WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface ionization auxiliary

  1. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence between auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, such as outboard fins and winglets, and their supporting aerodynamic...

  2. Surface ionization theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnal, J.-F.; Pelissier, Andre

    1974-01-01

    After a brief theoretical review, the relationship existing between the ionization rate in the vicinity of a metallic plate in thermodynamic equilibrium with a cesium plasma and the density of electron current issued from the same plate is presented. The evolution of this density of current is represented by the Langmuir S-curves. It is shown that knowledge of the S-curves leads to that of the critical temperatures and of the ionization rates when the generated ions are extracted by an electric field. The influence of the principal parameters (the nature and temperature of the plate and the cesium flow supplying it) is analyzed using the Rasor theory. The theoretical results obtained using a model of the flat plate represent fairly closely the operations observed experimentally on porous tungstem ionizers [fr

  3. Surface-ionization field mass-spectrometry studies of nonequilibrium surface ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blashenkov, Nikolai M; Lavrent'ev, Gennadii Ya

    2007-01-01

    The ionization of polyatomic molecules on tungsten and tungsten oxide surfaces is considered for quasiequilibrium or essentially nonequilibrium conditions (in the latter case, the term nonequilibrium surface ionization is used for adsorbate ionization). Heterogeneous reactions are supposed to proceed through monomolecular decay of polyatomic molecules or fragments of multimolecular complexes. The nonequilibrium nature of these reactions is established. The dependences of the current density of disordered ions on the surface temperature, electric field strength, and ionized particle energy distribution are obtained in analytical form. Heterogeneous dissociation energies, the ionization potentials of radicals, and the magnitude of reaction departure from equilibrium are determined from experimental data, as are energy exchange times between reaction products and surfaces, the number of molecules in molecular complexes, and the number of effective degrees of freedom in molecules and complexes. In collecting the data a new technique relying on surface-ionization field mass-spectrometry was applied. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  4. Terminal Sliding Mode Control with Unidirectional Auxiliary Surfaces for Hypersonic Vehicles Based on Adaptive Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naibao He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flight control scheme is proposed using the terminal sliding mode technique, unidirectional auxiliary surfaces and the disturbance observer model. These proposed dynamic attitude control systems can improve control performance of hypersonic vehicles despite uncertainties and external disturbances. The terminal attractor is employed to improve the convergence rate associated with the critical damping characteristics problem noted in short-period motions of hypersonic vehicles. The proposed robust attitude control scheme uses a dynamic terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces. The nonlinear disturbance observer is designed to estimate system uncertainties and external disturbances. The output of the disturbance observer aids the robust adaptive control scheme and improves robust attitude control performance. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces.

  5. Surface ionization mass spectrometry of opiates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmanov, D.T.

    2009-07-01

    Key words: surface ionization, adsorption, heterogeneous reactions, surface ionization mass spectrometry, thermodesorption surface ionization spectroscopy, thermoemitter, opiates, extracts of biosamples. Subjects of study. The mass - spectrometric study of thermal - ion emission: surface ionization of opiates by on the surface of oxidized refractory metals. Purpose of work is to establish the regularities of surface ionization (SI) of multi-atomic molecule opiates and their mixtures develop the scientific base of SI methods for high sensitive and selective detection and analysis of these substances in the different objects, including biosamples. Methods of study: surface ionization mass spectrometry, thermodesorption surface ionization spectroscopy. The results obtained and their novelty. For the first time, SI of molecule opiates on the oxidized tungsten surface has been studied and their SI mass-spectra and temperature dependences of ion currents have been obtained, the characteristic heterogeneous reactions of an adsorbed molecules and the channels of monomolecular decays vibrationally-excited ions on their way in mass-spectrometry have been revealed, sublimation energy has been defined, the activation energy of E act , of these decays has been estimated for given period of time. Additivity of the SI mass-spectra of opiate mixtures of has been established under conditions of joint opiate adsorption. High selectivity of SI allows the extracts of biosamples to be analyzed without their preliminary chromatographic separation. The opiates are ionized by SI with high efficiency (from 34 C/mol to 112 C/mol), which provides high sensitivity of opiate detection by SI/MS and APTDSIS methods from - 10 -11 g in the samples under analysis. Practical value. The results of these studies create the scientific base for novel SI methods of high sensitive detection and analysis of the trace amounts of opiates in complicated mixtures, including biosamples without their preliminary

  6. Propagation of an ionizing surface electromagnetic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boev, A.G.; Prokopov, A.V.

    1976-11-01

    The propagation of an rf surface wave in a plasma which is ionized by the wave itself is analyzed. The exact solution of the nonlinear Maxwell equations is discussed for the case in which the density of plasma electrons is an exponential function of the square of the electric field. The range over which the surface wave exists and the frequency dependence of the phase velocity are found. A detailed analysis is given for the case of a plasma whose initial density exceeds the critical density at the wave frequency. An increase in the wave amplitude is shown to expand the frequency range over which the plasma is transparent; The energy flux in the plasma tends toward a certain finite value which is governed by the effective ionization field.

  7. Isotope analysis of U using surface ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesario, Jean

    Surface ionization mass spectrometry is a good technique for the determination of U isotope concentrations. The principles of the method are described: ionization, optical systems, measuring systems. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are presented [fr

  8. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Auxiliary Files (NODC Accession 0044983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Auxiliary data files, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data...

  9. Energy Exchange between Weakly Ionized Gas and a Metal Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikarpov, A. Ph.; Polikarpov, Ph. J.; Borisov, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    An attempt to describe heat exchange of low ionized gas with a metal surface has been made with the use of DSMC approach and kinetic Monte-Carlo method. Modeling is adhered to concrete experimental conditions at which thin tungsten wire is placed in plasma and dependence of a heat flow on wire surface temperature, gas pressure, gas nature and a degree of ionization is investigated. As a result of simulation temperature profiles near the wire surface for nitrogen and argon as well as dependence of relative heat flow in a gas/surface system on temperature and degree of ionization with consideration of energy accommodation have been obtained. In the case of nitrogen the chemical charge-transfer reaction is taken into account.

  10. Surface waves in the partially ionized solar plasma slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, B. P.

    2013-12-01

    The properties of surface waves in the partially ionized, incompressible magnetized plasma slab are investigated in the present work. The waves are affected by the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects which cause the finite drift of the magnetic field in the medium. When the finite drift of the magnetic field is ignored, the characteristics of the wave propagation in the partially ionized plasma fluid are similar to the ideal MHD, except now the propagation properties depend on the fractional ionization of the medium. In the presence of the Hall diffusion, the propagation of the sausage and kink surface waves depends on the level of fractional ionization of the medium. For example, short wavelength surface modes cannot propagate in the medium if the scale over which Hall operates is comparable to the size of the plasma slab. With the increasing ionization, the surface modes of shorter wavelength are permitted in the system. When both the Hall and Pedersen diffusion are present in the medium, the waves undergo damping. In the case of Pedersen dominating Hall, the damping of the long wavelength fluctuations is dependent on the ratio of the plasma densities inside and outside the slab and on the square of the Pedersen diffusivity. For typical solar parameters, waves may damp over few minutes.

  11. Ionization by ion impact at grazing incidence on insulator surface

    CERN Document Server

    Martiarena, M L

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the energy distribution of electrons produced by ionization of the ionic crystal electrons in grazing fast ion-insulator surface collision. The ionized electrons originate in the 2p F sup - orbital. We observe that the binary peak appears as a double change in the slope of the spectra, in the high energy region. The form of the peak is determined by the initial electron distribution and its position will be affected by the binding energy of the 2p F sup - electron in the crystal. This BEP in insulator surfaces will appear slightly shifted to the low energy side with respect the ion-atom one.

  12. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  13. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  14. Ionization efficiency estimations for the SPES surface ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Meneghetti, G.; Rossignoli, M.; Corradetti, S.; Biasetto, L.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ion sources play a crucial role in ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) facilities determining, with the target production system, the ion beam types available for experiments. In the framework of the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project, a preliminary study of the alkali metal isotopes ionization process was performed, by means of a surface ion source prototype. In particular, taking into consideration the specific SPES in-target isotope production, Cs and Rb ion beams were produced, using a dedicated test bench at LNL (Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). In this work the ionization efficiency test results for the SPES Ta surface ion source prototype are presented and discussed.

  15. Studies of nanosecond pulse surface ionization wave discharges over solid and liquid dielectric surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrishchev, Vitaly; Leonov, Sergey; Adamovich, Igor V

    2014-01-01

    Surface ionization wave discharges generated by high-voltage nanosecond pulses, propagating over a planar quartz surface and over liquid surfaces (distilled water and 1-butanol) have been studied in a rectangular cross section test cell. The discharge was initiated using a custom-made, alternating polarity, high-voltage nanosecond pulse plasma generator, operated at a pulse repetition rate of 100–500 Hz, with a pulse peak voltage and current of 10–15 kV and 7–20 A, respectively, a pulse FWHM of ∼100 ns, and a coupled pulse energy of 2–9 mJ/pulse. Wave speed was measured using a capacitive probe. ICCD camera images demonstrated that the ionization wave propagated predominantly over the quartz wall or over the liquid surface adjacent to the grounded waveguide placed along the bottom wall of the test cell. Under all experimental conditions tested, the surface plasma ‘sheet’ was diffuse and fairly uniform, both for positive and negative polarities. The parameters of ionization wave discharge propagating over distilled water and 1-butanol surfaces were close to those of the discharge over a quartz wall. No perturbation of the liquid surface by the discharge was detected. In most cases, the positive polarity surface ionization wave propagated at a higher speed and over a longer distance compared to the negative polarity wave. For all three sets of experiments (surface ionization wave discharge over quartz, water and 1-butanol), wave speed and travel distance decreased with pressure. Diffuse, highly reproducible surface ionization wave discharge was also observed over the liquid butanol–saturated butanol vapor interface, as well as over the distilled water–saturated water vapor interface, without buffer gas flow. No significant difference was detected between surface ionization discharges sustained using single-polarity (positive or negative), or alternating polarity high-voltage pulses. Plasma emission images yielded preliminary evidence of charge

  16. Surface effects and electrochemical cell capacitance in desorption electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volný, Michael; Venter, Andre; Smith, Scott A; Pazzi, Marco; Cooks, R Graham

    2008-04-01

    Time resolved measurements show that during a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) experiment, the current initially rises sharply, followed by an exponential decrease to a relatively steady current. When the high voltage on the spray emitter is switched off, the current drops to negative values, suggesting that the direction of current flow in the equivalent DESI circuit is reversed. These data demonstrate that the DESI source behaves as a dc capacitor and that the addition of a surface between the sprayer and the counter electrode in DESI introduces a new electrically active element into the system. The charging and discharging behavior was observed using different surfaces and it could be seen both by making current measurements on a plate at the entrance to the mass spectrometer as well as by measuring ion current in the linear ion trap within the vacuum system of the mass spectrometer. The magnitude of the steady state current obtained without analyte present on the surface is different for different surface materials, and different capacitor time constants of the equivalent RC circuits were calculated for different DESI surfaces. The PTFE surface has by far the greatest time constant and is also able to produce the highest DESI currents. Surface properties play a crucial role in charge transfer during DESI in addition to the effects of the chemical properties of the analyte. It is suggested that surface energy (wettability) is an important factor controlling droplet behavior on the surface. The experimental data are correlated with critical surface tension values of different materials. It is proposed, based on the results presented, that super-hydrophobic materials with extremely high contact angles have the potential to be excellent DESI substrates. It is also demonstrated, using the example of the neurotransmitter dopamine, that the surface charge that develops during a DESI-MS experiment can cause electrochemical oxidation of the analyte.

  17. Mars Surface Ionizing Radiation Environment: Need for Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Shinn, J. L.; Suggs, R.

    1999-01-01

    Protection against the hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation remains an unresolved issue in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise [1]. The major uncertainty is the lack of data on biological response to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures but even a full understanding of the physical interaction of GCR with shielding and body tissues is not yet available and has a potentially large impact on mission costs. "The general opinion is that the initial flights should be short-stay missions performed as fast as possible (so-called 'Sprint' missions) to minimize crew exposure to the zero-g and space radiation environment, to ease requirements on system reliability, and to enhance the probability of mission success." The short-stay missions tend to have long transit times and may not be the best option due to the relatively long exposure to zero-g and ionizing radiation. On the other hand the short-transit missions tend to have long stays on the surface requiring an adequate knowledge of the surface radiation environment to estimate risks and to design shield configurations. Our knowledge of the surface environment is theoretically based and suffers from an incomplete understanding of the physical interactions of GCR with the Martian atmosphere, Martian surface, and intervening shield materials. An important component of Mars surface robotic exploration is the opportunity to test our understanding of the Mars surface environment. The Mars surface environment is generated by the interaction of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPEs) with the Mars atmosphere and Mars surface materials. In these interactions, multiple charged ions are reduced in size and secondary particles are generated, including neutrons. Upon impact with the Martian surface, the character of the interactions changes as a result of the differing nuclear constituents of the surface materials. Among the surface environment are many neutrons diffusing from

  18. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Auxiliary Files, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  19. Isotope dilution-surface ionization mass spectrometry of thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murozumi, Masayo; Nakamura, Seiji; Igarashi, Tatsushi

    1978-01-01

    An ultra-micro amount of thallium could be determined by the isotope dilution-surface ionization mass spectrometry by using 203 Tl as a spike. After thallium was separately extracted into 10 ml of 0.00125% dithizone chloroform solution from the solution of the sample isotopically equilibrated with the 203 Tl spike, it was back extracted into 5 ml of 1% nitric acid. The nitric acid solution was treated with a mixture of 0.2 ml of 14 N nitric acid and 0.1 ml of 60% perchloric acid, and evaporated to dryness in a pyrex glass oven supplied with highly pure nitrogen. The residue was dissolved in a mixture of 60 μl of water with 0.015% silica gel suspension and 5 μl of 2% phosphoric acid solution. An aliquot of this mixture was loaded onto a rhenium single filament as an ionization equipment of a Hitachi RMU-6 type mass spectrometer. The detection limit of the present method was 10 -15 -- 10 -14 g for thallium. The precision concerning mass spectroscopic analysis, as a coefficient of variation for the measurements of 205 Tl/ 203 Tl ratios, was 0.1 -- 0.5%. The application of the present method to environmental materials such as Japanese standard rocks and Orchard Leaves delivered by N.B.S. has shown that the precision of repeated analyses was 0.2 -- 0.7% for a concentration of ppm level. This method has revealed that concentration of thallium in the ocean increased with increasing depth at a ppt level. (author)

  20. Analytic Approximate Solutions for MHD Boundary-Layer Viscoelastic Fluid Flow over Continuously Moving Stretching Surface by Homotopy Analysis Method with Two Auxiliary Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a steady, incompressible, and laminar-free convective flow of a two-dimensional electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a moving stretching surface through a porous medium is considered. The boundary-layer equations are derived by considering Boussinesq and boundary-layer approximations. The nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the momentum and energy equations are obtained and solved analytically by using homotopy analysis method (HAM with two auxiliary parameters for two classes of visco-elastic fluid (Walters’ liquid B and second-grade fluid. It is clear that by the use of second auxiliary parameter, the straight line region in ℏ-curve increases and the convergence accelerates. This research is performed by considering two different boundary conditions: (a prescribed surface temperature (PST and (b prescribed heat flux (PHF. The effect of involved parameters on velocity and temperature is investigated.

  1. Revised-Confirmatory Survey Report for Portions of the Auxiliary Building Structural Surfaces and Turbine Building Embedded Piping, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. C. Adams

    2007-01-01

    During the period of October 15 and 18, 2007, ORISE performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included beta and gamma structural surface scans and beta activity direct measurements within the Auxiliary Building, beta or gamma scans within Turbine Building embedded piping, beta activity determinations within Turbine Building Drain 3-1-27, and gamma scans and the collection of a soil sample from the clay soils adjacent to the Lower Mixing Box

  2. SURFACE LAYER ACCRETION IN CONVENTIONAL AND TRANSITIONAL DISKS DRIVEN BY FAR-ULTRAVIOLET IONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Whether protoplanetary disks accrete at observationally significant rates by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) depends on how well ionized they are. Disk surface layers ionized by stellar X-rays are susceptible to charge neutralization by small condensates, ranging from ∼0.01 μm sized grains to angstrom-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ion densities in X-ray-irradiated surfaces are so low that ambipolar diffusion weakens the MRI. Here we show that ionization by stellar far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation enables full-blown MRI turbulence in disk surface layers. Far-UV ionization of atomic carbon and sulfur produces a plasma so dense that it is immune to ion recombination on grains and PAHs. The FUV-ionized layer, of thickness 0.01-0.1 g cm -2 , behaves in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic limit and can accrete at observationally significant rates at radii ∼> 1-10 AU. Surface layer accretion driven by FUV ionization can reproduce the trend of increasing accretion rate with increasing hole size seen in transitional disks. At radii ∼<1-10 AU, FUV-ionized surface layers cannot sustain the accretion rates generated at larger distance, and unless turbulent mixing of plasma can thicken the MRI-active layer, an additional means of transport is needed. In the case of transitional disks, it could be provided by planets.

  3. Arcjet Plume Ionization Effects on Exposed Solar Array Conducting Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    work with the focus now being on low power arcjets since they are near deployment. The main concerns at this point are issues involving the...11]. 1. Arcjet Plume Ionization Investigations by Langmuir Probe The plume characteristics of a low power (1.1 kW) dc arcjet have been investigated... power range will be ubeful for orbit transfer. Investigation of the effects arcjet thrusters have on other spacecraft systems has been ongoing and

  4. Low energy ionization effect of He atoms at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Y.; Newns, D. M.

    1988-06-01

    The low energy ionization effect, which seems so surprising on the basis of the Massey criterion, has been explained by a dynamical calculation working with a diabatic 1s level of He whose behaviour is determined from the projectile-target correlation diagram. Quasi-realistic hopping matrix elements and the He trajectory based on a Molière potential are employed. Using a spinless time dependent Newns-Anderson Hamiltonian, the ionization probability Pion has been calculated exactly within the present model by the method of Muda and Hanawa. It is found that Pion amounts to a significant value even at low incident energies ( E0) below 1 keV in He → Si collision, where the Si substrate is represented by a linear chain (LC) of 30 Si 3s orbitals. In He → Cu collision, where the Cu substrate is approximated by a LC of 30 Cu 4s orbitals, Pion is very small for E0 below 1 keV, but it is appreciable above 1 keV. The ratio of Pion( Cu)/ Pion(Si) in the region 1 ≦ E0 ≦ 2 keV is in good agreement with that derived from a recent experiment.

  5. Peak quantification in surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization by using mixture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Martijn; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J.; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    2006-01-01

    Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) time of flight (TOF) is a mass spectrometry technology for measuring the composition of a sampled protein mixture. A mass spectrum contains peaks corresponding to proteins in the sample. The peak areas are proportional to the measured

  6. Auxiliary verbs in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, has a class of auxiliary verbs which is remarkable in the following four respects: (i) It is unusually large, comprising some 20 members; (ii) it is grammatically homogeneous in terms of both morphology and syntax; (iii) most of the auxiliary verbs correspond...... to adverbs in languages like English, while the rest are tense-aspect markers; and (iv) it is possible to combine several auxiliary verbs in a single clause. For some of the auxiliary verbs there are extant full verbs from which they have evolved. To some extent, therefore, it is possible to observe what...

  7. Surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry techniques for application in forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Taryn; Kirkbride, Paul; Pigou, Paul E; Ronci, Maurizio; Kobus, Hilton; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is an excellent analytical technique for the rapid and sensitive analysis of macromolecules (>700 Da), such as peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, and synthetic polymers. However, the detection of smaller organic molecules with masses below 700 Da using MALDI-MS is challenging due to the appearance of matrix adducts and matrix fragment peaks in the same spectral range. Recently, nanostructured substrates have been developed that facilitate matrix-free laser desorption ionization (LDI), contributing to an emerging analytical paradigm referred to as surface-assisted laser desorption ionization (SALDI) MS. Since SALDI enables the detection of small organic molecules, it is rapidly growing in popularity, including in the field of forensics. At the same time, SALDI also holds significant potential as a high throughput analytical tool in roadside, work place and athlete drug testing. In this review, we discuss recent advances in SALDI techniques such as desorption ionization on porous silicon (DIOS), nano-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) and nano assisted laser desorption ionization (NALDI™) and compare their strengths and weaknesses with particular focus on forensic applications. These include the detection of illicit drug molecules and their metabolites in biological matrices and small molecule detection from forensic samples including banknotes and fingerprints. Finally, the review highlights recent advances in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) using SALDI techniques. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Comparison of the properties polyamide 6.6 surfaces treated by plasma and by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irineu, Rosa Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to compare the surface properties of polyamide 6.6 plasma treatment and ionizing radiation, as well as determine the best technique and condition of the surface activation, adhesion of the same order and polyacrylic rubber used in manufacturing of automotive retainers. Treatment of polyamide 6.6 plasma was performed using an equipment 'Electronic Diener - Plasma - Surface-Technology LFG40' with nitrogen gas at a pressure of 1.40 kg/cm 2 . Samples of polyamide 6.6 were also treated with ionizing radiation, atmospheric pressure and in vacuum, using an industrial electron accelerator, Dynamitron JOB 188 with radiation dose of 5, 10, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500kGy with a dose rate of 11.22 kGy/s for all doses and rate of 11.22 kGy/s and 22.38 kGy/s for a dose of 20kGy. After the processes of surface modification of polyamide 6.6, part of the untreated samples, treated by plasma and by ionizing radiation were incorporated into the polyacrylic rubber, and another part was designed to characterize the surface using the techniques of SEM / EDS, FT- IR, PIXE / RBS, AFM and contact angle. Untreated samples and the irradiated samples did not join the polyacrylic rubber. The samples treated by plasma joined the polyacrylic rubber efficiently and showed differences in roughness in SEM and AFM, and an increase in contact angle when compared with untreated samples. The irradiated samples showed no significant differences in the analysis of properties used in this study when compared with untreated samples. Ionizing radiation was not effective in surface modification of polyamide 6.6 for adherence with polyacrylic rubber. (author)

  9. Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C; Neale, Patrick J; Snyder, Brock R

    2015-03-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA-damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in very limited geographical areas; instead we found a net increase for most of the modeled time-space region. This result has implications for proposed climate changes associated with ionizing radiation events.

  10. Solar Irradiance Changes And Photobiological Effects At Earth's Surface Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian; Neale, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth for decades. Although there is some direct biological damage on the surface from redistributed radiation several studies have indicated that the greatest long term threat is from ozone depletion and subsequent heightened solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is known that organisms exposed to this irradiation experience harmful effects such as sunburn and even direct damage to DNA, proteins, or other cellular structures. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In the present work, we employed a radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light). Using biological weighting functions we have considered a wide range of effects, including: erythema and skin cancer in humans; inhibition of photosynthesis in the diatom Phaeodactylum sp. and dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans inhibition of carbon fixation in Antarctic phytoplankton; inhibition of growth of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Otana) seedlings; and cataracts. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in

  11. Application of gas chromatography-surface ionization organic mass spectrometry to forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Watanabe-Suzuki, Kanako; Seno, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Katsumata, Yoshinao

    2002-08-25

    Surface ionization (SI), which consists in the formation of positive and negative ions along the course of thermal desorption of particles from a solid surface, was first applied as a detector for gas chromatography (GC), GC-surface ionization detection (SID); we developed many new sensitive methods for the determination of abused and other drugs by GC-SID. Recently, Fujii has devised a combination of SI and a quadrupole mass spectrometer and named this system a surface ionization organic mass spectrometer (SIOMS), which is highly selective and sensitive for organic compounds containing tertiary amino groups. We have tried to apply this mass spectrometer to forensic toxicological study; so far we have succeeded in determining important drugs-of-abuse and toxic compounds, such as phencyclidine (PCP), pethidine, pentazocine, MPTP and its derivatives from human body fluids with high sensitivity and selectivity. In this review, we describe our recent studies on the application of GC-SIOMS to forensic toxicology. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Atmospheric pressure surface sampling/ionization techniques for direct coupling of planar separations with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-06-18

    Planar separations, which include thin layer chromatography and gel electrophoresis, are in widespread use as important and powerful tools for conducting separations of complex mixtures. To increase the utility of planar separations, new methods are needed that allow in situ characterization of the individual components of the separated mixtures. A large number of atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques for use with mass spectrometry have emerged in the past several years, and several have been investigated as a means for mass spectrometric read-out of planar separations. In this article, we review the atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques that have been used for the read-out of planar separation media. For each technique, we briefly explain the operational basics and discuss the analyte type for which it is appropriate and some specific applications from the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yong [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Luo Guanghong [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Diao Jiajie [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Chornoguz, Olesya [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Reeves, Mark [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Vertes, Akos [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Due to their optical properties and morphology, thin films formed of nanoparticles are potentially new platforms for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12{+-}1 nm particle size) were prepared by evaporation-driven vertical colloidal deposition and used to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser fluence for ion detection was equal or less than what was needed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) but the resulting spectra were free of matrix interferences. A silicon microcolumn array-based substrate (a.k.a. black silicon) was developed as a new matrix-free laser desorption ionization surface. When low-resistivity silicon wafers were processed with a 22 ps pulse length 3x{omega} Nd:YAG laser in air, SF{sub 6} or water environment, regularly arranged conical spikes emerged. The radii of the spike tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 500 nm in water, to {approx}2 {mu}m in SF{sub 6} gas and to {approx}5 {mu}m in air. Peptide mass spectra directly induced by a nitrogen laser showed the formation of protonated ions of angiotensin I and II, substance P, bradykinin fragment 1-7, synthetic peptide, pro14-arg, and insulin from the processed silicon surfaces but not from the unprocessed areas. Threshold fluences for desorption/ionization were similar to those used in MALDI. Although compared to silicon nanowires the threshold laser pulse energy for ionization is significantly ({approx}10x) higher, the ease of production and robustness of microcolumn arrays offer complementary benefits.

  14. Water Radiolysis: Influence of Oxide Surfaces on H2 Production under Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Caër

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The radiolysis of water due to ionizing radiation results in the production of electrons, H· atoms, ·OH radicals, H3O+ ions and molecules (dihydrogen H2 and hydrogen peroxide H2O2. A brief history of the development of the understanding of water radiolysis is presented, with a focus on the H2 production. This H2 production is strongly modified at oxide surfaces. Different parameters accounting for this behavior are presented.

  15. Computerized study of several electrostatic, surface-ionization ion-source configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Schuster, B.G.

    1984-08-01

    A computer-based method is presented whereby the optics of electrostatic, surface-ionization ion-source designs can be analyzed theoretically. The analysis solves for the luminosity and disperstion of a beam of charged particles at the final collimating slit and at locations preceding the slit. The performance of an ion source tested in 1960 and also some newer optical configurations are compared with theory.

  16. The Wafer and Diffusion Lot Dependence of Surface Effects Resulting from Ionizing Radiation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation of the wafer and diffusion lot dependence of surface effects resulting from ionizing radiation was conducted by irradiating samples...of transistors. The transistors were selected by the wafer and diffusion lot from which they were produced. Both NPN and PNP transistors were...the diffusion lot . With the PNP’s which were not effected to the same extent as the NPN’s the dependence on the wafer or diffusion lot was not

  17. Resonant coherent ionization in grazing ion/atom-surface collisions at high velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Pitarke, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The resonant coherent interaction of a fast ion/atom with an oriented crystal surface under grazing incidence conditions is shown to contribute significantly to ionize the probe for high enough velocities and motion along a random direction. The dependence of this process on both the distance to the surface and the velocity of the projectile is studied in detail. We focus on the case of hydrogen moving with a velocity above 2 a.u. Comparison with other mechanisms of charge transfer, such as capture from inner shells of the target atoms, permits us to draw some conclusions about the charge state of the outgoing projectiles. (orig.)

  18. Investigation on a TEA-CO II laser with surface corona pre-ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjat, A.; Aram, M.; Soltanmoradi, F.; Shabanzadeh, M.

    2006-05-01

    The construction of a surface corona UV pre-ionized TEA CO II laser is described and dependence of its average output energy of the laser to gas mixture, discharge voltage and repetition rate is investigated. The electric circuit diagram and geometry of the pre-ionization system are presented. Configuration of circuit has been designed to produce only impulsive voltage difference between the laser electrodes. Also, the triggering configuration of trigatron is prepared for fast operation to minimize the arc occurrence as much as possible. Some data of current, voltage, laser pulses and average output energy versus gas mixture and applied voltages are given. IR spectrometer is used for measurements of central output wavelength of the laser. Operation of the laser on two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of CO II molecule has been observed that shows the ability of this laser for working on multi-line in a same time for special applications.

  19. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  20. Controllable surfaces of path interference in the multiphoton ionization of atoms by a weak trichromatic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercouris, Theodoros [Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vasileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece); Nicolaides, Cleanthes A [Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vasileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635 (Greece)

    2005-10-01

    Multiphoton detachment rates for the H{sup -} {sup 1}S ground state irradiated by a weak trichromatic ac field consisting of the fundamental frequency {omega} 0.272 eV and its second, third or fourth higher harmonics were computed from first principles. The weak intensities are in the range of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} W cm{sup -2}. The calculations incorporated systematically electronic structure and electron correlation effects. They were done by implementing a time-independent, nonperturbative many-electron, many-photon theory (MEMPT) which obtains cycle-averaged complex eigenvalues, whose real part gives the field-induced energy shift, {delta}, and the imaginary part is the multiphoton ionization rate, {gamma}. Through analysis, plausible arguments and computation, we show that when the intensities are weak the dependence of {gamma} on phase differences is simple. Specifically, {gamma}s are depicted in the form of plane surfaces, with minor ripples due to higher order ionization paths, in terms of trigonometric functions of the phase differences. This dependence is likely to be applicable to other atomic systems as well, and to provide a definition of the weak field regime in the trichromatic case. When the field intensities are such that higher order ionization paths become important, these dependences break down and we reach the strong field regime.

  1. Negative ion sources equipped with continuous annular and spherical geometry surface ionizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Axial geometry negative ion sources have been designed, developed, and evaluated for use in conjunction with tandem accelerator applications. These sources utilize continuous surface solid tungsten ionizers in either annular or spherical geometries to effect ionization of cesium vapor, which in turn is used to sputter a negatively biased probe containing the material of interest. The annular ionizer geometry source has been incorporated as an ''on-line'' source for routine operation of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) tandem accelerator. Both test stand and tandem accelerator operational experience indicate that such sources are reliable, long lived, stably operating and prolific producers of a wide spectrum of negative ions. To date these sources have been used to produce more than 18 negative ion species including Ag - , Au - , B - , CaH 3 - , Cl - , CrH 2 - , Cu - , Lu - , MgH 3 - , Mo - , Ni - , O - , S - , Si - , Sn - , TiH 3 - , Tm - , and Yb - . Details of the mechanical design features and computational techniques utilized in arriving at the final electrode configuration are presented in the text. Examples of data pertinent to source operation, the dependence of negative ion yields on certain source operational parameters and of intensities typical of a particular negative ion source are also given. 12 refs., 10 figs

  2. Two modes of surface roughening during plasma etching of silicon: Role of ionized etch products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Nobuya; Tsuda, Hirotaka; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2014-12-01

    Atomic- or nanometer-scale surface roughening has been investigated during Si etching in inductively coupled Cl2 plasmas, as a function of rf bias power or ion incident energy Ei, by varying feed gas flow rate, wafer stage temperature, and etching time. The experiments revealed two modes of surface roughening which occur depending on Ei: one is the roughening mode at low Ei rms) roughness of etched surfaces increases with increasing Ei, exhibiting an almost linear increase with time during etching (t rms surface roughness decreases substantially with Ei down to a low level etch rate versus √{Ei } curve, and in the evolution of the power spectral density distribution of surfaces. Such changes from the roughening to smoothing modes with increasing Ei were found to correspond to changes in the predominant ion flux from feed gas ions Clx+ to ionized etch products SiClx+ caused by the increased etch rates at increased Ei, in view of the results of several plasma diagnostics. Possible mechanisms for the formation and evolution of surface roughness during plasma etching are discussed with the help of Monte Carlo simulations of the surface feature evolution and classical molecular dynamics simulations of etch fundamentals, including stochastic roughening and effects of ion reflection and etch inhibitors.

  3. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-01-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  4. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Amaya, Daniel; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, A.; Ramilo, L.; Santecchia, A.; Vindrola, C.

    2000-01-01

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100MWt, about 25MWe).CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium.In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented.Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor

  5. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Amaya, Daniel; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Santecchia, Alberto; Vindrola, Carlos; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100 M Wt, about 25 M We). CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium. In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented. Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor. (author)

  6. Average local ionization energies computed on the surfaces of some strained molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.S.; Seminario, J.M.; Politzer, P.; Sjoberg, P.

    1990-01-01

    An ab initio self-consistent-field molecular orbital (SCF-MO) procedure has been used to compute the average local ionization energies [bar I(r)] of some strained molecules on three-dimensional surfaces defined by the contour of electronic density equal to 0.002 electrons/bohr 3 . bar I(r) is rigorously defined within the framework of SCF-MO theory and can be interpreted as the average energy needed to ionize an electron at any point in the space of a molecule. Thus, the positions of the smallest (bar IOr) values (bar I S,min ) on the surfaces of molecules are the sites expected to be the most reactive to electrophiles. We find bar I S,min near the C-C bond midpoints of saturated three-membered, but not four-membered hydrocarbon rings. These bar I S,min are interpreted as reflecting the σ-aromatic character of the former. Our (bar IOr) data effectively provide a fingerprint characterizing saturated three-membered rings, which is useful, for example, in analyzing molecules such as [1.1.1]propellane. Our results for the latter are consistent with the interpretation of it having a biradical character, as has been suggested earlier

  7. Characterization of anti-theft devices directly from the surface of banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Cuelbas, Claudio José; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Using Brazilian banknotes as a test case, forensic examination and identification of Rhodamine B dye anti-theft device (ATD) staining on banknotes were performed. Easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) was used since it allows fast and simple analysis with no sample preparation providing molecular screening of the surface with direct desorption and ionization of the security dye. For a more accurate molecular characterization of the ATD dye, Q Exactive Orbitrap™ Fourier transform (tandem) mass spectrometry using eletrospray ionization (ESI-HRMS/MS) was also applied. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization of Low Molecular Organic Substances on Oxidized Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmigol, I. V.; Alekseev, S. A.; Lavrynenko, O. Yu.; Zaitsev, V. N.; Barbier, D.; Pokrovskiy, V. A.

    Desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) mass spectra of methylene blue (MB+Cl-) were studied using p+-type oxidized monofunctional porous silicon (PS-OX mono ) free layers. Reduction/protonation processes of methylene blue (MB) dye were investigated. It was shown that SiH x terminal sites on oxidized surface of porous silicon (PS-OX) are not the rate-determining factor for the reduction/protonation in DIOS. Tunneling of electron through the dielectric layer of nanostructures on silicon surface under effect of local electrostatic and electromagnetic fields is considered to be the most significant factor of adsorbate-adsorbent electron exchange and further laser-induced ion formation.

  9. Operation auxiliary system (SAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolich, J.; Santome, D.; Drexler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents an auxiliary system for nuclear power plants operation (SAO). The development purpose consisted in a computing supervision system to be installed at different sites of a reactor, mainly in the control room. The inclusion of this system to a nuclear power plant minimizes the possibility of human error for the facility operation. (Author) [es

  10. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  11. An inexpensive way to analyze the optics of electrostatic, surface-ionization ion-source configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The optical characteristics of surface ionization sources can often be studied in detail with the aid of a home computer. Sources with two-dimensional symmetry are considered. Ions are created on the surface of a hot filament. An accelerating voltage, V, is applied to the source and filament. The ions are accelerated and focused into a beam by a series of electrodes containing narrow axial slits. The ordering of elementary stages of acceleration that the electrodes form from is the optical stack. The focusing parameters are the fractions of the source voltage applied to the electrodes. A portion of the ions leaves the source through a beam-defining, collimating slit in the final electrode. An ion trajectory at any point along the symmetry axis is described by a vector with two phase space components, which are treated as small quantities. The components at the filament are ω, the displacement from the symmetry axis, and ν, the velocity component of the ion parallel to the filament surface divided by its speed when it leaves the first stage. Elsewhere, the trajectory components are the displacement from the symmetry axis and the slope

  12. Surface oxidation on thin films affects ionization cross section induced by proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertol, Ana Paula Lamberti; Vasconcellos, M.A.Z.; Hinrichs, Ruth; Limandri, Silvina; Trincavelli, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In microanalysis techniques such as Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), the transformation from intensity to concentration is made by standard less software that needs exact values of fundamental parameters such as the ionization cross section, transition probabilities of the different electronic levels, and fluorescent yield. The three parameters together measure the photon generating probability of an electronic transition and can be determined experimentally under the name of production cross section. These measurements are performed on thin films, with thickness around 10 nm, but most studies do not take into account any spontaneous surface oxidation. In this work, in the attempt to obtain cross section values of Al, Si and Ti, in metallic and oxide films, the influence of surface oxidation on the metallic films was established. Simulations considering the oxidation with the software SIMNRA on the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectra obtained from the films provided mass thickness values used to calculate the cross section data that were compared with theoretical values (PWBA and ECPSSR), and with experimental values and empirical adjustments from other studies. The inclusion of the natural oxidation affects the values of cross section, and may be one of the causes of discrepancies between the experimental values published in literature. (author)

  13. Controlled-Resonant Surface Tapping-Mode Scanning Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the advancement of a controlled-resonance surface tapping-mode single capillary liquid junction extraction/ESI emitter for mass spectrometry imaging. The basic instrumental setup and the general operation of the system were discussed and optimized performance metrics were presented. The ability to spot sample, lane scan and chemically image in an automated and controlled fashion were demonstrated. Rapid, automated spot sampling was demonstrated for a variety of compound types including the cationic dye basic blue 7, the oligosaccharide cellopentaose, and the protein equine heart cytochrome c. The system was used for lane scanning and chemical imaging of the cationic dye crystal violet in inked lines on glass and for lipid distributions in mouse brain thin tissue sections. Imaging of the lipids in mouse brain tissue under optimized conditions provided a spatial resolution of approximately 35 m based on the ability to distinguish between features observed both in the optical and mass spectral chemical images. The sampling spatial resolution of this system was comparable to the best resolution that has been reported for other types of atmospheric pressure liquid extraction-based surface sampling/ionization techniques used for mass spectrometry imaging.

  14. Surface heterogeneity and ionization of Cs promoter in carbon-based ruthenium catalyst for ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotarba, Andrzej; Dmytrzyk, Jaromir; Rarog-Pilecka, Wioletta; Kowalczyk, Zbigniew

    2003-01-01

    Second-generation ammonia synthesis cesium-doped ruthenium catalyst supported on turbostratic carbon was investigated by the species resolved thermal alkali desorption method (SR-TAD). Energetic barriers for cesium ions (2.86 eV), ground state (1.96 eV) and electronically excited atoms (5.76 eV) desorbing from the Cs-Ru/C catalyst were determined. In the case of ruthenium-free Cs/C system, cesium desorbs as ground state atoms only, with an energy barrier of 2.87 eV. The work functions determined by the thermionic emission of electrons from Cs/C and Cs-Ru/C were of the same value (2.9 eV). It was concluded that ruthenium induces heterogeneous distribution of cesium on the catalyst surface. The promoter stability is reduced on low work function areas and its surface ionization on high work function areas opens the ionic desorption channel. The Cs desorption from the catalyst is discussed in terms of the literature data for the cesium/graphite system

  15. Off-line ionization tests using the surface and the plasma ion sources of the SPES project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzolaro, M.; Vasquez, J.; Montano, J.; Andrighetto, A.; Scarpa, D.; Manente, M.; Curreli, D.; Meneghetti, G.; Pavarin, D.

    2012-01-01

    The development of new target ion source systems for the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility is currently in progress at Legnaro National Laboratories. In this context, the study of ion sources and their performance in terms of ionization efficiency and transversal emittance is a crucial point in order to maximize the available yields, particularly for short-lived isotopes. In this work, preliminary off-line ionization efficiency and emittance measurements for the SPES surface and plasma ion sources are presented. The plasma source emittance measurements are supported by dedicated numerical calculations.

  16. Quantitative Caffeine Analysis Using a Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J [ORNL; Deibel, Michael A. [Earlham College; Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative determination of caffeine on reversed-phase C8 thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling electrospray ionization system with tandem mass spectrometry detection is reported. The thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method employed a deuterium-labeled caffeine internal standard and selected reaction monitoring detection. Up to nine parallel caffeine bands on a single plate were sampled in a single surface scanning experiment requiring 35 min at a surface scan rate of 44 {mu}m/s. A reversed-phase HPLC/UV caffeine assay was developed in parallel to assess the mass spectrometry method performance. Limits of detection for the HPLC/UV and thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry methods determined from the calibration curve statistics were 0.20 ng injected (0.50 {mu}L) and 1.0 ng spotted on the plate, respectively. Spike recoveries with standards and real samples ranged between 97 and 106% for both methods. The caffeine content of three diet soft drinks (Diet Coke, Diet Cherry Coke, Diet Pepsi) and three diet sport drinks (Diet Turbo Tea, Speed Stack Grape, Speed Stack Fruit Punch) was measured. The HPLC/UV and mass spectrometry determinations were in general agreement, and these values were consistent with the quoted values for two of the three diet colas. In the case of Diet Cherry Coke and the diet sports drinks, the determined caffeine amounts using both methods were consistently higher (by 8% or more) than the literature values.

