. Improvement of infiltration reduces runoff and thus increases available water capacity. The main methods used to increase the infiltration area: The use of soil amendments, soil management by tillage and conservation farming. These methods may be used separately or together. Reservoir tillage is the process by which small holes or depressions are punched in the soil to prevent runoff of water from irrigation or rainfall. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a new reservoir tillage machine for runoff control in the fields. Materials and Methods Fabricated machine has four main units include three-point hitch, toolbar, frame and tillage unit. Tillage unit was a spider wheel with 6 arms that has 6 Wedge-shaped blades, mounted on them. Each tillage unit mounted on a frame and the frame is attached to the toolbar with a yoke. The toolbar was attached to the tractor by three-point hitch. The movement of tractor caused blades impact soil and spider wheel was rotating. Spider wheel rotation speed was depended on the forward speed of the tractor. Blades were created mini-reservoirs on the soil surface for "In situ" irrigation water or rainwater harvesting. Theoretically distance between basins, created by reservoir tillage machine, fabricated in this study was 57 and 68 cm for Arm's length of 30 and 40 cm respectively. For the construction of machine, first the plan was drawn with SolidWorks software and then the parts of the machine were built based on technical drawings. First tillage unit was constructed and its shaft was based in two bearings. Six of the arms were positioned at 60 degrees from each other around tillage units and connected by welding. For evaluation of machine

  1. Removal efficiency of calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament with RinsEndo system in comparison with passive ultrasonic irrigation, an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbass Ali Khademi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different techniques have been introduced to improve removing the calcium hydroxide intra-canal dressing. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI and RinsEndo system in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal system. Materials and Methods: Access cavities were prepared in 50 single-rooted anterior teeth. Cleaning and shaping were done using the Flexmaster rotary system up to size no. 30, 6%. The canals were filled with injectable calcium hydroxide (calcipex. After 7 days, the calcium hydroxide were retrieved using RinsEndo system in Group 1 (n = 20, with PUI system in Group 2 (n = 20. In positive control group (n = 5, no irrigation was performed. In negative control group (n = 5, root canals were not filled with any medicament. Following the removal of the calcium hydroxide with these two systems, teeth were split buccolingually into two sections and every third of the root canals was evaluated under stereomicroscope (×30 to analyze the residual medicament in each segment. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (P < 0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in the removal of calcium hydroxide between RinsEndo and PUI at cervical (P = 0.67, middle (P = 0.51 and apical (P = 0.75 part of the root canals. Conclusion: None of the irrigation techniques was able to completely remove calcium hydroxide from the root canal system.

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Irrigation Levels of Drip Irrigation (Tape on Yield and Yield Components of Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the serious problems in the further development of maize cultivation is increasing irrigation efficiency. Using conventional irrigation causes a shortage of water resources to increase the acreage of the crop. With regard to the development of maize cultivation, agronomic and executable methods must be studied to reduce water consumption. Using drip irrigation system is most suitable for row crops. Hamedi et al. (2005 compared drip (tape and surface irrigation systems on yield of maize in different levels of water requirement and indicated that drip irrigation increases the amount of yield to 2015 kg/ha and water use efficiency to 3 time. Kohi et al. (2005 investigated the effects of deficit irrigation use of drip (tape irrigation on water use efficiency on maize in planting of one and two rows. The results showed that maximum water use efficiency related to crop density, water requirement and planting pattern 85000, 125% and two rows, respectively with 1.46 kg/m3. Jafari and Ashrafi (2011 studied the effects of irrigation levels, plant density and planting pattern in drip irrigation (tape on corn. The results showed that the amount of irrigation water and crop density on the level of 1% and their interactions and method of planting were significant at the 5 and 10% on water use efficiency, respectively. The yield was measured under different levels of irrigation, crop density and method of planting and the difference was significant on the level of 1%. Lamm et al. (1995 studied water requirement of maize in field with silt loam texture under sub drip irrigation and reported that water use reduced to 75%; but yield of maize remained at maximum amount of 12.5 t/ha. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drip (tape irrigation method for corn production practices in the Qazvin province in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, yield and yield components of corn (SC 704 were investigated under different levels of

  3. Assessing environmental impacts of treated wastewater through monitoring of fecal indicator bacteria and salinity in irrigated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Jean E T; Williams, Clinton F