  17. Emittance studies of high intensity negative ion sources equipped with continuous surface cylindrical and spherical geometry tungsten ionizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; McConnell, J.W.; Tajima, S.; Nelson, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    A digitally controlled emittance measurement, data acquisition and processing system has been designed, implemented and used to determine emittances of negative ion beams extracted from high-intensity negative-ion sources equipped with cylindrical and spherical geometry cesium surface ionizers. Comparative studies indicate that the emittances of ion beams extracted from the source equipped with a spherical geometry ionizer are lower by 13% to 21% than those extracted from the source equipped with a cylindrical geometry ionizer. This difference may be attributable to geometric factors rather than differences in the sizes of the emission areas at the points of negative-ion generation. Studies reveal that the emittances of these sources are independent of ion mass for most of the materials investigated and independent of ion current over the range of ion currents used in these investigations (4μA to 12 μA)

  18. Optimising the Use of TRIzol-extracted Proteins in Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/ Ionization (SELDI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlaky Laszlo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research with clinical specimens is always hampered by the limited availability of relevant samples, necessitating the use of a single sample for multiple assays. TRIzol is a common reagent for RNA extraction, but DNA and protein fractions can also be used for other studies. However, little is known about using TRIzol-extracted proteins in proteomic research, partly because proteins extracted from TRIzol are very resistant to solubilization. Results To facilitate the use of TRIzol-extracted proteins, we first compared the ability of four different common solubilizing reagents to solubilize the TRIzol-extracted proteins from an osteosarcoma cell line, U2-OS. Then we analyzed the solubilized proteins by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/ Ionization technique (SELDI. The results showed that solubilization of TRIzol-extracted proteins with 9.5 M Urea and 2% CHAPS ([3-[(3-cholamidopropyl-dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate] (UREA-CHAPS was significantly better than the standard 1% SDS in terms of solubilization efficiency and the number of detectable ion peaks. Using three different types of SELDI arrays (CM10, H50, and IMAC-Cu, we demonstrated that peak detection with proteins solubilized by UREA-CHAPS was reproducible (r > 0.9. Further SELDI analysis indicated that the number of ion peaks detected in TRIzol-extracted proteins was comparable to a direct extraction method, suggesting many proteins still remain in the TRIzol protein fraction. Conclusion Our results suggest that UREA-CHAPS performed very well in solubilizing TRIzol-extracted proteins for SELDI applications. Protein fractions left over after TRIzol RNA extraction could be a valuable but neglected source for proteomic or biochemical analysis when additional samples are not available.

  19. Intersection auxiliary signal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    1995-12-01

    Many intersection accidents are related to drivers' inappropriate responses to an amber signal light, due to their misjudgment on the traffic situation and/or their aggressive behavior. To reduce intersection accidents of this nature, this paper proposes the Intersection Auxiliary Signal System (IAS). IAS can be installed at selected intersections, where information regarding signal phasing, intersection geometry and speed limit is transmitted from an ultrasonic/infra-red transmitter. An on-vehicle device receivers and processes the information, the provides the driver with explicit suggestions on the correct action to take (continue to pass or decelerate to stop), or warnings against on-going incorrect actions. IAS is expected to be more effective in suburban intersections, which are usually characterized by greater dimension, longer amber phases, and higher vehicle speeds. Both the intersection transmitters and the on-vehicle processors are expected to have simple structures and low costs. Simulation results show that IAS has a significant effect on reducing red signal violation, especially when there is no significant dilemma zones.

  20. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  1. Growth of CdTe on Si(100) surface by ionized cluster beam technique: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araghi, Houshang, E-mail: araghi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabihi, Zabiholah [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nayebi, Payman [Department of Physics, College of Technical and Engineering, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, Mohammad Mahdi [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    II–VI semiconductor CdTe was grown on the Si(100) substrate surface by the ionized cluster beam (ICB) technique. In the ICB method, when vapors of solid materials such as CdTe were ejected through a nozzle of a heated crucible into a vacuum region, nanoclusters were created by an adiabatic expansion phenomenon. The clusters thus obtained were partially ionized by electron bombardment and then accelerated onto the silicon substrate at 473 K by high potentials. The cluster size was determined using a retarding field energy analyzer. The results of X-ray diffraction measurements indicate the cubic zinc blende (ZB) crystalline structure of the CdTe thin film on the silicon substrate. The CdTe thin film prepared by the ICB method had high crystalline quality. The microscopic processes involved in the ICB deposition technique, such as impact and coalescence processes, have been studied in detail by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.

  2. Application of silicon nanowires and indium tin oxide surfaces in desorption electrospray ionization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pól, Jaroslav; Novák, Petr; Volný, Michael; Kruppa, G. H.; Kostiainen, R.; Lemr, Karel; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2008), s. 391-399 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mass spectrometry * desorption electrospray ionization * nanowires Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2008

  3. Examination and Manipulation of Protein Surface Charge in Solution with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Deborah S.; Van Ryswyk, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a powerful tool for examining the charge of proteins in solution. The charge can be manipulated through choice of solvent and pH. Furthermore, solution-accessible, protonated lysine side chains can be specifically tagged with 18-crown-6 ether to form noncovalent adducts. Chemical derivatization…

  4. Surface modification of hexatriacontane by CF_4 plasmas studied by optical emission and threshold ionization mass spectrometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncin-Epaillard, F.; Wang, W.; Ausserré, D.; Scharzenbach, W.; Derouard, J.; Sadeghi, N.

    1998-11-01

    The behavior of tetrafluoromethane microwave plasma (2% argon included) has been studied by emission spectroscopy during the treatment of hexatriacontane, a model for high density polyethylene. The evolution of the densities of F* atoms, and CF, CF^*2, radicals has been followed by using the actinometric technique with 2% argon added to the gas. The surface properties, such as surface energy and surface roughness were correlated to the emission intensity of reactives species in the plasma gas phase. We found that the evolution of the fluorinated species emissions in the plasma gas phase can be a direct indication of the surface modifications by the plasma. A mild exposure to the plasma can result in a great decrease of surface energy corresponding to the fluorination. The surface roughness only changes under drastic plasma conditions. Threshold ionization mass spectroscopy is applied to detect the fluorine atoms and CFx radicals. Time resolved measurements in pulsed plasma, give access to the decay rate of F atoms concentration in the afterglow, and to their sticking coefficient on different surfaces. The influences of the discharge parameters and of the surfaces (metal, silicon or hexatriacontane) in contact with the plasma are investigated. The results show that the plasma generated ions and/or UV radiations highly enhance the reactivity of the F atoms on polymer surface.

  5. Chemical analysis of surfaces by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy associated to ionic pulverization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, P.

    1995-01-01

    This work shows that if resonance ionization mass spectroscopy was first applied in isotopic separation, it's also an analyzing method adapted to the study of semi-conductor materials and thin foils. We have improved this technic: a neodymium laser coupled with a dye laser, a new argon ions gun, a gallium ions gun and a new collection optic for the secondary ions quadrupole spectrometer to allow quantitative and selective measurements. (S.G.). 84 refs

  6. Scanning electron microscopic imaging of surface effects in desorption and nano-desorption electrospray ionization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaftan, Filip; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Lemr, Karel; Havlíček, Vladimír; Cvačka, Josef; Volný, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2011), s. 256-261 ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP206/10/P018; GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ionization * DESI * nano-DESI * electron microscopy * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.268, year: 2011

  7. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  8. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, George G.

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  9. A simple and sensitive quantitation of N,N-dimethyltryptamine by gas chromatography with surface ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, A; Seno, H; Suzuki, O; Hattori, H; Kumazawa, T

    1997-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method for determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) by gas chromatography (GC) with surface ionization detection (SID) is presented. Whole blood or urine, containing DMT and gramine (internal standard), was subjected to solid-phase extraction with a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge before analysis by GC-SID. The calibration curve was linear in the DMT range of 1.25-20 ng/mL blood or urine. The detection limit of DMT was about 0.5 ng/mL (10 pg on-column). The recovery of both DMT and gramine spiked in biological fluids was above 86%.

  10. Impact of tissue surface properties on the desorption electrospray ionization imaging of organic acids in grapevine stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yonghui; Guella, Graziano; Franceschi, Pietro

    2016-03-30

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) imaging is a fast analytical technique used to assess spatially resolved biological processes over unmodified sample surfaces. Although DESI profiling experiments have demonstrated that the properties of the sample surface significantly affect the outcomes of DESI analyses, the potential implications of these phenomena in imaging applications have not yet been explored extensively. The distribution of endogenous and exogenous organic acids in pith and out pith region of grapevine stems was investigated by using DESI imaging, ion chromatography and direct infusion methods. Several common normalization strategies to account for the surface effect, including TIC normalization, addition of the internal standard in the spray solvent and deposition of the standard over the sample surface, were critically evaluated. DESI imaging results show that, in our case, the measured distributions of these small organic acids are not consistent with their 'true' localizations within the tissues. Furthermore, our results indicate that the common normalization strategies are not able to completely compensate for the observed surface effect. Variations in the tissue surface properties across the tissue sample can greatly affect the semi-quantitative detection of organic acids. Attention should be paid when interpreting DESI imaging results and an independent analytical validation step is important in untargeted DESI imaging investigations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Radioactive beams produced by the ISOL method: development for laser ionization and for surface ionization; Faisceaux exotiques par methode ISOL: developpements pour l'ionisation par laser et l'ionisation de surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Faouzi

    2004-10-01

    The works were carried out in the framework of the research program PARRNe (production of radioactive neutron-rich nuclei). This program aims to determine optimal conditions to produce intense beams of neutron-rich isotopes. This thesis treats multiple technical aspects related to the production of separate radioactive isotopes in line (ISOL). It deals mainly with the development of the target-source unit which is the key element for projects such as SPIRAL-2 or EURISOL.The first part presents the various methods using fission as production mode and compares them: fission induced by thermal neutrons, induced by fast neutrons and photofission. The experiment carried out at CERN validated the interest of the photofission as a promising production mode of radioactive ions. That is why the institute of nuclear physics of Orsay decided to build a linear electron accelerator at the Tandem d'Orsay (ALTO).The second part of this thesis deals with the development of uranium targets. The X-rays diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy have been used as analysis techniques. They allowed to determine the chemical and structural characteristics of uranium carbide targets as function of various heating temperatures. After the production, the process of ionization has been studied. Two types of ion source have been worked out: the first one is a surface ion source and the second one is a source based on resonant ionization by laser. These two types of sources will be used for the ALTO project. (author)

  12. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Nancy B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Jon H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kingsley, Mark T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Karen L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  13. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  14. Aspectual auxiliary verbs in Xitsonga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Let him always come' e. á vá hátl-é vá yá étlélà. OPT 3PL quickly-OPT 3PL go sleep. 'Let them quickly go to bed'. 3.4 Negative markers. Negation is marked on AA verbs. The auxiliary verb hatla 'quickly' is negated in three tenses.

  15. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... matching blue Coast Guard Auxiliary emblem is centered. The white slash shall be at a 70 degree angle, rising away from the hoist. (c) The Auxiliary emblem consists of a disk with the shield of the Coat of...

  16. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary to...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary to...

  18. 78 FR 27321 - Revision of Auxiliary Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...--Auxiliary emblem: We propose to revise this section. Provisions of the existing Sec. 5.41 would be... existing Sec. 5.47(c) describing the Auxiliary emblem and explain the use of the emblem as identification...), and 5.36(c). Added language to describe the Auxiliary emblem and discuss when it can be worn and used...

  19. Two modes of surface roughening during plasma etching of silicon: Role of ionized etch products

    OpenAIRE

    Nakazaki, Nobuya; Tsuda, Hirotaka; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    Atomic- or nanometer-scale surface roughening has been investigated during Si etching in inductively coupled Cl{2} plasmas, as a function of rf bias power or ion incident energy E{i} , by varying feed gas flow rate, wafer stage temperature, and etching time. The experiments revealed two modes of surface roughening which occur depending on E{i} : one is the roughening mode at low E{i}  

  20. Ionizing radiation modulates the surface expression of human leukocyte antigen-G in a human melanoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelin, S.; Gallegos, C.E.; Dubner, D. [Radiopathology Laboratory, Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Favier, B.; Carosella, E.D. [CEA, I2BM, Hopital Saint-Louis, IUH, Service de Recherches en Hemato-Immunologie, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a nonclassical HLA class I molecule involved in fetus protection from the maternal immune system, transplant tolerance, and viral and tumoral immune escape. Tumor-specific HLA-G expression has been described for a wide variety of malignancies, including melanomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ionizing radiation (IR) could modulate the surface expression of HLA-G1 in a human melanoma cell line that expresses endogenously membrane-bound HLA-G1. For this purpose, cells were exposed to increasing doses of {gamma}-irradiation (0-20 Gy) and HLA-G1 levels at the plasma membrane were analyzed at different times postirradiation by flow cytometry. HLA-G total expression and the presence of the soluble form of HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1) in the culture medium of irradiated cells were also evaluated. IR was capable of down regulating cell surface and total HLA-G levels, with a concomitant increase of sHLA-G1 in the medium. These results could indicate that {gamma}-irradiation decreases HLA-G1 surface levels by enhancing the proteolytic cleavage of this molecule. (authors)

  1. Development of a He/CdI$_2$ gas-jet system coupled to a surface-ionization type ion-source in JAEA-ISOL: towards determination of the first ionization potential of Lr (Z = 103)

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, T K; Sato, N; Tsukada, K; Toyoshima, A; Ooe, K; Miyashita, S; Kaneya, Y; Osa, A; Schädel, M; Nagame, Y; Ichikawa, S; Stora, T; Kratz, J V

    2015-01-01

    We report on development of a gas-jet transport system coupled to a surface ionization ion-source in the JAEA-ISOL (Isotope Separator On-Line) system. As a new aerosol material for the gas-jet system, CdI2, which has a low boiling point of 713 °C, is exploited to prevent deposition of the aerosol material on the surface of the ion-source. An additional filament is newly installed in the previous ion-source to provide uniform heating of an ionizer. The present system is applied to the measurement of absolute efficiencies of various short-lived lanthanide isotopes produced in nuclear reactions.

  2. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  3. Comparison and uncertainty evaluation of different calibration protocols and ionization chambers for low-energy surface brachytherapy dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela-Juan, C., E-mail: ccanjuan@gmail.com [Radiation Oncology Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Vijande, J. [Department of Atomic, Molecular, and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and Instituto de Física Corpuscular (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain); García-Martínez, T. [Radiation Oncology Department, Hospital La Ribera, Alzira 46600 (Spain); Niatsetski, Y.; Nauta, G.; Schuurman, J. [Elekta Brachytherapy, Veenendaal 3905 TH (Netherlands); Ouhib, Z. [Radiation Oncology Department, Lynn Regional Cancer Center, Boca Raton Community Hospital, Boca Raton, Florida 33486 (United States); Ballester, F. [Department of Atomic, Molecular, and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, J. [Radiation Oncology Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026, Spain and Department of Radiotherapy, Clínica Benidorm, Benidorm 03501 (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: A surface electronic brachytherapy (EBT) device is in fact an x-ray source collimated with specific applicators. Low-energy (<100 kVp) x-ray beam dosimetry faces several challenges that need to be addressed. A number of calibration protocols have been published for x-ray beam dosimetry. The media in which measurements are performed are the fundamental difference between them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface dose rate of a low-energy x-ray source with small field applicators using different calibration standards and different small-volume ionization chambers, comparing the values and uncertainties of each methodology. Methods: The surface dose rate of the EBT unit Esteya (Elekta Brachytherapy, The Netherlands), a 69.5 kVp x-ray source with applicators of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mm diameter, was evaluated using the AAPM TG-61 (based on air kerma) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) TRS-398 (based on absorbed dose to water) dosimetry protocols for low-energy photon beams. A plane parallel T34013 ionization chamber (PTW Freiburg, Germany) calibrated in terms of both absorbed dose to water and air kerma was used to compare the two dosimetry protocols. Another PTW chamber of the same model was used to evaluate the reproducibility between these chambers. Measurements were also performed with two different Exradin A20 (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI) chambers calibrated in terms of air kerma. Results: Differences between surface dose rates measured in air and in water using the T34013 chamber range from 1.6% to 3.3%. No field size dependence has been observed. Differences are below 3.7% when measurements with the A20 and the T34013 chambers calibrated in air are compared. Estimated uncertainty (with coverage factor k = 1) for the T34013 chamber calibrated in water is 2.2%–2.4%, whereas it increases to 2.5% and 2.7% for the A20 and T34013 chambers calibrated in air, respectively. The output factors, measured with the PTW chambers

  4. The kinetics of formation and transformation of silver atoms on solid surfaces subjected to ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the results obtained in ESR-assisted studies of the kinetics of formation and transformation of silver atoms generated by γ-irradiation of silver-containing carriers. Three types of dependences have been established: (1) extreme; (2) saturation curves and (3) step-like. All the kinetic curves display, after a definite period of time, stable concentrations of adsorbed silver atoms per unit of the surface at a given temperature. Depending on the temperature of the experiment, the composition and nature of the carrier, the number of adsorbed silver ions, the irradiation dose and conditions of the experiment, a stable concentration of silver atoms at a given temperature may be equal to, higher or lower than the number of silver atoms measured immediately after γ-irradiation at a temperature of liquid nitrogen. A kinetic scheme is proposed to explain the obtained curves. The model suggests that the silver atoms adsorbed on the surface, as well as those formed after γ-irradiation, are bonded to the surface by various energies, which are related to heterogeneity of the carrier surface. (author)

  5. What Modals Are: Modal Verbs, Modal Words, and Auxiliary Modals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazira A. Kakzhanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modals are a complicated grammatical phenomenon. As of today, the status of modals is still not precisely defined in the linguistics literature, and they are described under different names: modal verbs, modal words, auxiliary modals, or defective verbs. Modals express the result of the conversion of thought processes (deep structure about the realization of actions into surface structure. As articles determine the status of nouns as indefinite or definite things, modals determine the relation of a person to actions or the quality of an action as realizable or unrealizable. Modals cannot truly be ‘modal verbs’, because they lack the morphological characteristics of verbs (aspect, voice, mood, and tense, and the term ‘defective verb’ is flawed for the same reason. Furthermore, they cannot be ‘auxiliary modals’, because they don’t neutralize their main meanings when they become auxiliary. Thus, I propose to refer to these elements only as modals or modal words.

  6. Planar Functionalized Surfaces for Direct Immunoaffinity Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pompach, Petr; Kavan, Daniel; Benada, Oldřich; Růžička, V.; Volný, M.; Novák, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 1 (2016), s. 270-278 ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1509; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : TREATED METAL-SURFACE * IN-SITU ENRICHMENT * ELECTROSPRAY DEPOSITION Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 8.008, year: 2016

  7. Direct Surface and Droplet Microsampling for Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis with an Integrated Dual-Probe Microfluidic Chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cong-Min [Institute of Microanalytical; Zhu, Ying [Institute of Microanalytical; Jin, Di-Qiong [Institute of Microanalytical; Kelly, Ryan T. [Environmental; Fang, Qun [Institute of Microanalytical

    2017-08-15

    Ambient mass spectrometry (MS) has revolutionized the way of MS analysis and broadened its application in various fields. This paper describes the use of microfluidic techniques to simplify the setup and improve the functions of ambient MS by integrating the sampling probe, electrospray emitter probe, and online mixer on a single glass microchip. Two types of sampling probes, including a parallel-channel probe and a U-shaped channel probe, were designed for dryspot and liquid-phase droplet samples, respectively. We demonstrated that the microfabrication techniques not only enhanced the capability of ambient MS methods in analysis of dry-spot samples on various surfaces, but also enabled new applications in the analysis of nanoliter-scale chemical reactions in an array of droplets. The versatility of the microchip-based ambient MS method was demonstrated in multiple different applications including evaluation of residual pesticide on fruit surfaces, sensitive analysis of low-ionizable analytes using postsampling derivatization, and high-throughput screening of Ugi-type multicomponent reactions.

  8. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Surface Infesting Microbes of Stored Grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, J.P.; Chanda, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Santra, S.C.

    2005-09-01

    Spoilage of nutritional value of stored grains and seeds by the surface-infesting microbes, especially those producing mycotoxins, has been a worldwide economic problem. In this perspective our present work aims at probing into the potential of gamma rays to reduce the microbial infestation on stored grain surface and additionally to focus differential radiation sensitivity, if any, of the different fungi in response to gradient of gamma exposure. Co-60 source at 250 C emitting gamma rays at 1173 and 1332 keV energy (0.12 kGy/h) was used in the range of 0.5-6 kGy (absorbed dose) for irradiating some common stored seeds in India namely rice (Oryza sativa. Cv-2233 and Oryza sativa. Cv-Shankar), Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum. Cv-local), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Mung (Phaseolus mungo). Gamma irradiation results in dose-dependent delay in colony formation and growth inhibition of the fungi on the seed surface. Differential rate of depletion was noted for different fungi. Effective absorbed dose for depletion of Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp was 1 to 2 kGy while that for Tricoderma sp., Curvularia sp was 0.5-1 kGy. Complete inhibition of all the selected fungi was found above 2.5 kGy. Germinating potential of the irradiated grains remained unaffected upto an absorbed dose of 2kGy while their respective nutritional value in terms of protein and carbohydrate content was not significantly altered. Higher doses of exposure however, documented delayed seed germination. Colony forming ability (CFA) of the exposed fungi documented significant variation between fungi attached to the seed surface and that when isolated from the host. Alternaria sp, Aspergillus sp or Curvularia sp exhibited total inhibition of CFA at a much lower dose (1-3 kGy) in isolated conditions than that when seed attached (>4kGy). On the other hand Trichoderma sp expressed a different trend revealing more sensitivity in seed attached condition. Such differential response possibly reflects species

  9. Hovercraft auxiliary power units (APUs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, B.J.

    1983-08-01

    Auxiliary power units (APU) manufactured by British firms for use in hovercraft are characterized. Both diesel and gas-turbine APUs are found to be well suited to the demands of this application. The design features, dimensions, performance data, and installation requirements are discussed for the SS 90, SS 923, DA-1, BA-1, HM 5, and Gevaudan 9 APUs, as well as the TRS 18 gas-turbine smoke generator. The progress made in improving the fuel efficiency of gas turbines and reducing the weight of diesel engines is considered significant.

  10. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  11. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  12. Coordinated application of electrical auxiliaries equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appiarius, J.C.; Krug, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    As the power requirements of auxiliaries continue to increase, both in total and as a percentage of generating unit capacity, coordinated application of auxiliaries system components demands more sophisticated approaches to system design. Among the techniques developed to assist system designers is a method which separates the auxiliaries system into modules for conceptual design, with analyses which consider design criteria, equipment capability, and expected operating constraints. This and other techniques, intended to optimize application of metalclad switchgear and auxiliaries transformers, can provide the designer with tools for proper selection and application of equipment which can contribute significantly to overall system performance.

  13. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations. 74.6 Section 74.6 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES General; Rules Applicable to Al...

  14. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  15. Aspectual auxiliary verbs in Xitsonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghun J Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Xitsonga, certain Aspectual Auxiliary verbs (AA verbs appear with double subject agreement. While these AA verbs have been reported in the description of Xitsonga (Baumbach 1987: 250-252, a systematic morphosyntactic study of these constructions has not been undertaken. This study aims to fill this gap. An AA verb is marked with tense, aspect, mood, negation and relative clause markers and may occur in wh-questions. The lexical verb following the AA verb may be the target of verbal extensions (applicative and reciprocal, reflexive, causative and passive markers. [Please click on "Supplementary files" in the ARTICLE TOOLS sidebar on the right for the accompanying sound files.

  16. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I follow-on study of the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System that has been conducted for the US Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging research Program. The Phase I study found a number of significant AFW System functions that are not being adequately tested by conventional test methods and some that are actually being degraded by conventional testing. Thus, it was decided that this follow-on study would focus on these testing omissions nd equipment degradation. The deficiencies in current monitoring and operating practice are categorized and evaluated. Areas of component degradation caused by current practice are discussed. Recommendations are made for improved diagnostic methods and test procedures

  17. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  18. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Class A TV licensees may request a decrease from the authorized facility's ERP in the license application. An FM, TV or Class A TV licensee may also increase the ERP of the auxiliary facility in a license... licensed main facility as an auxiliary facility with an ERP less than or equal to the ERP specified on the...

  19. Approaching the Hartree-Fock Limit through the Complementary Auxiliary Basis Set Singles Correction and Auxiliary Basis Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert A; Hill, J Grant

    2017-04-11

    Auxiliary basis sets for use in the resolution of the identity (RI) approximation in explicitly correlated methods are presented for the elements H-Ar. These extend the cc-pVnZ-F12/OptRI (n = D-Q) auxiliary basis sets of Peterson and co-workers by the addition of a small number of s- and p-functions, optimized so as to yield the greatest complementary auxiliary basis set (CABS) singles correction to the Hartree-Fock energy. The new sets, denoted OptRI+, also lead to a reduction in errors due to the RI approximation and hence an improvement in correlation energies. The atomization energies and heats of formation for a test set of small molecules, and spectroscopic constants for 27 diatomics, calculated at the CCSD(T)-F12b level, are shown to have improved error distributions for the new auxiliary basis sets with negligible additional effort. The OptRI+ sets retain all of the desirable properties of the original OptRI, including the production of smooth potential energy surfaces, while maintaining a compact nature.

  20. A comparative study on carbon, boron-nitride, boron-phosphide and silicon-carbide nanotubes based on surface electrostatic potentials and average local ionization energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D; Behzadi, Hadi

    2013-06-01

    A density functional theory study was carried out to predict the electrostatic potentials as well as average local ionization energies on both the outer and the inner surfaces of carbon, boron-nitride (BN), boron-phosphide (BP) and silicon-carbide (SiC) single-walled nanotubes. For each nanotube, the effect of tube radius on the surface potentials and calculated average local ionization energies was investigated. It is found that SiC and BN nanotubes have much stronger and more variable surface potentials than do carbon and BP nanotubes. For the SiC, BN and BP nanotubes, there are characteristic patterns of positive and negative sites on the outer lateral surfaces. On the other hand, a general feature of all of the systems studied is that stronger potentials are associated with regions of higher curvature. According to the evaluated surface electrostatic potentials, it is concluded that, for the narrowest tubes, the water solubility of BN tubes is slightly greater than that of SiC followed by carbon and BP nanotubes.

  1. Hybrid mesons with auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid mesons are exotic mesons in which the color field is not in the ground state. Their understanding deserves interest from a theoretical point of view, because it is intimately related to nonperturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, it seems that some recently detected particles, such as the π 1 (1600) and the Y(4260), are serious hybrid candidates. In this work, we investigate the description of such exotic hadrons by applying the auxiliary fields technique (also known as the einbein field method) to the widely used spinless Salpeter Hamiltonian with appropriate linear confinement. Instead of the usual numerical resolution, this technique allows to find simplified analytical mass spectra and wave functions of the Hamiltonian, which still lead to reliable qualitative predictions. We analyse and compare two different descriptions of hybrid mesons, namely a two-body q system with an excited flux tube, or a three-body qg system. We also compute the masses of the 1 -+ hybrids. Our results are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with lattice QCD and other effective models. (orig.)

  2. Trace detection of explosives with low vapor emissions by laser surface photofragmentation-fragment detection spectroscopy with an improved ionization probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalo, Jerry; Sausa, Rosario

    2005-02-20

    Trace explosive residues are measured in real time by surface laser photofragmentation-fragment detection (SPF-FD) spectroscopy at ambient conditions. A 248-nm laser photofragments the target residue on a substrate, and a 226-nm laser ionizes the resulting NO fragment by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization by means of its A-X (0, 0) transitions near 226 nm. We tested two probes on selected explosives and modeled their electric field in the presence of a substrate with an ion optics simulation program. The limits of detection range from 1 to 15 ng/cm2 (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) at 1 atm and 298 K and depend on the electrode orientation and mechanism for NO formation.

  3. Relationship between the Polymeric Ionization Degree and Powder and Surface Properties in Materials Derived from Poly(maleic anhydride-alt-octadecene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constain H. Salamanca

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric materials derived from poly(maleic anhydride-alt-octadecene—here referred as PAM-18—have shown interesting properties that make them potential pharmaceutical excipients. In this work, eight polymers derived from PAM-18 were obtained using NaOH and KOH at 1:1; 1:0.75, 1:0.5, and 1:0.25 molar ratios. The resulting products were labeled as PAM-18Na and PAM-18K, respectively. Each polymer was purified by ultrafiltration/lyophilization, and the ionization degree was determined by potentiometric studies, which was related to the zeta potential. The structural characterization was performed using the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR espectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The physical characterization was carried out by SEM, particle analysis, and humidity loss and gain studies; the surface studies were performed by the sessile drop method. PAM-18Na had ionization degrees of 95%, 63%, 39% and 22%, whereas those for PAM-18K were 99%, 52%, 35% and 20%, respectively. The results also showed that for higher inorganic base amounts used, the polymeric materials obtained possess high ionization degrees, which could form polymeric solutions or hetero-dispersed systems. Likewise, it was observed that for higher proportions of carboxylate groups in the polymeric structure, the capability to retain water is increased and, only can be eliminated by drying at temperatures greater than 160 °C. On the other hand, the modification of PAM-18 to its ionized forms led to the formation of powder materials with low flowability and surfaces that ranged from very hydrophobic to slightly wettable.

  4. Resolution of concerns in auxiliary feedwater piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.A.; Testa, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Auxiliary feedwater piping systems at pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants have experienced unanticipated operating conditions during plant operation. These unanticipated conditions have included plant events involving backleakage through check valves, temperatures in portions of the auxiliary feedwater piping system that exceed design conditions, and the occurrence of unanticipated severe fluid transients. The impact of these events has had an adverse effect at some nuclear stations on plant operation, installed plant components and hardware, and design basis calculations. Beaver Valley Unit 2, a three loop pressurized water reactor nuclear plant, has observed anomalies with the auxiliary feedwater system since the unit went operational in 1987. The consequences of these anomalies and plant events have been addressed and resolved for Beaver Valley Unit 2 by performing engineering and construction activities. These activities included pipe stress, pipe support and pipe rupture analysis, the monitoring of auxiliary feedwater system temperature and pressure, and the modification to plant piping, supports, valves, structures and operating procedures

  5. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  6. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be— (1...

  7. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main...

  8. Preanalytical and analytical variation of surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Bøgebo, Rikke; Olsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry of human serum is a potential diagnostic tool in human diseases. In the present study, the preanalytical and analytical variation of SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry of serum was assessed in healthy...... was 18% (6%-34%, n=4) for 16 peaks, and inter-individual CV was 38% (16%-56%, n=16) for 20 peaks. CONCLUSIONS: The pre-analytical and analytical conditions of SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry of serum have a significant impact on the protein peaks, with the number of peaks low and the assay variation high...

  9. Chemical analysis of surfaces by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy associated to ionic pulverization; Analyse chimique de surfaces par spectrometrie d`ionisation resonante associee a la pulverisation ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, P.

    1995-12-19

    This work shows that if resonance ionization mass spectroscopy was first applied in isotopic separation, it`s also an analyzing method adapted to the study of semi-conductor materials and thin foils. We have improved this technic: a neodymium laser coupled with a dye laser, a new argon ions gun, a gallium ions gun and a new collection optic for the secondary ions quadrupole spectrometer to allow quantitative and selective measurements. (S.G.). 84 refs.

  10. Computation within the auxiliary field approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baeurle, S A

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the classical auxiliary field methodology has been developed as a new simulation technique for performing calculations within the framework of classical statistical mechanics. Since the approach suffers from a sign problem, a judicious choice of the sampling algorithm, allowing a fast statistical convergence and an efficient generation of field configurations, is of fundamental importance for a successful simulation. In this paper we focus on the computational aspects of this simulation methodology. We introduce two different types of algorithms, the single-move auxiliary field Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm and two new classes of force-based algorithms, which enable multiple-move propagation. In addition, to further optimize the sampling, we describe a preconditioning scheme, which permits to treat each field degree of freedom individually with regard to the evolution through the auxiliary field configuration space. Finally, we demonstrate the validity and assess the competitiveness of these algo...

  11. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  12. CIT burn control using auxiliary power modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaniotakis, E.A.; Freidberg, J.P.; Cohn, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is predicted that ignited tokamaks such as CIT will experience a thermal instability. In this work a zero dimensional transport model is used as a means of examining this thermal instability. In order to solve the problems associated with the uncertainty in predicting the behavior of an ignited tokamak plasma, auxiliary power may be used for mapping the tokamak operating space, both in the low temperature stable regime and in the high temperature unstable regime. Auxiliary power modulation as a means of burn control is the most reliable method, especially during the initial stages of CIT operation. By modulating the auxiliary power stable thermal equilibria can be created at relatively high values of Q (∼65). 20 refs., 28 figs

  13. Ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although a variety of solid-state and chemical methods for measuring radiation dose have been developed in recent decades and calorimetry can now provide an absolute standard of reference, ionization dosimetry retains its position as the most widely used, most convenient, and, in most situations, most accurate method of measuring either exposure or absorbed dose. The ionization chamber itself is the central element in this system of dosimetry. In this chapter the principles governing the construction and operation of ionization chambers of various types are examined. Since the ionization chambers now in general use are nearly all of commercial manufacture, the emphasis is on operating characteristics and interpretation of measurements rather than on details of construction, although some knowledge of the latter is often required when applying necessary corrections to the measured quantities. Examples are given of the construction of typical chambers designed for particular purposes, and the methods of calibrating them are discussed

  14. Collisional ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, M.

    1985-07-01

    In low density, thin plasmas (such as stellar coronae, interstellar medium, intracluster medium) the ionization process is governed by collision between electrons and ions in their ground state. In view of the recent improvements we thought an updating of ionization rates was really needed. The work is based on both experimental data and theoretical works and give separate estimates for the direct and autoionization rates

  15. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. {yields} We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. {yields} The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  16. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Shiea, Jentaie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. → We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. → The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  17. Effects of the surface concentration of fixed charges in C18-bonded stationary phases on the adsorption process and on the preparative chromatography of small ionizable compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-11-06

    The effects of the surface concentration of positive charges attached to the surface of research BEH-C 18 hybrid particles on the overloaded band profiles and the adsorption isotherms of a neutral (caffeine) and a positively charged (nortryptilinium hydrochloride) compounds were measured and investigated. The inverse method (IM) of chromatography was used to determine the isotherm parameters. Three columns were packed with endcapped BEH-C 18 particles doped with three different charge densities on their surfaces (LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH). Two other columns packed with unbonded, non-endcapped, and endcapped BEH-C 18 particles served as standard reference materials. Minor disturbance method (MDM) experiments were conducted with acetonitrile/water mixtures in order to assess qualitatively the surface densities of the fixed positive charges. A more quantitative approach based on the solution of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the decrease of the experimental Henry constant was also applied. The results show that the surface concentrations of the fixed charges in the LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH columns were 0.029, 0.050, and 0.064μmol/m 2 , e.g., close to two orders of magnitude smaller than the surface density of bonded C 18 chains (2.1μmol/m 2 ). The adsorption isotherm of the ionizable compound nortryptilinium onto the BEH-C 18 columns is consistent with a two-sites adsorption model. The density of the high energy sites correlates directly to the total amount of the fixed charges and isolated silanols amidst the C 18 -bonded chains. The amount of low energy sites reflects the specific surface area of the adsorbent. The binding constants on the high- and low-energy adsorption sites are respectively ten and two times lower on the HIGH column than on the reference endcapped column. The active sites are closer to the adsorbent surface than the weak adsorption sites. Finally, a higher production rate of ionizable compounds can be achieved in preparative

  18. Matrix assisted ionization: new aromatic and nonaromatic matrix compounds producing multiply charged lipid, peptide, and protein ions in the positive and negative mode observed directly from surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Inutan, Ellen D; Wang, Beixi; Lietz, Christopher B; Green, Daniel R; Manly, Cory D; Richards, Alicia L; Marshall, Darrell D; Lingenfelter, Steven; Ren, Yue; Trimpin, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Matrix assisted inlet ionization (MAII) is a method in which a matrix:analyte mixture produces mass spectra nearly identical to electrospray ionization without the application of a voltage or the use of a laser as is required in laserspray ionization (LSI), a subset of MAII. In MAII, the sample is introduced by, for example, tapping particles of dried matrix:analyte into the inlet of the mass spectrometer and, therefore, permits the study of conditions pertinent to the formation of multiply charged ions without the need of absorption at a laser wavelength. Crucial for the production of highly charged ions are desolvation conditions to remove matrix molecules from charged matrix:analyte clusters. Important factors affecting desolvation include heat, vacuum, collisions with gases and surfaces, and even radio frequency fields. Other parameters affecting multiply charged ion production is sample preparation, including pH and solvent composition. Here, findings from over 100 compounds found to produce multiply charged analyte ions using MAII with the inlet tube set at 450 °C are presented. Of the compounds tested, many have -OH or -NH(2) functionality, but several have neither (e.g., anthracene), nor aromaticity or conjugation. Binary matrices are shown to be applicable for LSI and solvent-free sample preparation can be applied to solubility restricted compounds, and matrix compounds too volatile to allow drying from common solvents. Our findings suggest that the physical properties of the matrix such as its morphology after evaporation of the solvent, its propensity to evaporate/sublime, and its acidity are more important than its structure and functional groups.

  19. Matrix Assisted Ionization: New Aromatic and Nonaromatic Matrix Compounds Producing Multiply Charged Lipid, Peptide, and Protein Ions in the Positive and Negative Mode Observed Directly from Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Inutan, Ellen D.; Wang, Beixi; Lietz, Christopher B.; Green, Daniel R.; Manly, Cory D.; Richards, Alicia L.; Marshall, Darrell D.; Lingenfelter, Steven; Ren, Yue; Trimpin, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Matrix assisted inlet ionization (MAII) is a method in which a matrix:analyte mixture produces mass spectra nearly identical to electrospray ionization without the application of a voltage or the use of a laser as is required in laserspray ionization (LSI), a subset of MAII. In MAII, the sample is introduced by, for example, tapping particles of dried matrix:analyte into the inlet of the mass spectrometer and, therefore, permits the study of conditions pertinent to the formation of multiply charged ions without the need of absorption at a laser wavelength. Crucial for the production of highly charged ions are desolvation conditions to remove matrix molecules from charged matrix:analyte clusters. Important factors affecting desolvation include heat, vacuum, collisions with gases and surfaces, and even radio frequency fields. Other parameters affecting multiply charged ion production is sample preparation, including pH and solvent composition. Here, findings from over 100 compounds found to produce multiply charged analyte ions using MAII with the inlet tube set at 450 °C are presented. Of the compounds tested, many have -OH or -NH2 functionality, but several have neither (e.g., anthracene), nor aromaticity or conjugation. Binary matrices are shown to be applicable for LSI and solvent-free sample preparation can be applied to solubility restricted compounds, and matrix compounds too volatile to allow drying from common solvents. Our findings suggest that the physical properties of the matrix such as its morphology after evaporation of the solvent, its propensity to evaporate/sublime, and its acidity are more important than its structure and functional groups.

  20. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  1. Monitoring process variability using auxiliary information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riaz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study a Shewhart type control chart namely V (r) chart is proposed for improved monitoring of process variability (targeting large shifts) of a quality characteristic of interest Y. The proposed control chart is based on regression type estimator of variance using a single auxiliary variable

  2. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Matthew D [Peoria, IL; Slone, Larry M [Washington, IL; Welter, James Milton [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  3. The effectiveness of radiant catalytic ionization in inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes planktonic and biofilm cells from food and food contact surfaces as a method of food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Grudlewska, Katarzyna; Krawczyk, Agnieszka; Gospodarek-Komkowska, Eugenia

    2018-02-02

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbicidal effectiveness of Radiant Catalytic Ionization (RCI) against L. monocytogenes strains in the form of planktonic cells and biofilm on food products and food contact surfaces as a method of food preservation. The study material comprised six strains of L. monocytogenes, isolated from food. Samples of different types of food available by retail (raw carrot, frozen salmon filets, soft cheese) and the fragments of surfaces (stainless steel AISI 304, rubber, milled rock tiles, polypropylene) were used in the experiment. The obtained results showed the effectiveness of RCI in the inactivation of both forms of the tested L. monocytogenes strains on all the surfaces. The effectiveness of RCI for biofilm forms was lower as compared with planktonic forms. The PRR value ranged from 18,19% to 99,97% for planktonic form and from 3,92% to 70,10% for biofilm. The RCI phenomenon induces the inactivation of L. monocytogenes on surfaces of food and materials used in the processing industry to a varying degree, depending on the manner of surface contamination, the properties of the contaminated materials as well as on the origin of the strain and the properties of surrounding dispersive environment in which the microorganisms were suspended. Searching of new actions aimed at reduction of the microbial contamination of food and food contact surfaces are extremely important. RCI method has been already described as an effective technique of microbial and abiotic pollution removal from air. However, our studies provide new, additional data related to evaluation the RCI efficacy against microbes on different surfaces, both in planktonic and biofilm form. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with an artificial neural network model for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiongying; Huang, Yuanshuai; Wang, Zhuan; Tao, Hualin; Liu, Jinbo; Yan, Li; Wang, Kaizheng

    2012-09-01

    There are no satisfactory biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technique has been used to identify biomarkers for cancer. Four hundred thirty five serum samples were tested by SELDI-TOF-MS matching on a gold chip. Samples were assigned to a training set and a testing set according to collection order. The training set was used to identify statistically significant peaks and to develop the artificial neural network (ANN) model for diagnosing HCC. The testing set was used in a blind test to validate the diagnostic efficiency of the ANN model. A total of 75 proteins that differed between patients and controls were identified (pcontrols. The ANN is a new method for diagnosing and identifying HCC.

  5. Quantification of captopril in urine through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid-capped gold nanoparticles as an internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Tsen; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Lin, Yang-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new internal standard method for the determination of the concentration of captopril (CAP) through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). This approach provided linearity for CAP over the concentration range 2.5-25 microM (R(2) = 0.987), with a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of 1.0 microM. The spot-to-spot variations in the concentration of CAP through SALDI-MS analyses performed in the absence and presence of the internal standard were 26% and 9%, respectively (15 measurements). This approach provides simplicity, accuracy, precision, and great reproducibility to the determination of the levels of CAP in human urine samples. Copyright 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of protein biomarkers in Dupuytren's contracture using surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, David; Howard, Jeffrey C; Varallo, Vincenzo M; Cadieux, Peter; Bowley, Erin; McLean, Kris; Pak, Brian J; Gan, Bing Siang

    2006-06-01

    To study the protein expression profiles associated with Dupuytren's contracture (DC) to identify potential disease protein biomarkers (PBM) using a proteomic technology--Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Normal and disease palmar fascia from DC patients were analyzed using Ciphergen's SELDI-TOF-MS Protein Biological System II (PBSII) ProteinChip reader. Analysis of the resulting SELDI-TOF spectra was carried out using the peak cluster analysis program (BioMarker Wizard, Ciphergen). Common peak clusters were then filtered using a bootstrap algorithm called SAM (Significant Analysis of Microarrays) for increased fidelity in our analysis. Several differentially expressed low molecular weight (mass standard deviation for both methods of biomarker-rich low molecular weight region of the human proteome. Application of such novel technology may help clinicians to focus on specific molecular abnormalities in diseases with no known molecular pathogenesis, and uncover therapeutic and/or diagnostic targets.

  7. Inkjet-printed gold nanoparticle surfaces for the detection of low molecular weight biomolecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, Alyssa L M; Creran, Brian; Duncan, Bradley; Elci, S Gokhan; Jiang, Ying; Onasch, Timothy B; Wormhoudt, Joda; Rotello, Vincent M; Vachet, Richard W

    2015-11-01

    Effective detection of low molecular weight compounds in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often hindered by matrix interferences in the low m/z region of the mass spectrum. Here, we show that monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can serve as alternate matrices for the very sensitive detection of low molecular weight compounds such as amino acids. Amino acids can be detected at low fmol levels with minimal interferences by properly choosing the AuNP deposition method, density, size, and monolayer surface chemistry. By inkjet-printing AuNPs at various densities, we find that AuNP clusters are essential for obtaining the greatest sensitivity. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Modified-Atmospheric Pressure-Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Identification of Friction Modifier Additives Oleamide and Ethoxylated Tallow Amines on Varied Metal Target Materials and Tribologically Stressed Steel Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, Lukas; Ristic, Andjelka; Brenner, Florian; Brenner, Josef; Hutter, Herbert

    2015-11-17

    For many tasks in failure and damage analysis of surfaces deteriorated in heavy tribological contact, the detailed characterization of used lubricants and their additives is essential. The objective of the presented work is to establish accessibility of tribostressed surfaces for direct characterization via modified atmospheric pressure-matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (m-AP-MALDI-MS). Special target holders were constructed to allow target samples of differing shape and form to fit into the desorption/ionization chamber. The best results of desorption and ionization on different target materials and varying roughnesses were achieved on smooth surfaces with low matrix/substrate interaction. M-AP-MALDI characterization of tribologically stressed steel surfaces after pin-on-disc sliding wear tests (SRV-tribotests) yielded positive identification of used friction modifier additives. Further structure elucidation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and measurements of worn surfaces by time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) accompanied findings about additive behavior and deterioration during tribological contact. Using m-AP-MALDI for direct offline examinations of worn surfaces may set up a quick method for determination of additives used for lubrication and general characterization of a tribological system.

  9. Design and scope of impact of auxiliary lanes : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Texas Department of Transportation districts have constructed auxiliary lanes to support interchange : ramp operations and to resolve congestion proximate to freeway entrance and exit ramps. While auxiliary lanes are : built throughout T...

  10. The English Primary Auxiliary Verbs: A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    words, because the English primary auxiliary verbs are so important in our communication, speakers must consider the various ways thus type of auxiliary verbs can be grammatically used in sentences. Traditional Grammar Approach to the Use of English Auxiliaries. Greenbaum (1988) defines grammar as a general theory ...

  11. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  12. Modified Darboux transformations with foreign auxiliary equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We construct a new type of first-order Darboux transformations for the stationary Schroedinger equation. In contrast to the conventional case, our Darboux transformations support arbitrary (foreign) auxiliary equations. We show that among other applications, our formalism can be used to systematically construct Darboux transformations for Schroedinger equations with energy-dependent potentials, including a recent result (Lin et al., 2007) as a special case. -- Highlights: → We generalize the Darboux transformation for the Schroedinger equation. → By admitting arbitrary auxiliary functions, we provide a new tool for generating solutions. → As a special case we recover a recent result on energy-dependent potentials. → We extend the latter result to very general energy-dependence.

  13. Ferroresonance Phenomenon in Power Plant Auxiliary Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Łosiński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the ferroresonance phenomenon occurring in a medium voltage grid with an ungrounded neutral point of the supply transformer. Results of a study of ferroresonance in the auxiliary grid at Żarnowiec Pumped Storage Power Plant are presented. Analysis of the study results has led to the development and implementation of an effective method of preventing the adverse ferroresonance phenomenon.

  14. Degradation of Adenine on the Martian Surface in the Presence of Perchlorates and Ionizing Radiation: A Reflectron Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Góbi, Sándor; Bergantini, Alexandre; Kaiser, Ralf I., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present work is to unravel the radiolytic decomposition of adenine (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5}) under conditions relevant to the Martian surface. Being the fundamental building block of (deoxy)ribonucleic acids, the possibility of survival of this biomolecule on the Martian surface is of primary importance to the astrobiology community. Here, neat adenine and adenine–magnesium perchlorate mixtures were prepared and irradiated with energetic electrons that simulate the secondary electrons originating from the interaction of the galactic cosmic rays with the Martian surface. Perchlorates were added to the samples since they are abundant—and therefore relevant oxidizers on the surface of Mars—and they have been previously shown to facilitate the radiolysis of organics such as glycine. The degradation of the samples were monitored in situ via Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and the electron ionization quadruple mass spectrometric method; temperature-programmed desorption profiles were then collected by means of the state-of-the-art single photon photoionization reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-ReTOF-MS), allowing for the detection of the species subliming from the sample. The results showed that perchlorates do increase the destruction rate of adenine by opening alternative reaction channels, including the concurrent radiolysis/oxidation of the sample. This new pathway provides a plethora of different radiolysis products that were identified for the first time. These are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), isocyanic acid (HNCO), isocyanate (OCN{sup −}), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen monoxide (NO); an oxidation product containing carbonyl groups (R{sub 1}R{sub 2}–C=O) with a constrained five-membered cyclic structure could also be observed. Cyanamide (H{sub 2}N–C≡N) was detected in both irradiated samples as well.

  15. Auxiliary plasma heating and fueling models for use in particle simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procassini, R.J.; Cohen, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    Computational models of a radiofrequency (RF) heating system and neutral-beam injector are presented. These physics packages, when incorporated into a particle simulation code allow one to simulate the auxiliary heating and fueling of fusion plasmas. The RF-heating package is based upon a quasilinear diffusion equation which describes the slow evolution of the heated particle distribution. The neutral-beam injector package models the charge exchange and impact ionization processes which transfer energy and particles from the beam to the background plasma. Particle simulations of an RF-heated and a neutral-beam-heated simple-mirror plasma are presented. 8 refs., 5 figs

  16. High-spatial and high-mass resolution imaging of surface metabolites of Arabidopsis thaliana by laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry using colloidal silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ji Hyun; Song, Zhihong; Liu, Zhenjiu; Nikolau, Basil J; Yeung, Edward S; Lee, Young Jin

    2010-04-15

    High-spatial resolution and high-mass resolution techniques are developed and adopted for the mass spectrometric imaging of epicuticular lipids on the surface of Arabidopsis thaliana. Single cell level spatial resolution of approximately 12 mum was achieved by reducing the laser beam size by using an optical fiber with 25 mum core diameter in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer and improved matrix application using an oscillating capillary nebulizer. Fine chemical images of a whole flower were visualized in this high spatial resolution showing substructure of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anthers. The LTQ-Orbitrap with a MALDI ion source was adopted to achieve MS imaging in high mass resolution. Specifically, isobaric silver ion adducts of C29 alkane (m/z 515.3741) and C28 aldehyde (m/z 515.3377), indistinguishable in low-resolution LTQ, can now be clearly distinguished and their chemical images could be separately constructed. In the application to roots, the high spatial resolution allowed molecular MS imaging of secondary roots and the high mass resolution allowed direct identification of lipid metabolites on root surfaces.

  17. High-Spatial and High-Mass Resolution Imaging of Surface Metabolites of Arabidopsis thaliana by Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Colloidal Silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Hyun; Song, Zhihong; Liu, Zhenjiu; Nikolau, Basil J.; Yeung, Edward S.; and Lee, Young Jin

    2010-03-17

    High-spatial resolution and high-mass resolution techniques are developed and adopted for the mass spectrometric imaging of epicuticular lipids on the surface of Arabidopsis thaliana. Single cell level spatial resolution of {approx}12 {micro}m was achieved by reducing the laser beam size by using an optical fiber with 25 {micro}m core diameter in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer and improved matrix application using an oscillating capillary nebulizer. Fine chemical images of a whole flower were visualized in this high spatial resolution showing substructure of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anthers. The LTQ-Orbitrap with a MALDI ion source was adopted to achieve MS imaging in high mass resolution. Specifically, isobaric silver ion adducts of C29 alkane (m/z 515.3741) and C28 aldehyde (m/z 515.3377), indistinguishable in low-resolution LTQ, can now be clearly distinguished and their chemical images could be separately constructed. In the application to roots, the high spatial resolution allowed molecular MS imaging of secondary roots and the high mass resolution allowed direct identification of lipid metabolites on root surfaces.

  18. Quantitative Thin-Layer Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Caffeine Using a Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J [ORNL; Deibel, Michael A. [Earlham College; Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative determination of caffeine on reversed-phase C8 thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling electrospray ionization system with tandem mass spectrometry detection is reported. The thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method employed a deuterium-labeled caffeine internal standard and selected reaction monitoring detection. Up to nine parallel caffeine bands on a single plate were sampled in a single surface scanning experiment requiring 35 min at a surface scan rate of 44 {mu}m/s. A reversed-phase HPLC/UV caffeine assay was developed in parallel to assess the mass spectrometry method performance. Limits of detection for the HPLC/UV and thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry methods determined from the calibration curve statistics were 0.20 ng injected (0.50 {mu}L) and 1.0 ng spotted on the plate, respectively. Spike recoveries with standards and real samples ranged between 97 and 106% for both methods. The caffeine content of three diet soft drinks (Diet Coke, Diet Cherry Coke, Diet Pepsi) and three diet sport drinks (Diet Turbo Tea, Speed Stack Grape, Speed Stack Fruit Punch) was measured. The HPLC/UV and mass spectrometry determinations were in general agreement, and these values were consistent with the quoted values for two of the three diet colas. In the case of Diet Cherry Coke and the diet sports drinks, the determined caffeine amounts using both methods were consistently higher (by 8% or more) than the literature values.

  19. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2014-12-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  20. Hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of hydogen/oxygen (H/O) auxiliary propulsion system (APS) concepts and low thrust H/O rocket technology. A review of H/O APS studies performed for the Space Shuttle, Space Tug, Space Station Freedom, and Advanced Manned Launch System programs is given. The survey also includes a review of low thrust H/O rocket technology programs, covering liquid H/O and gaseous H/O thrusters, ranging from 6600 N to 440 mN thrust. Ignition concepts for H/O thrusters and high-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials are also reviewed.

  1. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, John H.

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  2. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  3. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry imaging for characterizing plant-microbe interactions using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, R. K.; Anderton, C.; Weston, D. J.; Carrell, A. A.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Veličković, D.; Tfaily, M.

    2017-12-01

    The rhizosphere consists of a diverse community of plants, bacteria and fungi that are interacting with each other and with complex soil matrix they occupy. By studying the chemical signaling and processes that occur within this dynamic microenvironment, we will further our understanding of the symbiotic and competitive interaction within microbial communities. Field studies and bulk analyses shed light on the mechanisms by which environmental perturbations alter carbon and nitrogen cycling, but what is less clear are the intra- and interspecies molecular transformations and transactions between the different constituents within the rhizosphere. Chemical imaging by liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) is a highly sensitive technique capable of providing both spatial and molecular information. Here, we examined the chemical interactions among a tripartite system of peat moss (Sphagnum fallax), cyanobacteria (Nostoc muscorium), and fungus (Trizdiaspa). We coupled LESA source to both a 15 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS), for ultrahigh mass resolution and mass accuracy results, and a Thermo Velos-LTQ mass spectrometer, for tandem MS of selected molecules to increase confidence in molecular identifications. With LESA-MS approach we spatially probed the tripartite interactions and isolated cultures using a coordinate system that can be mapped back and overlaid onto the original image. Using this method, we mapped an array of metabolic distributions within the model sphagnum microbiome. For instance, we identified carbendazim, an anti-fungal agent, distributed within the interaction zone between the bacteria and fungi, while glyceropcholine and sucrose were localized within the sphagnum and fungus interaction zone. Further analysis will look into larger metabolites, lipids, and small proteins.

  4. [Serum diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using surface-enhanced desorption ionization mass spectrometry and artificial neural network analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Su-Mei; Guo, Xiang; Chen, Fu-Jin; Yang, An-Kui; Chen, Wen-Kuan; Li, Ning-Wei

    2007-07-01

    The early diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the key factor that affecting the treatment result. We performed surface-enhanced desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) using a multi-layer artificial neural network (ANN) to develop and evaluate a proteomic diagnosis approach for HNSCC. Serum samples from 74 HNSCC patients and 146 healthy individuals were randomized into training set (148 samples) and test set (72 samples). At first, we detected the training set of samples using SELDI mass spectrometry and WCX2 (weak cation-exchange) chips. Using a multi-layer ANN with a back propagation algorithm, we identified a proteomic pattern that could discriminate cancer from control samples in the training set. The discovered pattern was then used to determine the accuracy of the classification system in the test set. Four top-scored peaks, at m/z (mass/charge) ratio of 4 469 u, 5 924 u, 8 926 u, and 16 697 u, were finally selected as the potential biomarkers for detection of HNSCC with both sensitivity and specificity of 100.0% in the training set. The classifier predicted the HNSCC with sensitivity of 85.7%(18/21) and specificity of 96.1%(49/51) in the test set. SELDI profiling is a useful tool to accurately identify patients with HNSCC.

  5. Identifying serum biomarkers for ovarian cancer by screening with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and the artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhu, Yanhui; Guo, Hongyan; Wang, Xiuyun; Gao, Ronglian; Zhang, Lufang; Zhao, Yangyu; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to screen potential serum tumor biomarkers for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The study includes 3 sets. The first set of patients included 37 ovarian cancers and 31 healthy women (healthy controls). The second set included 42 ovarian cancers, 33 patients with benign ovarian tumor, and 29 healthy women (noncancer controls). The third set included 39 ovarian cancers and 35 patients with benign ovarian tumor (benign controls). Serum samples from ovarian cancers, healthy controls, noncancer controls, and benign controls were analyzed by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A 3-peak model (peaks of mass-to-charge ratio values at 5766.379 d, 5912.586 d, and 11695.56 d) was established in the training set that discriminated cancer from noncancer with high sensitivity (10/11, 90.90%) and specificity (19/20, 95.00%). The peaks corresponding to 3 potential biomarkers increased significantly with the degree of malignancy. The proteins represented by these 3 peaks are biomarker candidates for ovarian cancer diagnosis and/or monitoring treatment response.

  6. Biomarker research for moyamoya disease in cerebrospinal fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruwaka, Mikio; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Sho; Araki, Yoshio; Sumitomo, Masaki; Kawamura, Akino; Yokoyama, Kinya; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by steno-occlusive change in bilateral internal carotid arteries with unknown etiology. To discover biomarker candidates in cerebrospinal fluid from MMD patients, proteome analysis was performed by the surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Three peptides, 4473Da, 4475Da, and 6253Da, were significantly elevated in MMD group. A positive correlation between 4473Da peptide and postoperative angiogenesis was determined. Twenty MMD patients were enrolled in this pilot study, including 11 pediatric cases less than 18 years of age (mean age, 8.67 years) and 9 adult MMD patients (mean age, 38.1 years). This study also includes 17 control cases with the mean age of 27.9 years old. In conclusion, 4473Da peptide is supposed to be a reliable biomarker of MMD. 4473Da peptide showed higher intensity peaks especially in younger MMD patients, and it was proved to be highly related to postoperative angiogenesis. Further study is needed to show how 4473Da peptide is involved with the etiology and the onset of MMD. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Auxiliary equipment cooling circuit in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the propagation of bacterias that transform NO 2 into NO 3 in auxiliary equipment coolants using corrosion inhibitors of nitrite type in BWR type reactors. Method: In auxiliary equipments coolant systems, water quality is controlled by using purified water as supplement water and nitrite such as Na 2 NO 2 as the corrosion inhibitors. However, in the circumstance where dissolved oxygen is present, bacteria propagate to oxidize NO 2 into NO 3 . Thus, NO 2 at 200 ppm is reduced to 20 ppm. In view of the above, a surge tank supplied from water supplement line is connected in series and a deaeration device is disposed thereto. Since the presence of dissolved oxygen causes the bacteria to propagate it is desired that the dissolved oxygen density in the supplement water is less than 5 ppm. Deaeration and pressure reduction in the surge tank can remove the dissolved oxygen, prevent NO 3 increase and also prevent stress corrosion cracks in the system pipeways. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Organic matter composition at intact biopore and crack surfaces of Luvisol B-horizons analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy and Pyrolysis-Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Martin; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Gerke, Horst H.; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In the B-horizons of Luvisols, surfaces of biopores and aggregates can be enriched in clay and organic matter (OM), relative to the bulk of the soil matrix. The OM composition of these coatings determines their bio-physico-chemical properties and is relevant for transport and transformation processes but is largely unknown at the molecular scale. The objective of this study was an extended characterization of the OM composition at intact biopore and aggregate surfaces. Specifically, we aimed to improve the interpretation of data obtained with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode (DRIFT) by combining the signals from DRIFT spectra with data from pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) as a more detailed molecular-scale analysis. Samples were manually separated from the outermost surfaces of earthworm burrows, coated and uncoated cracks, root channels, and pinhole fillings of the B-horizons of Luvisols developed from loess and glacial till. The OM at earthworm burrow walls was characterized by a mix of chemically labile aliphatic C-rich and more stable lignin and alkylaromatic compounds whereas the OM of coated cracks and pinholes was dominated by relatively stable heterocylic N and nitriles, and high-molecular aromatic compounds (benzonitrile and naphthalene). This more recalcitrant OM likely originated from the combustion of biomass and, in case of the till-derived Luvisol, from diesel exhausts. The OM composition of pore walls reflected the differences between biopores (i.e., topsoil and plant residual, worm activity) and cracks (i.e., solutes and colloids, rapid percolation). The information of Py-FI mass spectra enabled the assignment of OM functional groups also from spectral regions of overlapping DRIFT signal intensities to specific OM compound classes. In particular, bands from C=O and C=C bonds in the infrared range of wave number 1688 … 1565 cm-1 were related to highly stable, chemically recalcitrant OM

  9. Effects of Auxiliary-Source Connection in Multichip Power Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin-source connection does, owing to their involvement in the loop of the power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary-source connections are then analyzed, which are 1) the common source stray inductance reduction, 2) the transient drain-source......Auxiliary-source bond wires and connections are widely used in power modules with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the operation mechanism of the auxiliary-source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary-source connections cannot fully decouple...

  10. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled some fundamental notions and measurement units related to ionizing radiations, this document describes various aspects of natural and occupational exposures: exposure modes and sources, exposure levels, biological effects, health impacts. Then, it presents prevention principles aimed at, in an occupational context of use of radiation sources (nuclear industry excluded), reducing and managing these exposures: risk assessment, implementation of safety from the front end. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. The legal and regulatory framework is presented: general notions, worker exposure, measures specific to some worker categories (pregnant and breast feeding women, young workers, temporary workers). A last part describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (dissemination of radioactive substances from unsealed sources, anomaly occurring when using a generator or a sealed source, post-accident situation)

  11. Evaluation of errors for mass-spectrometric analysis with surface-ionization type mass-spectrometer (statistical evaluation of mass-discrimination effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The surface-ionization type mass-spectrometer is widely used as an apparatus for quality assurance, accountability and safeguarding of nuclear materials, and for this analysis it has become an important factor to statistically evaluate an analytical error which consists of a random error and a systematic error. The major factor of this systematic error was the mass-discrimination effect. In this paper, various assays for evaluating the factor of variation on the mass-discrimination effect were studied and the data obtained were statistically evaluated. As a result of these analyses, it was proved that the factor of variation on the mass-discrimination effect was not attributed to the acid concentration of sample, sample size on the filament and supplied voltage for a multiplier, but mainly to the filament temperature during the mass-spectrometric analysis. The mass-discrimination effect values β which were usually calculated from the measured data of uranium, plutonium or boron isotopic standard sample were not so significant dependently of the difference of U-235, Pu-239 or B-10 isotopic abundance. Furthermore, in the case of U and Pu, measurement conditions and the mass range of these isotopes were almost similar, and these values β were not statistically significant between U and Pu. On the other hand, the value β for boron was about a third of the value β for U or Pu, but compared with the coefficient of the correction on the mass-discrimination effect for the difference of mass-number, ΔM, these coefficient values were almost the same among U, Pu, and B.As for the isotopic analysis error of U, Pu, Nd and B, it was proved that the isotopic abundance of these elements and the isotopic analysis error were in a relationship of quadratic curves on a logarithmic-logarithmic scale

  12. LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. F.; Mark, T. D.; Weber, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX)/hydrocarbon propulsion concepts for a "second generation' orbiter auxiliary propulsion system was evaluated. The most attractive fuel and system design approach identified, and the technology advancements that are needed to provide high confidence for a subsequent system development were determined. The fuel candidates were ethanol, methane, propane, and ammonia. Even though ammonia is not a hydrocarbon, it was included for evaluation because it is clean burning and has a good technology base. The major system design options were pump versus pressure feed, cryogenic versus ambient temperature RCS propellant feed, and the degree of OMS-RCS integration. Ethanol was determined to be the best fuel candidate. It is an earth-storable fuel with a vapor pressure slightly higher than monomethyl hydrazine. A pump-fed OMS was recommended because of its high specific impulse, enabling greater velocity change and greater payload capability than a pressure fed system.

  13. 75 FR 57200 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... 147 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary... proposing to amend the National Poultry Improvement Plan (the Plan) and its auxiliary provisions by... Coordinator, Poultry Improvement Staff, National Poultry Improvement Plan, Veterinary Services, APHIS, USDA...

  14. 76 FR 15791 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions... the National Poultry Improvement Plan (the Plan) and its auxiliary provisions by providing new or... National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP, also referred to below as ``the Plan'') is a cooperative Federal...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for starting...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the... power unit. [Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18974, Apr. 9, 1993] ...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for starting...

  18. Energy consumption of auxiliary systems of electric cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtimov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the power demand of the auxiliary systems of electric cars. On the basis of existing electric cars an analysis of energy consumption of different auxiliary systems is done. As a result possibilities for rational use of these systems have been proposed, which can increase the mileage per one charge of the battery.

  19. The English Primary Auxiliary Verbs: A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    themselves. This paper aims at carrying out linguistic theoretical exercise as regards the use of the English primary auxiliary verbs. The paper also aims at exposing the rate at which speakers of English Language misuse the. English primary auxiliary verbs. The traditional grammar alongside structural grammar was used to ...

  20. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  1. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not available...

  2. ON THE CATEGORY STATUS OF AUXILIARIES AND THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seem requires a [+ stativeJ verb in its complement. However, this set of auxiliaries cannot occur in the complement of a verb like force, requiring a [- stativeJ verb in its comPlement.18). Ross explains the above data by assuming that this set of auxiliaries has the features. [: ~ux. J. The major premiss of the relevant argument ...

  3. Ionization-based detectors for gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F

    2015-11-20

    The gas phase ionization detectors are the most widely used detectors for gas chromatography. The column and makeup gases commonly used in gas chromatography are near perfect insulators. This facilitates the detection of a minute number of charge carriers facilitating the use of ionization mechanisms of low efficiency while providing high sensitivity. The main ionization mechanism discussed in this report are combustion in a hydrogen diffusion flame (flame ionization detector), surface ionization in a plasma (thermionic ionization detector), photon ionization (photoionization detector and pulsed discharge helium ionization detector), attachment of thermal electrons (electron-capture detector), and ionization by collision with metastable helium species (helium ionization detector). The design, response characteristics, response mechanism, and suitability for fast gas chromatography are the main features summarized in this report. Mass spectrometric detection and atomic emission detection, which could be considered as ionization detectors of a more sophisticated and complex design, are not discussed in this report. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Elimination of the auxiliary fields in the antifield formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, M.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of the elimination of the auxiliary fields in the path integral quantization of gauge theories is investigated in the context of the antifield formalism. It is shown that gauge fixing fermions can be found such that: (i) the auxiliary fields remain auxiliary after gauge fixing; and (ii) the gauge fixed actions obtained by eliminating the auxiliary fields before or after writing down the path integral coincide. The contribution of the auxiliary fields to the integration measure is also discussed. These results are applied (i) to the problem of the equivalence between the lagrangian and hamiltonian path integral formulations; and (ii) to the problem of the elimination of the second class constraints in the hamiltonian formalism. (orig.)

  5. Effects of auxiliary source connections in multichip power module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    totally decouple the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin source connection does, because they are still in the loop of power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary source connection are investigated and analyzed: common source stray inductance reduction, transient drain-source current......Auxiliary source bond wires and connections are widely used to in the power module with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the working mechanism and the effects of the auxiliary source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary source connections cannot...... imbalance mitigation and influence on the steady state bond wire current distribution. Simulation and experimental results validate the working mechanism analysis and the effects of the auxiliary source connections....

  6. Neutron accelerator tube having improved ionization section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    A neutron accelerator tube is described having a target section, an ionization section, and a replenisher section for supplying accelerator gas to the ionization section. The ionization section is located between the target and the replenisher section and includes an ionization chamber adapted to receive accelerator gas from the replenisher section. The ionization section further includes spaced cathodes having opposed active surfaces exposed to the interior of the ionization chamber. An anode is located intermediate the cathodes whereby in response to an applied positive voltage, electrons created by field emission are transmitted between the opposed active surfaces of the cathodes and produce the emission of secondary electrons. The active surface of at least one of the cathodes is formulated of a material having a secondary electron emission factor of at least one cathode member located in the tube adjacent to th replenisher section may have a protuberant portion extending axially into the ionization chamber. The other cathode spaced from the first cathode member in the direction of the target has an aperture therein along the axis of the protuberant portion. An annular magnet extends around the exterior of the ionization chamber and envelops the anode member. Means are provided to establish a high permeability magnetic flux path extending outwardly from the opposed poles from the magnet to the active surfaces of the cathode members

  7. Aging assessment of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    ORNL is conducting aging assessments of auxiliary feedwater pumps to provide recommendations for monitoring and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation as well as to recommend maintenance and replacement practices. Cornerstones of these activities are the identification of failure modes and causes and ranking of causes. Failure modes and causes of interest are those due to aging and service wear. Design details, functional requirements, and operating experience data were used to identify failure modes and causes and to rank the latter. Based on this input, potentially useful inspection, surveillance, and condition monitoring methods that are currently available for use or in the developmental stage were examined and recommendations made. The methods selected are listed and discussed in terms of use and information to be obtained. Relationships between inspection, surveillance, and monitoring and maintenance practices entered prominently into maintenance recommendations. These recommendations, therefore, embrace predictive as well as corrective and preventative maintenance practices. The recommendations are described, inspection details are discussed, and periodic inspection and maintenance interval guidelines are given. Surveillance testing at low-flow conditions is also discussed. It is shown that this type of testing can lead to accelerated aging

  8. Code of Nursing Practice for Staff Exposed to Ionizing Radiation (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Code, published by the National Health and Medical Research Council and intended for nurses and auxiliary staff provides general guidance on radiation protection. The Code is supplementary to radiation control legislation relating to the use of ionizing radiation in medical practice. The principles established by the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been taken into account. (NEA) [fr

  9. Satellite auxiliary-propulsion selection techniques. Addendum: A survey of auxiliary electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A review of electric thrusters for satellite auxiliary propulsion was conducted at JPL during the past year. Comparisons of the various thrusters for attitude propulsion and east-west and north-south stationkeeping were made based upon performance, mass, power, and demonstrated life. Reliability and cost are also discussed. The method of electrical acceleration of propellant served to divide the thruster systems into two groups: electrostatic and electromagnetic. Ion and colloid thrusters fall within the electrostatically accelerated group while MPD and pulsed plasma thrusters comprise the electromagnetically accelerated group. The survey was confined to research in the United States with accent on flight and flight prototype systems.

  10. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: auxiliary capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The primary responsibility of the environmental health function is the evaluation and control of hazardous materials and conditions. The evaluation and control of toxic materials, nonionizing radiation such as laser beams and microwaves, and ionizing radiation such as from radiation machines and radioactive sources, are examples of the activities of environmental health programs. A chemical laboratory is operated for the analysis of toxic and radioactive substances and for the bioassay program to provide an index of internal exposure of personnel to toxic and radioactive materials. Instrumentation support and development is provided for environmental health activities. A dosimetry program is maintained to measure personnel exposure to external ionizing radiation. A radiation counting laboratory is maintained. Reentry safety control and effluent documentation support are provided for underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A radiation training program is provided for laboratory personnel which covers all areas of radiation protection, from working with radioactive materials to radiation-producing machines. The information science activity functions within the framework of Sandia Laboratories' technical libraries. Information science is oriented toward the efficient dissemination of information to technical and administrative personnel. Computerized systems are used to collect, process and circulate books, reports, and other literature. Current-awareness, reference, translation, and literature-search services are also provided

  11. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as... personnel hazards during normal or heavy weather operation. (b) A suitable hand tiller may be acceptable as...

  12. Parallel Auxiliary Space AMG Solver for $H(div)$ Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, Tzanio V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-12-18

    We present a family of scalable preconditioners for matrices arising in the discretization of $H(div)$ problems using the lowest order Raviart--Thomas finite elements. Our approach belongs to the class of “auxiliary space''--based methods and requires only the finite element stiffness matrix plus some minimal additional discretization information about the topology and orientation of mesh entities. Also, we provide a detailed algebraic description of the theory, parallel implementation, and different variants of this parallel auxiliary space divergence solver (ADS) and discuss its relations to the Hiptmair--Xu (HX) auxiliary space decomposition of $H(div)$ [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 45 (2007), pp. 2483--2509] and to the auxiliary space Maxwell solver AMS [J. Comput. Math., 27 (2009), pp. 604--623]. Finally, an extensive set of numerical experiments demonstrates the robustness and scalability of our implementation on large-scale $H(div)$ problems with large jumps in the material coefficients.

  13. New set of auxiliary fields for supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Rivelles, V. de.

    1983-02-01

    A brief introduction on supersymmetry is given. The problems with the obtainment of the auxiliary fields in supergravity theories are discussed, after a short presentation of the supersymmetry algebra representations. (L.C.) [pt

  14. Auxiliary device for the assembly of cruciform BWR control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The mounting auxiliary equipment has got a frame of the size of a core cell that can be put on the core grid. Diagonally arranged link bodies serve to center the cross-shaped control rod. The mounting auxiliary equipment consists of a single piece and therefore facilitates manipulation for which a diagonal handle is provided at the upper end. It may be swung aside. (RW) [de

  15. Auxiliary device for the assembly of cruciform BWR control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The mounting auxiliary equipment has got a frame of the size of a core cell that can be put on the core grid. Diagonally arranged link bodies serve to center the cross-shaped control rod. The mounting auxiliary equipment consists of a single piece and therefore facilitates manipulation for which a diagonal handle is provided at the upper end. It may be swung aside. (orig./HP)

  16. Operating experiences and degradation detection for auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.; Farmer, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    A study of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) Systems has been conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The results of the study are documented in NUREG/CR-5404, Vol. 1, Auxiliary Feedwater System Aging Study. The study reviewed historical failure experience and current monitoring practices for the AFW System. This paper provides an overview of the study approach and results

  17. Display of charged ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano S, D.; Ortiz A, M. D.; Amarillas S, L. E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    The human being is exposed to sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, both of natural or anthropogenic origin. None of these, except non-ionizing such as visible light and infrared radiation, can be detected by the sense of sight and touch respectively. The sun emits charged particles with speeds close to the light that interact with the atoms of the gases present in the atmosphere, producing nuclear reactions that in turn produce other particles that reach the surface of the Earth and reach the living beings. On Earth there are natural radioisotopes that, when they disintegrate, emit ionizing radiation that contributes to the dose we receive. A very old system that allows the visualization of the trajectories of the charged ionizing particles is the Fog Chamber that uses a saturated steam that when crossed by particles with mass and charge, as alpha and beta particles produce condensation centers along its path leaves a trace that can be seen. The objective of this work was to build a fog chamber using easily accessible materials. To measure the functioning of the fog chamber, cosmic rays were measured, as well as a source of natural metal uranium. The fog chamber allowed seeing the presence of traces in alcohol vapor that are produced in a random way. Introducing the uranium foil inside the fog chamber, traces of alpha particles whose energy varies from 4 to 5 MeV were observed. (Author)

  18. Neutron accelerator tube having improved ionization section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    A neutron accelerator tube having a target section, an ionization section, and a replenisher section for supplying accelerator gas to the ionization section. The ionization section is located between the target and the replenisher section and includes an ionization chamber adapted to receive accelerator gas from the replenisher section. The ionization section further includes spaced cathodes having opposed active surfaces exposed to the interior of the ionization chamber. An anode is located intermediate the cathodes whereby in response to an applied positive voltage, electrons created by field emmission are transmitted between the opposed active surfaces of the cathodes and produce the emission of secondary electrons. The active surface of at least one of the cathodes is formulated of a material having a secondary electron emission factor of at least 2. One cathode member located in the tube adjacent to the replenisher section may have a protuberant portion extending axially into the ioization chamber. The other cathode spaced from the first cathode member in the direction of the target has an aperture therein along the axis of the protuberant portion. An annular magnet extends around the exterior of the ionization chamber and envelops the anode member. Means are provided to establish a high permeability magnetic flux path extending outwardly from the opposed poles from the magnet to the active surfaces of the cathode members

  19. Hygiene of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legare, I.-M.; Conceicao Cunha, M. da

    1976-01-01

    The concepts of quality factor and rem are introduced and a table of biological effects of external ionizing radiation sources is presented. Natural exposures, with tables of background radiation sources and of doses due to cosmic rays on high altitude areas and their populations are treated, as well as medical exposures; artificial background; fallout; scientific, industrial and other sources. The maximum and limit doses for man are given and tables of maximum admissible doses of ionizing radiations for 16-18 year old workers professionaly exposed, for professionals eventually subjected to radiation in their work and for people eventually exposed. Professional protection is discussed and tables are given of half-value layer of water, concrete, iron and lead for radiations of different energies, as well as the classification of exposure zones to the radiations and of maximum acceptable contamination for surfaces. The basic safety standards for radiation protection are summarized; tables are given also with emergency references for internal irradiation. Procedures with patients which received radioisotopes are discussed. At last, consideration is given to the problem of radioactive wastes in connection with the medical use of radionuclides [pt

  20. Diesel reforming for SOFC auxiliary power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),; Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Tafoya, J. I. (Jose I.); Guidry, D. R. (Dennis Ray)

    2004-01-01

    The use of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to provide auxiliary power for heavy duty trucks can increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions by reducing engine idling time. The logical fuel of choice for a truck SOFC APU is diesel fuel, as diesel is the fuel of choice for these vehicles. SOFC's that directly oxidize hydrocarbon fuels have lower power densities than do SOFC's that operate from hydrocarbon reformate, and since the SOFC is a costly component, maximizing the fuel cell power density provides benefits in reducing the overall APU system cost. Thus current SOFC APU systems require the reformation of higher hydrocarbons for the most efficient and cost effect fuel cell system. The objective of this research is to develop the technology to enable diesel reforming for SOFC truck APU applications. Diesel fuel can be reformed into a H{sub 2} and CO-rich fuel feed stream for a SOFC by autothermal reforming (ATR), a combination of catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx), and steam reforming (SR). The typical autothermal reformer is an adiabatic, heterogeneous catalytic reactor and the challenges in its design, operation and durability on diesel fuel are manifold. These challenges begin with the vaporization and mixing of diesel fuel with air and steam where fuel pyrolysis can occur and improper mixing leads to hot and cold spots, which contribute to carbon formation and incomplete fuel conversion. The exotherm of the partial oxidation reaction can generate temperatures in excess of 800 C, a temperature at which catalysts rapidly sinter, thus reducing their lifetime. The temperature rise can be reduced by the steam reforming endotherm, but this requires the addition of water along with proper design to balance the kinetic rates. Carbon formation during operation and startup can lead to catalyst deactivation and fouling of downstream components, thus reducing durability of the fuel processor. Water addition helps to reduce carbon formation, but a key issue is

  1. Ionization potentials of seaborgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Pershina, V.; Fricke, B.

    1999-01-01

    Multiconfiguration relativistic Dirac-Fock values were calculated for the first six ionization potentials of seaborgium and of the other group 6 elements. No experimental ionization potentials are available for seaborgium. Accurate experimental values are not available for all of the other ionization potentials. Ionic radii for the 4+ through 6+ ions of seaborgium are also presented. The ionization potentials and ionic radii obtained will be used to predict some physiochemical properties of seaborgium and its compounds

  2. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  3. Modulatory mechanisms and multiple functions of somatodendritic A-type K+ channel auxiliary subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hungtao Jerng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary subunits are non-conducting, modulatory components of the multi-protein ion channel complexes that underlie normal neuronal signaling. They interact with the pore-forming α-subunits to modulate surface distribution, ion conductance, and channel gating properties. For the somatodendritic subthreshold A-type potassium (ISA channel based on Kv4 α-subunits, two types of auxiliary subunits have been extensively studied: Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPLPs. KChIPs are cytoplasmic calcium-binding proteins that interact with intracellular portions of the Kv4 subunits, whereas DPLPs are type II transmembrane proteins that associate with the Kv4 channel core. Both KChIPs and DPLPs genes contain multiple start sites that are used by various neuronal populations to drive the differential expression of functionally distinct N-terminal variants. In turn, these N-terminal variants generate tremendous functional diversity across the nervous system. Here, we focus our review on (1 the molecular mechanism underlying the unique properties of different N-terminal variants, (2 the shaping of native ISA properties by the concerted actions of KChIPs and DPLP variants, and (3 the surprising ways that KChIPs and DPLPs coordinate the activity of multiple channels to fine-tune neuronal excitability. Unlocking the unique contributions of different auxiliary subunit N-terminal variants may provide an important opportunity to develop novel targeted therapeutics to treat numerous neurological disorders.

  4. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    -infrared science instrument MIDI. Fringes on the star Alphard (Alpha Hydrae) were acquired on February 7 at 4:05 local time. For Roberto Gilmozzi, Director of ESO's La Silla Paranal Observatory, "this is a very important new milestone. The introduction of the Auxiliary Telescopes in the development of the VLT Interferometer will bring interferometry out of the specialist experiment and into the domain of common user instrumentation for every astronomer in Europe. Without doubt, it will enormously increase the potentiality of the VLTI." With two more telescopes to be delivered within a year to the Paranal Observatory, ESO cements its position as world-leader in ground-based optical astronomy, providing Europe's scientists with the tools they need to stay at the forefront in this exciting science. The VLT Interferometer will, for example, allow astronomers to study details on the surface of stars or to probe proto-planetary discs and other objects for which ultra-high precision imaging is required. It is premature to speculate on what the Very Large Telescope Interferometer will soon discover, but it is easy to imagine that there may be quite some surprises in store for all of us.