    2012-03-01

    To assess the potential for treated wastewater irrigation to impact levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and salinity in irrigated soils, levels of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, and environmental covariates were measured in a treated wastewater holding pond (irrigation source water), water leaving the irrigation system, and in irrigated soils over 2 years in a municipal parkland in Arizona. Higher E. coli levels were measured in the pond in winter (56 CFU 100 mL(-1)) than in summer (17 CFU 100 mL(-1)); however, in the irrigation system, levels of FIB decreased from summer (26 CFU 100 mL(-1)) to winter (4 CFU 100 mL(-1)), possibly related to low winter water use and corresponding death of residual bacteria within the system. For over 2 years, no increase in FIB was found in irrigated soils, though highest E. coli levels (700 CFU g(-1) soil) were measured in deeper (20-25 cm) soils during summer. Measurements of water inputs vs. potential evapotranspiration indicate that irrigation levels may have been sufficient to generate bacterial percolation to deeper soil layers during summer. No overall increase in soil salinity resulting from treated wastewater irrigation was detected, but distinct seasonal peaks as high as 4 ds m(-1) occurred during both summers. The peaks significantly declined in winter when surface ET abated and more favorable water balances could be maintained. Monitoring of seasonal shifts in irrigation water quality and/or factors correlated with increases and decreases in FIB will aid in identification of any public health or environmental risks that could arise from the use of treated wastewater for irrigation.

  4. [Effects of irrigation using dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus utilization and distribu- tion in soil profile in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-ying; Feng, Jie; Guo, Hai-gang; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Ke-qiang

    2015-08-01

    Field experiments of winter wheat-summer maize rotation were conducted in North China Plain irrigation area to explore the effects of wheat season irrigation with dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus uptake, accumulative phosphorus usage efficiency and phosphorus accumulation in soil. The results showed that the irrigation with dairy effluent significantly improved the yields of winter wheat and summer maize. With the increasing of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent into soil, winter wheat yield increased at first and then decreased. When the P2O5 increased 137 kg · hm(-2), winter wheat yield increased to the maximum (7646.4 kg · hm(-2)) and the phosphorus utilization rate was the highest (24.8%). But excessive phosphorus decreased the winter wheat yield and phosphorus utilization efficiency. Summer maize yield and phosphorus uptake increased with the increase of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent. The summer maize yield increased by 2222.4-2628.6 kg · hm(-2) and the phosphorus uptake increased by 13.9-21.1 kg · hm(-2) in contrast to the control (CK). Under conventional phosphorus fertilization at 88 kg · hm(-2), and the summer maize yield increased by 2235.0 kg · hm(-2) compared with CK. As the time of irrigation with dairy effluent increasing, the grain yield increased more significantly. The cumulative phosphorus utilization in this rotation system increased year by year. After six seasons of crop harvest, the cumulative phosphorus utilization rate increased into 40.0%-47.7%. Under the experimental condition, two times of irrigation with the dairy effluents in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system was the best operating mode.

  5. Two Case Studies to Quantify Resilience across Food-Energy-Water Systems: the Columbia River Treaty and Adaptation in Yakima River Basin Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Richey, A.; Rushi, B. R.; Stockle, C.; Yoder, J.; Barik, M.; Lee, S. Y.; Rajagopalan, K.; Brady, M.; Barber, M. E.; Boll, J.; Padowski, J.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) plays a significant role in meeting agricultural and hydroelectric demands nationwide. Climatic and anthropogenic stressors, however, potentially threaten the productivity, resilience, and environmental health of the region. Our objective is to understand how resilience of each Food-Energy-Water (FEW) sector, and the combined Nexus, respond to exogenous perturbations and the extent to which technological and institutional advances can buffer these perturbations. In the process of taking information from complex integrated models and assessing resilience across FEW sectors, we start with two case studies: 1) Columbia River Treaty (CRT) with Canada that determines how multiple reservoirs in the Columbia River basin (CRB) are operated, and 2) climate change adaptation actions in the Yakima River basin (YRB). We discuss these case studies in terms of the similarities and contrasts related to FEW sectors and management complexities. Both the CRB and YBP systems are highly sensitive to climate change (they are both snowmelt-dominant) and already experience water conflict. The CRT is currently undergoing renegotiation; a new CRT will need to consider a much more comprehensive approach, e.g., treating environmental flows explicitly. The YRB also already experiences significant water conflict and thus the comprehensive Yakima Basin Integrated Plan (YBIP) is being pursued. We apply a new modeling framework that mechanistically captures the interactions between the FEW sectors to quantify the impacts of CRT and YBIP planning (as well as adaptation decisions taken by individuals, e.g., irrigators) on resilience in each sector. Proposed modification to the CRT may relieve impacts to multiple sectors. However, in the YRB, irrigators' actions to adapt to climate change (through investing in more efficient irrigation technology) could reduce downstream water availability for other users. Developing a process to quantify resilience to perturbations