  5. Probabilistic cloning with supplementary information contained in the quantum states of two auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lvjun; Qiu, Daowen

    2007-01-01

    In probabilistic cloning with two auxiliary systems, we consider and compare three different protocols for the success probabilities of cloning. We show that, in certain circumstances, it may increase the success probability to add an auxiliary system to the probabilistic cloning machine having one auxiliary system, but we always can find another cloning machine with one auxiliary system having the same success probability as that with two auxiliary systems

  6. Comparison of sodium naphthenate and air-ionization corona discharge as surface treatments for the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene polymer (ETFE) to improve adhesion between ETFE and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) in the presence of a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanning-Solís, Ana Lucía; Stradi-Granados, Benito A

    2014-01-01

    This study compares two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) surface activation treatments, namely chemical attack with a solution of sodium naphthenate and plasma erosion via air-ionization corona discharge in order to improve the adhesive properties of the ETFE. An experimental design was prepared for both treatments in order to assess the effect of the treatment characteristics on the tensile load needed to break the bond between the ETFE and the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) formed with a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA) applied between them. The reason for the selection of this problem is that both polymers are frequently used in the biomedical industry for their properties, and they need to be joined firmly in biomedical devices, and the cyanoacrylate adhesive is the adhesive traditionally used for fluoropolymers, in this case the ETFE, and the same CAA has also shown good adhesion with ABS. However, the strength of the bond for the triplet ETFE-CAA-ABS has not been reported and the improvement of the strength of the bond with surface treatments is not found in scholarly journals for modern medical devices such as stents and snares. Both treatments were compared based on the aforementioned design of experiments. The case where ETFE receives no surface treatment serves as the reference. The results indicated that the three factors evaluated (initial drying of the material, temperature of the chemical bath, and immersion time), and their interactions have no significant effect over the tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of the adhesive bond being evaluated. For the air-ionization corona discharge treatment, two factors were evaluated: discharge exposition time and air pressure. The results obtained from this experimental design indicate that there is no significant difference between the levels of the factors evaluated. These results were unexpected as the ranges used were representative of the maximum ranges permissible in manufacturing

  7. Ionizing radiations and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Daşdağ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the biologic effects of ionizing radiation and relation between medical diagnosticradiation exposure and cancer risk. Many unnecessary ionizing radiation applications are performed in the medicalcenters and hospitals. Therefore the health staff and the patients expose to serious risks of radiation. On the other hand, recently some studies, which suggested relationshipsbetween low dose ionizing radiation and some cancers, have been published. The relationship between low dose ionizing radiation and cancer can be more understandablewhen the stochastic effects of ionizing radiationtake into consideration. This presented review calls attention to the fact that low dose ionizing radiation may be an important factor for increased cancer risk. Therefore,physicians, health workers and patients have to pay maximum attention to avoid hazards of low dose ionizing radiation.

  8. Electrospinning of aligned fibers with adjustable orientation using auxiliary electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arras, Matthias M L; Grasl, Christian; Schima, Heinrich; Bergmeister, Helga

    2012-01-01

    A conventional electrospinning setup was upgraded by two turnable plate-like auxiliary high-voltage electrodes that allowed aligned fiber deposition in adjustable directions. Fiber morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The auxiliary electric field constrained the jet bending instability and the fiber deposition became controllable. At target speeds of 0.9 m s −1 90% of the fibers had aligned within 2°, whereas the angular spread was 70° without the use of auxiliary electrodes. It was even possible to orient fibers perpendicular to the rotational direction of the target. The fiber diameter became smaller and its distribution narrower, while according to the FTIR-ATR measurement the molecular orientation of the polymer was unaltered. This study comprehensively documents the feasibility of directed fiber deposition and offers an easy upgrade to existing electrospinning setups. (paper)

  9. Auxiliary bearing design considerations for gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Rodwell, E.

    2001-01-01

    The need to avoid contamination of the primary system, along with other perceived advantages, has led to the selection of electromagnetic bearings (EMBs) in most ongoing commercial-scale gas cooled reactor (GCR) designs. However, one implication of magnetic bearings is the requirement to provide backup support to mitigate the effects of failures or overload conditions. The demands on these auxiliary or 'catcher' bearings have been substantially escalated by the recent development of direct Brayton cycle GCR concepts. Conversely, there has been only limited directed research in the area of auxiliary bearings, particularly for vertically oriented turbomachines. This paper explores the current state-of-the-art for auxiliary bearings and the implications for current GCR designs. (author)

  10. Dental auxiliaries versus community health workers: similarities and contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone De Melo Costa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The dental auxiliaries and the community health workers (CHWs are practitioners that represent an important part in the Family Health Policy in Brazil and have several tasks. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the attributes of the dental auxiliaries and of the CHWs, regarding the application of their services and their education/training, to identify the similarities and contrasts between these health care practitioners. METHODOLOGY: Quantitative and census method data collection performed on the context of the Education Program for Health Workers - PET‑Saúde, 2010‑2012. The data collection method was a semi-structured questionnaire. The analysis has a level of significance of p0.05. CONCLUSION: Similarities and contrasts were identified between these health care workers. The dental auxiliaries, despite being mostly issued to specific assignments on a clinical environment, are able to shift their praxis by taking actions on a family and community context once integrated to a family health team.

  11. Reactor auxiliary cooling facility and coolant supplying method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1996-06-07

    A reactor auxiliary cooling facility of the present invention comprises a coolant recycling line for recycling coolants by way of a reactor auxiliary coolant pump and a cooling load, a gravitational surge tank for supplying coolants to the coolant recycling line and a supplemental water supplying line for supplying a supply the supplemental water to the tank. Then, a pressurization-type supply water surge tank is disposed for operating the coolant recycling line upon performing an initial system performance test in parallel with the gravitational surge tank. With such a constitution, the period of time required from the start of the installation of reactor auxiliary cooling facilities to the completion of the system performance test can be shortened at a reduced cost without enlarging the scale of the facility. (T.M.)

  12. Reactor auxiliary cooling facility and coolant supplying method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor auxiliary cooling facility of the present invention comprises a coolant recycling line for recycling coolants by way of a reactor auxiliary coolant pump and a cooling load, a gravitational surge tank for supplying coolants to the coolant recycling line and a supplemental water supplying line for supplying a supply the supplemental water to the tank. Then, a pressurization-type supply water surge tank is disposed for operating the coolant recycling line upon performing an initial system performance test in parallel with the gravitational surge tank. With such a constitution, the period of time required from the start of the installation of reactor auxiliary cooling facilities to the completion of the system performance test can be shortened at a reduced cost without enlarging the scale of the facility. (T.M.)

  13. Simplified sample preparation method for protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: in-gel digestion on the probe surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, A; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2001-01-01

    /ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is used as the first protein screening method in many laboratories because of its inherent simplicity, mass accuracy, sensitivity and relatively high sample throughput. We present a simplified sample preparation method for MALDI-MS that enables in-gel digestion...... for protein identification similar to that obtained by the traditional protocols for in-gel digestion and MALDI peptide mass mapping of human proteins, i.e. approximately 60%. The overall performance of the novel on-probe digestion method is comparable with that of the standard in-gel sample preparation...... of protein samples directly on the MALDI-MS metal probe. Removal of detergent and reagents as well as protein reduction and S-alkylation were performed prior to cutting of protein samples from the polyacrylamide gel slab. The general utility of this approach was demonstrated by on-probe digestion and MALDI...

  14. Sampling designs dependent on sample parameters of auxiliary variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wywiał, Janusz L

    2015-01-01

    The book offers a valuable resource for students and statisticians whose work involves survey sampling. An estimation of the population parameters in finite and fixed populations assisted by auxiliary variables is considered. New sampling designs dependent on moments or quantiles of auxiliary variables are presented on the background of the classical methods. Accuracies of the estimators based on original sampling design are compared with classical estimation procedures. Specific conditional sampling designs are applied to problems of small area estimation as well as to estimation of quantiles of variables under study. .

  15. History of Sandia National Laboratories` auxiliary closure mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weydert, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ponder, G.M. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    An essential component of a horizontal, underground nuclear test setup at the Nevada Test Site is the auxiliary closure system. The massive gates that slam shut immediately after a device has been detonated allow the prompt radiation to pass, but block debris and hot gases from continuing down the tunnel. Thus, the gates protect experiments located in the horizontal line-of-sight steel pipe. Sandia National Laboratories has been the major designer and developer of these closure systems. This report records the history of SNL`s participation in and contributions to the technology of auxiliary closure systems used in horizontal tunnel tests in the underground test program.

  16. Vanishing auxiliary variables in PPS sampling - with applications in microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    Recently, non-uniform sampling has been suggested in microscopy to increase efficiency. More precisely, sampling proportional to size (PPS) has been introduced where the probability of sampling a unit in the population is proportional to the value of an auxiliary variable. Unfortunately, vanishing...... auxiliary variables are a common phenomenon in microscopy and, accordingly, part of the population is not accessible, using PPS sampling. We propose a modification of the design, for which an optimal solution can be found, using a model assisted approach. The optimal design has independent interest...

  17. Analysis and Measurement of NOx Emissions in Port Auxiliary Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German de Melo Rodriguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is made NOx pollution emitted by port auxiliary vessels, specifically by harbour tugs, due to its unique operating characteristics of operation, require a large propulsion power changes discontinuously, also possess some peculiar technical characteristics, large tonnage and high propulsive power, that differentiate them from other auxiliary vessels of the port. Taking into account all the above features, there are no studies of the NOx emission engines caused by different working regimes of power because engine manufacturers have not measured these emissions across the range of operating power, but usually we only report the pollution produced by its engines to a maximum continuous power.

  18. Ionization radiation curable polyacrylate resin coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.S.

    1975-01-01

    A carboxylic acid chloride or bromide, a sulfonyl chloride or bromide, cyanuric chloride, calcium hypochlorite or phosphorus oxychloride and optionally a buffering pigment are combined with a liquid, acrylate ester resin curable by exposure to high-energy ionizing radiation to yield a coating composition which upon being cured in air by exposure to ionizing radition yields a coating having an essentially tack-free surface. (Patent Office Record)

  19. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of small drug molecules and high molecular weight synthetic/biological polymers using electrospun composite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Juan; Olesik, Susan V

    2017-03-27

    Polyacrylonitrile/Nafion®/carbon nanotube (PAN/Nafion®/CNT) composite nanofibers were prepared using electrospinning. These electrospun nanofibers were studied as possible substrates for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) and matrix-enhanced surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ME-SALDI/TOF-MS) for the first time in this paper. Electrospinning provides this novel substrate with a uniform morphology and a narrow size distribution, where CNTs were evenly and firmly immobilized on polymeric nanofibers. The results show that PAN/Nafion®/CNT nanofibrous mats are good substrates for the analysis of both small drug molecules and high molecular weight polymers with high sensitivity. Markedly improved reproducibility was observed relative to MALDI. Due to the composite formation between the polymers and the CNTs, no contamination of the carbon nanotubes to the mass spectrometer was observed. Furthermore, electrospun nanofibers used as SALDI substrates greatly extended the duration of ion signals of target analytes compared to the MALDI matrix. The proposed SALDI approach was successfully used to quantify small drug molecules with no interference in the low mass range. The results show that verapamil could be detected with a surface concentration of 220 femtomoles, indicating the high detection sensitivity of this method. Analysis of peptides and proteins with the electrospun composite substrate using matrix assisted-SALDI was improved and a low limit of detection of approximately 6 femtomoles was obtained for IgG. Both SALDI and ME-SALDI analyses displayed high reproducibility with %RSD ≤ 9% for small drug molecules and %RSD ≤ 14% for synthetic polymers and proteins.

  20. Ionizing radiation in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, J.; Petr, I.

    1988-01-01

    The basic terms are explained such as the atom, radioactivity, nuclear reaction, interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, etc. The basic dosimetric variables and units and properties of radionuclides and ionizing radiation are given. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are discussed with regard to the environment and the propagation and migration of radionuclides is described in the environment to man. The impact is explained of ionizing radiation on the cell and the somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are outlined. Attention is devoted to protection against ionizing radiation and to radiation limits, also to the detection, dosimetry and monitoring of ionizing radiation in the environment. (M.D.). 92 figs., 40 tabs. 74 refs

  1. Ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, K.; Ginkel, G. van; Leun, K. van der; Muller, H.; Oude Elferink, J.; Vesseur, A.

    1985-10-01

    This booklet dels with the risks of the use of ionizing radiation for people working in a hospital. It is subdivided in three parts. Part 1 treats the properties of ionizing radiation in general. In part 2 the various applications are discussed of ionizing radiation in hospitals. Part 3 indicates how a not completely safe situation may be improved. (H.W.). 14 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Seda, J.; Trousil, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  3. 76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the issue of Tuesday, March 22, 2011, make the...

  4. An analysis of the auxiliary structure of basic Nigerian pidgin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of pidgin as a language should not depend on “social” recognition or “social” approval. The basis for ... Premised on the foregoing, this study strives to illustratively analyse the auxiliary structure of basic Nigerian pidgin sentences since the issue of basic word order is one of the universals of human language.

  5. On the computation of molecular auxiliary functions An and Bn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Comment: “On the computation of molecular auxiliary functions An and Bn”. FRANK E HARRIS. Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Email: harris@qtp.ufl.edu. Abstract. Guseinov, Mamedov ...

  6. Auxiliary services for petrochemistry. Cogeneration, thermocompression, steam distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergerio, G.; Bruzzi, V.

    1999-01-01

    The article gives some guidelines for the choice of the most suitable energy vectors distributed in petrochemical plants and refineries for auxiliary services and for processes (mainly distillation). Conclusions are summed up in a diagram showing the most suitable heat sources and sinks for the various temperature ranges [it

  7. Lecture 1. on auxiliary heating in 'Breakeven Tokamaks'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, John

    1978-01-01

    We may identify two main areas where auxiliary heating may be used in breakeven Tokamak reactors. (1) In the start up phase of a Tokamak reactor, having a thermal energy distribution, auxiliary heating is required to bridge the gap between the ohmic state where the temperature will probably be approximately 1 keV, and the ignited condition where T>5 keV. (2) In two component and three component systems, auxiliary power is required to maintain a non-thermal ion distribution. I will follow a similar line to that taken in the above papers and will assess the auxiliary heating requirements of a 'Breakeven Tokamak' producing approximately 500 MW of thermal power, using the D-T cycle. I will consider two and three component systems insofar as they may be used during the start up phase, but not as reactor systems in their own right. In the first lecture I will not discuss details of the heating methods. Symbols and units are given in the Appendix

  8. Dental auxiliaries for dental care traditionally provided by dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Tom A; Brocklehurst, Paul; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Davies, Linda; Tickle, Martin; Issac, Ansy; Robinson, Peter G

    2014-08-20

    Poor or inequitable access to oral health care is commonly reported in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Although the severity of these problems varies, a lack of supply of dentists and their uneven distribution are important factors. Delegating care to dental auxiliaries could ease this problem, extend services to where they are unavailable and liberate time for dentists to do more complex work. Before such an approach can be advocated, it is important to know the relative effectiveness of dental auxiliaries and dentists. To assess the effectiveness, costs and cost effectiveness of dental auxiliaries in providing care traditionally provided by dentists. We searched the following electronic databases from their inception dates up to November 2013: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group's Specialised Register; Cochrane Oral Health Group's Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 11, 2013); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness; five other databases and two trial registries. We also undertook a grey literature search and searched the reference list of included studies and contacted authors of relevant papers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled clinical trials (NRCTs), interrupted time series (ITSs) and controlled before and after studies (CBAs) evaluating the effectiveness of dental auxiliaries compared with dentists in undertaking clinical tasks traditionally performed by a dentist. Three review authors independently applied eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each included study and two review authors assessed the quality of the evidence from the included studies, according to The Cochrane Collaboration's procedures. Since meta-analysis was not possible, we gave a narrative description of the results. We identified five studies (one cluster

  9. On the computation of molecular auxiliary functions An and Bn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Onsekiz Mart University, C¸ anakkale, Turkey. Email: guseinov@cheerful.com. Abstract. The Comment 'on the computation of auxiliary functions An(p) and Bn(pt)' (F E Harris,. Pramana – J. Phys. 61, C779 (2003)) is analysed in the arbitrary range of parameters n p and pt.

  10. 49 CFR 229.125 - Headlights and auxiliary lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Cabs and... compromise the integrity of the car body or be otherwise impractical. Auxiliary lights on such MU locomotives... flashing feature may be activated automatically, but shall be capable of manual activation and deactivation...

  11. Improving Semi-Supervised Learning with Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    expressive for semi-supervised learning. By utilizing the stochasticity of the auxiliary variable we demonstrate how to train discriminative classifiers resulting in state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning exemplified by an 0.96% error on MNIST using 100 labeled data points. Furthermore...

  12. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author)

  13. Improvements in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Zubal, C.

    1980-01-01

    A method of reducing mechanical vibrations transmitted to the parallel plate electrodes of ionization chamber x-ray detectors, commonly used in computerized x-ray axial tomography systems, is described. The metal plate cathodes and anodes are mounted in the ionizable gas on dielectric sheet insulators consisting of a composite of silicone resin and glass fibres. (UK)

  14. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  15. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  16. Introduction to ionizing radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1979-01-01

    Basic properties are described of the atom, atomic nucleus and of ionizing radiation particles; nuclear reactions, ionizing radiation sources and ionizing radiation interaction with matter are explained. (J.P.)

  17. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  18. 47 CFR 74.601 - Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.601 Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations. (a) TV pickup stations. A land mobile station used for the transmission of TV program material and related communications...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18...

  20. 30 CFR 57.8534 - Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. 57.8534... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8534 Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (a) Auxiliary fans installed and... fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is maintained in compliance with the applicable...

  1. Correlations between Survival Probabilities and Ionization Energies of Slow Ions Colliding with Room-Temperature and Heated Surfaces of Carbon, Tungsten, and Beryllium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herman, Zdeněk; Žabka, Ján; Pysanenko, Andriy

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 52 (2009), s. 14838-14844 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040405; GA AV ČR IAA400400702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : surface * carbon * tungsten * survival probabilities Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2009

  2. Kelvin spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2013-11-21

    A novel self-powered dual spray ionization source has been developed for applications in mass spectrometry. This new source does not use any power supply and produces both positive and negative ions simultaneously. The idea behind this ionization source comes from the Kelvin water dropper. The source employs one or two syringes, two pneumatic sprays operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-15 μL min(-1)) and gas pressures (0-150 psi), and two double layered metal screens for ion formation. A variable electrostatic potential from 0 to 4 kV can be produced depending on solvent and gas flow rates that allow gentle ionization of compounds. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, solvent acidity, position of spray and metal screens with respect to each other and distance between metal screens and the counter electrode. This ionization method has been successfully applied to solutions of peptides, proteins and non-covalent complexes. In comparison with ESI, the charge number of the most populated state is lower than that from ESI. It indicates that this is a softer ionization technique and it produces more protein ions with folded structures. The unique features of Kelvin spray ionization (KeSI) are that the method is self-powered and ionization occurs at very low potentials by providing very low internal energy to the ions. This advantage can be used for the ionization of very fragile molecules and investigation of non-covalent interactions.

  3. Liquid Chromatography with Post-Column Reagent Addition of Ammonia in Methanol Coupled to Negative Ion Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Phenoxyacid Herbicides and their Degradation Products in Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele L. Etter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new liquid chromatography (LC-negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI–tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS method with post-column addition of ammonia in methanol has been developed for the analysis of acid herbicides: 2,4-dichlorophenoxy ace- tic acid, 4-chloro-o-tolyloxyacetic acid, 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxybutyric acid, mecoprop, dichlorprop, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy butyric acid, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy propionic acid, dicamba and bromoxynil, along with their degradation products: 4-chloro-2- methylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The samples were extracted from the surface water matrix using solid-phase extraction (SPE with a polymeric sorbent and analyzed with LC ESI- with selected reaction monitoring (SRM using a three-point confirmation approach. Chromatography was performed on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 (50 × 4.6 mm i.d., 1.8 µm with a gradient elution using water-methanol with 2 mM ammonium acetate mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.15 mL/min. Ammonia in methanol (0.8 M was added post-column at a flow rate of 0.05 mL/min to enhance ionization of the deg- radation products in the MS source. One SRM transition was used for quantitative analysis while the second SRM along with the ratio of SRM1/SRM2 within the relative standard deviation determined by standards for each individual pesticide and retention time match were used for confirmation. The standard deviation of ratio of SRM1/SRM2 obtained from standards run on the day of analysis for different phenoxyacid herbicides ranged from 3.9 to 18.5%. Limits of detection (LOD were between 1 and 15 ng L-1 and method detection limits (MDL with strict criteria requiring

  4. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders - A Reference Solution for the Numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the validation of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources an analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is derived in this paper. The Analytical solution is valid for transverse magnetic, and electric, plane wave scattering by circular impedance Cylinders, and it is derived...... of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources for a range of scattering configurations....... with their singularities at different positions away from the origin. The transformation necessitates a truncation of the wave transformation but the inaccuracy introduced hereby is shown to be negligible. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is employed as a reference to investigate the accuracy...

  5. Contracted auxiliary Gaussian basis integral and derivative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M.

    2008-02-01

    The rapid evaluation of two-center Coulomb and overlap integrals between contracted auxiliary solid harmonic Gaussian functions is examined. Integral expressions are derived from the application of Hobson's theorem and Dunlap's product and differentiation rules of the spherical tensor gradient operator. It is shown that inclusion of the primitive normalization constants greatly simplifies the calculation of contracted functions corresponding to a Gaussian multipole expansion of a diffuse charge density. Derivative expressions are presented and it is shown that chain rules are avoided by expressing the derivatives as a linear combination of auxiliary integrals involving no more than five terms. Calculation of integrals and derivatives requires the contraction of a single vector corresponding to the monopolar result and its scalar derivatives. Implementation of the method is discussed and comparison is made with a Cartesian Gaussian-based method. The current method is superior for the evaluation of both integrals and derivatives using either primitive or contracted functions.

  6. Aging assessment of PWR [Pressurized Water Reactor] Auxiliary Feedwater Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a review of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater Systems. Two of the objectives of the NPAR Program are to identify failure modes and causes and identify methods to detect and track degradation. In Phase I of the Auxiliary Feedwater System study, a detailed review of system design and operating and surveillance practices at a reference plant is being conducted to determine failure modes and to provide an indication of the ability of current monitoring methods to detect system degradation. The extent to which current practices are contributing to aging and service wear related degradation is also being assessed. This paper provides a description of the study approach, examples of results, and some interim observations and conclusions. 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  8. Generating Selected Color using RGB, Auxiliary Lights, and Simplex Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed light source generates various colors, with the potential to adjust intensities of multiple LEDs, which makes it possible to generate arbitrary colors. Currently, PCs and OSs provide color selection windows that can obtain the RGB or HSL color coordinates of a user’s selection. Mixed light sources are usually composed of LEDs in the primary colors, with LEDs in auxiliary colors such as white and yellow used in a few cases. When using auxiliary color LEDs, the number of LED inputs, the dimming levels, is larger than the number of elements in the color coordinate, which causes an under-determined problem. This study proposed how to determine the dimming levels of LEDs based on the selected color. Commercial LEDs have di_erent optical power values and impure color coordinates, even if they are RGB. Hence, the characteristics of the LEDs were described using a linear model derived from the tri-stimulus values (an XYZ color coordinate model and dimming levels. Color mixing models were derived for the arbitrary number of auxiliary color LEDs. The under-determined problem was solved using a simplex search method without an inverse matrix operation. The proposed method can be applied to a machine vision system and an RGBW light mixer for semiconductor inspection. The dimming levels, obtained using the proposed method were better than derived using other methods.

  9. Auxiliary Density Matrix Methods for Hartree-Fock Exchange Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidon, Manuel; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2010-08-10

    The calculation of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFX) is computationally demanding for large systems described with high-quality basis sets. In this work, we show that excellent performance and good accuracy can nevertheless be obtained if an auxiliary density matrix is employed for the HFX calculation. Several schemes to derive an auxiliary density matrix from a high-quality density matrix are discussed. Key to the accuracy of the auxiliary density matrix methods (ADMM) is the use of a correction based on standard generalized gradient approximations for HFX. ADMM integrates seamlessly in existing HFX codes and, in particular, can be employed in linear scaling implementations. Demonstrating the performance of the method, the effect of HFX on the structure of liquid water is investigated in detail using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations (300 ps) of a system of 64 molecules. Representative for large systems are calculations on a solvated protein (Rubredoxin), for which ADMM outperforms the corresponding standard HFX implementation by approximately a factor 20.

  10. Bayesian Analysis of Geostatistical Models With an Auxiliary Lattice

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jincheol

    2012-04-01

    The Gaussian geostatistical model has been widely used for modeling spatial data. However, this model suffers from a severe difficulty in computation: it requires users to invert a large covariance matrix. This is infeasible when the number of observations is large. In this article, we propose an auxiliary lattice-based approach for tackling this difficulty. By introducing an auxiliary lattice to the space of observations and defining a Gaussian Markov random field on the auxiliary lattice, our model completely avoids the requirement of matrix inversion. It is remarkable that the computational complexity of our method is only O(n), where n is the number of observations. Hence, our method can be applied to very large datasets with reasonable computational (CPU) times. The numerical results indicate that our model can approximate Gaussian random fields very well in terms of predictions, even for those with long correlation lengths. For real data examples, our model can generally outperform conventional Gaussian random field models in both prediction errors and CPU times. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2012 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  11. Enhanced Deposition Uniformity via an Auxiliary Electrode in Massive Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dezhi; Xiao, Zhiming; Deng, Lei; Sun, Yu; Tan, Qiulin; Dong, Linxi; Huang, Shaohua; Zhu, Rui; Liu, Yifang; Zheng, Wanxi; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Lingyun; Sun, Daoheng

    2016-07-22

    Uniform deposition of nanofibers in the massive electrospinning process is critical in the industrial applications of nanofibers. Tip-Induced Electrospinning (TIE) is a cost-effective large-scale nanofiber-manufacturing method, but it has poor deposition uniformity. An auxiliary conductive electrode connected to the emitting electrode was introduced to improve the deposition uniformity of the nanofibers. The effects of the auxiliary electrode shape, the tilted angles and the position of the boat-like electrode on the electric field distribution, the diameter of the nanofibers, the jet control and the deposition uniformity were explored by using finite element analysis of the electric field and experiments. Experiments showed that the boat-like electrode at 20 mm above the reservoir bottom with a 5° tilted angle helped to decrease the relative deposition error of nanofibers in the greatest extent to about 5.66%, indicating such an auxiliary electrode is a good candidate method to greatly improve the deposition uniformity of nanofibers in massive electrospinning.

  12. Miniature ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  13. Ionization particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L.

    1982-01-01

    A new device is claimed for detecting particles in a gas. The invention comprises a low cost, easy to assemble, and highly accurate particle detector using a single ionization chamber to contain a reference region and a sensing region. The chamber is designed with the radioactive source near one electrode and the second electrode located at a distance less than the distance of maximum ionization from the radioactive source

  14. Differential modulations of KCNQ1 by auxiliary proteins KCNE1 and KCNE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Liu, Haowen; Lai, Chaohua; Sun, Peibei; Zeng, Wenping; Wu, Fangming; Zhang, Longhua; Wang, Sheng; Tian, Changlin; Ding, Jiuping

    2014-05-15

    KCNQ1 channels play vital roles in cardiovascular, gastric and other systems. The conductance and dynamics of KCNQ1 could be modulated by different single transmembrane helical auxiliary proteins (such as KCNE1, KCNE2 and others). In this study, detail KCNQ1 function modulations by different regions of KCNE1 or KCNE2 were examined using combinational methods of electrophysiology, immunofluorescence, solution NMR and related backbone flexibility analysis. In the presence of KCNE2 N-terminus, decreased surface expression and consequent low activities of KCNQ1 were observed. The transmembrane domains (TMDs) of KCNE1 and KCNE2 were illustrated to associate with the KCNQ1 channel in different modes: Ile64 in KCNE2-TMD interacting with Phe340 and Phe275 in KCNQ1, while two pairs of interacting residues (Phe340-Thr58 and Ala244-Tyr65) in the KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex. The KCNE1 C-terminus could modulate gating property of KCNQ1, whereas KCNE2 C-terminus had only minimal influences on KCNQ1. All of the results demonstrated different KCNQ1 function modulations by different regions of the two auxiliary proteins.

  15. Directed Field Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoric, Vincent C.; Kang, Xinyue; Liu, Zhimin Cheryl; Rowley, Zoe A.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2017-04-01

    Selective field ionization is an important experimental technique used to study the state distribution of Rydberg atoms. This is achieved by applying a steadily increasing electric field, which successively ionizes more tightly bound states. An atom prepared in an energy eigenstate encounters many avoided Stark level crossings on the way to ionization. As it traverses these avoided crossings, its amplitude is split among multiple different states, spreading out the time resolved electron ionization signal. By perturbing the electric field ramp, we can change how the atoms traverse the avoided crossings, and thus alter the shape of the ionization signal. We have used a genetic algorithm to evolve these perturbations in real time in order to arrive at a target ionization signal shape. This process is robust to large fluctuations in experimental conditions. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1607335 and No. 1607377 and used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number OCI-1053575.

  16. Study of Atoms and Molecules with Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Wirawan; Suewattana, Malliga; Krakauer, Henry; Zhang, Shiwei; Walter, Eric J.

    2006-03-01

    We study the ground-state properties of second-row atoms and molecules using the phaseless auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AF QMC) method. This method projects the many-body ground state from a trial wave function by means of random walks in the Slater-determinant space. We use a single Slater-determinant trial wave function obtained from density-functional theory (DFT) or Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations. The calculations were done with a plane-wave basis and supercells with periodic boundary condition. We investigate the finite-size effects and the accuracy of pseudopotentials within DFT, HF, and AF QMC frameworks. Pseudopotentials generated from both LDA (OPIUM) and HF are employed. We find that the many-body QMC calculations show a greater sensitivity to the accuracy of the pseudopotentials. With reliable pseudopotentials, the ionization potentials and dissociation energies obtained using AF QMC are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. S. Zhang and H. Krakauer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 136401 (2003) http://opium.sourceforge.net I. Ovcharenko, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and W. A. Lester, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 7790 (2001)

  17. SU-E-T-96: Demonstration of a Consistent Method for Correcting Surface Dose Measurements Using Both Solid State and Ionization Chamber Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T; Gerbi, B; Higgins, P [UniversityMinnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the surface dose (SD) measured using a PTW 30-360 extrapolation chamber with different commonly used dosimeters (Ds): parallel plate ion chambers (ICs): RMI-449 (Attix), Capintec PS-033, PTW 30-329 (Markus) and Memorial; TLD chips (cTLD), TLD powder (pTLD), optically stimulated (OSLs), radiochromic (EXR2) and radiographic (EDR2) films, and to provide an intercomparison correction to Ds for each of them. Methods: Investigations were performed for a 6 MV x-ray beam (Varian Clinac 2300, 10x10 cm{sup 2} open field, SSD = 100 cm). The Ds were placed at the surface of the solid water phantom and at the reference depth dref=1.7cm. The measurements for cTLD, OSLs, EDR2 and EXR2 were corrected to SD using an extrapolation method (EM) indexed to the baseline PTW 30-360 measurements. A consistent use of the EM involved: 1) irradiation of three Ds stacked on top of each other on the surface of the phantom; 2) measurement of the relative dose value for each layer; and, 3) extrapolation of these values to zero thickness. An additional measurement was performed with externally exposed OSLs (eOSLs), that were rotated out of their protective housing. Results: All single Ds measurements overestimated the SD compared with the extrapolation chamber, except for Attix IC. The closest match to the true SD was measured with the Attix IC (− 0.1%), followed by pTLD (0.5%), Capintec (4.5%), Memorial (7.3%), Markus (10%), cTLD (11.8%), eOSL (12.8%), EXR2 (14%), EDR2 (14.8%) and OSL (26%). The EM method of correction for SD worked well for all Ds, except the unexposed OSLs. Conclusion: This EM cross calibration of solid state detectors with an extrapolation or Attix chamber can provide thickness corrections for cTLD, eOSLs, EXR2, and EDR2. Standard packaged OSLs were not found to be simply corrected.

  18. Generic description of facilities at the shaft head (auxiliary entrance installations) of deep geological repositories; Generische Beschreibung von Schachtkopfanlagen (Nebenzugangsanlagen) geologischer Tiefenlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-10-15

    In a deep geological repository, the access structures function as the link between the surface and the installations and structures at the disposal level. In the planned implementation scenarios, at least two access structures will be in operation up to the time of closure of the repository. The radioactive waste will be transported via the main access from the surface to the disposal level during emplacement operations. For the construction and operation of a deep geological repository, additional access structures are required. These auxiliary accesses and the associated surface infrastructure (e.g. shaft head installations) form the subject of this report. To provide as broad and comprehensive a description as possible, seven types of auxiliary access facilities are defined; these are characterised in line with the current status of planning and their functions and impacts are described. During construction, operation and dismantling of auxiliary access facilities, the usual conventional safety measures (inter alia) have to be observed (e.g. groundwater protection, fire prevention, facility security, accident prevention). Regarding the 'Ordinance on Protection against Major Accidents' no large quantities of hazardous materials, i.e. above the corresponding threshold quantities, are to be expected in the auxiliary access facilities. Proper handling and compliance with applicable regulations in all phases will ensure no hazard to humans and the environment. As no handling of radioactive materials is foreseen in the auxiliary access facilities, and because exhaust air and waste water from the controlled zones of a repository will, in principle, be removed via the main access and not the auxiliary accesses, a safety-relevant emission of radioactive substances and transport of contaminated material can be ruled out for the auxiliary access facilities during both normal operation and also in the case of an accident. Based on the information presented in

  19. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders - A Reference Solution for the Numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the validation of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources an analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is derived in this paper. The Analytical solution is valid for transverse magnetic, and electric, plane wave scattering by circular impedance Cylinders, and it is derived b...

  20. Degradation of fluorine-containing organic thin films and organohalides mediated by ionizing radiation: Nitrogen-based surface modification of polymers and metallization of nitrogen-containing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anthony Jon

    The surface modification of organic thin films and polymers has been studied using X-rays, electrons, ions, excited neutrals and metal atoms (metallization). The resulting chemical modification within the surface region has been studied to better understand the role of individual reactive species with the organic interfaces. Similarly, the role of electrons in organohalide remediation has been studied to better understand the remediation process occurring in organohalide/ice films. During the initial period of X-ray irradiation of semi-fluorinated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), electron-stimulated C-F, C-C and S-X (X = copper or gold substrate) bond breaking events are responsible for the changes in the chemical composition of the SAM. Irradiation-induced changes to the film's chemical and structural properties, that included the chemical transformation of a fraction of the initial thiolate species, were most pronounced in these initial stages of irradiation, prior to the development of a highly cross-linked carbonaceous overlayer. The mechanism of the carbon-fluorine bond breaking within the film has been found to be consistent with a series of single C-F bond breaking events. The surface reactions of reactive neutral nitrogen species and nitrogen ions with polyethylene have also been studied. Neutral nitrogen species, generated using a modified nitrogen plasma, resulted in the incorporation of predominantly imine groups. Nitrogen ion bombardment yielded amine groups as the dominate species. The reactivity of vapor-deposited metal atoms with nylon 6, nitrogen ion implanted polyethylene and a nitrile-terminated SAM have also been studied using in situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Iron deposition resulted in the formation of iron-nitrogen linkages for all systems studied and iron-oxygen linkages in the case of nylon 6. Similarly, Nickel deposition resulted in nickel-nitrogen linkages for all the systems studied, however it did not react with the oxygen

  1. Ionized cluster beam technology for material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Toshinori

    1997-01-01

    The most suitable kinetic energy range of ionized materials in film formation and epitaxial growth is from a few eV to a few hundreds eV, especially, less than about 100eV, when ions are used as a host. The main roles of ions in film formation are the effects due to their kinetic energy and the electronic charge effects which involve the effect to active film formation and the effect acceleration of chemical reactions. Therefore, it is important to develope the technology to transport large volume of a flux of ionized particles with an extremely low incident energy without any troubles due to the space charge effects and charge up problems on the surface. This is the exact motivation for us to have been developing the Ionized Cluster Beam (ICB) technology since 1972. By ICB technology materials (actually wide varieties of materials such as metal, semiconductor, magnetic material, insulator, organic material, etc.) are vaporized and ejected through a small hole nozzle into a high vacuum, where the vaporized material condenses into clusters with loosely coupled atoms with the sizes about from 100 to a few 1000 atoms (mainly 100-2000 atoms) by supercondensation phenomena due to the adiabatic expansion in this evaporation process through a small hole nozzle. In the ICB technology an atom in each cluster is ionized by irradiated by electron shower, and the ionized clusters are accelerated by electric field onto a substrate. The ionized clusters with neutral clusters impinged onto a substrate are spreaded separately into atoms migrating over the substrate, so that the surface migration energy of the impinged atoms, that is, surface diffusion energy are controlled by an incident energy of a cluster. In this report the theoretical and also experimental results of ICB technology are summarized

  2. Analysis of Nigerian dentists' opinion and consequences on expanded function dental auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umanah, A U; Azodo, C

    2015-06-01

    To examine Nigerian dentists' opinion on expanded function dental auxiliaries. This cross-sectional study of Nigerian dentists attending a dental conference was conducting in 2012 using self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. P opinion towards expanded duty dental auxiliaries. The mean scores on consequences, of expanded function dental auxiliaries ranked redundancy of dentist as highest. Males and non-specialist significantly reported expanded function dental auxiliaries would lead to redundancy of dentists. Practitioners working in other hospitals other than teaching hospital significantly reported that appropriate legislation are necessary before expansion of duties of the dental auxiliaries can be done. The dentists with favorable opinion significantly reported that expanded duty dental auxiliaries would not cause redundancy of dentist and the task are not too difficult for dental auxiliaries with necessary training but will increase service delivery and efficiency, increase job satisfaction, lead to dental auxiliary specialization with legislation. Data from this study revealed overall unfavorable opinion of Nigerian dentists on the expanded duty dental auxiliaries. However, those with favorable opinion were significantly supportive of expanded function dental auxiliaries. This information would serve as a useful tool for Nigerian oral healthcare policy formulators.

  3. Impact assessment of ionizing radiation on human and non-human biota from the vicinity of a near-surface radioactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedveckaite, T; Gudelis, A; Vives i Batlle, J

    2013-05-01

    This work describes the radiological assessment of the near-surface Maisiagala radioactive waste repository (Lithuania) over the period 2005-2012, with focus on water pathways and special emphasis on tritium. The study includes an assessment of the effect of post-closure upgrading, the durability of which is greater than 30 years. Both human and terrestrial non-human biota are considered, with local low-intensity forestry and small farms being the area of concern. The radiological exposure was evaluated using the RESRAD-OFFSITE, RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA codes in combination with long-term data from a dedicated environmental monitoring programme. All measurements were performed at the Lithuanian Institute of Physics as part of this project. It is determined that, after repository upgrading, radiological exposure to humans are significantly lower than the human dose constraint of 0.2 mSv/year valid in the Republic of Lithuania. Likewise, for non-human biota, dose rates are below the ERICA/PROTECT screening levels. The potential annual effective inhalation dose that could be incurred by the highest-exposed human individual (which is due to tritiated water vapour airborne release over the most exposed area) does not exceed 0.1 μSv. Tritium-labelled drinking water appears to be the main pathway for human impact, representing about 83 % of the exposure. Annual committed effective dose (CED) values for members of the public consuming birch sap as medical practice are calculated to be several orders of magnitude below the CEDs for the same location associated with drinking of well water. The data presented here indicate that upper soil-layer samples may not provide a good indication of potential exposure to terrestrial deep-rooted trees, as demonstrated by an investigation of stratified (3)H in soil moisture, expressed on a wet soil mass basis, in an area with subsurface contamination.

  4. Comparison of microbial communities in Lake Tahoe surface sample with Tonga Trench water column samples using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectroscopy (HPLC - ESI - MS) and Global Natural Products Social Molecular Network (GNPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Intact polar lipids (IPLs) are lipids composed of a head group, a glycerol, and a fatty acid chain that make up the lipid bilayer of cell membranes in living cells; and the varying head groups can be indicative of the type of microbes present in the environment (Van Mooy 2010). So by distinguishing and identifying the IPL distribution in an environment one can make inferences about the microbial communities in the said environment. In this study, we used High Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization- Mass Spectroscopy (HPLC-ESI-MS) and Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) to compare the IPL distributions of two oligotrophic environments: surface waters of Lake Tahoe in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the water column of the Tonga Trench in the South Pacific. We hypothesized that the similar nutrient dynamics of the two oligotrophic environments would result in similar eukaryotic and prokaryotic communities, which would be reflected in the IPL composition of suspended particulate organic matter (POM). For simplicity we focused on the classes of IPLs most commonly observed in the marine environment: phosphotidylglycerol (PG), phosphotidylethanolamine (PE), diacylglyceryl-trimethyl-homoserine (DGTS), diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-trimethylalanine (DGTA), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), monoglycosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and diglycosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). Our results showed that all of the marine IPLs of interest were present in Lake Tahoe which confirms that there are many of the same microbial communities in the fresh waters of Lake Tahoe and the salt waters Tonga Trench.

  5. The critical ionization velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1980-06-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect was first proposed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a marginal velocity, 'the critical velocity', is exceeded. Laboratory experiments have clearly established the significance of the critical velocity and have provided evidence for an underlying mechanism which relies on the combined action of electron impact ionization and a collective plasma interaction heating electrons. There is experimental support for such a mechanism based on the heating of electrons by the modified two-stream instability as part of a feedback process. Several applications to space plasmas have been proposed and the possibility of space experiments has been discussed. (author)

  6. The ionizing treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This book of proceedings contains the talks given by the members of the Society of chemical experts of France (SECF) and by various specialists of the ionizing treatment during the scientific days of September 25-26, 1997. The aim of this meeting was to reconsider the effects of ionization from a scientific point of view and apart from the polemics generated by this domain. The following topics were discussed successively: source and characterization of a ionizing treatment, biological effects of ionization on food and the expected consequences, the ionizing treatment and the reduction of the vitamin C content of fruits and vegetables, is it safe to eat irradiated food?, the organoleptic modifications of food after ionization, quality assurance of dosimetry measurements in an industrial installation of food ionization, the French and European regulations in food ionization, the detection of irradiated foodstuffs, processed food and complex lipid matrices, sterilization of dishes for immuno-depressed patients using ionization. (J.S.)

  7. Sampling general N-body interactions with auxiliary fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, C.; Berkowitz, E.; Luu, T.

    2017-09-01

    We present a general auxiliary field transformation which generates effective interactions containing all possible N-body contact terms. The strength of the induced terms can analytically be described in terms of general coefficients associated with the transformation and thus are controllable. This transformation provides a novel way for sampling 3- and 4-body (and higher) contact interactions non-perturbatively in lattice quantum Monte Carlo simulations. As a proof of principle, we show that our method reproduces the exact solution for a two-site quantum mechanical problem.

  8. Helicene-like chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aillard, P; Voituriez, A; Marinetti, A

    2014-11-07

    This literature overview demonstrates that helically chiral ligands and organocatalysts have been largely neglected so far. However, a few recent studies on helical pyridine, the corresponding ammonium salts and N-oxides have highlighted the significant potential of these compounds as organocatalysts for Michael type additions, aldehyde propargylations, epoxide openings, and others. In addition, helicenes displaying a fused phosphole ring at the end of their polyaromatic structures, have been used as ligands in enantioselective gold promoted cycloisomerization reactions, giving both excellent catalytic activity and high enantiomeric excesses. These recent results are expected to stimulate further research on the catalytic applications of helically chiral auxiliaries in the next few years.

  9. A deterministic global optimization using smooth diagonal auxiliary functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Yaroslav D.; Kvasov, Dmitri E.

    2015-04-01

    In many practical decision-making problems it happens that functions involved in optimization process are black-box with unknown analytical representations and hard to evaluate. In this paper, a global optimization problem is considered where both the goal function f (x) and its gradient f‧ (x) are black-box functions. It is supposed that f‧ (x) satisfies the Lipschitz condition over the search hyperinterval with an unknown Lipschitz constant K. A new deterministic 'Divide-the-Best' algorithm based on efficient diagonal partitions and smooth auxiliary functions is proposed in its basic version, its convergence conditions are studied and numerical experiments executed on eight hundred test functions are presented.

  10. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities. Auxiliary capabilities: environmental health information science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Sandia Laboratories is an engineering laboratory in which research, development, testing, and evaluation capabilities are integrated by program management for the generation of advanced designs. In fulfilling its primary responsibility to ERDA, Sandia Laboratories has acquired extensive research and development capabilities. The purpose of this series of documents is to catalog the many technical capabilities of the Laboratories. After the listing of capabilities, supporting information is provided in the form of highlights, which show applications. This document deals with auxiliary capabilities, in particular, environmental health and information science. (11 figures, 1 table) (RWR)

  11. GOTHIC Simulation of APR1400 Auxiliary Charging Pump room heat up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Hui-Un; Heo, Sun [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    As a part of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Design Certification (NRC DC) project, we have been investigating Auxiliary Charging Pump (ACP) room heat up. With reference to the design specification of the ACP room, we determined input information and developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 ACP room. This calculation model is described herein, and representative results from the calculation are presented as well. The results of the present paper are used to determine the integrity of ACP operating in the accident. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for ACP room heat up calculation. Calculation results confirm that door opening is cooling the room properly. It is found that the difference due to the surface option of heat conductors is insignificant. Based on this result, further studies should be performed to confirm integrity of ACP.

  12. Ionizing Radiation Processing Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Kamarudin Hashim; Jamaliah Sharif; Ratnam, C.T.; Keong, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    This book completely brief on the basic concept and theory of ionizing radiation in polymers material processing. Besides of that the basic concept of polymerization addition, cross-linking and radiation degradation also highlighted in this informative book. All of the information is from scientific writing based on comprehensive scientific research in polymerization industry which using the radiation ionizing. It is very useful to other researcher whose study in Nuclear Sciencea and Science of Chemical and Material to use this book as a guideline for them in future scientific esearch.

  13. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  14. Assembly auxiliary system for narrow cabins of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Shiqi; Wang, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    Due to the narrow space and complex structure of spacecraft cabin, the existing asssembly systems can not well suit for the assembly process of cabin products. This paper aims to introduce an assembly auxiliary system for cabin products. A hierarchical-classification method is proposed to re-adjust the initial assembly relationship of cabin into a new hierarchical structure for efficient assembly planning. An improved ant colony algorithm based on three assembly principles is established for searching a optimizational assembly sequence of cabin parts. A mixed reality assembly environment is constructed with enhanced information to promote interaction efficiency of assembly training and guidance. Based on the machine vision technology, the inspection of left redundant objects and measurement of parts distance in inner cabin are efficiently performed. The proposed system has been applied to the assembly work of a spacecraft cabin with 107 parts, which includes cabin assembly planning, assembly training and assembly quality inspection. The application result indicates that the proposed system can be an effective assistant tool to cabin assembly works and provide an intuitive and real assembly experience for workers. This paper presents an assembly auxiliary system for spacecraft cabin products, which can provide technical support to the spacecraft cabin assembly industry.

  15. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  16. Aging and low-flow degradation of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the results of research done under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. It examines the degradation imparted to safety Auxiliary Feedwater System pumps at nuclear plants due to the low flow operation. The Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System is normally a stand-by system. As such it is operated most often in the test mode. Since few plants are equipped with full flow test loops, most testing is accomplished at minimum flow conditions in pump by-pass lines. It is the vibration and hydraulic forces generated at low flow conditions that have been shown to be the major causes of AFW pump aging and degradation. The wear can be manifested in a number of ways, such as impeller or diffuser breakage, thrust bearing and/or balance device failure due to excessive loading, cavitation damage on such stage impellers, increase seal leakage or failure, sear injection piping failure, shaft or coupling breakage, and rotating element seizure

  17. Fixed energy potentials through an auxiliary inverse eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pálmai, Tamás; Apagyi, Barnabás

    2012-01-01

    An inverse scattering method based on an auxiliary inverse Sturm–Liouville problem recently proposed by Horváth and Apagyi (2008 Mod. Phys. Lett. B 22 2137) is examined in various aspects and developed further to (re)construct spherically symmetric fixed energy potentials of compact support realized in the three-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The method is generalized to obtain a family of inverse procedures characterized by two parameters originating, respectively, from the Liouville transformation and the solution of the inverse Sturm–Liouville problem. Both parameters affect the bound states arising in the auxiliary inverse spectral problem and one of them enables us to reduce their number which is assessed by a simple method. Various solution techniques of the underlying moment problem are proposed including the exact Cauchy matrix inversion method, usage of spurious bound state and assessment of the number of bound states. Examples include (re)productions of potentials from phase shifts known theoretically or derived from scattering experiments. (paper)

  18. On the Auxiliary Status of Dare in Old English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OE *durran ‘dare’ belongs to a group of the so-called preterite-present verbs which developed weak past tense forms replacing the originally strong forms throughout the paradigm. The present study hypothesizes that the potential sources of this development are related to the decay of the subjunctive mood in Old English. Further, this corpus-based study analyses the status of DARE in Old English, with the findings showing that the verb displayed both lexical and auxiliary verb characteristics. These results are juxtaposed and compared with the verb's developments in Middle English. The databases examined are the corpus of The Dictionary of Old English in Electronic Form (A-G and the Innsbruck Computer Archive of Machine-Readable English Texts. In both cases, a search of potential forms was performed on all the files of the corpora, the raw results were then analysed in order to eliminate irrelevant instances (adjectives, nouns, foreign words, etc.. The relevant forms were examined with the aim to check the properties of DARE as a lexical and an auxiliary verb, and compare the findings with Molencki’s (2002, 2005 observations.

  19. VLTI auxiliary telescopes: a full object-oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Duhoux, Philippe; Karban, Robert

    2000-06-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) Telescope Control Software (TCS) is a portable system. It is now in use or will be used in a whole family of ESO telescopes VLT Unit Telescopes, VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes, NTT, La Silla 3.6, VLT Survey Telescope and Astronomical Site Monitors in Paranal and La Silla). Although it has been developed making extensive usage of Object Oriented (OO) methodologies, the overall development process chosen at the beginning of the project used traditional methods. In order to warranty a longer lifetime to the system (improving documentation and maintainability) and to prepare for future projects, we have introduced a full OO process. We have taken as a basis the United Software Development Process with the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and we have adapted the process to our specific needs. This paper describes how the process has been applied to the VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes Control Software (ATCS). The ATCS is based on the portable VLT TCS, but some subsystems are new or have specific characteristics. The complete process has been applied to the new subsystems, while reused code has been integrated in the UML models. We have used the ATCS on one side to tune the process and train the team members and on the other side to provide a UML and WWW based documentation for the portable VLT TCS.

  20. Energy confinement scaling in tokamaks: some implications of recent experiments with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Recent results from confinement scaling experiments on tokamaks with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating are reviewed. An attempt is made to draw these results together into a low-density ohmic confinement scaling law, and a scaling law for confinement with auxiliary heating. The auxiliary heating confinement law may also serve to explain the saturation in tau/sub E/ vs anti n/sub e/ observed in some ohmic heating density scaling experiments

  1. The relationship among the solutions of two auxiliary ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoping; Liu Chunping

    2009-01-01

    In a recent article [Phys. Lett. A 356 (2006) 124], Sirendaoreji extended their auxiliary equation method by introducing a new auxiliary ordinary differential equation (NAODE) and its 14 solutions. Then the author studied some nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) and got more exact travelling wave solutions. In this paper, we will show that the 14 solutions of the NAODE are actually the same as the solutions obtained by original auxiliary equation method, and they are only different in the form.

  2. Ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is concerned with radiation safety of radiologist and other hospital personnel. Part 1 deals with properties of radiation in general (especially of ionizing radiation). In part 2, different applications of radiation in hospitals are discussed. Part 3 indicates what to do to make improvements to not totally safe situations in hospitals. (Auth./G.J.P.)

  3. Ionization beam scanner

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Inner structure of an ionization beam scanner, a rather intricate piece of apparatus which permits one to measure the density distribution of the proton beam passing through it. On the outside of the tank wall there is the coil for the longitudinal magnetic field, on the inside, one can see the arrangement of electrodes creating a highly homogeneous transverse electric field.

  4. Detection of ionized foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiated foods and feed might be identified with two kinds of tests: 1. biochemical: detection of specific products are not yet available 2. microbiological: when a microbial species dissapears from a sample of food i.e. it is not detectable after enrichment (for instance Coliforms in hamburgers) it is likely that the sample has been ionized [fr

  5. Ionization chamber smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

  6. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  7. Ionization loss in BGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, J.A.; Denes, P.; Piroue, P.A.; Stickland, D.P.; Sumner, R.L.; Taylor, C.; Barone, L.; Borgia, B.; Diemoz, M.; Dionisi, C.; Falciano, S.; Ferroni, F.; Gratta, G.; Longo, E.; Luminari, L.; Morganti, S.; Valente, E.; Blaising, J.J.; Boutigny, D.; Coignet, G.; Karyotakis, Y.; Sauvage, G.; Schneegans, M.; Vivargent, M.; Extermann, P.; Morand, G.; Ossmann, J.; Ruckstuhl, W.; Schaad, T.P.; Lecoq, P.; Walk, W.; Li, P.J.; Micke, M.; Micke, U.; Schmitz, D.

    1988-01-01

    We report on a precise measurement of the energy loss through ionization by pions in bismuth germanate performed at several values of the incident particles momentum with a prototype of the L3 electromagnetic calorimeter. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions showing the relativistic rise modified by density effect. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of PCR/Electron spray Ionization-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry versus Traditional Clinical Microbiology for active surveillance of organisms contaminating high-use surfaces in a burn intensive care unit, an orthopedic ward and healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Heather C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding nosocomial pathogen transmission is restricted by culture limitations. Novel platforms, such as PCR-based electron spray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS, may be useful as investigational tools. Methods Traditional clinical microbiology (TCM and PCR/ESI-TOF-MS were used to recover and detect microorganisms from the hands and personal protective equipment of 10 burn intensive care unit (ICU healthcare workers providing clinical care at a tertiary care military referral hospital. High-use environmental surfaces were assessed in 9 burn ICU and 10 orthopedic patient rooms. Clinical cultures during the study period were reviewed for pathogen comparison with investigational molecular diagnostic methods. Results From 158 samples, 142 organisms were identified by TCM and 718 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. The molecular diagnostic method detected more organisms (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.8, p S. aureus in 13 samples vs. 21 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. Gram-negative organisms were less commonly identified than gram-positive by both methods; especially by TCM. Among all detected bacterial species, similar percentages were typical nosocomial pathogens (18-19% for TCM vs. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS also detected mecA in 112 samples, vanA in 13, and KPC-3 in 2. MecA was associated (p S. aureus. No vanA was codetected with enterococci; one KPC-3 was detected without Klebsiella spp. Conclusions In this pilot study, PCR/ESI-TOF-MS detected more organisms, especially gram-negatives, compared to TCM, but the current assay format is limited by the number of antibiotic resistance determinants it covers. Further large-scale assessments of PCR/ESI-TOF-MS for hospital surveillance are warranted.

  9. Epidemiology and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, M.; Masse, R.; Slama, R.; Spira, A.; Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Billon, S.; Rogel, A.; Telle Lamberton, M.; Catelinois, O.; Thierry, I.; Grosche, B.; Ron, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Cherie Challine, L.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph.; Bloch, J.; Setbon, M.

    2004-01-01

    The ionizing radiations have effects on living being. The determinist effects appear since a threshold of absorbed dose of radiation is reached. In return, the stochastic effects of ionizing radiations are these ones whom apparition cannot be described except in terms of probabilities. They are in one hand, cancers and leukemia, on the other hand, lesions of the genome potentially transmissible to the descendants. That is why epidemiology, defined by specialists as the science that studies the frequency and distribution of illness in time and space, the contribution of factors that determine this frequency and this distribution among human populations. This issue gathers and synthesizes the knowledge and examines the difficulties of methodologies. It allows to give its true place to epidemiology. (N.C.)

  10. Ionizing radiation and neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    Among the well accepted causes of neoplasia, ionizing radiation is quite prominent. Its oncogenic role was suspected by a few pioneers in the field of radiation biology, and some evidence for its oncogenicity has been available for almost 80 years. Since then unquestionable and abundant proof, statistical and experimental, has linked radiation with multiple tumors in mammals. Other forms of radiation (e.g., ultraviolet) are also causally related to neoplasia. This review, however, refers only to the tumors associated with ionizing radiation, either electromagnetic (i.e., gamma and x-rays) or particulate (alpha particles, neutrons, etc.). The field of radiation oncogenesis can be compared to a sea of hypotheses, with a few solid islands of facts. This paper considers the facts (specific radiation-induced neoplasms, risk data, etc.) and then considers some of the hypotheses (possible mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis)

  11. Development of the APR+ Auxiliary Building General Arrangement (GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Keun; Park, Young Sheop; Kang, Yong Chul

    2011-01-01

    The general arrangement (GA) drawing of a nuclear power plant is the most basic drawing which contains all of the plant equipment, systems, and rooms. Therefore, it should be issued at an early design stage to provide the contours of the overall plant structure. This type of drawing is typically used widely throughout the design stages. The development project of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor+), as a succeeding model of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) design, has its own GA that encompasses all of its power buildings. This was developed starting in October of 2009. Among several of the buildings in this design, the Auxiliary Building (AB) is one of the most important buildings to produce electricity, and to protect against undesirable radiation emissions. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the general arrangement of the AB

  12. Integrated hydrogen/oxygen technology applied to auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, David L.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Integrated Hydrogen/Oxygen Technology (IHOT) study was to determine if the vehicle/mission needs and technology of the 1990's support development of an all cryogenic H2/O2 system. In order to accomplish this, IHOT adopted the approach of designing Integrated Auxiliary Propulsion Systems (IAPS) for a representative manned vehicle; the advanced manned launch system. The primary objectives were to develop IAPS concepts which appeared to offer viable alternatives to state-of-the-art (i.e., hypergolic, or earth-storable) APS approaches. The IHOT study resulted in the definition of three APS concepts; two cryogenic IAPS, and a third concept utilizing hypergolic propellants.

  13. Application of SMA technology to auxiliary functions in appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bart; Brei, Diann E.; Patera, John

    2002-07-01

    Traditionally smart material actuation has been reserved for high technology industries such as space and aerospace; however, as the field matures more and more instances are found in low-cost, high production areas. This paper describes one such instance - the application of shape memory alloys to auxiliary functions in appliances. This investigation focused on lid locks for washing machines because it is representative of several other applications found in appliances including valves, dispensers, locks, brakes, etc. Several competing concepts for SMA actuated lid locks are discussed including simple analytical design models and experimental characterization of proof-of-concept prototypes. A comparison of these designs based on performance (force, response times), energy (power requirements) and economic metrics is given. From this study, a final concept was developed based upon the best attributes of the different concepts. The resulting proof-of-concept prototype demonstrated improved performance over the current state with a potential for cost reduction.

  14. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E; Cordero, R

    2008-01-01

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles

  15. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F (Mexico)], E-mail: aramador@gmail.com, E-mail: nbagatella@uv.mx, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx

    2008-03-21

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles.

  16. Ionization by nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    A phenomenological description of ionization events is given that applies to both shaking transitions of the composite nucleus-atom system and the process in which the charged particles emitted in a nuclear decay transfer energy by a relatively slow ''direct collision'' final state interaction with atomic electrons. Specific areas covered include shakeoff in internal conversion, shakeoff in electron capture, shakeoff in beta decay, and inner electron ejection in alpha decay. (5 figs., 1 table)

  17. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  18. Stability and Confinement Properties of Auxiliary Heated NSTX Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Menard; R.E.Bell; C. Bourdelle; D.S. Darrow; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; L.R. Grisham; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; S.S. Medley; D. Mueller; F. Paoletti; S.A. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; J.R. Wilson; M.G. Bell; J.M. Bialek; C.E.Bush; J.C. Hosea; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; R.J. Maqueda; M. Ono; Y-K.M. Peng; C.H. Skinner; V.A. Soukhanovskii; E.J. Synakowski; G. Taylor; G.A. Wurden; and S.J. Zweben

    2001-07-05

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a spherical tokamak with nominal plasma major radius R(subscript ''0'') = 0.85 m, minor radius a = 0.66 m, and aspect ratio A > 1.28. Typical discharge parameters are plasma current I (subscript ''p'') = 0.7-1.4 MA, toroidal magnetic field B(subscript ''t0'') = 0.25-0.45 Tesla at major radius R(subscript ''0''), elongation = 1.7-2.2, triangularity 0.3-0.5, line-average electron density = 2-5 x 10(superscript ''19'') m(superscript ''-3''), electron temperature T(subscript ''e'')(0) = 0.5-1.5 keV, and ion temperature T(subscript ''i'')(0) = 0.5-2 keV. The NSTX auxiliary heating systems can routinely deliver 4.5 MW of 80-keV deuterium neutral beams and 3 MW of 30-MHz high-harmonic fast-wave power. Kinetic profile diagnostics presently include a 10-channel, 30-Hz multipulse Thomson scattering system (MPTS), a 17-channel charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) system, a 48-chord ultra-soft X-ray (USXR) array, and a 15-chord bolometry array. Initial experiments utilizing auxiliary heating on NSTX have focused on MHD stability limits, confinement trends, studying H-mode characteristics, and performing initial power balance calculations.

  19. STARTER-GENERATOR SYSTEM FOR AUXILIARY POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Levin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a starter-generator system for an auxiliary power unit of an aircraft. A feature of the presented system is the use of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. The main problem of the system is the generation of electric energy of an aircraft on the basis of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets is the absence of the possibility of regulating the voltage and frequency of electrical energy, in this connection, a semiconductor converter that ensures the conversion of generated electric energy with significant mass-dimensions characteristics.The article proposes an approach to designing a starter-generator system with a parallel connection of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. This approach makes it possible to significantly reduce the part of the electrical energy that needs to be converted, as a consequence, the semiconductor converter has significantly smaller mass-and-batch characteristics.In the article the modes of generation of electric energy and the starter mode of operation of the starter-generator system are considered in detail, the circuit realization of the semiconductor converter is shown. A scheme for replacing one phase of the system for generating electric energy and calculating electric parameters is presented.The possibility of creating a highly efficient starter-generator system based on a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter for an auxiliary power plant of aircrafts is shown. Structural and basic schemes for constructing a system for generating electrical energy are proposed. The approach to the choice of rational circuit solutions is substantiated, basic estimates of the electrical parameters of the system are obtained. The possibility of achieving a specific mass of a semiconductor converter for synchronous

  20. Pregnancy and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plataniotis, Th.N.; Nikolaou, K.I.; Syrgiamiotis, G.V.; Dousi, M.; Panou, Th.; Georgiadis, K.; Bougias, C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this report there will be presented the effects of ionizing radiation at the fetus and the necessary radioprotection. The biological results on the fetus, caused by the irradiation, depend on the dose of ionizing radiation that it receives and the phase of its evolution. The imminent effects of the irradiation can cause the fetus death, abnormalities and mental retardation, which are the result of overdose. The effects are carcinogenesis and leukemia, which are relative to the acceptable irradiating dose at the fetus and accounts about 0,015 % per 1 mSv. The effects of ionizing radiation depend on the phase of the fetus evolution: 1 st phase (1 st - 2 nd week): presence of low danger; 2 nd phase (3 rd - 8 th week): for doses >100 mSv there is the possibility of dysplasia; 3 rd phase (8 th week - birth): this phase concerns the results with a percentage 0,015 % per 1 mSv. We always must follow some rules of radioprotection and especially at Classical radiation use of necessary protocols (low dose), at Nuclear Medicine use of the right radioisotope and the relative field of irradiation for the protection of the adjacent healthy tissues and at Radiotherapy extreme caution is required regarding the dose and the treatment. In any case, it is forbidden to end a pregnancy when the pregnant undergoes medical exams, in which the uterus is in the beam of irradiation. The radiographer must always discuss the possibility of pregnancy. (author)

  1. Non-ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The still growing use of non-ionizing radiation such as ultraviolet radiation laser light, ultrasound and infrasound, has induced growing interest in the effects of these types of radiation on the human organism, and in probable hazards emanating from their application. As there are up to now no generally approved regulations or standards governing the use of non-ionizing radiation and the prevention of damage, it is up to the manufacturers of the relevant equipment to provide for safety in the use of their apparatus. This situation has led to a feeling of incertainty among manufacturers, as to how which kind of damage should be avoided. Practice has shown that there is a demand for guidelines stating limiting values, for measuring techniques clearly indicating safety thresholds, and for safety rules providing for safe handling. The task group 'Non-ionizing radiation' of the Radiation Protection Association started a programme to fulfill this task. Experts interested in this work have been invited to exchange their knowledge and experience in this field, and a collection of loose leaves will soon be published giving information and recommendations. (orig./HP) [de

  2. 76 FR 65935 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    .... APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions; Correction... Poultry Improvement Plan (the Plan) and its auxiliary provisions by providing new or modified sampling and testing procedures for Plan participants and participating flocks. We also amended the regulations in 9...

  3. Dummy auxiliaries in child and adult second language acquisition of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; de Korte, S.

    2011-01-01

    In previous research it has been observed that second language (L2) learners of Dutch and German use analytic verbs in contexts where the target language requires synthetic verbs. These analytic verbs consist of a semantically empty auxiliary (dummy auxiliary) that selects a lexical infinitive. In

  4. Modal Auxiliaries and Their Semantic Functions Used by Advanced EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabiardakani, Najmeh; Khojasteh, Laleh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Since modal auxiliary verbs have been proved to be one of the most troublesome grammatical structures in English, the researchers of this study decided to do an analysis on the ways in which advanced EFL Iranian students use modal auxiliaries focusing specially on nine modals' semantic functions. Consequently, was conducted based on the following…

  5. 30 CFR 18.22 - Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary... AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.22 Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation. Each boring-type continuous-mining machine that is submitted for approval shall...

  6. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.96 Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which...

  7. Auxiliary Armed Forces and Innovations in Security Governance in Mozambique’s Civil War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentzsch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Who rules during the civil war? This article argues that the concept of armed group governance must be expanded to include auxiliary armed forces linked to rebels or the government. Comparing the organization of rebel and government auxiliaries, the article demonstrates that security governance

  8. 77 FR 11421 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada, Auxiliary Power Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Canada, Auxiliary Power Units AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... serial numbers of Pratt & Whitney Canada (P&WC) PW901A auxiliary power units (APUs) approved under... address above between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Fax: 202-493-2251...

  9. Goal programming for cyclical auxiliary police scheduling at UiTM Cawangan Perlis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapar, Wasilatul Effah; Nasir, Diana Sirmayunie Mohd; Nor, Nor Azriani Mohamad; Abas, Sharifah Fhahriyah Syed

    2017-11-01

    Constructing a good and fair schedule for shift workers poses a great challenge as it requires a lot of time and effort. In this study, goal programming has been applied on scheduling to achieve the hard and soft constraints for a cyclical schedule that would ease the head of auxiliary police at building new schedules. To accomplish this goal, shift types were assigned in order to provide a fair schedule that takes into account the auxiliary police's policies and preferences. The model was run using Lingo software. Three out of four goals set for the study were achieved. In addition, the results considered an equal allocation for every auxiliary police, namely 70% for total duty and 30% for the day. Furthermore, the schedule was able to cyclically generate another 10 sets schedule. More importantly, the model has provided unbiased scheduling of auxiliary policies which led to high satisfaction in auxiliary police management.

  10. Inundation Mapping for Heterogeneous Land Covers with Synthetic Aperture Radar and Auxiliary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, F.; Judge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used to detect surface water inundation and provides an advantage over multi-spectral instruments due to cloud penetration and higher spatial resolutions. However, detecting inundation for densely vegetated and urban areas with SAR remains a challenge due to corner reflection and diffuse scattering. Additionally, flat urban surfaces such as roads exhibit similar backscatter coefficients as urban surface water. Differences between inundated and non-inundated backscatter over vegetated land covers of static spatial domains have been demonstrated in previous studies. However, these backscatter differences are sensitive to changes in water depth, soil moisture, SAR sensor parameters, terrain, and vegetation properties. These factors tend to make accurate inundation mapping of heterogeneous regions across varying spatial and temporal extents difficult with exclusive use of SAR. This study investigates the utility of auxiliary data specifically high-resolution (10m) terrain information in conjunction with SAR (10m) for detecting inundated areas. Digital elevation models provide an absolute elevation which could enhance inundation mapping given a limited study extent with similar topography. To counter this limitation, a hydrologically relevant terrain index is proposed known as the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) which normalizes topography to the local relative elevation of the nearest point along the relevant drainage line. HAND has been used for assisting remote sensing inundation mapping in the pre-processing stage as a terrain correction tool and as a post-processing mask that eliminates areas of low inundation risk. While the latter technique is useful for reduction of commission errors, it does not employ HAND for reducing omission errors that can occur from dense vegetation, spectral noise, and urban features. Sentinel-1 dual-pol SAR as well as auxiliary HAND will be used as predictors by various supervised and

  11. Ionization effects in three-dimensional solar granulation simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Mark P.; Nordlund, Ake; Stein, Robert F.; Toomre, Juri

    1993-01-01

    These numerical studies show that ionization influences both the transport and dynamical properties of compressible convection near the surface of the Sun. About two-thirds of the enthalpy transported by convective motions in the region of partial hydrogen ionization is carried as latent heat. The role of fast downflow plumes in total convective transport is substantially elevated by this contribution. Instability of the thermal boundary layer is strongly enhanced by temperature sensitive variations in the radiative properties of the fluid, and this provides a mechanism for plume initiation and cell fragmentation in the surface layers. As the plumes descend, temperature fluctuations and associated buoyancy forces are maintained because of the increased specific heat of the partially ionized material. This can result is supersonic vertical flows. At greater depths, ionization effects diminish, and the plumes are decelerated by significant entrainment of surrounding fluid.

  12. Ionization cross section of partially ionized hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimbetov, F B; Kudyshev, Z A [Department of Physics, al - Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: Bfb77@kazsu.kz, E-mail: Z.Kudyshev@mail.ru

    2008-05-01

    In present work the electron impact ionization cross section is considered. The electron impact ionization cross section is calculated, based on pseudopotential model of interaction between plasma particles which accounts correlation effects. It is calculated with help of two methods: classical and quantum - mechanical (Born approximation). The ionization cross section is compared with corresponding results of other authors and experimental data. It has been shown that it is very important to take into account an influence of the surrounding during consideration of ionization processes.

  13. Comparison of PCR/Electron spray Ionization-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry versus Traditional Clinical Microbiology for active surveillance of organisms contaminating high-use surfaces in a burn intensive care unit, an orthopedic ward and healthcare workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding nosocomial pathogen transmission is restricted by culture limitations. Novel platforms, such as PCR-based electron spray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS), may be useful as investigational tools. Methods Traditional clinical microbiology (TCM) and PCR/ESI-TOF-MS were used to recover and detect microorganisms from the hands and personal protective equipment of 10 burn intensive care unit (ICU) healthcare workers providing clinical care at a tertiary care military referral hospital. High-use environmental surfaces were assessed in 9 burn ICU and 10 orthopedic patient rooms. Clinical cultures during the study period were reviewed for pathogen comparison with investigational molecular diagnostic methods. Results From 158 samples, 142 organisms were identified by TCM and 718 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. The molecular diagnostic method detected more organisms (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.8, p < 0.01) from 99% vs. 67% of samples (p < 0.01). TCM detected S. aureus in 13 samples vs. 21 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. Gram-negative organisms were less commonly identified than gram-positive by both methods; especially by TCM. Among all detected bacterial species, similar percentages were typical nosocomial pathogens (18-19%) for TCM vs. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS also detected mecA in 112 samples, vanA in 13, and KPC-3 in 2. MecA was associated (p < 0.01) with codetection of coagulase negative staphylococci but not S. aureus. No vanA was codetected with enterococci; one KPC-3 was detected without Klebsiella spp. Conclusions In this pilot study, PCR/ESI-TOF-MS detected more organisms, especially gram-negatives, compared to TCM, but the current assay format is limited by the number of antibiotic resistance determinants it covers. Further large-scale assessments of PCR/ESI-TOF-MS for hospital surveillance are warranted. PMID:23050585

  14. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  15. Ionization of anisothermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    During this last mid-century, only the temperature of electrons has been involved in the Saha's mass action law, whatever be the other ionic and neutral ones in any isothermal or anisothermal plasma. In order to set aside this underlying paradox in the case of argon ionization, it is necessary to improve this equation of partial equilibrium after having defined: - the basic Gibbs-Duhem's relations for such a polythermal mixture, - the inhomogeneous equilibrium issued from chemical reactions according to Le Chatelier's principle. (author). 3 refs

  16. Doubly resonant multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crance, M.

    1978-01-01

    A particular case of doubly resonant multiphoton ionization is theoretically investigated. More precisely, two levels quasi-resonant with two successive harmonics of the field frequency are considered. The method used is based on the effective operator formalism first introduced for this problem by Armstrong, Beers and Feneuille. The main result is to show the possibility of observing large interference effects on the width of the resonances. Moreover this treatment allows us to make more precise the connection between effective operator formalism and standard perturbation theory

  17. Ionization detectors, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcik, J.

    1976-01-01

    Most measuring devices used in gas chromatography consist of detectors that measure the ionization current. The process is based on the collision of a moving high-energy particle with a target particle that is ionised while an electron is freed. The discussion of the conditions of the collision reaction, the properties of the colliding particles, and the intensity of the applied field point to a unified classification of ionisation detectors. Radioactive sources suitable for use in these detectors are surveyed. The slow-down mechanism, recombination and background current effect are discussed

  18. Plasma production via field ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. O’Connell

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming particle beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes a neutral vapor or gas. Experiments conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization by an electron beam in a neutral lithium vapor. By independently varying the transverse beam size, number of electrons per bunch, or bunch length, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. Additional experiments ionized neutral xenon and neutral nitric oxide by varying the incoming beam’s bunch length. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments.

  19. News about ionized food identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.

    1995-01-01

    The ionizing radiations are used to clean food and increase their preservation life. If a lot of countries permits ionized products commercialization, others are opposed to it. To control the commercial exchanges, check the applied treatment aim and give to the consumers a better information, several ionized food identification methods were perfected and several are about to be recognized as european standards. 4 refs. 3 figs, 1 tab

  20. Biology of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present trends in biology of ionizing radiation are reviewed. The following topics are investigated: interaction of ionizing radiations with matter; the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions; properties of the free radicals intervening in the couples O 2 /H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 ; radiation chemistry of biological compounds; biological effects of ionizing radiations; biochemical mechanisms involving free radicals as intermediates; applications (biotechnological applications, origins of life) [fr

  1. Foundations of ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisenko, O.N.; Pereslegin, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foundations of dosimetry in application to radiotherapy are presented. General characteristics of ionizing radiations and main characteristics of ionizing radiation sources, mostly used in radiotherapy, are given. Values and units for measuring ionizing radiation (activity of a radioactive substance, absorbed dose, exposure dose, integral dose and dose equivalent are considered. Different methods and instruments for ionizing radiation dosimetry are discussed. The attention is paid to the foundations of clinical dosimetry (representation of anatomo-topographic information, choice of radiation conditions, realization of radiation methods, corrections for a configuration and inhomogeneity of a patient's body, account of biological factors of radiation effects, instruments of dose field formation, control of irradiation procedure chosen)

  2. How does ionizing radiation escape from galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlitova, Ivana

    2016-10-01

    Search for sources that reionized the Universe from z 15 to z 6 is one of the main drivers of present-day astronomy. Low-mass star-forming galaxies are the most favoured sources of ionizing photons, but the searches of escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) have not been extremely successful. Our team has recently detected prominent LyC escape from five Green Pea galaxies at redshift 0.3, using the HST/COS spectrograph, which represents a significant breakthrough. We propose here to study the LyC escape of the strongest among these leakers, J1152, with spatial resolution. From the comparison of the ionizing and non-ionizing radiation maps, and surface brightness profiles, we will infer the major mode in which LyC is escaping: from the strongest starburst, from the galaxy edge, through a hole along our line-of-sight, through clumpy medium, or directly from all the production sites due to highly ionized medium in the entire galaxy. In parallel, we will test the predictive power of two highly debated indirect indicators of LyC leakage: the [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratio, and Lyman-alpha. We predict that their spatial distribution should closely follow that of the ionizing continuum if column densities of the neutral gas are low. This combined study, which relies on the HST unique capabilities, will bring crucial information on the structure of the leaking galaxies, provide constraints for hydrodynamic simulations, and will lead to efficient future searches for LyC leakers across a large range of redshifts.

  3. LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. F.; Mark, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The completed phases of a study evaluating LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion system concepts for a second generation Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) are presented. The results of the preliminary system evaluation phase are summarized, and efforts regarding the in-depth system evaluation phase are described. Ethanol and methane are considered to be the best fuel candidates as both are non-coking, non-corrosive, and offer high performance capability. Ethanol affords the highest dV and total impulse capability because of its high density-specific impulse product, while methane affords the lowest system wet weight when the system is sized for a fixed dV or total impulse requirement. The LOX/ethanol system allows the use of a simple non-insulated RCS feed system, and is the most attractive LOX/hydrocarbon OMS-RCS. Its operational costs would be substantially less than the current N2O4/MMH system.

  4. A magnetorheological clutch for efficient automotive auxiliary device actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bucchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of a project funded by Regione Toscana aimed at reducing the power absorption of auxiliary devices in vehicles are presented. In particular the design, testing and application of a magnetorheological clutch (MR is proposed, aimed at disengaging the vacuum pump, which draws in air from the power-brake booster chamber, in order to reduce the device power absorption. Several clutch preliminary studies done to choose the clutch geometry and the magnetic field supply are illustrated. The final choice consisted in an MR clutch with permanent magnet, which satisfied size, torque and fail-safe specifications. The clutch characteristics, in terms of torque versus slip, were obtained experimentally for three different clutch prototypes on an ad-hoc developed test bench.As result of a preliminary simulation, a comparison between the power absorption of a current production vacuum pump, an innovative vacuum pump and both vacuum pumps coupled with the MR clutch is presented. The New European Driving Cycle is considered for simulating the vacuum pump operation both in urban and highway driving. Results show that the use of the innovative vacuum pump reduces the device consumption of about 35%, whereas the use of MR clutch coupled with the innovative vacuum pump reduces it up to about 44% in urban driving and 50% in highway driving.

  5. Neutral particle diagnostics for ohmically and auxiliary heated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.

    1982-01-01

    Protons and hydrogen atoms in a plasma undergo charge-exchange collisions which give rise to an energetic charge-exchange flux emerging from the plasma. The intensity and energy distribution of the charge-exchange flux is measured separately for hydrogen or deuterium. Besides discussing the basic principles and the experimental techniques, this report concentrates on plasma characteristics accessible to neutral particle diagnostics. From the energy distribution of the charge exchange flux, the ion energy distribution can be inferred. In the case of a thermal plasma the measurement of the ion temperature profile allows the analysis of the ion energy transport, and with auxiliary heating the ion heating efficiency can be estimated. From the absolute intensity of the charge-exchange flux the hydrogen atom density can be determined; strong toroidal variation, with sharp increases at limiter and gas input valve, is observed. The atom flux which leaves the plasma hits the wall and forms one branch of plasma wall interaction which can be investigated by measuring the backscattering of neutrals from the wall and by analyzing the wall sputtering due to charge-exchange atoms. Neutral particle diagnostics carried out in the divertor chamber of a divertor tokamak reveal strong plasma wall interaction at the neutralizer plate

  6. Seismic qualification of PWR plant auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.; Tsai, N.C.

    1983-08-01

    The NRC Standard Review Plan specifies that the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a safeguard system that functions in the event of a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) to remove the decay heat via the steam generator. Only recently licensed PWR plants have an AFW system designed to the current Standard Review Plan specifications. The NRC devised the Multiplant Action Plan C-14 in order to make a survey of the seismic capability of the AFW systems of operating PWR plants. The purpose of this survey is to enable the NRC to make decisions regarding the need of requiring the licensees to upgrade the AFW systems to an SSE level of seismic capability. To implement the first phase of the C-14 plan, the NRC issued a Generic Letter (GL) 81-14 to all operating PWR licensees requesting information on the seismic capability of their AFW systems. This report summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's efforts to assist the NRC in evaluating the status of seismic qualification of the AFW systems in 40 PWR plants, by reviewing the licensees' responses to GL 81-14

  7. Simulation of a passive auxiliary feedwater system with TRACE5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorduy, María; Gallardo, Sergio; Verdú, Gumersindo, E-mail: maloral@upv.es, E-mail: sergalbe@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Instituto Universitario de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental (ISIRYM), València (Spain)

    2017-07-01

    The study of the nuclear power plant accidents occurred in recent decades, as well as the probabilistic risk assessment carried out for this type of facility, present human error as one of the main contingency factors. For this reason, the design and development of generation III, III+ and IV reactors, which include inherent and passive safety systems, have been promoted. In this work, a TRACE5 model of ATLAS (Advanced Thermal- Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) is used to reproduce an accidental scenario consisting in a prolonged Station BlackOut (SBO). In particular, the A1.2 test of the OECD-ATLAS project is analyzed, whose purpose is to study the primary system cooling by means of the water supply to one of the steam generators from a Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). This safety feature prevents the loss of secondary system inventory by means of the steam condensation and its recirculation. Thus, the conservation of a heat sink allows the natural circulation flow rate until restoring stable conditions. For the reproduction of the test, an ATLAS model has been adapted to the experiment conditions, and a PAFS has been incorporated. >From the simulation test results, the main thermal-hydraulic variables (pressure, flow rates, collapsed water level and temperature) are analyzed in the different circuits, contrasting them with experimental data series. As a conclusion, the work shows the TRACE5 code capability to correctly simulate the behavior of a passive feedwater system. (author)

  8. Auxiliary antenna-assisted interference mitigation for radio astronomy arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, B. D.; Li, L.; Warnick, K. F.

    2005-02-01

    Interferometric image synthesis in radio astronomy is plagued by signal corruption from man-made sources. The very weak signals of interest can be overwhelmed by such interference. Recent work has proposed using array signal processing techniques of adaptive beamforming, adaptive filtering, and subspace projection to remove interference prior to image synthesis. In some practical scenarios, we have found poor cancellation performance when using such methods. Because signal-of-interest levels in radio astronomy (RA) are usually well below the noise, even interference to noise ratios (INR) less than unity can affect signal estimation. At these low INRs, it is difficult to estimate interference parameters or statistics with sufficient accuracy for high-performance adaptive cancellation or subspace projection. By adding a few (one to three) low-gain (relative to the primary telescope dishes) "auxiliary" antennas to an array, it is possible to overcome this problem. This paper will show that using such antennas (e.g. commercial-grade 3-m dishes) with an existing array can significantly improve interference rejection. New extensions to subspace projection spatial filtering methods are presented, along with analytical and simulated results for performance comparison.