  6. Instability of infiltration fronts due to long term irrigation of treated waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuther, Frederic; Weller, Ulrich; Schlüter, Steffen; Wallach, Rony; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation of treated waste water (TWW) is a common practice in arid and semiarid areas as it combines a sustainable, all-season available water recourse and the recycling of nutrients. Previous studies have shown that organic compounds can affect wettability of mineral surfaces and may change soil structure. Since TWW provides high loads of organic material, long-term irrigation can lead to persistent structure alteration, hydrophobicity, preferential flow, and leaching of chemicals and nutrients. In this study we (i) developed a new approach to quantify water movement in undisturbed soil cores via X-ray radiography and (ii) detected instabilities of water infiltration in soils irrigated with TWW since more than 20 years. We investigated soil samples from two orchards in Israel with long-term irrigation of TWW, one of them additionally irrigated with fresh water. The samples provide two different soil textures, and two different treatments of irrigation: fresh water and TWW. Furthermore, we included seasonal dependencies (dry season and rainy season) to determine persistency of effects. Undisturbed, cylindrical soil samples were taken from the upper soil layer (0-20cm) and irrigation experiments were performed inside an X-ray system. Via image analysis we quantified the infiltration front propagation and spatial moisture distribution as a function of time and repeated the experiments with different initial moisture contents. In this study we show that the stability of infiltration front in these soils is dependent on the irrigated water quality and on the initial water content. Furthermore, we demonstrate that long-term irrigation of TWW can lead to a persistent change in wettability, independent of the season. This study provides experimental evidence about importance of optimizing irrigation management to prevent preferential flow.

  7. JCMT active surface control system: implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian A.

    1998-05-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii is a 15 meter sub-millimeter telescope which operates in the 350 microns to 2 millimeter region. The primary antenna surface consists of 276 panels, each of which is positioned by 3 stepper motors. In order to achieve the highest possible surface accuracy we are embarking upon a project to actively control the position of the panels adjuster system is based on a 6809 micro connected to the control computer by a GPIB interface. This system is slow and inflexible and it would prove difficult to build an active surface control system with it. Part of the upgrade project is to replace the existing micro with a 68060 VME micro. The poster paper will describe how the temperature of the antenna is monitored with the new system, how a Finite Element Analyses package transforms temperature changes into a series of panel adjuster moves, and how these moves are then applied to the surface. The FEA package will run on a high end Sun workstation. A series of DRAMA tasks distributed between the workstation and the Baja 68060 VxWorks Active Surface Control System micro will control the temperature monitoring, FEA and panel adjustment activities. Users can interact with the system via a Tcl/TK based GUI.

  8. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  9. Modeling Acequia Irrigation Systems Using System Dynamics: Model Development, Evaluation, and Sensitivity Analyses to Investigate Effects of Socio-Economic and Biophysical Feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Turner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture-based irrigation communities of northern New Mexico have survived for centuries despite the arid environment in which they reside. These irrigation communities are threatened by regional population growth, urbanization, a changing demographic profile, economic development, climate change, and other factors. Within this context, we investigated the extent to which community resource management practices centering on shared resources (e.g., water for agricultural in the floodplains and grazing resources in the uplands and mutualism (i.e., shared responsibility of local residents to maintaining traditional irrigation policies and upholding cultural and spiritual observances embedded within the community structure influence acequia function. We used a system dynamics modeling approach as an interdisciplinary platform to integrate these systems, specifically the relationship between community structure and resource management. In this paper we describe the background and context of acequia communities in northern New Mexico and the challenges they face. We formulate a Dynamic Hypothesis capturing the endogenous feedbacks driving acequia community vitality. Development of the model centered on major stock-and-flow components, including linkages for hydrology, ecology, community, and economics. Calibration metrics were used for model evaluation, including statistical correlation of observed and predicted values and Theil inequality statistics. Results indicated that the model reproduced trends exhibited by the observed system. Sensitivity analyses of socio-cultural processes identified absentee decisions, cumulative income effect on time in agriculture, and land use preference due to time allocation, community demographic effect, effect of employment on participation, and farm size effect as key determinants of system behavior and response. Sensitivity analyses of biophysical parameters revealed that several key parameters (e.g., acres per

  10. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  11. Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

  12. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Jadoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  13. Technical- and Environmental-Efficiency Analysis of Irrigated Cotton-Cropping Systems in Punjab, Pakistan Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R.