  9. Evaluation of Transmission Grid Voltage Impact on the Operation of Power Units’ Auxiliary Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the low voltage impact on the operation of critical auxiliaries of selected generation units in the national power system. Time limits are determined for the operation of these auxiliaries at low voltage in the power system and the acceptable reduced voltages in their secondary circuits at which the generation unit is capable of interoperation with the system. Upgrades of auxiliary systems are proposed which would enable interoperation of the unit and the system at significantly reduced system voltages.

  10. Self-patching firmware program. [Method of branching to auxiliary program without hardware or software modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanchi, L.

    1976-12-01

    A method of branching to an auxiliary program without any hardware or software modification at the time the auxiliary program will be written is described. Suitable statements in the main program are already prepared to accept a future program that will be written in machine language. The main program is stored as firmware in PROM memory, while the auxiliary program is loaded into RAM memory. The method is described for the Intel 8080 microprocessor, but can be generalized for any microprocessor or minicomputer that uses ROMs or PROMs. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Auxiliary System Load Schemes in Large Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzle, I.; Bosnjak, D.; Pandzic, H.

    2010-01-01

    Uninterrupted auxiliary system power supply in large power plants is a key factor for normal operation, transient states, start-ups and shutdowns and particularly during fault conditions. Therefore, there are many challenges in designing the main electrical system as well as the auxiliary systems power supply. Depending upon the type of fuel used and the environmental control system required, a thermal power plant may consume as much as 10% of its total generation for auxiliary power, while a nuclear power plant may require only 4 - 6% auxiliaries. In general, the larger the power generating plant, the higher the voltage selected for the AC auxiliary electric system. Most stations in the 75 to 500 MW range utilize 4,2 kV as the base auxiliary system voltage. Large generating stations 500 - 1000 MW and more use voltage levels of 6,9 kV and more. Some single dedicated loads such as electric driven boiler feed pumps are supplied ba a 13,8 kV bus. While designing the auxiliary electric system, the following areas must be considered: motor starting requirements, voltage regulation requirements, short-circuit duty requirements, economic considerations, reliability and alternate sources. Auxiliary power supply can't be completely generalized and each situation should be studied on its own merits to determine the optimal solution. Naturally, nuclear power plants have more reliability requirements and safety design criteria. Main coolant-pump power supply and continuity of service to other vital loads deserve special attention. This paper presents an overview of some up-to-date power plant auxiliary load system concepts. The main types of auxiliary loads are described and the electric diagrams of the modern auxiliary system supply concepts are given. Various alternative sources of auxiliary electrical supply are considered, the advantages and disadvantages of these are compared and proposals are made for high voltage distribution systems around the thermal and nuclear plant

  12. [Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (comparative risk estimations)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2012-01-01

    The population has widely used mobile communication for already more than 15 years. It is important to note that the use of mobile communication has sharply changed the conditions of daily exposure of the population to EME We expose our brain daily for the first time in the entire civilization. The mobile phone is an open and uncontrollable source of electromagnetic radiation. The comparative risk estimation for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation was carried out taking into account the real conditions of influence. Comparison of risks for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation leads us to a conclusion that EMF RF exposure in conditions of wide use of mobile communication is potentially more harmful than ionizing radiation influence.

  13. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  14. Ionizing radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  15. Applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques

  16. Multiphoton ionization of Uracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Eladio; Martinez, Denhi; Guerrero, Alfonso; Alvarez, Ignacio; Cisneros, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    Multiphoton ionization and dissociation of Uracil using a Reflectron time of flight spectrometer was performed along with radiation from the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. Uracil is one of the four nitrogen bases that belong to RNA. The last years special interest has been concentrated on the study of the effects under UV radiation in nucleic acids1 and also in the role that this molecule could have played in the origin and development of life on our planet.2 The MPI mass spectra show that the presence and intensity of the resulting ions strongly depend on the density power. The identification of the ions in the mass spectra is presented. The results are compared with those obtained in other laboratories under different experimental conditions and some of them show partial agreement.3 The present work was supported by CONACYT-Mexico Grant 165410 and DGAPA UNAM Grant IN101215 and IN102613.

  17. Alkali suppression within laser ion-source cavities and time structure of the laser ionized ion-bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Köster, U; Georg, U; Jonsson, O; Marzari, S; Fedosseev, V

    2003-01-01

    The chemical selectivity of the target and ion-source production system is an asset for Radioactive Ion-Beam (RIB) facilities equipped with mass separators. Ionization via laser induced multiple resonant steps Ionization has such selectivity. However, the selectivity of the ISOLDE Resonant Ionization Laser Ion-Source (RILIS), where ionization takes place within high temperature refractory metal cavities, suffers from unwanted surface ionization of low ionization potential alkalis. In order to reduce this type of isobaric contaminant, surface ionization within the target vessel was used. On-line measurements of the efficiency of this method is reported, suppression factors of alkalis up to an order of magnitude were measured as a function of their ionization potential. The time distribution of the ion bunches produced with the RILIS was measured for a variety of elements and high temperature cavity materials. While all ions are produced within a few nanoseconds, the ion bunch sometimes spreads over more than 1...

  18. On the Saha Ionization Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the Saha Ionization Equation. Sushanta Dattagupta. General Article Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 41-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/01/0041-0055. Keywords. Ionization, astrophysics, spectroscopy, chemical reaction, transition state. Abstract.

  19. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber. 8 claims, 7 figures

  20. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Wigner Transport Simulation of Resonant Tunneling Diodes with Auxiliary Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Ho; Shin, Mincheol; Byun, Seok-Joo; Kim, Wangki

    2018-03-01

    Resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) with auxiliary quantum wells ( e.g., emitter prewell, subwell, and collector postwell) are studied using a Wigner transport equation (WTE) discretized by a thirdorder upwind differential scheme. A flat-band potential profile is used for the WTE simulation. Our calculations revealed functions of the auxiliary wells as follows: The prewell increases the current density ( J) and the peak voltage ( V p ) while decreasing the peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR), and the postwell decreases J while increasing the PVCR. The subwell affects J and PVCR, but its main effect is to decrease V p . When multiple auxiliary wells are used, each auxiliary well contributes independently to the transport without producing side effects.

  2. Analysis of Heat Transfers inside Counterflow Plate Heat Exchanger Augmented by an Auxiliary Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, A.-R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of heat transfers in counterflow plate heat exchanger due to presence of an intermediate auxiliary fluid flow is investigated. The intermediate auxiliary channel is supported by transverse conducting pins. The momentum and energy equations for the primary fluids are solved numerically and validated against a derived approximate analytical solution. A parametric study including the effect of the various plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary channel dimensionless parameters is conducted. Different enhancement performance indicators are computed. The various trends of parameters that can better enhance heat transfer rates above those for the conventional plate heat exchanger are identified. Large enhancement factors are obtained under fully developed flow conditions. The maximum enhancement factors can be increased by above 8.0- and 5.0-fold for the step and exponential distributions of the pins, respectively. Finally, counterflow plate heat exchangers with auxiliary fluid flows are recommended over the typical ones if these flows can be provided with the least cost. PMID:24719572

  3. 14 CFR 23.1549 - Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... radial or a red line; (b) Each normal operating range must be marked with a green arc or green line, not... marked with a yellow arc or a yellow line; and (d) Each engine, auxiliary power unit, or propeller range...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1549 - Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Each normal operating range must be marked with a green arc or green line, not extending beyond the... or a yellow line; and (d) Each engine, auxiliary power unit, or propeller speed range that is...

  5. Derived Requirements for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste (HLW) Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-02-28

    The potential need for auxiliary double-shell tank waste mixing and solids mobilization requires an evaluation of optional technologies. This document formalizes those operating and design requirements needed for further engineering evaluations.

  6. Analysis of heat transfers inside counterflow plate heat exchanger augmented by an auxiliary fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, A-R A

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of heat transfers in counterflow plate heat exchanger due to presence of an intermediate auxiliary fluid flow is investigated. The intermediate auxiliary channel is supported by transverse conducting pins. The momentum and energy equations for the primary fluids are solved numerically and validated against a derived approximate analytical solution. A parametric study including the effect of the various plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary channel dimensionless parameters is conducted. Different enhancement performance indicators are computed. The various trends of parameters that can better enhance heat transfer rates above those for the conventional plate heat exchanger are identified. Large enhancement factors are obtained under fully developed flow conditions. The maximum enhancement factors can be increased by above 8.0- and 5.0-fold for the step and exponential distributions of the pins, respectively. Finally, counterflow plate heat exchangers with auxiliary fluid flows are recommended over the typical ones if these flows can be provided with the least cost.

  7. Compositions curable with ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamichi, K.; Kodama, Takashi.

    1970-01-01

    Organic peroxides generally accelerate the curing reaction of radiation-curable resin compositions but, simultaneously, reduce the shelf life of the composition. Here is provided a new resin composition curable with ionizing radiations which is a solution of unsaturated alkyd resin, dially phthalate prepolymer, 1,2-polybutadiene or mixture thereof in a vinyl monomer containing hexachloroethane in place of an organic peroxide, the hexachloroethane accelerating the radiation curing without reducing the shelf life. The composition is composed of 100 parts of the resin, 20 to 80 parts of the vinyl monomer and 1 to 20 parts of hexachloroethane, and is useful for surface coatings, castings and impregnations. In one example, a solution of 100 parts of dially phthalate prepolymer (IV 58, AV 1.8, viscosity of 50% solution in MEK 80 cp) in 60 parts of vinyl acetate containing a varied quantity of hexachloroethane was exposed to Co 60 gamma rays (1.5x10 4 rad/hr) for 14 hours. The content of hexachloroethane (%) in the starting composition and the gel fraction (%) after cure were, respectively: 0, 29.3; 1, 44.6; 3, 72.0; 5, 84.5; 10, 96.1; 5 (CCl 4 in place of hexachloroethane), 37.2. (S. Kaichi)

  8. Ionization effects in electronic inner-shells of ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchornak, G.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the atomic physics of ionization atoms has been presented. Interaction and structure effects in atomic shells, correlated to the occurrence of vacancies in several subshells of the atom have been considered. The methods of calculations of atomic states and wave functions have been reviewed. The energy shift of characteristic X-rays is discussed as a function of the ionization stage of the atom. The influence of inner and outer-shell vacancies on the energy of the X-rays is shown in detail. The influence of chemical effects on the parameters of X-rays is also taken into account. Further on, the change of transition probabilities in radiative and non-radiative transitions by changing stage of ionization is discussed; and among them the leading part of Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions by the arearrangement of the atomic states is shown. The influence of non-radiative electronic transitions on ionization cross-sections for multiple ionization is discussed. Using these results, ionization cross-sections for direct and indirect processes for several ionization stages are given

  9. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or

  10. Disturbance in the power system caused by auxiliary DC installation failure of switchyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesic, M. [HEP Transmission System Operator, Zagreb (Croatia); Tesnjak, S.; Skok, S. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

    2008-07-01

    Auxiliary direct current (DC) installation failures can lead to outages in power plants and compromise the security of power systems. In this study, a simplified stationary model was used to simulate an auxiliary DC installation in a switchyard. The aim of the study was to evaluate new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for auxiliary DC installation dimensioning and analysis. Criteria included the dimensioning and selection of batteries; the calculation of conductor heating; voltage drop calculations; conductor squares in relation to permanent currents; and the evaluation of protection elements. The new standards were compared with the previous auxiliary system installation methodology. Results of the study suggested that the new standard has introduced significant improvements in short circuit current calculation. Laboratory tests for the measurement of short circuits showed that the active network has less of an impact on the auxiliary system than previous measuring methods. Alterations to the IEC standard will be required as a result of limitations to the short circuit current and new rectifier technology. Results of the study will be used to develop a new model and scheme for dimensioning and analyzing auxiliary DC installations. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Ionization Mechanism of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I.-Chung; Lee, Chuping; Lee, Yuan-Tseh; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2015-07-01

    In past studies, mistakes in determining the ionization mechanism in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) were made because an inappropriate ion-to-neutral ratio was used. The ion-to-neutral ratio of the analyte differs substantially from that of the matrix in MALDI. However, these ratios were not carefully distinguished in previous studies. We begin by describing the properties of ion-to-neutral ratios and reviews early experimental measurements. A discussion of the errors committed in previous theoretical studies and a comparison of recent experimental measurements follow. We then describe a thermal proton transfer model and demonstrate how the model appropriately describes ion-to-neutral ratios and the total ion intensity. Arguments raised to challenge thermal ionization are then discussed. We demonstrate how none of the arguments are valid before concluding that thermal proton transfer must play a crucial role in the ionization process of MALDI.

  12. Photoionization effects in ionization fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, Manuel [Departamento de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Fontelos, Marco A [Departamento de Matematicas, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, C/Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Trueba, Jose L [Departamento de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-12-21

    In this paper we study the effects of photoionization processes on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharge. We show that negative fronts accelerate in the presence of photoionization events. The appearance and propagation of positive ionization fronts travelling with constant velocity is explained as the result of the combined effects of photoionization and electron diffusion. The photoionization range plays an important role in the selection of the velocity of the ionization front as we show in this work.

  13. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  14. Ionization of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, E.C.; Bakale, G.

    1976-01-01

    Application of pulsed-conductivity techniques to ionization phenomena in liquids has yielded new results on electron transport and electron reactions in nonpolar liquids which we have extrapolated to biological systems to develop a novel model of direct radiation damage to mammalian cells that involves the unsolvated electron as the key reactant. Among these new results are electron attachment rate constants of thirty-five substituted nitrobenzene compounds measured in nonpolar solvents which when combined with product anion lifetimes are correlated with cellular radiosensitization efficiencies. From this study we found that electron attachment rates are dependent upon the electron mobility in the solvents and upon the dipole moment of the electron-accepting nitrobenzene compounds. The model also drawn upon energy-dependent electron attachment rates which we have measured in cryogenic liquids, and we have measured in the same solvents associative detachment rate constants and electron momentum transfer cross sections. In addition to these studies of electronic processes in liquids, we have measured ion mobilities of lecithin and chlorophyll in nonpolar solvents and conclude that these solutes form inverse micelles under certain conditions. Formation of these micelles permits electron transport through the lipid micellar walls and electron attachment to electron-accepting polar solutes inside the lipid vesicles to be studied

  15. Ionization in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakale, G.

    1990-01-01

    During the 1987--1990 reporting period, studies were conducted that entailed the direct measurement of the transport and reaction properties of excess electrons in nonpolar liquids through the use of pulse-conductivity techniques. The results obtained from these studies should be applicable toward the development of a better understanding of the primary ionizing event in liquids as well as to providing physico-chemical information that is pertinent to electron-transfer processes that are ubiquitous in biological systems. Progress was also made in developing a better understanding of electron attachment reactions in liquids through measurements of the electron attachment rate constants, k e s, of a variety of electron-attaching solutes. The effects of several functional groups substituted at different positions on benzene were studied in liquid cyclohexane and isooctane. The electron-attaching properties of chemicals having well characterized carcinogenic properties were studied in cyclohexane to determine if the measure of electron-accepting potential that k e provides can elucidate the role that electrons play in the initiation step of carcinogenesis. The k e s that were measured indicate that the k e -carcinogenicity correlation that was observed can be used to complement short-term carcinogen-screening bioassays to identify potential carcinogens. 115 refs., 6 tabs

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1984-05-01

    A sound evaluation of the consequences of releases of radioactivity into the environment, especially of those large amounts, and of the effectiveness of different protective measures, requires thorough concern of the various aspects of the radiological effects. The effects of ionizing radiation were reviewed according to the following characterization: Affected subject (somatic, genetic and psychological effects); Duration of irradiation (acute and chronic irradiation); Latent period (early and late effects); Dose-effect relationship (stochastic and non-stochastic effects); Population affected (e.g. children, pregnant women). In addition to the lethal effects which are generally considered extensively in all the evaluations of the consequences of radioactivity releases, such effects as early symptoms and morbidity are emphasized in this review. The dependence of the effects on dose rates, repair mechanism and medical treatment is discussed, and the uncertainties involved with their evaluation is highlighted. The differences between QF (quality factor) and RBE (relative biological effectiveness) of different radiation sources are interpreted. Synergystic effects and the effectiveness of various means of medication are discussed. It is suggested that all radiological effects, including those resulting from relatively low radiation doses, e.g. foetus deformations, fertility impairment, prodomal - leading to psychological effects, should be considered within the evaluation of the consequences of radioactivity releases and of the effectiveness of protective measures. Limits of the repair factors to be considered within the evaluation of the effects of chronic exposures are proposed

  17. Role stress among auxiliary nurses midwives in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bhaskar; Vasava, Paul

    2017-01-23

    Understanding Role Stress is important as health service providers, especially nurses experience high levels of Role Stress which is linked to burnout, poor quality of care and high turnover. The current study explicates the concept of Role Stress and assesses the Role Stress experienced by the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) working with rural government health centres from Gujarat, India. The study included 84 ANMs working with government health centres from one district in India. A structured instrument with established reliability and validity was used to measure 10 dimensions of Role Stress namely: Inter-role distance, role stagnation, role expectation conflict, role erosion: role overload, role isolation, personal inadequacy, self-role distance, role ambiguity and resource inadequacy. The study instrument was based on 5 point Likert rating scale that contained 50 unidirectional negative statements, 5 for each dimension. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test were carried out to assess if the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test was carried out to assess reliability of the instrument. The study data was analyzed using descriptive statistics mainly using mean scores with higher scores indicating higher Role Stress and vice versa. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test indicated that the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test indicated values of 0.852 suggesting high reliability of the tool. The highest Role Stress among ANMs was experienced for resource inadequacy. Role overload, role stagnation and inter-role distance were among the other important role stressors for ANMs. The study results suggests that ANMs frequently feel that: they do not have adequate amount of resources, facilities and financial support from the high levels authorities; people have too many expectations from their roles and as result they are overloaded with work and have very limited opportunities for

  18. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Bhattacharya, M.; Lin, Zi-Wei; Pendleton, G.

    2006-01-01

    The ionizing radiation environment on the moon that contributes to the radiation hazard for astronauts consists of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles and albedo particles from the lunar surface. We will present calculations of the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent to various organs in this environment during quiet times and during large solar particle events. We will evaluate the contribution of solar particles other than protons and the contributions of the various forms of albedo. We will use the results to determine which particle fluxes must be known in order to estimate the radiation hazard.

  19. Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, B

    2013-01-01

    The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

  20. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  1. Loss Model and Efficiency Analysis of Tram Auxiliary Converter Based on a SiC Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the auxiliary converter in the auxiliary power supply system of a modern tram adopts Si IGBT as its switching device and with the 1700 V/225 A SiC MOSFET module commercially available from Cree, an auxiliary converter using all SiC devices is now possible. A SiC auxiliary converter prototype is developed during this study. The author(s derive the loss calculation formula of the SiC auxiliary converter according to the system topology and principle and each part loss in this system can be calculated based on the device datasheet. Then, the static and dynamic characteristics of the SiC MOSFET module used in the system are tested, which aids in fully understanding the performance of the SiC devices and provides data support for the establishment of the PLECS loss simulation model. Additionally, according to the actual circuit parameters, the PLECS loss simulation model is set up. This simulation model can simulate the actual operating conditions of the auxiliary converter system and calculate the loss of each switching device. Finally, the loss of the SiC auxiliary converter prototype is measured and through comparison it is found that the loss calculation theory and PLECS loss simulation model is valuable. Furthermore, the thermal images of the system can prove the conclusion about loss distribution to some extent. Moreover, these two methods have the advantages of less variables and fast calculation for high power applications. The loss models may aid in optimizing the switching frequency and improving the efficiency of the system.

  2. The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Richard J.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Hester, J. Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals.

  3. Resonance ionization for analytical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, George S.; Payne, Marvin G.; Wagner, Edward B.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the sensitive and selective analysis of an atomic or molecular component of a gas. According to this method, the desired neutral component is ionized by one or more resonance photon absorptions, and the resultant ions are measured in a sensitive counter. Numerous energy pathways are described for accomplishing the ionization including the use of one or two tunable pulsed dye lasers.

  4. CERI: Ionizing Radiation Calibration Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouteiller, E.

    1979-01-01

    The CERI has been granted by the National Bureau of Metrology (BNM) as an Ionizing Radiation Calibration Centre and as an Estimation and Qualification Centre for the ionizing radiation measurement devices. This article gives some information on the scope covered by the BNM's grant and on the various equipment on which the laboratory relies. It describes the calibration and estimation activities and mentions many kinds of services which are offered to the users mainly in the medical and industrial fields [fr

  5. Ionizing radiation and cancer prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, D G

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation long has been recognized as a cause of cancer. Among environmental cancer risks, radiation is unique in the variety of organs and tissues that it can affect. Numerous epidemiological studies with good dosimetry provide the basis for cancer risk estimation, including quantitative information derived from observed dose-response relationships. The amount of cancer attributable to ionizing radiation is difficult to estimate, but numbers such as 1 to 3% have been suggested. Some...

  6. Ametryne degradation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Debora Cristina de; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Melo, Rita Paiva

    2007-01-01

    Ametryne may be released to the environment during its manufacture, transport, storage, formulation and use as selective herbicide for the control of annual broadleaf and grass weeds. It is applied as an aqueous suspension for preemergence or post-directed applications on crops. Depending on the pesticide formulation and type of application, ametryne residues may be detectable in water, soil and on the surfaces for months or years. The herbicide used to this study was Ametryne (commercial name, Gesapax 500), commonly used on field crops and on corn and commercialized since 1975. Ametryne was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC Shimadzu 17A), after extraction with hexane/dichloromethane (1:1 v/v) solution. The calibration curve was obtained with a regression coefficient of 0.9871. In addition, the relative standard deviation was lower than 10%. The radiation-processing yield was evaluated by the destruction G-value (Gd) (Eq. 1), that is defined by the number of destroyed molecules by absorption of 100 eV of energy from ionizing radiation. Different concentrations of the herbicide (11.4 mol L -1 ; 22.7 mol L -1 ; 34.1 mol L -1 and 45.5 mol L -1 ) were irradiated at the AECL 'Gammacell 220' 60 Co source, with 1 kGy, 3 kGy, 6 kGy, 9 kGy, 12 kGy, 15 kGy and 30 kGy absorbed doses. After irradiation processing, the ametryne highest reduction rate occurs at low doses of radiation: at 6 kGy more than 85-90% of all ametryne compounds were removed. Two products of incomplete degradation of ametryne were identified as s-triazyne isomers. However, further work is needed in order to fully understand the ametryne degradation mechanisms the degradation yield of ametryne depends on its initial concentration and the process seems to be more efficient at higher concentrations. (author)

  7. Total synthesis of cytochrome b562 by native chemical ligation using a removable auxiliary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Donald W.; Hill, Michael G.; Carrasco, Michael R.; Kent, Stephen B. H.; Botti, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    We have completed the total chemical synthesis of cytochrome b562 and an axial ligand analogue, [SeMet7]cyt b562, by thioester-mediated chemical ligation of unprotected peptide segments. A novel auxiliary-mediated native chemical ligation that enables peptide ligation to be applied to protein sequences lacking cysteine was used. A cleavable thiol-containing auxiliary group, 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl, was added to the α-amino group of one peptide segment to facilitate amide bond-forming ligation. The amine-linked 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl auxiliary was stable to anhydrous hydrogen fluoride used to cleave and deprotect peptides after solid-phase peptide synthesis. Following native chemical ligation with a thioester-containing segment, the auxiliary group was cleanly removed from the newly formed amide bond by treatment with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, yielding a full-length unmodified polypeptide product. The resulting polypeptide was reconstituted with heme and folded to form the functional protein molecule. Synthetic wild-type cyt b562 exhibited spectroscopic and electrochemical properties identical to the recombinant protein, whereas the engineered [SeMet7]cyt b562 analogue protein was spectroscopically and functionally distinct, with a reduction potential shifted by ≈45 mV. The use of the 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl removable auxiliary reported here will greatly expand the applicability of total protein synthesis by native chemical ligation of unprotected peptide segments. PMID:11390992

  8. Design and Experiment of Auxiliary Bearing for Helium Blower of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guojun; Shi Zhengang; Liu Xingnan; Zhao Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    The helium blower is the important equipment for HTR-PM. Active magnetic bearing (AMB) instead of mechanical bearing is selected to support the rotor of the helium blower. However, one implication of AMB is the requirement to provide the auxiliary bearing to mitigate the effects of failures or overload conditions. The auxiliary bearing is used to support the rotor when the AMB fails to work. It must support the dropping rotor and bear the great impact force and friction heat. The design of the auxiliary bearing is one of the challenging problems in the whole system. It is very important for the helium blower with AMB of HTR-PM to make success. The rotor’s length of helium blower of HTR-PM is about 3.3 m, its weight is about 4000 kg and the rotating speed is 4000 r/min. The axial load is 4500kg, and the radial load is 1950kg. The angular contact ball bearing was selected as the auxiliary bearing. The test rig has been finished. It is difficult to analyze the falling course of the rotor. The preliminary analysis of the dropping rotor was done in the special condition. The impact force of auxiliary bearing was computed for the axial and radial load. And the dropping test of the blower rotor for HTR-10 will be introduced also in this paper. Results offer the important theoretical base for the protector design of the helium blower with AMB for HTR-PM. (author)

  9. Auxiliary Linear Problem, Difference Fay Identities and Dispersionless Limit of Pfaff-Toda Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Takasaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the study of Fay-type identities revealed some new features of the DKP hierarchy (also known as ''the coupled KP hierarchy'' and ''the Pfaff lattice''. Those results are now extended to a Toda version of the DKP hierarchy (tentatively called ''the Pfaff-Toda hierarchy''. Firstly, an auxiliary linear problem of this hierarchy is constructed. Unlike the case of the DKP hierarchy, building blocks of the auxiliary linear problem are difference operators. A set of evolution equations for dressing operators of the wave functions are also obtained. Secondly, a system of Fay-like identities (difference Fay identities are derived. They give a generating functional expression of auxiliary linear equations. Thirdly, these difference Fay identities have well defined dispersionless limit (dispersionless Hirota equations. As in the case of the DKP hierarchy, an elliptic curve is hidden in these dispersionless Hirota equations. This curve is a kind of spectral curve, whose defining equation is identified with the characteristic equation of a subset of all auxiliary linear equations. The other auxiliary linear equations are related to quasi-classical deformations of this elliptic spectral curve.

  10. Awareness of biomedical waste management among dental professionals and auxiliary staff in Amritsar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ramandeep S; Manchanda, Adesh; Singh, Simarpreet; Verma, Nitin; Padda, Sarfaraz

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine awareness of biomedical waste (BMW) management policies and practices among dental professionals and auxiliary staff in a dental hospital/clinics in Amritsar, India, to inform the development of future policies for effective implementation of BMW rules. The study involved 160 staff members at the Amritsar hospital/clinics (80 dentists and 80 auxiliary staff) to whom a questionnaire was distributed regarding policies, practices and awareness relating to BMW. The questionnaire was first piloted. Completed questionnaires were returned anonymously. The resulting data were statistically tested using the chi-square test for differences between the dentists and auxiliary staff. In respect of BMW management policies, there was a highly significant difference in the responses of the dentists, whose answers suggested far greater knowledge than that of the auxiliaries (Pmanagement practices, the dentists were significantly more aware (Pwaste collection in the hospital and the disposal of various items into different colour-coded bags. As for employee education/awareness, there was a significant difference (Pmanagement among dental auxiliary staff in the dental hospital/clinics in Amritsar and a lack of awareness of some aspects among dentists who work in the hospital/clinics. The results provide the hospital authorities with data upon which they can develop a strategy for improving BMW management.

  11. Decision making by auxiliary nurses to assess postpartum bleeding in a Dominican Republic maternity ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Regueira, Yadira; Heath, AnneMarie

    2006-01-01

    To understand the process of decision making by auxiliary nurses regarding postpartum bleeding among women in the Dominican Republic. An ethnographic qualitative design of semistructured interviews and participant observation. Twenty four auxiliary nurses on a maternity unit of a referral hospital in the Dominican Republic. Auxiliary nurses use specific criteria and logic to decide if postpartum maternal bleeding is excessive. However, systematic postpartum assessments are not routinely conducted on every woman. A decision tree that traces how auxiliary nurses evaluate postpartum bleeding indicates that they have knowledge of contemporary obstetric nursing care, but the organization of care delivery is not structured for them to apply it routinely. A collaboration of U.S. midwives and Dominican nurses will build on the assets of the auxiliary nurses. Rather than focusing the content of educational conferences on current knowledge of labor and delivery, an important next step is modeling woman- and family-centered care. The U.S. midwives and Dominican nurses are committed to finding empowering and effective ways to improve maternity care.

  12. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  13. Lithium atoms on helium nanodroplets: Rydberg series and ionization dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Florian; Krois, Günter; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2017-11-01

    The electronic excitation spectrum of lithium atoms residing on the surface of helium nanodroplets is presented and analyzed employing a Rydberg-Ritz approach. Utilizing resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy, two different Rydberg series have been identified: one assigned to the nS(Σ) series and the other with predominantly nP(Π) character. For high Rydberg states, which have been resolved up to n = 13, the surrounding helium effectively screens the valence electron from the Li ion core, as indicated by the apparent red-shift of Li transitions and lowered quantum defects on the droplet with respect to their free atom counterparts. For low n states, the screening effect is weakened and the prevailing repulsive interaction gives rise to strongly broadened and blue-shifted transitions. The red-shifts originate from the polarization of nearby He atoms by the positive Li ion core. As a consequence of this effect, the ionization threshold is lowered by 116 ± 10 cm-1 for Li on helium droplets with a radius of about 40 Å. Upon single-photon ionization, heavy complexes corresponding to Li ions attached to intact helium droplets are detected. We conclude that ionization close to the on-droplet ionization threshold triggers a dynamic process in which the Li ion core undergoes a transition from a surface site into the droplet.

  14. 30 CFR 57.22208 - Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines... fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Auxiliary fans, except fans used in shops and other areas... applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18, and be operated so that recirculation is minimized. Auxiliary fans...

  15. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    CERN Document Server

    Chrysalidis, K; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Naubereit, P; Rothe, S; Seiffert, C; Kron, T; Wendt, K

    2017-01-01

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  16. Increased ionization rate in laser enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, G.S.; Pike, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    A system employing multiple, upper excitation levels in a technique for isotopically selective ionization to improve the ionization efficiency is described. Laser radiation is employed to excite particles with isotopic selectivity. Excitation is produced to a plurality of excited states below the ionization level with the result of increasing the number of available excited particles for ionization and thereby increasing the ionization cross section for improved system efficiency

  17. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysalidis, K., E-mail: katerina.chrysalidis@cern.ch; Goodacre, T. Day; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Naubereit, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany); Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Kron, T.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  18. Treatment for chronic daily headache by using auxiliary and alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golovacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH is one of the top 10 causes of adult disability and one of the 5 most common causes of female disability. To treat patients with CDH is one of the most difficult tasks in neurological practice. Difficulties in managing patients with CHD are associated with the high prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, analgesic abuse, pain syndromes at another site, and misconceptions of a patient about his/her disease. A combination of drug and non-drug therapies is the mainstay of the current approach to treating patients with CDH. Standard, alternative, and auxiliary therapies are identified. The paper describes different types of current auxiliary and alternative therapy used in the world’s leading headache centers and clinics. It describes experience with cerebrolysin used as auxiliary and alternative pharmacotherapies for CDH.

  19. On adjustment for auxiliary covariates in additive hazard models for the analysis of randomized experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vansteelandt, S.; Martinussen, Torben; Tchetgen, E. J Tchetgen

    2014-01-01

    We consider additive hazard models (Aalen, 1989) for the effect of a randomized treatment on a survival outcome, adjusting for auxiliary baseline covariates. We demonstrate that the Aalen least-squares estimator of the treatment effect parameter is asymptotically unbiased, even when the hazard...... that, in view of its robustness against model misspecification, Aalen least-squares estimation is attractive for evaluating treatment effects on a survival outcome in randomized experiments, and the primary reasons to consider baseline covariate adjustment in such settings could be interest in subgroup......'s dependence on time or on the auxiliary covariates is misspecified, and even away from the null hypothesis of no treatment effect. We furthermore show that adjustment for auxiliary baseline covariates does not change the asymptotic variance of the estimator of the effect of a randomized treatment. We conclude...

  20. Importance of continuous monitoring and control of auxiliary power consumption in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the conceptual solution on the basis of which a system for continuous monitoring and control of auxiliary power consumption is defined in the four most important thermal power plants within the Electric Power Industry of Serbia (TENT A and B, TE Kostolac A and B. A unique system of measuring of auxiliary power consumption at the level of EPS is established in order to perform the appropriate measurement in the following phases, whose data would be archived for the purpose of further analyzes of energy balances. The results of these measurements should be used to define the concrete measures for auxiliary power consumption reduction in power plants, which, in addition to improving energy efficiency, would directly affect the cost reduction.

  1. Evaluation of auxiliary tempering pump effectiveness at Chalk Point Steam Electric Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendling, L.C.; Holland, A.F.

    1989-08-01

    The effectiveness of auxiliary tempering pump operation at Chalk Point Steam Electric Station (SES) at reducing plant-induced mortality of aquatic biota was evaluated. Several Representative Important Species (RIS) and dominant benthic and zooplankton species were used in the evaluation as indicators of overall system-wide responses. Expected mortality with and without auxiliary pump operation was estimated using thermal tolerance data available from the scientific literature for blue crabs, white perch, striped bass, spot, Macoma balthica and Acartia tonsa. The evaluation led to the conclusion that the operation of auxiliary tempering pumps at Chalk Point SES increases plant-induced mortality of spot, white perch, striped bass, and zooplankton. Operation of the tempering pumps may reduce blue crab mortality slightly under certain circumstances, and Macoma balthica mortality is probably largely unaffected by their operation.

  2. Aiming of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope based on auxiliary optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shengling; Mu Baozhong; Yi Shengzhen; Wang Xin; Wang Zhanshan; Ding Yongkun; Miao Wenyong; Dong Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    An auxiliary optical system has been designed, which can provide precise positioning for aiming Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope object location. An 8 keV X-ray imaging system by KB microscope with periodic multilayer films has been designed. The field of view and depth of field in the resolution of 5 μm are got, and then the corresponding point and depth of field in diagnostic experiments are calculated. Based on the object-image relations and precision of the KB microscope, an auxiliary visible light imaging system is designed and X-ray imaging experiments are performed, which can achieve equivalent aiming between the visible imaging system and the KB microscope. The results show that ±20 μm vertical axis plane and ±300 μm axial accuracy are achieved through the auxiliary optical path, which can meet the object point positioning requirements of the KB microscope. (authors)

  3. Estimation Method for Turn-off Collector Voltage of IGBTs Using Emitter-auxiliary Inductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating the instantaneous turn-off collector voltage of high-power IGBT modules. Because of the parasitic inductors in circuit, the fast turn-off collector current usually leads to a voltage overshoot on IGBT modules during the turn-off transition. In terms...... of high-voltage and high-power IGBT module, there exists an emitter-auxiliary inductor between the power emitter and Kelvin emitter. The same variable dic/dt during turn-off transition will also induce a measurable voltage veE across the emitter-auxiliary inductor LeE. As a result, the hazardous turn......-off peak collector voltage can be reflected by the induced νeE in the case of fixed commutation loop inductors and emitter auxiliary inductor. Finally, a double pulse test platform is used to validate the effectiveness of estimation method. The estimation curves of turn-off collector voltage...

  4. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, B.

    1989-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is energy that travels through space as electromagnetic waves or a stream of fast moving particles. In the workplace, the sources of ionizing radiation are radioactive substances, nuclear power plants, x-ray machines and nuclear devices used in medicine, research and industry. Commonly encountered types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Alpha particles have very little penetrating power and pose a risk only when the radioactive substance is deposited inside the body. Beta particles are more penetrating than alpha particles and can penetrate the outer body tissues causing damage to the skin and the eyes. Gamma rays are highly penetrating and can cause radiation damage to the whole body. The probability of radiation-induced disease depends on the accumulated amount of radiation dose. The main health effects of ionizing radiation are cancers in exposed persons and genetic disorders in the children, grandchildren and subsequent generations of the exposed parents. The fetus is highly sensitive to radiation-induced abnormalities. At high doses, radiation can cause cataracts in the eyes. There is no firm evidence that ionizing radiation causes premature aging. Radiation-induced sterility is highly unlikely for occupational doses. The data on the combined effect of ionizing radiation and other cancer-causing physical and chemical agents are inconclusive

  5. Ionization equilibrium in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, R.

    1987-01-01

    The average degree of ionization for a strongly coupled plasma is investigated and calculated. Two widely used approaches: the Saha equation method and the Thomas-Fermi (TF) statistical atomic model are adopted to determine the degree of ionization. Both methods are modified in a number of ways to include the strong-coupling effect in the plasma. In the Saha equation approach, the strong-coupling effects are introduced through: (i) a replacement of the Coulomb potential by a screened Debye potential; (ii) adoption of the Planck-Larkin partition function; (iii) description of the electron component by Fermi-Dirac statistics. The calculated degree of ionization exceeds that obtained from the original Saha equation, exhibits a minimum as a function of the density and shows an abrupt phase transition from weakly ionized to a fully ionized state. The zero-temperature TF model for compressed ions and the finite-temperature TF model for ions are investigated for the first time. In order to take into account the strong-coupling effect in a systematic way, a strong-coupling TF model is set up. Favorable results with the relatively simple approximations indicate that the newly established strong-coupling TF model is a more systematic and physically consistent approach

  6. The sensitivity of auxiliary examinations in different stages of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-jiao JIANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the sensitivity of auxiliary examinations in different periods of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD. Methods The clinical data of 53 sCJD patients were retrospectively analyzed including the different stages of skull diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI, 24-hour ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG, 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET-CT and cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein. When calculating the sensitivity of an auxiliary examination, the diagnostic criteria were defined by combining the specific clinical manifestations with two or more positive results of other auxiliary examinations. Results There were 24, 53 and 22 sCJD patients, respectively, met the criterion of early (E, middle (M and later (L stage of disease (some patients fit 2 or 3 stages. The sensitivity of DWI (E: 58.3%, M: 85.4%, L: 94.7%, EEG (E: 45.8%, M: 62.7%, L: 77.8%, 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (E: 11.1%, M: 52.9% and PET-CT (E: 80%, M: 100% increased gradually with disease progression. The sensitivity of PET-CT was higher than the other auxiliary examinations for E and M stages; no PET-CT was conducted in L stage. High signal regions mainly distributed in the cortex in E and M stages, but in L stage, no significant difference was found on the distribution of high signal regions between cortex and basal ganglia. Conclusions The sensitivities of the auxiliary examinations were different for sCJD patients in different stages. Reexaminations in different periods may improve the sensitivity for sCJD diagnosis. The sensitivity of PET-CT was high, and the combination of PET-CT and other auxiliary examinations may play a key role in the diagnosis of sCJD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.05.15

  7. A compact neutron generator using a field ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Waldmann, Ole; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali; Schenkel, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Field ionization as a means to create ions for compact and rugged neutron sources is pursued. Arrays of carbon nano-fibers promise the high field-enhancement factors required for efficient field ionization. We report on the fabrication of arrays of field emitters with a density up to 10(6) tips∕cm(2) and measure their performance characteristics using electron field emission. The critical issue of uniformity is discussed, as are efforts towards coating the nano-fibers to enhance their lifetime and surface properties.

  8. A new auxiliary equation and exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirendaoreji

    2006-01-01

    A new auxiliary ordinary differential equation and its solutions are used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the auxiliary equation which has more new exact solutions. More new exact travelling wave solutions are obtained for the quadratic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation, the combined KdV and mKdV equation, the sine-Gordon equation and the Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations

  9. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...

  10. [Impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on powder property of fermented cordyceps powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hua; Yue, Guo-Chao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Wei-Feng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate such physical indexes as hygroscopicity, angle of repose, bulk density, fillibility of compression of mixed powder of directly compressed auxiliary materials and fermented cordyceps powder by using micromeritic study methods. The results showed that spray-dried lactose Flowlac100 and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH102 had better effect in liquidity and compressibility on fermented cordyceps powder than pregelatinized starch. The study on the impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on the powder property of fermented cordyceps powder had guiding significant to the research of fermented cordyceps powder tablets, and could provide basis for the development of fermented cordyceps powder tablets.

  11. Pure spinors as auxiliary fields in the ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, B.E.W.

    1986-01-01

    A new way of introducing auxiliary fields into the ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is proposed. The auxiliary fields are commuting 'pure spinors' and constitute a non-linear realisation of the Lorentz group. This invalidates previous no-go theorems concerning the possibility of going off-shell in this theory. There seems to be a close relation between pure spinors and the concepts usually used in twistor theory. The non-Abelian theory can be constructed for all groups having pseudo-real representations. (author)

  12. Spectroscopy of highly ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The atomic structure and decay characteristics of excited states in multiply ionized atoms represent a fertile testing ground for atomic calculations ranging from accurate ab initio theory for few-electron systems to practical semi-empirical approaches for many-electron species. Excitation of fast ions by thin foils generally produces the highest ionization stages for heavy ions in laboratory sources. The associated characteristics of spectroscopic purity and high time resolution provide unique capabilities for studying the atomic properties of highly-ionized atoms. This report is limited to a brief discussion of three classes of atomic systems that are experiencing current theoretical and experimental interest: precision structure of helium-like ions, fine structure of doubly-excited states, and lifetimes of metastable states. Specific measurements in each of these types of systems are mentioned, with emphasis on the relation to studies involving slow, highly-charged ions

  13. Ionization detectors in environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Ionization detectors (IDs) use the information contained in the radiation-produced ionization current regarding the chemical composition of gas mixtures. The radionuclide radiation sources, 3 H, 55 Fe, 63 Ni, 85 Kr, 90 Sr, 241 Am, are used to produce carriers. Using recombination effects and carrier multiplication by electrical fields the response of IDs can be improved. There are electron capture detectors, cross-section detectors and noble-gas detectors, mainly used in gas chromatographic devices, and continuously working aerosol ionization detectors. Halocarbons, metal chelates, metal organic and inorganic compounds, pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, but also SO 2 , AsH 3 , ClCN, HCN, HF, NH 3 , CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, can be determined within the pp10 9 range. They are used in automatic systems to control air pollution around industrial plants, in hospitals and factories, but also to prevent high levels of pesticides in agriculture products. (author)

  14. Ionization of nitrogen cluster beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Katsuki; Be, S.H.; Enjoji, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Kosuke

    1975-01-01

    A nitrogen cluster beam (neutral particle intensity of 28.6 mAsub(eq)) is ionized by electron collisions in a Bayard-Alpert gauge type ionizer. The extraction efficiency of about 65% is obtained at an electron current of 10 mA with an energy of 50 eV. The mean cluster size produced at a pressure of 663 Torr and temperature of 77.3 K is 2x10 5 molecules per cluster. By the Coulomb repulsion force, multiply ionized cluster ions are broken up into smaller fragments and the cluster ion size reduces to one-fourth at an electron current of 15 mA. Mean neutral cluster sizes depend strongly on the initial degree of saturation PHI 0 and are 2x10 5 , 7x10 4 and 3x10 4 molecules per cluster at PHI 0 's of 0.87, 0.66 and 0.39, respectively. (auth.)

  15. Model predictive control-based dynamic coordinate strategy for hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system of a heavy commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Li, Guanghan; Yin, Guodong; Song, Dafeng; Li, Sheng; Yang, Nannan

    2018-02-01

    Equipping a hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system (HHMAS), which mainly consists of a hydraulic variable pump, a hydraulic hub-motor, a hydraulic valve block and hydraulic accumulators, with part-time all-wheel-drive functions improves the power performance and fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles. The coordinated control problem that occurs when HHMAS operates in the auxiliary drive mode is addressed in this paper; the solution to this problem is the key to the maximization of HHMAS. To achieve a reasonable distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic paths, a nonlinear control scheme based on model predictive control (MPC) is investigated. First, a nonlinear model of HHMAS with vehicle dynamics and tire slip characteristics is built, and a controller-design-oriented model is simplified. Then, a steady-state feedforward + dynamic MPC feedback controller (FMPC) is designed to calculate the control input sequence of engine torque and hydraulic variable pump displacement. Finally, the controller is tested in the MATLAB/Simulink and AMESim co-simulation platform and the hardware-in-the-loop experiment platform, and its performance is compared with that of the existing proportional-integral-derivative controller and the feedforward controller under the same conditions. Simulation results show that the designed FMPC has the best performance, and control performance can be guaranteed in a real-time environment. Compared with the tracking control error of the feedforward controller, that of the designed FMPC is decreased by 85% and the traction efficiency performance is improved by 23% under a low-friction-surface condition. Moreover, under common road conditions for heavy commercial vehicles, the traction force can increase up to 13.4-15.6%.

  16. Influence of Dust Loading on Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Gronoff, Guillaume; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the radiation environment at the surface of Mars is the primary goal of the Radiation Assessment Detector on the NASA Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. One of the conditions that Curiosity will likely encounter is a dust storm. The objective of this paper is to compute the cosmic ray ionization in different conditions, including dust storms, as these various conditions are likely to be encountered by Curiosity at some point. In the present work, the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety model, recently modified for Mars, was used along with the Badhwar & O'Neill 2010 galactic cosmic ray model. In addition to galactic cosmic rays, five different solar energetic particle event spectra were considered. For all input radiation environments, radiation dose throughout the atmosphere and at the surface was investigated as a function of atmospheric dust loading. It is demonstrated that for galactic cosmic rays, the ionization depends strongly on the atmosphere profile. Moreover, it is shown that solar energetic particle events strongly increase the ionization throughout the atmosphere, including ground level, and can account for the radio blackout conditions observed by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft. These results demonstrate that the cosmic rays' influence on the Martian surface chemistry is strongly dependent on solar and atmospheric conditions that should be taken into account for future studies.

  17. Rapid trace detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) by complexation reactions during desorption electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Chen, Hao; Cooks, R Graham

    2006-03-07

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is used for rapid, specific and sensitive detection of trace amounts of the notorious explosive TATP present on ambient surfaces by alkali metal complexation in a simple spray technique.

  18. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bjaerngard, Bengt E; Kase, Kenneth R

    1987-01-01

    The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume II, attempts to fill the need for updated reference material on the field of radiation dosimetry. This book presents some broad topics in dosimetry and a variety of radiation dosimetry instrumentation and its application. The book opens with a chapter that extends and applies the concepts of microdosimetry to biological systems. This is followed by separate chapters on the state- of-the-art equipment and techniques used to determine neutron spectra; studies to determine recombination effects in ionization chambers exposed to high-intensity pulsed ra

  19. Ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    resolution and high sensitivity are necessary. For exact dosimetry which is done using ionization chambers (ICs), the recombination taking place in the IC has to be known. Up to now, recombination is corrected phenomenologically and more practical approaches are currently used. Nevertheless, Jaff´e's theory...... of columnar recombination was designed to model the detector efficiency of an ionization chamber. Here, we have shown that despite the approximations and simplification made, the theory is correct for the LETs typically found in clinical radiotherapy employing particles from protons to carbon ions...

  20. Prenatal exposition on ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo

  1. Frequency dependence of alternating current electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetwani, Nishant; Cassou, Catherine A; Go, David B; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2011-04-15

    The novel effects resulting from the entrainment of low mobility ions during alternating current (ac) electrospray ionization are examined through mass spectrometry and voltage/current measurements. Curious phenomena such as pH modulation at high frequencies (>150 kHz) of an applied ac electric field are revealed and explained using simple mechanistic arguments. Current measurements are utilized to supplement these observations, and a simplified one-dimensional transient diffusion model for charge transport is used to arrive at a scaling law that provides better insight into the ac electrospray ionization process. Moreover, because of the different pathway for ion formation in comparison to direct current (dc) electrospray, ac electrospray (at frequencies >250 kHz) is shown to reduce the effects of ionization suppression in a mixture of two molecules with different surface activities. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Efficient ionizer for polarized H/sup -/ formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An ionizer is under development for a polarized H/sup -/ source based on the resonant charge exchange reaction polarized H/sup 0/ + D/sup -/ ..-->.. polarized H/sup -/ + D/sup 0/. The polarized H/sup 0/ beam passes through the center of a magnetron surface-plasma source having an annular geometry, where it crosses a high current (approx.0.5 A), 200 eV D/sup -/ beam. Calculations predict an H/sup 0/ ..-->.. H/sup -/ ionization efficiency of approx.7%, more than an order of magnitude higher than that obtained on present ground state atomic beam sources. In initial experiments using an unpolarized H/sup 0/ beam, H/sup -/ currents in excess of 100 ..mu..A have been measured. While the ionization efficiency is now only about the same as other methods (Cs beam, for example), the results are encouraging since it appears that by injecting positive ions to improve the space-charge neutralization, and by improving the extraction optics, considerable gains in intensity will be made. We will then use this ionizer with a polarized H/sup 0/ beam, and measure the polarization of the resulting H/sup -/ beam. If no depolarization is observed this ionizer will be combined with an atomic beam, cooled to 5 to 6 K, to give a polarized H/sup -/ beam expected to be in the milliampere range for use in the AGS.

  3. Acylation, Diastereoselective Alkylation, and Cleavage of an Oxazolidinone Chiral Auxiliary: A Multistep Asymmetric Synthesis Experiment for Advanced Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas E.; Richardson, David P.; Truran, George A.; Belecki, Katherine; Onishi, Megumi

    2008-01-01

    An introduction to the concepts and experimental techniques of diastereoselective synthesis using a chiral auxiliary is described. The 4-benzyl-2-oxazolidinone chiral auxiliary developed by Evans is acylated with propionic anhydride under mild conditions using DMAP as an acyl transfer catalyst. Deprotonation with NaN(TMS)[subscript 2] at -78…

  4. Verb Placement in Second Language Acquisition: Experimental Evidence for the Different Behavior of Auxiliary and Lexical Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of verb placement by Moroccan and Turkish second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Elicited production data corroborate earlier findings from L2 German that learners who do not produce auxiliaries do not raise lexical verbs over negation, whereas learners who produce auxiliaries do. Data from elicited…

  5. Auxiliares "avoir" and "etre" approche psychosystematique (The Auxiliaries "avoir" and "etre," a Psychosystematic Approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Andre

    1977-01-01

    A brief psychosystematic analysis of the problem of auxiliaries in French, and of the solution offered by the internal psychomechanism of the language as found in Gustave Guillaume's research. "Avoir" and "etre"" are studied in some detail from several aspects. There is a short bibliography. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  6. C1 compounds as auxiliary substrate for engineered Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F.W.; De Winde, J.H.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered to efficiently utilize the C1 compounds methanol and formaldehyde as auxiliary substrate. The hps and phi genes of Bacillus brevis, encoding two key steps of the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway, were introduced to construct a

  7. C-terminal interactors of the AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit Shisa9.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karataeva, A.R.; Klaassen, R.V.; Ruiperez-Alonso, M.; Hjorth, J.; van Nierop, P.; Spijker, S.; Mansvelder, H.D.; Smit, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Shisa9 (initially named CKAMP44) has been identified as auxiliary subunit of the AMPA-type glutamate receptors and was shown to modulate its physiological properties. Shisa9 is a type-I transmembrane protein and contains a C-terminal PDZ domain that potentially interacts with cytosolic proteins. In

  8. Speckle Interferometry with the McMath-Pierce East Auxiliary Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Ray, Jimmy; Douglass, David; Prause, Lori; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    Engineering runs and tests on the McMath-Pierce 0.8 meter East Auxiliary telescope successfully configured the telescope for speckle interferometry observations of close visual double stars. This paper reports the procedure and results of the speckle analysis of four double stars.

  9. The Impact Of Dental Auxiliaries In Oral Health Delivery In Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the impact of dental auxiliaries in oral health delivery in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 47 dental auxil- iaries recruited from six of 10 provinces in Cameroon was conducted in 2010. A self-administered questionnaire elicited information on demography, training received ...

  10. 77 FR 29564 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Auxiliary and Miscellaneous Items That No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Administration Regulations: Auxiliary and Miscellaneous Items That No Longer Warrant Control Under the United... articles that the President determines, as part of the Administration's Export Control Reform Initiative...: Background On July 15, 2011, as part of the Administration's ongoing Export Control Reform Initiative, the...

  11. Auxiliary VHF transmitter to aid recovery of solar Argos/GPS PTTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2014-01-01

    While conducting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) research, we found that solar-powered global positioning systems platform transmitter terminals (GPS PTTs) can be lost if the solar panel does not receive adequate sunlight. Thus, we developed 5-g (mortality sensor included; Prototype A) and 9.8-g (no mortality sensor; Prototype B) auxiliary very high...

  12. The Effect of Auxiliary Variables and Multiple Imputation on Parameter Estimation in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin Eun

    2009-01-01

    This Monte Carlo study investigates the beneficiary effect of including auxiliary variables during estimation of confirmatory factor analysis models with multiple imputation. Specifically, it examines the influence of sample size, missing rates, missingness mechanism combinations, missingness types (linear or convex), and the absence or presence…

  13. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... heating boilers. 52.01-35 Section 52.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35 Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers. (a) To determine the appropriate part of the regulations where...

  14. Computer determination of event maps with application to auxiliary supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wredenberg, L.; Billinton, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method of evaluating the reliability of sequential operations in systems containing standby and alternate supply facilities is presented. The method is based upon the use of a digital computer for automatic development of event maps. The technique is illustrated by application to a nuclear power plant auxiliary supply system. (author)

  15. The auxiliary elliptic-like equation and the exp-function method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations are derived with the aid of auxiliary elliptic-like equation. As examples, the RKL models, the high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the Hamilton amplitude equation, the generalized Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV system and the generalized ZK–BBM equation are ...

  16. Application of the method of auxiliary sources in optical diffraction microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Hansen, Poul-Erik

    2010-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources is used for characterisation of grating defects. Grating profiles are characterised by best fit matching of a library of diffraction efficiencies with numerical simulated diffraction efficiencies with defects. It is shown that the presented method can solve the inv...... the inverse problem with an accuracy usually thought to require rigorous electromagnetic theories....

  17. Application of the Method of Auxiliary Sources for the Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering by Impedance Spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2002-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is applied to 3D scattering problems involving spherical impedance scatterers. The MAS results are compared with the reference spherical wave expansion (SWE) solution. It is demonstrated that good agreement is achieved between the MAS and SWE results....

  18. Infections after auxiliary partial liver transplantation. Experiences in the first ten patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Zeijl (J.); A.C.M. Kroes (Aloys C.M.); H.J. Metselaar (Herold); P.J.A. Willemse (P. J A); H.A. Bruining (Hajo); J.F. Sluiters (Hans); S.W. Schalm (Solko); O.T. Terpstra (Onno); M.F. Michel

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractSummary In ten auxiliary partial liver transplant recipients selective bowel decontamination (SBD) was used to reduce infections due to gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. During SBD no gram-negative infections occurred. Candida peritonitis was observed in one patient. After

  19. Progress in the integration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotamäki, M.; Cordier, J.-J.; Kuehn, I.; Perrin, J.-L.; Sweeney, S.; Villedary, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Usage of 3D CAD model in ITER configuration management presented. • 3D CAD models efficient in configuration and interface management. • Costly and schedule delaying changes avoided with proper interface management. • ITER buildings construction progressing. - Abstract: The ITER Tokamak machine is located in the center of Tokamak complex buildings consisting of Tokamak, Diagnostic, and Tritium buildings. Around the Tokamak complex there are over 30 auxiliary buildings housing various plant systems serving the Tokamak machine either directly or indirectly. The layout and space allocation of each auxiliary building and plant systems housed by the building are represented in the so-called Configuration Management Models (CMM). These are light 3D CAD models that define the required space envelope and the physical interfaces between the systems and the buildings and in-between the systems. The paper describes the CMM and interface management processes of the ITER auxiliary buildings and plant systems, and discusses the preparations for the plant installation phase. In addition, the current baseline configuration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings is described together with the recent developments in the configuration of different systems, as well as the current status of the construction of the buildings.

  20. Modelling the Impact of Ground Planes on Antenna Radiation Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. In many cases the computational cost of available commercial tools restricts the simulations to include only a small ground plane or, by use of the image principle, the infinitely...

  1. The auxiliary elliptic-like equation and the exp-function method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations are derived with the aid of auxiliary elliptic-like equation. ... (NEE) have been paid attention by many researchers, especially the investigations of exact solutions for ... elliptic-like equation with the aid of the travelling wave reduction are introduced. The exact solutions of ...

  2. Meaningful questions: The acquisition of auxiliary inversion in a connectionist model of sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Hartmut; Chang, Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Nativist theories have argued that language involves syntactic principles which are unlearnable from the input children receive. A paradigm case of these innate principles is the structure dependence of auxiliary inversion in complex polar questions (Chomsky, 1968, 1975, 1980). Computational approaches have focused on the properties of the input in explaining how children acquire these questions. In contrast, we argue that messages are structured in a way that supports structure dependence in syntax. We demonstrate this approach within a connectionist model of sentence production (Chang, 2009) which learned to generate a range of complex polar questions from a structured message without positive exemplars in the input. The model also generated different types of error in development that were similar in magnitude to those in children (e.g., auxiliary doubling, Ambridge, Rowland, & Pine, 2008; Crain & Nakayama, 1987). Through model comparisons we trace how meaning constraints and linguistic experience interact during the acquisition of auxiliary inversion. Our results suggest that auxiliary inversion rules in English can be acquired without innate syntactic principles, as long as it is assumed that speakers who ask complex questions express messages that are structured into multiple propositions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dark Matter Detection Using Helium Evaporation and Field Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey J.; Seidel, George M.; Stein, Derek

    2017-11-01

    We describe a method for dark matter detection based on the evaporation of helium atoms from a cold surface and their subsequent detection using field ionization. When a dark matter particle scatters off a nucleus of the target material, elementary excitations (phonons or rotons) are produced. Excitations which have an energy greater than the binding energy of helium to the surface can result in the evaporation of helium atoms. We propose to detect these atoms by ionizing them in a strong electric field. Because the binding energy of helium to surfaces can be below 1 meV, this detection scheme opens up new possibilities for the detection of dark matter particles in a mass range down to 1 MeV /c2 .

  4. Dark Matter Detection Using Helium Evaporation and Field Ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey J; Seidel, George M; Stein, Derek

    2017-11-03

    We describe a method for dark matter detection based on the evaporation of helium atoms from a cold surface and their subsequent detection using field ionization. When a dark matter particle scatters off a nucleus of the target material, elementary excitations (phonons or rotons) are produced. Excitations which have an energy greater than the binding energy of helium to the surface can result in the evaporation of helium atoms. We propose to detect these atoms by ionizing them in a strong electric field. Because the binding energy of helium to surfaces can be below 1 meV, this detection scheme opens up new possibilities for the detection of dark matter particles in a mass range down to 1  MeV/c^{2}.

  5. Biopositive Effects of Ionizing Radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1972-01-01

    This paper was written for a talk given by E. Broda in Vienna for an event organised by the chemical physical society, the Austrian biochemical society and the Austrian biophysical society in December 1972. In this paper Broda analyses the question of biopositive effects of ionizing radiation. (nowak)

  6. Resonance ionization spectroscopy in dysprosium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D., E-mail: dstuder@uni-mainz.de; Dyrauf, P.; Naubereit, P.; Heinke, R.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We report on resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) of high-lying energy levels in dysprosium. We developed efficient excitation schemes and re-determined the first ionization potential (IP) via analysis of Rydberg convergences. For this purpose both two- and three-step excitation ladders were investigated. An overall ionization efficiency of 25(4) % could be demonstrated in the RISIKO mass separator of Mainz University, using a three-step resonance ionization scheme. Moreover, an extensive analysis of the even-parity 6sns- and 6snd-Rydberg-series convergences, measured via two-step excitation was performed. To account for strong perturbations in the observed s-series, the approach of multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) was applied. Considering all individual series limits we extracted an IP-value of 47901.76(5) cm{sup −1}, which agrees with the current literature value of 47901.7(6) cm{sup −1}, but is one order of magnitude more precise.

  7. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  8. Natural sources of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Natural sources of ionizing radiations are described in detail. The sources are subdivided into sources of extraterrestrial origin (cosmic radiation) and sources of terrestrial origin. Data on the concentration of different nuclides in rocks, various soils, ground waters, atmospheric air, tissues of plants and animals, various food stuffs are presented. The content of natural radionuclides in environmental objects, related to human activities, is discussed

  9. Food irradiation with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudkova, A.; Pohlova, M.; Sedlackova, J.

    1974-01-01

    Application possibilities are discussed of ionizing radiation in inhibiting plant germination, in radiopasteurization and radiosterilization of food. Also methods of combining radiation with thermal food sterilization are discussed. The problems of radiation doses and of hygienic purity of irradiated foodstuffs are dealt with. (B.S.)

  10. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Klots, C.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.; Cooper, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multi-photon ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photo-electron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photo-ionization signal. For both ns and np states the ''field induced'' MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength

  11. On the Saha Ionization Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We revisit the Saha Ionization Equation in order to highlightthe rich interdisciplinary content of the equation thatstraddles distinct areas of spectroscopy, thermodynamics andchemical reactions. In a self-contained discussion, relegatedto an appendix, we delve further into the hidden message ofthe equation in terms ...

  12. Degradation of chlorpyrifos by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, M.N.; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Duarte, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide commercialized since 1965 and it is now one of the top five commercial insecticides. It is registered for use in over 900 different pesticide formulations in the world. Chlorpyrifos poisoning usually affects many organs of the body, such as the central and peripheral nervous system, eyes, respiratory system, and the digestive tract. Depending on the pesticide formulation and type of application, chlorpyrifos residues may be detectable in water, soil, and on the surfaces from months to years. This paper presents preliminary studies of the removal of chlorpyrifos by exposition to ionizing radiation, to be applied in pesticide container decontamination. Samples containing various concentrations of chlorpyrifos in acetonitrile were irradiated with absorbed doses varying from 5 to 50 kGy, using a 60 Co gamma-source with 5,000 Ci activity (Gamma cell type). The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos and the by-products resulted from the radiolytic degradation were made using a gas chromatography associated to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GCFID). (author)

  13. Kinetics of a plasma streamer ionization front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccogna, Francesco; Pellegrini, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    A streamer is a non-linear and non-local gas breakdown mode. Its large-scale coherent structures, such as the ionization front, are the final results of a hierarchical cascade starting from the single particle dynamics. Therefore, this phenomenon covers, by definition, different space and time scales. In this study, we have reproduced the ionization front formation and development by means of a particle-based numerical methodology. The physical system investigated concerns of a high-voltage ns-pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge. Different reduced electric field regimes ranging from 50 to 500 Td have been considered for two gases: pure atomic Ar and molecular N2. Results have shown the detailed structure of the negative streamer: the leading edge, the head, the interior and the tail. Its dynamical evolution and the front propagation velocity have been calculated for the different cases. Finally, the deviation of the electron energy distribution function from equilibrium behavior has been pointed out as a result of a fast and very localized phenomenon.

  14. Critical assessment of ionization patterns and applications of ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using FAPA-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Karu, Einar; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) has gained growing interest during the last decade due to its high analytical performance and yet simplicity. Here, one of the recently developed ambient desorption/ionization MS sources, the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source, was investigated in detail regarding background ions and typical ionization patterns in the positive as well as the negative ion mode for a variety of compound classes, comprising alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, organic peroxides and alkaloids. A broad range of signals for adducts and losses was found, besides the usually emphasized detection of quasimolecular ions, i.e. [M + H](+) and [M - H](-) in the positive and the negative mode, respectively. It was found that FAPA-MS is best suited for polar analytes containing nitrogen and/or oxygen functionalities, e.g. carboxylic acids, with low molecular weights and relatively high vapor pressures. In addition, the source was used in proof-of-principle studies, illustrating the capabilities and limitations of the technique: Firstly, traces of cocaine were detected and unambiguously identified on euro banknotes using FAPA ionization in combination with tandem MS, suggesting a correlation between cocaine abundance and age of the banknote. Secondly, FAPA-MS was used for the identification of acidic marker compounds in organic aerosol samples, indicating yet-undiscovered matrix and sample surface effects of ionization pathways in the afterglow region. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. UV Ionizer for Neutral Wind Mass Spectrometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current neutral particle instrumentation relies on hot cathode filaments or an electron gun for ionizing the target medium.  These ionization sources represent a...

  16. A liquid ionization chamber using tetramethylsilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, J.; Keim, H.

    1983-12-01

    First results with a liquid ionization chamber using tetramethylsilane (TMS) are presented. A stack of iron plates was tested with cosmic ray muons and the charge output for minimum ionizing particles was measured. (orig.) [de

  17. Multireference Density Functional Theory with Generalized Auxiliary Systems for Ground and Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao

    2017-09-21

    To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.

  18. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  19. ICOOL: A Simulation Code for Ionization Cooling of Muon Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Current ideas [1,2] for designing a high luminosity muon collider require significant cooling of the phase space of the muon beams. The only known method that can cool the beams in a time comparable to the muon lifetime is ionization cooling [3,4]. This method requires directing the particles in the beam at a large angle through a low Z absorber material in a strong focusing magnetic channel and then restoring the longitudinal momentum with an rf cavity. We have developed a new 3-D tracking code ICOOL for examining possible configurations for muon cooling. A cooling system is described in terms of a series of longitudinal regions with associated material and field properties. The tracking takes place in a coordinate system that follows a reference orbit through the system. The code takes into account decays and interactions of ∼50-500 MeV/c muons in matter. Material geometry regions include cylinders and wedges. A number of analytic models are provided for describing the field configurations. Simple diagnostics are built into the code, including calculation of emittances and correlations, longitudinal traces, histograms and scatter plots. A number of auxiliary files can be generated for post-processing analysis by the user

  20. CALCULATION OF IONIZATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We use a simple numerical method to generate the ionization rates starting from the cross sections. These last are obtained by code FAC (Flexible Atomic Code). Our computation results will be compared with those published. Key words: Atomic data, radiative collisional Models, Ionization rate, cross Sections of ionization.

  1. Progress on untargeted effects of ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Chen Jihong; Li Wenjian

    2010-01-01

    The side effect of ionizing irradiation has been paid more attention with its widely using in tumor treating and mutation breeding. In recent years, untargeted effects induced by ionizing irradiation have become a hotspot of radiobiology. Here, according to reported results, we reviewed the types (genomic instability, bystander effect and adaptive response) and mechanisms of untargeted effects of ionizing irradiation in this paper. (authors)

  2. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor... § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related activities involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standards for...

  3. Computing conformational free energy differences in explicit solvent: An efficient thermodynamic cycle using an auxiliary potential and a free energy functional constructed from the end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert C; Deng, Nanjie; Levy, Ronald M; Ishizuka, Ryosuke; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-05

    Many biomolecules undergo conformational changes associated with allostery or ligand binding. Observing these changes in computer simulations is difficult if their timescales are long. These calculations can be accelerated by observing the transition on an auxiliary free energy surface with a simpler Hamiltonian and connecting this free energy surface to the target free energy surface with free energy calculations. Here, we show that the free energy legs of the cycle can be replaced with energy representation (ER) density functional approximations. We compute: (1) The conformational free energy changes for alanine dipeptide transitioning from the right-handed free energy basin to the left-handed basin and (2) the free energy difference between the open and closed conformations of β-cyclodextrin, a "host" molecule that serves as a model for molecular recognition in host-guest binding. β-cyclodextrin contains 147 atoms compared to 22 atoms for alanine dipeptide, making β-cyclodextrin a large molecule for which to compute solvation free energies by free energy perturbation or integration methods and the largest system for which the ER method has been compared to exact free energy methods. The ER method replaced the 28 simulations to compute each coupling free energy with two endpoint simulations, reducing the computational time for the alanine dipeptide calculation by about 70% and for the β-cyclodextrin by > 95%. The method works even when the distribution of conformations on the auxiliary free energy surface differs substantially from that on the target free energy surface, although some degree of overlap between the two surfaces is required. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ionizing radiation sources. Ionizing radiation interaction with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popits, R.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals of nuclear physics are reviewed under the headings: obtaining of X-rays and their properties; modes of radioactive decay of natural or man-made radionuclides; radioactive neutron sources; nuclear fission as basis for devising nuclear reactors and weapons; thermonuclear reactions; cosmic radiation. Basic aspects of ionizing radiation interactions with matter are considered with regard to charged particles, photon radiation, and neutrons. (A.B.)

  5. Ionization phenomena and sources of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative ion sources use this discovery directly or the principles implied to effect negative ion formation through surface ionization. As a consequence, the more traditional direct extraction plasma and charge exchange sources are being used less frequently. However, the charge exchange generation mechanism appears to be as universal, is very competitive in terms of efficiency and has the advantage in terms of metastable ion formation. In this review, an attempt has been made to briefly describe the principal processes involved in negative ion formation and sources which are representative of a particular principle. The reader is referred to the literature for specific details concerning the operational characteristics, emittances, brightnesses, species and intensity capabilities of particular sources. 100 references

  6. Position-sensitive ionization detectors for ionizing beams diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A N; Mikhailov, V; Rezvov, V; Yudin, L

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing detectors for on-line non-destructive monitoring of the geometric parameters of ionizing beams have been proposed. Such a detector can be used on a beamline with a residual gas pressure of about 10 sup - sup 3 -10 sup - sup 6 Torr. It measures the product of ionization of the residual gas by the beam under investigation. An electric field moves the ions through a narrow slit into an analyzer. The analyzer field transforms the energy distribution of the ions into a two-dimensional space distribution on the outer analyzer plane. An Open Image Converter Tube (ICT) with an amplifier consisting of two Micro Channel Plates (MCP) forms an image of the real beam cross-section. This image is registered by a video camera, processed and stored on a computer. The detectors were successfully tested on beams of charged particles with wide energy and intensity ranges and on synchrotron radiation beams. Codes developed give the distribution of the beam density along its cross-section, beam profiles, the position of ...

  7. Analysis of sample composition using resonant ionization and time-of-flight techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, A. de la; Ortiz, M.; Campos, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the setting up of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer that uses a tunable laser to produce resonant ionization of atoms and molecules in a pulsed supersonic beam. The ability of this kind of systems to produce time resolved signals for each species present in the samples allows quantitative analysis of its composition. By using a tunable laser beam of high spectral resolution to produce ionization, studies based on the structure of the photoionization spectra obtained are possible. In the present work several isotopic species of ordinary and deuterated benzene have been studies. special care has been dedicated to the influence of the presence of a ''13 C in the ring. In this way values for spectroscopic constants and isotopic shifts have been obtained. Another system based in a homemade proportional counter has been designed and used as an auxiliary system. The results obtained with it are independent of these mentioned above and compatible with them. This system is of great utility for laser wavelength tuning to produce ionization in the mass spectrometer

  8. Analysis of sample composition using resonant ionization and time-of-flight techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A. de la; Ortiz, M.; Campos, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the setting up of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer that uses a tunable laser to produce resonant ionization of atoms and molecules in a pulsed supersonic beam. The ability of this kind of systems to produce time resolved signals for each species present in the sample allows quantitative analysis of its composition. By using a tunable laser beam of high spectral resolution to produce ionization, studies based on the structure of the photoionization spectra obtained are possible. In the present work several isotopic species of ordinary and deuterated benzene have been studied. Special care has been dedicated to the influence of the presence of a 13C in the ring. In this way values for spectroscopic constants and isotopic shifts have been obtained. Another system based in a homemade proportional counter has been designed and used is an auxiliary system. The results obtained with it are independent of these mentioned above and compatible with them. This system is of great utility for laser wavelength tuning to produce ionization in the mass spectrometer. (Author) 98 refs

  9. A prototype methodology combining surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization protein chip technology and artificial neural network algorithms to predict the chemoresponsiveness of breast cancer cell lines exposed to Paclitaxel and Doxorubicin under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Shahid; Ball, Graham; Hornbuckle, Jo; Holding, Finn; Carmichael, James; Ellis, Ian; Ali, Selman; Li, Geng; McArdle, Stephanie; Creaser, Colin; Rees, Robert

    2003-09-01

    An ability to predict the likelihood of cellular response towards particular chemotherapeutic agents based upon protein expression patterns could facilitate the identification of biological molecules with previously undefined roles in the process of chemoresistance/chemosensitivity, and if robust enough these patterns might also be exploited towards the development of novel predictive assays. To ascertain whether proteomic based molecular profiling in conjunction with artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms could be applied towards the specific recognition of phenotypic patterns between either control or drug treated and chemosensitive or chemoresistant cellular populations, a combined approach involving MALDI-TOF matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, Ciphergen protein chip technology and ANN algorithms have been applied to specifically identify proteomic 'fingerprints' indicative of treatment regimen for chemosensitive (MCF-7, T47D) and chemoresistant (MCF-7/ADR) breast cancer cell lines following exposure to Doxorubicin or Paclitaxel. The results indicate that proteomic patterns can be identified by ANN algorithms to correctly assign 'class' for treatment regimen (e.g. control/drug treated or chemosensitive/chemoresistant) with a high degree of accuracy using boot-strap statistical validation techniques and that biomarker ion patterns indicative of response/non-response phenotypes are associated with MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells exposed to Doxorubicin. We have also examined the predictive capability of this approach towards MCF-7 and T47D cells to ascertain whether prediction could be made based upon treatment regimen irrespective of cell lineage. Models were identified that could correctly assign class (control or Paclitaxel treatment) for 35/38 samples of an independent dataset. A similar level of predictive capability was also found (> 92%; n = 28) when proteomic patterns derived from the drug resistant cell line MCF-7

  10. Cell fusion by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, M.B.

    1993-08-01

    The relevance and importance of cell fusion are illustrated by the notion that current interest in this phenomenon is shared by scientists in quite varied disciplines. The diversity of cellular membrane fusion phenomena could provoke one to think that there must be a multitude of mechanisms that can account for such diversity. But, in general, the mechanism for the fusion reaction itself could be very similar in many, or even all, cases. Cell fusion can be induced by several factors such as virus Sendai, polyethylene glycol, electric current and ionizing radiation. This article provides the reader with short view of recent progress in research on cell fusion and gives some explanations about fusion mechanisms. This study shows for the first time, the results of the cell fusion induced by ionizing radiations that we have obtained in our researches and the work performed by other groups. (author). 44 refs

  11. Laser ionization of molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.; Feigerle, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization coupled with mass spectrometry was used to investigate molecular cluster distributions. Three examples will be discussed in this presentation. First, in studies of neat nitric oxide clusters, (NO) m , an interesting odd-even intensity alternation was observed and will be discussed in terms of electron-pairing considerations. In a separate study, the binary clusters comprising nitric oxide and methane preferentially form a stoichiometric cluster made up of repeating units of (NO) 2 CH 4 . These presumably represent a particularly strongly bound open-quotes van der Waalsclose quotes subunit. Finally, in similar studies of neat carbon disulfide clusters, (CS 2 ) m , additional photon absorption after the two-photon ionization step stimulates a series of intracluster ion-molecular reactions leading to formation of S m + and (CS) m + polymers, as well as intermediate species such as S m + (CS 2 ). This molecular cluster analogue of open-quotes laser snowclose quotes will be described in detail

  12. LONGITUDINAL IONIZATION COOLING WITHOUT WEDGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERG, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The emittance of a muon beam must be reduced very rapidly due to the finite lifetime of the muons. The most effective known way to accomplish this is ionization cooling. It is straightforward to reduce transverse emittance through ionization cooling, but the reducing the longitudinal emittance is more challenging. Longitudinal cooling is necessary for a muon collider, and would be helpful for a neutrino factory. The method traditionally proposed for longitudinal cooling is emittance exchange involving wedges of absorber material: the longitudinal emittance is reduced at the cost of increased transverse emittance. The larger transverse emittance can then be reduced straightforwardly. An alternative method is proposed here, which does not require wedges of material but instead makes slight modifications to the standard transverse cooling lattice. We demonstrate a lattice which is a slight modification to a standard Super FOFO transverse cooling lattice, which has linear eigenvalues all of which have magnitude less than one

  13. Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, L H

    1983-01-01

    Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

  14. Ionizing radiation perception by insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanhola, C.

    1980-04-01

    The proof of the existence of a perception for ionizing radiation by insects was aimed at, as well as the determination of its processing mechanism. It was tried also to check if such perception induces the insects to keep away from the radiation source, proving therefore a protection against the harms caused by ionizing radiation, or else the stimulus for such behaviour is similar to that caused by light radiations. 60 Co and 241 Am were used as gamma radiation sources, the 60 Co source of 0.435mCi and the 241 Am of 99.68mCi activity. Adult insects were used with the following treatments : exposure to 60 Co and 241 Am radiation and non-exposure (control). A total of approximately 50 insects per replication was released in the central region of an opaque white wooden barrier divided into 3 sections with the same area - 60.0 cm diameter and 7.5 cm height - covered with a nylon screen. 5 replications per treatment were made and the distribution of the insects was evaluated by photographs taken at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after release. Sitophilus oryzae (l., 1763) and Ephestia cautella (Walker, 1864) showed some response to 241 Am gamma radiation, i.e. negative tactism. It was concluded that ionizing radiations can be detected by insects through direct visual stimulus or by visual stimulus reslting from interaction of radiation-Cerenkov radiation - with some other occular component with a refraction index greater than water. Also, the activity of the radioactive source with regard to perception for ionizing radiation, is of relevance in comparison with the energy of the radiation emitted by same, or in other words, what really matters is the radiation dose absorbed. (Author) [pt

  15. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  16. Ionization of H Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillermier, C.F.; Bluemental, R.; Smilansky, U.

    1991-07-01

    Concepts from the theory of transient chaos are applied to study the classical ionization process of one dimensional model of kicked hydrogen Rydberg atoms. The phase-space dynamics is represented by a mapping T which is proved to be hyperbolic. The fraction of atoms not ionized after time t, P B (t), decays asymptotically according to P B (t)∼t -α with α ∼ 1.65. The observed algebraic decay, which seems to contradict the hyperbolicity of T, is explained by (i) the symbolic dynamics of T consists of a countably infinite number of symbols and (ii) the invariant manifold of phase-space points which never ionize is an anomalously scaling fractal. Therefore, the one-dimensional kicked hydrogen atom provides a counterexample to the hypothesis that algebraic decay marks regular dynamics, whereas hyperbolic systems decay exponentially. The algebraic decay is reproduced by an analytically solvable diffusion model which predicts α = 3/2. Replacing zero-width δ-kicks by smooth finite-width pulses, the mapping T is no longer completely hyperbolic, and a subset of phase-space is regular. For this case we observe that P B (t) shows a transition between two power-law decays with α ∼ 1.65 for short times and α ∼ 2.1 for long times where the effect of the regular domain is felt. (author)

  17. On the ionization of interstellar magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    It has been shown that two concentric ionization zones of interstellar magnesium must exist around each star: internal, with a radius coinciding with that of the zone of hydrogen ionization Ssub(H); and external, with a radius greater than Ssub(H), by one order. Unlike interstellar hydrogen, interstellar magnesium is ionized throughout the Galaxy. It also transpires that the ionizing radiation of ordinary hot stars cannot provide for the observed high degree of ionization of interstellar magnesium. The discrepance can be eliminated by assuming the existence of circumstellar clouds or additional ionization sources of interstellar magnesium (X-ray background radiation, high-energy particles, etc.). Stars of the B5 and BO class play the main role in the formation of ionization zones of interstellar magnesium; the contribution of O class stars is negligible (<1%). (Auth.)

  18. Loss of ions in cavity ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, N.; Tran, N.T.; Kim, E.; Marsoem, P.; Kurosawa, T.; Koyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Ion losses due to initial recombination, volume recombination, and back diffusion were each determined by measurements and calculations for different size cylindrical ionization chambers and spherical ionization chambers. By measuring signal currents from these ionization chambers irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays, two groups of ion losses were obtained. (Group 1) Ion loss due to initial recombination and diffusion, which changes proportionally to the inverse of the voltage applied to the ionization chambers; (and group 2) ion loss due to volume recombination, which changes proportionally to the inverse of the square of the applied voltage. The diffusion loss was obtained separately by computing electric field distributions in the ionization chambers. It was found that diffusion loss is larger than initial recombination loss for the cylindrical ionization chambers and vise versa for the spherical ionization chambers

  19. Quantitation of repaglinide and metabolites in mouse whole-body thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiqi; Wang, Lifei; Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Gan, Jinping

    2016-03-25

    Herein, quantitation aspects of a fully automated autosampler/HPLC-MS/MS system applied for unattended droplet-based surface sampling of repaglinide dosed thin tissue sections with subsequent HPLC separation and mass spectrometric analysis of parent drug and various drug metabolites were studied. Major organs (brain, lung, liver, kidney and muscle) from whole-body thin tissue sections and corresponding organ homogenates prepared from repaglinide dosed mice were sampled by surface sampling and by bulk extraction, respectively, and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. A semi-quantitative agreement between data obtained by surface sampling and that by employing organ homogenate extraction was observed. Drug concentrations obtained by the two methods followed the same patterns for post-dose time points (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h). Drug amounts determined in the specific tissues was typically higher when analyzing extracts from the organ homogenates. In addition, relative comparison of the levels of individual metabolites between the two analytical methods also revealed good semi-quantitative agreement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Start-up of a power unit of a thermal power plant auxiliary system with supply from a hydropower plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lubośny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issues related to a power unit of a thermal power plant start-up with the use of a hydropower plant. Hydropower plant can supply and will enable start-up of auxiliary equipment in a power unit of a thermal power plant. Due to high capacity of auxiliary drives, startup of auxiliaries in a thermal power plant after blackout (and boiler shutdown is not possible from emergency energy sources in the power plant. In such a case an external electricity source with high capacity is required.