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  14. Technical- and environmental-efficiency analysis of irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab, Pakistan using data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  15. Analysis of Barriers against Wheat Farmers' Participation in the Formation of Water Users Association: the Case of Dez Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali pazhuhan

    2016-11-01

    The present study was aimed at analyzing the barriers against wheat farmers' participation in the formation of water users association within the framework of a descriptive survey. The sample of this study included 375 wheat farmers in Dez irrigation system who were selected through random cluster sampling and were studied through a questionnaire. The reliability index of this questionnaire was estimated to be 0.89. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the experts and scholars in the field. After the participants filled the questionnaires and the data were collected, the SPSS software package was used to analyze the data. In addition, the results of factor analysis related to the items of barriers led to the extraction of four barriers. These barriers, in order of importance, include the lack of proper infrastructures and economic facilities, social barriers, inadequate structural characteristics and lack of risk-taking, local organizations and lack of attention to extension activities that explain 60.78 percent of the variance of all the barriers.

  16. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2017-10-26

    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes\\' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  17. Solar and wind systems utilization in water pumping for irrigation; Utilizacao de sistemas solar e eolico no bombeamento de agua para uso na irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Cicero Urbanetto

    2009-07-01

    In this work, it was made an applied research in two stations, the first one located at Canabarro locality and the second one at Polytechnic School at UFSM, in Santa Maria city, RS, with wind and photovoltaic equipment for pumping water. These ones are used for fruit trees irrigation in irrigation systems of low pressure. The research work was developed from September 2007 to August 2009, when the results showed the viability of wind and photovoltaic equipment for utilization in the complementary irrigation in fruit cultures such as guava, fig and grape trees. In the fruit culture sector, are installed: one multivane fans wind indicator one savonius wind indicator and respective pumps as well as pump set and a photovoltaic board. With the photovoltaic system, the pumped volume was about 5000 m{sup 3}/ha and, with the wind system, the pumped volume was approximately 6m{sup 3}/ha. The wind groups demonstrated low efficiency, if compared to photovoltaic systems, which showed more efficient. (author)

  18. The Power to Resist: Irrigation Management Transfer in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhardiman, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, international donors have promoted Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) as an international remedy to management problems in government irrigation systems in many developing countries. This article analyses the political processes that shape IMT policy formulation and

  19. Effects of changing irrigation practices on the ground-water hydrology of the Santa Isabel-Juana Diaz area, south central Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gines, Orlando

    1994-01-01

    Prior to 1930, the principal source of water for irrigation in the Santa Isabel-Juana Diaz area was surface water from outside the study area, which was delivered by a complex channel-pond system. Recharge from water applied to the fields, estimated to be 18.7 million of gallons per day, and discharge by ground-water flow to sea, estimated to be 17 million of gallons per day, were the major water- budget components prior to intensive development of the ground-water resources. Development of the ground-water resources after 1930 resulted in a substantial increase in irrigation, primarily furrow irrigation. The surface water supplied by the complex channel-pond system continued to be used and ground-water withdrawals increased sub- stantially. By 1966-68, ground-water recharge from irrigation water applied to the fields, estimated to be 37 million of gallons per day, and discharge by pumpage for irrigation, estimated to be 77 million of gallons per day, were the two major components of the ground-water budget. By 1987, drip irrigation had become the principal method of irrigation in the study area, and surface-water irrigation had, for the most part, been discontinued. The estimated aquifer recharge from irrigation water in 1987 was about 6.6 million of gallons per day, which occurred primarily in the remaining fields where furrow irrigation was still practiced. Although aquifer recharge had been reduced as a result of the conversion from furrow to drip irrigation, water levels in the aquifer were higher in 1987 than in 1968 because of the large reduction in ground-water withdrawals and subsequent recovery of ground-water levels.