  1. Self-dual N=2 Born-Infeld theory through auxiliary superfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Zupnik, B.M. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR,141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    There is an evidence that the N=2 Born-Infeld theory with spontaneously broken N=4 supersymmetry exhibits self-duality. We perform a further check of this hypothesis by constructing a new representation for the N=2 Born-Infeld action through the auxiliary chiral superfield U. In such a formulation, self-duality is equivalent to U(1) invariance of the U interaction. We explicitly calculate the auxiliary interaction up to the 10th order and show its U(1) duality invariance, thus proving that the original action is self-dual to the same order. We also suggest a new method of recursive computation of the N=2 Born-Infeld action in the standard formulation, based solely on the nonlinear realization of the N=4 central charge on the N=2 superfield strengths W,W-macron.

  2. “Wheelchair slow transit” system-based elderly auxiliary travel mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on research of the current situation and analysis result of a case study in the Nanjing region, this paper proposes a “wheelchair slow transit”(WST system-based elderly auxiliary travel mode. The system involves three fundamental composition frames, namely, support, transit components, and connection components. Each component is designed as an armrest, ground track, or vertical type to respond to actual demands. Thus, this system may be adaptable to diverse conditions. Taking Xiangpuying community as a case study, the author examined the application of the WST auxiliary mode in particular communities. The WST system helps to increase the accessibility of existing public areas, creates a safe community traffic environment, improves municipal facilities, and strengthens universal design. The study intends to provide a reference to obtain a complete aged care design and to build a comfortable and livable aged care community environment.

  3. Postoperative imaging findings in children with auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyala, Rama S.; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie; Martinez, Mercedes; Lobritto, Steven J.; Kato, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT) is a treatment technique for people who have acute hepatic failure secondary to fulminant hepatic failure and might ultimately recover normal liver function. This surgical procedure is complicated, involving the placement of a liver graft while maintaining viability of the remaining native portion of the liver. This method allows the native liver to recover hepatic function, therefore eliminating the need for long-term immunosuppression, as is typically needed in post-transplant settings. Postoperative imaging in these cases can be challenging given the complex anatomy, specifically the vascular anastomosis. Therefore it is important for radiologists and clinicians to be aware of the anatomy as well as the variable imaging appearances of the liver. We review the imaging findings in children who have undergone auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT). (orig.)

  4. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target area auxiliary subsystem SSDR 1.8.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems (WBS 1.8.6), which is part of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in NIF Target Experimental System SDR 003 document. Key elements of the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems include: WBS 1.8.6.1 Local Utility Services; WBS 1.8.6.2 Cable Trays; WBS 1.8.6.3 Personnel, Safety, and Occupational Access; WBS 1.8.6.4 Assembly, Installation, and Maintenance Equipment; WBS 1.8.6.4.1 Target Chamber Service System; WBS 1.8.6.4.2 Target Bay Service Systems

  5. Modeling and stability analysis for the upper atmosphere research satellite auxiliary array switch component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, R.; Natarajan, T.; Day, J.

    1987-01-01

    A feedback control system, called an auxiliary array switch, was designed to connect or disconnect auxiliary solar panel segments from a spacecraft electrical bus to meet fluctuating demand for power. A simulation of the control system was used to carry out a number of design and analysis tasks that could not economically be performed with a breadboard of the hardware. These tasks included: (1) the diagnosis of a stability problem, (2) identification of parameters to which the performance of the control system was particularly sensitive, (3) verification that the response of the control system to anticipated fluctuations in the electrical load of the spacecraft was satisfactory, and (4) specification of limitations on the frequency and amplitude of the load fluctuations.

  6. Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS): applications in spectroscopy and chemical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.D.; Kumar, Awadhesh; Upadhyaya, Hari; Bajaj, P.N.

    2009-01-01

    Resonance ionization is a photophysical process wherein electromagnetic radiation is used to ionize atoms, molecules, transient species, etc., by exciting them through their quantum states. The number of photons required to ionize depends on the species being investigated and energy of the photon. Once a charged particle is produced, it is easy to detect it with high efficiency. With the advent of narrow band high power pulsed and cw tunable dye lasers, it has blossomed into a powerful spectroscopic and analytical technique, commonly known as resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS)/resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). The alliance of resonance ionization with mass spectrometry has grown into a still more powerful technique, known as resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), which has made significant contributions in a variety of frontier areas of research and development, such as spectroscopy, chemical dynamics, analytical chemistry, cluster science, surface science, radiochemistry, nuclear physics, biology, environmental science, material science, etc. In this article, we shall describe the application of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to spectroscopy of uranium and chemical dynamics of polyatomic molecules

  7. The application of 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianhua; Li Xiaoping; Li Chaolong; He Xu; Lin Zhiqi; Zhu Weibing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To affirm the application value of 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation. Methods: The graft was transplanted in the right subhepatic space of recipient to establish pig auxiliary liver transplantation model. The artery blood supplies were the very same in all grafts and the portal vein (PV) blood flows were differently controlled by trussing the host PV at the site neared host liver. According to the constriction degree, PV blood supplies were divided into three groups including A (constricted by 1/3), B (constricted by 1/2) and C(not constricted). The blood flows of the graft liver and the host liver were measured by 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy and livers functions were estimated after auxiliary liver transplantation. Contrasted with its histological findings the reflection of graft survival with 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy was investigated. Results: It was detected by 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy that the blood flows were almost equilibrated and abundant in grafts and host liver' in group A, and were abundant in grafts of group B and host livers of group C and were significantly decreased in host livers of group B and grafts of group C. Histological work-up demonstrated that the liver was not atrophic while the blood flow was abundant and the liver was atrophic while the blood flow was decreased. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy could accurately reflect the survival and function of grafts and host livers after auxiliary liver transplantation and it is a reliable technique which can be used to estimate the survival and function of the grafts and host livers

  8. Think different: applying the old macintosh mantra to the computability of the SUSY auxiliary field problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, Mathew; Gates, D.E.A.; Gates, S. James Jr.; Golding, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Starting with valise supermultiplets obtained from 0-branes plus field redefinitions, valise adinkra networks, and the “Garden Algebra,” we discuss an architecture for algorithms that (starting from on-shell theories and, through a well-defined computation procedure), search for off-shell completions. We show in one dimension how to directly attack the notorious “off-shell auxiliary field” problem of supersymmetry with algorithms in the adinkra network-world formulation.

  9. The 'right hand of the hospital' in a tumultuous land': 'Auxiliary nurses' in Chiapas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Diana

    2005-01-01

    For many, the road to a career in nursing is an unexpected one, with challenging twists and turns along the way. But rarely does it begin with escape down a rain-beaten jungle path, pursued by wined soldiers and tanks. Such is the saga of group of young Mayan auxiliary nurses, who have steadfastly served their commuitities in the troubled southeastern Mexican state of Chiapas, a place where most doctors had fled.

  10. A new auxiliary equation method and its application to the Sharma-Tasso-Olver model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Junting; Chen Weizhong

    2009-01-01

    A new auxiliary equation method, constructed by a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with at most an eighth-degree nonlinear term, is first proposed for exploring more exact solutions to nonlinear evolution equations. Being concise and straightforward, the method, with the aid of symbolic computation, is applied to the Sharma-Tasso-Olver model, and some new exact solitary wave solutions are obtained. The approach is also applicable to searches for exact solutions of other nonlinear evolution equations.

  11. Auxiliary gauge mediation: a new route to mini-split supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew; Thaler, Jesse

    2013-11-01

    The discovery of a standard-model-like Higgs at 126 GeV and the absence of squark signals thus far at the LHC both point towards a mini-split spectrum for supersymmetry. Within standard paradigms, it is non-trivial to realize a mini-split spectrum with heavier sfermions but lighter gauginos while simultaneously generating Higgs sector soft terms of the correct magnitude, suggesting the need for new models of supersymmetry breaking and mediation. In this paper, we present a new approach to mini-split model building based on gauge mediation by "auxiliary groups", which are the anomaly-free continuous symmetries of the standard model in the limit of vanishing Yukawa couplings. In addition to the well-known flavor SU(3) F and baryon-minus-lepton U(1) B-L groups, we find that an additional U(1) H acting on the Higgs doublets alone can be used to generate Higgs soft masses and B-terms necessary for a complete model of mini-split. Auxiliary gauge mediation is a special case of Higgsed gauge mediation, and we review the resulting two-loop scalar soft terms as well as three-loop gaugino masses. Along the way, we present a complete two-loop calculation of A-terms and B-terms in gauge mediation, which — contrary to a common misconception — includes a non-zero contribution at the messenger threshold which can be sizable in models with light gauginos. We present several phenomenologically acceptable mini-split spectra arising from auxiliary gauge mediation and highlight a complete minimal model which realizes the required spectrum and Higgs sector soft terms with a single U(1) X auxiliary gauge symmetry. We discuss possible experimental consequences.

  12. Common-cause failure analysis of McGuire Unit 2 auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.; Shepherd, J.C.; Fowler, R.D.; Summitt, R.L.; Logan, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    A powerful method for qualitative common cause failure analysis (CCFA) of nuclear power plant systems was developed by EG and G Idaho at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. As a cooperative project to demonstrate and evaluate the usefulness of the method, the Duke Power Company agreed to allow a CCFA of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) in their McGuire Nuclear Station Unit 2. The results of the CCFA are the subject of this discussion

  13. Dermoscopy as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of furuncular myiasis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Fred; Martins, Gustavo; Barbará, Eduarda Faísca; de Paiva, Maria Luiza Barros; Coelho, Ricardo Luis Passos; Nery, José Augusto da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Furuncular myiasis occurs after larvae penetrate on the skin. The disease is characterized by the presence of a nodule with a central hole through which there is serosanguinous exudate drainage. The authors present a case of furuncular myiasis by Dermatobia hominis in which late diagnosis made it necessary to have the orifice margins surgically enlarged in order to extract the larva. They also emphasize that dermoscopy is a useful auxiliary tool in this diagnosis. PMID:25054760

  14. Experimental simulation of a light aircraft crash on to a nuclear power plant auxiliary building roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Barr, P.; Garton, G.; Howe, W.D.; Neilson, A.J.

    1984-08-01

    The experiments described were conducted at a reduced scale with geometric dimensions of prototype structures of one-fifth full size. The target was based on the auxiliary buildings for the proposed Sizewell PWR. Descriptions of the simulated aircraft model and the test panels are given, together with the instrumentation. Details are given of the test programme and the results are summarized and discussed. Comparison is made of the model aircraft tests with an equivalent hard missile impact. (U.K.)

  15. Direct enantioselective conjugate addition of carboxylic acids with chiral lithium amides as traceless auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Jackson, Jeffrey J; Eickhoff, John A; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-01-21

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B.

  16. Utilization of Lavandula angustifolia Miller extracts as naturalrepellents, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYOE YUSUFOGLU

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils, absolutes and concretes were prepared from the flowers and leaves of the plant Lavandula angustifolia Miller cultivated in the Bosphorus region of Istanbul, Turkey. The difference in the chemical composition of the mentioned extracts was investigated and compared by using a combination of capillary GC-MS with the aim of offering them as repellent, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries. The IR-spectra, the yields and the physico-chemical data of the extracts were also analysed.

  17. Sodium--NaK engineering handbook. Volume IV. Sodium pumps, valves, piping, and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is useful for designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program and by the engineering and scientific community performing investigation and experimentation requiring high-temperature Na and NaK technology. Data are presented for pumps, bearings and seals, valves, vessels and piping, and auxiliary equipment including vapor traps, freeze plugs, fuel-channel flow regulators, antivortexing devices, and miscellaneous mechanical elements. Reactor materials are also discussed. (FS)

  18. [Auxiliary cerclage-wiring in internal fixation of displaced acetabular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen, C J; von Rüden, C; Hierholzer, C; Bühren, V; Woltmann, A

    2015-01-01

    Displaced fractures of the acetabulum involving the quadrilateral plate continue to be a surgical challenge. In this study, we describe our operation technique of auxiliary acetabular cerclage-wiring combined with plate osteosynthesis and present our results as well as short-term outcome. All patients aged 18 years and older treated with auxiliary cerclage-wiring between 2007 and 2012 were included in this study. Fractures were classified according to Letournel. Cerclage wiring was used when reposition and retention of the fracture was insufficient with plates and screws alone. Short-term outcome was evaluated by the German Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA-D) questionnaire. Data from 23 patients were collected. The follow-up period was 7 months (range 2-23 months). Of the 23 patients, 22 showed excellent fracture reduction and retention. One patient had to undergo revision surgery due to loss of reposition. Patients showed good functional outcome. Auxiliary acetabular cerclage-wiring is a safe and effective method for fracture reduction and retention especially in displaced acetabular fractures involving the quadrilateral plate.

  19. Comparative LCA of methanol-fuelled SOFCs as auxiliary power systems on-board ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazza, C.; Del Borghi, A.; Costamagna, P.; Traverso, A.; Santin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells own the potential for significant environmental improvements both in terms of air quality and climate protection. Through the use of renewable primary energies, local pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly minimized over the full life cycle of the electricity generation process, so that marine industry accounts renewable energy as its future energy source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of methanol in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), as auxiliary power systems for commercial vessels, through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The LCA methodology allows the assessment of the potential environmental impact along the whole life cycle of the process. The unit considered is a 20 kWel fuel cell system. In a first part of the study different fuel options have been compared (methanol, bio-methanol, natural gas, hydrogen from cracking, electrolysis and reforming), then the operation of the cell fed with methanol has been compared with the traditional auxiliary power system, i.e. a diesel engine. The environmental benefits of the use of fuel cells have been assessed considering different impact categories. The results of the analysis show that fuel production phase has a strong influence on the life cycle impacts and highlight that feeding with bio-methanol represents a highly attractive solution from a life cycle point of view. The comparison with the conventional auxiliary power system shows extremely lower impacts for SOFCs.

  20. The SOL-2/Neto auxiliary protein modulates the function of AMPA-subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Mellem, Jerry E; Jensen, Michael; Brockie, Penelope J; Walker, Craig S; Hoerndli, Frédéric J; Hauth, Linda; Madsen, David M; Maricq, Andres V

    2012-09-06

    The neurotransmitter glutamate mediates excitatory synaptic transmission by gating ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). AMPA receptors (AMPARs), a subtype of iGluR, are strongly implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. We previously discovered two classes of AMPAR auxiliary proteins in C. elegans that modify receptor kinetics and thus change synaptic transmission. Here, we have identified another auxiliary protein, SOL-2, a CUB-domain protein that associates with both the related auxiliary subunit SOL-1 and with the GLR-1 AMPAR. In sol-2 mutants, behaviors dependent on glutamatergic transmission are disrupted, GLR-1-mediated currents are diminished, and GLR-1 desensitization and pharmacology are modified. Remarkably, a secreted variant of SOL-1 delivered in trans can rescue sol-1 mutants, and this rescue depends on in cis expression of SOL-2. Finally, we demonstrate that SOL-1 and SOL-2 have an ongoing role in the adult nervous system to control AMPAR-mediated currents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of co...... political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China.......The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits...

  2. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, William G.; Carberg, William George; Jones, Charles Michael

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  3. Marginal hazard regression for correlated failure time data with auxiliary covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Yuan, Zhongshang; Cai, Jianwen; Zhou, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    In many biomedical studies, it is common that due to budget constraints, the primary covariate is only collected in a randomly selected subset from the full study cohort. Often, there is an inexpensive auxiliary covariate for the primary exposure variable that is readily available for all the cohort subjects. Valid statistical methods that make use of the auxiliary information to improve study efficiency need to be developed. To this end, we develop an estimated partial likelihood approach for correlated failure time data with auxiliary information. We assume a marginal hazard model with common baseline hazard function. The asymptotic properties for the proposed estimators are developed. The proof of the asymptotic results for the proposed estimators is nontrivial since the moments used in estimating equation are not martingale-based and the classical martingale theory is not sufficient. Instead, our proofs rely on modern empirical process theory. The proposed estimator is evaluated through simulation studies and is shown to have increased efficiency compared to existing methods. The proposed method is illustrated with a data set from the Framingham study.

  4. When you have too many features: Auxiliaries, agreement and clitics in Italian varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta D'Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Syntactic variation can be ascribed to a range of factors. The Borer-Chomsky conjecture, as Mark Baker (2008 refers to it, states for instance that all parameters of variation are attributable to differences in the features of particular items (e.g. functional heads in the lexicon. In this paper, this hypothesis is carefully considered in relation to a group of Abruzzese dialects that exhibit three seemingly unrelated syntactic patterns: split auxiliary selection, split differential object marking, and omnivorous participial agreement in number/argumental agreement mismatch marking. It will be proposed that these three patterns are closely interrelated, and can be attributed to the presence of an unvalued bundle of φ-features (π. Depending on which XP this head is merged with, different agreement patterns will emerge. Furthermore, these dialects will be shown to differ from another macrogroup of northern Italian dialects purely in the locus of Merge of this extra functional head: it will also be shown that the almost perfect areal complementary distribution between languages with subject clitics and languages with person-driven auxiliary selection is not accidental, but is the result of the presence of an extra φ-probe doubling the features of the subject in different parts of the syntactic spine. A microtypology of 'v 'will be presented, unifying many phenomena that were previously considered unrelated, such as auxiliary selection, participial agreement, differential object marking and subject clitics.

  5. Adiabatic theory of Wannier threshold laws and ionization cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, J.H.; Ovchinnikov, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Adiabatic energy eigenvalues of H 2 + are computed for complex values of the internuclear distance R. The infinite number of bound-state eigenenergies are represented by a function ε(R) that is single valued on a multisheeted Riemann surface. A region is found where ε(R) and the corresponding eigenfunctions exhibit harmonic-oscillator structure characteristic of electron motion on a potential saddle. The Schroedinger equation is solved in the adiabatic approximation along a path in the complex R plane to compute ionization cross sections. The cross section thus obtained joins the Wannier threshold region with the keV energy region, but the exponent near the ionization threshold disagrees with well-accepted values. Accepted values are obtained when a lowest-order diabatic correction is employed, indicating that adiabatic approximations do not give the correct zero velocity limit for ionization cross sections. Semiclassical eigenvalues for general top-of-barrier motion are given and the theory is applied to the ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact. The theory with a first diabatic correction gives the Wannier threshold law even for this case

  6. Physico-chemical modifications of plastics by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouif, S.

    2002-01-01

    The industrial use of ionizing radiations (beta and gamma), initially for the sterilization of medico-surgical instruments and for the preservation of food products, has led to the development of the chemistry of polymers under radiations. Ionizing radiations can initiate chemical reactions (chain cutting, poly-additions, polymerization etc..) thanks to the formation of free radicals. The main applications concerns the degradation of plastics, the reticulation of plastics and of woods impregnated with resin, and the grafting of polymers. The processing of plastic materials was initially performed with low energy electron accelerators (0.1 to 3 MeV), allowing only surface treatments, while recent high energy accelerators (10 MeV) and gamma facilities allow the treatment in depth of materials (from few cm to 1 m). This article describes the industrial treatments performed with such high energy facilities: 1 - action of ionizing radiations on plastic materials: different types of ionizing radiations, action of beta and gamma radiations, chemical changes induced by beta and gamma radiations; 2 - reticulation of plastic materials submitted to beta and gamma radiations: radio-'reticulable' polymers and reticulation co-agents, modification of the properties of reticulated plastic materials under beta and gamma radiations; 3 - industrial aspects of reticulation under beta and gamma radiation: industrial irradiation facilities, dosimetry and radio-reticulation control, applications; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  7. Adsorption behaviors of neutral and ionizable compounds on hybrid stationary phases in the absence (BEH-C18) and the presence (CSH-C18) of immobile surface charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-03-22

    The adsorption behaviors of a neutral (caffeine) and a positively charged compound (nortriptylinium) are investigated on two RPLC/hybrid stationary phases, eluted with a low ionic strength buffer (phosphate buffer, W(S)pH 2.63, I=10mM). The first phase, bridge ethylene hybrid (BEH), is neutral at all pHs whereas the second, charged surface hybrid (CSH), contains a protonated ligand at W(W)pH C18 at 20mV and by the subsequent decrease of the equilibrium constant of weak adsorption sites (C18 environment) and removal of the strong adsorption sites (accessible silanols). At the highest sample loadings (5 and 20μL, C=30g/L), the EML and the bi-EML isotherms failed because some adsorbate-adsorbate interactions take place when bulk concentrations exceed 0.2g/L. The experimental data were then successively fitted to an empirical heterogeneous Langmuir-Moreau (LM) explicit isotherm. The best saturation capacities of the empirical heterogeneous LM isotherm is consistent with the manufacturer's estimate of the surface concentration of residual silanols onto the BEH- and CSH-C18 endcapped adsorbent (<0.1μmol/m(2)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanocluster ionization energies and work function of aluminum, and their temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Avik; Kresin, Vitaly V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Ionization threshold energies of Al{sub n} (n = 32-95) nanoclusters are determined by laser ionization of free neutral metal clusters thermalized to several temperatures in the range from 65 K to 230 K. The photoion yield curves of cold clusters follow a quadratic energy dependence above threshold, in agreement with the Fowler law of surface photoemission. Accurate data collection and analysis procedures make it possible to resolve very small (few parts in a thousand) temperature-induced shifts in the ionization energies. Extrapolation of the data to the bulk limit enables a determination of the thermal shift of the polycrystalline metal work function, found to be in excellent agreement with theoretical prediction based on the influence of thermal expansion. Small clusters display somewhat larger thermal shifts, reflecting their greater susceptibility to thermal expansion. Ionization studies of free size-resolved nanoclusters facilitate understanding of the interplay of surface, electronic, and lattice properties under contamination-free conditions.

  9. Longitudinal Acceleration Test of Overhead Luggage Bins and Auxiliary Fuel Tank in a Transport Airplane Airframe Section, Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, Robert

    2000-01-01

    ...). The purpose of the tests was to measure the structural responses and interaction between the fuselage, overhead stowage bins, and auxiliary fuel tank under simulated, potentially survivable, crash conditions...

  10. Longitudinal Acceleration Tests of Overhead Luggage Bins and Auxiliary Fuel Tank in a Transport Airplane Airframe Section

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ...). The purpose of the tests was to measure the structural responses and interaction between the fuselage, overhead stowage bins, and auxiliary fuel tank under simulated, potentially survivable, crash conditions...

  11. Mollenhauer Aligning Auxiliary for Bodily Alignment of Blocked-out Lateral Incisors in Preadjusted Edgewise Appliance Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekrishnan B Nair

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Mollenhauer aligning auxiliary can be effectively used for the bodily alignment of lingually placed lateral incisors in preadjusted edgewise appliance therapy as an alternative to torquing with rectangular wires.

  12. Lower Snake River Little Goose and Lower Granite Locks and Dams: Adult Fishway Systems Emergency Auxiliary Water Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wielick, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    ... to address the Biological Opinion requirement. This Emergency Auxiliary Water Supply, Phase II - Technical Report continues to evaluate the Phase I report alternatives for the Little Goose and Lower Granite Lock and Dams at a greater...

  13. 75 FR 3682 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Auxiliary Stations, Including Wireless Microphones, and the Digital Television Transition AGENCY: Federal... seeks comment on the adoption in its rules marketing and labeling requirements, including possible... in part on technological innovation such as digital technology, that would enable wireless...

  14. Rates of auxiliary is and are in African American English speaking children with specific language impairment following language treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shana; Bellon-Harn, Monica L

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine rates of auxiliary is and are across dialect patterns produced by African American English with specific language impairment (AAE-SLI) children following language treatment. The following research question is asked: Do AAE-SLI children exhibit rates of auxiliary is and are across dialect patterns consistent with previous reports of typically developing children and adult AAE speakers? A pre-/post-test design was used to identify patterns in which auxiliary is and are were produced at significant levels. Individual performance was included to examine variable rates of use across patterns. Group and individual results suggest children used auxiliary is and are in dialect patterns at rates consistent with typically developing child and adult AAE speakers. We conclude that rates of use may contribute to evidence-based guidelines for morphological intervention with AAE-SLI children.

  15. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search: First 5-Tower Data and Improved Understanding of Ionization Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Catherine N. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with cryogenic particle detectors. These detectors have the ability to discriminate between nuclear recoil candidate and electron recoil background events by collecting both phonon and ionization energy from recoils in the detector crystals. The CDMS-II experiment has completed analysis of the first data runs with 30 semiconductor detectors at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, resulting in a world leading WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section limit for WIMP masses above 44 GeV/c2. As CDMS aims to achieve greater WIMP sensitivity, it is necessary to increase the detector mass and discrimination between signal and background events. Incomplete ionization collection results in the largest background in the CDMS detectors as this causes electron recoil background interactions to appear as false candidate events. Two primary causes of incomplete ionization collection are surface and bulk trapping. Recent work has been focused on reducing surface trapping through the modification of fabrication methods for future detectors. Analyzing data taken with test devices has shown that hydrogen passivation of the amorphous silicon blocking layer worsens surface trapping. Additional data has shown that the iron-ion implantation used to lower the critical temperature of the tungsten transition-edge sensors causes a degradation of the ionization collection. Using selective implantation on future detectors may improve ionization collection for events near the phonon side detector surface. Bulk trapping is minimized by neutralizing ionized lattice impurities. Detector investigations at testing facilities and in situ at the experimental site have provided methods to optimize the neutralization process and monitor running conditions to maintain full ionization collection. This work details my contribution to the 5-tower data taking, monitoring, and analysis effort as

  16. Engineering the CernVM-Filesystem as a High Bandwidth Distributed Filesystem for Auxiliary Physics Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Blomer, J. [CERN; Herner, K. [Fermilab; Levshina, T. [Fermilab; Slyz, M. [Fermilab

    2015-12-23

    A common use pattern in the computing models of particle physics experiments is running many distributed applications that read from a shared set of data files. We refer to this data is auxiliary data, to distinguish it from (a) event data from the detector (which tends to be different for every job), and (b) conditions data about the detector (which tends to be the same for each job in a batch of jobs). Relatively speaking, conditions data also tends to be relatively small per job where both event data and auxiliary data are larger per job. Unlike event data, auxiliary data comes from a limited working set of shared files. Since there is spatial locality of the auxiliary data access, the use case appears to be identical to that of the CernVM- Filesystem (CVMFS). However, we show that distributing auxiliary data through CVMFS causes the existing CVMFS infrastructure to perform poorly. We utilize a CVMFS client feature called 'alien cache' to cache data on existing local high-bandwidth data servers that were engineered for storing event data. This cache is shared between the worker nodes at a site and replaces caching CVMFS files on both the worker node local disks and on the site's local squids. We have tested this alien cache with the dCache NFSv4.1 interface, Lustre, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) FUSE interface, and measured performance. In addition, we use high-bandwidth data servers at central sites to perform the CVMFS Stratum 1 function instead of the low-bandwidth web servers deployed for the CVMFS software distribution function. We have tested this using the dCache HTTP interface. As a result, we have a design for an end-to-end high-bandwidth distributed caching read-only filesystem, using existing client software already widely deployed to grid worker nodes and existing file servers already widely installed at grid sites. Files are published in a central place and are soon available on demand throughout the grid and cached

  17. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  18. Tunneling Ionization of Diatomic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Jens Søren Sieg

    2016-01-01

    When a molecule is subject to a strong laser field, there is a probability that an electron can escape, even though the electrons are bound by a large potential barrier. This is possible because electrons are quantum mechanical in nature, and they are therefore able to tunnel through potential...... of tunneling ionizaion of molecules is presented and the results of numerical calculations are shown. One perhaps surprising result is, that the frequently used Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down for weak fields when describing tunneling ionization. An analytic theory applicable in the weak-field limit...

  19. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefel, John P.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA grant NAGW-4577, "Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)". This grant covered a joint project between LSU and the University of Maryland for a Concept Study of a new type of fully active calorimeter to be used to measure the energy spectra of very high energy cosmic rays, particularly Hydrogen and Helium, to beyond 1014 eV. This very high energy region has been studied with emulsion chamber techniques, but never investigated with electronic calorimeters. Technology had advanced to the point that a fully active calorimeter based upon Bismuth Germanate (BGO) scintillating crystals appeared feasible for balloon flight (and eventually space) experiments.

  20. Design and operation of the LAMPF Auxiliary Controller. High-speed remote processing on the CAMAC dataway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machen, D.R.

    1979-02-01

    A CAMAC Auxiliary Controller has been developed to further the concepts of distributed processing in both process control and experiment data-acquisition systems. The Auxiliary Controller is built around a commercially available 16-bit microcomputer and a high-speed bit-sliced microprocessor capable of instruction execution times of 140 ns. The modular nature of the controller allows the user to tailor the controller capabilities to the system problem, while maintaining the interface techniques of the CAMAC Standard

  1. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  2. Auxiliary variables in multiple imputation in regression with missing X: a warning against including too many in small sample research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardt Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple imputation is becoming increasingly popular. Theoretical considerations as well as simulation studies have shown that the inclusion of auxiliary variables is generally of benefit. Methods A simulation study of a linear regression with a response Y and two predictors X1 and X2 was performed on data with n = 50, 100 and 200 using complete cases or multiple imputation with 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 auxiliary variables. Mechanisms of missingness were either 100% MCAR or 50% MAR + 50% MCAR. Auxiliary variables had low (r=.10 vs. moderate correlations (r=.50 with X’s and Y. Results The inclusion of auxiliary variables can improve a multiple imputation model. However, inclusion of too many variables leads to downward bias of regression coefficients and decreases precision. When the correlations are low, inclusion of auxiliary variables is not useful. Conclusion More research on auxiliary variables in multiple imputation should be performed. A preliminary rule of thumb could be that the ratio of variables to cases with complete data should not go below 1 : 3.

  3. [Plasma ionized magnesium concentration following cardiopulmonary bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Fumimasa; Fukui, Michihiko; Tsuruta, Hiroshi; Kooguchi, Kunihiko; Shimosato, Goshun

    2002-06-01

    We performed a retrospective study to analyze plasma ionized magnesium concentration following cardiopulmonary bypass. Severe decrease of ionized magnesium concentration associated with frequent abnormal ECG sign was found in a patient with magnesium-free cardioplegia. Cardioplegia containing 16 mmol.l-1 of magnesium ion maintained ionized magnesium concentration within normal ranges without postoperative magnesium loading. Use of cardioplegia containing magnesium or adequate magnesium supplement is thought to be essential for patients receiving cardiopulmonary bypass.

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.; Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.

    1991-01-01

    Vitamins are known to be sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation. Since most foods contain a large proportion of water, the most probable reaction of the ionizing radiation would be with water; and as vitamins are present in very small amounts compared with other substances in the food they will be affected indirectly by the radiation. This chapter discusses the effect of ionizing radiation on water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins. (author)

  5. Auxiliary propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, S. D.

    1984-02-01

    When man is put in the loop, almost anything can happen. Caution must be exercised in permitting life cycle costs analysis to control technology investment. One of the ways of reducing cost is to stay with the old tried and true technology. However, when requirements of a permanent space station are considered (15-year life, the issues associated with health monitoring, maintenance, and repair), the conclusion is that very little, if anything, is really state of the art. Before investing in old technologies to make them comply with the requirements of a permanent space station, the question of whether or not it is worth putting the money there as opposed to advancing the state of the art should be considered. Program managers and system designers must not make the mistake of selecting old technologies in the belief that they are state of the art.

  6. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  7. NMR Metabolomics in Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Z.; Xiao, Xiongjie; Hu, Mary Y.

    2016-09-08

    Ionizing radiation is an invisible threat that cannot be seen, touched or smelled and exist either as particles or waves. Particle radiation can take the form of alpha, beta or neutrons, as well as high energy space particle radiation such as high energy iron, carbon and proton radiation, etc. (1) Non-particle radiation includes gamma- and x-rays. Publically, there is a growing concern about the adverse health effects due to ionizing radiation mainly because of the following facts. (a) The X-ray diagnostic images are taken routinely on patients. Even though the overall dosage from a single X-ray image such as a chest X-ray scan or a CT scan, also called X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), is low, repeated usage can cause serious health consequences, in particular with the possibility of developing cancer (2, 3). (b) Human space exploration has gone beyond moon and is planning to send human to the orbit of Mars by the mid-2030s. And a landing on Mars will follow.

  8. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Over 40 years have passed since the research of the Manhattan Project suggested the possibility of chemical protection against ionizing radiation. During that time, much has been learned about the nature of radiation-induced injury and the factors governing the expression of that injury. Thousands of compounds have been tested for radioprotective efficacy, and numerous theories have been proposed to account for these actions. The literature on chemical radioprotection is large. In this article, the authors consider several of the mechanisms by which chemicals may protect against radiation injury. They have chosen to accent this view of radioprotector research as opposed to that research geared toward developing specific molecules as protective agents because they feel that such an approach is more beneficial in stimulating research of general applicability. This paper describes the matrix of biological factors upon which an exogenous radioprotector is superimposed, and examines evidence for and against various mechanisms by which these agents may protect biological systems against ionizing radiation. It concludes with a brief outlook for research in chemical radioprotection

  9. Epigenetic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data generated during the last three decades provide evidence of Epigenetic Effects that ave-induced by ionizing radiation, particularly those of high LET values, and low level dose exposures. Epigenesist is defined as the stepwise process by which genetic information, as modified by environmental influences, is translated into the substance and behavior of cells, tissues, organism.The epigenetic effects cited in the literature are essentially classified into fine types depending on the type and nature of the effect induced.The most accepted postulation, for the occurrence of these epigenetic effects, is a radiation induced bio electric disturbances in the environment of the non-irradiated cellular volume. This will trigger signals that will induce effects in the unirradiated cells.The epigenetic effects referenced in the literature up to date are five types; namely, Genomic Instability, Bystander. Effects, Clastogenic Plasma Factors,, Abscopal Effects, and Tran generational Effects.The demonstration of Epigenetic Effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation indicates the need to re- examine the concept of radiation dose and target size. Also an improved understanding of qualifiring and quantifying radiation risk estimates may be attained. Also, a more logical means to understand the underlying mechanisms of radiation induced carcinogenic transformation of cells

  10. K-shell ionization by antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehler, G.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Soff, G.

    1987-01-01

    We present first calculations for the impact parameter dependence of K-shell ionization rates in anti pCu and in anti pAg collisions at various projectile energies. We show that the effect of the attractive Coulomb potential on the Rutherford trajectory and the anti-binding effect caused by the negative charge of the antiproton result in a considerable increase of the ionization probability. Total ionization cross-sections for proton and antiproton projectiles are compared with each other and with experimental ionization cross-sections for protons. (orig.)

  11. Ionization probes of molecular structure and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.M. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Various photoionization processes provide very sensitive probes for the detection and understanding of the spectra of molecules relevant to combustion processes. The detection of ionization can be selective by using resonant multiphoton ionization or by exploiting the fact that different molecules have different sets of ionization potentials. Therefore, the structure and dynamics of individual molecules can be studied even in a mixed sample. The authors are continuing to develop methods for the selective spectroscopic detection of molecules by ionization, and to use these methods for the study of some molecules of combustion interest.

  12. Regulatory control of ionizing radiations in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    1996-03-01

    This document deals with legal aspects for controlling ionizing radiations, radiological safety regulations and objectives, scopes and features of the national radioprotection planning in Ecuador. (The author)

  13. Ghost peaks observed after atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization experiments may disclose new ionization mechanism of matrix-assisted hypersonic velocity impact ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovets, Eugene

    2015-08-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) promises improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of many established applications in the field of mass spectrometry. This paper reports a serendipitous observation of a significant ion yield in a post-ionization experiment conducted after the sample had been removed from a standard atmospheric pressure (AP)-MALDI source. This post-ionization is interpreted in terms of collisions of microparticles moving with a hypersonic velocity into a solid surface. Calculations show that the thermal energy released during such collisions is close to that absorbed by the top matrix layer in traditional MALDI. The microparticles, containing both the matrix and analytes, could be detached from a film produced inside the inlet capillary during the sample ablation and accelerated by the flow rushing through the capillary. These observations contribute some new perspective to ion formation in both laser and laser-less matrix-assisted ionization. An AP-MALDI ion source hyphenated with a three-stage high-pressure ion funnel system was utilized for peptide mass analysis. After the laser had been turned off and the MALDI sample removed, ions were detected during a gradual reduction of the background pressure in the first funnel. The constant-rate pressure reduction led to the reproducible appearance of different singly and doubly charged peptide peaks in mass spectra taken a few seconds after the end of the MALDI analysis of a dried-droplet spot. The ion yield as well as the mass range of ions observed with a significant delay after a completion of the primary MALDI analysis depended primarily on the background pressure inside the first funnel. The production of ions in this post-ionization step was exclusively observed during the pressure drop. A lower matrix background and significant increase in relative yield of double-protonated ions are reported. The observations were partially consistent

  14. Ionization cross section for a strongly coupled partially ionized hydrogen plasma: variable phase approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimbetov, F B; Kudyshev, Z A [Department of Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: Fazylhan.Baimbetov@kaznu.kz, E-mail: Z.Kudyshev@mail.ru

    2009-05-29

    In the present work an electron impact ionization cross section is considered. The electron impact ionization cross section is calculated with the help of a variable phase approach to potential scattering. The Calogero equation is numerically solved, based on a pseudopotential model of interaction between partially ionized plasma particles, which accounts for correlation effects. As a result, scattering phase shifts are obtained. On the basis of the scattering phase shifts, the ionization cross section is calculated.

  15. Electron ionization and the Compton effect in double ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses ionization phenomena in helium, both photoionization and electron ionization. In particular he compares double ionization cross sections with total cross sections, as a function of electron energy, and photon energy. Data is discussed over the energy range up to 10 keV

  16. Heating and ionization in MHD shock waves propagating into partially ionized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bighel, L.; Collins, A.R.; Cramer, N.F.; Watson-Munro, C.N.

    1975-09-01

    A model of the structure of MHD switch-on shocks propagating in a partially ionized plasma, in which the primary dissipation mechanism is friction between ions and neutrals, is here compared favourably with experimental results. Four degrees of upstream ionization were studied, ranging from almost complete to very small ionization. (author)

  17. Current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, D G

    2007-01-01

    The balances of particles and charges in the volume of parallel-plane ionization chamber are considered. Differential equations describing the distribution of current densities in the chamber volume are obtained. As a result of the differential equations solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization in the volume is obtained

  18. Current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, D G [Faculty of Engineering and Pedagogy in Sliven, Technical University of Sofia, 59, Bourgasko Shaussee Blvd, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)

    2007-08-15

    The balances of particles and charges in the volume of parallel-plane ionization chamber are considered. Differential equations describing the distribution of current densities in the chamber volume are obtained. As a result of the differential equations solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization in the volume is obtained.

  19. Analysing the Possible Ways for Short-Term Forcing Gas Turbine Engines in Auxiliary Power Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Trotskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a gas turbine energy unit as an example, the article discusses possible ways for forcing the short-term gas turbine engines (GTE. The introduction explains the need for forcing the air transport and marine GTE in specific driving conditions and offers the main methods. Then it analyzes the three main short-term forcing methods according to GTE power, namely: precompressor water injection, a short-term rise in temperature after the combustion chamber, and feeding an additional compressed air into combustion chamber from the reserve cylinders.The analysis of the water injection method to force a GTE presents the main provisions and calculation results of the cycle, as a function of engine power on the amount of water injected into compressor inlet. It is shown that with water injection into compressor inlet in an amount of 1% of the total airflow there is a 17% power increase in the compressor. It also lists the main implementation problems of this method and makes a comparison with the results of other studies on the water injection into compressor.Next, the article concerns the GTE short-term forcing method through the pre-turbine short-term increase in the gas temperature. The article presents the calculation results of the cycle as a function of the power and the fuel-flow rate on the gas temperature at the turbine inlet. It is shown that with increasing temperature by 80 degrees the engine power increases by 11.2% and requires 11% more fuel. In the analysis of this method arises an issue of thermal barrier coating on the blade surface. The article discusses the most common types of coatings and their main shortcomings. It lists the main challenges and some ways of their solving when using this method to implement the short-term forcing.The last method under consideration is GTE short-term forcing by feeding the compressed air into the combustion chamber from the additional reserve cylinders. It should be noted that this method is

  20. Theory of ionization potentials of nonmetallic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yu; Butler, Keith T.; Walsh, Aron; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2017-03-01

    Since the ionization potential (IP) is one of the fundamental quantities in a solid, ruling the physical and chemical properties and electronic device performances, many researchers have quantified the IPs using first-principles calculations of slab models recently. However, the breakdown into bulk and surface contributions has remained a contentious issue. In this study, we discuss how to decompose the IP into the bulk and surface contributions by using the macroscopic average technique. Although this procedure quantifies well-defined macroscopic dipoles and corroborates with the continuous model, it is not consistent with the physical intuition. This is because the strong charge fluctuation inside solids significantly contributes to the macroscopic dipole potential. We also discuss the possibility of an alternative splitting procedure that can be consistent with the physical intuition, and conclude that it is possible only when both bulk and surface charge density is well decomposed into a superposition of spherical charges. In the latter part, we evaluate the IPs of typical semiconductors and insulators such as Si, diamond, GaAs, GaN, ZnO, and MgO, using atomic-charge and molecular-charge approximations, in which the charge density of a solid is described as a superposition of charge density of the constituent atoms and molecules, respectively. We find that the atomic-charge approximation also known as the model-solid theory can successfully reproduce the IPs of covalent materials, but works poorly for ionic materials. On the other hand, the molecular-charge approximation, which partly takes into account the charge transfer from cations to anions, shows better predictive performance overall.